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Sample records for oblique-wing research aircraft

  1. Oblique Wing Remotely Piloted Research Aircraft. Volume 1: Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The NASA Ames/DSI oblique wing remotely piloted research aircraft is a highly unusual, variable remotely piloted vehicle whose configuration and capabilities are the result of certain initial design guidelines that, in terms of conventional aircraft structures and configurations, would be considered to be contradictory and unachievable. Accordingly, the novel design of the yawed wing RPV is at odds in many respects with conventional aircraft practice. Novelty, then, forms the first, unwritten, design guideline. This design is intended to move away from convention in geometry, structure, and materials. The specific guidelines followed in the design of the yawed wing RPV and a short discussion of the impact of each on the configuration of the vehicle are presented.

  2. Modal control of an oblique wing aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, James D.

    1989-01-01

    A linear modal control algorithm is applied to the NASA Oblique Wing Research Aircraft (OWRA). The control law is evaluated using a detailed nonlinear flight simulation. It is shown that the modal control law attenuates the coupling and nonlinear aerodynamics of the oblique wing and remains stable during control saturation caused by large command inputs or large external disturbances. The technique controls each natural mode independently allowing single-input/single-output techniques to be applied to multiple-input/multiple-output systems.

  3. Application of modern control design methodology to oblique wing research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vincent, James H.

    1991-01-01

    A Linear Quadratic Regulator synthesis technique was used to design an explicit model following control system for the Oblique Wing Research Aircraft (OWRA). The forward path model (Maneuver Command Generator) was designed to incorporate the desired flying qualities and response decoupling. The LQR synthesis was based on the use of generalized controls, and it was structured to provide a proportional/integral error regulator with feedforward compensation. An unexpected consequence of this design approach was the ability to decouple the control synthesis into separate longitudinal and lateral directional designs. Longitudinal and lateral directional control laws were generated for each of the nine design flight conditions, and gain scheduling requirements were addressed. A fully coupled 6 degree of freedom open loop model of the OWRA along with the longitudinal and lateral directional control laws was used to assess the closed loop performance of the design. Evaluations were performed for each of the nine design flight conditions.

  4. A piloted evaluation of an oblique-wing research aircraft motion simulation with decoupling control laws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kempel, Robert W.; Mcneill, Walter E.; Gilyard, Glenn B.; Maine, Trindel A.

    1988-01-01

    The NASA Ames Research Center developed an oblique-wing research plane from NASA's digital fly-by-wire airplane. Oblique-wing airplanes show large cross-coupling in control and dynamic behavior which is not present on conventional symmetric airplanes and must be compensated for to obtain acceptable handling qualities. The large vertical motion simulator at NASA Ames-Moffett was used in the piloted evaluation of a proposed flight control system designed to provide decoupled handling qualities. Five discrete flight conditions were evaluated ranging from low altitude subsonic Mach numbers to moderate altitude supersonic Mach numbers. The flight control system was effective in generally decoupling the airplane. However, all participating pilots objected to the high levels of lateral acceleration encountered in pitch maneuvers. In addition, the pilots were more critical of left turns (in the direction of the trailing wingtip when skewed) than they were of right turns due to the tendency to be rolled into the left turns and out of the right turns. Asymmetric side force as a function of angle of attack was the primary cause of lateral acceleration in pitch. Along with the lateral acceleration in pitch, variation of rolling and yawing moments as functions of angle of attack caused the tendency to roll into left turns and out of right turns.

  5. An integrated study of structures, aerodynamics and controls on the forward swept wing X-29A and the oblique wing research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawson, Kenneth S.; Fortin, Paul E.

    1987-01-01

    The results of an integrated study of structures, aerodynamics, and controls using the STARS program on two advanced airplane configurations are presented. Results for the X-29A include finite element modeling, free vibration analyses, unsteady aerodynamic calculations, flutter/divergence analyses, and an aeroservoelastic controls analysis. Good correlation is shown between STARS results and various other verified results. The tasks performed on the Oblique Wing Research Aircraft include finite element modeling and free vibration analyses.

  6. Decoupling control synthesis for an oblique-wing aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alag, G. S.; Kempel, R. W.; Pahle, J. W.

    1986-01-01

    Interest in oblique-wing aircraft has surfaced periodically since the 1940's. This concept offers some substantial aerodynamic performance advantages but also has significant aerodynamic and inertial cross-coupling between the aircraft longitudinal and lateral-directional axes. This paper presents a technique for synthesizing a decoupling controller while providing the desired stability augmentation. The proposed synthesis procedure uses the concept of a real model-following control system. Feedforward gains are selected on the assumption that perfect model-following conditions are satisfied. The feedback gains are obtained by using eigensystem assignment, and the aircraft is stabilized by using partial state feedback. The effectiveness of the control laws developed in achieving the desired decoupling is illustrated by application to linearized equations of motion of an oblique-wing aircraft for a given flight condition.

  7. Integrated aerodynamic and control system design of oblique wing aircraft. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Stephen James

    1990-01-01

    An efficient high speed aircraft design must achieve a high lift to drag ratio at transonic and supersonic speeds. In 1952 Dr. R. T. Jones proved that for any flight Mach number minimum drag at a fixed lift is achieved by an elliptic wing planform with an appropriate oblique sweep angle. Since then, wind tunnel tests and numerical flow models have confirmed that the compressibility drag of oblique wing aircraft is lower than similar symmetrical sweep designs. At oblique sweep angles above thirty degrees the highly asymmetric planform gives rise to aerodynamic and inertia couplings which affect stability and degrade the aircraft's handling qualities. In the case of the NASA-Rockwell Oblique Wing Research Aircraft, attempts to improve the handling qualities by implementing a stability augmentation system have produced unsatisfactory results because of an inherent lack of controllability in the proposed design. The present work focuses on improving the handling qualities of oblique wing aircraft by including aerodynamic configuration parameters as variables in the control system synthesis to provide additional degrees of freedom with which to further decouple the aircraft's response. Handling qualities are measured using a quadratic cost function identical to that considered in optimal control problems, but the controller architecture is not restricted to full state feedback. An optimization procedure is used to simultaneously solve for the aircraft configuration and control gains which maximize a handling qualities measure, while meeting imposed constraints on trim. In some designs wing flexibility is also modeled and reduced order controllers are implemented. Oblique wing aircraft synthesized by this integrated design method show significant improvement in handling qualities when compared to the originally proposed closed loop aircraft. The integrated design synthesis method is then extended to show how handling qualities may be traded for other types of mission performance (drag, weight, etc.). Examples are presented which show how performance can be maximized while maintaining a desired level of handling quality.

  8. RTJ-303: Variable geometry, oblique wing supersonic aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antaran, Albert; Belete, Hailu; Dryzmkowski, Mark; Higgins, James; Klenk, Alan; Rienecker, Lisa

    1992-01-01

    This document is a preliminary design of a High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) named the RTJ-303. It is a 300 passenger, Mach 1.6 transport with a range of 5000 nautical miles. It features four mixed-flow turbofan engines, variable geometry oblique wing, with conventional tail-aft control surfaces. The preliminary cost analysis for a production of 300 aircraft shows that flyaway cost would be 183 million dollars (1992) per aircraft. The aircraft uses standard jet fuel and requires no special materials to handle aerodynamic heating in flight because the stagnation temperatures are approximately 130 degrees Fahrenheit in the supersonic cruise condition. It should be stressed that this aircraft could be built with today's technology and does not rely on vague and uncertain assumptions of technology advances. Included in this report are sections discussing the details of the preliminary design sequence including the mission to be performed, operational and performance constraints, the aircraft configuration and the tradeoffs of the final choice, wing design, a detailed fuselage design, empennage design, sizing of tail geometry, and selection of control surfaces, a discussion on propulsion system/inlet choice and their position on the aircraft, landing gear design including a look at tire selection, tip-over criterion, pavement loading, and retraction kinematics, structures design including load determination, and materials selection, aircraft performance, a look at stability and handling qualities, systems layout including location of key components, operations requirements maintenance characteristics, a preliminary cost analysis, and conclusions made regarding the design, and recommendations for further study.

  9. Output model-following control synthesis for an oblique-wing aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pahle, Joseph W.

    1990-01-01

    Recent interest in oblique-wing aircraft has focused on the potential aerodynamic performance advantage of a variable-skew oblique wing over a conventional or symmetric sweep wing. Unfortunately, the resulting asymmetric configuration has significant aerodynamic and inertial cross-coupling between the aircraft longitudinal and lateral-directional axes. Presented here is a decoupling control law synthesis technique that integrates stability augmentation, decoupling, and the direct incorporation of desired handling qualities into an output feedback controller. The proposed design technique uses linear quadratic regulator concepts in the framework of explicit model following. The output feedback strategy used is a suboptimal projection from the state space to the output space. Dynamics are then introduced into the controller to improve steady-state performance and increase system robustness. Closed-loop performance is shown by application of the control laws to the linearized equations of motion and nonlinear simulation of an oblique-wing aircraft.

  10. Eigensystem synthesis for active flutter suppression on an oblique-wing aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alag, G. S.; Burken, J. J.; Gilyard, G. B.

    1986-01-01

    The application of the eigensystem synthesis technique to place the closed-loop eigenvalues and shape the closed-loop eigenvectors has not been practical for active flutter suppression, primarily because of the availability of only one control surface (aileron) for flutter suppression. The oblique-wing aircraft, because of its configuration, provides two independent surfaces (left and right ailerons), making the application of eigensystem synthesis practical. This paper presents the application of eigensystem synthesis using output feedback for the design of an active flutter suppression system for an oblique-wing aircraft. The results obtained are compared with those obtained by linear quadratic Gaussian techniques.

  11. The Leading Edge 250: Oblique wing aircraft configuration project, volume 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, Andre; Moore, Peri; Nguyen, Dan; Oganesyan, Petros; Palmer, Charles

    1988-01-01

    The design of a high speed transport aircraft using the oblique wing concept as a part of the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) aircraft study is the Leading Edge 250 capable of travelling at Mach 4 with 250 passengers and has a 6,500 nautical mile range. Its innovation lies within its use of the unconventional oblique wing to provide efficient flight at any Mach number. Wave drag is kept to a minimum at high speed, while high lift is attained during critical takeoff and landing maneuvers by varying the sweep of the wing.

  12. An investigation of supersonic aeroelastic characteristics of oblique winged aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisshaar, T. A.

    1975-01-01

    Two formulations of the oblique wing flutter problem are presented: one formulation allows wing bending deformations and the rigid body roll degree of freedom while the second formulation includes bending-torsional deformation and roll degrees of freedom. Flutter is found to occur in two basic modes. The first mode is associated with bending-roll coupling and occurs at low reduced frequency values. The other instability mode is primarily one of classical bending-torsion with negligible roll coupling; this mode occurs at much higher reduced frequencies. The occurrence of bending-roll coupling mode leads to lower flutter speeds while the bending-torsion mode is associated with higher flutter speeds. The ratio of the wing mass moment of inertial in roll to the fuselage moment of inertia evidently plays a major role in the determination of which of the two instabilities is critical.

  13. Aeroelastic stability analysis of the AD-1 manned oblique-wing aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutkowski, M. J.

    1977-01-01

    The AD-1 manned flight test program was conducted to evaluate the stability, control and handling characteristics of oblique wing aircraft. The results of the aeroelastic stability analysis are presented for both the wing alone and the wing with ailerons. A comparison was made between the results obtained using the traditional k-method of flutter analysis and the results using the PK or British method of flutter analysis. Studies were performed using the latest version of the NASTRAN computer code as well as the PASS/FLUT program.

  14. Oblique wing transonic transport configuration development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Studies of transport aircraft designed for boom-free supersonic flight show the variable sweep oblique wing to be the most efficient configuration for flight at low supersonic speeds. Use of this concept leads to a configuration that is lighter, quieter, and more fuel efficient than symmetric aircraft designed for the same mission. Aerodynamic structural, weight, aeroelastic and flight control studies show the oblique wing concept to be technically feasible. Investigations are reported for wing planform and thickness, pivot design and weight estimation, engine cycle (bypass ratio), and climb, descent and reserve fuel. Results are incorporated into a final configuration. Performance, weight, and balance characteristics are evaluated. Flight control requirements are reviewed, and areas in which further research is needed are identified.

  15. In-flight total forces, moments and static aeroelastic characteristics of an oblique-wing research airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curry, R. E.; Sim, A. G.

    1984-01-01

    A low-speed flight investigation has provided total force and moment coefficients and aeroelastic effects for the AD-1 oblique-wing research airplane. The results were interpreted and compared with predictions that were based on wind tunnel data. An assessment has been made of the aeroelastic wing bending design criteria. Lateral-directional trim requirements caused by asymmetry were determined. At angles of attack near stall, flow visualization indicated viscous flow separation and spanwise vortex flow. These effects were also apparent in the force and moment data.

  16. F-8 oblique wing structural feasibility study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koltko, E.; Katz, A.; Bell, M. A.; Smith, W. D.; Lauridia, R.; Overstreet, C. T.; Klapprott, C.; Orr, T. F.; Jobe, C. L.; Wyatt, F. G.

    1975-01-01

    The feasibility of fitting a rotating oblique wing on an F-8 aircraft to produce a full scale manned prototype capable of operating in the transonic and supersonic speed range was investigated. The strength, aeroelasticity, and fatigue life of such a prototype are analyzed. Concepts are developed for a new wing, a pivot, a skewing mechanism, control systems that operate through the pivot, and a wing support assembly that attaches in the F-8 wing cavity. The modification of the two-place NTF-8A aircraft to the oblique wing configuration is discussed.

  17. Aeroelastic tailoring for oblique wing lateral trim

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bohlmann, Jonathan D.; Weisshaar, Terrence A.; Eckstrom, Clinton V.

    1988-01-01

    Composite material aeroelastic tailoring is presently explored as a means for the correction of the roll trim imbalance of oblique-wing aircraft configurations. The concept is demonstrated through the analysis of a realistic oblique wing by a static aeroelastic computational procedure encompassing the full potential transonic aerodynamic code FLO22 and a Ritz structural plate program that models the stiffness due to symmetrical-but-unbalanced composite wing skins. Results indicate that asymetric composite tailoring reduces the aileron deflection needed for roll equilibrium, and reduces control surface hinge moment and drag. Wing skin stresses are, however, very high.

  18. Aeroelastic stability and control of an oblique wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. T.; Nisbet, J. W.

    1976-01-01

    Dynamic model tests were staged to compare the aeroelastic stability of a free-flying oblique-winged aircraft and the known divergent instability characterizing swept-forward wing configurations, to test the effect of wing elasticity on aileron control and trim. The aircraft fuselage was clamped in some tests and left free to roll in others. Two rigid wing panels were hinged near the wing center with elastic restraining springs. It is found that the aeroelastic divergence affecting swept-forward wings does not occur with an oblique wing, whose aeroelastic instability sets in at a dynamic pressure exceeding that for static divergence of swept-forward wings, and appears in the form of undamped oscillations. Oblique wing stability is sensitive to the moment of inertia of the fuselage in roll. Roll control and lateral trim are attainable with conventional ailerons, even at speeds at which divergence of a clamped forward wing shows up.

  19. Static aeroelasticity of a composite oblique wing in transonic flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bohlmann, Jonathan D.

    1989-01-01

    One aircraft configuration that shows great promise in achieving high performance is that of an asymmetrically swept wing. When compared to conventional swept wings, these advantages include higher lift to drag ratios and reduced takeoff and landing speeds, which translate into greater performance in terms of fuel comsumption, loiter time, and range. However, the oblique wing has a number of disadvantages because of its asymmetric configuration. The question is how to best achieve maximum stability and roll equilibrium without compromising performance. Using aeroelastic tailoring to enhance aeroelastic stability and control has been demonstrated in several analyses, especially for the forward swept wing. The advantages and disadvantages for the oblique wing configuration are discussed.

  20. Role of research aircraft in technology development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szalai, K. J.

    1984-01-01

    The United States's aeronautical research program has been rich in the use of research aircraft to explore new flight regimes, develop individual aeronautical concepts, and investigate new vehicle classes and configurations. This paper reviews the NASA supercritical wing, digital fly-by-wire, HiMAT, and AD-1 oblique-wing flight research programs, and draws from these examples general conclusions regarding the role and impact of research aircraft in technology development. The impact of a flight program on spinoff technology is also addressed. The secondary, serendipitous results are often highly significant. Finally, future research aircraft programs are examined for technology trends and expected results.

  1. Experimental Aerodynamic Characteristics of an Oblique Wing for the F-8 OWRA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennelly, Robert A., Jr.; Carmichael, Ralph L.; Smith, Stephen C.; Strong, James M.; Kroo, Ilan M.

    1999-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted during June-July 1987 in the NASA Ames 11-Foot Transonic Wind Tunnel to study the aerodynamic performance and stability and control characteristics of a 0.087-scale model of an F-8 airplane fitted with an oblique wing. This effort was part of the Oblique Wing Research Aircraft (OWRA) program performed in conjunction with Rockwell International. The Ames-designed, aspect ratio 10.47, tapered wing used specially designed supercritical airfoils with 0.14 thickness/chord ratio at the root and 0.12 at the 85% span location. The wing was tested at two different mounting heights above the fuselage. Performance and longitudinal stability data were obtained at sweep angles of 0deg, 30deg, 45deg, 60deg, and 65deg at Mach numbers ranging from 0.30 to 1.40. Reynolds number varied from 3.1 x 10(exp 6)to 5.2 x 10(exp 6), based on the reference chord length. Angle of attack was varied from -5deg to 18deg. The performance of this wing is compared with that of another oblique wing, designed by Rockwell International, which was tested as part of the same development program. Lateral-directional stability data were obtained for a limited combination of sweep angles and Mach numbers. Sideslip angle was varied from -5deg to +5deg. Landing flap performance was studied, as were the effects of cruise flap deflections to achieve roll trim and tailor wing camber for various flight conditions. Roll-control authority of the flaps and ailerons was measured. A novel, deflected wing tip was evaluated for roll-control authority at high sweep angles.

  2. Transonic wind tunnel test of a 14 percent thick oblique wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennelly, Robert A., Jr.; Kroo, Ilan M.; Strong, James M.; Carmichael, Ralph L.

    1990-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted at the ARC 11- by 11-Foot Transonic Wind Tunnel as part of the Oblique Wing Research Aircraft Program to study the aerodynamic performance and stability characteristics of a 0.087-scale model of an F-8 airplane fitted with an oblique wing designed by Rockwell International. The 10.3 aspect ratio, straight-tapered wing of 0.14 thickness/chord ratio was tested at two different mounting heights above the fuselage. Additional tests were conducted to assess low-speed behavior with and without flaps, aileron effectiveness at representative flight conditions, and transonic drag divergence with 0 degree wing sweep. Longitudinal stability data were obtained at sweep angles of 0, 30, 45, 60, and 65 degrees, at Mach numbers ranging from 0.25 to 1.40. Test Reynolds numbers varied from 3.2 to 6.6 x 10 exp 6/ft. and angle of attack ranged from -5 to +18 degrees. Most data were taken at zero sideslip, but a few runs were at sideslip angles of +/- 5 degrees. The raised wing position proved detrimental overall, although side force and yawing moment were reduced at some conditions. Maximum lift coefficient with the flaps deflected was found to fall short of the value predicted in the preliminary design document. The performance and trim characteristics of the present wing are generally inferior to those obtained for a previously tested wing designed at ARC.

  3. Static aeroelastic analysis of a three-dimensional oblique wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, I.; Miura, H.; Chargin, M. K.

    1990-01-01

    A capability to perform static aeroelastic analyses of an oblique wing at arbitrary skew positions was developed based on the framework of the MSC/NASTRAN static aeroelastic analysis. By means of DMAP alterations, a portion of the subsonic static aeroelastic analysis scheme was modified to insert an aerodynamic influence coefficient matrix created externally by the NASA-Ames aerodynamic panel codes. The modified scheme can cover the subsonic as well as the supersonic range for both symmetric and asymmetric configurations. Static aeroelastic responses of the oblique wing are studied at two skew angles and, in particular, the capability to calculate 3D camber effects on the aerodynamic properties of the wing is investigated. Various aerodynamic coefficients of the rigid oblique wing are computed for two Mach numbers, 0.7 and 1.4, and the angle of attack is varied from -5 through 15 deg. Also, the wing flexibility effects on the aerodynamic coefficients and the displacement are examined at a Mach number of 0.7 for a 45-deg swept wing.

  4. An Analytical Study for Subsonic Oblique Wing Transport Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, E. S.; Honrath, J.; Tomlin, K. H.; Swift, G.; Shumpert, P.; Warnock, W.

    1976-01-01

    The oblique wing concept has been investigated for subsonic transport application for a cruise Mach number of 0.95. Three different mission applications were considered and the concept analyzed against the selected mission requirements. Configuration studies determined the best area of applicability to be a commercial passenger transport mission. The critical parameter for the oblique wing concept was found to be aspect ratio which was limited to a value of 6.0 due to aeroelastic divergence. Comparison of the concept final configuration was made with fixed winged configurations designed to cruise at Mach 0.85 and 0.95. The crossover Mach number for the oblique wing concept was found to be Mach 0.91 for takeoff gross weight and direct operating cost. Benefits include reduced takeoff distance, installed thrust and mission block fuel and improved community noise characteristics. The variable geometry feature enables the final configuration to increase range by 10% at Mach 0.712 and to increase endurance by as much as 44%.

  5. Two-stage earth-to-orbit transport with translating oblique wings for booster recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacConochie, Ian O. (Inventor); Briener, Charles A. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A two-stage earth-to-orbit transport includes an orbiter vehicle and a pair of boosters, each having a depolyable oblique wing located along a longitudinal axis of the booster. The wing is deployed in an oblique disposition in supersonic and hypersonic speeds, and disposed at 90.degree. for subsonic speeds encountered during entry. The oblique wing is driven axially and rotated by means of a turret mounted on rails.

  6. Aircraft fire safety research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Botteri, Benito P.

    1987-01-01

    During the past 15 years, very significant progress has been made toward enhancing aircraft fire safety in both normal and hostile (combat) operational environments. Most of the major aspects of the aircraft fire safety problem are touched upon here. The technology of aircraft fire protection, although not directly applicable in all cases to spacecraft fire scenarios, nevertheless does provide a solid foundation to build upon. This is particularly true of the extensive research and testing pertaining to aircraft interior fire safety and to onboard inert gas generation systems, both of which are still active areas of investigation.

  7. Effect of wing flexibility on the experimental aerodynamic characteristics of an oblique wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopkins, E. J.; Yee, S. C.

    1977-01-01

    A solid-aluminum oblique wing was designed to deflect considerably under load so as to relieve the asymmetric spanwise stalling that is characteristic of this type of wing by creating washout on the trailing wing panel and washin on the leading wing panel. Experimental forces, and pitching, rolling and yawing moments were measured with the wing mounted on a body of revolution. In order to vary the dynamic pressure, measurements were made at several unit Reynolds numbers, and at Mach numbers. The wing was investigated when unswept (at subsonic Mach numbers only) and when swept 45 deg, 50 deg, and 60 deg. The wing was straight tapered in planform, had an aspect ratio of 7.9 (based on the unswept span), and a profile with a maximum thickness of 4 percent chord. The results substantiate the concept that an oblique wing designed with the proper amount of flexibility self relieves itself of asymmetric spanwise stalling and the associated nonlinear moment curves.

  8. Aircraft as Research Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Aeronautical research usually begins with computers, wind tunnels, and flight simulators, but eventually the theories must fly. This is when flight research begins, and aircraft are the primary tools of the trade. Flight research involves doing precision maneuvers in either a specially built experimental aircraft or an existing production airplane that has been modified. For example, the AD-1 was a unique airplane made only for flight research, while the NASA F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) was a standard fighter aircraft that was transformed into a one-of-a-kind aircraft as it was fitted with new propulsion systems, flight controls, and scientific equipment. All research aircraft are able to perform scientific experiments because of the onboard instruments that record data about its systems, aerodynamics, and the outside environment. Since the 1970's, NASA flight research has become more comprehensive, with flights involving everything form Space Shuttles to ultralights. NASA now flies not only the fastest airplanes, but some of the slowest. Flying machines continue to evolve with new wing designs, propulsion systems, and flight controls. As always, a look at today's experimental research aircraft is a preview of the future.

  9. Aileron and Krueger nose flap effectiveness measured on an oblique wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopkins, E. J.; Lovette, G. H.

    1977-01-01

    The effects that deflection of conventional ailerons have on the lateral/directional characteristics of an oblique wing mounted on top of a body of revolution were measured. The wing had an aspect ratio of 6 (based on the unswept wing span) and was tested at various sweep angles ranging from 0 deg to 60 deg. Krueger nose flaps mounted on drooped-nose flaps were investigated on the downstream wing panel (for sweep angles of 45 deg and 60 deg) in an attempt to create more symmetrical spanwise wing stalling at high lift coefficients. The tests were conducted over a Mach number range of 0.25 to 1.4 and an angle-of-attack range from -3 deg to 28 deg. With the oblique wing in the swept position, considerable difference in the aileron effectiveness was measured for positive or negative differential aileron deflections. With the wing swept 45 deg at a Mach number of 0.8 and above, an extension of the span of the Krueger nose flaps on the downstream wing panel did not improve the linearity of the pitching-, rolling-, and yawing-moment curves.

  10. NASA research in aircraft propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beheim, M. A.

    1982-01-01

    A broad overview of the scope of research presently being supported by NASA in aircraft propulsion is presented with emphasis on Lewis Research Center activities related to civil air transports, CTOL and V/STOL systems. Aircraft systems work is performed to identify the requirements for the propulsion system that enhance the mission capabilities of the aircraft. This important source of innovation and creativity drives the direction of propulsion research. In a companion effort, component research of a generic nature is performed to provide a better basis for design and provides an evolutionary process for technological growth that increases the capabilities of all types of aircraft. Both are important.

  11. Effect of wing bend on the experimental force and moment characteristics of an oblique wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopkins, E. J.; Nelson, E. R.

    1976-01-01

    Static longitudinal and lateral/directional force and moment characteristics are presented for an elliptical oblique wing mounted on top of a Sears-Haack body of revolution. The wing had an aspect ratio of 6 (based on the unswept span) and was tested at various sweep angles relative to the body axis ranging from 0 to 60 deg. In an attempt to create more symmetrical spanwise wing stalling characteristics, both wing panels were bent upward to produce washout on the trailing wing panel and washing on the leading wing panel. Small fluorescent tufts were attached to the wing surface to indicate the stall progression on the wing. The tests were conducted throughout a Mach number range from 0.6 to 1.4 at a constant unit Reynolds number of 8.2 x 10 per meter. The test results indicate that upward bending of the wing panels had only a small effect on the linearity of the moment curves and would require an impractical wing-pivot location at low lift to eliminate the rolling moment resulting from this bending.

  12. A comparison of the experimental aerodynamic characteristics of an oblique wing with those of a swept wing. [in the Ames 6 by 6 foot wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopkins, E. J.; Yee, S. C.

    1977-01-01

    Force and moment characteristics were measured for two trapezoidal oblique wings and a conventional swept wing mounted on a body of revolution at Mach numbers from 0.25 to 2.0. Both oblique wings had the same planform, but differed in profile and flexibility. One of the oblique wings was made of solid steel and had a maximum thickness-to-chord ratio of 4 percent. The other wing was built up by taking an aluminum wing and adding epoxy material to the upper surface to increase the maximum thickness-to-chord ratio to 8.2 percent. The aspect ratio for both oblique wings when swept 45 deg, and for the swept wing with 45 deg of sweep, was 4.1. Data were obtained at unit Reynolds numbers ranging from 3.3 to 8.2 million per meter and were compared with previously obtained data on the aluminum wing before it was built up with epoxy. Wing flexibility designed into the aluminum and built-up aluminum oblique wings increased the range of lift coefficients from 0.30 to 0.70 over which the pitching-moment curves were linear. However, flexibility did not improve the linearity of the rolling-moment curves and produced sizable side forces. At a Mach number of 0.95, the trapezoidal oblique wing had little or no improvement in the lift/drag ratios over those for a conventional swept wing of the same aspect ratio, sweep, and profile.

  13. Advanced aircraft for atmospheric research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, P.; Wegener, S.; Langford, J.; Anderson, J.; Lux, D.; Hall, D. W.

    1991-01-01

    The development of aircraft for high-altitude research is described in terms of program objectives and environmental, technological limitations, and the work on the Perseus A aircraft. The need for these advanced aircraft is proposed in relation to atmospheric science issues such as greenhouse trapping, the dynamics of tropical cyclones, and stratospheric ozone. The implications of the study on aircraft design requirements is addressed with attention given to the basic categories of high-altitude, long-range, long-duration, and nap-of-the-earth aircraft. A strategy is delineated for a platform that permits unique stratospheric measurements and is a step toward a more advanced aircraft. The goal of Perseus A is to carry scientific air sampling payloads weighing at least 50 kg to altitudes of more than 25 km. The airfoils are designed for low Reynolds numbers, the structural weight is very low, and the closed-cycle power plant runs on liquid oxygen.

  14. Aircraft icing research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinmann, J. J.; Shaw, R. J.; Olsen, W. A., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Research activity is described for: ice protection systems, icing instrumentation, experimental methods, analytical modeling for the above, and in flight research. The renewed interest in aircraft icing has come about because of the new need for All-Weather Helicopters and General Aviation aircraft. Because of increased fuel costs, tomorrow's Commercial Transport aircraft will also require new types of ice protection systems and better estimates of the aeropenalties caused by ice on unprotected surfaces. The physics of aircraft icing is very similar to the icing that occurs on ground structures and structures at sea; all involve droplets that freeze on the surfaces because of the cold air. Therefore all icing research groups will benefit greatly by sharing their research information.

  15. NASA Aircraft Controls Research, 1983

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beasley, G. P. (Compiler)

    1984-01-01

    The workshop consisted of 24 technical presentations on various aspects of aircraft controls, ranging from the theoretical development of control laws to the evaluation of new controls technology in flight test vehicles. A special report on the status of foreign aircraft technology and a panel session with seven representatives from organizations which use aircraft controls technology were also included. The controls research needs and opportunities for the future as well as the role envisioned for NASA in that research were addressed. Input from the panel and response to the workshop presentations will be used by NASA in developing future programs.

  16. Numerical solution of the full-potential equation for rotors and oblique wings using a new wake model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, I.-C.; Tung, C.

    1985-01-01

    A three-dimensional, full-potential, quasi-steady code TFAR1 is proposed for calculating the transonic flow past a lifting helicopter rotor blade and oblique wing. The TFAR1 uses a two-dimensional nonlinear wake-model that allows a jump in velocity potential to propagate with the local fluid flow in the wake. Rotor calculations were made for a single blade at an advance ratio of 0.3, a rotational tip Mach number of 0.7, and at 0-degree incidence. A 1/7-scale model of the Cobra Operational Load Survey (OLS) rotor blade is calculated, and the pressure distributions are compared to the measurements for azimuth angles 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, and 150 degrees at the 95 percent spanwise station of the OLS blade. Furthermore, an oblique wing with Korn airfoil was calculated at the high transonic free-stream Mach number of 0.9791, zero incidence, and yaw angle of 40 degrees. The TFAR1, coupled with a helicopter performance code CAMRAD (Johnson, 1981), provides a full-potential code for calculating the entire flow field for a multiple-bladed rotor in transonic lifting forward flight.

  17. Report on research and technology-FY 1981

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    More than 65 technical reports, papers, and articles published by personnel and contractors at the Dryden Flight Research Center are listed. Activities performed for the Offices of Aeronautics and Space Technology, Space and Terrestrial Applications, Space Transportation Systems, and Space Tracking and Data Systems are summarized. Preliminary stability and control derivatives were determined for the shuttle orbiter at hypersonic speeds from the data obtained at reentry. The shuttle tile tests, spin research vehicle nose shapes flight investigations, envelope expansion flights for the Ames tilt rotor research aircraft, and the AD-1 oblique wing programs were completed as well as the KC-135 winglet program.

  18. NASA aircraft trailing vortex research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgowan, W. A.

    1971-01-01

    A brief description is given of NASA's comprehensive program to study the aircraft trailing vortex problem. Wind tunnel experiments are used to develop the detailed processes of wing tip vortex formation and explore different means to either prevent trailing vortices from forming or induce early break-up. Flight tests provide information on trailing vortex system behavior behind large transport aircraft, both near the ground, as in the vicinity of the airport, and at cruise/holding pattern altitudes. Results from some flight tests are used to show how pilots might avoid the dangerous areas when flying in the vicinity of large transport aircraft. Other flight tests will be made to verify and evaluate trailing vortex elimination schemes developed in the model tests. Laser Doppler velocimeters being developed for use in the research program and to locate and measure vortex winds in the airport area are discussed. Field tests have shown that the laser Doppler velocimeter measurements compare well with those from cup anemometers.

  19. Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, Marty K.; Droney, Christopher K.

    2011-01-01

    This Final Report summarizes the work accomplished by the Boeing Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research (SUGAR) team in Phase 1, which includes the time period of October 2008 through March 2010. The team consisted of Boeing Research and Technology, Boeing Commercial Airplanes, General Electric, and Georgia Tech. The team completed the development of a comprehensive future scenario for world-wide commercial aviation, selected baseline and advanced configurations for detailed study, generated technology suites for each configuration, conducted detailed performance analysis, calculated noise and emissions, assessed technology risks, and developed technology roadmaps. Five concepts were evaluated in detail: 2008 baseline, N+3 reference, N+3 high span strut braced wing, N+3 gas turbine battery electric concept, and N+3 hybrid wing body. A wide portfolio of technologies was identified to address the NASA N+3 goals. Significant improvements in air traffic management, aerodynamics, materials and structures, aircraft systems, propulsion, and acoustics are needed. Recommendations for Phase 2 concept and technology projects have been identified.

  20. The F-18 systems research aircraft facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sitz, Joel R.

    1992-01-01

    To help ensure that new aerospace initiatives rapidly transition to competitive U.S. technologies, NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility has dedicated a systems research aircraft facility. The primary goal is to accelerate the transition of new aerospace technologies to commercial, military, and space vehicles. Key technologies include more-electric aircraft concepts, fly-by-light systems, flush airdata systems, and advanced computer architectures. Future aircraft that will benefit are the high-speed civil transport and the National AeroSpace Plane. This paper describes the systems research aircraft flight research vehicle and outlines near-term programs.

  1. Airborne Subscale Transport Aircraft Research Testbed: Aircraft Model Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, Thomas L.; Langford, William M.; Hill, Jeffrey S.

    2005-01-01

    The Airborne Subscale Transport Aircraft Research (AirSTAR) testbed being developed at NASA Langley Research Center is an experimental flight test capability for research experiments pertaining to dynamics modeling and control beyond the normal flight envelope. An integral part of that testbed is a 5.5% dynamically scaled, generic transport aircraft. This remotely piloted vehicle (RPV) is powered by twin turbine engines and includes a collection of sensors, actuators, navigation, and telemetry systems. The downlink for the plane includes over 70 data channels, plus video, at rates up to 250 Hz. Uplink commands for aircraft control include over 30 data channels. The dynamic scaling requirement, which includes dimensional, weight, inertial, actuator, and data rate scaling, presents distinctive challenges in both the mechanical and electrical design of the aircraft. Discussion of these requirements and their implications on the development of the aircraft along with risk mitigation strategies and training exercises are included here. Also described are the first training (non-research) flights of the airframe. Additional papers address the development of a mobile operations station and an emulation and integration laboratory.

  2. Supersonic cruise aircraft research: An annotated bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tuttle, M. H.

    1980-01-01

    This bibliography, with abstracts, consists of 69 publications arranged in chronological order. The material may be useful to those interested in supersonic cruise fighter/penetrator/interceptor airplanes. Two pertinent conferences on military supercruise aircraft are considered as single items; one contains 37 papers and the other 29 papers. In addition, several related bibliographies are included which cover supersonic civil aircraft and military aircraft studies at the Langley Research Center. There is also an author index.

  3. The XV-15 tilt rotor research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dugan, D. C.; Erhart, R. G.; Schroers, L. G.

    1980-01-01

    The design characteristics of the XV-15 Tilt rotor research aircraft are presented. Particular attention is given to the following: control system; conversion system; and propulsion system. Flight test results are also reported.

  4. Research related to variable sweep aircraft development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polhamus, E. C.; Toll, T. A.

    1981-01-01

    Development in high speed, variable sweep aircraft research is reviewed. The 1946 Langley wind tunnel studies related to variable oblique and variable sweep wings and results from the X-5 and the XF1OF variable sweep aircraft are discussed. A joint program with the British, evaluation of the British "Swallow", development of the outboard pivot wing/aft tail configuration concept by Langley, and the applied research program that followed and which provided the technology for the current, variable sweep military aircraft is outlined. The relative state of variable sweep as a design option is also covered.

  5. The NASA aircraft icing research program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, Robert J.; Reinmann, John J.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of the NASA aircraft icing research program is to develop and make available to industry icing technology to support the needs and requirements for all-weather aircraft designs. Research is being done for both fixed wing and rotary wing applications. The NASA program emphasizes technology development in two areas, advanced ice protection concepts and icing simulation. Reviewed here are the computer code development/validation, icing wind tunnel testing, and icing flight testing efforts.

  6. NASA Wake Vortex Research for Aircraft Spacing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, R. Brad; Hinton, David A.; Stuever, Robert A.

    1996-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is addressing airport capacity enhancements during instrument meteorological conditions through the Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) program. Within TAP, the Reduced Spacing Operations (RSO) subelement at the NASA Langley Research Center is developing an Aircraft Vortex Spacing System (AVOSS). AVOSS will integrate the output of several inter-related areas to produce weather dependent, dynamic wake vortex spacing criteria. These areas include current and predicted weather conditions, models of wake vortex transport and decay in these weather conditions, real-time feedback of wake vortex behavior from sensors, and operationally acceptable aircraft/wake interaction criteria. In today's ATC system, the AVOSS could inform ATC controllers when a fixed reduced separation becomes safe to apply to large and heavy aircraft categories. With appropriate integration into the Center/TRACON Automation System (CTAS), AVOSS dynamic spacing could be tailored to actual generator/follower aircraft pairs rather than a few broad aircraft categories.

  7. The NASA aircraft icing research program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, Robert J.; Reinmann, John J.

    1987-01-01

    The objective of the NASA aircraft icing research program is to develop and make available to industry icing technology to support the needs and requirements for all weather aircraft designs. Research is being done for both fixed and rotary wing applications. The NASA program emphasizes technology development in two key areas: advanced ice protection concepts and icing simulation (analytical and experimental). The computer code development/validation, icing wind tunnel testing, and icing flight testing efforts which were conducted to support the icing technology development are reviewed.

  8. NASA's Research in Aircraft Vulnerability Mitigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Cheryl L.

    2005-01-01

    Since its inception in 1958, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA) role in civil aeronautics has been to develop high-risk, high-payoff technologies to meet critical national aviation challenges. Following the events of Sept. 11, 2001, NASA recognized that it now shared the responsibility for improving homeland security. The NASA Strategic Plan was modified to include requirements to enable a more secure air transportation system by investing in technologies and collaborating with other agencies, industry, and academia. NASA is conducting research to develop and advance innovative and commercially viable technologies that will reduce the vulnerability of aircraft to threats or hostile actions, and identify and inform users of potential vulnerabilities in a timely manner. Presented in this paper are research plans and preliminary status for mitigating the effects of damage due to direct attacks on civil transport aircraft. The NASA approach to mitigation includes: preventing loss of an aircraft due to a hit from man-portable air defense systems; developing fuel system technologies that prevent or minimize in-flight vulnerability to small arms or other projectiles; providing protection from electromagnetic energy attacks by detecting directed energy threats to aircraft and on/off-board systems; and minimizing the damage due to high-energy attacks (explosions and fire) by developing advanced lightweight, damage-resistant composites and structural concepts. An approach to preventing aircraft from being used as weapons of mass destruction will also be discussed.

  9. Rotor systems research aircraft simulation mathematical model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houck, J. A.; Moore, F. L.; Howlett, J. J.; Pollock, K. S.; Browne, M. M.

    1977-01-01

    An analytical model developed for evaluating and verifying advanced rotor concepts is discussed. The model was used during in both open loop and real time man-in-the-loop simulation during the rotor systems research aircraft design. Future applications include: pilot training, preflight of test programs, and the evaluation of promising concepts before their implementation on the flight vehicle.

  10. Computational fire modeling for aircraft fire research

    SciTech Connect

    Nicolette, V.F.

    1996-11-01

    This report summarizes work performed by Sandia National Laboratories for the Federal Aviation Administration. The technical issues involved in fire modeling for aircraft fire research are identified, as well as computational fire tools for addressing those issues, and the research which is needed to advance those tools in order to address long-range needs. Fire field models are briefly reviewed, and the VULCAN model is selected for further evaluation. Calculations are performed with VULCAN to demonstrate its applicability to aircraft fire problems, and also to gain insight into the complex problem of fires involving aircraft. Simulations are conducted to investigate the influence of fire on an aircraft in a cross-wind. The interaction of the fuselage, wind, fire, and ground plane is investigated. Calculations are also performed utilizing a large eddy simulation (LES) capability to describe the large- scale turbulence instead of the more common k-{epsilon} turbulence model. Additional simulations are performed to investigate the static pressure and velocity distributions around a fuselage in a cross-wind, with and without fire. The results of these simulations provide qualitative insight into the complex interaction of a fuselage, fire, wind, and ground plane. Reasonable quantitative agreement is obtained in the few cases for which data or other modeling results exist Finally, VULCAN is used to quantify the impact of simplifying assumptions inherent in a risk assessment compatible fire model developed for open pool fire environments. The assumptions are seen to be of minor importance for the particular problem analyzed. This work demonstrates the utility of using a fire field model for assessing the limitations of simplified fire models. In conclusion, the application of computational fire modeling tools herein provides both qualitative and quantitative insights into the complex problem of aircraft in fires.

  11. High temperature aircraft research furnace facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, James E., Jr.; Cashon, John L.

    1992-01-01

    Focus is on the design, fabrication, and development of the High Temperature Aircraft Research Furnace Facilities (HTARFF). The HTARFF was developed to process electrically conductive materials with high melting points in a low gravity environment. The basic principle of operation is to accurately translate a high temperature arc-plasma gas front as it orbits around a cylindrical sample, thereby making it possible to precisely traverse the entire surface of a sample. The furnace utilizes the gas-tungsten-arc-welding (GTAW) process, also commonly referred to as Tungsten-Inert-Gas (TIG). The HTARFF was developed to further research efforts in the areas of directional solidification, float-zone processing, welding in a low-gravity environment, and segregation effects in metals. The furnace is intended for use aboard the NASA-JSC Reduced Gravity Program KC-135A Aircraft.

  12. Advanced instrumentation for aircraft icing research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bachalo, W.; Smith, J.; Rudoff, R.

    1990-01-01

    A compact and rugged probe based on the phase Doppler method was evaluated as a means for characterizing icing clouds using airborne platforms and for advancing aircraft icing research in large scale wind tunnels. The Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA) upon which the new probe was based is now widely recognized as an accurate method for the complete characterization of sprays. The prototype fiber optic-based probe was evaluated in simulated aircraft icing clouds and found to have the qualities essential to providing information that will advance aircraft icing research. Measurement comparisons of the size and velocity distributions made with the standard PDPA and the fiber optic probe were in excellent agreement as were the measurements of number density and liquid water content. Preliminary testing in the NASA Lewis Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) produced reasonable results but revealed some problems with vibration and signal quality at high speeds. The cause of these problems were identified and design changes were proposed to eliminate the shortcomings of the probe.

  13. Aircraft Turbine Engine Control Research at NASA Glenn Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garg, Sanjay

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the aircraft turbine engine control research at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). A brief introduction to the engine control problem is first provided with a description of the state-of-the-art control law structure. A historical aspect of engine control development since the 1940s is then provided with a special emphasis on the contributions of GRC. With the increased emphasis on aircraft safety, enhanced performance, and affordability, as well as the need to reduce the environmental impact of aircraft, there are many new challenges being faced by the designers of aircraft propulsion systems. The Controls and Dynamics Branch (CDB) at GRC is leading and participating in various projects to develop advanced propulsion controls and diagnostics technologies that will help meet the challenging goals of NASA Aeronautics Research Mission programs. The rest of the paper provides an overview of the various CDB technology development activities in aircraft engine control and diagnostics, both current and some accomplished in the recent past. The motivation for each of the research efforts, the research approach, technical challenges, and the key progress to date are summarized.

  14. Recent Progress in Aircraft Noise Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Envia, Edmane; Thomas, Russell

    2007-01-01

    An overview of the acoustics research at NASA under the Subsonic Fixed Wing project is given. The presentation describes the rationale behind the noise reduction goals of the project in the context of the next generation air transportation system, and the emphasis placed on achieving these goals through a combination of the in-house and collaborative efforts with industry, universities and other government agencies. The presentation also describes the in-house research plan which is focused on the development of advanced noise and flow diagnostic techniques, next generation noise prediction tools, and novel noise reduction techniques that are applicable across a wide range of aircraft.

  15. Flight dynamics research for highly agile aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Luat T.

    1989-01-01

    This paper highlights recent results of research conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center as part of a broad flight dynamics program aimed at developing technology that will enable future combat aircraft to achieve greatly enhanced agility capability at subsonic combat conditions. Studies of advanced control concepts encompassing both propulsive and aerodynamic approaches are reviewed. Dynamic stall phenomena and their potential impact on maneuvering performance and stability are summarized. Finally, issues of mathematical modeling of complex aerodynamics occurring during rapid, large amplitude maneuvers are discussed.

  16. YO-3A acoustics research aircraft systems manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    The flight testing techniques, equipment, and procedures employed during air-to-air acoustic testing of helicopters using the NASA YO-3A Acoustic Research Aircraft are discussed. The research aircraft instrumentation system is described as well as hardware installation on the test aircraft and techniques used during the tests. Emphasis is placed on formation flying, position locations, test matrices, and test procedures.

  17. Large capacity oblique all-wing transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galloway, Thomas L.; Phillips, James A.; Kennelly, Robert A., Jr.; Waters, Mark H.

    1996-01-01

    Dr. R. T. Jones first developed the theory for oblique wing aircraft in 1952, and in subsequent years numerous analytical and experimental projects conducted at NASA Ames and elsewhere have established that the Jones' oblique wing theory is correct. Until the late 1980's all proposed oblique wing configurations were wing/body aircraft with the wing mounted on a pivot. With the emerging requirement for commercial transports with very large payloads, 450-800 passengers, Jones proposed a supersonic oblique flying wing in 1988. For such an aircraft all payload, fuel, and systems are carried within the wing, and the wing is designed with a variable sweep to maintain a fixed subsonic normal Mach number. Engines and vertical tails are mounted on pivots supported from the primary structure of the wing. The oblique flying wing transport has come to be known as the Oblique All-Wing (OAW) transport. This presentation gives the highlights of the OAW project that was to study the total concept of the OAW as a commercial transport.

  18. Aircraft Turbine Engine Control Research at NASA Glenn Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garg, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    This lecture will provide an overview of the aircraft turbine engine control research at NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Glenn Research Center (GRC). A brief introduction to the engine control problem is first provided with a description of the current state-of-the-art control law structure. A historical aspect of engine control development since the 1940s is then provided with a special emphasis on the contributions of GRC. The traditional engine control problem has been to provide a means to safely transition the engine from one steady-state operating point to another based on the pilot throttle inputs. With the increased emphasis on aircraft safety, enhanced performance and affordability, and the need to reduce the environmental impact of aircraft, there are many new challenges being faced by the designers of aircraft propulsion systems. The Controls and Dynamics Branch (CDB) at GRC is leading and participating in various projects in partnership with other organizations within GRC and across NASA, other government agencies, the U.S. aerospace industry, and academia to develop advanced propulsion controls and diagnostics technologies that will help meet the challenging goals of NASA programs under the Aeronautics Research Mission. The second part of the lecture provides an overview of the various CDB technology development activities in aircraft engine control and diagnostics, both current and some accomplished in the recent past. The motivation for each of the research efforts, the research approach, technical challenges and the key progress to date are summarized. The technologies to be discussed include system level engine control concepts, gas path diagnostics, active component control, and distributed engine control architecture. The lecture will end with a futuristic perspective of how the various current technology developments will lead to an Intelligent and Autonomous Propulsion System requiring none to very minimum pilot interface, interfacing directly with the flight management system to determine its mode of operation, and providing personalized engine control to optimize its performance given the current condition and mission objectives.

  19. Conceptual/preliminary design study of subsonic v/stol and stovl aircraft derivatives of the S-3A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kidwell, G. H., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    A computerized aircraft synthesis program was used to examine the feasibility and capability of a V/STOL aircraft based on the Navy S-3A aircraft. Two major airframe modifications are considered: replacement of the wing, and substitution of deflected thrust turbofan engines similar to the Pegasus engine. Three planform configurations for the all composite wing were investigated: an unconstrained span design, a design with the span constrained to 64 feet, and an unconstrained span oblique wing design. Each design was optimized using the same design variables, and performance and control analyses were performed. The oblique wing configuration was found to have the greatest potential in this application. The mission performance of these V/STOL aircraft compares favorably with that of the CTOL S-3A.

  20. An Overview of NASA's Subsonic Research Aircraft Testbed (SCRAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumann, Ethan; Hernandez, Joe; Ruhf, John C.

    2013-01-01

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration Dryden Flight Research Center acquired a Gulfstream III (GIII) aircraft to serve as a testbed for aeronautics flight research experiments. The aircraft is referred to as SCRAT, which stands for SubsoniC Research Aircraft Testbed. The aircraft's mission is to perform aeronautics research; more specifically raising the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of advanced technologies through flight demonstrations and gathering high-quality research data suitable for verifying the technologies, and validating design and analysis tools. The SCRAT has the ability to conduct a range of flight research experiments throughout a transport class aircraft's flight envelope. Experiments ranging from flight-testing of a new aircraft system or sensor to those requiring structural and aerodynamic modifications to the aircraft can be accomplished. The aircraft has been modified to include an instrumentation system and sensors necessary to conduct flight research experiments along with a telemetry capability. An instrumentation power distribution system was installed to accommodate the instrumentation system and future experiments. An engineering simulation of the SCRAT has been developed to aid in integrating research experiments. A series of baseline aircraft characterization flights has been flown that gathered flight data to aid in developing and integrating future research experiments. This paper describes the SCRAT's research systems and capabilities.

  1. X-38 research aircraft landing - computer animation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    In the mid-1990's researchers at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, and Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas, began working actively with the sub-scale X-38 prototype crew return vehicle (CRV). This was an unpiloted lifting body designed at 80 percent of the size of a projected emergency crew return vehicle for the International Space Station. The X-38 and the actual CRV are patterned after a lifting-body shape first employed in the Air Force X-23 (SV-5) program in the mid-1960's and the Air Force-NASA X-24A lifting-body project in the early to mid-1970's. Built by Scaled Composites, Inc., in Mojave, California, and outfitted with avionics, computer systems, and other hardware at Johnson Space Center, two X-38 aircraft were involved in flight research at Dryden beginning in July of 1997. Before that, however, Dryden conducted some 13 flights at a drop zone near California City, California. These tests were done with a 1/6-scale model of the X-38 aircraft to test the parafoil concept that would be employed on the X-38 aircraft and the actual CRV. The basic concept is that the actual CRV will use an inertial navigation system together with the Global Positioning System of satellites to guide it from the International Space Station into the earth's atmosphere. A deorbit engine module will redirect the vehicle from orbit into the atmosphere where a series of parachutes and a parafoil will deploy in sequence to bring the vehicle to a landing, possibly in a field next to a hospital. Flight research at NASA Dryden for the X-38 began with an unpiloted captive carry flight in which the vehicle remained attached to its future launch vehicle, the Dryden B-52 008. There were four captive flights in 1997 and three in 1998, plus the first drop test on March 12, 1998, using the parachutes and parafoil. Further captive and drop tests occurred in 1999. Although the X-38 landed safely on the lakebed at Edwards after the March 1998 drop test, there had been some problems with the parafoil. Intermediate parafoil tests at the Army Yuma Proving Grounds in Arizona enabled the project to resolve these problems and resume flight research. In the drop tests, the X-38 vehicles have been autonomous after air launch from the B-52. After they deploy the parafoil, they have remained autonomous, but there is also a manual mode that allows control from the ground. The X-38 vehicles (designated V131 and V132) are each 24.5 feet long. The actual CRV to be flown in space is expected to be 30 feet long. This is a 21-second computer animation clip showing the X-38 vehicle under its main parachute gliding in for a Global Positioning System-guided landing on a dry desert lakebed.

  2. Rotor systems research aircraft predesign study. Volume 3: Predesign report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, S. A.; Linden, A. W.

    1972-01-01

    The features of two aircraft designs were selected to be included in the single RSRA configuration. A study was conducted for further preliminary design and a more detailed analysis of development plans and costs. An analysis was also made of foreseeable technical problems and risks, identification of parallel research which would reduce risks and/or add to the basic capability of the aircraft, and a draft aircraft specification.

  3. Research needs in aircraft noise prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raney, J. P.

    1975-01-01

    Progress needed in understanding the mechanisms of aircraft noise generation and propagation is outlined using the focus provided by the need to predict accurately the noise produced and received at the ground by an aircraft operating in the vicinity of an airport. The components of internal engine noise generation, jet exhaust, airframe noise and shielding and configuration effects, and the roles of atmospheric propagation and ground noise attenuation are presented and related to the prediction problem. The role of NASA in providing the focus and direction for needed advances is discussed, and possible contributions of the academic community in helping to fulfill the needs for accurate aircraft noise prediction methods are suggested.

  4. RSRA flight control and stabilization. [Rotor Systems Research Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linden, A. W.

    1976-01-01

    Handling qualities of the RSRA (rotor systems research aircraft), a special test vehicle with optional configurations (forewings, removable horizontal tailplanes, main rotor, tail rotor, and twin engines for forward flight all removable), are described. The aircraft can be fitted to fly as a conventional rotary-wing aircraft, fixed-wing aircraft, or compound helicopter, and is designed for testing existing and future rotor systems in flight. Controls include full-authority fly-by-wire controls and mechanical controls for rotary wing and for fixed wing. Stability augmentation, rotor test measurement systems, variable center of gravity capability, and rotor loading potential of the RSRA are also described.

  5. Rotor systems research aircraft airplane configuration flight-test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Painter, W. D.; Erickson, R. E.

    1984-01-01

    The rotor systems research aircraft (RSRA) has undergone ground and flight tests, primarily as a compound aircraft. The purpose was to train pilots and to check out and develop the design flight envelope. The preparation and flight test of the RSRA in the airplane, or fixed-wind, configuration are reviewed and the test results are discussed.

  6. Walter C. Williams Research Aircraft Integration Facility (RAIF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The NASA-Dryden Integrated Test Facility (ITF), also known as the Walter C. Williams Research Aircraft Integration Facility (RAIF), provides an environment for conducting efficient and thorough testing of advanced, highly integrated research aircraft. Flight test confidence is greatly enhanced by the ability to qualify interactive aircraft systems in a controlled environment. In the ITF, each element of a flight vehicle can be regulated and monitored in real time as it interacts with the rest of the aircraft systems. Testing in the ITF is accomplished through automated techniques in which the research aircraft is interfaced to a high-fidelity real-time simulation. Electric and hydraulic power are also supplied, allowing all systems except the engines to function as if in flight. The testing process is controlled by an engineering workstation that sets up initial conditions for a test, initiates the test run, monitors its progress, and archives the data generated. The workstation is also capable of analyzing results of individual tests, comparing results of multiple tests, and producing reports. The computers used in the automated aircraft testing process are also capable of operating in a stand-alone mode with a simulation cockpit, complete with its own instruments and controls. Control law development and modification, aerodynamic, propulsion, guidance model qualification, and flight planning -- functions traditionally associated with real-time simulation -- can all be performed in this manner. The Remotely Augmented Vehicles (RAV) function, now located in the ITF, is a mainstay in the research techniques employed at Dryden. This function is used for tests that are too dangerous for direct human involvement or for which computational capacity does not exist onboard a research aircraft. RAV provides the researcher with a ground-based computer that is radio linked to the test aircraft during actual flight. The Ground Vibration Testing (GVT) system, formerly housed in the Thermostructural Laboratory, now also resides in the ITF. In preparing a research aircraft for flight testing, it is vital to measure its structural frequencies and mode shapes and compare results to the models used in design analysis. The final function performed in the ITF is routine aircraft maintenance. This includes preflight and post-flight instrumentation checks and the servicing of hydraulics, avionics, and engines necessary on any research aircraft. Aircraft are not merely moved to the ITF for automated testing purposes but are housed there throughout their flight test programs.

  7. X-38 research aircraft deorbit - computer animation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    In the mid-1990's researchers at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, and Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas, began working actively with the sub-scale X-38 prototype crew return vehicle (CRV). This was an unpiloted lifting body designed at 80 percent of the size of a projected emergency crew return vehicle for the International Space Station. The X-38 and the actual CRV are patterned after a lifting-body shape first employed in the Air Force X-23 (SV-5) program in the mid-1960's and the Air Force-NASA X-24A lifting-body project in the early to mid-1970's. Built by Scaled Composites, Inc., in Mojave, California, and outfitted with avionics, computer systems, and other hardware at Johnson Space Center, two X-38 aircraft were involved in flight research at Dryden beginning in July of 1997. Before that, however, Dryden conducted some 13 flights at a drop zone near California City, California. These tests were done with a 1/6-scale model of the X-38 to test the parafoil concept that would be employed on the X-38 and the actual CRV. The basic concept is that the actual CRV will use an inertial navigation system together with the Global Positioning System of satellites to guide it from the International Space Station into the earth's atmosphere. A deorbit engine module will redirect the vehicle from orbit into the atmosphere where a series of parachutes and a parafoil will deploy in sequence to bring the vehicle to a landing, possibly in a field next to a hospital. Flight research at NASA Dryden for the X-38 began with an unpiloted captive carry flight in which the vehicle remained attached to its future launch vehicle, the Dryden B-52 008. There were four captive flights in 1997 and three in 1998, plus the first drop test on March 12, 1998, using the parachutes and parafoil. Further captive and drop tests occurred in 1999. Although the X-38 landed safely on the lakebed at Edwards after the March 1998 drop test, there had been some problems with the parafoil. Intermediate parafoil tests at the Army Yuma Proving Grounds in Arizona enabled the project to resolve these problems and resume flight research. In the drop tests, the X-38 vehicles have been autonomous after airlaunch from the B-52. After they deploy the parafoil, they have remained autonomous, but there is also a manual mode that allows control from the ground. The X-38 vehicles (designated V131 and V132) are each 24.5 feet long. The actual CRV to be flown in space is expected to be 30 feet long. This is short 16-second computer animation clip showing the X-38 vehicle performing a deorbit engine burn, bringing the vehicle around 180 degrees and then jettisoning the solid rocket pack to reduce its re-entry weight.

  8. High Performance Aircraft Helmet Mounted Display Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Lockheed engineer,Joe Clark,is sitting in the LaRC DMS wearing a binocular wide-field-of view Helmet Mounted Display(HMD) which utilized 6 DOF head tracking for line-of sight information and SGI display drivers to display new display concepts for air combat to the pilot of high performance (F-18 HARV) aircraft.

  9. The rotor systems research aircraft - A flying wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linden, A. W.; Hellyar, M. W.

    1974-01-01

    The Sikorsky Aircraft division of United Aircraft Corporation is constructing two uniquely designed Rotor Systems Research Aircraft (RSRA). These aircraft will be used through the 1980's to comparatively test many different types of rotors - articulated, hingeless, teetering, and gimballed, as well as advanced rotor concepts, such as reverse velocity and variable diameter rotors. The RSRA combines a new airframe with existing Sikorsky H-3 (S-61) dynamic components. A force measurement system is incorporated to permit accurate evaluation of significant rotor characteristics. Both rotor and fixed-wing control systems are provided, appropriately integrated for operation in the pure helicopter mode, compound helicopter mode, and fixed-wing mode. The RSRA is the first rotary wing aircraft designed with a crew escape system, including a pyrotechnic system to sever the main rotor blades.

  10. Experimental aerothermodynamic research of hypersonic aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cleary, Joseph W.

    1987-01-01

    The 2-D and 3-D advance computer codes being developed for use in the design of such hypersonic aircraft as the National Aero-Space Plane require comparison of the computational results with a broad spectrum of experimental data to fully assess the validity of the codes. This is particularly true for complex flow fields with control surfaces present and for flows with separation, such as leeside flow. Therefore, the objective is to provide a hypersonic experimental data base required for validation of advanced computational fluid dynamics (CFD) computer codes and for development of more thorough understanding of the flow physics necessary for these codes. This is being done by implementing a comprehensive test program for a generic all-body hypersonic aircraft model in the NASA/Ames 3.5 foot Hypersonic Wind Tunnel over a broad range of test conditions to obtain pertinent surface and flowfield data. Results from the flow visualization portion of the investigation are presented.

  11. V/STOL tilt rotor aircraft study. Volume 2: Preliminary design of research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A preliminary design study was conducted to establish a minimum sized, low cost V/STOL tilt-rotor research aircraft with the capability of performing proof-of-concept flight research investigations applicable to a wide range of useful military and commercial configurations. The analysis and design approach was based on state-of-the-art methods and maximum use of off-the-shelf hardware and systems to reduce development risk, procurement cost and schedules impact. The rotors to be used are of 26 foot diameter and are the same as currently under construction and test as part of NASA Tilt-Rotor Contract NAS2-6505. The aircraft has a design gross weight of 12,000 lbs. The proposed engines to be used are Lycoming T53-L-13B rated at 1550 shaft horsepower which are fully qualified. A flight test investigation is recommended which will determine the capabilities and limitations of the research aircraft.

  12. Aircraft Electric Propulsion Systems Applied Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, Sean

    2015-01-01

    Researchers at NASA are investigating the potential for electric propulsion systems to revolutionize the design of aircraft from the small-scale general aviation sector to commuter and transport-class vehicles. Electric propulsion provides new degrees of design freedom that may enable opportunities for tightly coupled design and optimization of the propulsion system with the aircraft structure and control systems. This could lead to extraordinary reductions in ownership and operating costs, greenhouse gas emissions, and noise annoyance levels. We are building testbeds, high-fidelity aircraft simulations, and the first highly distributed electric inhabited flight test vehicle to begin to explore these opportunities.

  13. Experimental aerothermodynamic research of hypersonic aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cleary, Joseph W.

    1990-01-01

    Wind tunnel tests were conducted to establish a benchmark experimental data base for a genetic hypersonic aircraft vehicle. Comprehensive measurements were made at Mach 7 to give flow visualization, surface pressure, surface convective heat transfer, and flow field Pitot pressure for a delta platform all-body vehicle. The tests were conducted in the NASA/Ames 3.5-Foot Hypersonic Wind Tunnel at Reynolds numbers sufficient to give turbulent flow. Comparisons are made of the experimental results with computational solutions of the flow by an upwind parabolized Navier-Stokes code developed at Ames. Good agreement of experiment with solutions by the code is demonstrated.

  14. NASA Glenn's Contributions to Aircraft Engine Noise Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, Dennis L.

    2013-01-01

    This report reviews all engine noise research conducted at the NASA Glenn Research Center over the past 70 years. This report includes a historical perspective of the Center and the facilities used to conduct the research. Major noise research programs are highlighted to show their impact on industry and on the development of aircraft noise reduction technology. Noise reduction trends are discussed, and future aircraft concepts are presented. Since the 1960s, research results show that the average perceived noise level has been reduced by about 20 decibels (dB). Studies also show that, depending on the size of the airport, the aircraft fleet mix, and the actual growth in air travel, another 15 to 17 dB reduction will be required to achieve NASA's long-term goal of providing technologies to limit objectionable noise to the boundaries of an average airport.

  15. NASA Glenn's Contributions to Aircraft Engine Noise Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, Dennis L.

    2014-01-01

    This presentation reviews engine noise research conducted at the NASA Glenn Research Center over the past 70 years. This report includes a historical perspective of the Center and the facilities used to conduct the research. Major noise research programs are highlighted to show their impact on industry and on the development of aircraft noise reduction technology. Noise reduction trends are discussed, and future aircraft concepts are presented. Since the 1960s, research results show that the average perceived noise level has been reduced by about 20 decibels (dB). Studies also show that, depending on the size of the airport, the aircraft fleet mix, and the actual growth in air travel, another 15 to 17 dB reduction will be required to achieve NASAs long-term goal of providing technologies to limit objectionable noise to the boundaries of an average airport.

  16. Design and physical characteristics of the Transonic Aircraft Technology (TACT) research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Painter, W. D.; Caw, L. J.

    1978-01-01

    The Transonic Aircraft Technology (TACT) research program provided data necessary to verify aerodynamic concepts, such as the supercritical wing, and to gain the confidence required for the application of such technology to advanced high performance aircraft. An F-111A aircraft was employed as the flight test bed to provide full scale data. The data were correlated extensively with predictions based on data obtained from wind tunnel tests. An assessment of the improvement afforded at transonic speeds in drag divergence, maneuvering performance, and airplane handling qualities by the use of the supercritical wing was included in the program. Transonic flight and wind tunnel testing techniques were investigated, and specific research technologies evaluated were also summarized.

  17. Guidelines for composite materials research related to general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dow, N. F.; Humphreys, E. A.; Rosen, B. W.

    1983-01-01

    Guidelines for research on composite materials directed toward the improvement of all aspects of their applicability for general aviation aircraft were developed from extensive studies of their performance, manufacturability, and cost effectiveness. Specific areas for research and for manufacturing development were identified and evaluated. Inputs developed from visits to manufacturers were used in part to guide these evaluations, particularly in the area of cost effectiveness. Throughout the emphasis was to direct the research toward the requirements of general aviation aircraft, for which relatively low load intensities are encountered, economy of production is a prime requirement, and yet performance still commands a premium. A number of implications regarding further directions for developments in composites to meet these requirements also emerged from the studies. Chief among these is the need for an integrated (computer program) aerodynamic/structures approach to aircraft design.

  18. STOVL aircraft simulation for integrated flight and propulsion control research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mihaloew, James R.; Drummond, Colin K.

    1989-01-01

    The United States is in the initial stages of committing to a national program to develop a supersonic short takeoff and vertical landing (STOVL) aircraft. The goal of the propulsion community in this effort is to have the enabling propulsion technologies for this type aircraft in place to permit a low risk decision regarding the initiation of a research STOVL supersonic attack/fighter aircraft in the late mid-90's. This technology will effectively integrate, enhance, and extend the supersonic cruise, STOVL and fighter/attack programs to enable U.S. industry to develop a revolutionary supersonic short takeoff and vertical landing fighter/attack aircraft in the post-ATF period. A joint NASA Lewis and NASA Ames research program, with the objective of developing and validating technology for integrated-flight propulsion control design methodologies for short takeoff and vertical landing (STOVL) aircraft, was planned and is underway. This program, the NASA Supersonic STOVL Integrated Flight-Propulsion Controls Program, is a major element of the overall NASA-Lewis Supersonic STOVL Propulsion Technology Program. It uses an integrated approach to develop an integrated program to achieve integrated flight-propulsion control technology. Essential elements of the integrated controls research program are realtime simulations of the integrated aircraft and propulsion systems which will be used in integrated control concept development and evaluations. This paper describes pertinent parts of the research program leading up to the related realtime simulation development and remarks on the simulation structure to accommodate propulsion system hardware drop-in for real system evaluation.

  19. Some historical trends in the research and development of aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, M. L.

    1983-01-01

    A survey of some trends in aircraft design was made in an effort to determine the relation between research, development, test, and evaluation (RDT and E) and aircraft mission capability, requirements, and objectives. Driving forces in the history of aircraft include the quest for speed which involved design concepts incorporating jet propulsion systems and low drag features. The study of high speed design concepts promoted new experimental and analytical research techniques. These research techniques, in turn, have lead to concepts offering new performance potential. Design trends were directed toward increased speed, efficiency, productivity, and safety. Generally speaking, the research and development effort has been evolutionary in nature and, with the exception of the transition to supersonic flight, little has occurred since the origin of flight that has drastically changed the basic design fundamentals of aircraft. However, this does not preclude the possibility of dramatic changes in the future since the products of research are frequently unpredictable. Advances should be expected and sought in improved aerodynamics (reduced drag, enhanced lift, flow field exploitation); propulsion (improved engine cycles, multimode engines, alternate fuels, alternate power sources); structures (new materials, manufacturing techniques); all with a view toward increased efficiency and utility.

  20. Atmospheric analysis for airdata calibration on research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ehernberger, L. J.; Haering, Edward A., Jr.; Lockhart, Mary G.; Teets, Edward H.

    1992-01-01

    In-flight airdata calibrations are used to determine the aerodynamic influence of an airplane on pitot-static pressure measurements of altitude and speed. Conventional flight-test calibration techniques are briefly reviewed and meteorological analysis methods for estimating calibration reference values of atmospheric conditions are described. There are cases where some conventional in-flight techniques are not entirely satisfactory for research aircraft because of added equipment requirements or flight envelope and location limitations. In these cases, atmospheric wind and pressure information can be used to complement conventional techniques. Accuracy of the atmospheric measurements and the variability of upper-air winds and pressure values are discussed. Results from several flight research aircraft show that wind reference calibration is generally less accurate than calibration accuracy standards for civil and research aircraft. Examples of pressure reference altimetry derived from meteorological analyses are also presented for a variety of flight research programs. These flight data show that the reference pressure accuracy provided by meteorological analyses is usually within civil aircraft and flight research airdata calibration accuracy standards. Meteorological analyses altimetry is particularly useful when it is not feasible to restrict the test airplane altitude, location, or maneuver envelope.

  1. Static aeroelastic analysis for generic configuration aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, IN; Miura, Hirokazu; Chargin, Mladen K.

    1987-01-01

    A static aeroelastic analysis capability that can calculate flexible air loads for generic configuration aircraft was developed. It was made possible by integrating a finite element structural analysis code (MSC/NASTRAN) and a panel code of aerodynamic analysis based on linear potential flow theory. The framework already built in MSC/NASTRAN was used and the aerodynamic influence coefficient matrix is computed externally and inserted in the NASTRAN by means of a DMAP program. It was shown that deformation and flexible airloads of an oblique wing aircraft can be calculated reliably by this code both in subsonic and supersonic speeds. Preliminary results indicating importance of flexibility in calculating air loads for this type of aircraft are presented.

  2. The NASA research program on propulsion for supersonic cruise aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, R. J.

    1975-01-01

    The objectives and status of the propulsion portion of a program aimed at advancing the technology and establishing a data base appropriate for the possible future development of supersonic cruise aircraft are reviewed. Research related to exhaust nozzles, combustors, and inlets that is covered by the noise, pollution, and dynamics programs is described.

  3. Advanced materials research for long-haul aircraft turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Signorelli, R. A.; Blankenship, C. P.

    1978-01-01

    The status of research efforts to apply low to intermediate temperature composite materials and advanced high temperature materials to engine components is reviewed. Emerging materials technologies and their potential benefits to aircraft gas turbines were emphasized. The problems were identified, and the general state of the technology for near term use was assessed.

  4. Long range view of materials research for civil transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ardema, M. D.; Waters, M. H.

    1973-01-01

    The impact of various material technology advancements on the economics of civil transport aircraft is investigated. Benefits of advances in both airframe and engine materials are considered. Benefits are measured primarily by improvements in return on investment for an operator. Materials research and development programs which lead to the greatest benefits are assessed with regards to cost, risk, and commonality with other programs. Emphasis of the paper is on advanced technology subsonic/transonic transports (ATT type aircraft) since these are likely to be the next generation of commercial transports.

  5. Long range view of materials research for civil transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ardema, M. D.; Waters, M. H.

    1974-01-01

    The impact of various material technology advancements on the economics of civil transport aircraft is investigated. Benefits of advances in both airframe and engine materials are considered. Benefits are measured primarily by improvements in return on investment for an operator. Materials research and development programs which lead to the greatest benefits are assessed with regards to cost, risk, and commonality with other programs. Emphasis of the paper is on advanced technology subsonic/transonic transports (ATT type aircraft) since these are likely to be the next generation of commercial transports.

  6. Lockheed ER-2 #809 high altitude research aircraft in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    ER-2 tail number 809, is one of two Airborne Science ER-2s used as science platforms by Dryden. The aircraft are platforms for a variety of high-altitude science missions flown over various parts of the world. They are also used for earth science and atmospheric sensor research and development, satellite calibration and data validation. The ER-2s are capable of carrying a maximum payload of 2,600 pounds of experiments in a nose bay, the main equipment bay behind the cockpit, two wing-mounted superpods and small underbody and trailing edges. Most ER-2 missions last about six hours with ranges of about 2,200 nautical miles. The aircraft typically fly at altitudes above 65,000 feet. On November 19, 1998, the ER-2 set a world record for medium weight aircraft reaching an altitude of 68,700 feet. The aircraft is 63 feet long, with a wingspan of 104 feet. The top of the vertical tail is 16 feet above ground when the aircraft is on the bicycle-type landing gear. Cruising speeds are 410 knots, or 467 miles per hour, at altitude. A single General Electric F118 turbofan engine rated at 17,000 pounds thrust powers the ER-2.

  7. Lockheed ER-2 #806 high altitude research aircraft during landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    ER-2 tail number 806, is one of two Airborne Science ER-2s used as science platforms by Dryden. The aircraft are platforms for a variety of high-altitude science missions flown over various parts of the world. They are also used for earth science and atmospheric sensor research and development, satellite calibration and data validation. The ER-2s are capable of carrying a maximum payload of 2,600 pounds of experiments in a nose bay, the main equipment bay behind the cockpit, two wing-mounted superpods and small underbody and trailing edges. Most ER-2 missions last about six hours with ranges of about 2,200 nautical miles. The aircraft typically fly at altitudes above 65,000 feet. On November 19, 1998, the ER-2 set a world record for medium weight aircraft reaching an altitude of 68,700 feet. The aircraft is 63 feet long, with a wingspan of 104 feet. The top of the vertical tail is 16 feet above ground when the aircraft is on the bicycle-type landing gear. Cruising speeds are 410 knots, or 467 miles per hour, at altitude. A single General Electric F-118 turbofan engine rated at 17,000 pounds thrust powers the ER-2.

  8. Lockheed ER-2 high altitude research aircraft in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    ER-2 tail number 706, is one of two Airborne Science ER-2s used as science platforms by Dryden. The aircraft are platforms for a variety of high-altitude science missions flown over various parts of the world. They are also used for earth science and atmospheric sensor research and development, satellite calibration and data validation. The ER-2s are capable of carrying a maximum payload of 2,600 pounds of experiments in a nose bay, the main equipment bay behind the cockpit, two wing-mounted superpods and small underbody and trailing edges. Most ER-2 missions last about six hours with ranges of about 2,200 nautical miles. The aircraft typically fly at altitudes above 65,000 feet. On November 19, 1998, the ER-2 set a world record for medium weight aircraft reaching an altitude of 68,700 feet. The aircraft is 63 feet long, with a wingspan of 104 feet. The top of the vertical tail is 16 feet above ground when the aircraft is on the bicycle-type landing gear. Cruising speeds are 410 knots, or 467 miles per hour, at altitude. A single General Electric F-118 turbofan engine rated at 17,000 pounds thrust powers the ER-2.

  9. Lockheed ER-2 #806 high altitude research aircraft in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    ER-2 tail number 806, is one of two Airborne Science ER-2s used as science platforms by Dryden. The aircraft are platforms for a variety of high-altitude science missions flown over various parts of the world. They are also used for earth science and atmospheric sensor research and development, satellite calibration and data validation. The ER-2s are capable of carrying a maximum payload of 2,600 pounds of experiments in a nose bay, the main equipment bay behind the cockpit, two wing-mounted superpods and small underbody and trailing edges. Most ER-2 missions last about six hours with ranges of about 2,200 nautical miles. The aircraft typically fly at altitudes above 65,000 feet. On November 19, 1998, the ER-2 set a world record for medium weight aircraft reaching an altitude of 68,700 feet. The aircraft is 63 feet long, with a wingspan of 104 feet. The top of the vertical tail is 16 feet above ground when the aircraft is on the bicycle-type landing gear. Cruising speeds are 410 knots, or 467 miles per hour, at altitude. A single General Electric F-118 turbofan engine rated at 17,000 pounds thrust powers the ER-2.

  10. Lockheed ER-2 #809 high altitude research aircraft in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    ER-2 tail number 809, is one of two Airborne Science ER-2s used as science platforms by Dryden. The aircraft are platforms for a variety of high-altitude science missions flown over various parts of the world. They are also used for earth science and atmospheric sensor research and development, satellite calibration and data validation. The ER-2s are capable of carrying a maximum payload of 2,600 pounds of experiments in a nose bay, the main equipment bay behind the cockpit, two wing-mounted superpods and small underbody and trailing edges. Most ER-2 missions last about six hours with ranges of about 2,200 nautical miles. The aircraft typically fly at altitudes above 65,000 feet. On November 19, 1998, the ER-2 set a world record for medium weight aircraft reaching an altitude of 68,700 feet. The aircraft is 63 feet long, with a wingspan of 104 feet. The top of the vertical tail is 16 feet above ground when the aircraft is on the bicycle-type landing gear. Cruising speeds are 410 knots, or 467 miles per hour, at altitude. A single General Electric F-118 turbofan engine rated at 17,000 pounds thrust powers the ER-2.

  11. NASA/Ames Research Center's science and applications aircraft program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, G. Warren

    1991-01-01

    NASA-Ames Research Center operates a fleet of seven Science and Applications Aircraft, namely the C-141/Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO), DC-8, C-130, Lear Jet, and three ER-2s. These aircraft are used to satisfy two major objectives, each of equal importance. The first is to acquire remote and in-situ scientific data in astronomy, astrophysics, earth sciences, ocean processes, atmospheric physics, meteorology, materials processing and life sciences. The second major objective is to expedite the development of sensors and their attendant algorithms for ultimate use in space and to simulate from an aircraft, the data to be acquired from spaceborne sensors. NASA-Ames Science and Applications Aircraft are recognized as national and international facilities. They have performed and will continue to perform, operational missions from bases in the United States and worldwide. Historically, twice as many investigators have requested flight time than could be accommodated. This situation remains true today and is expected to increase in the years ahead. A major advantage of the existing fleet of aircraft is their ability to cover a large expanse of the earth's ecosystem from the surface to the lower stratosphere over large distances and time aloft. Their large payload capability allows a number of scientists to use multi-investigator sensor suites to permit simultaneous and complementary data gathering. In-flight changes to the sensors or data systems have greatly reduced the time required to optimize the development of new instruments. It is doubtful that spaceborne systems will ever totally replace the need for airborne science aircraft. The operations philosophy and capabilities exist at NASA-Ames Research Center.

  12. NASA research on structures and materials for supersonic cruise aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, P. A.; Heldenfels, R. R.

    1976-01-01

    The technology and data base necessary for sound technical decisions regarding long haul supersonic cruise aircraft transportation systems are considered. The objectives and status of the research elements in the structures and materials program phase of the program are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on reductions in structural mass by research on advanced structural concepts, light-weight materials, improved loads, aeroelastic predictive techniques, and by development of efficient structural design procedures.

  13. The Proposed Use of Unmanned Aerial System Surrogate Research Aircraft for National Airspace System Integration Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, Charles T., III

    2011-01-01

    Research is needed to determine what procedures, aircraft sensors and other systems will be required to allow Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) to safely operate with manned aircraft in the National Airspace System (NAS). This paper explores the use of Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) Surrogate research aircraft to serve as platforms for UAS systems research, development, and flight testing. These aircraft would be manned with safety pilots and researchers that would allow for flight operations almost anywhere in the NAS without the need for a Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Certificate of Authorization (COA). With pilot override capability, these UAS Surrogate aircraft would be controlled from ground stations like true UAS s. It would be possible to file and fly these UAS Surrogate aircraft in the NAS with normal traffic and they would be better platforms for real world UAS research and development over existing vehicles flying in restricted ranges or other sterilized airspace. These UAS surrogate aircraft could be outfitted with research systems as required such as computers, state sensors, video recording, data acquisition, data link, telemetry, instrumentation, and Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B). These surrogate aircraft could also be linked to onboard or ground based simulation facilities to further extend UAS research capabilities. Potential areas for UAS Surrogate research include the development, flight test and evaluation of sensors to aide in the process of air traffic "see-and-avoid". These and other sensors could be evaluated in real-time and compared with onboard human evaluation pilots. This paper examines the feasibility of using UAS Surrogate research aircraft as test platforms for a variety of UAS related research.

  14. Quiet short-haul research aircraft familiarization document, revision 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eppel, J. C.

    1981-01-01

    The design features and general characteristics of the Quiet Short Haul Research Aircraft are described. Aerodynamic characteristics and performance are discussed based on predictions and early flight test data. Principle airplane systems, including the airborne data acquisition system, are also described. The aircraft was designed and built to fulfill the need for a national research facility to explore the use of upper surface blowing, propulsive lift technology in providing short takeoff and landing capability, and perform advanced experiments in various technical disciplines such as aerodynamics, propulsion, stability and control, handling qualities, avionics and flight control systems, trailing vortex phenomena, acoustics, structure and loads, operating systems, human factors, and airworthiness/certification criteria. An unusually austere approach using experimental shop practices resulted in a low cost and high research capability.

  15. An Indispensable Ingredient: Flight Research and Aircraft Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorn, Michael H.

    2003-01-01

    Flight research-the art of flying actual vehicles in the atmosphere in order to collect data about their behavior-has played a historic and decisive role in the design of aircraft. Naturally, wind tunnel experiments, computational fluid dynamics, and mathematical analyses all informed the judgments of the individuals who conceived of new aircraft. But flight research has offered moments of realization found in no other method. Engineer Dale Reed and research pilot Milt Thompson experienced one such epiphany on March 1, 1963, at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Dryden Flight Research Center in Edwards, California. On that date, Thompson sat in the cockpit of a small, simple, gumdrop-shaped aircraft known as the M2-F1, lashed by a long towline to a late-model Pontiac Catalina. As the Pontiac raced across Rogers Dry Lake, it eventually gained enough speed to make the M2-F1 airborne. Thompson braced himself for the world s first flight in a vehicle of its kind, called a lifting body because of its high lift-to-drag ratio. Reed later recounted what he saw:

  16. NASA Dryden Flight Research Center: Unmanned Aircraft Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pestana, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews several topics related to operating unmanned aircraft in particular sharing aspects of unmanned aircraft from the perspective of a pilot. There is a section on the Global Hawk project which contains information about the first Global Hawk science mission, (i.e., Global Hawk Pacific (GloPac). Included in this information is GloPac science highlights, a listing of the GloPac Instruments. The second Global Hawk science mission was Genesis and Rapid Intensification Process (GRIP), for the NASA Hurricane Science Research Team. Information includes the instrumentation and the flights that were undertaken during the program. A section on Ikhana is next. This section includes views of the Ground Control Station (GCS), and a discussion of how the piloting of UAS is different from piloting in a manned aircraft. There is also discussion about displays and controls of aircraft. There is also discussion about what makes a pilot. The last section relates the use of Ikhana in the western states fire mission.

  17. Pseudo Aircraft Systems - A multi-aircraft simulation system for air traffic control research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weske, Reid A.; Danek, George L.

    1993-01-01

    Pseudo Aircraft Systems (PAS) is a computerized flight dynamics and piloting system designed to provide a high fidelity multi-aircraft real-time simulation environment to support Air Traffic Control research. PAS is composed of three major software components that run on a network of computer workstations. Functionality is distributed among these components to allow the system to execute fast enough to support real-time operation. PAS workstations are linked by an Ethernet Local Area Network, and standard UNIX socket protocol is used for data transfer. Each component of PAS is controlled and operated using a custom designed Graphical User Interface. Each of these is composed of multiple windows, and many of the windows and sub-windows are used in several of the components. Aircraft models and piloting logic are sophisticated and realistic and provide complex maneuvering and navigational capabilities. PAS will continually be enhanced with new features and improved capabilities to support ongoing and future Air Traffic Control system development.

  18. Civil aircraft vortex wake. TsAGI's research activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernyshev, S. L.; Gaifullin, A. M.; Sviridenko, Yu. N.

    2014-11-01

    This paper provides a review of research conducted in TsAGI (Central AeroHydrodynamic Institute) concerning a vortex wake behind an airliner. The research into this area of theoretical and practical importance have been done both in Russia and in other countries, for which these studies became a vital necessity at the end of the 20th century. The paper describes the main methods and ratios on which software systems used to calculate the evolution of a vortex wake in a turbulent atmosphere are based. Verification of calculation results proved their acceptable consistency with the known experimental data. The mechanism of circulation loss in a vortex wake which is based on the analytical solution for the problem of two vortices diffusing in a viscous fluid is also described. The paper also describes the model of behavior of an aircraft which has deliberately or unintentionally entered a vortex wake behind another aircraft. Approximated results of calculations performed according to this model by means of artificial neural networks enabled the researchers to model the dynamics of an aircraft in a vortex wake on flight simulators on-line.

  19. Aircraft

    DOEpatents

    Hibbs, B.D.; Lissaman, P.B.S.; Morgan, W.R.; Radkey, R.L.

    1998-09-22

    This disclosure provides a solar rechargeable aircraft that is inexpensive to produce, is steerable, and can remain airborne almost indefinitely. The preferred aircraft is a span-loaded flying wing, having no fuselage or rudder. Travelling at relatively slow speeds, and having a two-hundred foot wingspan that mounts photovoltaic cells on most all of the wing`s top surface, the aircraft uses only differential thrust of its eight propellers to turn. Each of five sections of the wing has one or more engines and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other sections, to avoid loading them. Five two-sided photovoltaic arrays, in all, are mounted on the wing, and receive photovoltaic energy both incident on top of the wing, and which is incident also from below, through a bottom, transparent surface. The aircraft is capable of a top speed of about ninety miles per hour, which enables the aircraft to attain and can continuously maintain altitudes of up to sixty-five thousand feet. Regenerative fuel cells in the wing store excess electricity for use at night, such that the aircraft can sustain its elevation indefinitely. A main spar of the wing doubles as a pressure vessel that houses hydrogen and oxygen gases for use in the regenerative fuel cell. The aircraft has a wide variety of applications, which include weather monitoring and atmospheric testing, communications, surveillance, and other applications as well. 31 figs.

  20. Aircraft

    DOEpatents

    Hibbs, Bart D.; Lissaman, Peter B. S.; Morgan, Walter R.; Radkey, Robert L.

    1998-01-01

    This disclosure provides a solar rechargeable aircraft that is inexpensive to produce, is steerable, and can remain airborne almost indefinitely. The preferred aircraft is a span-loaded flying wing, having no fuselage or rudder. Travelling at relatively slow speeds, and having a two-hundred foot wingspan that mounts photovoltaic cells on most all of the wing's top surface, the aircraft uses only differential thrust of its eight propellers to turn. Each of five sections of the wing has one or more engines and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other sections, to avoid loading them. Five two-sided photovoltaic arrays, in all, are mounted on the wing, and receive photovoltaic energy both incident on top of the wing, and which is incident also from below, through a bottom, transparent surface. The aircraft is capable of a top speed of about ninety miles per hour, which enables the aircraft to attain and can continuously maintain altitudes of up to sixty-five thousand feet. Regenerative fuel cells in the wing store excess electricity for use at night, such that the aircraft can sustain its elevation indefinitely. A main spar of the wing doubles as a pressure vessel that houses hydrogen and oxygen gasses for use in the regenerative fuel cell. The aircraft has a wide variety of applications, which include weather monitoring and atmospheric testing, communications, surveillance, and other applications as well.

  1. Effects of asymmetry on the dynamic stability of aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fantino, R. E.; Parsons, E. K.; Powell, J. D.; Shevell, R. S.

    1975-01-01

    The oblique wing concept for transonic aircraft was proposed to reduce drag. The dynamic stability of the aircraft was investigated by analytically determining the stability derivatives at angles of skew ranging from 0 and 45 deg and using these stability derivatives in a linear analysis of the coupled aircraft behavior. The stability derivatives were obtained using a lifting line aerodynamic theory and found to give reasonable agreement with derivatives developed in a previous study for the same aircraft. In the dynamic analysis, no instability or large changes occurred in the root locations for skew angles varying from 0 to 45 deg with the exception of roll convergence. The damping in roll, however, decreased by an order of magnitude. Rolling was a prominent feature of all the oscillatory mode shapes at high skew angles.

  2. Rotor Systems Research Aircraft /RSRA/ canopy explosive severance/fracture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, L. J.

    1976-01-01

    The Rotor Systems Research Aircraft (RSRA), a compound rotor/fixed-wing aircraft, incorporates an emergency escape system for the three crew members; to achieve unobstructed egress, the overhead acrylic canopies of each crew member will be explosively severed and fractured into predictably small, low-mass pieces. A canopy explosive severance/fracture system was developed under this investigation that included the following system design considerations: selection of canopy and explosive materials, determining the acrylic's explosive severance and fracture characteristics, evaluating the effects of installation variables and temperature, determining the most effective explosive patterns, conducting full-scale, flat and double-curvature canopy tests, and evaluating the effects of back-blast of the explosive into the cockpit.

  3. Rotor systems research aircraft risk-reduction shake test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wellman, J. Brent

    1990-01-01

    A shake test and an extensive analysis of results were performed to evaluate the possibility of and the method for dynamically calibrating the Rotor Systems Research Aircraft (RSRA). The RSRA airframe was subjected to known vibratory loads in several degrees of freedom and the responses of many aircraft transducers were recorded. Analysis of the transducer responses using the technique of dynamic force determination showed that the RSRA, when used as a dynamic measurement system, could predict, a posteriori, an excitation force in a single axis to an accuracy of about 5 percent and sometimes better. As the analysis was broadened to include multiple degrees of freedom for the excitation force, the predictive ability of the measurement system degraded to about 20 percent, with the error occasionally reaching 100 percent. The poor performance of the measurement system is explained by the nonlinear response of the RSRA to vibratory forces and the inadequacy of the particular method used in accounting for this nonlinearity.

  4. Predesign report for the rotor systems research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A conceptual predesign of a compound helicopter for conducting rotor research is presented. The aircraft was selected by the Government as the better of two concepts submitted. The helicopter is a three place vehicle in the 24,000 pound gross weight class. It has been determined that the helicopter satisfies the requirements for the rotor research mission. The model has been predesigned sufficiently to allow an assessment of its performance and stability and control characteristics. A brief treatment of these subjects is included.

  5. Light transport and general aviation aircraft icing research requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breeze, R. K.; Clark, G. M.

    1981-01-01

    A short term and a long term icing research and technology program plan was drafted for NASA LeRC based on 33 separate research items. The specific items listed resulted from a comprehensive literature search, organized and assisted by a computer management file and an industry/Government agency survey. Assessment of the current facilities and icing technology was accomplished by presenting summaries of ice sensitive components and protection methods; and assessments of penalty evaluation, the experimental data base, ice accretion prediction methods, research facilities, new protection methods, ice protection requirements, and icing instrumentation. The intent of the research plan was to determine what icing research NASA LeRC must do or sponsor to ultimately provide for increased utilization and safety of light transport and general aviation aircraft.

  6. Airframe self-noise: Four years of research. [aircraft noise reduction for commercial aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardin, J. C.

    1976-01-01

    A critical assessment of the state of the art in airframe self-noise is presented. Full-scale data on the intensity, spectra and directivity of this noise source are evaluated in the light of the comprehensive theory developed by Ffowcs-Williams and Hawkins. Vibration of panels on commercial aircraft is identified as a possible additional source of airframe noise. The present understanding and methods for prediction of other component sources - airfoils, struts, and cavities - are discussed, and areas for further research as well as potential methods for airframe noise reduction are identified. Finally, the various experimental methods which have been developed for airframe noise research are discussed and sample results are presented.

  7. Ocean Sciences: UNOLS Now Oversees Research Aircraft Facilities for Ocean Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bane, John M.; Bluth, Robert; Flagg, Charles; Jonsson, Haflidi; Melville, W. Kendall; Prince, Mike; Riemer, Daniel

    2004-10-01

    In recognition of the increasing importance and value of aircraft as observational platforms in oceanographic research, the University National Oceanographic Laboratory System (UNOLS) has established the Scientific Committee for Oceanographic Aircraft Research (SCOAR). SCOAR aims to establish procedures for research aircraft that follow the present UNOLS practices for research vessel use, with the goal of making it understandable, and easy, and thus desirable for oceanographic scientists to utilize research aircraft more. For consistency with the operation of UNOLS ships, this will require UNOLS to designate appropriate research aircraft operating organizations to be National Oceanographic Aircraft Facilities (NOAFs), essentially like institutions that operate one or more UNOLS ships. UNOLS presently has one designated NOAF, the Center for Interdisciplinary Remotely Piloted Aircraft Studies (CIRPAS) at the Naval Postgraduate School, in Monterey, California.

  8. Aircraft aeroelasticity and structural dynamics research at the NASA Langley Research Center - Some illustrative results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doggett, Robert V., Jr.; Cazier, F. W., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Highlights of nine different research studies are described. Five of these topics relate directly to fixed-wing aircraft and range from flutter studies using relatively simple and inexpensive wind-tunnel models to buffet studies of the vertical tails of an advanced high-performance configuration. The other four topics relate directly to rotary-wing aircraft and range from studies of the performance and vibration characteristics of an advanced rotor design to optimization of airframe structures for vibration attenuation.

  9. Aircraft aeroelasticity and structural dynamics research at the NASA Langley Research Center: Some illustrative results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doggett, Robert V., Jr.; Cazier, F. W., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Highlights of nine different research studies are described. Five of these topics relate directly to fixed-wing aircraft and range from flutter studies using relatively simple and inexpensive wind-tunnel models to buffet studies of the vertical tails of an advanced high performance configuration. The other four topics relate directly to rotary-wing aircraft and range from studies of the performance and vibration characteristics of an advanced rotor design to optimization of airframe structures for vibration attenuation.

  10. Broadband electromagnetic sensors for aircraft lightning research. [electromagnetic effects of lightning on aircraft digital equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trost, T. F.; Zaepfel, K. P.

    1980-01-01

    A set of electromagnetic sensors, or electrically-small antennas, is described. The sensors are designed for installation on an F-106 research aircraft for the measurement of electric and magnetic fields and currents during a lightning strike. The electric and magnetic field sensors mount on the aircraft skin. The current sensor mounts between the nose boom and the fuselage. The sensors are all on the order of 10 cm in size and should produce up to about 100 V for the estimated lightning fields. The basic designs are the same as those developed for nuclear electromagnetic pulse studies. The most important electrical parameters of the sensors are the sensitivity, or equivalent area, and the bandwidth (or rise time). Calibration of sensors with simple geometries is reliably accomplished by a geometric analysis; all the sensors discussed possess geometries for which the sensitivities have been calculated. For the calibration of sensors with more complex geometries and for general testing of all sensors, two transmission lines were constructed to transmit known pulsed fields and currents over the sensors.

  11. NACA's 9th Annual Aircraft Engineering Research Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1934-01-01

    Eight of the twelve members of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics attending the 9th Annual Aircraft Engineering Research Conference posed for this photograph at Langley Field, Virginia, on May 23, 1934. Those pictured are (left to right): Brig. Gen. Charles A. Lindbergh, USAFR Vice Admiral Arthur B. Cook, USN Charles G. Abbot, Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution Dr. Joseph S. Ames, Committee Chairman Orville Wright Edward P. Warner Fleet Admiral Ernest J. King, USN Eugene L. Vidal, Director, Bureau of Air Commerce.

  12. A structural design for a hypersonic research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, L. R.; Taylor, A. H.

    1976-01-01

    A research aircraft is being studied that has potential for large-scale demonstration of advanced propulsive, structural, and aerodynamic technologies for hypersonic application. Versatility is achieved through a large removable payload bay with removable thermal protection, by removable wings, and by the configuration, which considers engine-airframe integration. Design criteria have been applied to an effective heat-sink structure of Lockalloy (Be-38Al), wherein thermal stress alleviation is a prime consideration in the design. Structural analyses are being performed with the SPAR computer program. Results indicate that no critical problems exist and the resulting structural weight is within initial estimates.

  13. Performance characteristics of a buoyant quad-rotor research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagabhushan, B. L.; Jacobs, P. P.; Belknap, C. E.; Euler, D. A.

    1982-01-01

    Performance characteristics of a buoyant, quadrotor research aircraft, which represents a hybrid airship concept for heavy lift application, are described. Ceiling altitude and endurance for hovering at typical power levels, including partial power failure, are predicted. Climb performance at various altitude and gross weight conditions have been examined. Forward flight performance of this vehicle is illustrated in terms of typical performance parameters such as maximum speed, maximum range, and endurance, over the full range of its payload capability. Optimum payload weights have been identified which result in maximum range at sea level density altitude and constant endurance at various altitudes, both during hover and cruise flights.

  14. The NASA Langley Research Center's Unmanned Aerial System Surrogate Research Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, Charles T., III; Jessup, Artie; Jones, Frank; Joyce, Claude; Sugden, Paul; Verstynen, Harry; Mielnik, John

    2010-01-01

    Research is needed to determine what procedures, aircraft sensors and other systems will be required to allow Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) to safely operate with manned aircraft in the National Airspace System (NAS). The NASA Langley Research Center has transformed a Cirrus Design SR22 general aviation (GA) aircraft into a UAS Surrogate research aircraft to serve as a platform for UAS systems research, development, flight testing and evaluation. The aircraft is manned with a Safety Pilot and systems operator that allows for flight operations almost anywhere in the NAS without the need for a Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Certificate of Authorization (COA). The UAS Surrogate can be controlled from a modular, transportable ground station like a true UAS. The UAS Surrogate is able to file and fly in the NAS with normal traffic and is a better platform for real world UAS research and development than existing vehicles flying in restricted ranges or other sterilized airspace. The Cirrus Design SR22 aircraft is a small, singleengine, four-place, composite-construction aircraft that NASA Langley acquired to support NASA flight-research programs like the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) Project. Systems were installed to support flight test research and data gathering. These systems include: separate research power; multi-function flat-panel displays; research computers; research air data and inertial state sensors; video recording; data acquisition; data-link; S-band video and data telemetry; Common Airborne Instrumentation System (CAIS); Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B); instrumented surfaces and controls; and a systems operator work station. The transformation of the SR22 to a UAS Surrogate was accomplished in phases. The first phase was to modify the existing autopilot to accept external commands from a research computer that was connected by redundant data-link radios to a ground control station. An electro-mechanical auto-throttle was added in the next phase to provide ground station control of airspeed. Additional phases are in progress to add waypoint navigation and long range satellite voice and data communications. Potential areas for UAS Surrogate research include the development, flight test and evaluation of sensors to aid in the process of air traffic detect-sense-and-avoid. These sensors could be evaluated in real-time and compared with onboard human evaluation pilots. This paper describes the systems and design considerations that were incorporated in the development of the UAS Surrogate along with details of development problems encountered and the corresponding solutions.

  15. The Pilatus unmanned aircraft system for lower atmospheric research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Boer, Gijs; Palo, Scott; Argrow, Brian; LoDolce, Gabriel; Mack, James; Gao, Ru-Shan; Telg, Hagen; Trussel, Cameron; Fromm, Joshua; Long, Charles N.; Bland, Geoff; Maslanik, James; Schmid, Beat; Hock, Terry

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents details of the University of Colorado (CU) "Pilatus" unmanned research aircraft, assembled to provide measurements of aerosols, radiation and thermodynamics in the lower troposphere. This aircraft has a wingspan of 3.2 m and a maximum take-off weight of 25 kg, and it is powered by an electric motor to reduce engine exhaust and concerns about carburetor icing. It carries instrumentation to make measurements of broadband up- and downwelling shortwave and longwave radiation, aerosol particle size distribution, atmospheric temperature, relative humidity and pressure and to collect video of flights for subsequent analysis of atmospheric conditions during flight. In order to make the shortwave radiation measurements, care was taken to carefully position a high-quality compact inertial measurement unit (IMU) and characterize the attitude of the aircraft and its orientation to the upward-looking radiation sensor. Using measurements from both of these sensors, a correction is applied to the raw radiometer measurements to correct for aircraft attitude and sensor tilt relative to the sun. The data acquisition system was designed from scratch based on a set of key driving requirements to accommodate the variety of sensors deployed. Initial test flights completed in Colorado provide promising results with measurements from the radiation sensors agreeing with those from a nearby surface site. Additionally, estimates of surface albedo from onboard sensors were consistent with local surface conditions, including melting snow and bright runway surface. Aerosol size distributions collected are internally consistent and have previously been shown to agree well with larger, surface-based instrumentation. Finally the atmospheric state measurements evolve as expected, with the near-surface atmosphere warming over time as the day goes on, and the atmospheric relative humidity decreasing with increased temperature. No directional bias on measured temperature, as might be expected due to uneven heating of the sensor housing over the course of a racetrack pattern, was detected. The results from these flights indicate that the CU Pilatus platform is capable of performing research-grade lower tropospheric measurement missions.

  16. The pilatus unmanned aircraft system for lower atmospheric research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Boer, G.; Palo, S.; Argrow, B.; LoDolce, G.; Mack, J.; Gao, R.-S.; Telg, H.; Trussel, C.; Fromm, J.; Long, C. N.; Bland, G.; Maslanik, J.; Schmid, B.; Hock, T.

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents details of the University of Colorado (CU) Pilatus unmanned research aircraft, assembled to provide measurements of aerosols, radiation and thermodynamics in the lower troposphere. This aircraft has a wingspan of 3.2 m and a maximum take off weight of 25 kg and is powered by an electric motor to reduce engine exhaust and concerns about carburetor icing. It carries instrumentation to make measurements of broadband up- and downwelling shortwave and longwave radiation, aerosol particle size distribution, atmospheric temperature, relative humidity and pressure and to collect video of flights for subsequent analysis of atmospheric conditions during flight. In order to make the shortwave radiation measurements, care was taken to carefully position a high-quality compact inertial measurement unit (IMU) and characterize the attitude of the aircraft and it's orientation to the upward looking radiation sensor. Using measurements from both of these sensors, a correction is applied to the raw radiometer measurements to correct for aircraft attitude and sensor tilt relative to the sun. The data acquisition system was designed from scratch based on a set of key driving requirements to accommodate the variety of sensors deployed. Initial test flights completed in Colorado provide promising results with measurements from the radiation sensors agreeing with those from a nearby surface site. Additionally, estimates of surface albedo from onboard sensors were consistent with local surface conditions, including melting snow and bright runway surface. Aerosol size distributions collected are internally consistent and have previously been shown to agree well with larger, surface-based instrumentation. Finally the atmospheric state measurements evolve as expected, with the near-surface atmosphere warming over time as the day goes on, and the atmospheric relative humidity decreasing with increased temperature. No directional bias on measured temperature, as might be expected due to uneven heating of the sensor housing over the course of a racetrack pattern, was detected. The results from these flights indicate that the CU Pilatus platform is capable of performing research grade lower tropospheric measurement missions.

  17. Capabilities of NASA-AMES Research Center`s Airborne Science Aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, G.W.; Knutson, M.A.; Petersen, E.V.

    1996-11-01

    NASA Ames Research Center at Moffett Federal Air Field, Mountain View, California is NASA`s lead center for Airborne Science Aircraft. The Airborne Science and Flight Research Division operates seven Airborne Science Aircraft. The aircraft are operated as national and international facilities in support of NASA Headquarters, NASA Centers, Universities, Federal Agencies, and International Organizations. The aircraft have made and continue to make major contributions in the fields of Astrophysics, Geophysics, Meteorology, Atmospheric and Stratospheric Science, Earth Resources, and in the development, evaluation and calibration of Spacecraft Sensors. The aircraft have also played key roles in disaster assessment and relief efforts. 5 figs.

  18. Overview of NASA research in fiber optics for aircraft controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seng, Gary T.

    1988-01-01

    The challenge of those involved in aircraft control system hardware development is to accommodate an ever-increasing complexity in aircraft control, while limiting the size and weight of the components and improving system reliability. A technology that displays promise towards this end is fiber optics. The primary advantages of employing optical fibers, passive optical sensors and optically controlled actuators are weight/volume reduction, immunity from electromagnetic effects, high bandwidth capabilities and freedom from short circuits/sparking contacts. Since 1975, NASA Lewis has been performing in-house, contract and grant research in fiber optic sensors, high temperature electro-optic switches and fly-by-light control system architecture. Passive optical sensor development is an essential yet challenging area of work and has therefore received much attention during this period. A major effort to develop fly-by-light control system technology, known as the Fiber Optic Control System Integration (FOCSI) program, was initiated in 1985 as a cooperative effort between NASA and DOD. Phase 1 of FOCSI, completed in 1986, was aimed at the design of a fiber optic integrated propulsion/flight control system. Phase 2 will provide subcomponent and system development and system testing. In addition to a summary of the benefits of fiber optics, the FOCSI program, sensor advances, and future directions in the NASA Lewis program are discussed.

  19. Technical Seminar: "Progress in Aircraft Noise Research""" - Duration: 1 hour, 18 minutes.

    NASA Video Gallery

    Advances in aircraft noise research can be attributed to the development of new technologies and sustained collaboration with industry, universities and government organizations. Emphasis has been ...

  20. Simulation of the XV-15 tilt rotor research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Churchill, G. B.; Dugan, D. C.

    1982-01-01

    The effective use of simulation from issuance of the request for proposal through conduct of a flight test program for the XV-15 Tilt Rotor Research Aircraft is discussed. From program inception, simulation complemented all phases of XV-15 development. The initial simulation evaluations during the source evaluation board proceedings contributed significantly to performance and stability and control evaluations. Eight subsequent simulation periods provided major contributions in the areas of control concepts; cockpit configuration; handling qualities; pilot workload; failure effects and recovery procedures; and flight boundary problems and recovery procedures. The fidelity of the simulation also made it a valuable pilot training aid, as well as a suitable tool for military and civil mission evaluations. Simulation also provided valuable design data for refinement of automatic flight control systems. Throughout the program, fidelity was a prime issue and resulted in unique data and methods for fidelity evaluation which are presented and discussed.

  1. A conceptual study of the rotor systems research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The analytical comparison of the two candidate Rotor Systems Research Aircraft (RSRA) configurations selected by the Government at the completion of Part 1 of the RSRA Conceptual Predesign Study is presented. The purpose of the comparison was to determine the relative suitability of both vehicles for the RSRA missions described in the Government Statement of Work, and to assess their versatility in the testing of new rotor concepts. The analytical comparison was performed primarily with regard to performance and stability and control. A weights, center-of-gravity, and inertia computation was performed for each iteration in the analysis process. The dynamics investigation was not concerned so much with a comparison of the two vehicles, but explored the dynamic problems attending operation of any RSRA operating with large rotor RPM and diameter ranges over large forward speed ranges. Several means of isolating in- and out-of-plane rotor vibrations were analyzed. An optimum isolation scheme was selected.

  2. Aircraft Engine Noise Research and Testing at the NASA Glenn Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, Dave

    2015-01-01

    The presentation will begin with a brief introduction to the NASA Glenn Research Center as well as an overview of how aircraft engine noise research fits within the organization. Some of the NASA programs and projects with noise content will be covered along with the associated goals of aircraft noise reduction. Topics covered within the noise research being presented will include noise prediction versus experimental results, along with engine fan, jet, and core noise. Details of the acoustic research conducted at NASA Glenn will include the test facilities available, recent test hardware, and data acquisition and analysis methods. Lastly some of the actual noise reduction methods investigated along with their results will be shown.

  3. Current and Future Research in Active Control of Lightweight, Flexible Structures Using the X-56 Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, John J.; Bosworth, John T.; Burken, John J.; Suh, Peter M.

    2014-01-01

    The X-56 Multi-Utility Technology Testbed aircraft system is a versatile experimental research flight platform. The system was primarily designed to investigate active control of lightweight flexible structures, but is reconfigurable and capable of hosting a wide breadth of research. Current research includes flight experimentation of a Lockheed Martin designed active control flutter suppression system. Future research plans continue experimentation with alternative control systems, explore the use of novel sensor systems, and experiments with the use of novel control effectors. This paper describes the aircraft system, current research efforts designed around the system, and future planned research efforts that will be hosted on the aircraft system.

  4. Acceleration display system for aircraft zero-gravity research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millis, Marc G.

    1987-01-01

    The features, design, calibration, and testing of Lewis Research Center's acceleration display system for aircraft zero-gravity research are described. Specific circuit schematics and system specifications are included as well as representative data traces from flown trajectories. Other observations learned from developing and using this system are mentioned where appropriate. The system, now a permanent part of the Lewis Learjet zero-gravity program, provides legible, concise, and necessary guidance information enabling pilots to routinely fly accurate zero-gravity trajectories. Regular use of this system resulted in improvements of the Learjet zero-gravity flight techniques, including a technique to minimize later accelerations. Lewis Gates Learjet trajectory data show that accelerations can be reliably sustained within 0.01 g for 5 consecutive seconds, within 0.02 g for 7 consecutive seconds, and within 0.04 g for up to 20 second. Lewis followed the past practices of acceleration measurement, yet focussed on the acceleration displays. Refinements based on flight experience included evolving the ranges, resolutions, and frequency responses to fit the pilot and the Learjet responses.

  5. Forced Oscillation Wind Tunnel Testing for FASER Flight Research Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoe, Garrison; Owens, Donald B.; Denham, Casey

    2012-01-01

    As unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) continue to expand their flight envelopes into areas of high angular rate and high angle of attack, modeling the complex unsteady aerodynamics for simulation in these regimes has become more difficult using traditional methods. The goal of this experiment was to improve the current six degree-of-freedom aerodynamic model of a small UAV by replacing the analytically derived damping derivatives with experimentally derived values. The UAV is named the Free-flying Aircraft for Sub-scale Experimental Research, FASER, and was tested in the NASA Langley Research Center 12- Foot Low-Speed Tunnel. The forced oscillation wind tunnel test technique was used to measure damping in the roll and yaw axes. By imparting a variety of sinusoidal motions, the effects of non-dimensional angular rate and reduced frequency were examined over a large range of angle of attack and side-slip combinations. Tests were performed at angles of attack from -5 to 40 degrees, sideslip angles of -30 to 30 degrees, oscillation amplitudes from 5 to 30 degrees, and reduced frequencies from 0.010 to 0.133. Additionally, the effect of aileron or elevator deflection on the damping coefficients was examined. Comparisons are made of two different data reduction methods used to obtain the damping derivatives. The results show that the damping derivatives are mainly a function of angle of attack and have dependence on the non-dimensional rate and reduced frequency only in the stall/post-stall regime

  6. Wind tunnel and flight test of the XV-15 Tilt Rotor Research Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marr, R. L.; Blackman, S.; Weiberg, J. A.; Schroers, L. G.

    1979-01-01

    The XV-15 Tilt Rotor Research Aircraft Project involves design, fabrication, and flight testing of two aircraft. This program is currently in the test phase for concept evaluation and substantiation of design. As part of this evaluation, one of the aircraft was tested in the NASA-Ames 40- by 80-foot wind tunnel. The status of testing to date and some of the results of the wind tunnel and flight tests are presented.

  7. An Overview of NASA's SubsoniC Research Aircraft Testbed (SCRAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumann, Ethan; Hernandez, Joe; Ruhf, John

    2013-01-01

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration Dryden Flight Research Center acquired a Gulfstream III (GIII) aircraft to serve as a testbed for aeronautics flight research experiments. The aircraft is referred to as SCRAT, which stands for SubsoniC Research Aircraft Testbed. The aircraft’s mission is to perform aeronautics research; more specifically raising the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of advanced technologies through flight demonstrations and gathering high-quality research data suitable for verifying the technologies, and validating design and analysis tools. The SCRAT has the ability to conduct a range of flight research experiments throughout a transport class aircraft’s flight envelope. Experiments ranging from flight-testing of a new aircraft system or sensor to those requiring structural and aerodynamic modifications to the aircraft can be accomplished. The aircraft has been modified to include an instrumentation system and sensors necessary to conduct flight research experiments along with a telemetry capability. An instrumentation power distribution system was installed to accommodate the instrumentation system and future experiments. An engineering simulation of the SCRAT has been developed to aid in integrating research experiments. A series of baseline aircraft characterization flights has been flown that gathered flight data to aid in developing and integrating future research experiments. This paper describes the SCRAT’s research systems and capabilities

  8. NASA Now: Phase Change and Forces of Flight: Aircraft Icing Research - Duration: 7 minutes, 3 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    Tour the Icing Research Tunnel with Judith VanZante, aeromechanical engineer and icing specialist. VanZante explains the hazards of ice on aircraft, how it is formed, and why the research on ice pl...

  9. Tiltrotor research aircraft composite blade repairs: Lessons learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Espinosa, Paul S.; Groepler, David R.

    1991-01-01

    The XV-15, N703NA Tiltrotor Research Aircraft located at the NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California, currently uses a set of composite rotor blades of complex shape known as the advanced technology blades (ATBs). The main structural element of the blades is a D-spar constructed of unidirectional, angled fiberglass/graphite, with the aft fairing portion of the blades constructed of a fiberglass cross-ply skin bonded to a Nomex honeycomb core. The blade tip is a removable laminate shell that fits over the outboard section of the spar structure, which contains a cavity to retain balance weights. Two types of tip shells are used for research. One is highly twisted (more than a conventional helicopter blade) and has a hollow core constructed of a thin Nomex-honeycomb-and-fiberglass-skin sandwich; the other is untwisted with a solid Nomex honeycomb core and a fiberglass cross-ply skin. During initial flight testing of the blades, a number of problems in the composite structure were encountered. These problems included debonding between the fiberglass skin and the honeycomb core, failure of the honeycomb core, failures in fiberglass splices, cracks in fiberglass blocks, misalignment of mated composite parts, and failures of retention of metal fasteners. Substantial time was spent in identifying and repairing these problems. Discussed here are the types of problems encountered, the inspection procedures used to identify each problem, the repairs performed on the damaged or flawed areas, the level of criticality of the problems, and the monitoring of repaired areas. It is hoped that this discussion will help designers, analysts, and experimenters in the future as the use of composites becomes more prevalent.

  10. Tiltrotor Research Aircraft composite blade repairs - Lessons learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Espinosa, Paul S.; Groepler, David R.

    1992-01-01

    The XV-15, N703NA Tiltrotor Research Aircraft located at the NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California, currently uses a set of composite rotor blades of complex shape known as the advanced technology blades (ATBs). The main structural element of the blades is a D-spar constructed of unidirectional, angled fiberglass/graphite, with the aft fairing portion of the blades constructed of a fiberglass cross-ply skin bonded to a Nomex honeycomb core. The blade tip is a removable laminate shell that fits over the outboard section of the spar structure, which contains a cavity to retain balance weights. Two types of tip shells are used for research. One is highly twisted (more than a conventional helicopter blade) and has a hollow core constructed of a thin Nomex-honeycomb-and-fiberglass-skin sandwich; the other is untwisted with a solid Nomex honeycomb core and a fiberglass cross-ply skin. During initial flight testing of the blades, a number of problems in the composite structure were encountered. These problems included debonding between the fiberglass skin and the honeycomb core, failure of the honeycomb core, failures in fiberglass splices, cracks in fiberglass blocks, misalignment of mated composite parts, and failures of retention of metal fasteners. Substantial time was spent in identifying and repairing these problems. Discussed here are the types of problems encountered, the inspection procedures used to identify each problem, the repairs performed on the damaged or flawed areas, the level of criticality of the problems, and the monitoring of repaired areas. It is hoped that this discussion will help designers, analysts, and experimenters in the future as the use of composites becomes more prevalent.

  11. RSRA vertical drag test report. [rotor systems research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flemming, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    The Rotor Systems Research Aircraft (RSRA), because of its ability to measure rotor loads, was used to conduct an experiment to determine vertical drag, tail rotor blockage, and thrust augmentation as affected by ground clearance and flight velocity. The RSRA was flown in the helicopter configuration at speeds from 0 to 15 knots for wheel heights from 5 to 150 feet, and to 60 knots out of ground effect. The vertical drag trends in hover, predicted by theory and shown in model tests, were generally confirmed. The OGE hover vertical drag is 4.0 percent, 1.1 percent greater than predicted. The vertical drag decreases rapidly as wheel height is reduced, and is zero at a wheel height of 6 feet. The vertical drag also decreases with forward speed, approaching zero at sixty knots. The test data show the effect of wheel height and forward speed on thrust, gross weight capability, and power, and provide the relationships for power and collective pitch at constant gross weight required for the simulation of helicopter takeoffs and landings.

  12. X-38 research aircraft launch from Space Station - computer animation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    In the mid-1990's researchers at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, and Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas, began working actively with the sub-scale X-38 prototype crew return vehicle (CRV). This was an unpiloted lifting body designed at 80 percent of the size of a projected emergency crew return vehicle for the International Space Station. The X-38 and the actual CRV are patterned after a lifting-body shape first employed in the Air Force X-23 (SV-5) program in the mid-1960's and the Air Force-NASA X-24A lifting-body project in the early to mid-1970's. Built by Scaled Composites, Inc., in Mojave, CA, and outfitted with avionics, computer systems, and other hardware at Johnson Space Center, two X-38 aircraft were involved in flight research at Dryden beginning in July of 1997. Before that, however, Dryden conducted some 13 flights at a drop zone near California City, California. These tests were done with a 1/6-scale model of the X-38 aircraft to test the parafoil concept that would be employed on the X-38 and the actual CRV. The basic concept is that the actual CRV will use an inertial navigation system together with the Global Positioning System of satellites to guide it from the International Space Station into the earth's atmosphere. A deorbit engine module will redirect the vehicle from orbit into the atmosphere where a series of parachutes and a parafoil will deploy in sequence to bring the vehicle to a landing, possibly in a field next to a hospital. Flight research at NASA Dryden for the X-38 began with an unpiloted captive carry flight in which the vehicle remained attached to its future launch vehicle, the Dryden B-52 008. There were four captive flights in 1997 and three in 1998, plus the first drop test on March 12, 1998, using the parachutes and parafoil. Further captive and drop tests occurred in 1999. Although the X-38 landed safely on the lakebed at Edwards after the March 1998 drop test, there had been some problems with the parafoil. Intermediate parafoil tests at the Army Yuma Proving Grounds in Arizona enabled the project to resolve these problems and resume flight research. In the drop tests, the X-38 vehicles have been autonomous after airlaunch from the B-52. After they deploy the parafoil, they have remained autonomous, but there is also a manual mode that allows control from the ground. The X-38 vehicles (designated V131 and V132) are each 24.5 feet long. The actual CRV to be flown in space is expected to be 30 feet long. This is a short 16-second computer animation clip showing the X-38 vehicle being released from Pressurized Mating Adapter No. 3 and moving away from the International Space Station toward earth.

  13. X-38 research aircraft - First drop flight and landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In the mid-1990's researchers at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, and Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas, began working actively with the sub-scale X-38 prototype crew return vehicle (CRV). This was an unpiloted lifting body designed at 80 percent of the size of a projected emergency crew return vehicle for the International Space Station. The X-38 and the actual CRV are patterned after a lifting-body shape first employed in the Air Force X-23 (SV-5) program in the mid-1960's and the Air Force-NASA X-24A lifting-body project in the early to mid-1970's. Built by Scaled Composites, Inc., in Mojave, California, and outfitted with avionics, computer systems, and other hardware at Johnson Space Center, two X-38 aircraft were involved in flight research at Dryden beginning in July of 1997. Before that, however, Dryden conducted some 13 flights at a drop zone near California City, California. Those tests were done with a 1/6-scale model of the X-38 aircraft to test the parafoil concept that would be employed on the X-38 and the actual CRV. The basic concept is that the actual CRV will use an inertial navigation system together with the Global Positioning System of satellites to guide it from the International Space Station into the Earth's atmosphere. A deorbit engine module will redirect the vehicle from orbit into the atmosphere where a series of parachutes and a parafoil will deploy in sequence to bring the vehicle to a landing, possibly in a field next to a hospital. Flight research at NASA Dryden for the X-38 began with an unpiloted captive carry flight in which the vehicle remained attached to its future launch vehicle the Dryden B-52 008. There were four captive flights in 1997 and three in 1998, plus the first drop test on March 12, 1998, using the parachutes and parafoil. Further captive and drop tests occurred in 1999. Although the X-38 landed safely on the lakebed at Edwards after the March 1998 drop test, there had been some problems with the parafoil. Intermediate parafoil tests at the Army Yuma Proving Grounds in Arizona enabled the project to resolve these problems and resume flight research. In the drop tests, the X-38 vehicles have been autonomous after airlaunch from the B-52. After they deploy the parafoil, they have remained autonomous, but there is also a manual mode that allows controls from the ground. The X-38 vehicles (designated V131 and V132) are each 24.5 feet long. The actual CRV to be flown in space is expected to be 30 feet long. This is a 16-second clip showing the X-38 vehicle toward the end of its first drop flight rapidly approaching the ground and then sliding to a landing in the desert test ranges at Edwards Air Force Base in California.

  14. The research of optical windows used in aircraft sensor systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Feng; Li, Yan; Tang, Tian-Jin

    2012-06-01

    The optical windows used in aircrafts protect their imaging sensors from environmental effects. Considering the imaging performance, flat surfaces are traditionally used in the design of optical windows. For aircrafts operating at high speeds, the optical windows should be relatively aerodynamic, but a flat optical window may introduce unacceptably high drag to the airframes. The linear scanning infrared sensors used in aircrafts with, respectively, a flat window, a spherical window and a toric window in front of the aircraft sensors are designed and compared. Simulation results show that the optical design using a toric surface has the integrated advantages of field of regard, aerodynamic drag, narcissus effect, and imaging performance, so the optical window with a toric surface is demonstrated to be suited for this application.

  15. Engineering and Technical Configuration Aspects of HIAPER, the new NSF/NCAR Research Aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friesen, R.; Laursen, K.

    2002-12-01

    The High-performance Instrumented Airborne Platform for Environmental Research, or HIAPER, is the new research aircraft presently being developed at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) to serve the environmental research needs of the National Science Foundation (NSF) for the next several decades. The basic aircraft -- a Gulfstream V (G-V) business jet -- has been completed and will shortly undergo extensive modification to prepare it for future deployments in support of a variety of geosciences research missions. This presentation will focus on the many design and engineering considerations that have been made and are yet to come in converting a "green" business jet into a versatile research aircraft to serve the environmental research community. The project teams composed of engineers and scientists from NCAR and the scientific community at large are faced with trade offs involving costs of modifications, airframe structural integrity, aircraft performance (e.g. weight, drag), cabin environment, locations of inlet and sampling ports and FAA certification requirements. Many of the specific engineering specifications and modifications that have been made to date will be presented by way of engineering drawings, graphical depictions and actual photographs of the aircraft structure. Additionally, projected performance data of the modified-for-research aircraft will be presented along with some of the analyses performed to arrive at critical decisions (e.g. CFD airflow analysis). Finally, some of the details of the aircraft "infrastructure" such as signal and power wiring, generic cabin layout and data acquisition will be discussed.

  16. An overview of the quiet short-haul research aircraft program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shovlin, M. D.; Cochrane, J. A.

    1978-01-01

    An overview of the Quiet Short Haul Research Aircraft (QSRA) Program is presented, with special emphasis on its propulsion and acoustic aspects. A description of the NASA technical participation in the program including wind tunnel testing, engine ground tests, and advanced aircraft simulation is given. The aircraft and its systems are described and, measured performance, where available, is compared to program goals. Preliminary data indicate that additional research and development are needed in some areas of which acoustics is an example. Some of these additional research areas and potential experiments using the QSRA to develop the technology are discussed. The concept of the QSRA as a national flight research facility is explained.

  17. Recent Developments in Aircraft Flyover Noise Simulation at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rizzi, Stephen A.; Sullivan, Brenda M.; Aumann, Aric R.

    2008-01-01

    The NASA Langley Research Center is involved in the development of a new generation of synthesis and simulation tools for creation of virtual environments used in the study of aircraft community noise. The original emphasis was on simulation of flyover noise associated with subsonic fixed wing aircraft. Recently, the focus has shifted to rotary wing aircraft. Many aspects of the simulation are applicable to both vehicle classes. Other aspects, particularly those associated with synthesis, are more vehicle specific. This paper discusses the capabilities of the current suite of tools, their application to fixed and rotary wing aircraft, and some directions for the future.

  18. Investigations into the triggered lightning response of the F106B thunderstorm research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudolph, Terence H.; Perala, Rodney A.; Mckenna, Paul M.; Parker, Steven L.

    1985-01-01

    An investigation has been conducted into the lightning characteristics of the NASA F106B thunderstorm research aircraft. The investigation includes analysis of measured data from the aircraft in the time and frequency domains. Linear and nonlinear computer modelling has also been performed. In addition, new computer tools have been developed, including a new enhanced nonlinear air breakdown model, and a subgrid model useful for analyzing fine details of the aircraft's geometry. Comparison of measured and calculated electromagnetic responses of the aircraft to a triggered lightning environment are presented.

  19. Overview of STOVL aircraft propulsion research offtakes and vertical lift systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biesiadny, Thomas J.; Mcardle, Jack G.; Esker, Barbara S.

    1993-01-01

    The overall Short Takeoff and Vertical Landing (STOVL) Aircraft Propulsion Research program includes key technologies involving offtake systems, vertical lift systems, hot gas ingestion, STOVL augmentors, and integrated flight propulsion controls. A part of the NASA Lewis work involving STOVL aircraft propulsion systems is presented with the emphasis on component-level experiments and analysis related to offtakes and vertical lift systems.

  20. Evaluation of XV-15 tilt rotor aircraft for flying qualities research application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radford, R. C.; Schelhorn, A. E.; Siracuse, R. J.; Till, R. D.; Wasserman, R.

    1976-01-01

    The results of a design review study and evaluation of the XV-15 Tilt Rotor Research Aircraft for flying qualities research application are presented. The objectives of the program were to determine the capability of the XV-15 aircraft and the V/STOLAND system as a safe, inflight facility to provide meaningful research data on flying qualities, flight control systems, and information display systems.

  1. The Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS): Research Collaborations with the NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarry, Scott E.; Bowen, Brent D.; Nickerson, Jocelyn S.

    2002-01-01

    The aviation industry is an integral part of the world s economy. Travelers have consistently chosen aviation as their mode of transportation as it is reliable, time efficient and safe. The out- dated Hub and Spoke system, coupled with high demand, has led to delays, cancellations and gridlock. NASA is developing innovative solutions to these and other air transportation problems. This research is being conducted through partnerships with federal agencies, industry stakeholders, and academia, specifically the University of Nebraska at Omaha. Each collaborator is pursuing the NASA General Aviation Roadmap through their involvement in the expansion of the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS). SATS will utilize technologically advanced small aircraft to transport travelers to and from rural and isolated communities. Additionally, this system will provide a safe alternative to the hub and spoke system, giving more time to more people through high-speed mobility and increased accessibility.

  2. Rotor systems research aircraft predesign study. Volume 2: Conceptual study report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, S. A.; Linden, A. W.

    1972-01-01

    The overall feasibility of the technical requirements and concepts for a rotor system research aircraft (RSRA) was determined. The designs of two aircraft were then compared against the RSRA requirements. One of these is an all new aircraft specifically designed as an RSRA vehicle. A new main rotor, transmission, wings, and fuselage are included in this design. The second aircraft uses an existing Sikorsky S-61 main rotor, an S-61 roller gearbox, and a highly modified Sikorsky S-67 airframe. The wing for this aircraft is a new design. Both aircraft employ a fan-in-fin anti-torque/yaw control system, T58-GE-16 engines for rotor power, and TF34-GE-2 turbofans for auxiliary thrust. Each aircraft meets the basic requirements and goals of the program. The all new aircraft has inflight variable main rotor shaft tilt, a side-by-side cockpit seating arrangement, and is slightly faster in the compound mode. It is also somewhat lighter since it uses new dynamic components specifically designed for the RSRA. Preliminary development plans, including schedules and costs, were prepared for both of these aircraft.

  3. Development of the XV-15 tiltrotor research aircraft - Lessons learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroers, Laurel G.

    1989-01-01

    The initial ground rules that guided the decision process during the initial stages of the XV-15 tiltrotor aircraft development are reviewed and reevaluated. A full flight-envelope nonlinear simulation mathematical model is outlined, along with the advantages of a multiaircraft program. Direct involvement of government engineers in all aspects of the program is considered to be beneficial, while the ejection-seat test requirement is not. Utilization of existing components - a rotor, transmissions, and engines - is analyzed, and emphasis is placed on integrated system test plans responsible for producing two reliable aircraft through a complete checkout of the aircraft subsystems before the start of the fligth program. Wind-tunnel and fatigue test requirements are presented, and the decision to go with an all mechanical control system design is addressed.

  4. Global stratospheric change: Requirements for a Very-High-Altitude Aircraft for Atmospheric Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The workshop on Requirements for a Very-High-Altitude Aircraft for Atmospheric Research, sponsored by NASA Ames Research Center, was held July 15 to 16, 1989, at Truckee, CA. The workshop had two purposes: to assess the scientific justification for a new aircraft that will support stratospheric research beyond the altitudes accessible to the NASA ER-2; and to determine the aircraft characteristics (e.g., ceiling altitude, payload accommodations, range, flight duration, operational capabilities) required to perform the stratospheric research referred to in the justification. To accomplish these purposes, the workshop brought together a cross-section of stratospheric scientists with several aircraft design and operations experts. The stratospheric scientists included theoreticians as well as experimenters with experience in remote and in situ measurements from satellites, rockets, balloons, aircraft, and the ground. Discussions of required aircraft characteristics focused on the needs of stratospheric research. It was recognized that an aircraft optimal for stratospheric science would also be useful for other applications, including remote measurements of Earth's surface. A brief description of these other applications was given at the workshop.

  5. Microgravity research during aircraft parabolic flights: the 20 ESA campaigns.

    PubMed

    Pletser, V

    1995-05-01

    Aircraft parabolic flights provide repeated periods of up to 20 seconds of reduced gravity during ballistic flight manoeuvres, preceded and followed by 20 seconds of 1.8 g. Such flights are used to conduct short microgravity investigations in physical and life sciences, to test instrumentation and to train astronauts before a spaceflight. Since 1984, ESA's Microgravity Projects Division has organised 20 parabolic flight campaigns using three different types of aircraft. More than 1700 parabolas have been flown, representing nine and half hours of microgravity in slices of 20 seconds, or equivalently, six low Earth orbits. A total of 235 experiments have been performed using this unique microgravity tool. PMID:14971370

  6. Quiet Short-Haul Research Aircraft Joint Navy/NASA Sea Trials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Queen, S.; Cochrane, J.

    1982-01-01

    The Quiet Short-Haul Research Aircraft (QSRA) is a flight facility which Ames Research Center is using to conduct a broad program of terminal area and low-speed, propulsive-life flight research. A joint Navy/NASA flight research program used the QSRA to investigate the application of advanced propulsive-lift technology to the naval aircraft-carrier environment. Flight performance of the QSRA is presented together with the results or the joint Navy/NASA flight program. During the joint program, the QSRA operated aboard the USS Kitty Hawk for 4 days, during which numerous unarrested landings and free deck takeoffs were accomplished. These operations demonstrated that a large aircraft incorporating upper-surface-blowing, propulsive-life technology can be operated in the aircraft-carrier environment without any unusual problems.

  7. NASA-Langley Research Center's Aircraft Condition Analysis and Management System Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frye, Mark W.; Bailey, Roger M.; Jessup, Artie D.

    2004-01-01

    This document describes the hardware implementation design and architecture of Aeronautical Radio Incorporated (ARINC)'s Aircraft Condition Analysis and Management System (ACAMS), which was developed at NASA-Langley Research Center (LaRC) for use in its Airborne Research Integrated Experiments System (ARIES) Laboratory. This activity is part of NASA's Aviation Safety Program (AvSP), the Single Aircraft Accident Prevention (SAAP) project to develop safety-enabling technologies for aircraft and airborne systems. The fundamental intent of these technologies is to allow timely intervention or remediation to improve unsafe conditions before they become life threatening.

  8. NASA/Army XV-15 tilt rotor research aircraft familiarization document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The design features and general characteristics of the NASA/Army XV-15 tilt rotor research aircraft are described. This aircraft was conceived as a proof-of-concept vehicle and a V/STOL research tool for integrated wind tunnel, flight-simulation, and flight-test investigations. Discussions of special design provisions and safety considerations necessary to perform these missions are included in this report. In addition to predictions of aircraft and engine performance for the hover, helicopter, and airplane flight modes, analytical estimates of the structural and dynamic limitations of the XV-15 are provided.

  9. X-38 research aircraft deorbit burn - computer animation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    In the mid-1990's researchers at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, and Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas, began working actively with the sub-scale X-38 prototype crew return vehicle (CRV). This was an unpiloted lifting body designed at 80 percent of the size of a projected emergency crew return vehicle for the International Space Station. The X-38 and the actual CRV are patterned after a lifting-body shape first employed in the Air Force X-23 (SV-5) program in the mid-1960's and the Air Force-NASA X-24A lifting-body project in the early to mid-1970's. Built by Scaled Composites, Inc., in Mojave, California, and outfitted with avionics, computer systems, and other hardware at Johnson Space Center, two X-38 aircraft were involved in flight research at Dryden beginning in July of 1997. Before that, however, Dryden conducted some 13 flights at a drop zone near California City, California. These tests were done with a 1/6-scale model of the X-38 to test the parafoil concept that would be employed on the X-38 and the actual CRV. The basic concept is that the actual CRV will use an inertial navigation system together with the Global Positioning System of satellites to guide it from the International Space Station into the earth's atmosphere. A deorbit engine module will redirect the vehicle from orbit into the atmosphere where a series of parachutes and a parafoil will deploy in sequence to bring the vehicle to a landing, possibly in a field next to a hospital. Flight research at NASA Dryden for the X-38 began with an unpiloted captive carry flight in which the vehicle remained attached to its future launch vehicle, the Dryden B-52 008. There were four captive flights in 1997 and three in 1998 plus the first drop test on March 12, 1998, using the parachutes and parafoil. Further captive and drop tests occurred in 1999. Although the X-38 landed safely on the lakebed at Edwards after the March 1998 drop test, there had been some problems with the parafoil. Intermediate parafoil tests at the Army Yuma Proving Grounds in Arizona enabled the project to resolve these problems and resume the flight research. In the drop tests, the X-38 vehicles have been autonomous after airlaunch from the B-52. After they deploy the parafoil, they have remained autonomous, but there is also a manual mode that allows control from the ground. The X-38 vehicles (designated V131 and V132) are each 24.5 feet long. The actual CRV to be flown in space is expected to be 30 feet long. This is a short 21-second computer animation clip showing the X-38 vehicle returning to the atmosphere from orbit.

  10. X-38 research aircraft atmospheric reentry - computer animation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    In the mid-1990's researchers at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, and Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas, began working actively with the sub-scale X-38 prototype crew return vehicle (CRV). This was an unpiloted lifting body designed at 80 percent of the size of a projected emergency crew return vehicle for the International Space Station. The X-38 and the actual CRV are patterned after a lifting-body shape first employed in the Air Force X-23 (SV-5) program in the mid-1960's and the Air Force-NASA X-24A lifting-body project in the early to mid-1970's. Built by Scaled Composites, Inc., in Mojave, California, and outfitted with avionics, computer systems, and other hardware at Johnson Space Center, two X-38 aircraft were involved in flight research at Dryden beginning in July of 1997. Before that, however, Dryden conducted some 13 flights at a drop zone near California City, California. These tests were done with a 1/6-scale model of the X-38 to test the parafoil concept that would be employed on the X-38 and the actual CRV. The basic concept is that the actual CRV will use an inertial navigation system together with the Global Positioning System of satellites to guide it from the International Space Station into the Earth's atmosphere. A deorbit engine module will redirect the vehicle from orbit into the atmosphere where a series of parachutes and a parafoil will deploy in sequence to bring the vehicle to a landing, possibly in a field next to a hospital. Flight research at NASA Dryden for the X-38 began with an unpiloted captive carry flight in which the vehicle remained attached to its future launch vehicle, the Dryden B-52 008. There were four captive flights in 1997 and three in 1998, plus the first drop test on March 12, 1998, using the parachutes and parafoil. Further captive and drop tests occurred in 1999. Although the X-38 landed safely on the lakebed at Edwards after the March 1998 drop test, there had been some problems with the parafoil. Intermediate parafoil tests at the Army Yuma Proving Grounds in Arizona enabled the project to resolve these problems and resume the flight research. In the drop tests, the X-38 vehicles have been autonomous after airlaunch from the B-52. After they deploy the parafoil, they have remained autonomous, but there is also a manual mode that allows control from the ground. The X-38 vehicles (designated V131 and V132) are each 24.5 feet long. The actual CRV to be flown in space is expected to be 30 feet long. This 30-second computer animation clip shows the X-38 vehicle experiencing frictional heating as it reenters the Earth's atmosphere and then gliding under its main parachute on its way to a Global Positioning System-guided landing.

  11. {open_quotes}Airborne Research Australia (ARA){close_quotes} a new research aircraft facility on the southern hemisphere

    SciTech Connect

    Hacker, J.M.

    1996-11-01

    {open_quotes}Airborne Research Australia{close_quotes} (ARA) is a new research aircraft facility in Australia. It will serve the scientific community of Australia and will also make its aircraft and expertise available for commercial users. To cover the widest possible range of applications, the facility will operate up to five research aircraft, from a small, low-cost platform to medium-sized multi-purpose aircraft, as well as a unique high altitude aircraft capable of carrying scientific loads to altitudes of up to 15km. The aircraft will be equipped with basic instrumentation and data systems, as well as facilities to mount user-supplied instrumentation and systems internally and externally on the aircraft. The ARA operations base consisting of a hangar, workshops, offices, laboratories, etc. is currently being constructed at Parafield Airport near Adelaide/South Australia. The following text reports about the current state of development of the facility. An update will be given in a presentation at the Conference. 6 figs.

  12. Specially equipped aircraft used in Florida airborne field mill research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    At KSC's Shuttle Landing Facility, a specially equipped Cessna Citation aircraft flies over the runway to calibrate the Cessna's field mills with field mills on the ground (on the tripod at left) and on the car parked nearby (at right). Field mills measure electric fields. The aircraft is also equipped with cloud physics probes that measure the size, shape and number of ice and water particles in clouds. The plane is being flown into anvil clouds in the KSC area as part of a study to review and possibly modify lightning launch commit criteria. The weather study could lead to improved lightning avoidance rules and fewer launch scrubs for the Space Shuttle and other launch vehicles on the Eastern and Western ranges. More information about this study can be found in Release No. 56- 00.

  13. Specially equipped aircraft used in Florida airborne field mill research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    A specially equipped Cessna Citation aircraft flies over KSC during a calibration test of field mills used to measure electric fields. The aircraft is also equipped with cloud physics probes that measure the size, shape and number of ice and water particles in clouds. The plane is being flown into anvil clouds in the KSC area as part of a study to review and possibly modify lightning launch commit criteria. The weather study could lead to improved lightning avoidance rules and fewer launch scrubs for the Space Shuttle and other launch vehicles on the Eastern and Western ranges. More information on this study can be found in Release No. 56-00.

  14. Specially equipped aircraft used in Florida airborne field mill research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    At KSC's Shuttle Landing Facility, a specially equipped Cessna Citation aircraft approaches the runway to calibrate the Cessna's field mills with field mills on the ground (on the tripod at left) and on the car parked nearby (at right). Field mills measure electric fields. The aircraft is also equipped with cloud physics probes that measure the size, shape and number of ice and water particles in clouds. The plane is being flown into anvil clouds in the KSC area as part of a study to review and possibly modify lightning launch commit criteria. The weather study could lead to improved lightning avoidance rules and fewer launch scrubs for the Space Shuttle and other launch vehicles on the Eastern and Western ranges. More information on this study can be found in Release No. 56- 00.

  15. Resilient Propulsion Control Research for the NASA Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control (IRAC) Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guo, Ten-Huei; Litt, Jonathan S.

    2007-01-01

    Gas turbine engines are designed to provide sufficient safety margins to guarantee robust operation with an exceptionally long life. However, engine performance requirements may be drastically altered during abnormal flight conditions or emergency maneuvers. In some situations, the conservative design of the engine control system may not be in the best interest of overall aircraft safety; it may be advantageous to "sacrifice" the engine to "save" the aircraft. Motivated by this opportunity, the NASA Aviation Safety Program is conducting resilient propulsion research aimed at developing adaptive engine control methodologies to operate the engine beyond the normal domain for emergency operations to maximize the possibility of safely landing the damaged aircraft. Previous research studies and field incident reports show that the propulsion system can be an effective tool to help control and eventually land a damaged aircraft. Building upon the flight-proven Propulsion Controlled Aircraft (PCA) experience, this area of research will focus on how engine control systems can improve aircraft safe-landing probabilities under adverse conditions. This paper describes the proposed research topics in Engine System Requirements, Engine Modeling and Simulation, Engine Enhancement Research, Operational Risk Analysis and Modeling, and Integrated Flight and Propulsion Controller Designs that support the overall goal.

  16. The NASA Earth Research-2 (ER-2) Aircraft: A Flying Laboratory for Earth Science Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Navarro, Robert

    2007-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, has two Lockheed Martin Corporation (Bethesda, Maryland) Earth Research-2 (ER2) aircraft that serve as high-altitude and long-range flying laboratories. The ER-2 aircraft has been successfully utilized to conduct scientific studies of stratospheric and tropospheric chemistry, land-use mapping, disaster assessment, preliminary testing and calibration and validation of satellite sensors. The research missions for the ER-2 aircraft are planned, implemented, and managed by the Dryden Flight Research Center Science Mission Directorate. Maintenance and instrument payload integration is conducted by Dryden personnel. The ER-2 aircraft provides experimenters with a wide array of payload accommodations areas with suitable environment control with required electrical and mechanical interfaces. Missions may be flown out of Dryden or from remote bases worldwide, according to research requirements. The NASA ER-2 aircraft is utilized by a variety of customers, including U.S. Government agencies, civilian organizations, universities, and state governments. The combination of the ER-2 aircraft s range, endurance, altitude, payload power, payload volume and payload weight capabilities complemented by a trained maintenance and operations team provides an excellent and unique platform system to the science community and other customers.

  17. Research on hypersonic aircraft using pre-cooled turbojet engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taguchi, Hideyuki; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Kojima, Takayuki; Ueno, Atsushi; Imamura, Shunsuke; Hongoh, Motoyuki; Harada, Kenya

    2012-04-01

    Systems analysis of a Mach 5 class hypersonic aircraft is performed. The aircraft can fly across the Pacific Ocean in 2 h. A multidisciplinary optimization program for aerodynamics, structure, propulsion, and trajectory is used in the analysis. The result of each element model is improved using higher accuracy analysis tools. The aerodynamic performance of the hypersonic aircraft is examined through hypersonic wind tunnel tests. A thermal management system based on the data of the wind tunnel tests is proposed. A pre-cooled turbojet engine is adopted as the propulsion system for the hypersonic aircraft. The engine can be operated continuously from take-off to Mach 5. This engine uses a pre-cooling cycle using cryogenic liquid hydrogen. The high temperature inlet air of hypersonic flight would be cooled by the same liquid hydrogen used as fuel. The engine is tested under sea level static conditions. The engine is installed on a flight test vehicle. Both liquid hydrogen fuel and gaseous hydrogen fuel are supplied to the engine from a tank and cylinders installed within the vehicle. The designed operation of major components of the engine is confirmed. A large amount of liquid hydrogen is supplied to the pre-cooler in order to make its performance sufficient for Mach 5 flight. Thus, fuel rich combustion is adopted at the afterburner. The experiments are carried out under the conditions that the engine is mounted upon an experimental airframe with both set up either horizontally or vertically. As a result, the operating procedure of the pre-cooled turbojet engine is demonstrated.

  18. The History of the XV-15 Tilt Rotor Research Aircraft: From Concept to Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maisel, Martin D.; Giulianetti, Demo J.; Dugan, Daniel C.

    2000-01-01

    This monograph is a testament to the efforts of many people overcoming multiple technical challenges encountered while developing the XV-15 tilt rotor research aircraft. The Ames involvement with the tilt rotor aircraft began in 1957 with investigations of the performance and dynamic behavior of the Bell XV-3 tilt rotor aircraft. At that time, Ames Research Center was known as the Ames Aeronautical Laboratory of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). As we approach the new millennium, and after more than 40 years of effort and the successful completion of our initial goals, it is appropriate to reflect on the technical accomplishments and consider the future applications of this unique aircraft class, the tilt rotor. The talented engineers, technicians, managers, and leaders at Ames have worked hard with their counterparts in the U.S. rotorcraft industry to overcome technology barriers and to make the military and civil tilt rotor aircraft safer, environmentally acceptable, and more efficient. The tilt rotor aircraft combines the advantages of vertical takeoff and landing capabilities, inherent to the helicopter, with the forward speed and range of a fixed wing turboprop airplane. Our studies have shown that this new vehicle type can provide the aviation transportation industry with the flexibility for highspeed, long-range flight, coupled with runway-independent operations, thus having a significant potential to relieve airport congestion. We see the tilt rotor aircraft as an element of the solution to this growing air transport problem.

  19. Application of variable structure system theory to aircraft flight control. [AV-8A and the Augmentor Wing Jet STOL Research Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calise, A. J.; Kadushin, I.; Kramer, F.

    1981-01-01

    The current status of research on the application of variable structure system (VSS) theory to design aircraft flight control systems is summarized. Two aircraft types are currently being investigated: the Augmentor Wing Jet STOL Research Aircraft (AWJSRA), and AV-8A Harrier. The AWJSRA design considers automatic control of longitudinal dynamics during the landing phase. The main task for the AWJSRA is to design an automatic landing system that captures and tracks a localizer beam. The control task for the AV-8A is to track velocity commands in a hovering flight configuration. Much effort was devoted to developing computer programs that are needed to carry out VSS design in a multivariable frame work, and in becoming familiar with the dynamics and control problems associated with the aircraft types under investigation. Numerous VSS design schemes were explored, particularly for the AWJSRA. The approaches that appear best suited for these aircraft types are presented. Examples are given of the numerical results currently being generated.

  20. X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft on lakebed during high-speed taxi tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The NASA/McDonnell Douglas Corporation (MDC) X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft undergoes high-speed taxi tests on Rogers Dry Lake at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, on October 17, 1996. The aircraft was tested at speeds up to 85 knots. Normal takeoff speed would be 110 knots. More taxi and radio frequency tests were slated before it's first flight would be made. This took place on May 17, 1997. The NASA/Boeing X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft program successfully demonstrated the tailless fighter design using advanced technologies to improve the maneuverability and survivability of possible future fighter aircraft. The program met or exceeded all project goals. For 31 flights during 1997 at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, the project team examined the aircraft's agility at low speed / high angles of attack and at high speed / low angles of attack. The aircraft's speed envelope reached up to 206 knots (234 mph). This aircraft was very stable and maneuverable. It handled very well. The X-36 vehicle was designed to fly without the traditional tail surfaces common on most aircraft. Instead, a canard forward of the wing was used as well as split ailerons and an advanced thrust-vectoring nozzle for directional control. The X-36 was unstable in both pitch and yaw axes, so an advanced, single-channel digital fly-by-wire control system (developed with some commercially available components) was put in place to stabilize the aircraft. Using a video camera mounted in the nose of the aircraft and an onboard microphone, the X-36 was remotely controlled by a pilot in a ground station virtual cockpit. A standard fighter-type head-up display (HUD) and a moving-map representation of the vehicle's position within the range in which it flew provided excellent situational awareness for the pilot. This pilot-in-the-loop approach eliminated the need for expensive and complex autonomous flight control systems and the risks associated with their inability to deal with unknown or unforeseen phenomena in flight. Fully fueled the X-36 prototype weighed approximately 1,250 pounds. It was 19 feet long and three feet high with a wingspan of just over 10 feet. A Williams International F112 turbofan engine provided close to 700 pounds of thrust. A typical research flight lasted 35 to 45 minutes from takeoff to touchdown. A total of 31 successful research flights were flown from May 17, 1997, to November 12, 1997, amassing 15 hours and 38 minutes of flight time. The aircraft reached an altitude of 20,200 feet and a maximum angle of attack of 40 degrees. In a follow-on effort, the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, contracted with Boeing to fly AFRL's Reconfigurable Control for Tailless Fighter Aircraft (RESTORE) software as a demonstration of the adaptability of the neural-net algorithm to compensate for in-flight damage or malfunction of effectors, such as flaps, ailerons and rudders. Two RESTORE research flights were flown in December 1998, proving the viability of the software approach. The X-36 aircraft flown at the Dryden Flight Research Center in 1997 was a 28-percent scale representation of a theoretical advanced fighter aircraft. The Boeing Phantom Works (formerly McDonnell Douglas) in St. Louis, Missouri, built two of the vehicles in a cooperative agreement with the Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California.

  1. X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft on lakebed during high-speed taxi tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The NASA/McDonnell Douglas Corporation (MDC) X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft undergoes high-speed taxi tests on Rogers Dry Lake at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, on October 17, 1996. The aircraft was tested at speeds up to 85 knots. Normal takeoff speed would be 110 knots. The NASA/Boeing X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft program successfully demonstrated the tailless fighter design using advanced technologies to improve the maneuverability and survivability of possible future fighter aircraft. The program met or exceeded all project goals. For 31 flights during 1997 at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, the project team examined the aircraft's agility at low speed / high angles of attack and at high speed / low angles of attack. The aircraft's speed envelope reached up to 206 knots (234 mph). This aircraft was very stable and maneuverable. It handled very well. The X-36 vehicle was designed to fly without the traditional tail surfaces common on most aircraft. Instead, a canard forward of the wing was used as well as split ailerons and an advanced thrust-vectoring nozzle for directional control. The X-36 was unstable in both pitch and yaw axes, so an advanced, single-channel digital fly-by-wire control system (developed with some commercially available components) was put in place to stabilize the aircraft. Using a video camera mounted in the nose of the aircraft and an onboard microphone, the X-36 was remotely controlled by a pilot in a ground station virtual cockpit. A standard fighter-type head-up display (HUD) and a moving-map representation of the vehicle's position within the range in which it flew provided excellent situational awareness for the pilot. This pilot-in-the-loop approach eliminated the need for expensive and complex autonomous flight control systems and the risks associated with their inability to deal with unknown or unforeseen phenomena in flight. Fully fueled the X-36 prototype weighed approximately 1,250 pounds. It was 19 feet long and three feet high with a wingspan of just over 10 feet. A Williams International F112 turbofan engine provided close to 700 pounds of thrust. A typical research flight lasted 35 to 45 minutes from takeoff to touchdown. A total of 31 successful research flights were flown from May 17, 1997, to November 12, 1997, amassing 15 hours and 38 minutes of flight time. The aircraft reached an altitude of 20,200 feet and a maximum angle of attack of 40 degrees. In a follow-on effort, the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, contracted with Boeing to fly AFRL's Reconfigurable Control for Tailless Fighter Aircraft (RESTORE) software as a demonstration of the adaptability of the neural-net algorithm to compensate for in-flight damage or malfunction of effectors, such as flaps, ailerons and rudders. Two RESTORE research flights were flown in December 1998, proving the viability of the software approach. The X-36 aircraft flown at the Dryden Flight Research Center in 1997 was a 28-percent scale representation of a theoretical advanced fighter aircraft. The Boeing Phantom Works (formerly McDonnell Douglas) in St. Louis, Missouri, built two of the vehicles in a cooperative agreement with the Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California.

  2. Conceptual design study of a Harrier V/STOL research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bode, W. E.; Berger, R. L.; Elmore, G. A.; Lacey, T. R.

    1978-01-01

    MCAIR recently completed a conceptual design study to define modification approaches to, and derive planning prices for the conversion of a two place Harrier to a V/STOL control, display and guidance research aircraft. Control concepts such as rate damping, attitude stabilization, velocity command, and cockpit controllers are to be demonstrated. Display formats will also be investigated, and landing, navigation and guidance systems flight tested. The rear cockpit is modified such that it can be quickly adapted to faithfully simulate the controls, displays and handling qualities of a Type A or Type B V/STOL. The safety pilot always has take command capability. The modifications studied fall into two categories: basic modifications and optional modifications. Technical descriptions of the basic modifications and of the optional modifications are presented. The modification plan and schedule as well as the test plan and schedule are presented. The failure mode and effects analysis, aircraft performance, aircraft weight, and aircraft support are discussed.

  3. Rotor systems research aircraft of predesign study. Volume 1: Summary and conclusions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linden, A. W.

    1972-01-01

    The results are summarized of a study to develop a versatile research aircraft for flight testing a wide variety of advanced helicopter and compound rotor systems. The aircraft is required to accept these rotors with minimal changes in the basic vehicle. Rotors envisioned for testing include conventional rotors plus variable geometry, variable twist, variable diameter, coaxial, jet flap, circulation control, and slowed rotors. Various disc loadings would be accommodated. The aircraft must be configured to measure performance more accurately than past test vehicles. In addition, the aircraft would have a wing to off load the rotor while measuring performance during lightly loaded conditions. It would have variable drag and propulsive force so that the rotor can be tested while producing different values of horizontal force.

  4. Development of a Low-Cost Sub-Scale Aircraft for Flight Research: The FASER Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, Donald B.; Cox, David E.; Morelli, Eugene A.

    2006-01-01

    An inexpensive unmanned sub-scale aircraft was developed to conduct frequent flight test experiments for research and demonstration of advanced dynamic modeling and control design concepts. This paper describes the aircraft, flight systems, flight operations, and data compatibility including details of some practical problems encountered and the solutions found. The aircraft, named Free-flying Aircraft for Sub-scale Experimental Research, or FASER, was outfitted with high-quality instrumentation to measure aircraft inputs and states, as well as vehicle health parameters. Flight data are stored onboard, but can also be telemetered to a ground station in real time for analysis. Commercial-off-the-shelf hardware and software were used as often as possible. The flight computer is based on the PC104 platform, and runs xPC-Target software. Extensive wind tunnel testing was conducted with the same aircraft used for flight testing, and a six degree-of-freedom simulation with nonlinear aerodynamics was developed to support flight tests. Flight tests to date have been conducted to mature the flight operations, validate the instrumentation, and check the flight data for kinematic consistency. Data compatibility analysis showed that the flight data are accurate and consistent after corrections are made for estimated systematic instrumentation errors.

  5. Aeroacoustic research in the Netherlands related to aircraft development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Wolf, W. B.; Sarin, S. L.

    Noise reduction efforts undertaken with the RB 183-555-15H turbofan on the new F28 aircraft are described. Experiments were performed with jet noise suppressors and acoustic liner designs. Vibration absorbers were installed in the cabin walls. The suppressors were examined with a H2O2-fuelled model in a test facility, leading to selection of an 8-lobed exhaust nozzle. A new acoustic liner was devised which reduced nonlinearities by a factor of five when compared with wire mesh on perforated plate liners. The tests yielded designs for a system of dynamic vibration absorbers which were subsequently installed in the cabin walls of the F27 and produced a 7 dB noise reduction.

  6. Specially equipped aircraft used in Florida airborne field mill research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Attached to the wing of a Cessna Citation aircraft are cloud physics probes that measure the size, shape and number of ice and water particles in clouds. The plane is also equipped with field mills, used to measure electric fields. The plane is being flown into anvil clouds in the KSC area as part of a study to review and possibly modify lightning launch commit criteria. The weather study could lead to improved lightning avoidance rules and fewer launch scrubs for the Space Shuttle and other launch vehicles on the Eastern and Western ranges. More information about the study can be found in Release No. 56- 00.

  7. Specially equipped aircraft used in Florida airborne field mill research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    In a hangar at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, a Cessna Citation aircraft has been fitted on the wings with devices that measure electric fields (black circles shown behind the open door) and with cloud physics probes (under the body and wings) that measure the size, shape and number of ice and water particles in clouds. The plane is being flown into anvil clouds in the KSC area as part of a study to review and possibly modify lightning launch commit criteria. The weather study could lead to improved lightning avoidance rules and fewer launch scrubs for the Space Shuttle and other launch vehicles on the Eastern and Western ranges. More information about the study can be found in Release No. 56-00.

  8. Specially equipped aircraft used in Florida airborne field mill research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Lightning field study devices are visible on a Cessna Citation aircraft during flight over Central Florida. The center of the black circle contains one of six field mills, used to measure electric fields, located on the body of the plane. Below the circle is one of several cloud physics probes attached to the plane that measure the size, shape and number of ice and water particles in clouds. The Cessna is being flown into anvil clouds in the KSC area as part of a study to review and possibly modify lightning launch commit criteria. The weather study could lead to improved lightning avoidance rules and fewer launch scrubs for the Space Shuttle and other launch vehicles on the Eastern and Western ranges. More information about the study can be found in Release No. 56-00.

  9. Military aircraft and missile technology at the Langley Research Center: A selected bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maddalon, D. V.

    1980-01-01

    A compilation of reference material is presented on the Langley Research Center's efforts in developing advanced military aircraft and missile technology over the past twenty years. Reference material includes research made in aerodynamics, performance, stability, control, stall-spin, propulsion integration, flutter, materials, and structures.

  10. NASA/Army Rotorcraft Technology. Volume 3: Systems Integration, Research Aircraft, and Industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    This is part 3 of the conference proceedings on rotorcraft technology. This volume is divided into areas on systems integration, research aircraft, and industry. Representative titles from each area are: system analysis in rotorcraft design, the past decade; rotorcraft flight research with emphasis on rotor systems; and an overview of key technology thrusts at Bell Helicopter Textron.

  11. Comparison of model and flight test data for an augmented jet flap STOL research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, W. L.; Whittley, D. C.

    1975-01-01

    Aerodynamic design data for the Augmented Jet Flap STOL Research Aircraft or commonly known as the Augmentor-Wing Jet-STOL Research Aircraft was based on results of tests carried out on a large scale research model in the NASA Ames 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel. Since the model differs in some respects from the aircraft, precise correlation between tunnel and flight test is not expected, however the major areas of confidence derived from the wind tunnel tests are delineated, and for the most part, tunnel results compare favorably with flight experience. In some areas the model tests were known to be nonrepresentative so that a degree of uncertainty remained: these areas of greater uncertainty are identified, and discussed in the light of subsequent flight tests.

  12. Simulation test results for lift/cruise fan research and technology aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bland, M. P.; Konsewicz, R. K.

    1976-01-01

    A flight simulation program was conducted on the flight simulator for advanced aircraft (FSAA). The flight simulation was a part of a contracted effort to provide a lift/cruise fan V/STOL aircraft mathematical model for flight simulation. The simulated aircraft is a configuration of the Lift/Cruise Fan V/STOL research technology aircraft (RTA). The aircraft was powered by three gas generators driving three fans. One lift fan was installed in the nose of the aircraft, and two lift/cruise fans at the wing root. The thrust of these fans was modulated to provide pitch and roll control, and vectored to provide yaw, side force control, and longitudinal translation. Two versions of the RTA were defined. One was powered by the GE J97/LF460 propulsion system which was gas-coupled for power transfer between fans for control. The other version was powered by DDA XT701 gas generators driving 62 inch variable pitch fans. The flight control system in both versions of the RTA was the same.

  13. Impact dynamics research facility for full-scale aircraft crash testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, V. L. J.; Alfaro-Bou, E.

    1976-01-01

    An impact dynamics research facility (IDRF) was developed to crash test full-scale general aviation aircraft under free-flight test conditions. The aircraft are crashed into the impact surface as free bodies; a pendulum swing method is used to obtain desired flight paths and velocities. Flight paths up to -60 deg and aircraft velocities along the flight paths up to about 27.0 m/s can be obtained with a combination of swing-cable lengths and release heights made available by a large gantry. Seven twin engine, 2721-kg aircraft were successfully crash tested at the facility, and all systems functioned properly. Acquisition of data from signals generated by accelerometers on board the aircraft and from external and onboard camera coverage was successful in spite of the amount of damage which occurred during each crash. Test parameters at the IDRF are controllable with flight path angles accurate within 8 percent, aircraft velocity accurate within 6 percent, pitch angles accurate to 4.25 deg, and roll and yaw angles acceptable under wind velocities up to 4.5 m/s.

  14. DLR aircraft noise research and testing techniques related to propeller driven aeroplane noise certification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heller, Hanno; Dobrzynski, Werner

    The development of certification procedures relies heavily on the results of aircraft noise research involving flight tests, and full scale and model scale wind tunnel tests. The most recent versions of the relevant noise certification procedures for regional aircraft, specifically for so called heavy and light propeller driven airplanes, are discussed. Relevant research in the area of propeller noise generation and radiation is described and an outlook on advanced technology propulsion systems (specifically the propfan) and the problems likely to be encountered in establishing corresponding noise certification procedures and noise limits is given.

  15. Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research Phase II: N+4 Advanced Concept Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, Marty K.; Droney, Christopher K.

    2012-01-01

    This final report documents the work of the Boeing Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research (SUGAR) team on Task 1 of the Phase II effort. The team consisted of Boeing Research and Technology, Boeing Commercial Airplanes, General Electric, and Georgia Tech. Using a quantitative workshop process, the following technologies, appropriate to aircraft operational in the N+4 2040 timeframe, were identified: Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG), Hydrogen, fuel cell hybrids, battery electric hybrids, Low Energy Nuclear (LENR), boundary layer ingestion propulsion (BLI), unducted fans and advanced propellers, and combinations. Technology development plans were developed.

  16. Subminiaturization for ERAST instrumentation (Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madou, Marc; Lowenstein, Max; Wegener, Steven

    1995-01-01

    We are focusing on the Argus as an example to demonstrate our philosophy on miniaturization of airborne analytical instruments for the study of atmospheric chemistry. Argus is a two channel, tunable-diode laser absorption spectrometer developed at NASA for the measurement of nitrogen dioxide (N2O) (4.5 micrometers) and ammonia (CH3) (3.3 micrometers) at the 0.1 parts per billion (ppb) level from the Perseus aircraft platform at altitudes up to 30 km. Although Argus' mass is down to 23 kg from the 197 kg Atlas, its predecessor, our goal is to design a next-generation subminiaturized instrument weighing less than 1 kg, measuring a few cm(exp 3) and able to eliminate dewars for cooling. Current designs enable use to make a small,inexpensive, monolithic spectrometer without the required sensitivity range. Further work is on its way to increase sensitivity. We are continuing to zero-base the technical approach in terms of the specifications for the given instrument. We are establishing a check list of questions to hone into the best micromachining approach and to superpose on the answers insights in scaling laws and flexible engineering designs to enable more relaxed tolerances for the smallest of the components.

  17. Satellite communications provisions on NASA Ames instrumented aircraft platforms for Earth science research/applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shameson, L.; Brass, J. A.; Hanratty, J. J.; Roberts, A. C.; Wegener, S. S.

    1995-01-01

    Earth science activities at NASA Ames are research in atmospheric and ecosystem science, development of remote sensing and in situ sampling instruments, and their integration into scientific research platform aircraft. The use of satellite communications can greatly extend the capability of these agency research platform aircraft. Current projects and plans involve satellite links on the Perseus UAV and the ER-2 via TDRSS and a proposed experiment on the NASA Advanced Communications Technology Satellite. Provisions for data links on the Perseus research platform, via TDRSS S-band multiple access service, have been developed and are being tested. Test flights at Dryden are planned to demonstrate successful end-to-end data transfer. A Unisys Corp. airborne satcom STARLink system is being integrated into an Ames ER-2 aircraft. This equipment will support multiple data rates up to 43 Mb/s each via the TDRS S Ku-band single access service. The first flight mission for this high-rate link is planned for August 1995. Ames and JPL have proposed an ACTS experiment to use real-time satellite communications to improve wildfire research campaigns. Researchers and fire management teams making use of instrumented aircraft platforms at a prescribed burn site will be able to communicate with experts at Ames, the U.S. Forest Service, and emergency response agencies.

  18. In-flight acoustic testing techniques using the YO-3A Acoustic Research Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, J. L.; Watts, M. E.

    1984-01-01

    This report discusses the flight testing techniques and equipment employed during air-to-air acoustic testing of helicopters at Ames Research Center. The in flight measurement technique used enables acoustic data to be obtained without the limitations of anechoic chambers or the multitude of variables encountered in ground based flyover testing. The air-to-air testing is made possible by the NASA YO-3A Acoustic Research Aircraft. This "Quiet Aircraft' is an acoustically instrumented version of a quiet observation aircraft manufactured for the military. To date, tests with the following aircraft have been conducted: YO-3A background noise; Hughes 500D; Hughes AH-64; Bell AH-1S; Bell AH-1G. Several system upgrades are being designed and implemented to improve the quality of data. This report will discuss not only the equipment involved and aircraft tested, but also the techniques used in these tests. In particular, formation flying position locations, and the test matrices will be discussed. Examples of data taken will also be presented.

  19. Unveiling of sign for Walter C. Williams Research Aircraft Integration Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    In a brief ceremony following a memorial service for the late Walter C. Williams on November 17, 1995, the Integrated Test Facility (ITF) at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards, California, was formally renamed the Walter C. Williams Research Aircraft Integration Facility. Shown is the family of Walt Williams: Helen, his widow, sons Charles and Howard, daughter Elizabeth Williams Powell, their spouses and children unveiling the new sign redesignating the Facility. The test facility provides state-of-the-art capabilities for thorough ground testing of advanced research aircraft. It allows researchers and technicians to integrate and test aircraft systems before each research flight, which greatly enhances the safety of each mission. In September 1946 Williams became engineer-in-charge of a team of five engineers who arrived at Muroc Army Air Base (now Edwards AFB) from the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics's Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory, Hampton, Virginia (now NASA's Langley Research Center), to prepare for supersonic research flights in a joint NACA-Army Air Forces program involving the rocket-powered X-1. This established the first permanent NACA presence at the Mojave Desert site although initially the five engineers and others who followed them were on temporary assignment. Over time, Walt continued to be in charge during the many name changes for the NACA-NASA organization, with Williams ending his stay as Chief of the NASA Flight Research Center in September 1959 (today NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center).

  20. Application of a cost/performance measurement system on a research aircraft project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diehl, J. J.

    1978-01-01

    The fundamentals of the cost/performance management system used in the procurement of two tilt rotor aircraft for a joint NASA/Army research project are discussed. The contractor's reporting system and the GPO's analyses are examined. The use of this type of reporting system is assessed. Recommendations concerning the use of like systems on future projects are included.

  1. A unique facility for V/STOL aircraft hover testing. [Langley Impact Dynamics Research Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culpepper, R. G.; Murphy, R. D.; Gillespie, E. A.; Lane, A. G.

    1979-01-01

    The Langley Impact Dynamics Research Facility (IDRF) was modified to obtain static force and moment data and to allow assessment of aircraft handling qualities during dynamic tethered hover flight. Test probe procedures were also established. Static lift and control measurements obtained are presented along with results of limited dynamic tethered hover flight.

  2. Research Aircraft - Controlling Instruments from the Ground in a Secure and Authenticated Fashion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltzer, T.; Martin, C.; Fawaz, S.; Webster, C.

    2012-12-01

    At NCAR's Research Aviation Facility (RAF) we're finding a number of factors motivating the desire to be able to control instruments fielded on the aircraft we operate for the NSF. Investigators are increasingly interested in fielding greater numbers of research instruments for projects, instruments are becoming increasingly complicated, and adjustment of instrument behavior to adapt to changing conditions around the aircraft and to meet project goals are just a few of these factors. Usually there are not enough seats on the aircraft to accommodate all the instrument PIs and crew members who do occupy the seats are being asked to monitor and control increasing numbers of instruments about which they have limited knowledge. We use Satellite Communications (SatCom) to allow researchers to communicate with colleagues/crew on the aircraft and so that some of the real-time data can be sent to the ground for helping to optimize the research. Historically, challenges of authentication, security and the disruptive SatCom system have motivated us to avoid providing for remote instrument control. Now we have now reached an era where remote instrument control is a necessity. This poster will discuss the approach we are implementing to provide this capability for our instrument investigators. Particular attention is paid to how we assure authentication and security so that only the instrument investigators are capable of communicating with their instruments.;

  3. Aircraft and avionic related research required to develop an effective high-speed runway exit system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoen, M. L.; Hosford, J. E.; Graham, J. M., Jr.; Preston, O. W.; Frankel, R. S.; Erickson, J. B.

    1979-01-01

    Research was conducted to increase airport capacity by studying the feasibility of the longitudinal separation between aircraft sequences on final approach. The multidisciplinary factors which include the utility of high speed exits for efficient runway operations were described along with recommendations and highlights of these studies.

  4. A research program to reduce the interior noise in general aviation aircraft, index and summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, L.; Jackson, K.; Roskam, J.

    1985-01-01

    This report is an index of the published works from NASA Grant NSG 1301, entitled A Research Program to Reduce the Interior Noise in General Aviation Aircraft. Included are a list of all published reports and papers, a compilation of test specimen characteristics, and summaries of each published work.

  5. Lockheed ER-2 #709 high altitude research aircraft during take off

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    ER-2 tail number 709, is one of two Airborne Science ER-2s used as science platforms by Dryden. The aircraft are platforms for a variety of high-altitude science missions flown over various parts of the world. They are also used for earth science and atmospheric sensor research and development, satellite calibration and data validation. The ER-2s are capable of carrying a maximum payload of 2,600 pounds of experiments in a nose bay, the main equipment bay behind the cockpit, two wing-mounted superpods and small underbody and trailing edges. Most ER-2 missions last about six hours with ranges of about 2,200 nautical miles. The aircraft typically fly at altitudes above 65,000 feet. On November 19, 1998, the ER-2 set a world record for medium weight aircraft reaching an altitude of 68,700 feet. The aircraft is 63 feet long, with a wingspan of 104 feet. The top of the vertical tail is 16 feet above ground when the aircraft is on the bicycle-type landing gear. Cruising speeds are 410 knots, or 467 miles per hour, at altitude. A single General Electric F-118 turbofan engine rated at 17,000 pounds thrust powers the ER-2.

  6. Longitudinal stability and control characteristics of the Quiet Short-Haul Research Aircraft (QSRA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephenson, Jack D.; Hardy, Gordon H.

    1989-01-01

    Flight experiments were conducted to evaluate various aerodynamic characteristics of the Quiet Short-Haul Research Aircraft (QSRA), an experimental aircraft that makes use of the upper-surface blown (USB) powered-lift concept. Time-history records from maneuvers performed with the aircraft in landing-approach and take-off configurations (with its stability augmentation system disengaged) were analyzed to obtain longitudinal stability and control derivatives and performance characteristics. The experiments included measuring the aircraft responses to variations in the deflection of direct-lift control spoilers and to thrust variations as well as to elevator inputs. The majority of the results are given for the aircraft in a landing configuration with the USB flaps at 50 degrees. For this configuration, if the static longitudinal stability is defined as the variation of the pitching-moment coefficient with the lift coefficient at a constant thrust coefficient, this stability decreases significantly with increasing angle of attack above 9 degrees. For this configuration, at small and negative angles of attack and high levels of thrust, the elevators and the horizontal stabilizer lost effectiveness owing to incipent stalling, but this occurred only during unsteady maneuvers and for brief time intervals.

  7. The movement of water droplets in clouds around the nose of an atmospheric research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feuillebois, P.; Scibilia, M. F.

    1983-01-01

    The dynamic interaction between droplets and the airflow around the hemispherical nose of an aircraft was evaluated. The effect of the aircraft nose on droplet sampling for cloud research is explained. The proportion of different droplet sizes and their concentration at each point around the aircraft nose were determined. In a cloud, interaction between droplets is negligible. Each particle acts, for the calculation of the forces applied to it, as if it is alone in the air. The airflow carrying the droplets, on the average, is not influenced by their presence. The trajectory of each droplet was studied separately after calculating dry airflow. Concentrations were found with a Lagrangian method, using two trajectories computed directly close to one another. Theory confirms that to within 3% experimentally measured concentrations are representative of those in a cloud.

  8. CV-990 Landing Systems Research Aircraft (LSRA) during final Space Shuttle tire test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    A Convair 990 (CV-990) was used as a Landing Systems Research Aircraft (LSRA) at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, to test space shuttle landing gear and braking systems as part of NASA's effort to upgrade and improve space shuttle capabilities. The first flight at Dryden of the CV-990 with shuttle test components occurred in April 1993, and tests continued into August 1995, when this photo shows a test of the shuttle tires. The purpose of this series of tests was to determine the performance parameters and failure limits of the tires. This particular landing was on the dry lakebed at Edwards, but other tests occurred on the main runway there. The CV-990, built in 1962 by the Convair Division of General Dynamics Corp., Ft. Worth, Texas, served as a research aircraft at Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California, before it came to Dryden.

  9. Aircrew-aircraft integration: A summary of US Army research programs and plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Key, D. L.; Aiken, E. W.

    1984-01-01

    A review of selected programs which illustrate the research efforts of the U.S. Army Aeromechanics Laboratory in the area of aircrew-aircraft integration is presented. Plans for research programs to support the development of future military rotorcraft are also described. The crew of a combat helicopter must, in general, perform two major functions during the conduct of a particular mission: flightpath control and mission management. Accordingly, the research programs described are being conducted in the same two major categories: (1) flightpath control, which encompasses the areas of handling qualities, stability and control, and displays for the pilot's control of the rotorcraft's flightpath, and (2) mission management, which includes human factors and cockpit integration research topics related to performance of navigation, communication, and aircraft systems management tasks.

  10. Practical Application of a Subscale Transport Aircraft for Flight Research in Control Upset and Failure Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, Kevin; Foster, John V.; Morelli, Eugene A.; Murch, Austin M.

    2008-01-01

    Over the past decade, the goal of reducing the fatal accident rate of large transport aircraft has resulted in research aimed at the problem of aircraft loss-of-control. Starting in 1999, the NASA Aviation Safety Program initiated research that included vehicle dynamics modeling, system health monitoring, and reconfigurable control systems focused on flight regimes beyond the normal flight envelope. In recent years, there has been an increased emphasis on adaptive control technologies for recovery from control upsets or failures including damage scenarios. As part of these efforts, NASA has developed the Airborne Subscale Transport Aircraft Research (AirSTAR) flight facility to allow flight research and validation, and system testing for flight regimes that are considered too risky for full-scale manned transport airplane testing. The AirSTAR facility utilizes dynamically-scaled vehicles that enable the application of subscale flight test results to full scale vehicles. This paper describes the modeling and simulation approach used for AirSTAR vehicles that supports the goals of efficient, low-cost and safe flight research in abnormal flight conditions. Modeling of aerodynamics, controls, and propulsion will be discussed as well as the application of simulation to flight control system development, test planning, risk mitigation, and flight research.

  11. Dryden F-8 Research Aircraft Fleet 1973 in flight, DFBW and SCW

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    F-8 Digital Fly-By-Wire (left) and F-8 Supercritical Wing in flight. These two aircraft fundamentally changed the nature of aircraft design. The F-8 DFBW pioneered digital flight controls and led to such computer-controlled airacrft as the F-117A, X-29, and X-31. Airliners such as the Boeing 777 and Airbus A320 also use digital fly-by-wire systems. The other aircraft is a highly modified F-8A fitted with a supercritical wing. Dr. Richard T. Whitcomb of Langley Research Center originated the supercritical wing concept in the late 1960s. (Dr. Whitcomb also developed the concept of the 'area rule' in the early 1950s. It singificantly reduced transonic drag.) The F-8 Digital Fly-By-Wire (DFBW) flight research project validated the principal concepts of all-electric flight control systems now used on nearly all modern high-performance aircraft and on military and civilian transports. The first flight of the 13-year project was on May 25, 1972, with research pilot Gary E. Krier at the controls of a modified F-8C Crusader that served as the testbed for the fly-by-wire technologies. The project was a joint effort between the NASA Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, (now the Dryden Flight Research Center) and Langley Research Center. It included a total of 211 flights. The last flight was December 16, 1985, with Dryden research pilot Ed Schneider at the controls. The F-8 DFBW system was the forerunner of current fly-by-wire systems used in the space shuttles and on today's military and civil aircraft to make them safer, more maneuverable, and more efficient. Electronic fly-by-wire systems replaced older hydraulic control systems, freeing designers to design aircraft with reduced in-flight stability. Fly-by-wire systems are safer because of their redundancies. They are more maneuverable because computers can command more frequent adjustments than a human pilot can. For airliners, computerized control ensures a smoother ride than a human pilot alone can provide. Digital-fly-by-wire is more efficient because it is lighter and takes up less space than the hydraulic systems it replaced. This either reduces the fuel required to fly or increases the number of passengers or pounds of cargo the aircraft can carry. Digital fly-by-wire is currently used in a variety of aircraft ranging from F/A-18 fighters to the Boeing 777. The DFBW research program is considered one of the most significant and most successful NASA aeronautical programs since the inception of the agency. F-8 aircraft were built originally for the U.S. Navy by LTV Aerospace of Dallas, Texas. The aircraft had a wingspan of 35 feet, 2 inches; was 54 feet, 6 inches long; and was powered by a Pratt & Whitney J57 turbojet engine. The F-8 Supercritical Wing was a flight research project designed to test a new wing concept designed by Dr. Richard Whitcomb, chief of the Transonic Aerodynamics Branch, Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia. Compared to a conventional wing, the supercritical wing (SCW) is flatter on the top and rounder on the bottom with a downward curve at the trailing edge. The Supercritical Wing was designed to delay the formation of and reduce the shock wave over the wing just below and above the speed of sound (transonic region of flight). Delaying the shock wave at these speeds results in less drag. Results of the NASA flight research at the Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, (later renamed the Dryden Flight Research Center) demonstrated that aircraft using the supercritical wing concept would have increased cruising speed, improved fuel efficiency, and greater flight range than those using conventional wings. As a result, supercritical wings are now commonplace on virtually every modern subsonic commercial transport. Results of the NASA project showed the SCW had increased the transonic efficiency of the F-8 as much as 15 percent and proved that passenger transports with supercritical wings, versus conventional wings, could save $78 million (in 1974 dollars) per year for a fleet of 280 200-passenger airliners. The F-8 Supercritical Wing (SCW) project flew from 1970 to 1973. Dryden engineer John McTigue was the first SCW program manager and Tom McMurtry was the lead project pilot. The first SCW flight took place on March 9, 1971. The last flight of the Supercritical wing was on May 23, 1973, with Ron Gerdes at the controls. Original wingspan of the F-8 is 35 feet, 2 inches while the wingspan with the supercritical wing was 43 feet, 1 inch. F-8 aircraft were powered by Pratt & Whitney J57 turbojet engines. The TF-8A Crusader was made available to the NASA Flight Research Center by the U.S. Navy. F-8 jet aircraft were built, originally, by LTV Aerospace, Dallas, Texas. Rockwell International's North American Aircraft Division received a $1.8 million contract to fabricate the supercritical wing, which was delivered to NASA in December 1969.

  12. X-43A hypersonic research aircraft mated to its modified Pegasus booster rocket.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The first of three X-43A hypersonic research aircraft was mated to its modified Pegasus booster rocket in late January at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif. FIRST X-43A MATED TO BOOSTER -- The first of three X-43A hypersonic research aircraft was mated to its modified Pegasus booster rocket in late January at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif. Mating of the X-43A and its specially-designed adapter to the first stage of the booster rocket marks a major milestone in the Hyper-X hypersonic research program. The 12-foot, unpiloted research vehicle was developed and built by MicroCraft Inc., Tullahoma, Tenn., for NASA. The booster, built by Orbital Sciences Corp., Dulles, Va., will accelerate the X-43A after the X-43A booster 'stack' is air-launched from NASA's venerable NB-52 mothership. The X-43A will separate from the rocket at a predetermined altitude and speed and fly a pre-programmed trajectory, conducting aerodynamic and propulsion experiments until it impacts into the Pacific Ocean. Three research flights are planned, two at Mach 7 and one at Mach 10 (seven and 10 times the speed of sound respectively) with the first tentatively scheduled for early summer of 2001. The X-43A is powered by a revolutionary supersonic-combustion ramjet ('scramjet') engine, and will use the underbody of the aircraft to form critical elements of the engine. The forebody shape helps compress the intake airflow, while the aft section acts as a nozzle to direct thrust. The X-43A flights will be the first actual flight tests of an aircraft powered by an air-breathing scramjet engine.

  13. The NASA Dryden Flight Research Center Unmanned Aircraft System Service Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, Jeff

    2007-01-01

    Over 60 years of Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) expertise at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center are being leveraged to provide capability and expertise to the international UAS community. The DFRC brings together technical experts, UAS, and an operational environment to provide government and industry a broad capability to conduct research, perform operations, and mature systems, sensors, and regulation. The cornerstone of this effort is the acquisition of both a Global Hawk (Northrop Grumman Corporation, Los Angeles, California) and Predator B (General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc., San Diego, California) unmanned aircraft system (UAS). In addition, a test range for small UAS will allow developers to conduct research and development flights without the need to obtain approval from civil authorities. Finally, experts are available to government and industry to provide safety assessments in support of operations in civil airspace. These services will allow developers to utilize limited resources to their maximum capability in a highly competitive environment.

  14. The NASA Dryden Flight Research Center Unmanned Aircraft System Service Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, Jeff

    2007-01-01

    Over 60 years of Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) expertise at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Dryden Flight Research Center are being leveraged to provide capability and expertise to the international UAS community. The DFRC brings together technical experts, UAS, and an operational environment to provide government and industry a broad capability to conduct research, perform operations, and mature systems, sensors, and regulation. The cornerstone of this effort is the acquisition of both a Global Hawk (Northrop Grumman Corporation, Los Angeles, California) and Predator B (General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc., San Diego, California) unmanned aircraft system (UAS). In addition, a test range for small UAS will allow developers to conduct research and development flights without the need to obtain approval from civil authorities. Finally, experts are available to government and industry to provide safety assessments in support of operations in civil airspace. These services will allow developers to utilize limited resources to their maximum capability in a highly competitive environment.

  15. Supersonic cruise research aircraft structural studies: Methods and results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, J.; Gross, D.; Kurtze, W.; Newsom, J.; Wrenn, G.; Greene, W.

    1981-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center SCAR in-house structural studies are reviewed. In methods development, advances include a new system of integrated computer programs called ISSYS, progress in determining aerodynamic loads and aerodynamically induced structural loads (including those due to gusts), flutter optimization for composite and metal airframe configurations using refined and simplified mathematical models, and synthesis of active controls. Results given address several aspects of various SCR configurations. These results include flutter penalties on composite wing, flutter suppression using active controls, roll control effectiveness, wing tip ground clearance, tail size effect on flutter, engine weight and mass distribution influence on flutter, and strength and flutter optimization of new configurations. The ISSYS system of integrated programs performed well in all the applications illustrated by the results, the diversity of which attests to ISSYS' versatility.

  16. Polar Research with Unmanned Aircraft and Tethered Balloons

    SciTech Connect

    Ivey, M; Petty, R; Desilets, D; Verlinde, J; Ellingson, R

    2014-01-24

    The Arctic is experiencing rapid climate change, with nearly double the rate of surface warming observed elsewhere on the planet. While various positive feedback mechanisms have been suggested, the reasons for Arctic amplification are not well understood, nor are the impacts to the global carbon cycle well quantified. Additionally, there are uncertainties associated with the complex interactions between Earth’s surface and the atmosphere. Elucidating the causes and consequences of Arctic warming is one of the many goals of the Climate and Environmental Sciences Division (CESD) of the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Biological and Environmental Research (BER) program, and is part of the larger CESD initiative to develop a robust predictive understanding of Earth’s climate system.

  17. The X-43A hypersonic research aircraft and its modified Pegasus booster rocket recently underwent c

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The first of three X-43A hypersonic research aircraft and its modified Pegasus booster rocket recently underwent combined systems testing while mounted to NASA's NB-52B carrier aircraft at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif. The combined systems test was one of the last major milestones in the Hyper-X research program before the first X-43A flight. The X-43A flights will be the first actual flight tests of an aircraft powered by a revolutionary supersonic-combustion ramjet ('scramjet') engine capable of operating at hypersonic speeds (above Mach 5, or five times the speed of sound). The 12-foot, unpiloted research vehicle was developed and built by MicroCraft Inc., Tullahoma, Tenn., under NASA contract. The booster was built by Orbital Sciences Corp., Dulles, Va.,After being air-launched from NASA's venerable NB-52 mothership, the booster will accelerate the X-43A to test speed and altitude. The X-43A will then separate from the rocket and fly a pre-programmed trajectory, conducting aerodynamic and propulsion experiments until it descends into the Pacific Ocean. Three research flights are planned, two at Mach 7 and one at Mach 10.

  18. Aircraft ground vibration testing at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility, 1993

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kehoe, Michael W.; Freudinger, Lawrence C.

    1994-01-01

    The NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility performs ground vibration testing to assess the structural characteristics of new and modified research vehicles. This paper updates the research activities, techniques used, and experiences in applying this technology to aircraft since 1987. Test equipment, data analysis methods, and test procedures used for typical test programs are discussed. The data presented illustrate the use of modal test and analysis in flight research programs for a variety of aircraft. This includes a technique to acquire control surface free-play measurements on the X-31 airplane more efficiently, and to assess the effects of structural modifications on the modal characteristics of an F-18 aircraft. In addition, the status and results from current research activities are presented. These data show the effectiveness of the discrete modal filter as a preprocessor to uncouple response measurements into simple single-degree-of-freedom responses, a database for the comparison of different excitation methods on a JetStar airplane, and the effect of heating on modal frequency and damping.

  19. Follow on Researches for X-56A Aircraft at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center (Progress Report)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pak, Chan-Gi

    2012-01-01

    A lot of composite materials are used for the modern aircraft to reduce its weight. Aircraft aeroservoelastic models are typically characterized by significant levels of model parameter uncertainty due to composite manufacturing process. Small modeling errors in the finite element model will eventually induce errors in the structural flexibility and mass, thus propagating into unpredictable errors in the unsteady aerodynamics and the control law design. One of the primary objectives of X-56A aircraft is the flight demonstration of active flutter suppression, and therefore in this study, the identification of the primary and secondary modes is based on the flutter analysis of X-56A aircraft. It should be noted that for all three Mach number cases rigid body modes and mode numbers seven and nine are participated 89.1 92.4 % of the first flutter mode. Modal participation of the rigid body mode and mode numbers seven and nine for the second flutter mode are 94.6 96.4%. Rigid body mode and the first two anti-symmetric modes, eighth and tenth modes, are participated 93.2 94.6% of the third flutter mode. Therefore, rigid body modes and the first four flexible modes of X-56A aircraft are the primary modes during the model tuning procedure. The ground vibration test-validated structural dynamic finite element model of the X-56A aircraft is to obtain in this study. The structural dynamics finite element model of X-56A aircraft is improved using the parallelized big-bang big-crunch algorithm together with a hybrid optimization technique.

  20. Federal Interagency Committee on Aviation Noise (FICAN) Position on Research into Effects of Aircraft Noise on Classroom Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    This symposium report presents a summary of research on the affect of aircraft noise on the classroom environment revealing that aircraft noise can interfere with learning in the following areas: reading, motivation, language and speech acquisition, and memory. The strongest findings are in the area of reading, where more than 20 studies have…

  1. Man-vehicle systems research facility advanced aircraft flight simulator throttle mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurasaki, S. S.; Vallotton, W. C.

    1985-01-01

    The Advanced Aircraft Flight Simulator is equipped with a motorized mechanism that simulates a two engine throttle control system that can be operated via a computer driven performance management system or manually by the pilots. The throttle control system incorporates features to simulate normal engine operations and thrust reverse and vary the force feel to meet a variety of research needs. While additional testing to integrate the work required is principally now in software design, since the mechanical aspects function correctly. The mechanism is an important part of the flight control system and provides the capability to conduct human factors research of flight crews with advanced aircraft systems under various flight conditions such as go arounds, coupled instrument flight rule approaches, normal and ground operations and emergencies that would or would not normally be experienced in actual flight.

  2. Bibliography of Supersonic Cruise Aircraft Research (SCAR) Program from 1972 to Mid-1977

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, S.

    1977-01-01

    This bibliography documents publications of the supersonic cruise aircraft research (SCAR) program that were generated during the first 5 years of effort. The reports are arranged according to systems studies and five SCAR disciplines: propulsion, stratospheric emissions impact, structures and materials, aerodynamic performance, and stability and control. The specific objectives of each discipline are summarized. Annotation is included for all NASA inhouse and low-number contractor reports. There are 444 papers and articles included.

  3. Identification of Spey engine dynamics in the augmentor wing jet STOL research aircraft from flight data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dehoff, R. L.; Reed, W. B.; Trankle, T. L.

    1977-01-01

    The development and validation of a spey engine model is described. An analysis of the dynamical interactions involved in the propulsion unit is presented. The model was reduced to contain only significant effects, and was used, in conjunction with flight data obtained from an augmentor wing jet STOL research aircraft, to develop initial estimates of parameters in the system. The theoretical background employed in estimating the parameters is outlined. The software package developed for processing the flight data is described. Results are summarized.

  4. NASA rotor system research aircraft flight-test data report: Helicopter and compound configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, R. E.; Kufeld, R. M.; Cross, J. L.; Hodge, R. W.; Ericson, W. F.; Carter, R. D. G.

    1984-01-01

    The flight test activities of the Rotor System Research Aircraft (RSRA), NASA 740, from June 30, 1981 to August 5, 1982 are reported. Tests were conducted in both the helicopter and compound configurations. Compound tests reconfirmed the Sikorsky flight envelope except that main rotor blade bending loads reached endurance at a speed about 10 knots lower than previously. Wing incidence changes were made from 0 to 10 deg.

  5. Flight assessment of a large supersonic drone aircraft for research use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckstrom, C. V.; Peele, E. L.

    1974-01-01

    An assessment is made of the capabilities of the BQM-34E supersonic drone aircraft as a test bed research vehicle. This assessment is made based on a flight conducted for the purpose of obtaining flight test measurements of wing loads at various maneuver flight conditions. Flight plan preparation, flight simulation, and conduct of the flight test are discussed along with a presentation of the test data obtained and an evaluation of how closely the flight test followed the test plan.

  6. Predesign study for a modern 4-bladed rotor for the NASA rotor systems research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, H. E.; Burkam, J. E.; Heminway, R. C.; Keys, C. N.; Smith, K. E.; Smith, J. H.; Staley, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    Trade-off study results and the rationale for the final selection of an existing modern four-bladed rotor system that can be adapted for installation on the Rotor Systems Research Aircraft (RSRA) are reported. The results of the detailed integration studies, parameter change studies, and instrumentation studies and the recommended plan for development and qualification of the rotor system is also given. Its parameter variants, integration on the RSRA, and support of ground and flight test programs are also discussed.

  7. Concept to Reality: Contributions of the Langley Research Center to US Civil Aircraft of the 1990s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambers, Joseph R.

    2003-01-01

    This document is intended to be a companion to NASA SP-2000-4519, 'Partners in Freedom: Contributions of the Langley Research Center to U.S. Military Aircraft of the 1990s'. Material included in the combined set of volumes provides informative and significant examples of the impact of Langley's research on U.S. civil and military aircraft of the 1990s. This volume, 'Concept to Reality: Contributions of the NASA Langley Research Center to U.S. Civil Aircraft of the 1990s', highlights significant Langley contributions to safety, cruise performance, takeoff and landing capabilities, structural integrity, crashworthiness, flight deck technologies, pilot-vehicle interfaces, flight characteristics, stall and spin behavior, computational design methods, and other challenging technical areas for civil aviation. The contents of this volume include descriptions of some of the more important applications of Langley research to current civil fixed-wing aircraft (rotary-wing aircraft are not included), including commercial airliners, business aircraft, and small personal-owner aircraft. In addition to discussions of specific aircraft applications, the document also covers contributions of Langley research to the operation of civil aircraft, which includes operating problems. This document is organized according to disciplinary technologies, for example, aerodynamics, structures, materials, and flight systems. Within each discussion, examples are cited where industry applied Langley technologies to specific aircraft that were in operational service during the 1990s and the early years of the new millennium. This document is intended to serve as a key reference for national policy makers, internal NASA policy makers, Congressional committees, the media, and the general public. Therefore, it has been written for a broad general audience and does not presume any significant technical expertise. An extensive bibliography is provided for technical specialists and others who desire a more indepth discussion of the contributions.

  8. Research Pilot Milt Thompson in M2-F2 Aircraft Attached to B-52 Mothership

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    NASA research pilot Milt Thompson sits in the M2-F2 'heavyweight' lifting body research vehicle before a 1966 test flight. The M2-F2 and the other lifting-body designs were all attached to a wing pylon on NASA's B-52 mothership and carried aloft. The vehicles were then drop-launched and, at the end of their flights, glided back to wheeled landings on the dry lake or runway at Edwards AFB. The lifting body designs influenced the design of the Space Shuttle and were also reincarnated in the design of the X-38 in the 1990s. NASA B-52, Tail Number 008, is an air launch carrier aircraft, 'mothership,' as well as a research aircraft platform that has been used on a variety of research projects. The aircraft, a 'B' model built in 1952 and first flown on June 11, 1955, is the oldest B-52 in flying status and has been used on some of the most significant research projects in aerospace history. Some of the significant projects supported by B-52 008 include the X-15, the lifting bodies, HiMAT (highly maneuverable aircraft technology), Pegasus, validation of parachute systems developed for the space shuttle program (solid-rocket-booster recovery system and the orbiter drag chute system), and the X-38. The B-52 served as the launch vehicle on 106 X-15 flights and flew a total of 159 captive-carry and launch missions in support of that program from June 1959 to October 1968. Information gained from the highly successful X-15 program contributed to the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo human spaceflight programs as well as space shuttle development. Between 1966 and 1975, the B-52 served as the launch aircraft for 127 of the 144 wingless lifting body flights. In the 1970s and 1980s, the B-52 was the launch aircraft for several aircraft at what is now the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, to study spin-stall, high-angle-of attack, and maneuvering characteristics. These included the 3/8-scale F-15/spin research vehicle (SRV), the HiMAT (Highly Maneuverable Aircraft Technology) research vehicle, and the DAST (drones for aerodynamic and structural testing). The aircraft supported the development of parachute recovery systems used to recover the space shuttle solid rocket booster casings. It also supported eight orbiter (space shuttle) drag chute tests in 1990. In addition, the B-52 served as the air launch platform for the first six Pegasus space boosters. During its many years of service, the B-52 has undergone several modifications. The first major modification was made by North American Aviation (now part of Boeing) in support of the X-15 program. This involved creating a launch-panel-operator station for monitoring the status of the test vehicle being carried, cutting a large notch in the right inboard wing flap to accommodate the vertical tail of the X-15 aircraft, and installing a wing pylon that enables the B-52 to carry research vehicles and test articles to be air-launched/dropped. Located on the right wing, between the inboard engine pylon and the fuselage, this wing pylon was subjected to extensive testing prior to its use. For each test vehicle the B-52 carried, minor changes were made to the launch-panel operator's station. Built originally by the Boeing Company, the NASA B-52 is powered by eight Pratt & Whitney J57-19 turbojet engines, each of which produce 12,000 pounds of thrust. The aircraft's normal launch speed has been Mach 0.8 (about 530 miles per hour) and its normal drop altitude has been 40,000 to 45,000 feet. It is 156 feet long and has a wing span of 185 feet. The heaviest load it has carried was the No. 2 X-15 aircraft at 53,100 pounds. Project manager for the aircraft is Roy Bryant.

  9. Overview of Fundamental High-Lift Research for Transport Aircraft at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leavitt, L. D.; Washburn, A. E.; Wahls, R. A.

    2007-01-01

    NASA has had a long history in fundamental and applied high lift research. Current programs provide a focus on the validation of technologies and tools that will enable extremely short take off and landing coupled with efficient cruise performance, simple flaps with flow control for improved effectiveness, circulation control wing concepts, some exploration into new aircraft concepts, and partnership with Air Force Research Lab in mobility. Transport high-lift development testing will shift more toward mid and high Rn facilities at least until the question: "How much Rn is required" is answered. This viewgraph presentation provides an overview of High-Lift research at NASA.

  10. Aircraft flight flutter testing at the NASA Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kehoe, Michael W.

    1988-01-01

    Many parameter identification techniques have been used at the NASA Ames Research Center, Dryden Research Facility at Edwards Air Force Base to determine the aeroelastic stability of new and modified research vehicles in flight. This paper presents a summary of each technique used with emphasis on fast Fourier transform methods. Experiences gained from application of these techniques to various flight test programs are discussed. Also presented are data-smoothing techniques used for test data distorted by noise. Data are presented for various aircraft to demonstrate the accuracy of each parameter identification technique discussed.

  11. Performance of an Electro-Hydrostatic Actuator on the F-18 Systems Research Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Navarro, Robert

    1997-01-01

    An electro-hydrostatic actuator was evaluated at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The primary goal of testing this actuator system was the flight demonstration of power-by-wire technology on a primary flight control surface. The electro-hydrostatic actuator uses an electric motor to drive a hydraulic pump and relies on local hydraulics for force transmission. This actuator replaced the F-18 standard left aileron actuator on the F-18 Systems Research Aircraft and was evaluated throughout the Systems Research Aircraft flight envelope. As of July 24, 1997 the electro-hydrostatic actuator had accumulated 23.5 hours of flight time. This paper presents the electro-hydrostatic actuator system configuration and component description, ground and flight test plans, ground and flight test results, and lessons learned. This actuator performs as well as the standard actuator and has more load capability than required by aileron actuator specifications of McDonnell- Douglas Aircraft, St. Louis, Missouri. The electro-hydrostatic actuator system passed all of its ground tests with the exception of one power-off test during unloaded dynamic cycling.

  12. Atmospheric effects of stratospheric aircraft - A status report from NASA's High-Speed Research Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wesoky, Howard L.; Prather, Michael J.

    1991-01-01

    Studies have indicated that, with sufficient technology development, future high-speed civil transport aircraft could be economically competitive with long-haul subsonic aircraft. However, uncertainty about atmospheric pollution, along with community noise and sonic boom, continues to be a major concern which is being addressed in the planned six-year High-Speed Research Program begun in 1990. Building on NASA's research in atmospheric science and emissions reduction, current analytical predictions indicate that an operating range may exist at altitudes below 20 km (i.e., corresponding to a cruise Mach number of approximately 2.4) where the goal level of 5 gm equivalent NO2 emissions/kg fuel will deplete less than one percent of column ozone. Because it will not be possible to directly measure the impact of an aircraft fleet on the atmosphere, the only means of assessment will be prediction. The process of establishing credibility for the predicted effects will likely be complex and involve continued model development and testing against climatological patterns. In particular, laboratory simulation of heterogeneous chemistry and other effects, and direct measurements of well understood tracers in the troposphere and stratosphere are being used to improve the current models.

  13. Flight Test Experience With an Electromechanical Actuator on the F-18 Systems Research Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Stephen C.; Jenney, Gavin D.; Raymond, Bruce; Dawson, David

    2000-01-01

    Development of reliable power-by-wire actuation systems for both aeronautical and space applications has been sought recently to eliminate hydraulic systems from aircraft and spacecraft and thus improve safety, efficiency, reliability, and maintainability. The Electrically Powered Actuation Design (EPAD) program was a joint effort between the Air Force, Navy, and NASA to develop and fly a series of actuators validating power-by-wire actuation technology on a primary flight control surface of a tactical aircraft. To achieve this goal, each of the EPAD actuators was installed in place of the standard hydraulic actuator on the left aileron of the NASA F/A-18B Systems Research Aircraft (SRA) and flown throughout the SRA flight envelope. Numerous parameters were recorded, and overall actuator performance was compared with the performance of the standard hydraulic actuator on the opposite wing. This paper discusses the integration and testing of the EPAD electromechanical actuator (EMA) on the SRA. The architecture of the EMA system is discussed, as well as its integration with the F/A-18 Flight Control System. The flight test program is described, and actuator performance is shown to be very close to that of the standard hydraulic actuator it replaced. Lessons learned during this program are presented and discussed, as well as suggestions for future research.

  14. Flight Test Experience with an Electromechanical Actuator on the F-18 Systems Research Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Stephen C.; Jenney, Gavin D.; Raymond, Bruce; Dawson, David; Flick, Brad (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Development of reliable power-by-wire actuation systems for both aeronautical and space applications has been sought recently to eliminate hydraulic systems from aircraft and spacecraft and thus improve safety, efficiency, reliability, and maintainability. The Electrically Powered Actuation Design (EPAD) program was a joint effort between the Air Force, Navy, and NASA to develop and fly a series of actuators validating power-by-wire actuation technology on a primary flight control surface of a tactical aircraft. To achieve this goal, each of the EPAD actuators was installed in place of the standard hydraulic actuator on the left aileron of the NASA F/A-18B Systems Research Aircraft (SRA) and flown throughout the SRA flight envelope. Numerous parameters were recorded, and overall actuator performance was compared with the performance of the standard hydraulic actuator on the opposite wing. This paper discusses the integration and testing of the EPAD electromechanical actuator (EMA) on the SRA. The architecture of the EMA system is discussed, as well as its integration with the F/A-18 Flight Control System. The flight test program is described, and actuator performance is shown to be very close to that of the standard hydraulic actuator it replaced. Lessons learned during this program are presented and discussed, as well as suggestions for future research.

  15. Experimental Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Joined-wing Research Aircraft Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Stephen C.; Stonum, Ronald K.

    1989-01-01

    A wind-tunnel test was conducted at Ames Research Center to measure the aerodynamic characteristics of a joined-wing research aircraft (JWRA). This aircraft was designed to utilize the fuselage and engines of the existing NASA AD-1 aircraft. The JWRA was designed to have removable outer wing panels to represent three different configurations with the interwing joint at different fractions of the wing span. A one-sixth-scale wind-tunnel model of all three configurations of the JWRA was tested in the Ames 12-Foot Pressure Wind Tunnel to measure aerodynamic performance, stability, and control characteristics. The results of these tests are presented. Longitudinal and lateral-directional characteristics were measured over an angle of attack range of -7 to 14 deg and over an angle of sideslip range of -5 to +2.5 deg at a Mach number of 0.35 and a Reynolds number of 2.2x10(6)/ft. Various combinations of deflected control surfaces were tested to measure the effectiveness and impact on stability of several control surface arrangements. In addition, the effects on stall and post-stall aerodynamic characteristics from small leading-edge devices called vortilons were measured. The results of these tests indicate that the JWRA had very good aerodynamic performance and acceptable stability and control throughout its flight envelope. The vortilons produced a profound improvement in the stall and post-stall characteristics with no measurable effects on cruise performance.

  16. Static noise tests on augmentor wing jet STOL research aircraft (C8A Buffalo)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marrs, C. C.; Harkonen, D. L.; Okeefe, J. V.

    1974-01-01

    Results are presented for full scale ground static acoustic tests of over-area conical nozzles and a lobe nozzle installed on the Augmentor Wing Jet STOL Research Aircraft, a modified C8A Buffalo. The noise levels and spectrums of the test nozzles are compared against those of the standard conical nozzle now in use on the aircraft. Acoustic evaluations at 152 m (500 ft), 304 m (1000 ft), and 1216 m (4000 ft) are made at various engine power settings with the emphasis on approach and takeoff power. Appendix A contains the test log and propulsion calculations. Appendix B gives the original test plan, which was closely adhered to during the test. Appendix C describes the acoustic data recording and reduction systems, with calibration details.

  17. Estimation of longitudinal stability and control derivatives for an icing research aircraft from flight data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batterson, James G.; Omara, Thomas M.

    1989-01-01

    The results of applying a modified stepwise regression algorithm and a maximum likelihood algorithm to flight data from a twin-engine commuter-class icing research aircraft are presented. The results are in the form of body-axis stability and control derivatives related to the short-period, longitudinal motion of the aircraft. Data were analyzed for the baseline (uniced) and for the airplane with an artificial glaze ice shape attached to the leading edge of the horizontal tail. The results are discussed as to the accuracy of the derivative estimates and the difference between the derivative values found for the baseline and the iced airplane. Additional comparisons were made between the maximum likelihood results and the modified stepwise regression results with causes for any discrepancies postulated.

  18. Fabrication methods for YF-12 wing panels for the Supersonic Cruise Aircraft Research Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, E. L.; Payne, L.; Carter, A. L.

    1975-01-01

    Advanced fabrication and joining processes for titanium and composite materials are being investigated by NASA to develop technology for the Supersonic Cruise Aircraft Research (SCAR) Program. With Lockheed-ADP as the prime contractor, full-scale structural panels are being designed and fabricated to replace an existing integrally stiffened shear panel on the upper wing surface of the NASA YF-12 aircraft. The program involves ground testing and Mach 3 flight testing of full-scale structural panels and laboratory testing of representative structural element specimens. Fabrication methods and test results for weldbrazed and Rohrbond titanium panels are discussed. The fabrication methods being developed for boron/aluminum, Borsic/aluminum, and graphite/polyimide panels are also presented.

  19. Dynamic structural aeroelastic stability testing of the XV-15 tilt rotor research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroers, L. G.

    1982-01-01

    For the past 20 years, a significant effort has been made to understand and predict the structural aeroelastic stability characteristics of the tilt rotor concept. Beginning with the rotor-pylon oscillation of the XV-3 aircraft, the problem was identified and then subjected to a series of theoretical studies, plus model and full-scale wind tunnel tests. From this data base, methods were developed to predict the structural aeroelastic stability characteristics of the XV-15 Tilt Rotor Research Aircraft. The predicted aeroelastic characteristics are examined in light of the major parameters effecting rotor-pylon-wing stability. Flight test techniques used to obtain XV-15 aeroelastic stability are described. Flight test results are summarized and compared to the predicted values. Wind tunnel results are compared to flight test results and correlated with predicted values.

  20. Experimental performance of an ablative material as an external insulator for a hypersonic research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Puster, R. L.; Chapman, A. J.

    1977-01-01

    An ablative material composed of silica-filled elastomeric silicone was tested to evaluate its thermal and structural performance as an external insulator, or heat shield, for a hypersonic research aircraft. The material was also tested to determine whether it would form a durable char layer when initially heated and thereafter function primarily as an insulator with little further pyrolysis or char removal. Aerothermal tests were representative of nominal Mach 6 cruise conditions of the aircraft, and additional tests were representative of Mach 8 cruise and interference heating conditions. Radiant heating tests were used to simulate the complete nominal Mach 6 surface-temperature history. The silica char that formed during aerothermal tests was not durable. The char experienced a general and preferential surface recession, with the primary mechanism for char removal being erosion. Tests revealed that radiant heating is not a valid technique for simulating aerodynamic heating of the material.

  1. Ground vibration test of the XV-15 Tiltrotor Research Aircraft and pretest predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Studebaker, Karen; Abrego, Anita

    1994-01-01

    The first comprehensive ground vibration survey was performed on the XV-15 Tiltrotor Research Aircraft to measure the vibration modes of the airframe and to provide data critical for determining whirl flutter stability margins. The aircraft was suspended by the wings with bungee cords and cables. A NASTRAN finite element model was used in the design of the suspension system to minimize its interference with the wing modes. The primary objective of the test was to measure the dynamic characteristics of the wings and pylons for aeroelastic stability analysis. In addition, over 130 accelerometers were placed on the airframe to characterize the fuselage, wing, and tail vibration. Pretest predictions were made with the NASTRAN model as well as correlations with the test data. The results showed that the suspension system provided the isolation necessary for modal measurements.

  2. Simulation evaluation of the control system command monitoring concept for the NASA V/STOL research aircraft (VSRA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroeder, J. A.; Moralez, E.; Merrick, V. K.

    1987-01-01

    A control-system monitoring concept is described that has the potential of rapidly detecting computer command failures (hardware or software) in fly-by-wire control systems. The concept has been successfully tested on the NASA Vertical/Short Takeoff and Landing Research Aircraft (VSRA) in the Ames Research Center's Vertical Motion Simulator. The test was particularly stringent, since the VSRA is required to operate in a hazardous environment. The fidelity of the aircraft model used in the simulation was verified by flying both the simulated and actual aircraft in a precision hover task using specially designed targets.

  3. The Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS), Higher Volume Operations (HVO) Concept and Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baxley, B.; Williams, D.; Consiglio, M.; Adams, C.; Abbott, T.

    2005-01-01

    The ability to conduct concurrent, multiple aircraft operations in poor weather at virtually any airport offers an important opportunity for a significant increase in the rate of flight operations, a major improvement in passenger convenience, and the potential to foster growth of operations at small airports. The Small Aircraft Transportation System, (SATS) Higher Volume Operations (HVO) concept is designed to increase capacity at the 3400 non-radar, non-towered airports in the United States where operations are currently restricted to one-in/one-out procedural separation during low visibility or ceilings. The concept s key feature is that pilots maintain their own separation from other aircraft using air-to-air datalink and on-board software within the Self-Controlled Area (SCA), an area of flight operations established during poor visibility and low ceilings around an airport without Air Traffic Control (ATC) services. While pilots self-separate within the SCA, an Airport Management Module (AMM) located at the airport assigns arriving pilots their sequence based on aircraft performance, position, winds, missed approach requirements, and ATC intent. The HVO design uses distributed decision-making, safe procedures, attempts to minimize pilot and controller workload, and integrates with today's ATC environment. The HVO procedures have pilots make their own flight path decisions when flying in Instrument Metrological Conditions (IMC) while meeting these requirements. This paper summarizes the HVO concept and procedures, presents a summary of the research conducted and results, and outlines areas where future HVO research is required. More information about SATS HVO can be found at http://ntrs.nasa.gov.

  4. A real-time, dual processor simulation of the rotor system research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackie, D. B.; Alderete, T. S.

    1977-01-01

    A real-time, man-in-the loop, simulation of the rotor system research aircraft (RSRA) was conducted. The unique feature of this simulation was that two digital computers were used in parallel to solve the equations of the RSRA mathematical model. The design, development, and implementation of the simulation are documented. Program validation was discussed, and examples of data recordings are given. This simulation provided an important research tool for the RSRA project in terms of safe and cost-effective design analysis. In addition, valuable knowledge concerning parallel processing and a powerful simulation hardware and software system was gained.

  5. Comparison of Profiling Microwave Radiometer, Aircraft, and Radiosonde Measurements From the Alliance Icing Research Study (AIRS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reehorst, Andrew L.

    2001-01-01

    Measurements from a profiling microwave radiometer are compared to measurements from a research aircraft and radiosondes. Data compared is temperature, water vapor, and liquid water profiles. Data was gathered at the Alliance Icing Research Study (AIRS) at Mirabel Airport outside Montreal, Canada during December 1999 and January 2000. All radiometer measurements were found to lose accuracy when the radome was wet. When the radome was not wetted, the radiometer was seen to indicate an inverted distribution of liquid water within a cloud. When the radiometer measurements were made at 15 deg. instead of the standard zenith, the measurements were less accurate.

  6. Crash Test of Three Cessna 172 Aircraft at NASA Langley Research Center's Landing and Impact Research Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Littell, Justin D.

    2015-01-01

    During the summer of 2015, three Cessna 172 aircraft were crash tested at the Landing and Impact Research Facility (LandIR) at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC). The three tests simulated three different crash scenarios. The first simulated a flare-to-stall emergency or hard landing onto a rigid surface such as a road or runway, the second simulated a controlled flight into terrain with a nose down pitch on the aircraft, and the third simulated a controlled flight into terrain with an attempt to unsuccessfully recover the aircraft immediately prior to impact, resulting in a tail strike condition. An on-board data acquisition system captured 64 channels of airframe acceleration, along with acceleration and load in two onboard Hybrid II 50th percentile Anthropomorphic Test Devices, representing the pilot and co-pilot. Each test contained different airframe loading conditions and results show large differences in airframe performance. This paper presents test methods used to conduct the crash tests and will summarize the airframe results from the test series.

  7. The SR-71 Test Bed Aircraft: A Facility for High-Speed Flight Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corda, Stephen; Moes, Timothy R.; Mizukami, Masashi; Hass, Neal E.; Jones, Daniel; Monaghan, Richard C.; Ray, Ronald J.; Jarvis, Michele L.; Palumbo, Nathan

    2000-01-01

    The SR-71 test bed aircraft is shown to be a unique platform to flight-test large experiments to supersonic Mach numbers. The test bed hardware mounted on the SR-71 upper fuselage is described. This test bed hardware is composed of a fairing structure called the "canoe" and a large "reflection plane" flat plate for mounting experiments. Total experiment weights, including the canoe and reflection plane, as heavy as 14,500 lb can be mounted on the aircraft and flight-tested to speeds as fast as Mach 3.2 and altitudes as high as 80,000 ft. A brief description of the SR-71 aircraft is given, including details of the structural modifications to the fuselage, modifications to the J58 engines to provide increased thrust, and the addition of a research instrumentation system. Information is presented based on flight data that describes the SR-71 test bed aerodynamics, stability and control, structural and thermal loads, the canoe internal environment, and reflection plane flow quality. Guidelines for designing SR-71 test bed experiments are also provided.

  8. Research on aircraft trailing vortex detection based on laser's multiplex information echo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Nan-xiang; Wu, Yong-hua; Hu, Yi-hua; Lei, Wu-hu

    2010-10-01

    Airfoil trailing vortex is an important reason for the crash, and vortex detection is the basic premise for the civil aeronautics boards to make the flight measures and protect civil aviation's security. So a new method of aircraft trailing vortex detection based on laser's multiplex information echo has been proposed in this paper. According to the classical aerodynamics theories, the formation mechanism of the trailing vortex from the airfoil wingtip has been analyzed, and the vortex model of Boeing 737 in the taking-off phase has also been established on the FLUENT software platform. Combining with the unique morphological structure characteristics of trailing vortex, we have discussed the vortex's possible impact on the frequency, amplitude and phase information of laser echo, and expounded the principle of detecting vortex based on fusing this information variation of laser echo. In order to prove the feasibility of this detecting technique, the field experiment of detecting the vortex of civil Boeing 737 by laser has been carried on. The experimental result has shown that the aircraft vortex could be found really in the laser scanning area, and its diffusion characteristic has been very similar to the previous simulation result. Therefore, this vortex detection means based on laser's multiplex information echo was proved to be practicable relatively in this paper. It will provide the detection and identification of aircraft's trailing vortex a new way, and have massive research value and extensive application prospect as well.

  9. Applications of the Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA) 'MASC' in Atmospheric Boundary Layer Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wildmann, Norman; Platis, Andreas; Tupman, David-James; Bange, Jens

    2015-04-01

    The remotely piloted aircraft (RPA) MASC (Multipurpose Airborne Sensor Carrier) was developed at the University of Tübingen in cooperation with the University of Stuttgart, University of Applied Sciences Ostwestfalen-Lippe and 'ROKE-Modelle'. Its purpose is the investigation of thermodynamic processes in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL), including observations of temperature, humidity and wind profiles, as well as the measurement of turbulent heat, moisture and momentum fluxes. The aircraft is electrically powered, has a maximum wingspan of 3.40~m and a total weight of 5-8~kg, depending on the battery- and payload. The standard meteorological payload consists of two temperature sensors, a humidity sensor, a flow probe, an inertial measurement unit and a GNSS. The sensors were optimized for the resolution of small-scale turbulence down to length scales in the sub-meter range. In normal operation, the aircraft is automatically controlled by the ROCS (Research Onboard Computer System) autopilot to be able to fly predefined paths at constant altitude and airspeed. Only take-off and landing are carried out by a human RC pilot. Since 2012, the system is operational and has since then been deployed in more than ten measurement campaigns, with more than 100 measurement flights. The fields of research that were tackled in these campaigns include sensor validation, fundamental boundary-layer research and wind-energy research. In 2014, for the first time, two MASC have been operated at the same time within a distance of a few kilometres, in order to investigate the wind field over an escarpment in the Swabian Alb. Furthermore, MASC was first deployed off-shore in October 2014, starting from the German island Heligoland in the North Sea, for the purpose of characterization of the marine boundary layer for offshore wind parks. Detailed descriptions of the experimental setup and first preliminary results will be presented.

  10. Partners in Freedom: Contributions of the Langley Research Center to U.S. Military Aircraft of the 1990's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambers, Joseph R.

    2000-01-01

    Established in 1917 as the nation#s first civil aeronautics research laboratory under the National Advisory Commit-tee for Aeronautics (NACA), Langley was a small laboratory that solved the problems of flight for military and civil aviation. Throughout history, Langley has maintained a working partnership with the Department of Defense, U.S. industry, universities, and other government agencies to support the defense of the nation with research. During World War II, Langley directed virtually all of its workforce and facilities to research for military aircraft. Following the war, a balanced program of military and civil projects was undertaken. In some instances Langley research from one aircraft program helped solve a problem in another. At the conclusion of some programs, Langley obtained the research models for additional tests to learn more about previously unknown phenomena. The data also proved useful in later developmental programs. Many of the military aircraft in the U.S. inventory as of late 1999 were over 20 years old. Langley activities that contributed to the development of some of these aircraft began over 50 years prior. This publication documents the role, from early concept stages to problem solving for fleet aircraft, that Langley played in the military aircraft fleet of the United States for the 1990's.

  11. Application of the Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA) 'MASC' in Atmospheric Boundary Layer Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wildmann, Norman; Bange, Jens

    2014-05-01

    The remotely piloted aircraft (RPA) MASC (Multipurpose Airborne Sensor Carrier) was developed at the University of Tübingen in cooperation with the University of Stuttgart, University of Applied Sciences Ostwestfalen-Lippe and 'ROKE-Modelle'. Its purpose is the investigation of thermodynamic processes in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL), including observations of temperature, humidity and wind profiles, as well as the measurement of turbulent heat, moisture and momentum fluxes. The aircraft is electrically powered, has a maximum wingspan of 3.40 m and a total weight of 5-8 kg, depending on battery- and payload. The standard meteorological payload consists of temperature sensors, a humidity sensor, a flow probe, an inertial measurement unit and a GNSS. In normal operation, the aircraft is automatically controlled by the ROCS (Research Onboard Computer System) autopilot to be able to fly predefined paths at constant altitude and airspeed. Since 2010 the system has been tested and improved intensively. In September 2012 first comparative tests could successfully be performed at the Lindenberg observatory of Germany's National Meteorological Service (DWD). In 2013, several campaigns were done with the system, including fundamental boundary layer research, wind energy meteorology and assistive measurements to aerosol investigations. The results of a series of morning transition experiments in summer 2013 will be presented to demonstrate the capabilities of the measurement system. On several convective days between May and September, vertical soundings were done to record the evolution of the ABL in the early morning, from about one hour after sunrise, until noon. In between the soundings, flight legs of up to 1 km length were performed to measure turbulent statistics and fluxes at a constant altitude. With the help of surface flux measurements of a sonic anemometer, methods of similarity theory could be applied to the RPA flux measurements to compare them to literature. The results show prospects and limitations of boundary layer research with a single RPA at the present state of the art.

  12. V/STOL Systems Research Aircraft: A Tool for Cockpit Integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stortz, Michael W.; ODonoghue, Dennis P.; Tiffany, Geary (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The next generation ASTOVL aircraft will have a complicated propulsion System. The configuration choices include Direct Lift, Lift-Fan and Lift+Lift /Cruise but the aircraft must also have supersonic performance and low-observable characteristics. The propulsion system may have features such as flow blockers, vectoring nozzles and flow transfer schemes. The flight control system will necessarily fully integrate the aerodynamic surfaces and the propulsive elements. With a fully integrated, fly-by-wire flight/propulsion control system, the options for cockpit integration are interesting and varied. It is possible to decouple longitudinal and vertical responses allowing the pilot to close the loop on flight path and flight path acceleration directly. In the hover, the pilot can control the translational rate directly without having to stabilize the inner rate and attitude loops. The benefit of this approach, reduced workload and increased precision. has previously been demonstrated through several motion-based simulations. In order to prove the results in flight, the V/STOL System Research Aircraft (VSRA) was developed at the NASA Ames Research Center. The VSRA is the YAV-8B Prototype modified with a research flight control system using a series-parallel servo configuration in all the longitudinal degrees of freedom (including thrust and thrust vector angle) to provide an integrated flight and propulsion control system in a limited envelope. Development of the system has been completed and flight evaluations of the response types have been performed. In this paper we will discuss the development of the VSRA, the evolution of the flight path command and translational rate command response types and the Guest Pilot evaluations of the system. Pilot evaluation results will be used to draw conclusions regarding the suitability of the system to satisfy V/STOL requirements.

  13. V/STOL systems research aircraft: A tool for cockpit integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stortz, Michael W.; ODonoghue, Dennis P.

    1995-01-01

    The next generation ASTOVL aircraft will have a complicated propulsion system. The configuration choices include Direct Lift, Lift-Fan and Lift + Lift/Cruise but the aircraft must also have supersonic performance and low-observable characteristics. The propulsion system may have features such as flow blockers, vectoring nozzles and flow transfer schemes. The flight control system will necessarily fully integrate the aerodynamic surfaces and the propulsive elements. With a fully integrated, fly-by-wire flight/propulsion control system, the options for cockpit integration are interesting and varied. It is possible to de-couple longitudinal and vertical responses allowing the pilot to close the loop on flightpath and flightpath acceleration directly. In the hover, the pilot can control the translational rate directly without having to stabilize the inner rate and attitude loops. The benefit of this approach, reduced workload and increased precision, has previously been demonstrated through several motion-based simulations. In order to prove the results in flight, the V/STOL System Research Aircraft (VSRA) was developed at the NASA Ames Research Center. The VSRA is the YAV-8B Prototype modified with a research flight control system using a series-parallel servo configuration in all the longitudinal degrees of freedom (including thrust and thrust vector angle) to provide an integrated flight and propulsion control system in a limited envelope. Development of the system has been completed and flight evaluations of the response types have been performed. In this paper we will discuss the development of the VSRA, the evolution of the flightpath command and translational rate command response types and the Guest Pilot evaluations of the system. Pilot evaluation results are used to draw conclusions regarding the suitability of the system to satisfy V/STOL requirements.

  14. Cost and schedule management on the quiet short-haul research aircraft project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, D. E.; Patterakis, P.

    1979-01-01

    The Quiet Short-Haul Research Aircraft (QSRA) Project, one of the largest aeronautical programs undertaken by NASA to date, achieved a significant cost underrun. This is attributed to numerous factors, not the least of which were the contractual arrangement and the system of cost and schedule management employed by the contractor. This paper summarizes that system and the methods used for cost/performance measurement by the contractor and by the NASA project management. Recommendations are made for the use of some of these concepts in particular for future programs of a similar nature.

  15. Variable pitch fan system for NASA/Navy research and technology aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, W. P.; Black, D. M.; Yates, A. F.

    1977-01-01

    Preliminary design of a shaft driven, variable-pitch lift fan and lift-cruise fan was conducted for a V/STOL Research and Technology Aircraft. The lift fan and lift-cruise fan employed a common rotor of 157.5 cm diameter, 1.18 pressure ratio variable-pitch fan designed to operate at a rotor-tip speed of 284 mps. Fan performance maps were prepared and detailed aerodynamic characteristics were established. Cost/weight/risk trade studies were conducted for the blade and fan case. Structural sizing was conducted for major components and weights determined for both the lift and lift-cruise fans.

  16. Research on motion model for the hypersonic boost-glide aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shenda; Wu, Jing; Wang, Xueying

    2015-11-01

    A motion model for the hypersonic boost-glide aircraft(HBG) was proposed in this paper, which also analyzed the precision of model through simulation. Firstly the trajectory of HBG was analyzed, and a scheme which divide the trajectory into two parts then build the motion model on each part. Secondly a restrained model of boosting stage and a restrained model of J2 perturbation were established, and set up the observe model. Finally the analysis of simulation results show the feasible and high-accuracy of the model, and raise a expectation for intensive research.

  17. Advancement of proprotor technology. Task 1: Design study summary. [aerodynamic concept of minimum size tilt proprotor research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    A tilt-proprotor proof-of-concept aircraft design study has been conducted. The results are presented. The ojective of the contract is to advance the state of proprotor technology through design studies and full-scale wind-tunnel tests. The specific objective is to conduct preliminary design studies to define a minimum-size tilt-proprotor research aircraft that can perform proof-of-concept flight research. The aircraft that results from these studies is a twin-engine, high-wing aircraft with 25-foot, three-bladed tilt proprotors mounted on pylons at the wingtips. Each pylon houses a Pratt and Whitney PT6C-40 engine with a takeoff rating of 1150 horsepower. Empty weight is estimated at 6876 pounds. The normal gross weight is 9500 pounds, and the maximum gross weight is 12,400 pounds.

  18. A survey of heating and turbulent boundary layer characteristics of several hypersonic research aircraft configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawing, P. L.

    1981-01-01

    Four of the configurations investigated during a proposed NASA-Langley hypersonic research aircraft program were selected for phase-change-paint heat-transfer testing and forebody boundary layer pitot surveys. In anticipation of future hypersonic aircraft, both published and unpublished data and results are reviewed and presented with the purpose of providing a synoptic heat-transfer data base from the research effort. Engineering heat-transfer predictions are compared with experimental data on both a global and a local basis. The global predictions are shown to be sufficient for purposes of configuration development, and even the local predictions can be adequate when interpreted in light of the proper flow field. In that regard, cross flow in the forebody boundary layers was examined for significant heating and aerodynamic effect on the scramjet engines. A design philosophy which evolved from the research airplane effort is used to design a forebody shape that produces thin, uniform, forebody boundary layers on a hypersonic airbreathing missile. Finally, heating/boundary layer phenomena which are not predictable with state-of-the-art knowledge and techniques are shown and discussed.

  19. Determination of longitudinal aerodynamic derivatives using flight data from an icing research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ranaudo, R. J.; Reehorst, A. L.; Bond, T. H.; Batterson, J. G.; O'Mara, T. M.

    1989-01-01

    A flight test was performed with the NASA Lewis Research Center's DH-6 icing research aircraft. The purpose was to employ a flight test procedure and data analysis method, to determine the accuracy with which the effects of ice on aircraft stability and control could be measured. For simplicity, flight testing was restricted to the short period longitudinal mode. Two flights were flown in a clean (baseline) configuration, and two flights were flown with simulated horizontal tail ice. Forty-five repeat doublet maneuvers were performed in each of four test configurations, at a given trim speed, to determine the ensemble variation of the estimated stability and control derivatives. Additional maneuvers were also performed in each configuration, to determine the variation in the longitudinal derivative estimates over a wide range of trim speeds. Stability and control derivatives were estimated by a Modified Stepwise Regression (MSR) technique. A measure of the confidence in the derivative estimates was obtained by comparing the standard error for the ensemble of repeat maneuvers, to the average of the estimated standard errors predicted by the MSR program. A multiplicative relationship was determined between the ensemble standard error, and the averaged program standard errors. In addition, a 95 percent confidence interval analysis was performed for the elevator effectiveness estimates, C sub m sub delta e. This analysis identified the speed range where changes in C sub m sub delta e could be attributed to icing effects. The magnitude of icing effects on the derivative estimates were strongly dependent on flight speed and aircraft wing flap configuration. With wing flaps up, the estimated derivatives were degraded most at lower speeds corresponding to that configuration. With wing flaps extended to 10 degrees, the estimated derivatives were degraded most at the higher corresponding speeds. The effects of icing on the changes in longitudinal stability and control derivat

  20. Determination of longitudinal aerodynamic derivatives using flight data from an icing research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ranaudo, R. J.; Batterson, J. G.; Reehorst, A. L.; Bond, T. H.; Omara, T. M.

    1989-01-01

    A flight test was performed with the NASA Lewis Research Center's DH-6 icing research aircraft. The purpose was to employ a flight test procedure and data analysis method, to determine the accuracy with which the effects of ice on aircraft stability and control could be measured. For simplicity, flight testing was restricted to the short period longitudinal mode. Two flights were flown in a clean (baseline) configuration, and two flights were flown with simulated horizontal tail ice. Forty-five repeat doublet maneuvers were performed in each of four test configurations, at a given trim speed, to determine the ensemble variation of the estimated stability and control derivatives. Additional maneuvers were also performed in each configuration, to determine the variation in the longitudinal derivative estimates over a wide range of trim speeds. Stability and control derivatives were estimated by a Modified Stepwise Regression (MSR) technique. A measure of the confidence in the derivative estimates was obtained by comparing the standard error for the ensemble of repeat maneuvers, to the average of the estimated standard errors predicted by the MSR program. A multiplicative relationship was determined between the ensemble standard error, and the averaged program standard errors. In addition, a 95 percent confidence interval analysis was performed for the elevator effectiveness estimates, C sub m sub delta e. This analysis identified the speed range where changes in C sub m sub delta e could be attributed to icing effects. The magnitude of icing effects on the derivative estimates were strongly dependent on flight speed and aircraft wing flap configuration. With wing flaps up, the estimated derivatives were degraded most at lower speeds corresponding to that configuration. With wing flaps extended to 10 degrees, the estimated derivatives were degraded most at the higher corresponding speeds. The effects of icing on the changes in longitudinal stability and control derivatives were adequately determined by the flight test procedure and the MSR analysis method discussed herein.

  1. Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research: Phase 2. Volume 2; Hybrid Electric Design Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, Marty K.; Droney, Christopher K.

    2015-01-01

    This report summarizes the hybrid electric concept design, analysis, and modeling work accomplished by the Boeing Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research (SUGAR) team, consisting of Boeing Research and Technology, Boeing Commercial Airplanes, General Electric, and Georgia Tech.Performance and sizing tasks were conducted for hybrid electric versions of a conventional tube-and-wing aircraft and a hybrid wing body. The high wing Truss Braced Wing (TBW) SUGAR Volt was updated based on results from the TBW work (documented separately) and new engine performance models. Energy cost and acoustic analyses were conducted and technology roadmaps were updated for hybrid electric and battery technology. NOx emissions were calculated for landing and takeoff (LTO) and cruise. NPSS models were developed for hybrid electric components and tested using an integrated analysis of superconducting and non-superconducting hybrid electric engines. The hybrid electric SUGAR Volt was shown to produce significant emissions and fuel burn reductions beyond those achieved by the conventionally powered SUGAR High and was able to meet the NASA goals for fuel burn. Total energy utilization was not decreased but reduced energy cost can be achieved for some scenarios. The team was not able to identify a technology development path to meet NASA's noise goals

  2. Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research. Phase II - Volume I; Truss Braced Wing Design Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, Marty K.; Droney, Christopher K.; Allen, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    This report summarizes the Truss Braced Wing (TBW) work accomplished by the Boeing Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research (SUGAR) team, consisting of Boeing Research and Technology, Boeing Commercial Airplanes, General Electric, Georgia Tech, Virginia Tech, NextGen Aeronautics, and Microcraft. A multi-disciplinary optimization (MDO) environment defined the geometry that was further refined for the updated SUGAR High TBW configuration. Airfoil shapes were tested in the NASA TCT facility, and an aeroelastic model was tested in the NASA TDT facility. Flutter suppression was successfully demonstrated using control laws derived from test system ID data and analysis models. Aeroelastic impacts for the TBW design are manageable and smaller than assumed in Phase I. Flutter analysis of TBW designs need to include pre-load and large displacement non-linear effects to obtain a reasonable match to test data. With the updated performance and sizing, fuel burn and energy use is reduced by 54% compared to the SUGAR Free current technology Baseline (Goal 60%). Use of the unducted fan version of the engine reduces fuel burn and energy by 56% compared to the Baseline. Technology development roadmaps were updated, and an airport compatibility analysis established feasibility of a folding wing aircraft at existing airports.

  3. NASA rotor systems research aircraft: Fixed-wing configuration flight-test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, R. E.; Cross, J. L.; Kufeld, R. M.; Acree, C. W.; Nguyen, D.; Hodge, R. W.

    1986-01-01

    The fixed-wing, airplane configuration flight-test results of the Rotor System Research Aircraft (RSRA), NASA 740, at Ames/Dryden Flight Research Center are documented. Fourteen taxi and flight tests were performed from December 1983 to October 1984. This was the first time the RSRA was flown with the main rotor removed; the tail rotor was installed. These tests confirmed that the RSRA is operable as a fixed-wing aircraft. Data were obtained for various takeoff and landing distances, control sensitivity, trim and dynamics stability characteristics, performance rotor-hub drag, and acoustics signature. Stability data were obtained with the rotor hub both installed and removed. The speed envelope was developed to 261 knots true airspeed (KTAS), 226 knots calibrated airspeed (KCAS) at 10,000 ft density altitude. The airplane was configured at 5 deg. wing incidence with 5 deg. wing flaps as a normal configuration. Level-flight data were acquired at 167 KCAS for wing incidence from 0 to 10 deg. Step inputs and doublet inputs of various magnitudes were utilized to acquire dynamic stability and control sensitivity data. Sine-wave inputs of constantly increasing frequency were used to generate parameter identification data. The maximum load factor attained was 2.34 g at 206 KCAS.

  4. An Evaluation Technique for an F/A-18 Aircraft Loads Model Using F/A-18 Systems Research Aircraft Flight Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olney, Candida D.; Hillebrandt, Heather; Reichenbach, Eric Y.

    2000-01-01

    A limited evaluation of the F/A-18 baseline loads model was performed on the Systems Research Aircraft at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center (Edwards, California). Boeing developed the F/A-18 loads model using a linear aeroelastic analysis in conjunction with a flight simulator to determine loads at discrete locations on the aircraft. This experiment was designed so that analysis of doublets could be used to establish aircraft aerodynamic and loads response at 20 flight conditions. Instrumentation on the right outboard leading edge flap, left aileron, and left stabilator measured the hinge moment so that comparisons could be made between in-flight-measured hinge moments and loads model-predicted values at these locations. Comparisons showed that the difference between the loads model-predicted and in-flight-measured hinge moments was up to 130 percent of the flight limit load. A stepwise regression technique was used to determine new loads derivatives. These derivatives were placed in the loads model, which reduced the error to within 10 percent of the flight limit load. This paper discusses the flight test methodology, a process for determining loads coefficients, and the direct comparisons of predicted and measured hinge moments and loads coefficients.

  5. Dryden Research Aircraft Fleet on Ramp - 1993, X-15, F-18, SR-71, X-31, X-29

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    A group photo of research aircraft at NASA's Ames/Dryden Flight Research Facility in 1993 (redesignated the Dryden Flight Research Center in 1994). Left to right: mock-up of X-15, F-18B, SR-71A, X-31, and X-29. The X-15 mock-up is painted as the #3 aircraft, which was lost on November 15, 1967, in an accident that resulted in the death of Air Force Major Mike Adams. The mock-up is now (2001) atop a pole in front of Dryden's main gate. The two-seat F-18B was in use around the turn of the 20th into the 21st century as a chase aircraft for a variety of projects. The SR-71 was one of several transferred to NASA after the aircraft was retired by the Air Force. The X-31 was designed to test flight at high angles of attack using thrust vectoring. The X-29 served as a testbed for forward swept wings. These aircraft and mock-up suggest the great variety of flight research that Dryden Flight Research Center and its predecessor organizations have conducted over more than 50 years since 1946.

  6. An experimental and analytical method for approximate determination of the tilt rotor research aircraft rotor/wing download

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordon, D. E.; Patterson, W.; Sandlin, D. R.

    1985-01-01

    The XV-15 Tilt Rotor Research Aircraft download phenomenon was analyzed. This phenomenon is a direct result of the two rotor wakes impinging on the wing upper surface when the aircraft is in the hover configuration. For this study the analysis proceeded along tow lines. First was a method whereby results from actual hover tests of the XV-15 aircraft were combined with drag coefficient results from wind tunnel tests of a wing that was representative of the aircraft wing. Second, an analytical method was used that modeled that airflow caused gy the two rotors. Formulas were developed in such a way that acomputer program could be used to calculate the axial velocities were then used in conjunction with the aforementioned wind tunnel drag coefficinet results to produce download values. An attempt was made to validate the analytical results by modeling a model rotor system for which direct download values were determinrd..

  7. Scaled Composites' Proteus aircraft and an F/A-18 Hornet from NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center d

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Scaled Composites' Proteus aircraft and an F/A-18 Hornet from NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center during a low-level flyby at Las Cruces Airport in New Mexico. The unique Proteus aircraft served as a test bed for NASA-sponsored flight tests designed to validate collision-avoidance technologies proposed for uninhabited aircraft. The tests, flown over southern New Mexico in March, 2002, used the Proteus as a surrogate uninhabited aerial vehicle (UAV) while three other aircraft flew toward the Proteus from various angles on simulated collision courses. Radio-based 'detect, see and avoid' equipment on the Proteus successfully detected the other aircraft and relayed that information to a remote pilot on the ground at Las Cruces Airport. The pilot then transmitted commands to the Proteus to maneuver it away from the potential collisions. The flight demonstration, sponsored by NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, New Mexico State University, Scaled Composites, the U.S. Navy and Modern Technology Solutions, Inc., were intended to demonstrate that UAVs can be flown safely and compatibly in the same skies as piloted aircraft.

  8. Enabling Electric Propulsion for Flight - Hybrid Electric Aircraft Research at AFRC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, Sean; Lin, Yohan; Kloesel, Kurt; Ginn, Starr

    2014-01-01

    Advances in electric machine efficiency and energy storage capability are enabling a new alternative to traditional propulsion systems for aircraft. This has already begun with several small concept and demonstration vehicles, and NASA projects this technology will be essential to meet energy and emissions goals for commercial aviation in the next 30 years. In order to raise the Technology Readiness Level of electric propulsion systems, practical integration and performance challenges will need to be identified and studied in the near-term so that larger, more advanced electric propulsion system testbeds can be designed and built. Researchers at NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center are building up a suite of test articles for the development, integration, and validation of these systems in a real world environment.

  9. Efficient, Low-Cost Fan System Research for General Aviation and Commuter Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merrill, G. L.

    2003-01-01

    This document reports research investigations into efficient, low-cost fan system concepts for high bypass turbofans for future general aviation and commuter aircraft. The research specifically addressed lower pressure ratio fans for good propulsive efficiencies in the 200 to 400 knot flight speed regime. Aerodynamic design analyses yielded predicted efficiency in area of 91 to 92 percent (adiabatic). Low-cost manufacturing studies yielded an aluminum blisk rotor and investment cast stator having lowest cost. Structural design analyses yielded a design having excellent vibratory characteristics and the ability to pass One- and Four-pound bird strikes satisfactorily. The low speed and low pressure fans of the study are estimated to have 24 to 30 EPNdB lower community noise levels than larger, high pressure ratio transonic fans.

  10. Gravity-Dependent Combustion and Fluids Research - From Drop Towers to Aircraft to the ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urban, David L.; Singh, Bhim S.; Kohl, Fred J.

    2007-01-01

    Driven by the need for knowledge related to the low-gravity environment behavior of fluids in liquid fuels management, thermal control systems and fire safety for spacecraft, NASA embarked on a decades long research program to understand, accommodate and utilize the relevant phenomena. Beginning in the 1950s, and continuing through to today, drop towers and aircraft were used to conduct an ever broadening and increasingly sophisticated suite of experiments designed to elucidate the underlying gravity-dependent physics that drive these processes. But the drop towers and aircraft afford only short time periods of continuous low gravity. Some of the earliest rocket test flights and manned space missions hosted longer duration experiments. The relatively longer duration low-g times available on the space shuttle during the 1980s and 1990s enabled many specialized experiments that provided unique data for a wide range of science and engineering disciplines. Indeed, a number of STS-based Spacelab missions were dedicated solely to basic and applied microgravity research in the biological, life and physical sciences. Between 1980 and 2000, NASA implemented a vigorous Microgravity Science Program wherein combustion science and fluid physics were major components. The current era of space stations from the MIR to the International Space Station have opened up a broad range of opportunities and facilities that are now available to support both applied research for technologies that will help to enable the future exploration missions and for a continuation of the non-exploration basic research that began over fifty years ago. The ISS-based facilities of particular value to the fluid physics and combustion/fire safety communities are the Fluids and Combustion Facility Combustion Integrated Rack and the Fluids Integrated Rack.

  11. Sensor Web Approach For Next-Generation Research Aircraft Platform Data Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorenson, C.; Freudinger, L.; Yarbrough, S.

    2006-12-01

    A NASA project creating sensor web tools has resulted in systems which provide network telemetry for airborne experiments, while also providing traditional data system functions. The Research Environment for Vehicle-Embedded Analysis on Linux (REVEAL) software and hardware has now been tested on many Airborne Science campaigns and on several aircraft platforms, both manned and UAV, with participants across the Internet monitoring and contributing to the success of each mission. The software is a self-configuring, self-documenting framework based on open-standards XML which can wrap any schema such as SensorML to automatically generate metadata. Experimenters can participate by providing real-time instrument data in whatever format is most convenient to them. Buffering middleware enables efficient data distribution across the network, where applications can add value and create live displays, despite very limited air-ground bandwidth for telemetering the merged data streams. The system architecture is described, and plans are described to replace or install systems on several NASA Airborne Science platform aircraft. These new systems will be transparent to legacy instruments while enabling sensor web and telepresence applications, and provide a common interface across the platforms.

  12. CV-990 Landing Systems Research Aircraft (LSRA) flight #145 drilling of shuttle tire using Tire Assa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Created from a 1/16th model of a German World War II tank, the TAV (Tire Assault Vehicle) was an important safety feature for the Convair 990 Landing System Research Aircraft, which tested space shuttle tires. It was imperative to know the extreme conditions the shuttle tires could tolerate at landing without putting the shuttle and its crew at risk. In addition, the CV990 was able to land repeatedly to test the tires. The TAV was built from a kit and modified into a radio controlled, video-equipped machine to drill holes in aircraft test tires that were in imminent danger of exploding because of one or more conditions: high air pressure, high temperatures, and cord wear. An exploding test tire releases energy equivalent to two and one-half sticks of dynamite and can cause severe injuries to anyone within 50 ft. of the explosion, as well as ear injury - possibly permanent hearing loss - to anyone within 100 ft. The degree of danger is also determined by the temperature pressure and cord wear of a test tire. The TAV was developed by David Carrott, a PRC employee under contract to NASA.

  13. NASA aeronautics. [fact sheet on NASA programs for aeronautical research and aircraft development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A fact sheet depicting the NASA programs involving aircraft development and aeronautics is presented. The fact sheet consists of artist concepts of the various aircraft which represent specific programs. Among the subjects discussed in the concise explanatory notes are: (1) the YF-12 aircraft, (2) hypersonic drag tests in wind tunnels, (3) augmentor wing concepts, (4) rotary wing development, (5) fly-by-wire aircraft control, (6) supercritical wings, (7) the quiet engine program for noise and emission abatement, (8) flight capabilities of lifting bodies, (9) tilt rotor concepts for improved helicopter performance, and (10) flight safety improvements for general aviation aircraft.

  14. NOAA Utilization of the Global Hawk Unmanned Aircraft for Atmospheric Research and Forecast Improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wick, G. A.; Hood, R. E.; Black, M. L.; Spackman, J. R.; Ralph, F. M.; Intrieri, J. M.; Hock, T. F.; Neiman, P. J.

    2014-12-01

    High altitude, long endurance unmanned aircraft provide a tremendous new capability for monitoring the atmosphere in support of weather research and forecast improvement. The NOAA Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) program is collaborating with NASA on the use of their Global Hawk (GH) aircraft for research into better understanding and forecasting high-impact weather events. NOAA has participated in multiple field campaigns either in partnership with NASA including the Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP, 2010) and the Hurricane and Severe Storm Sentinel (HS3, 2011-2014) experiments, or under NOAA leadership during the Winter Storms and Pacific Atmospheric Rivers (WISPAR, 2011) experiment. This past year, NOAA began a 3-year project, Sensing Hazards with Operational Unmanned Technology (SHOUT), to quantify the influence of UAS data on high-impact weather prediction and assess the operational effectiveness of UAS to help mitigate the risk of potential satellite observing gaps. The NOAA UAS system partnered with the National Center for Atmospheric Research in the development of a dropsonde system for the GH which has been flown along with other remote sensing instrumentation. This presentation summarizes our key results to date and describes our planned activities over the next two years. Flights during WISPAR provided measurements of water vapor transport within atmospheric rivers for evaluation of numerical weather prediction forecasts and analyses. A flight sampling the Arctic atmosphere north of Alaska included the first dropsondes released in the Arctic since the 1950's and extensive measurements of boundary-layer variability over an ocean-ice lead feature. Assimilation of GH dropsonde data collected in the environment around tropical storms during HS3 has demonstrated significant positive forecast improvements. Data are also being employed in the validation of multiple satellite-derived products. In SHOUT, campaigns are planned targeting Atlantic and Eastern Pacific basin tropical cyclones and high-impact weather events affecting Alaska and the continental U.S. Dedicated Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs) and Observing System Experiments (OSEs) are underway to evaluate instrumentation and sampling and to demonstrate the impact of the data.

  15. Aerodynamic configuration development of the highly maneuverable aircraft technology remotely piloted research vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gingrich, P. B.; Child, R. D.; Panageas, G. N.

    1977-01-01

    The aerodynamic development of the highly maneuverable aircraft technology remotely piloted research vehicle (HiMAT/RPRV) from the conceptual design to the final configuration is presented. The design integrates several advanced concepts to achieve a high degree of transonic maneuverability, and was keyed to sustained maneuverability goals while other fighter typical performance characteristics were maintained. When tests of the baseline configuration indicated deficiencies in the technology integration and design techniques, the vehicle was reconfigured to satisfy the subcritical and supersonic requirements. Drag-due-to-lift levels only 5 percent higher than the optimum were obtained for the wind tunnel model at a lift coefficient of 1 for Mach numbers of up to 0.8. The transonic drag rise was progressively lowered with the application of nonlinear potential flow analyses coupled with experimental data.

  16. Upper surface blowing noise of the NASA-Ames quiet short-haul research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bohn, A. J.; Shovlin, M. D.

    1980-01-01

    An experimental study of the propulsive-lift noise of the NASA-Ames quiet short-haul research aircraft (QSRA) is described. Comparisons are made of measured QSRA flyover noise and model propulsive-lift noise data available in references. Developmental tests of trailing-edge treatments were conducted using sawtooth-shaped and porous USB flap trailing-edge extensions. Small scale parametric tests were conducted to determine noise reduction/design relationships. Full-scale static tests were conducted with the QSRA preparatory to the selection of edge treatment designs for flight testing. QSRA flight and published model propulsive-lift noise data have similar characteristics. Noise reductions of 2 to 3 dB were achieved over a wide range of frequency and directivity angles in static tests of the QSRA. These noise reductions are expected to be achieved or surpassed in flight tests planned by NASA in 1980.

  17. Evaluation of a load cell model for dynamic calibration of the rotor systems research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duval, R. W.; Bahrami, H.; Wellman, B.

    1985-01-01

    The Rotor Systems Research Aircraft uses load cells to isolate the rotor/transmission system from the fuselage. An analytical model of the relationship between applied rotor loads and the resulting load cell measurements is derived by applying a force-and-moment balance to the isolated rotor/transmission system. The model is then used to estimate the applied loads from measured load cell data, as obtained from a ground-based shake test. Using nominal design values for the parameters, the estimation errors, for the case of lateral forcing, were shown to be on the order of the sensor measurement noise in all but the roll axis. An unmodeled external load appears to be the source of the error in this axis.

  18. U.S. Supersonic Commercial Aircraft: Assessing NASA's High Speed Research Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The legislatively mandated objectives of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) include "the improvement of the usefulness, performance, speed, safety, and efficiency of aeronautical and space vehicles" and "preservation of the United States' preeminent position in aeronautics and space through research and technology development related to associated manufacturing processes." Most of NASA's activities are focused on the space-related aspects of these objectives. However, NASA also conducts important work related to aeronautics. NASA's High Speed Research (HSR) Program is a focused technology development program intended to enable the commercial development of a high speed (i.e., supersonic) civil transport (HSCT). However, the HSR Program will not design or test a commercial airplane (i.e., an HSCT); it is industry's responsibility to use the results of the HSR Program to develop an HSCT. An HSCT would be a second generation aircraft with much better performance than first generation supersonic transports (i.e., the Concorde and the Soviet Tu-144). The HSR Program is a high risk effort: success requires overcoming many challenging technical problems involving the airframe, propulsion system, and integrated aircraft. The ability to overcome all of these problems to produce an affordable HSCT is far from certain. Phase I of the HSR Program was completed in fiscal year 1995; it produced critical information about the ability of an HSCT to satisfy environmental concerns (i-e., noise and engine emissions). Phase II (the final phase according to current plans) is scheduled for completion in 2002. Areas of primary emphasis are propulsion, airframe materials and structures, flight deck systems, aerodynamic performance, and systems integration.

  19. Development of test methods for scale model simulation of aerial applications in the NASA Langley Vortex Research Facility. [agricultural aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, F. L., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    As part of basic research to improve aerial applications technology, methods were developed at the Langley Vortex Research Facility to simulate and measure deposition patterns of aerially-applied sprays and granular materials by means of tests with small-scale models of agricultural aircraft and dynamically-scaled test particles. Interactions between the aircraft wake and the dispersed particles are being studied with the objective of modifying wake characteristics and dispersal techniques to increase swath width, improve deposition pattern uniformity, and minimize drift. The particle scaling analysis, test methods for particle dispersal from the model aircraft, visualization of particle trajectories, and measurement and computer analysis of test deposition patterns are described. An experimental validation of the scaling analysis and test results that indicate improved control of chemical drift by use of winglets are presented to demonstrate test methods.

  20. Interior and exterior fuselage noise measured on NASA's C-8a augmentor wing jet-STOL research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shovlin, M. D.

    1977-01-01

    Interior and exterior fuselage noise levels were measured on NASA's C-8A Augmentor Wing Jet-STOL Research Aircraft in order to provide design information for the Quiet Short-Haul Research Aircraft (QSRA), which will use a modified C-8A fuselage. The noise field was mapped by 11 microphones located internally and externally in three areas: mid-fuselage, aft fuselage, and on the flight deck. Noise levels were recorded at four power settings varying from takeoff to flight idle and were plotted in one-third octave band spectra. The overall sound pressure levels of the external noise field were compared to previous tests and found to correlate well with engine primary thrust levels. Fuselage values were 145 + or - 3 dB over the aircraft's normal STOL operating range.

  1. Static aeroelastic analysis of a three-dimensional generic wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, John A.; Lee, IN; Miura, Hirokazu

    1990-01-01

    A continuation of research on the static aeroelastic analysis of a generic wing configuration is presented. Results of the study of the asymmetric oblique wing model developed by Rockwell International, in conjunction with the NASA Oblique Wing Research Aircraft Program, are reported. The capability to perform static aeroelastic analyses of an oblique wing at arbitrary skew positions is demonstrated by applying the MSC/NASTRAN static analysis scheme modified by the aerodynamic influence coefficient matrix created by the NASA Ames aerodynamic panel codes. The oblique wing is studied at two skew angles, and in particular, the capability to calculate 3-D thickness effects on the aerodynamic properties of the wing is investigated. The ability to model asymmetric wings in both subsonic and supersonic Mach numbers is shown. The aerodynamic influence coefficient matrix computed by the external programs is inserted in MSC/NASTRAN static aeroelasticity analysis run stream to compute the aeroelastic deformation and internal forces. Various aerodynamic coefficients of the oblique wing were computed for two Mach numbers, 0.7 and 1.4, and the angle of attach -5 through 15 deg.

  2. Development and system identification of a light unmanned aircraft for flying qualities research

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, M.E.; Andrisani, D. II

    1994-12-31

    This paper describes the design, construction, flight testing and system identification of a light weight remotely piloted aircraft and its use in studying flying qualities in the longitudinal axis. The short period approximation to the longitudinal dynamics of the aircraft was used. Parameters in this model were determined a priori using various empirical estimators. These parameters were then estimated from flight data using a maximum likelihood parameter identification method. A comparison of the parameter values revealed that the stability derivatives obtained from the empirical estimators were reasonably close to the flight test results. However, the control derivatives determined by the empirical estimators were too large by a factor of two. The aircraft was also flown to determine how the longitudinal flying qualities of light weight remotely piloted aircraft compared to full size manned aircraft. It was shown that light weight remotely piloted aircraft require much faster short period dynamics to achieve level I flying qualities in an up-and-away flight task.

  3. NASA Research Aircraft - D-558-II, D-558-I, X-5, X-1, XF-92A, X-4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1952-01-01

    NACA High Speed Flight Station at Edwards AFB South Base. Aircraft are (left to right): D-558-2, D-558-1, X-5, X-1, XF-92A, and X-4. This is an early 1950s color photo of NACA research aircraft in front of the South Base hangar. On the left is the third D-558-2 (NACA 145/Navy 37975). At this time, the aircraft was still in the combined jet and rocket configuration. NACA 145 was used to test a number of wing modifications intended to lessen the pitch up of the aircraft in turns. Next to it is the third D-558-1 (NACA 142/Navy 37972) which provided aerodynamic data at transonic speeds. The rudder is still painted red, to avoid possible control surface flutter problems which might be caused by weight and balance changes from a coat of white paint. To the right is the first X-5 (Air Force 50-1838), which tested an in-flight variable-sweep wing design. This allowed the gathering of transonic data at a wide range of sweep angles. The X-5 did have very poor stall/spin behavior, which made it dangerous to fly. Beside it is the second X-1 (Air Force 46-063), which was flown by the NACA between September 1947 and October 1951. This aircraft had a thicker wing than the first X-1 (46-062), which created considerable drag. The aircraft was later modified to become the X-1E. Behind the rocket-powered X-1 is the single XF-92A built (Air Force 46-682). Although intended to be the prototype of a jet fighter, it became a research aircraft testing delta wings. Its use by the NACA was relatively brief, but the data proved useful in the design of later U.S. delta-wing aircraft. To the forward right is the second X-4 (Air Force 46-677) which tested the concept of a semi-tailless swept-wing aircraft (no horizontal stabilizer). Without horizontal stabilizers, however, the aircraft proved unstable at high transonic speeds. The Dryden Flight Research Center, NASA's premier installation for aeronautical flight research, celebrated its 50th anniversary in 1996. Dryden is the 'Center of Excellence' for atmospheric flight operations. The Center's charter is to research, develop, verify, and transfer advanced aeronautics, space, and related technologies. It is located at Edwards, Calif., on the western edge of the Mojave Desert, 80 miles north of Los Angeles. Dryden's history dates back to the early fall of 1946, when a group of five aeronautical engineers arrived at what is now Edwards from the NACA's Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory, Hampton, Va. Their goal was to prepare for the X-l supersonic research flights in a joint NACA-U.S. Army Air Forces-Bell Aircraft Corp. program. NACA--the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics--was the predecessor of today's NASA. Since the days of the X-l, the first aircraft to fly faster than the speed of sound, the installation has grown in size and significance and is associated with many important developments in aviation -- supersonic and hypersonic flight, wingless lifting bodies, digital fly-by-wire, supercritical and forward-swept wings, and the space shuttles. Its name has changed many times over the years. From 14 November 1949 to 1 July 1954 it bore the name NACA High-Speed Flight Research Station.

  4. Production Support Flight Control Computers: Research Capability for F/A-18 Aircraft at Dryden Flight Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, John F.

    1997-01-01

    NASA Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) is working with the United States Navy to complete ground testing and initiate flight testing of a modified set of F/A-18 flight control computers. The Production Support Flight Control Computers (PSFCC) can give any fleet F/A-18 airplane an in-flight, pilot-selectable research control law capability. NASA DFRC can efficiently flight test the PSFCC for the following four reasons: (1) Six F/A-18 chase aircraft are available which could be used with the PSFCC; (2) An F/A-18 processor-in-the-loop simulation exists for validation testing; (3) The expertise has been developed in programming the research processor in the PSFCC; and (4) A well-defined process has been established for clearing flight control research projects for flight. This report presents a functional description of the PSFCC. Descriptions of the NASA DFRC facilities, PSFCC verification and validation process, and planned PSFCC projects are also provided.

  5. Development of an Unmanned Aircraft System and Cyberinfrastructure for Environmental Science Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brady, J. J.; Tweedie, C. E.; Escapita, I. J.

    2009-12-01

    There is a fundamental need to improve capacities for monitoring environmental change using remote sensing technologies. Recently, researchers have begun using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) to expand and improve upon remote sensing capabilities. Limitations to most non-military and relatively small-scale Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UASs) include a need to develop more reliable communications between ground and aircraft, tools to optimize flight control, real time data processing, and visually ascertaining the quantity of data collected while in air. Here we present a prototype software system that has enhanced communication between ground and the vehicle, can synthesize near real time data acquired from sensors on board, can log operation data during flights, and can visually demonstrate the amount and quality of data for a sampling area. This software has the capacity to greatly improve the utilization of UAS in the environmental sciences. The software system is being designed for use on a paraglider UAV that has a suite of sensors suitable for characterizing the footprints of eddy covariance towers situated in the Chihuahuan Desert and in the Arctic. Sensors on board relay operational flight data (airspeed, ground speed, latitude, longitude, pitch, yaw, roll, acceleration, and video) as well as a suite of customized sensors. Additional sensors can be added to an on board laptop or a CR1000 data logger thereby allowing data from these sensors to be visualized in the prototype software. This poster will describe the development, use and customization of our UAS and multimedia will be available during AGU to illustrate the system in use. UAV on workbench in the lab UAV in flight

  6. NASA/USRA high altitude research aircraft. Gryphon: Soar like an eagle with the roar of a lion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rivera, Jose; Nunes, Anne; Mcray, Mike; Wong, Walter; Ong, Audrey; Coble, Scott

    1991-01-01

    At the equator, the ozone layer ranges from 65,000 to 130,000+ feet. This is beyond the capabilities of the ER-2, which is NASA's current high altitude reconnaissance aircraft. The Universities Space Research Association, in cooperation with NASA, is sponsoring an undergraduate program which is geared to designing an aircraft that can study the ozoned layer at the equator. This aircraft must be able to satisfy four mission profiles. Mission one is a polar mission which ranges from Chile to the South Pole and back to Chile, a total range of 6000 n. mi. at 100,000 feet with a 2500 lb. payload. The second mission is also a polar mission with a decreased altitude of 70,000 feet and an increased payload of 4000 lb. For the third mission, the aircraft will take-off at NASA Ames, cruise at 100,000 feet carrying a 2500 lb. payload, and land in Puerto Montt, Chile. The final mission requires the aircraft to take-off at NASA Ames, cruise at 100,000 feet with a 1000 lb. payload, make an excursion to 120,000 feet, and land at Howard AFB, Panama. All three missions require that a subsonic Mach number be maintained due to constraints imposed by the air sampling equipment. The aircraft need not be manned for all four missions. Three aircraft configurations were determined to be the most suitable for meeting the above requirements. The performance of each configuration is analyzed to investigate the feasibility of the project requirements. In the event that a requirement can not be obtained within the given constraints, recommendations for proposal modifications are given.

  7. Advanced Technology Blade testing on the XV-15 Tilt Rotor Research Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wellman, Brent

    1992-01-01

    The XV-15 Tilt Rotor Research Aircraft has just completed the first series of flight tests with the Advanced Technology Blade (ATB) rotor system. The ATB are designed specifically for flight research and provide the ability to alter blade sweep and tip shape. A number of problems were encountered from first installation through envelope expansion to airplane mode flight that required innovative solutions to establish a suitable flight envelope. Prior to operation, the blade retention hardware had to be requalified to a higher rated centrifugal load, because the blade weight was higher than expected. Early flights in the helicopter mode revealed unacceptably high vibratory control system loads which required a temporary modification of the rotor controls to achieve higher speed flight and conversion to airplane mode. The airspeed in airplane mode was limited, however, because of large static control loads. Furthermore, analyses based on refined ATB blade mass and inertia properties indicated a previously unknown high-speed blade mode instability, also requiring airplane-mode maximum airspeed to be restricted. Most recently, a structural failure of an ATB cuff (root fairing) assembly retention structure required a redesign of the assembly. All problems have been addressed and satisfactory solutions have been found to allow continued productive flight research of the emerging tilt rotor concept.

  8. Research In Nonlinear Flight Control for Tiltrotor Aircraft Operating in the Terminal Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calise, A. J.; Rysdyk, R.

    1996-01-01

    The research during the first year of the effort focused on the implementation of the recently developed combination of neural net work adaptive control and feedback linearization. At the core of this research is the comprehensive simulation code Generic Tiltrotor Simulator (GTRS) of the XV-15 tilt rotor aircraft. For this research the GTRS code has been ported to a Fortran environment for use on PC. The emphasis of the research is on terminal area approach procedures, including conversion from aircraft to helicopter configuration. This report focuses on the longitudinal control which is the more challenging case for augmentation. Therefore, an attitude command attitude hold (ACAH) control augmentation is considered which is typically used for the pitch channel during approach procedures. To evaluate the performance of the neural network adaptive control architecture it was necessary to develop a set of low order pilot models capable of performing such tasks as, follow desired altitude profiles, follow desired speed profiles, operate on both sides of powercurve, convert, including flaps as well as mastangle changes, operate with different stability and control augmentation system (SCAS) modes. The pilot models are divided in two sets, one for the backside of the powercurve and one for the frontside. These two sets are linearly blended with speed. The mastangle is also scheduled with speed. Different aspects of the proposed architecture for the neural network (NNW) augmented model inversion were also demonstrated. The demonstration involved implementation of a NNW architecture using linearized models from GTRS, including rotor states, to represent the XV-15 at various operating points. The dynamics used for the model inversion were based on the XV-15 operating at 30 Kts, with residualized rotor dynamics, and not including cross coupling between translational and rotational states. The neural network demonstrated ACAH control under various circumstances. Future efforts will include the implementation into the Fortran environment of GTRS, including pilot modeling and NNW augmentation for the lateral channels. These efforts should lead to the development of architectures that will provide for fully automated approach, using similar strategies.

  9. The second X-43A hypersonic research aircraft, shown here in its protective shipping jig, arrives at

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The second of three X-43A hypersonic research aircraft, shown here in its protective shipping jig, arrived at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, on January 31, 2001. The arrival of the second X-43A from its manufacturer, MicroCraft, Inc., of Tullahoma, Tenn., followed by only a few days the mating of the first X-43A and its specially-designed adapter to the first stage of a modified Pegasus booster rocket. The booster, built by Orbital Sciences Corp., Dulles, Va., will accelerate the 12-foot-long, unpiloted research aircraft to a predetermined altitude and speed after the X-43A/booster 'stack' is air-launched from NASA's venerable NB-52 mothership. The X-43A will then separate from the rocket and fly a pre-programmed trajectory, conducting aerodynamic and propulsion experiments until it impacts into the Pacific Ocean. Three research flights are planned, two at Mach 7 and one at Mach 10 (seven and 10 times the speed of sound respectively) with the first tentatively scheduled for early summer, 2001. The X-43A is powered by a revolutionary supersonic-combustion ramjet ('scramjet') engine, and will use the underbody of the aircraft to form critical elements of the engine. The forebody shape helps compress the intake airflow, while the aft section acts as a nozzle to direct thrust. The X-43A flights will be the first actual flight tests of an aircraft powered by an air-breathing scramjet engine.

  10. A Correlation Between Flight-Determined Derivatives and Wind-Tunnel Data for the X-24B Research Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sim, Alex G.

    1997-01-01

    Longitudinal and lateral-directional estimates of the aerodynamic derivatives of the X-24B research aircraft were obtained from flight data by using a modified maximum likelihood estimation method. Data were obtained over a Mach number range from 0.35 to 1.72 and over an angle of attack range from 3.5 deg. to 15.7 deg. Data are presented for a subsonic and transonic configuration. The flight derivatives were generally consistent and documented the aircraft well. The correlation between the flight data and wind-tunnel predictions is presented and discussed.

  11. Strain Gage Loads Calibration Testing with Airbag Support for the Gulfstream III SubsoniC Research Aircraft Testbed (SCRAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lokos, William A.; Miller, Eric J.; Hudson, Larry D.; Holguin, Andrew C.; Neufeld, David C.; Haraguchi, Ronnie

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the design and conduct of the strain-gage load calibration ground test of the SubsoniC Research Aircraft Testbed, Gulfstream III aircraft, and the subsequent data analysis and results. The goal of this effort was to create and validate multi-gage load equations for shear force, bending moment, and torque for two wing measurement stations. For some of the testing the aircraft was supported by three airbags in order to isolate the wing structure from extraneous load inputs through the main landing gear. Thirty-two strain gage bridges were installed on the left wing. Hydraulic loads were applied to the wing lower surface through a total of 16 load zones. Some dead-weight load cases were applied to the upper wing surface using shot bags. Maximum applied loads reached 54,000 lb. Twenty-six load cases were applied with the aircraft resting on its landing gear, and 16 load cases were performed with the aircraft supported by the nose gear and three airbags around the center of gravity. Maximum wing tip deflection reached 17 inches. An assortment of 2, 3, 4, and 5 strain-gage load equations were derived and evaluated against independent check cases. The better load equations had root mean square errors less than 1 percent. Test techniques and lessons learned are discussed.

  12. Science requirements and feasibility/design studies of a very-high-altitude aircraft for atmospheric research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Philip B.; Lux, David P.; Reed, R. Dale; Loewenstein, Max; Wegener, Steven

    1991-01-01

    The advantages and shortcomings of currently available aircraft for use in very high altitude missions to study such problems as polar ozone or stratosphere-troposphere exchange pose the question of whether to develop advanced aircraft for atmospheric research. To answer this question, NASA conducted a workshop to determine science needs and feasibility/design studies to assess whether and how those needs could be met. It was determined that there was a need for an aircraft that could cruise at an altitude of 30 km with a range of 6,000 miles with vertical profiling down to 10 km and back at remote points and carry a payload of 3,000 lbs.

  13. Identification of linearized equations of motion for the fixed wing configuration of the rotor systems research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balough, D. L.; Sandlin, D. R.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to establish linear, decoupled models of rigid body motion for the fixed wing configuration of the Rotor Systems Research Aircraft (RSRA). Longitudinal and lateral control surface fixed linear models were created from aircraft time histories using current system identification techniques. Models were obtained from computer simulation at 160 KCAS and 200 KCAS, and from flight data at 160 KCAS. Comparisons were performed to examine modeling accuracy, variation of dynamics with airspeed and correlation of simulation and flight data results. The results showed that the longitudinal and lateral linear models accurately predicted RSRA dynamics. The flight data results showed that no significant handling qualities problems were present in the RSRA fixed wing aircraft at the flight speed tested.

  14. Strain Gage Loads Calibration Testing with Airbag Support for the Gulfstream III SubsoniC Research Aircraft Testbed (SCRAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lokos, William; Miller, Eric; Hudson, Larry; Holguin, Andrew; Neufeld, David; Haraguchi, Ronnie

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the design and conduct of the strain gage load calibration ground test of the SubsoniC Research Aircraft Testbed, Gulfstream III aircraft, and the subsequent data analysis and its results. The goal of this effort was to create and validate multi-gage load equations for shear force, bending moment, and torque for two wing measurement stations. For some of the testing the aircraft was supported by three air bags in order to isolate the wing structure from extraneous load inputs through the main landing gear. Thirty-two strain gage bridges were installed on the left wing. Hydraulic loads were applied to the wing lower surface through a total of 16 load zones. Some dead weight load cases were applied to the upper wing surface using shot bags. Maximum applied loads reached 54,000 pounds.

  15. Users Guide for NASA Lewis Research Center DC-9 Reduced-Gravity Aircraft Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neumann, Eric S.; Withrow, James P.; Yaniec, John S.

    1996-01-01

    The document provides guidelines and information for users of the DC-9 Reduced-Gravity Aircraft Program. It describes the facilities, requirements for test personnel, equipment design and installation, mission preparation, and in-flight procedures. Those who have used the KC-135 reduced-gravity aircraft will recognize that many of the procedures and guidelines are the same.

  16. The use of the National Research Council of Canada's Falcon 20 research aircraft as a terrestrial analogue space environment (TASE) for space surgery research: Challenges and suggested solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkpatrick, A. W.; Keaney, M. A.; Bentz, K.; Groleau, M.; Tyssen, M.; Keyte, J.; Ball, C. G.; Campbell, M. R.; Grenon, S. M.; McBeth, P.; Broderick, T. J.

    2010-03-01

    Emergency surgery will be needed to prevent death if humans are used to explore beyond low earth's orbit. Laparoscopic surgery (LS) is envisioned as a less invasive option for space, but will induce further stresses and complicate logistical requirements. Thus, further study into the technology and physiology of LS in weightlessness is required. We recently utilized the National Research Council of Canada's Flight Research Laboratory's Falcon 20 aircraft as a terrestrial analogue space environment (TASE) for space surgery research. The Falcon 20 had never been used for this purpose nor had the involved teams collaborated previously. There were many process challenges including the lack of antecedent surgical studies on this aircraft, a requirement for multiple disciplines who were unfamiliar and geographically distant from each other, flight performance limitations with the Falcon 20, complex animal care requirements, requirements for prototypical in-flight life-support surgical suites, financial limitations, and a need to use non-flight hardened technologies. Stepwise suggested solutions to these challenges are outlined as guidelines for future investigators intending similar research. Overall, the Falcon 20 TASE, backed by the flight resources, especially the design and fabrication capabilities of the NRC-FRL, provide investigators with a versatile and responsive opportunity to pursue research into advanced medical techniques that will be needed to save lives during space exploration.

  17. A History of Full-Scale Aircraft and Rotorcraft Crash Testing and Simulation at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Karen E.; Boitnott, Richard L.; Fasanella, Edwin L.; Jones, Lisa E.; Lyle, Karen H.

    2004-01-01

    This paper summarizes 2-1/2 decades of full-scale aircraft and rotorcraft crash testing performed at the Impact Dynamics Research Facility (IDRF) located at NASA Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia. The IDRF is a 240-ft.-high steel gantry that was built originally as a lunar landing simulator facility in the early 1960's. It was converted into a full-scale crash test facility for light aircraft and rotorcraft in the early 1970 s. Since the first full-scale crash test was preformed in February 1974, the IDRF has been used to conduct: 41 full-scale crash tests of General Aviation (GA) aircraft including landmark studies to establish baseline crash performance data for metallic and composite GA aircraft; 11 full-scale crash tests of helicopters including crash qualification tests of the Bell and Sikorsky Advanced Composite Airframe Program (ACAP) prototypes; 48 Wire Strike Protection System (WSPS) qualification tests of Army helicopters; 3 vertical drop tests of Boeing 707 transport aircraft fuselage sections; and, 60+ crash tests of the F-111 crew escape module. For some of these tests, nonlinear transient dynamic codes were utilized to simulate the impact response of the airframe. These simulations were performed to evaluate the capabilities of the analytical tools, as well as to validate the models through test-analysis correlation. In September 2003, NASA Langley closed the IDRF facility and plans are underway to demolish it in 2007. Consequently, it is important to document the contributions made to improve the crashworthiness of light aircraft and rotorcraft achieved through full-scale crash testing and simulation at the IDRF.

  18. The solar-powered Helios Prototype flying wing frames two modified F-15 research aircraft in a hanga

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The solar-powered Helios Prototype flying wing frames two modified F-15 research aircraft in a hangar at NASA's Dryden flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The elongated 247-foot span lightweight aircraft, resting on its ground maneuvering dolly, stretched almost the full length of the 300-foot long hangar while on display during a visit of NASA Administrator Sean O'Keefe and other NASA officials on Jan. 31, 2002. The unique solar-electric flying wing reached an altitude of 96,863 feet during an almost 17-hour flight near Hawaii on Aug. 13, 2001, a world record for sustained horizontal flight by a non-rocket powered aircraft. Developed by AeroVironment, Inc., under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project, the Helios Prototype is the forerunner of a planned fleet of slow-flying, long duration, high-altitude uninhabited aerial vehicles (UAV) which can serve as 'atmospheric satellites,' performing Earth science missions or functioning as telecommunications relay platforms in the stratosphere.

  19. Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research: Phase II- Volume III-Truss Braced Wing Aeroelastic Test Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, Marty K.; Allen, Timothy J.; Droney, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    This Test Report summarizes the Truss Braced Wing (TBW) Aeroelastic Test (Task 3.1) work accomplished by the Boeing Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research (SUGAR) team, which includes the time period of February 2012 through June 2014. The team consisted of Boeing Research and Technology, Boeing Commercial Airplanes, Virginia Tech, and NextGen Aeronautics. The model was fabricated by NextGen Aeronautics and designed to meet dynamically scaled requirements from the sized full scale TBW FEM. The test of the dynamically scaled SUGAR TBW half model was broken up into open loop testing in December 2013 and closed loop testing from January 2014 to April 2014. Results showed the flutter mechanism to primarily be a coalescence of 2nd bending mode and 1st torsion mode around 10 Hz, as predicted by analysis. Results also showed significant change in flutter speed as angle of attack was varied. This nonlinear behavior can be explained by including preload and large displacement changes to the structural stiffness and mass matrices in the flutter analysis. Control laws derived from both test system ID and FEM19 state space models were successful in suppressing flutter. The control laws were robust and suppressed flutter for a variety of Mach, dynamic pressures, and angle of attacks investigated.

  20. Flux measurements by the NRC Twin Otter atmospheric research aircraft: 1987-2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desjardins, Raymond L.; Worth, Devon E.; MacPherson, J. Ian; Bastian, Matthew; Srinivasan, Ramesh

    2016-03-01

    Over the past 30 years, the Canadian Twin Otter research group has operated an aircraft platform for the study of atmospheric greenhouse gas fluxes (carbon dioxide, ozone, nitrous oxide and methane) and energy exchange (latent and sensible heat) over a wide range of terrestrial ecosystems in North America. Some of the acquired data from these projects have now been archived at the Flight Research Laboratory and Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. The dataset, which contains the measurements obtained in eight projects from 1987 to 2011 are now publicly available. All these projects were carried out in order to improve our understanding of the biophysical controls acting on land-surface atmosphere fluxes. Some of the projects also attempted to quantify the impacts of agroecosystems on the environment. To provide information on the data available, we briefly describe each project and some of the key findings by referring to previously published relevant work. As new flux analysis techniques are being developed, we are confident that much additional information can be extracted from this unique data set.

  1. Integrating Multiple Autonomous Underwater Vessels, Surface Vessels and Aircraft into Oceanographic Research Vessel Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGillivary, P. A.; Borges de Sousa, J.; Martins, R.; Rajan, K.

    2012-12-01

    Autonomous platforms are increasingly used as components of Integrated Ocean Observing Systems and oceanographic research cruises. Systems deployed can include gliders or propeller-driven autonomous underwater vessels (AUVs), autonomous surface vessels (ASVs), and unmanned aircraft systems (UAS). Prior field campaigns have demonstrated successful communication, sensor data fusion and visualization for studies using gliders and AUVs. However, additional requirements exist for incorporating ASVs and UASs into ship operations. For these systems to be optimally integrated into research vessel data management and operational planning systems involves addressing three key issues: real-time field data availability, platform coordination, and data archiving for later analysis. A fleet of AUVs, ASVs and UAS deployed from a research vessel is best operated as a system integrated with the ship, provided communications among them can be sustained. For this purpose, Disruptive Tolerant Networking (DTN) software protocols for operation in communication-challenged environments help ensure reliable high-bandwidth communications. Additionally, system components need to have considerable onboard autonomy, namely adaptive sampling capabilities using their own onboard sensor data stream analysis. We discuss Oceanographic Decision Support System (ODSS) software currently used for situational awareness and planning onshore, and in the near future event detection and response will be coordinated among multiple vehicles. Results from recent field studies from oceanographic research vessels using AUVs, ASVs and UAS, including the Rapid Environmental Picture (REP-12) cruise, are presented describing methods and results for use of multi-vehicle communication and deliberative control networks, adaptive sampling with single and multiple platforms, issues relating to data management and archiving, and finally challenges that remain in addressing these technological issues. Significantly, the use of UAS on oceanographic research vessels is just beginning. We report on several initial field efforts which demonstrated that UAS improve spatial and temporal mapping of ocean features, as well as monitoring marine mammal populations, ocean color, sea ice and wave fields and air-sea gas exchange. These studies however also confirm the challenges for shipboard computer systems ingesting and archiving UAS high resolution video, SAR and lidar data. We describe the successful inclusion of DTN communications for: 1) passing video data between two UAS or a UAS and ship; 2) for inclusion of ASVs as communication nodes for AUVs; as well as, 3) enabling extension of adaptive sampling software from AUVs and ASVs to include UAS. In conclusion, we describe how autonomous sampling systems may be best integrated into shipboard oceanographic vessel research to provide new and more comprehensive time-space ocean and atmospheric data collection that is important not only for scientific study, but also for sustainable ocean management, including emergency response capabilities. The recent examples of such integrated studies highlighted confirm ocean and atmospheric studies can more cost-effectively pursued, and in some cases only accomplished, by combining underwater, surface and aircraft autonomous systems with research vessel operations.

  2. Using Hyperspectral Aircraft Remote Sensing to Support Ecosystems Services Research in New England Lakes and Ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keith, D. J.; Milstead, B.; Walker, H.; Worthy, D.; Szykman, J.; Wusk, M.; Kagey, L.; Howell, C.; Snook, H.; Drueke, C.

    2010-12-01

    Northeastern lakes and ponds provide important ecosystem services to New England residents and visitors. These include the provisioning of abundant, clean water for consumption, agriculture, and industry as well as cultural services (recreation, aesthetics, and wilderness experiences) which enhance local economies and quality of life. Less understood, but equally important, are the roles that these lakes play in protecting all life through supportive services such as nutrient cycling. Nitrogen and phosphorus have a direct impact on the condition of fresh water lakes. Excesses of these nutrients can lead to eutrophication, toxic cyanobacteria blooms, decreased biodiversity, and loss of ecosystem function leading to a reduction in the availability and delivery of ecosystem services. In this study, we examined how variations in lake nutrient concentrations and phytoplankton pigment concentrations correlated with changes in the potential to provide cultural ecosystem services. Using a NASA Cessna 206 aircraft, hyperspectral data were collected during late summer 2009 from 55 lakes in New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island over a 2 day period. From the spectral data, algorithms were created which estimated concentrations of chlorophyll a, phycocyanin, and colored dissolved organic matter. The remotely sensed estimates were supplemented by in situ chlorophyll a, total nitrogen, total phosphorus and lake color data from 43 lakes sampled by field crews from the New England states. The purpose of this research is to understand how variations in lake nutrient concentrations and phytoplankton pigment concentrations correlate with changes in availability of cultural ecosystem services in the surveyed lakes. This dataset will be combined with information from the EPA National Lake Survey (2007), the EPA New England Lakes and Ponds Survey (2008) and the USGS SPARROW model to explore the association between lake condition and the provisioning of ecosystem services on a regional scale. Under the EPA Ecological Services Research Program (ESRP), this information will provide managers and researchers with a better understanding of links between management decisions affecting nutrient fluxes and impacts on selected ecosystem services.

  3. Aerodynamic characteristics of a 1/6-scale powered model of the rotor systems research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mineck, R. E.; Freeman, C. E.

    1977-01-01

    A wind-tunnel investigation was conducted to determine the effects of the main-rotor wake on the aerodynamic characteristics of the rotor systems research aircraft (RSRA). For the investigation, a 1/6-scale model with a four-blade articulated main rotor was used. Tests were conducted with and without the main rotor. Both the helicopter and the compound helicopter were tested. The latter configuration included the auxiliary thrust engines and the variable-incidence wing. Data were obtained over ranges of angle of attack, angle of sideslip, and main-rotor collective pitch angle at several main-rotor advance ratios. Results are presented for the total loads on the airframe as well as the loads on the rotor, the wing, and the tail. The results indicated that without the effect of the rotor wake, the RSRA had static longitudinal and directional stability and positive effective dihedral. With the effect of the main rotor and its wake, the RSRA exhibited longitudinal instability but retained static directional stability and positive effective dihedral.

  4. Estimation of dynamic rotor loads for the rotor systems research aircraft: Methodology development and validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duval, R. W.; Bahrami, M.

    1985-01-01

    The Rotor Systems Research Aircraft uses load cells to isolate the rotor/transmission systm from the fuselage. A mathematical model relating applied rotor loads and inertial loads of the rotor/transmission system to the load cell response is required to allow the load cells to be used to estimate rotor loads from flight data. Such a model is derived analytically by applying a force and moment balance to the isolated rotor/transmission system. The model is tested by comparing its estimated values of applied rotor loads with measured values obtained from a ground based shake test. Discrepancies in the comparison are used to isolate sources of unmodeled external loads. Once the structure of the mathematical model has been validated by comparison with experimental data, the parameters must be identified. Since the parameters may vary with flight condition it is desirable to identify the parameters directly from the flight data. A Maximum Likelihood identification algorithm is derived for this purpose and tested using a computer simulation of load cell data. The identification is found to converge within 10 samples. The rapid convergence facilitates tracking of time varying parameters of the load cell model in flight.

  5. Performance of WVSS-II hygrometers on the FAAM Research Aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vance, A. K.; Abel, S. J.; Cotton, R. J.; Woolley, A. M.

    2014-08-01

    We compare the performance of five hygrometers fitted to the Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurement's (FAAM) BAe 146-301 research aircraft using data from approximately one hundred flights executed over the course of two years under a wide range of conditions. Bulk comparison of cloud free data show good agreement between chilled mirror hygrometers and a WVSS-II fed from a modified Rosemount inlet but that a WVSS-II fed from the standard flush inlet appears to over read compared to the other instruments, except at higher humidities. Statistical assessment of hygrometer performance in cloudy conditions is problematic due to the variable nature of clouds, so a number of case studies are used instead to investigate the performance of the hygrometers in sub optimal conditions. It is found that the flush inlet is not susceptible to either liquid or solid water but that the Rosemount inlet has a significant susceptibility to liquid water; it is not susceptible to ice. In all conditions the WVSS-II respond much more rapidly than the chilled mirror devices, with the flush inlet-fed WVSS-II being more rapid than that connected to the Rosemount.

  6. Performance of WVSS-II hygrometers on the FAAM research aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vance, A. K.; Abel, S. J.; Cotton, R. J.; Woolley, A. M.

    2015-03-01

    We compare the performance of five hygrometers fitted to the Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurement's (FAAM) BAe 146-301 research aircraft using data from approximately 100 flights executed over the course of 2 years under a wide range of conditions. Bulk comparison of cloud free data show good agreement between chilled mirror hygrometers and a WVSS-II fed from a modified Rosemount inlet, but that a WVSS-II fed from the standard flush inlet appears to over-read compared to the other instruments, except at higher humidities. Statistical assessment of hygrometer performance in cloudy conditions is problematic due to the variable nature of clouds, so a number of case studies are used instead to investigate the performance of the hygrometers in sub-optimal conditions. It is found that the flush inlet is not susceptible to either liquid or solid water but that the Rosemount inlet has a significant susceptibility to liquid water and may also be susceptible to ice. In all conditions the WVSS-II responds much more rapidly than the chilled mirror devices, with the flush inlet-fed WVSS-II being more rapid than that connected to the Rosemount.

  7. Preliminary design of propulsion system for V/STOL research and technology aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The V/STOL Research and Technology Aircraft (RTA)propulsion system design effort is limited to components of the lift/cruise engines, turboshaft engine modifications, lift fan assembly, and propulsion system performance generation. The uninstalled total net thrust with all engines and fans operating at intermediate power was 37,114 pounds. Uninstalled system total net thrust was 27,102 pounds when one lift/cruise is inoperative. Components have lives above the 500 hours of the RTA duty cycle. The L/C engine used in a fixed nacelle has the cross shaft forward of the reduction gear whereas the cross shaft is aft of the reduction gear in a tilt nacelle L/C engine. The lift/cruise gearbox contains components and technologies from other DDA engines. The rotor has a 62-inch diameter and contains 22 composite blades that have a hub/tip ratio of 0.454. The blade pitch change mechanism contains hydraulic and mechanical redundancy. The lift fan assembly is completely self-contained including oil cooling in 10 exit vanes.

  8. Hypersonic aerodynamic characteristics of an all-body research aircraft configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, L. E.

    1973-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted at Mach 6 to determine the hypersonic aerodynamic characteristics of an all-body, delta-planform, hypersonic research aircraft (HYFAC configuration). The aerodynamic characteristics were obtained at Reynolds numbers based on model length of 2.84 million and 10.5 million and over an angle-of-attack range from minus 4 deg to 20 deg. The experimental results show that the HYFAC configuration is longitudinally stable and can be trimmed over the range of test conditions. The configuration had a small degree of directional stability over the angle-of-attack range and positive effective dihedral at angles of attack greater than 2 deg. Addition of canards caused a decrease in longitudinal stability and an increase in directional stability. Oil-flow studies revealed extensive areas of separated and vortex flow on the fuselage lee surface. A limited comparison of wind-tunnel data with several hypersonic approximations indicated that, except for the directional stability, the tangent-cone method gave adequate agreement at control settings between 5 deg and minus 5 deg and positive lift coefficient. A limited comparison indicated that the HYFAC configuration had greater longitudinal stability than an elliptical-cross-section configuration, but a lower maximum lift-drag ratio.

  9. A review of ONERA aerodynamic research in support of a future supersonic transport aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thibert, J. J.; Arnal, D.

    2000-11-01

    The ONERA activities concerning the aerodynamics of the future supersonic transport aircraft are reviewed. Section 1 is devoted to the performance prediction and detailed comparisons between CFD and wind-tunnel data are presented and discussed. Section 2 addresses the problem of the drag prediction in cruise flight conditions from wind-tunnel data. Skin friction coefficients values measured in flight are compared to the results of boundary layer computations. Section 3 is devoted to wing designs with numerical optimisation techniques. Several examples are presented and discussed. Results concerning riblets and laminar flow control are given in Section 4 part which also will present experiments carried out for attachment line contamination investigation. Results from basic research on supersonic laminar flows are also be presented. Section 5 deals with activities on air intake aerodynamics. After a brief recall of supersonic air intakes operational modes and a description of the Concorde air intake, comparisons between CFD and wind tunnel data on a generic 2D intake are presented. Basic experiments on intake internal flow are described and the problem of the internal shock control is addressed.

  10. Calibration of 3-D wind measurements on a single-engine research aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallaun, C.; Giez, A.; Baumann, R.

    2015-08-01

    An innovative calibration method for the wind speed measurement using a boom-mounted Rosemount model 858 AJ air velocity probe is introduced. The method is demonstrated for a sensor system installed on a medium-size research aircraft which is used for measurements in the atmospheric boundary layer. The method encounters a series of coordinated flight manoeuvres to directly estimate the aerodynamic influences on the probe and to calculate the measurement uncertainties. The introduction of a differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) combined with a high-accuracy inertial reference system (IRS) has brought major advances to airborne measurement techniques. The exact determination of geometrical height allows the use of the pressure signal as an independent parameter. Furthermore, the exact height information and the stepwise calibration process lead to maximum accuracy. The results show a measurement uncertainty for the aerodynamic influence of the dynamic and static pressures of 0.1 hPa. The applied parametrisation does not require any height dependencies or time shifts. After extensive flight tests a correction for the flow angles (attack and sideslip angles) was found, which is necessary for a successful wind calculation. A new method is demonstrated to correct for the aerodynamic influence on the sideslip angle. For the three-dimensional (3-D) wind vector (with 100 Hz resolution) a novel error propagation scheme is tested, which determines the measurement uncertainties to be 0.3 m s-1 for the horizontal and 0.2 m s-1 for the vertical wind components.

  11. Calibration of 3-D wind measurements on a single engine research aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallaun, C.; Giez, A.; Baumann, R.

    2015-02-01

    An innovative calibration method for the wind speed measurement using a boom mounted Rosemount model 858 AJ air velocity probe is introduced. The method is demonstrated for a sensor system installed on a medium size research aircraft which is used for measurements in the atmospheric boundary layer. The method encounters a series of coordinated flight manoeuvres to directly estimate the aerodynamic influences on the probe and to calculate the measurement uncertainties. The introduction of a differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) combined with a high accuracy Inertial Reference System (IRS) has brought major advances to airborne measurement techniques. The exact determination of geometrical height allows the use of the pressure signal as an independent parameter. Furthermore, the exact height information and the stepwise calibration process lead to maximum accuracy. The results show a measurement uncertainty for the aerodynamic influence of the dynamic and static pressures of 0.1 hPa. The applied parametrisation does not require any height dependencies or time shifts. After extensive flight tests a correction for the flow angles (attack and sideslip angles) was found, which is necessary for a successful wind calculation. A new method is demonstrated to correct for the aerodynamic influence on the sideslip angle. For the 3-D wind vector (with 100 Hz resolution) a novel error propagation scheme is tested, which determines the measurement uncertainties to be 0.3 m s-1 for the horizontal and 0.2 m s-1 for the vertical wind components.

  12. X-38 research aircraft mounted in Shuttle docked at Space Station - computer animation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    In the mid-1990's researchers at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, and Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas, began working actively with the sub-scale X-38 prototype crew return vehicle (CRV). This was an unpiloted lifting body designed at 80 percent of the size of a projected emergency crew return vehicle for the International Space Station. The X-38 and the actual CRV are patterned after a lifting-body shape first employed in the Air Force X-23 (SV-5) program in the mid-1960's and the Air Force-NASA X-24A lifting-body project in the early to mid-1970's. Built by Scaled Composites, Inc., in Mojave, California, and outfitted with avionics, computer systems, and other hardware at Johnson Space Center, two X-38 aircraft were involved in flight research at Dryden beginning in July of 1997. Before that, however, Dryden conducted some 13 flights at a drop zone near California City, California. These tests were done with a 1/6-scale model of the X-38 aircraft to test the parafoil concept that would be employed on the X-38 and the actual CRV. The basic concept is that the actual CRV will use an inertial navigation system together with the Global Positioning System of satellites to guide it from the International Space Station into the Earth's atmosphere. A deorbit engine module will redirect the vehicle from orbit into the atmosphere where a series of parachutes and a parafoil will deploy in sequence to bring the vehicle to a landing, possibly in a field next to a hospital. Flight research at NASA Dryden for the X-38 began with an unpiloted captive carry flight in which the vehicle remained attached to its future launch vehicle, the Dryden B-52 008. There were four captive flights in 1997 and three in 1998, plus the first drop test on March 12, 1998, using the parachutes and parafoil. Further captive and drop tests occurred in 1999. Although the X-38 landed safely on the lakebed at Edwards after the March 1998 drop test, there had been some problems with the parafoil. Intermediate parafoil tests at the Army Yuma Proving Grounds in Arizona enabled the project to resolve these problems and resume flight research. In the drop tests, the X-38 vehicles have been autonomous after airlaunch from the B-52. After they deploy the parafoil, they have remained autonomous, but there is also a manual mode that allows control from the ground. The X-38 vehicles (designated V131 and V132) are each 24.5 feet long. The actual CRV to be flown in space is expected to be 30 feet long. This 21-second computer animation clip shows the space shuttle approaching the Pressurized Mating Adapter No. 2 located on node 2 of the International Space Station. If you look closely you can just see the X-38 crew return vehicle in the shuttle cargo bay.

  13. X-38 research aircraft removal from Shuttle cargo bay - computer animation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    In the mid-1990's researchers at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, and Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas, began working actively with the sub-scale X-38 prototype crew return vehicle (CRV). This was an unpiloted lifting body designed at 80 percent of the size of a projected emergency crew return vehicle for the International Space Station. The X-38 and the actual CRV are patterned after a lifting-body shape first employed in the Air Force X-23 (SV-5) program in the mid-1960's and the Air Force-NASA X-24A lifting-body project in the early to mid-1970's. Built by Scaled Composites, Inc., in Mojave, California, and outfitted with avionics, computer systems, and other hardware at Johnson Space Center, two X-38 aircraft were involved in flight research at Dryden beginning in July of 1997. Before that, however, Dryden conducted some 13 flights at a drop zone near California City, California. These tests were done with a 1/6-scale model of the X-38 aircraft to test the parafoil concept that would be employed on the X-38 and the actual CRV. The basic concept is that the actual CRV will use an inertial navigation system together with the Global Positioning System of satellites to guide it from the International Space Station into the earth's atmosphere. A deorbit engine module will redirect the vehicle from orbit into the atmosphere where a series of parachutes and a parafoil will deploy in sequence to bring the vehicle to a landing, possibly in a field next to a hospital. Flight research at NASA Dryden for the X-38 began with an unpiloted captive carry flight in which the vehicle remained attached to its future launch vehicle, the Dryden B-52 008. There were four captive flights in 1997 and three in 1998, plus the first drop test on March 12, 1998, using the parachutes and parafoil. Further captive and drop tests occurred in 1999. Although the X-38 landed safely on the lakebed at Edwards after the March 1998 drop test, there had been some problems with the parafoil. Intermediate parafoil tests at the Army Yuma Proving Grounds in Arizona enabled the project to resolve these problems and resume flight research. In the drop tests, the X-38 vehicles have been autonomous after airlaunch from the B-52. After they deploy the parafoil, they have remained autonomous, but there is also a manual mode that allows control from the ground. The X-38 vehicles (designated V131 and V132) are each 24.5 feet long. The actual CRV to be flown in space is expected to be 30 feet long. This is a short 13-second computer animation clip showing the X-38 vehicle being removed from the shuttle cargo bay by the Space Station Remote Manipulator System robotic arm and then being attached to Pressurized Mating Adopter No. 3 located on the United States Habitation Module of the International Space Station.

  14. The X-43A hypersonic research aircraft and its modified Pegasus booster rocket nestled under the wi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The X-43A hypersonic research aircraft and its modified Pegasus booster rocket are nestled under the wing of NASA's NB-52B carrier aircraft during pre-flight systems testing at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif. The combined systems test was one of the last major milestones in the Hyper-X research program before the first X-43A flight. The X-43A flights will be the first actual flight tests of an aircraft powered by a revolutionary supersonic-combustion ramjet ('scramjet') engine capable of operating at hypersonic speeds (above Mach 5, or five times the speed of sound). The 12-foot, unpiloted research vehicle was developed and built by MicroCraft Inc., Tullahoma, Tenn., under NASA contract. The booster was built by Orbital Sciences Corp., Dulles, Va. After being air-launched from NASA's venerable NB-52 mothership, the booster will accelerate the X-43A to test speed and altitude. The X-43A will then separate from the rocket and fly a pre-programmed trajectory, conducting aerodynamic and propulsion experiments until it descends into the Pacific Ocean. Three research flights are planned, two at Mach 7 and one at Mach 10.

  15. Research and technology program perspectives for general aviation and commuter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauchspies, J. S.; Simpson, W. E.

    1982-01-01

    The uses, benefits, and technology needs of the U.S. general aviation industry were studied in light of growing competition from foreign general aviation manufacturers, especially in the commuter and business jet aircraft markets.

  16. Users Guide for NASA Lewis Research Center DC-9 Reduced-Gravity Aircraft Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yaniec, John S.

    1995-01-01

    The document provides guidelines and information for users of the DC-9 Reduced-Gravity Aircraft Program. It describes the facilities, requirements for test personnel, equipment design and installation, mission preparation, and in-flight procedures. Those who have used the KC-135 reduced-gravity aircraft will recognize that many of the procedures and guidelines are the same, to ensure a commonality between the DC-9 and KC-135 programs.

  17. Aerodynamic characteristics of a 1/6-scale model of the rotor systems research aircraft with the rotors removed. [wind tunnel tests of aircraft models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mineck, R. E.; Freeman, C. R.; Hassell, J. L., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    A wind-tunnel investigation was conducted to refine the aerodynamic characteristics of the rotor systems research aircraft. For the investigation, a 1/6-scale model without a main rotor or a tail rotor was used. The model provided the capability for testing different engine nacelle sizes, engine pylon fairings, and tail configurations. The engine thrust effects were modeled by small engine simulators (fans). Data were obtained primarily over an angle-of-attack range from -13 deg to 13 deg at several values of sideslip. Stability characteristics and control effectiveness were investigated. The model with the scaled engine nacelles and the combination T-tail and lower horizontal tail displayed longitudinal and lateral-directional stability. Results show that by reducing the horizontal or vertical-tail span the longitudinal stability is decreased. Reducing the engine nacelle size increases the static stability of the model. Effective dihedral is essentially zero at 0 deg angle of attack and 0 deg wing incidence.

  18. The X-43A hypersonic research aircraft and its modified Pegasus booster rocket mounted to NASA's NB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The first of three X-43A hypersonic research aircraft and its modified Pegasus booster rocket recently underwent combined systems testing while mounted to NASA's NB-52B carrier aircraft at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The combined systems test was one of the last major milestones in the Hyper-X research program before the first X-43A flight. One of the major goals of the Hyper-X program is flight validation of airframe-integrated, air-breathing propulsion system, which so far have only been tested in ground facilities, such as wind tunnels. The X-43A flights will be the first actual flight tests of an aircraft powered by a revolutionary supersonic-combustion ramjet ('scramjet') engine capable of operating at hypersonic speeds above Mach 5 (five times the speed of sound). The X-43A design uses the underbody of the aircraft to form critical elements of the engine. The forebody shape helps compress the intake airflow, while the aft section acts as a nozzle to direct thrust. The 12-foot, unpiloted research vehicle was developed and built by MicroCraft Inc., Tullahoma, Tenn., under NASA contract. The booster, built by Orbital Sciences Corp., Dulles, Va., will accelerate the X-43A after the X-43A/booster 'stack' is air-launched from NASA's venerable NB-52 mothership. The X-43A will separate from the rocket at a predetermined altitude and speed and fly a pre-programmed trajectory, conducting aerodynamic and propulsion experiments until it descends into the Pacific Ocean. Three research flights are planned, two at Mach 7 and one at Mach 10.

  19. In-flight control and communication architecture of the GLORIA imaging limb-sounder on atmospheric research aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kretschmer, E.; Bachner, M.; Blank, J.; Dapp, R.; Ebersoldt, A.; Friedl-Vallon, F.; Guggenmoser, T.; Gulde, T.; Hartmann, V.; Lutz, R.; Maucher, G.; Neubert, T.; Oelhaf, H.; Preusse, P.; Schardt, G.; Schmitt, C.; Schönfeld, A.; Tan, V.

    2015-02-01

    The Gimballed Limb Observer for Radiance Imaging of the Atmosphere (GLORIA), a Fourier transform spectrometer based limb spectral imager, operates on high-altitude research aircraft to study the transit region between the troposphere and the stratosphere. It is one of the most sophisticated systems to be flown on research aircraft in Europe, requiring constant monitoring and human intervention in addition to an automation system. To ensure proper functionality and interoperability on multiple platforms, a flexible control and communication system was laid out. The architectures of the communication system as well as the protocols used are reviewed. The integration of this architecture in the automation process as well as the scientific campaign flight application context are discussed.

  20. In-flight control and communication architecture of the GLORIA imaging limb sounder on atmospheric research aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kretschmer, E.; Bachner, M.; Blank, J.; Dapp, R.; Ebersoldt, A.; Friedl-Vallon, F.; Guggenmoser, T.; Gulde, T.; Hartmann, V.; Lutz, R.; Maucher, G.; Neubert, T.; Oelhaf, H.; Preusse, P.; Schardt, G.; Schmitt, C.; Schönfeld, A.; Tan, V.

    2015-06-01

    The Gimballed Limb Observer for Radiance Imaging of the Atmosphere (GLORIA), a Fourier-transform-spectrometer-based limb spectral imager, operates on high-altitude research aircraft to study the transit region between the troposphere and the stratosphere. It is one of the most sophisticated systems to be flown on research aircraft in Europe, requiring constant monitoring and human intervention in addition to an automation system. To ensure proper functionality and interoperability on multiple platforms, a flexible control and communication system was laid out. The architectures of the communication system as well as the protocols used are reviewed. The integration of this architecture in the automation process as well as the scientific campaign flight application context are discussed.

  1. Study of the application of advanced technologies to long-range transport aircraft. Volume 2: Research and development requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lange, R. H.; Sturgeon, R. F.; Adams, W. E.; Bradley, E. S.; Cahill, J. F.; Eudaily, R. R.; Hancock, J. P.; Moore, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    Investigations were conducted to evaluate the relative benefits attainable through the exploitation of advanced technologies and to identify future research and development efforts required to permit the application of selected technologies to transport aircraft entering commercial operation in 1985. Results show that technology advances, particularly in the areas of composite materials, supercritical aerodynamics, and active control systems, will permit the development of long-range, high-payload commercial transports operating at high-subsonic speeds with direct operating costs lower than those of current aircraft. These advanced transports also achieve lower noise levels and lower engine pollutant emissions than current transports. Research and development efforts, including analytical investigations, laboratory test programs, and flight test programs, are required in essentially all technology areas to achieve the potential technology benefits.

  2. A Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA) as a Measurement Tool for Wind-Energy Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wildmann, Norman; Bange, Jens

    2014-05-01

    In wind energy meteorology, RPA have the clear advantage compared to manned aircraft that they allow to fly very close to the ground and even in between individual wind turbines in a wind farm. Compared to meteorological towers and lidar systems, the advantage is the flexibility of the system, which makes it possible to measure at the desired site on short notice and not only in main wind direction. At the Center of Applied Geoscience at the University of Tübingen, the research RPA MASC (Multi-purpose Airborne Sensor Carrier) was developed. RPA of type MASC have a wingspan of about 3 m and a maximum take-off weight of 7.5 kg, including payload. The standard meteorological payload includes instruments for temperature, humidity, barometric pressure and wind measurement. It is possible to resolve turbulence fluctuations of wind and temperature up to 20 Hz. The autopilot ROCS (Research Onboard Computer System), which is developed at the Institute of Flight Mechanics and Control, University of Stuttgart, makes it possible to automatically follow predefined waypoints at constant altitude and airspeed. At a cruising speed of 24 m/s and a battery life of approx. one hour, a range of 80 km is feasible. The project 'Lidar Complex', funded by the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety, is part of the research network 'WindForS', based in Southern Germany. The goal of the project is to establish lidar technology for wind energy plant site evaluation in complex terrain. Additional goals are the comparison of different measurement techniques and the validation of wind-field models in not IEC 61400 conform terrain. It is planned to design a turbulent wind-field generator, fed by real measurement data, which can be used to analyse WEC behaviour. Two test sites were defined for the 'Lidar Complex' project, one in IEC-conform terrain about 15 km from the Baltic Sea, the other in the Swabian Alb, only 2 km downstream of a 100 m steep escarpment. At both sites, flight measurements were performed in 2013 with the RPA MASC. The data that was collected allows to investigate the influence of thermal stability of the atmosphere at the test site and turbulence intensity around individual wind energy converters (WECs). Several measurement flights were done to investigate the wake structure downstream a running WEC. Preliminary results will be presented as well as an outlook for future research with the instrument.

  3. Application of piloted simulation to high-angle-of-attack flight-dynamics research for fighter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ogburn, Marilyn E.; Foster, John V.; Hoffler, Keith D.

    1992-01-01

    The use of piloted simulation at Langley Research Center as part of the NASA High-Angle-of-Attack Technology Program (HATP), which was created to provide concepts and methods for the design of advanced fighter aircraft, is reviewed. A major research activity within this program is the development of the design processes required to take advantage of the benefits of advanced control concepts for high angle of attack agility. Fundamental methodologies associated with the effective use of piloted simulation for this research are described, particularly those relating to the test techniques, validation of the test results, and design guideline/criteria development.

  4. Application of Piloted Simulation to High-Angle-of-Attack Flight-Dynamics Research for Fighter Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ogburn, Marilyn E.; Foster, John V.; Hoffler, Keith D.

    2005-01-01

    This paper reviews the use of piloted simulation at Langley Research Center as part of the NASA High-Angle-of-Attack Technology Program (HATP), which was created to provide concepts and methods for the design of advanced fighter aircraft. A major research activity within this program is the development of the design processes required to take advantage of the benefits of advanced control concepts for high-angle-of-attack agility. Fundamental methodologies associated with the effective use of piloted simulation for this research are described, particularly those relating to the test techniques, validation of the test results, and design guideline/criteria development.

  5. A study to define the research and technology requirements for advanced turbo/propfan transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldsmith, I. M.

    1981-01-01

    The feasibility of the propfan relative to the turbofan is summarized, using the Douglas DC-9 Super 80 (DS-8000) as the actual operational base aircraft. The 155 passenger economy class aircraft (31,775 lb 14,413 kg payload), cruise Mach at 0.80 at 31,000 ft (8,450 m) initial altitude, and an operational capability in 1985 was considered. Three propfan arrangements, wing mounted, conventional horizontal tail aft mounted, and aft fuselage pylon mounted are selected for comparison with the DC-9 Super 80 P&WA JT8D-209 turbofan powered aircraft. The configuration feasibility, aerodynamics, propulsion, structural loads, structural dynamics, sonic fatigue, acoustics, weight maintainability, performance, rough order of magnitude economics, and airline coordination are examined. The effects of alternate cruise Mach number, mission stage lengths, and propfan design characteristics are considered. Recommendations for further study, ground testing, and flight testing are included.

  6. Trajectory module of the NASA Ames Research Center aircraft synthesis program ACSYNT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tauber, M. E.; Paterson, J. A.

    1978-01-01

    A program was developed to calculate trajectories for both military and commercial aircraft for use in the aircraft synthesis program, ACSYNT. The function of the trajectory module was to calculate the changes in the vehicle's flight conditions and weight, as fuel is consumed, during the flying of one or more missions. The trajectory calculations started with a takeoff, followed by up to 12 phases chosen from among the following: climb, cruise, acceleration, combat, loiter, descent, and paths. In addition, a balanced field length was computed. The emphasis was on relatively simple formulations and analytic expressions suitable for rapid computation since a prescribed trajectory had to be calculated many times in the process of converging an aircraft design, or finding an optimum configuration. The trajectory module consists of about 2500 cards and operational on a CDC 7600 computer.

  7. Remote sensing as a research tool. [sea ice surveillance from aircraft and spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carsey, F. D.; Zwally, H. J.

    1986-01-01

    The application of aircraft and spacecraft remote sensing techniques to sea ice surveillance is evaluated. The effects of ice in the air-sea-ice system are examined. The measurement principles and characteristics of remote sensing methods for aircraft and spacecraft surveillance of sea ice are described. Consideration is given to ambient visible light, IR, passive microwave, active microwave, and laser altimeter and sonar systems. The applications of these systems to sea ice surveillance are discussed and examples are provided. Particular attention is placed on the use of microwave data and the relation between ice thickness and sea ice interactions. It is noted that spacecraft and aircraft sensing techniques can successfully measure snow cover; ice thickness; ice type; ice concentration; ice velocity field; ocean temperature; surface wind vector field; and air, snow, and ice surface temperatures.

  8. A Preliminary Study of V/STOL Transport Aircraft and Bibliography of NASA Research in the VTOL-STOL Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1961-01-01

    This group of papers was prepared by the staff of the Langley Research Center to assist in planning for future commercial air-transport facilities in the New York metropolitan area. Areas of particular interest were predictions regarding the types of V/STOL aircraft that are likely to be developed for various commercial transport applications, estimates of the performance and probable operating procedures for such aircraft, and the approximate dates these aircraft could be available for use. Although the NASA has made no comprehensive studies of this type, the extensive research program in the VTOL-STOL field during the last 10 years appeared to provide a source for some of the desired information . The five papers included herein were therefore prepared to summarize pertinent available material in a form suitable for the intended use. In several instances, new studies and analysis were required to provide the necessary information, but because of a time deadline, many of the significant points received only a cursory examination. For example, much of the quantitative data used in the papers for making generalized comparisons was obtained by approximate methods and is not considered appropriate for use in applications where precise estimates are required. It should be recognized, then, that the treatment of the V/STOL transport provided by this group of papers is necessarily of a preliminary nature.

  9. The ACRIDICON-CHUVA observational study of tropical convective clouds and precipitation using the new German research aircraft HALO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendisch, Manfred; Pöschl, Ulrich; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Machado, Luiz A. T.; Albrecht, Rachel; Schlager, Hans; Rosenfeld, Daniel; Krämer, Martina

    2015-04-01

    An extensive airborne/ground-based measurement campaign to study tropical convective clouds is introduced. It was performed in Brazil with focus on the Amazon rainforest from 1 September to 4 October 2014. The project combined the joint German-Brazilian ACRIDICON (Aerosol, Cloud, Precipitation, and Radiation Interactions and Dynamics of Convective Cloud Systems) and CHUVA (Machado et al.2014) projects. ACRIDICON aimed at the quantification of aerosol-cloud-precipitation interactions and their thermodynamic, dynamic and radiative effects in convective cloud systems by in-situ aircraft observations and indirect measurements (aircraft, satellite, and ground-based). The ACRIDICON-CHUVA campaign was conducted in cooperation with the second Intensive Operational Phase (IOP) of the GOAmazon (Green Ocean Amazon) program. The focus in this presentation is on the airborne observations within ACRIDICON-CHUVA. The German HALO (High Altitude and Long-Range Research Aircraft) was based in Manaus (Amazonas State); it carried out 14 research flights (96 flight hours in total). HALO was equipped with remote sensing and in-situ instrumentation for meteorological, trace gas, aerosol, cloud, and precipitation measurements. Five mission objectives were pursued: (1) cloud vertical evolution (cloud profiling), (2) aerosol processing (inflow and outflow), (3) satellite validation, (4) vertical transport and mixing (tracer experiment), and (5) clouds over forested and deforested areas. The five cloud missions collected data in clean atmospheric conditions and in contrasting polluted (urban and biomass burning) environments.

  10. An analytical investigation of acquisition techniques and system integration studies for a radar aircraft guidance research facility, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, W. S.; Ruedger, W. H.

    1973-01-01

    A review of user requirements and updated instrumentation plans are presented for the aircraft tracking and guidance facility at NASA Wallops Station. User demand has increased as a result of new flight research programs; however, basic requirements remain the same as originally reported. Instrumentation plans remain essentially the same but with plans for up- and down-link telemetry more firm. With slippages in the laser acquisition schedule, added importance is placed on the FPS-16 radar as the primary tracking device until the laser is available. Limited simulation studies of a particular Kalman-type filter are also presented. These studies simulated the use of the filter in a helicopter guidance loop in a real-time mode. Disadvantages and limitations of this mode of operation are pointed out. Laser eyesafety calculations show that laser tracking of aircraft is readily feasible from the eyesafety viewpoint.

  11. The DGPS based navigation and positioning system of the Helsinki University of Technology Short SC7 Skyvan research aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Tauriainen, S.; Ahola, P.; Hallikainen, M.

    1996-10-01

    The typical airborne remote sensing measurements conducted by the Helsinki University of Technology laboratory of space technology require very precise navigation over the selected measurement sites. This means that both system performance as far as positioning is concerned and the actual flight track of the aircraft has to be within 10 meters. To meet these requirements, a custom made navigation system was designed and installed in the SHORT SC7 Skyvan research aircraft of the Helsinki University of Technology. The system is based on the Finnish national Differential GPS network providing positioning accuracy within a few meters within Finland. For pilot guidance, a graphical user interface with mission specific software is used to give the pilots an overview of the relative position and orientation to the measurement target. In addition, the system is used to synchronize the scientific instruments and record the actual flight track. 2 refs., 2 figs.

  12. Linear and nonlinear interpretation of the direct strike lightning response of the NASA F106B thunderstorm research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudolph, T. H.; Perala, R. A.

    1983-01-01

    The objective of the work reported here is to develop a methodology by which electromagnetic measurements of inflight lightning strike data can be understood and extended to other aircraft. A linear and time invariant approach based on a combination of Fourier transform and three dimensional finite difference techniques is demonstrated. This approach can obtain the lightning channel current in the absence of the aircraft for given channel characteristic impedance and resistive loading. The model is applied to several measurements from the NASA F106B lightning research program. A non-linear three dimensional finite difference code has also been developed to study the response of the F106B to a lightning leader attachment. This model includes three species air chemistry and fluid continuity equations and can incorporate an experimentally based streamer formulation. Calculated responses are presented for various attachment locations and leader parameters. The results are compared qualitatively with measured inflight data.

  13. Real-time application of advanced three-dimensional graphic techniques for research aircraft simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Steven B.

    1990-01-01

    Visual aids are valuable assets to engineers for design, demonstration, and evaluation. Discussed here are a variety of advanced three-dimensional graphic techniques used to enhance the displays of test aircraft dynamics. The new software's capabilities are examined and possible future uses are considered.

  14. Rotor systems research aircraft predesign study. Volume 4: Preliminary draft detail specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, A. N.; Linden, A. W.

    1972-01-01

    The RSRA requirements are presented in a detail specification format. Coverage of the requirements includes the following headings: (1) aircraft characteristics, (2) general features of design and construction, (3) aerodynamics, (4) structural design criteria, (5) flight control system, (6) propulsion subsystem, and (7) secondary power and distribution subsystem.

  15. A NASA/University/Industry Consortium for Research on Aircraft Ice Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zumwalt, Glen W.

    1989-01-01

    From 1982 through 1987, an unique consortium was functioning which involved government (NASA), academia (Wichita State Univ.) and twelve industries. The purpose was the development of a better ice protection systems for aircraft. The circumstances which brought about this activity are described, the formation and operation recounted, and the effectiveness of the ventue evaluated.

  16. Small transport aircraft technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, L. J.

    1983-01-01

    Information on commuter airline trends and aircraft developments is provided to upgrade the preliminary findings of a NASA-formed small transport aircraft technology (STAT) team, established to determine whether the agency's research and development programs could help commuter aircraft manufacturers solve technical problems related to passenger acceptance and use of 19- to 50-passenger aircraft. The results and conclusions of the full set of completed STAT studies are presented. These studies were performed by five airplane manufacturers, five engine manufacturers, and two propeller manufacturers. Those portions of NASA's overall aeronautics research and development programs which are applicable to commuter aircraft design are summarized. Areas of technology that might beneficially be expanded or initiated to aid the US commuter aircraft manufacturers in the evolution of improved aircraft for the market are suggested.

  17. Aircraft landing gear systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanner, John A. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    Topics presented include the laboratory simulation of landing gear pitch-plane dynamics, a summary of recent aircraft/ground vehicle friction measurement tests, some recent aircraft tire thermal studies, and an evaluation of critical speeds in high-speed aircraft. Also presented are a review of NASA antiskid braking research, titanium matrix composite landing gear development, the current methods and perspective of aircraft flotation analysis, the flow rate and trajectory of water spray produced by an aircraft tire, and spin-up studies of the Space Shuttle Orbiter main gear tire.

  18. Modeling of the Mode S tracking system in support of aircraft safety research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sorensen, J. A.; Goka, T.

    1982-01-01

    This report collects, documents, and models data relating the expected accuracies of tracking variables to be obtained from the FAA's Mode S Secondary Surveillance Radar system. The data include measured range and azimuth to the tracked aircraft plus the encoded altitude transmitted via the Mode S data link. A brief summary is made of the Mode S system status and its potential applications for aircraft safety improvement including accident analysis. FAA flight test results are presented demonstrating Mode S range and azimuth accuracy and error characteristics and comparing Mode S to the current ATCRBS radar tracking system. Data are also presented that describe the expected accuracy and error characteristics of encoded altitude. These data are used to formulate mathematical error models of the Mode S variables and encoded altitude. A brief analytical assessment is made of the real-time tracking accuracy available from using Mode S and how it could be improved with down-linked velocity.

  19. Flight control systems research. [optimization of F-8 aircraft control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, H. P.; Baram, Y.; Cheng, Y.

    1973-01-01

    Theoretical development is reported for the parameter optimization design technique needed for digital flight control system design. The results of an example case study applying the optimization technique for continuous systems to an F-8 aircraft feedback control system are presented. The concept of evolving the simplest system configuration that is capable of meeting a specified set of performance requirements is illustrated in this work.

  20. V/STOL tilt rotor research aircraft. Volume 2: Ship 1 instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Information covering sensor cables, sensor installation, and sensor calibration for the XV-15 aircraft number 1 is included. For each junction box (J-box) designation there is a schematic of the J-box disconnect harness instrumentation worksheets which show sensor location, and calibration data sheets for each sensor associated with that J-box. An index of measurement item codes to J-box locations is given in a table. Cross references are given.

  1. V/STOL tilt rotor research aircraft. Volume 3: Ship 2 instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Information covering sensor cables, sensor installation, and sensor calibration for the XV-15 aircraft number 2 is included. For each junction box (J-box) designation there is a schematic of the J-box disconnect harness, instrumentation worksheets which show sensor location, and calibration data sheets for each sensor associated with that J-box. An index of measurement data codes to J-box locations is given in a table. Cross references are given.

  2. A review of US Army aircrew-aircraft integration research programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Key, D. C.; Aiken, E. W.

    1984-01-01

    If the U.S. Army's desire to develop a one crew version of the Light Helicopter Family (LHX) helicopter is to be realized, both flightpath management and mission management will have to be performed by one crew. Flightpath management, the helicopter pilot, and the handling qualities of the helicopter were discussed. In addition, mission management, the helicopter pilot, and pilot control/display interface were considered. Aircrew-aircraft integration plans and programs were reviewed.

  3. Military Aircraft Emissions Research - Case of Hercules Cargo Plane (C-130H) Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Mengdawn; Corporan, E.; DeWitt, M.; Harris, B.; Hashmonay, R.; Holdren, M.; Kaganan, R.; Spicer, C.

    2007-01-01

    Tactical airlifter like C-130H has been in use for more than 50 years, and is expected to serve for many years to come. However, the emission characteristics data of the aircraft are scarce. To increase our understanding of turboprop engine emissions, emissions from a military C-130H cargo aircraft were characterized in field conditions in the fall of 2005. Particulate and gaseous pollutants were measured by conventional and advanced instrumentation platforms that were built with in-situ extractive or remote optical sensing technologies. The measurements performed at the C-130H engine exhaust exit showed increased levels of emissions as the engine power setting increased. In contrast, there was no such a relationship found for the C-130H emitted particulate matter (as a function of engine power setting) measured at about 15-m downstream of the engine exhaust plane. The emitted gaseous species measured at both locations were, however, proportional to the engine power setting and comparable (at both locations) when corrected for ambient dilution indicating the lack of particulate emission-power setting relationship at the far field is unique. The result clearly indicates that the aircraft emission factor or index for particulate matter cannot be experimentally determined at a downstream location away from the exhaust exit and has to be determined right at the engine exhaust plane. Emission indices that are needed for air quality modeling will be presented.

  4. The European Research Infrastructure IAGOS - From dedicated field studies to routine observations of the atmosphere by instrumented passenger aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petzold, Andreas; Volz-Thomas, Andreas; Gerbig, Christoph; Thouret, Valerie; Cammas, Jean-Pierre; Brenninkmeijer, Carl A. M.; Iagos Team

    2013-04-01

    The global distribution of trace species is controlled by a complex interplay between natural and anthropogenic sources and sinks, atmospheric short- to long-range transport, and in future by diverse, largely not yet quantified feedback mechanisms such as enhanced evaporation of water vapour in a warming climate or possibly the release of methane from melting marine clathrates. Improving global trace gas budgets and reducing the uncertainty of climate predictions crucially requires representative data from routine long-term observations as independent constraint for the evaluation and improvement of model parameterizations. IAGOS (In-service Aircraft for a Global Observing System; www.iagos.org) is a new European Research Infrastructure which operates a unique global observing system by deploying autonomous instruments aboard a fleet of passenger aircraft. IAGOS consists of two complementary building blocks: IAGOS-CORE deploys newly developed high-tech instrumentation for regular in-situ measurements of atmospheric chemical species (O3, CO, CO2, NOx, NOy, H2O, CH4), aerosols and cloud particles. Involved airlines ensure global operation of the network. In IAGOS-CARIBIC a cargo container is operated as a flying laboratory aboard one passenger aircraft. IAGOS aims at the provision of long-term, frequent, regular, accurate, and spatially resolved in-situ observations of the atmospheric chemical composition in the UTLS and the extra tropical troposphere and on vertical profiles of greenhouse gases, reactive trace gases and aerosols throughout the troposphere. It builds on almost 20 years of scientific and technological expertise gained in the research projects MOZAIC (Measurement of Ozone and Water Vapour on Airbus In-service Aircraft) and CARIBIC (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the Atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container). The European consortium includes research centres, universities, national weather services, airline operators and aviation industry. IAGOS provides data for fundamental scientific research and for policy makers, including air quality forecasting, verification of CO2 emissions and Kyoto protocol monitoring, numerical weather prediction, and validation of satellite products. There is also a strong interest of the aviation sector by means of airlines who agreed to provide free transportation of the equipment. Reasons are their intention to contribute to a better understanding of climate change and the budgets of greenhouse gases with particular emphasis on the impact of aviation. Such knowledge forms the scientific basis for the development of abatement strategies and emission trading. IAGOS is planned to be an open infrastructure in two aspects. The data measured onboard the aircraft will be transferred to a central data base and interested users can access the data base free of charge after having signed a data protocol. Access to real-time data will also be free of charge and is foreseen to be achieved in the framework of Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) via the European meteorological network. The presentation will introduce the research infrastructure and its role in the emerging integrated global atmospheric observing system. Data management, quality assurance tools and links between IAGOS and other research infrastructures in the domain of atmospheric observation will be discussed.

  5. V/STOL tilt rotor study. Volume 5: A mathematical model for real time flight simulation of the Bell model 301 tilt rotor research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harendra, P. B.; Joglekar, M. J.; Gaffey, T. M.; Marr, R. L.

    1973-01-01

    A mathematical model for real-time flight simulation of a tilt rotor research aircraft was developed. The mathematical model was used to support the aircraft design, pilot training, and proof-of-concept aspects of the development program. The structure of the mathematical model is indicated by a block diagram. The mathematical model differs from that for a conventional fixed wing aircraft principally in the added requirement to represent the dynamics and aerodynamics of the rotors, the interaction of the rotor wake with the airframe, and the rotor control and drive systems. The constraints imposed on the mathematical model are defined.

  6. Government financial support for civil aircraft research, technology and development in four European countries and the United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandler, B.; Golaszewski, R.; Patten, C.; Rudman, B.; Scott, R.

    1980-01-01

    Data on the levels of government financial support for civil aircraft airframe and engine (CAAE) research and technology (R&T) in the United States and Europe (United Kingdom, West Germany, France and The Netherlands) and means of comparing these levels are provided. Data are presented for the years 1974-1977. European R&T expenditure data were obtained through visits to each of the four European countries, to the Washington office of the European Communities, and by a search of applicable literature. CAAE R&T expenditure data for the United States were obtained from NASA and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA).

  7. The Pilot Land Data System (PLDS) at the Ames Research Center manages aircraft data in collaboration with an ecosystem research project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angelici, Gary; Popovici, Lidia; Skiles, Jay

    1991-01-01

    The Pilot Land Data System (PLDS) is a data and information system serving NASA-supported investigators in the land science community. The three nodes of the PLDS, one each at the Ames Research Center (ARC), the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), cooperate in providing consistent information describing the various data holding in the hardware and software (accessible via network and modem) that provide information about and access to PLDS-held data, which is available for distribution. A major new activity of the PLDS node at the Ames Research Center involves the interaction of the PLDS with an active NASA ecosystem science project, the Oregon Transect Ecosystems Research involves the management of, access to, and distribution of the large volume of widely-varying aircraft data collected by OTTER. The OTTER project, is managed by researchers at the Ames Research Center and Oregon State University. Its principal objective is to estimate major fluxes of carbon, nitrogen, and water of forest ecosystems using an ecosystem process model driven by remote sensing data. Ten researchers at NASA centers and universities are analyzing data for six sites along a temperature-moisture gradient across the western half of central Oregon (called the Oregon Transect). Sensors mounted on six different aircraft have acquired data over the Oregon Transect in support of the OTTER project.

  8. Progress in Protective Coatings for Aircraft Gas Turbines: A Review of NASA Sponsored Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merutka, J. P.

    1981-01-01

    Problems associated with protective coatings for advanced aircraft gas turbines are reviewed. Metallic coatings for preventing titanium fires in compressors are identified. Coatings for turbine section are also considered, Ductile aluminide coatings for protecting internal turbine-blade cooling passage surface are also identified. Composite modified external overlay MCrAlY coatings deposited by low-pressure plasma spraying are found to be better in surface protection capability than vapor deposited MCrAlY coatings. Thermal barrier coating (TBC), studies are presented. The design of a turbine airfoil is integrated with a TBC, and computer-aided manufacturing technology is applied.

  9. A perspective on 15 years of proof-of-concept aircraft development and flight research at Ames-Moffett by the Rotorcraft and Powered-Lift Flight Projects Division, 1970-1985

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Few, David D.

    1987-01-01

    A proof-of-concept (POC) aircraft is defined and the concept of interest described for each of the six aircraft developed by the Ames-Moffet Rotorcraft and Powered-Lift Flight Projects Division from 1970 through 1985; namely, the OV-10, the C-8A Augmentor Wing, the Quiet Short-Haul Research Aircraft (QSRA), the XV-15 Tilt Rotor Research Aircraft (TRRA), the Rotor Systems Research Aircraft (RSRA)-compound, and the yet-to-fly RSRA/X-Wing Aircraft. The program/project chronology and most noteworthy features of the concepts are reviewed. The paper discusses the significance of each concept and the project demonstrating it; it briefly looks at what concepts are on the horizon as potential POC research aircraft and emphasizes that no significant advanced concept in aviation technology has ever been accepted by civilian or military users without first completing a demonstration through flight testing.

  10. Evaluation of V/STOL research aircraft design. [landing approaches, propulsion/control, piloted moving base simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deckert, W. H.; Holzhauser, C. A.

    1973-01-01

    The evaluation and evolution of direct jet lift V/STOL transport aircraft designs are discussed. The V/STOL transport design selected as an example is a lift-fan design that was evaluated as a candidate configuration for a possible future V/STOL research transport. The paper includes discussion of potential advanced V/STOL landing approach profiles as key design requirements for V/STOL aircraft, description and experimental results of an integrated propulsion/control system designed to achieve desired advanced V/STOL near-terminal operating capabilities, and results from evaluating V/STOL designs on piloted moving-base simulators. This paper discusses use of the piloted moving-base simulator as a design tool for evolving satisfactory V/STOL stabilization and propulsion/control systems. Included are problems and solutions identified during simulation of simultaneous decelerating/descent steep curved landing approaches under instrument flight conditions. Simulation results are also compared to flight results obtained with the DO-31 V/STOL research transport.

  11. A summary of the forebody high-angle-of-attack aerodynamics research on the F-18 and the X-29A aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bjarke, Lisa J.; Delfrate, John H.; Fisher, David F.

    1992-01-01

    High-angle-of-attack aerodynamic studies have been conducted on both the F18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) and the X-29A aircraft. Data obtained include on- and off-surface flow visualization and static pressure measurements on the forebody. Comparisons of similar results are made between the two aircraft where possible. The forebody shapes of the two aircraft are different and the X-29A forebody flow is affected by the addition of nose strakes and a flight test noseboom. The forebody flow field of the F-18 HARV is fairly symmetric at zero sideslip and has distinct, well-defined vortices. The X-29A forebody vortices are more diffuse and are sometimes asymmetric at zero sideslip. These asymmetries correlate with observed zero-sideslip aircraft yawing moments.

  12. The Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS) mission: design, execution, and first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacob, D. J.; Crawford, J. H.; Maring, H.; Clarke, A. D.; Dibb, J. E.; Emmons, L. K.; Ferrare, R. A.; Hostetler, C. A.; Russell, P. B.; Singh, H. B.; Thompson, A. M.; Shaw, G. E.; McCauley, E.; Pederson, J. R.; Fisher, J. A.

    2010-06-01

    The NASA Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS) mission was conducted in two 3-week deployments based in Alaska (April 2008) and western Canada (June-July 2008). Its goal was to better understand the factors driving current changes in Arctic atmospheric composition and climate, including (1) influx of mid-latitude pollution, (2) boreal forest fires, (3) aerosol radiative forcing, and (4) chemical processes. The June-July deployment was preceded by one week of flights over California (ARCTAS-CARB) focused on (1) improving state emission inventories for greenhouse gases and aerosols, (2) providing observations to test and improve models of ozone and aerosol pollution. ARCTAS involved three aircraft: a DC-8 with a detailed chemical payload, a P-3 with an extensive aerosol and radiometric payload, and a B-200 with aerosol remote sensing instrumentation. The aircraft data augmented satellite observations of Arctic atmospheric composition, in particular from the NASA A-Train. The spring phase (ARCTAS-A) revealed pervasive Asian pollution throughout the Arctic as well as significant European pollution below 2 km. Unusually large Siberian fires in April 2008 caused high concentrations of carbonaceous aerosols and also affected ozone. Satellite observations of BrO column hotspots were found not to be related to Arctic boundary layer events but instead to tropopause depressions, suggesting the presence of elevated inorganic bromine (5-10 pptv) in the lower stratosphere. Fresh fire plumes from Canada and California sampled during the summer phase (ARCTAS-B) indicated low NOx emission factors from the fires, rapid conversion of NOx to PAN, no significant secondary aerosol production, and no significant ozone enhancements except when mixed with urban pollution.

  13. Soil analyses and evaluations at the impact dynamics research facility for two full-scale aircraft crash tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, R. Y. K.

    1977-01-01

    The aircraft structural crash behavior and occupant survivability for aircraft crashes on a soil surface was studied. The results of placement, compaction, and maintenance of two soil test beds are presented. The crators formed by the aircraft after each test are described.

  14. A flight evaluation of a trailing anemometer for low-speed calibrations of airspeed systems on research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, B. D.; Holmes, B. J.; Stough, H. P., III

    1978-01-01

    Research airspeed systems on three low-speed general aviation airplanes were calibrated by the trailing anemometer method. Each airplane was fitted with an NASA pitot-static pressure tube mounted on either a nose or wing boom. The uncalibrated airspeed systems contained residual static-pressure position errors which were too large for high-accuracy flight research applications. The trailing anemometer calibration was in agreement with the tower flyby calibration for the one aircraft for which the comparison was made. The continuous deceleration technique for the trailing anemometer method offers reduced test time with no appreciable loss of accuracy for airspeed systems with pitot-static system lag characteristics similar to those described.

  15. Definition of propulsion system for V/STOL research and technology aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Wind tunnel test support, aircraft contractor support, a propulsion system computer card deck, preliminary design studies, and propulsion system development plan are reported. The Propulsion system consists of two lift/cruise turbofan engines, one turboshaft engine and one lift fan connected together with shafting into a combiner gearbox. Distortion parameter levels from 40 x 80 test data were within the established XT701-AD-700 limits. The three engine-three fan system card deck calculates either vertical or conventional flight performance, installed or uninstalled. Design study results for XT701 engine modifications, bevel gear cross shaft location, fixed and tilt fan frames and propulsion system controls are described. Optional water-alcohol injection increased total net thrust 10.3% on a 90 F day. Engines have sufficient turbine life for 500 hours of the RTA duty cycle.

  16. Recent developments in rotary-balance testing of fighter aircraft configurations at NASA Ames Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malcolm, G. N.; Schiff, L. B.

    1985-01-01

    Two rotary balance apparatuses were developed for testing airplane models in a coning motion. A large scale apparatus, developed for use in the 12-Foot Pressure Wind tunnel primarily to permit testing at high Reynolds numbers, was recently used to investigate the aerodynamics of 0.05-scale model of the F-15 fighter aircraft. Effects of Reynolds number, spin rate parameter, model attitude, presence of a nose boom, and model/sting mounting angle were investigated. A smaller apparatus, which investigates the aerodynamics of bodies of revolution in a coning motion, was used in the 6-by-6 foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel to investigate the aerodynamic behavior of a simple representation of a modern fighter, the Standard Dynamic Model (SDM). Effects of spin rate parameter and model attitude were investigated. A description of the two rigs and a discussion of some of the results obtained in the respective test are presented.

  17. Fiber Optic Experience with the Smart Actuation System on the F-18 Systems Research Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zavala, Eddie

    1997-01-01

    High bandwidth, immunity to electromagnetic interference, and potential weight savings have led to the development of fiber optic technology for future aerospace vehicle systems. This technology has been incorporated in a new smart actuator as the primary communication interface. The use of fiber optics simplified system integration and significantly reduced wire count. Flight test results showed that fiber optics could be used in aircraft systems and identified critical areas of development of fly-by-light technology. This paper documents the fiber optic experience gained as a result of this program, and identifies general design considerations that could be used in a variety of specific applications of fiber optic technology. Environmental sensitivities of fiber optic system components that significantly contribute to optical power variation are discussed. Although a calibration procedure successfully minimized the effect of fiber optic sensitivities, more standardized calibration methods are needed to ensure system operation and reliability in future aerospace vehicle systems.

  18. Preliminary results for an aeromagnetic survey flown over Italy using the HALO (High Altitude and LOng range) research aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesur, V.; Schachtschneider, R.; Gebler, A.

    2013-12-01

    In June 2012 the GEOHALO mission was flown over Italy using the high altitude and long-range German research aircraft HALO (Gulfstream jet - G550). One goal of the mission was to demonstrate the feasibility of using geodetic and geophysical instrumentation on such fast flying aircraft. The magnetic data were collected through two independent acquisition chains placed inside under-wing containers. Each chain included a total intensity cesium magnetometer, a three-component fluxgate magnetometer, several temperature censors and a digitizer. Seven parallel profiles, each around 1000 km long, were flown over the Apennine peninsula from north-west to south-east. The flight altitude was about 3500 m and the survey line spacing around 40 km. These long profiles were complemented by four crossing profiles, and a repeated flight line at a higher altitude (approx. 10500 m). The measured magnetic data appear to be consistent with the expected signal. Here we present preliminary results of the data processing. From the calibration maneuvers we have been able to correct the data for most of the plane generated signal. High frequency noise, probably associated with the plane engines, has been filtered out. Along profile data are compared with the Italian aeromagnetic grid as provided by the last version of the WDMAM (World Digital Magnetic Anomaly Map).

  19. Static investigation of the circulation control wing/upper surface blowing concept applied to the quiet short haul research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eppel, J. C.; Shovlin, M. D.; Jaynes, D. N.; Englar, R. J.; Nichols, J. H., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Full scale static investigations were conducted on the Quiet Short Haul Research Aircraft (QSRA) to determine the thrust deflecting capabilities of the circulation control wing/upper surface blowing (CCW/USB) concept. This scheme, which combines favorable characteristics of both the A-6/CCW and QSRA, employs the flow entrainment properties of CCW to pneumatically deflect engine thrust in lieu of the mechanical USB flap system. Results show that the no moving parts blown system produced static thrust deflections in the range of 40 deg to 97 deg (depending on thrust level) with a CCW pressure of 208,900 Pa (30.3 psig). In addition, the ability to vary horizontal forces from thrust to drag while maintaining a constant vertical (or lift) value was demonstrated by varying the blowing pressure. The versatility of the CCW/USB system, if applied to a STOL aircraft, was confirmed, where rapid conversion from a high drag approach mode to a thrust recovering waveoff or takeoff configuration could be achieved by nearly instantaneous blowing pressure variation.

  20. Methane and nitrous oxide measurements onboard the UK Atmospheric Research Aircraft using quantum cascade laser spectrometry (QCL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, J. B.; O'Shea, S.; Dorsey, J.; Bauguitte, S.; Cain, M.; Allen, G.; Percival, C. J.; Gallagher, M. W.

    2012-12-01

    A Aerodyne Research© Mini-Quantum Cascade Laser (QCL) spectrometer was installed on the UK Facility of Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM) BAe-146 research aircraft and employed during summer 2012. Methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) concentrations were measured within the Arctic Circle as part of the MAMM project (Methane and other greenhouse gases in the Arctic - Measurements, process studies and Modelling) as well as around the UK as part of the ClearfLo project (Clean Air for London). A range of missions were flown, including deep vertical profiles up to the stratosphere, providing concentration profiles of CH4 and N2O, as well as low altitude level runs exploring near surface diffuse emission sources such as the wetlands in Arctic Lapland and point emissions sources such as gas platforms off the UK coast. Significant pollution plumes were observed both in the Arctic and around the UK with elevated CH4 concentrations, as well as enhanced CO, O3 and aerosol levels. The NAME Lagrangian particle dispersion model will be used to investigate the origins of these CH4 plumes to identify the locations of the emissions sources. The first set of flights using QCL on the FAAM research aircraft have been successful and regular in-flight calibrations (high/low span) and target concentrations were used to determine instrument accuracy and precision. Additional data quality control checks could be made by comparison with an onboard Los Gatos Fast Greenhouse Gas Analyser (FGGA) for CO2 and CH4 and provide the basis for further instrument development and implementation for future Arctic MAMM flights during spring and summer 2013.

  1. Flight Demonstration of X-33 Vehicle Health Management System Components on the F/A-18 Systems Research Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schweikhard, Keith A.; Richards, W. Lance; Theisen, John; Mouyos, William; Garbos, Raymond

    2001-01-01

    The X-33 reusable launch vehicle demonstrator has identified the need to implement a vehicle health monitoring system that can acquire data that monitors system health and performance. Sanders, a Lockheed Martin Company, has designed and developed a COTS-based open architecture system that implements a number of technologies that have not been previously used in a flight environment. NASA Dryden Flight Research Center and Sanders teamed to demonstrate that the distributed remote health nodes, fiber optic distributed strain sensor, and fiber distributed data interface communications components of the X-33 vehicle health management (VHM) system could be successfully integrated and flown on a NASA F-18 aircraft. This paper briefly describes components of X-33 VHM architecture flown at Dryden and summarizes the integration and flight demonstration of these X-33 VHM components. Finally, it presents early results from the integration and flight efforts.

  2. Flight Demonstration of X-33 Vehicle Health Management System Components on the F/A-18 Systems Research Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schweikhard, Keith A.; Richards, W. Lance; Theisen, John; Mouyos, William; Garbos, Raymond; Schkolnik, Gerald (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The X-33 reusable launch vehicle demonstrator has identified the need to implement a vehicle health monitoring system that can acquire data that monitors system health and performance. Sanders, a Lockheed Martin Company, has designed and developed a commercial off-the-shelf (COTS)-based open architecture system that implements a number of technologies that have not been previously used in a flight environment. NASA Dryden Flight Research Center and Sanders teamed to demonstrate that the distributed remote health nodes, fiber optic distributed strain sensor, and fiber distributed data interface communications components of the X-33 vehicle health management (VHM) system could be successfully integrated and flown on a NASA F-18 aircraft. This paper briefly describes components of X-33 VHM architecture flown at Dryden and summarizes the integration and flight demonstration of these X-33 VHM components. Finally, it presents early results from the integration and flight efforts.

  3. Recent progress in research pertaining to estimates of gas-side heat transfer in an aircraft gas turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, Robert W.

    1989-01-01

    A decade ago several important fundamental heat transfer phenomena were identified which were considered basic to the ability to predict heat transfer loads in aircraft gas turbines. The progress in addressing these fundamentals over the past ten years is assessed. Much reseach effort has been devoted to their study in university, industry and government labs and significant progress has been achieved. Advances in computer technology have enabled the modeling of complex 3-D fluid flow in gas turbines so necessary for heat transfer calculations. Advances in instrumentation plus improved data acquisition have brought about more reliable data sets. While much has advanced in the 1980's, much challenging research remains to be done. Several of these areas are suggested.

  4. Lewis icing research tunnel test of the aerodynamic effects of aircraft ground deicing/anti-icing fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Runyan, L. James; Zierten, Thomas A.; Hill, Eugene G.; Addy, Harold E., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    A wind tunnel investigation of the effect of aircraft ground deicing/anti-icing fluids on the aerodynamic characteristics of a Boeing 737-200ADV airplane was conducted. The test was carried out in the NASA Lewis Icing Research Tunnel. Fluids tested include a Newtonian deicing fluid, three non-Newtonian anti-icing fluids commercially available during or before 1988, and eight new experimental non-Newtonian fluids developed by four fluid manufacturers. The results show that fluids remain on the wind after liftoff and cause a measurable lift loss and drag increase. These effects are dependent on the high-lift configuration and on the temperature. For a configuration with a high-lift leading-edge device, the fluid effect is largest at the maximum lift condition. The fluid aerodynamic effects are related to the magnitude of the fluid surface roughness, particularly in the first 30 percent chord. The experimental fluids show a significant reduction in aerodynamic effects.

  5. A Model for Space Shuttle Orbiter Tire Side Forces Based on NASA Landing Systems Research Aircraft Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, John F.; Nagy, Christopher J.; Barnicki, Joseph S.

    1997-01-01

    Forces generated by the Space Shuttle orbiter tire under varying vertical load, slip angle, speed, and surface conditions were measured using the Landing System Research Aircraft (LSRA). Resulting data were used to calculate a mathematical model for predicting tire forces in orbiter simulations. Tire side and drag forces experienced by an orbiter tire are cataloged as a function of vertical load and slip angle. The mathematical model is compared to existing tire force models for the Space Shuttle orbiter. This report describes the LSRA and a typical test sequence. Testing methods, data reduction, and error analysis are presented. The LSRA testing was conducted on concrete and lakebed runways at the Edwards Air Force Flight Test Center and on concrete runways at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). Wet runway tire force tests were performed on test strips made at the KSC using different surfacing techniques. Data were corrected for ply steer forces and conicity.

  6. Experimental and numerical research on the aerodynamics of unsteady moving aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergmann, Andreas; Huebner, Andreas; Loeser, Thomas

    2008-02-01

    For the experimental determination of the dynamic wind tunnel data, a new combined motion test capability was developed at the German-Dutch Wind Tunnels DNW for their 3 m Low Speed Wind Tunnel NWB in Braunschweig, Germany, using a unique six degree-of-freedom test rig called ‘Model Positioning Mechanism’ (MPM) as an improved successor to the older systems. With that cutting-edge device, several transport aircraft configurations including a blended wing body configuration were tested in different modes of oscillatory motions roll, pitch and yaw as well as delta-wing geometries like X-31 equipped with remote controlled rudders and flaps to be able to simulate realistic flight maneuvers, e.g., a Dutch Roll. This paper describes the motivation behind these tests and the test setup and in addition gives a short introduction into time accurate maneuver-testing capabilities incorporating models with remote controlled control surfaces. Furthermore, the adaptation of numerical methods for the prediction of dynamic derivatives is described and some examples with the DLR-F12 configuration will be given. The calculations are based on RANS-solution using the finite volume parallel solution algorithm with an unstructured discretization concept (DLR TAU-code).

  7. ALADINA - an unmanned research aircraft for observing vertical and horizontal distributions of ultrafine particles within the atmospheric boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altstädter, B.; Platis, A.; Wehner, B.; Scholtz, A.; Wildmann, N.; Hermann, M.; Käthner, R.; Baars, H.; Bange, J.; Lampert, A.

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents the unmanned research aircraft Carolo P360 "ALADINA" (Application of Light-weight Aircraft for Detecting IN situ Aerosol) for investigating the horizontal and vertical distribution of ultrafine particles in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). It has a wingspan of 3.6 m, a maximum take-off weight of 25 kg and is equipped with aerosol instrumentation and meteorological sensors. A first application of the system, together with the unmanned research aircraft MASC (Multi-Purpose Airborne Carrier) of the Eberhard Karls University of Tübingen (EKUT), is described. As small payload for ALADINA, two condensation particle counters (CPC) and one optical particle counter (OPC) were miniaturised by re-arranging the vital parts and composing them in a space-saving way in the front compartment of the airframe. The CPCs are improved concerning the lower detection threshold and the response time to less than 1.3 s. Each system was characterised in the laboratory and calibrated with test aerosols. The CPCs are operated in this study with two different lower detection threshold diameters of 11 and 18 nm. The amount of ultrafine particles, which is an indicator for new particle formation, is derived from the difference in number concentrations of the two CPCs (ΔN). Turbulence and thermodynamic structure of the boundary layer are described by measurements of fast meteorological sensors that are mounted at the aircraft nose. A first demonstration of ALADINA and a feasibility study were conducted in Melpitz near Leipzig, Germany, at the Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) station of the Leibniz Institute for Tropospheric Research (TROPOS) on 2 days in October 2013. There, various ground-based instruments are installed for long-term atmospheric monitoring. The ground-based infrastructure provides valuable additional background information to embed the flights in the continuous atmospheric context and is used for validation of the airborne results. The development of the boundary layer, derived from backscatter signals of a portable Raman lidar POLLYXT, allows a quick overview of the current vertical structure of atmospheric particles. Ground-based aerosol number concentrations are consistent with the results from flights in heights of a few metres. In addition, a direct comparison of ALADINA aerosol data and ground-based aerosol data, sampling the air at the same location for more than 1 h, shows comparable values within the range of ± 20 %. MASC was operated simultaneously with complementary flight patterns. It is equipped with the same meteorological instruments that offer the possibility to determine turbulent fluxes. Therefore, additional information about meteorological conditions was collected in the lowest part of the atmosphere. Vertical profiles up to 1000 m in altitude indicate a high variability with distinct layers of aerosol, especially for the small particles of a few nanometres in diameter on 1 particular day. The stratification was almost neutral and two significant aerosol layers were detected with total aerosol number concentrations up to 17 000 ± 3400 cm-3 between 180 and 220 m altitude and 14 000 ± 2800 cm-3 between 550 and 650 m. Apart from those layers, the aerosol distribution was well mixed and reached the total number concentration of less than 8000 ± 1600 cm-3. During another day, the distribution of the small particles in the lowermost ABL was related to the stratification, with continuously decreasing number concentrations from 16 000 ± 3200 cm-3 to a minimum of 4000 ± 800 cm-3 at the top of the inversion at 320 m. Above this, the total number concentration was rather constant. In the region of 500 to 600 m altitude, a significant difference of both CPCs was observed. This event occurred during the boundary layer development in the morning and represents a particle burst within the ABL.

  8. ALADINA - an unmanned research aircraft for observing vertical and horizontal distributions of ultrafine particles within the atmospheric boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altstädter, B.; Platis, A.; Wehner, B.; Scholtz, A.; Lampert, A.; Wildmann, N.; Hermann, M.; Käthner, R.; Bange, J.; Baars, H.

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents the unmanned research aircraft Carolo P360 "ALADINA" (Application of Light-weight Aircraft for Detecting IN-situ Aerosol) for investigating the horizontal and vertical distribution of ultrafine particles in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). It has a wingspan of 3.6 m, a maximum take-off weight of 25 kg and is equipped with aerosol instrumentation and meteorological sensors. A first application of the system, together with the unmanned research aircraft MASC (Multi-Purpose Airborne Carrier) of the Eberhard-Karls University of Tübingen (EKUT), is described. As small payload for ALADINA, two condensation particle counters (CPC) and one optical particle counter (OPC) were miniaturized by re-arranging the vital parts and composing them in a space saving way in the front compartment of the airframe. The CPCs are improved concerning the lower detection threshold and the response time. Each system was characterized in the laboratory and calibrated with test aerosols. The CPCs are operated with two different lower detection threshold diameters of 6 and 18 nm. The amount of ultrafine particles, which is an indicator for new particle formation, is derived from the difference in number concentrations of the two CPCs. Turbulence and thermodynamic structure of the boundary layer are described by measurements of fast meteorological sensors that are mounted at the aircraft nose. A first demonstration of ALADINA and a feasibility study were conducted in Melpitz near Leipzig, Germany, at the Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) station of the Leibniz Institute for Tropospheric Research (TROPOS) on two days in October 2013. There, various ground-based instruments are installed for long-term atmospheric monitoring. The ground-based infrastructure provides valuable additional background information to embed the flights in the continuous atmospheric context and is used for validation of the airborne results. The development of the boundary layer, derived from backscatter signals of a portable Raman lidar POLLYXT, allows a quick overview of the current vertical structure of atmospheric particles. Ground-based aerosol number concentrations are consistent with the results from flights in heights of a few meters. In addition, a direct comparison of ALADINA aerosol data and ground-based aerosol data, sampling the air at the same location, shows comparable values. MASC was operated simultaneously with complementary flight patterns. It is equipped with the same meteorological instruments that offer the possibility to determine turbulent fluxes. Therefore additional information about meteorological conditions was collected in the lowest part of the atmosphere. Vertical profiles up to 1000 m altitude indicate a high variability with distinct layers of aerosol especially for the small particles of a few nanometers in diameter. Particle bursts were observed on one day during the boundary layer development in the morning.

  9. Aircraft operations management manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The NASA aircraft operations program is a multifaceted, highly diverse entity that directly supports the agency mission in aeronautical research and development, space science and applications, space flight, astronaut readiness training, and related activities through research and development, program support, and mission management aircraft operations flights. Users of the program are interagency, inter-government, international, and the business community. This manual provides guidelines to establish policy for the management of NASA aircraft resources, aircraft operations, and related matters. This policy is an integral part of and must be followed when establishing field installation policy and procedures covering the management of NASA aircraft operations. Each operating location will develop appropriate local procedures that conform with the requirements of this handbook. This manual should be used in conjunction with other governing instructions, handbooks, and manuals.

  10. Aircraft-vehicle system interaction. An evaluation of NASA's program in human factors research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Research in the areas of man machine interaction and human factors engineering are assessed in relation to improved effeciency and aviation safety. The appropriateness, relevance, adequacy, and timeliness of the research is evaluated, and recommendations are provided regarding the objectives, approach and content.

  11. V/STOL tilt rotor research aircraft. Volume 1: General information, revision C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimbell, M.; Whitener, A.

    1980-01-01

    The configuration, operation and maintenance requirements for the contractor-furnished portion of the XV-15 research instrumentation and data acquisition system are defined. Descriptions of systems operation, maintenance and checkout procedures, and cable designations are given.

  12. Flight evaluation of advanced controls and displays for transition and landing on the NASA V/STOL systems research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franklin, James A.; Stortz, Michael W.; Borchers, Paul F.; Moralez, Ernesto, III

    1996-01-01

    Flight experiments were conducted on Ames Research Center's V/STOL Systems Research Aircraft (VSRA) to assess the influence of advanced control modes and head-up displays (HUD's) on flying qualities for precision approach and landing operations. Evaluations were made for decelerating approaches to hover followed by a vertical landing and for slow landings for four control/display mode combinations: the basic YAV-8B stability augmentation system; attitude command for pitch, roll, and yaw; flightpath/acceleration command with translational rate command in the hover; and height-rate damping with translational-rate command. Head-up displays used in conjunction with these control modes provided flightpath tracking/pursuit guidance and deceleration commands for the decelerating approach and a mixed horizontal and vertical presentation for precision hover and landing. Flying qualities were established and control usage and bandwidth were documented for candidate control modes and displays for the approach and vertical landing. Minimally satisfactory bandwidths were determined for the translational-rate command system. Test pilot and engineer teams from the Naval Air Warfare Center, the Boeing Military Airplane Group, Lockheed Martin, McDonnell Douglas Aerospace, Northrop Grumman, Rolls-Royce, and the British Defense Research Agency participated in the program along with NASA research pilots from the Ames and Lewis Research Centers. The results, in conjunction with related ground-based simulation data, indicate that the flightpath/longitudinal acceleration command response type in conjunction with pursuit tracking and deceleration guidance on the HUD would be essential for operation to instrument minimums significantly lower than the minimums for the AV-8B. It would also be a superior mode for performing slow landings where precise control to an austere landing area such as a narrow road is demanded. The translational-rate command system would reduce pilot workload for demanding vertical landing tasks aboard ship and in confined land-based sites.

  13. Design of a high-performance rotary stratified-charge research aircraft engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, C.; Mount, R. E.

    1984-01-01

    The power section for an advanced rotary stratified-charge general aviation engine has been designed under contract to NASA. The single-rotor research engine of 40 cubic-inches displacement (RCI-40), now being procured for test initiation this summer, is targeted for 320 T.O. horse-power in a two-rotor production engine. The research engine is designed for operating on jet-fuel, gasoline or diesel fuel and will be used to explore applicable advanced technologies and to optimize high output performance variables. Design of major components of the engine is described in this paper.

  14. Researcher's guide to the NASA Ames Flight Simulator for Advanced Aircraft (FSAA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinacori, J. B.; Stapleford, R. L.; Jewell, W. F.; Lehman, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    Performance, limitations, supporting software, and current checkout and operating procedures are presented for the flight simulator, in terms useful to the researcher who intends to use it. Suggestions to help the researcher prepare the experimental plan are also given. The FSAA's central computer, cockpit, and visual and motion systems are addressed individually but their interaction is considered as well. Data required, available options, user responsibilities, and occupancy procedures are given in a form that facilitates the initial communication required with the NASA operations' group.

  15. Airborne measurements of CO2 and CH4 onboard the UK FAAM research aircraft using a, Los Gatos Research Inc, cavity enhanced absorption spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Shea, S.; Bauguitte, S.; Muller, J. B.; Le Breton, M.; Gallagher, M. W.; Allen, G.; Percival, C. J.

    2012-12-01

    Airborne measurements of CO2 and CH4 have been made using the UK Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM) BAe-146 research aircraft since spring 2011.The measurement system uses a commercially available analyser, based on the off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy technique, from Los Gatos Research Inc (FGGA, Model RMT-200). During the first year of operation (29 flights), 1 Hz measurements were found to be accurate to 0.07 ± 2.48ppbv for CH4 and -0.06± 0.66ppmv for CO2. In summer 2011, as part of the BORTAS project (Quantifying the impact of BOReal forest fires on Tropospheric oxidants over the Atlantic using Aircraft and Satellites), outflow from boreal forest fires was measured in Eastern Canada. A number of fresh and photochemically-aged plumes were identified using simultaneous HCN measurements, a widely used tracer for biomass burning. In the freshest plumes, strong relationships were found between CH4, CO2 and other tracers for biomass burning. From this we were able to estimate that 6.9±0.8 g of CH4 and 1551±213 g of CO2 were released into the atmosphere per kg of dry matter burnt. These emission factors are in good agreement with estimates from previous studies in boreal regions. However for aged plumes the correlations between CH4 and other biomass burning tracers were not as robust, most likely due to mixing from other CH4 emission sources, such as the wetland regions. The role of additional emission sources will be investigated using the UK Met Office NAME atmospheric dispersion model and the HYSPLIT trajectory model. Using tailored back trajectory analysis, we will present an interpretation of this new dataset in the context of air mass/fire origin, relating this to MODIS fire maps and source strength.

  16. Hyper-X Research Vehicle - Artist Concept Mounted on Pegasus Rocket Attached to B-52 Launch Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This artist's concept depicts the Hyper-X research vehicle riding on a booster rocket prior to being launched by the Dryden Flight Research Center's B-52 at about 40,000 feet. The X-43A was developed to flight test a dual-mode ramjet/scramjet propulsion system at speeds from Mach 7 up to Mach 10 (7 to 10 times the speed of sound, which varies with temperature and altitude). Hyper-X, the flight vehicle for which is designated as X-43A, is an experimental flight-research program seeking to demonstrate airframe-integrated, 'air-breathing' engine technologies that promise to increase payload capacity for future vehicles, including hypersonic aircraft (faster than Mach 5) and reusable space launchers. This multiyear program is currently underway at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The Hyper-X schedule calls for its first flight later this year (2000). Hyper-X is a joint program, with Dryden sharing responsibility with NASA's Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia. Dryden's primary role is to fly three unpiloted X-43A research vehicles to validate engine technologies and hypersonic design tools as well as the hypersonic test facility at Langley. Langley manages the program and leads the technology development effort. The Hyper-X Program seeks to significantly expand the speed boundaries of air-breathing propulsion by being the first aircraft to demonstrate an airframe-integrated, scramjet-powered free flight. Scramjets (supersonic-combustion ramjets) are ramjet engines in which the airflow through the whole engine remains supersonic. Scramjet technology is challenging because only limited testing can be performed in ground facilities. Long duration, full-scale testing requires flight research. Scramjet engines are air-breathing, capturing their oxygen from the atmosphere. Current spacecraft, such as the Space Shuttle, are rocket powered, so they must carry both fuel and oxygen for propulsion. Scramjet technology-based vehicles need to carry only fuel. By eliminating the need to carry oxygen, future hypersonic vehicles will be able to carry heavier payloads. Another unique aspect of the X-43A vehicle is the airframe integration. The body of the vehicle itself forms critical elements of the engine. The forebody acts as part of the intake for airflow and the aft section serves as the nozzle. The X-43A vehicles were manufactured by Micro Craft, Inc., Tullahoma, Tennessee. Orbital Sciences Corporation, Chandler, Arizona, built the Pegasus rocket booster used to launch the X-43 vehicles. For the Dryden research flights, the Pegasus rocket booster and attached X-43 will be air launched by Dryden's B-52 'Mothership.' After release from the B-52, the booster will accelerate the X-43A vehicle to the established test conditions (Mach 7 to 10) at an altitude of approximately 100,000 feet where the X-43 will separate from the booster and fly under its own power and preprogrammed control.

  17. The Aircraft Morphing Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wlezien, R. W.; Horner, G. C.; McGowan, A. R.; Padula, S. L.; Scott, M. A.; Silcox, R. J.; Simpson, J. O.

    1998-01-01

    In the last decade smart technologies have become enablers that cut across traditional boundaries in materials science and engineering. Here we define smart to mean embedded actuation, sensing, and control logic in a tightly coupled feedback loop. While multiple successes have been achieved in the laboratory, we have yet to see the general applicability of smart devices to real aircraft systems. The NASA Aircraft Morphing program is an attempt to couple research across a wide range of disciplines to integrate smart technologies into high payoff aircraft applications. The program bridges research in seven individual disciplines and combines the effort into activities in three primary program thrusts. System studies are used to assess the highest- payoff program objectives, and specific research activities are defined to address the technologies required for development of smart aircraft systems. In this paper we address the overall program goals and programmatic structure, and discuss the challenges associated with bringing the technologies to fruition.

  18. Wet runways. [aircraft landing and directional control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horne, W. B.

    1975-01-01

    Aircraft stopping and directional control performance on wet runways is discussed. The major elements affecting tire/ground traction developed by jet transport aircraft are identified and described in terms of atmospheric, pavement, tire, aircraft system and pilot performance factors or parameters. Research results are summarized, and means for improving or restoring tire traction/aircraft performance on wet runways are discussed.

  19. Study of heat sink thermal protection systems for hypersonic research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vahl, W. A.; Edwards, C. L. W.

    1978-01-01

    The feasibility of using a single metallic heat sink thermal protection system (TPS) over a projected flight test program for a hypersonic research vehicle was studied using transient thermal analyses and mission performance calculations. Four materials, aluminum, titanium, Lockalloy, and beryllium, as well as several combinations, were evaluated. Influence of trajectory parameters were considered on TPS and mission performance for both the clean vehicle configuration as well as with an experimental scramjet mounted. From this study it was concluded that a metallic heat sink TPS can be effectively employed for a hypersonic research airplane flight envelope which includes dash missions in excess of Mach 8 and 60 seconds of cruise at Mach numbers greater than 6. For best heat sink TPS match over the flight envelope, Lockalloy and titanium appear to be the most promising candidates

  20. Predicted flight characteristics of the augmentor wing jet STOL research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spitzer, R. E.

    1972-01-01

    An existing deHavilland C-8A airplane has been modified into an augmentor wing flight test vehicle. Research objectives are to verify the augmentor flap concept and to produce data for STOL airworthiness criteria. The Modified C-8A provides the means for jet-STOL flight research down to a 60 knot approach speed. The airplane has a high thrust-to-weight ratio, high-lift flap system, vectored thrust, powerful flight controls, and lateral-directional stability augmentation system. Normal performance and handling qualities are expected to be satisfactory. Analysis and piloted simulator results indicate that stability and control characteristics in conventional flight are rated satisfactory. Handling qualities in the STOL regime are also generally satisfactory, although pilot workload is high about the longitudinal axis.

  1. Environmental research brief: Pollution prevention assessment for a manufacturer of aircraft landing gear

    SciTech Connect

    Jendrucko, R.J.; Morton, S.D.; Thomas, T.M.; Looby, G.P.

    1995-08-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a Pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacture who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lac the expertise to do so. In an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) we established at selected universities and procedures were adapted from the EPA Waste Minimization Opportunity Assessment Manual. The WMAC team at the University of Tennessee performed an assessment at a plant that manufactures outboard motors for water craft. Three basic subunits received from other manufacturing plants undergo primarily painting and assembly operations in order to produce the final product. The team`s report, detailing findings and recommendations, indicated that paint overspray waste and spent clean-up solvent are generated in large quantities and that significant cost savings could be achieved by installing robotic paint application equipment. This Research Brief was developed by the principal investigators and EPA`s National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Cincinnati, OH, to announce key findings of an ongoing research project that is fully documented in a separate report of the same title available from University City Science Center.

  2. Start Up Research Effort in Fluid Mechanics. Advanced Methods for Acoustic and Thrust Benefits for Aircraft Engine Nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Samuel G.; Gilinsky, Mikhail M.

    1997-01-01

    In accordance with the project plan for the report period in the proposal titled above, HU and FML teams investigated two sets of concepts for reduction of noise and improvement in efficiency for jet exhaust nozzles of aircraft engines and screws for mixers, fans, propellers and boats. The main achievements in the report period are: (a) Publication of the paper in the AIAA Journal, which described our concepts and some results. (b) The Award in the Civil Research and Development Foundation (CRDF) competition. This 2 year grant for Hampton University (HU) and Central AeroHydrodynamic Institute (TSAGI, Moscow, Russia) supports the research implementation under the current NASA FAR grant. (c) Selection for funding by NASA HQ review panel of the Partnership Awards Concept Paper. This two year grant also will support our current FAR grant. (d) Publication of a Mobius Strip concept in NASA Technical Briefs, June, 1996, and a great interest of many industrial companies in this invention. Successful experimental results with the Mobius shaped screw for mixers, which save more than 30% of the electric power by comparison with the standard screws. Creation of the scientific-popular video-film which can be used for commercial and educational purposes. (e) Organization work, joint meetings and discussions of the NASA LARC JNL Team and HU professors and administration for the solution of actual problems and effective work of the Fluid Mechanics Laboratory at Hampton University. In this report the main designs are enumerated. It also contains for both concept sets: (1) the statement of the problem for each design, some results, publications, inventions, patents, our vision for continuation of this research, and (2) present and expected problems in the future.

  3. Real-time flutter analysis of an active flutter-suppression system on a remotely piloted research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilyard, G. B.; Edwards, J. W.

    1983-01-01

    Flight flutter-test results of the first aeroelastic research wing (ARW-1) of NASA's drones for aerodynamic and structural testing program are presented. The flight-test operation and the implementation of the active flutter-suppression system are described as well as the software techniques used to obtain real-time damping estimates and the actual flutter testing procedure. Real-time analysis of fast-frequency aileron excitation sweeps provided reliable damping estimates. The open-loop flutter boundary was well defined at two altitudes; a maximum Mach number of 0.91 was obtained. Both open-loop and closed-loop data were of exceptionally high quality. Although the flutter-suppression system provided augmented damping at speeds below the flutter boundary, an error in the implementation of the system resulted in the system being less stable than predicted. The vehicle encountered system-on flutter shortly after crossing the open-loop flutter boundary on the third flight and was lost. The aircraft was rebuilt. Changes made in real-time test techniques are included.

  4. OVRhyp, Scramjet Test Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aslan, J.; Bisard, T.; Dallinga, S.; Draper, K.; Hufford, G.; Peters, W.; Rogers, J.

    1990-01-01

    A preliminary design for an unmanned hypersonic research vehicle to test scramjet engines is presented. The aircraft will be launched from a carrier aircraft at an altitude of 40,000 feet at Mach 0.8. The vehicle will then accelerate to Mach 6 at an altitude of 100,000 feet. At this stage the prototype scramjet will be employed to accelerate the vehicle to Mach 10 and maintain Mach 10 flight for 2 minutes. The aircraft will then decelerate and safely land.

  5. Coatings for aircraft gas turbine engines and space shuttle heat shields: A review of Lewis Research Center programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grisaffe, S. J.; Merutka, J. P.

    1972-01-01

    The status of several coating programs is reviewed. These include efforts on protecting aircraft gas turbine engine materials from oxidation/corrosion and on protecting refractory metal reentry heat shields from oxidation.

  6. Probing Aircraft Flight Test Hazard Mitigation for the Alternative Fuel Effects on Contrails & Cruise Emissions (ACCESS) Research Team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    The Alternative Fuel Effects on Contrails & Cruise Emissions (ACCESS) Project Integration Manager requested in July 2012 that the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) form a team to independently assess aircraft structural failure hazards associated with the ACCESS experiment and to identify potential flight test hazard mitigations to ensure flight safety. The ACCESS Project Integration Manager subsequently requested that the assessment scope be focused predominantly on structural failure risks to the aircraft empennage raft empennage.

  7. Research on the Effects of Fatigue within the Corporate/Business Aircraft Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neri, David F.; Rosekind, Mark R.; Co, Elizabeth L.; Gregory, Kevin B.; Miller, Donna L.

    1997-01-01

    In 1980, responding to a Congressional request, NASA Ames Research Center created a program to examine whether 'there is a safety problem of uncertain magnitude, due to transmeridian flying and a potential problem due to fatigue in association with various factors found in air transport operations.' The NASA Ames Fatigue/Jet Lag Program was created to collect systematic, scientific information on fatigue, sleep, circadian rhythms, and performance in flight operations. Three Program goals were established and continue to guide research efforts to: (1) determine the extent of fatigue, sleep loss, and circadian disruption in flight operations; (2) determine the impact of these factors on flight crew performance; (3) develop and evaluate countermeasures to mitigate the adverse effects of these factors and maximize flight crew performance and alertness. Since 1980, studies have been conducted in a variety of aviation environments, in controlled laboratory environments, as well as in a full-mission flight simulation. Early studies included investigations of short-haul, long-haul, and overnight cargo flight crews. In 1991, the name of the program was changed to the Fatigue Countermeasures Program to provide a greater emphasis on the development and evaluation of countermeasures. More recent work has examined the effects of planned cockpit rest as an operational countermeasure and provided analyses of the pertinent sleep/duty factors preceding an aviation accident at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba. The Short-Haul study examined the extent of sleep loss, circadian disruption, and fatigue engendered by flying commercial short-haul air transport operations (flight legs less than eight hours). This was one of the first field studies conducted by the NASA program and provided unique insight into the physiological and subjective effects of flying commercial short-haul operations. It demonstrated that a range of measures could be obtained in an operational environment without disturbing the regular performance of duties. The Long-Haul study examined how long-haul flight crews organized their sleep during a variety of international trip patterns and examined how duty requirements, local time, and the circadian system affected the timing, duration, and quality of sleep. Duty requirements and local time can be viewed as external/environmental constraints on time available for sleep, while the internal circadian system is a major physiological modulator of sleep duration and quality. The Overnight Cargo study documented the psychophysiological effects of flying overnight cargo operations. The data collected clearly demonstrated that overnight cargo operations, like other night work, involve physiological disruption not found in comparable daytime operations.

  8. The insertion of human dynamics models in the flight control loops of V/STOL research aircraft. Appendix 2: The optimal control model of a pilot in V/STOL aircraft control loops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zipf, Mark E.

    1989-01-01

    An overview is presented of research work focussed on the design and insertion of classical models of human pilot dynamics within the flight control loops of V/STOL aircraft. The pilots were designed and configured for use in integrated control system research and design. The models of human behavior that were considered are: McRuer-Krendel (a single variable transfer function model); and Optimal Control Model (a multi-variable approach based on optimal control and stochastic estimation theory). These models attempt to predict human control response characteristics when confronted with compensatory tracking and state regulation tasks. An overview, mathematical description, and discussion of predictive limitations of the pilot models is presented. Design strategies and closed loop insertion configurations are introduced and considered for various flight control scenarios. Models of aircraft dynamics (both transfer function and state space based) are developed and discussed for their use in pilot design and application. Pilot design and insertion are illustrated for various flight control objectives. Results of pilot insertion within the control loops of two V/STOL research aricraft (Sikorski Black Hawk UH-60A, McDonnell Douglas Harrier II AV-8B) are presented and compared against actual pilot flight data. Conclusions are reached on the ability of the pilot models to adequately predict human behavior when confronted with similar control objectives.

  9. Chemiluminescent methods and instruments for monitoring of the atmosphere and satellite validation on board of research aircrafts and unmanned aerial vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitnikov, Nikolay; Borisov, Yuriy; Akmulin, Dimitry; Chekulaev, Igor; Sitnikova, Vera; Ulanovsky, Alexey; Sokolov, Alexey

    The results of development of instruments based on heterophase chemiluminescence for measurements of space distribution of ozone and nitrogen oxides concentrations on board of research aircrafts and unmanned aerial vehicles carried out in Central Aerological Observatory are presented. Some results of atmospheric investigations on board of research aircrafts M55 “Geophysica” (Russia) and “Falcon” (Germany) carried out using developed instruments in frame of international projects are demonstrated. Small and low power instruments based on chemiluminescent principle for UAV are developed. The results of measurements on board of UAV are shown. The development can be used for satellite data validation, as well as operative environmental monitoring of contaminated areas in particular, chemical plants, natural and industrial disasters territories, areas and facilities for space purposes etc.

  10. Aircraft to aircraft intercomparison during SEMAPHORE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, Dominique; Durand, Pierre

    1998-10-01

    During the Structure des Echanges Mer-Atmosphre, Proprits des Htrognits Ocaniques: Recherche Exprimentale (SEMAPHORE) experiment, performed in the Azores region in 1993, two French research aircraft were simultaneously used for in situ measurements in the atmospheric boundary layer. We present the results obtained from one intercomparison flight between the two aircraft. The mean parameters generally agree well, although the temperature has to be slightly shifted in order to be in agreement for the two aircraft. A detailed comparison of the turbulence parameters revealed no bias. The agreement is good for variances and is satisfactory for fluxes and skewness. A thorough study of the errors involved in flux computation revealed that the greatest accuracy is obtained for latent heat flux. Errors in sensible heat flux are considerably greater, and the worst results are obtained for momentum flux. The latter parameter, however, is more accurate than expected from previous parameterizations.

  11. Follow on Research for Multi-Utility Technology Test Bed Aircraft at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center (FY13 Progress Report)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pak, Chan-Gi

    2013-01-01

    Modern aircraft employ a significant fraction of their weight in composite materials to reduce weight and improve performance. Aircraft aeroservoelastic models are typically characterized by significant levels of model parameter uncertainty due to the composite manufacturing process. Small modeling errors in the finite element model will eventually induce errors in the structural flexibility and mass, thus propagating into unpredictable errors in the unsteady aerodynamics and the control law design. One of the primary objectives of Multi Utility Technology Test-bed (MUTT) aircraft is the flight demonstration of active flutter suppression, and therefore in this study, the identification of the primary and secondary modes for the structural model tuning based on the flutter analysis of MUTT aircraft. The ground vibration test-validated structural dynamic finite element model of the MUTT aircraft is created in this study. The structural dynamic finite element model of MUTT aircraft is improved using the in-house Multi-disciplinary Design, Analysis, and Optimization tool. In this study, two different weight configurations of MUTT aircraft have been improved simultaneously in a single model tuning procedure.

  12. NASA's F-15B Research Testbed aircraft flies in the supersonic shock wave of a U.S. Navy F-5E as par

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    NASA's F-15B Research Testbed aircraft recently flew in the supersonic shock wave of a U.S. Navy F-5E in support of the F-5 Shaped Sonic Boom Demonstration (SSBD) project, part of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency's (DARPA) Quiet Supersonic Platform (QSP) program. The flights originated from the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards, California. Four flights were flown in order to measure the F-5E's near-field (close-up) sonic boom signature at Mach 1.4, during which more than 50 shockwave patterns were measured at distances as close as 100 feet below the F-5E.

  13. Pilotless Aircraft Research Division

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1950-01-01

    Sperry Model 10 Velocimeter, Doppler radar at Wallops Island with trackers P.R. Mears and J. Quillen. Metallic ears pointed to the heavens, this radio tracking device kept tabs on Wallops rocket firings. Joseph Shortal has described this Doppler radar as follows: 'The Doppler radar was a genuine asset to PARD; it made possible the direct determination of velocity and allowed the measurement of drag for such simple models as the RM-2 and RM-5 types. Doppler radars were used in every launching from Wallops.' 'In cooperation with the Army's Aberdeen Proving Ground, specifications for a more powerful Doppler radar were prepared. A 150-watt radar which its manufacturer, Sperry Gyroscope Corp., called the Model 10 Velocimeter, was purchased. This radar was mounted on a SCR-547 trailer, which led Langley men to call it the TPS-547 radar for some time. This radar had a range of approximately five miles and was the first of a series of this type in use at Wallops for many years.' 'One operator directed the dishes toward the target in azimuth while the other operator controlled the elevation (The fact that two operators with independent gun sights and earphones could coordinate their efforts in this fashion surprised many 'experts'.). The Doppler radars were always located near the launcher and the operators normally served in the dual capacity of rocket technicians. After the Velocimeter was placed in operation, the TPS-5 radars were no longer used.' Photograph published in Winds of Change, a 75th Anniversary NASA publication (page 74), by James Schultz. Published in Joseph A. Shortal, History of Wallops Station: Origins and Activities Through 1949, (Wallops Island, VA: National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Wallops Station, nd), Comment Edition. Photograph published in A New Dimension; Wallops Island Flight Test Range: The First Fifteen Years by Joseph Adams Shortal. A NASA publication (page 99).

  14. Aircraft flight characteristics in icing conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yihua; Wu, Zhenlong; Su, Yuan; Xu, Zhongda

    2015-04-01

    Aircraft flight dynamic characteristics can be greatly changed by ice accretion, which has been considered a considerable threat to aircraft flight safety for a long time. An overview of the studies on several ice accretion effects on aircraft flight dynamics is presented here. Special attention is paid to the following areas: ways to obtain the aerodynamic data of iced aircraft, flight dynamic modeling and simulation for iced aircraft, effects of ice accretion on aircraft stability and control as well as on flight performance and aircraft icing envelope protection and control adaption. Finally based on the progress of existing research in these areas, some key issues which deserve more attention for researchers to resolve are addressed, including obtaining aerodynamic data of iced aircraft through numerical simulation method, consummating the existing calculation models about effects of ice accretion on aircraft aerodynamic derivatives and enhancing the investigation on problems of tailplane ice accretion.

  15. Conceptual design, evaluation and research identification for Remote Augmented Propulsive Lift Systems (RALS) with ejectors for VTOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, W. S.; Konarski, M.; Sutherland, M. V.

    1982-01-01

    Ejector concepts for use with a remote augmented lift system (RALS) exhaust nozzle were studied. A number of concepts were considered and three were selected as having the greatest promise of providing the desired aircraft and exhaust gas cooling and lift enhancement. A scale model test program is recommended to explore the effects of the more important parameters on ejector performance.

  16. Pilot Comments From the Boeing High Speed Research Aircraft, Cycle 3, Simulation Study of the Effects of Aeroservoelasticity (LaRC.3)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Melvin L. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    This is a compilation of pilot comments from the Boeing High Speed Research Aircraft, Cycle 3, simulation study (LaRC.3) of the effects of aeroservoelasticity, conducted from October to December 1997 at NASA Langley Research Center. This simulation study was conducted using the Visual Motion Simulator. The comments are from direct tape transcriptions and have been edited for spelling only. These comments were made on tape following the completion of each flight card, immediately after the pilot was satisfied with his practice and data recording runs. Six pilots were used in the evaluation and they are identified as pilots A through F.

  17. ANALYSIS OF AIRCRAFT MOTIONS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wingrove, R. C.

    1994-01-01

    This program was developed by Ames Research Center, in cooperation with the National Transportation Safety Board, as a technique for deriving time histories of an aircraft's motion from Air Traffic Control (ATC) radar records. This technique uses the radar range and azimuth data, along with the downlinked altitude data, to derive an expanded set of data which includes airspeed, lift, attitude angles (pitch, roll, and heading), etc. This technique should prove useful as a source of data in the investigation of commercial airline accidents and in the analysis of accidents involving aircraft which do not have onboard data recorders (e.g., military, short-haul, and general aviation). The technique used to determine the aircraft motions involves smoothing of raw radar data. These smoothed results, in combination with other available information (wind profiles and aircraft performance data), are used to derive the expanded set of data. This program uses a cubic least-square fit to smooth the raw data. This moving-arc procedure provides a smoothed time history of the aircraft position, the inertial velocities, and accelerations. Using known winds, these inertial data are transformed to aircraft stability axes to provide true airspeed, thrust-drag, lift, and roll angle. Further derivation, based on aircraft dependent performance data, can determine the aircraft angle of attack, pitch, and heading angle. Results of experimental tests indicate that values derived from ATC radar records using this technique agree favorably with airborne measurements. This program is written in FORTRAN IV to be executed in the batch mode, and has been implemented on a CDC 6000 series computer with a central memory requirement of 64k (octal) of 60 bit words.

  18. Effects of aircraft noise and sonic booms on fish and wildlife: results of a survey of u. s. fish and wildlife service endangered species and ecological services field offices, refuges, hatcheries, and research centers

    SciTech Connect

    Gladwin, D.N.; Asherin, D.A.; Manci, K.M.

    1988-06-01

    The National Ecology Research Center (Center), as part of an ongoing research study on the effects of low-altitude aircraft operations on fish and wildlife, conducted a survey in January 1987 of all U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) regional directors, research center directors, Ecological Services and Endangered Species field offices supervisors, refuge manager, and hatchery manager. The objective of the survey was to determine the nature and extent of aircraft-induced impacts on fish and wildlife species, populations, and habitat utilization. The field-installation managers and biologists were asked to provide background information or data on fish and wildlife reactions to low-altitude aircraft disturbances, including physiological, behavioral, and reproductive/population effects. Specifically, the survey asked for information such as: observations pf amo,a; reaction(s) to aircraft operations, e.g., desert bighorn sheep scare behavior in response to aircraft overflights and hatchery fish seizures and death following intense sonic booms; and instances of areas where aircraft noise is known or believed to be responsible for reduced population size, e.g. areas along heavily used aircraft flight corridors where breeding waterfowl densities are lower than in similar habitat away from the noise area.

  19. Alternative aircraft fuels technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grobman, J.

    1976-01-01

    NASA is studying the characteristics of future aircraft fuels produced from either petroleum or nonpetroleum sources such as oil shale or coal. These future hydrocarbon based fuels may have chemical and physical properties that are different from present aviation turbine fuels. This research is aimed at determining what those characteristics may be, how present aircraft and engine components and materials would be affected by fuel specification changes, and what changes in both aircraft and engine design would be required to utilize these future fuels without sacrificing performance, reliability, or safety. This fuels technology program was organized to include both in-house and contract research on the synthesis and characterization of fuels, component evaluations of combustors, turbines, and fuel systems, and, eventually, full-scale engine demonstrations. A review of the various elements of the program and significant results obtained so far are presented.

  20. Aircraft Cabin Environmental Quality Sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Gundel, Lara; Kirchstetter, Thomas; Spears, Michael; Sullivan, Douglas

    2010-05-06

    The Indoor Environment Department at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) teamed with seven universities to participate in a Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Center of Excellence (COE) for research on environmental quality in aircraft. This report describes research performed at LBNL on selecting and evaluating sensors for monitoring environmental quality in aircraft cabins, as part of Project 7 of the FAA's COE for Airliner Cabin Environmental Research (ACER)1 effort. This part of Project 7 links to the ozone, pesticide, and incident projects for data collection and monitoring and is a component of a broader research effort on sensors by ACER. Results from UCB and LBNL's concurrent research on ozone (ACER Project 1) are found in Weschler et al., 2007; Bhangar et al. 2008; Coleman et al., 2008 and Strom-Tejsen et al., 2008. LBNL's research on pesticides (ACER Project 2) in airliner cabins is described in Maddalena and McKone (2008). This report focused on the sensors needed for normal contaminants and conditions in aircraft. The results are intended to complement and coordinate with results from other ACER members who concentrated primarily on (a) sensors for chemical and biological pollutants that might be released intentionally in aircraft; (b) integration of sensor systems; and (c) optimal location of sensors within aircraft. The parameters and sensors were selected primarily to satisfy routine monitoring needs for contaminants and conditions that commonly occur in aircraft. However, such sensor systems can also be incorporated into research programs on environmental quality in aircraft cabins.

  1. Survey on effect of surface winds on aircraft design and operation and recommendations for needed wind research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houbolt, J. C.

    1973-01-01

    A survey of the effect of environmental surface winds and gusts on aircraft design and operation is presented. A listing of the very large number of problems that are encountered is given. Attention is called to the many studies that have been made on surface winds and gusts, but development in the engineering application of these results to aeronautical problems is pointed out to be still in the embryonic stage. Control of the aircraft is of paramount concern. Mathematical models and their application in simulation studies of airplane operation and control are discussed, and an attempt is made to identify their main gaps or deficiencies. Key reference material is cited. The need for better exchange between the meteorologist and the aeronautical engineer is discussed. Suggestions for improvements in the wind and gust models are made.

  2. The NASA Thunderstorm Overflight Program (TOP): Research in atmospheric electricity from an instrumented U-2 aircraft platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, O. H., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    An overview of the NASA Thunderstorm Overflight Program (TOP) is presented. The various instruments flown on the NASA U-2 aircraft, as well as the ground instrumentation used to collect optical and electronic signature from the lightning events, are discussed. Samples of some of the photographic and electronic signatures are presented. Approximately 6400 electronic data samples of optical pulses were collected and are being analyzed.

  3. Rapid, optical measurement of the atmospheric pressure on a fast research aircraft using open-path TDLAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchholz, B.; Afchine, A.; Ebert, V.

    2014-11-01

    Because of the high travel speed, the complex flow dynamics around an aircraft, and the complex dependency of the fluid dynamics on numerous airborne parameters, it is quite difficult to obtain accurate pressure values at a specific instrument location of an aircraft's fuselage. Complex simulations using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models can in theory computationally "transfer" pressure values from one location to another. However, for long flight patterns, this process is inconvenient and cumbersome. Furthermore, these CFD transfer models require a local experimental validation, which is rarely available. In this paper, we describe an integrated approach for a spectroscopic, calibration-free, in-flight pressure determination in an open-path White cell on an aircraft fuselage using ambient, atmospheric water vapour as the "sensor species". The presented measurements are realised with the HAI (Hygrometer for Atmospheric Investigations) instrument, built for multiphase water detection via calibration-free TDLAS (tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy). The pressure determination is based on raw data used for H2O concentration measurement, but with a different post-flight evaluation method, and can therefore be conducted at deferred time intervals on any desired flight track. The spectroscopic pressure is compared in-flight with the static ambient pressure of the aircraft avionic system and a micro-mechanical pressure sensor, located next to the open-path cell, over a pressure range from 150 to 800 hPa, and a water vapour concentration range of more than 3 orders of magnitude. The correlation between the micro-mechanical pressure sensor measurements and the spectroscopic pressure measurements shows an average deviation from linearity of only 0.14% and a small offset of 9.5 hPa. For the spectroscopic pressure evaluation we derive measurement uncertainties under laboratory conditions of 3.2 and 5.1% during in-flight operation on the HALO airplane. Under certain flight conditions we quantified, for the first time, stalling-induced, dynamic pressure deviations of up to 30% (at 200 hPa) between the avionic sensor and the optical and mechanical pressure sensors integrated in HAI. Such severe local pressure deviations from the typically used avionic pressure are important to take into account for other airborne sensors employed on such fast flying platforms as the HALO aircraft.

  4. Rapid, optical measurement of the atmospheric pressure on a fast research aircraft using open-path TDLAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchholz, B.; Afchine, A.; Ebert, V.

    2014-05-01

    Because of the high travel speed, the complex flow dynamics around an aircraft and the complex dependency of the fluid dynamics on numerous airborne parameters, it is quite difficult to obtain accurate pressure values at a specific instrument location of an aircraft's fuselage. Complex simulations using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models can in theory computationally "transfer" pressure values from one location to another. However, for long flight patterns, this process is inconvenient and cumbersome. Furthermore these CFD transfer models require a local experimental validation, which is rarely available. In this paper, we describe an integrated approach for a spectroscopic, calibration-free, in-flight pressure determination in an open-path White cell on an aircraft fuselage using ambient, atmospheric water vapour as the "sensor species". The presented measurements are realized with the HAI (Hygrometer for Atmospheric Investigations) instrument, built for multiphase water detection via calibration-free TDLAS (tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy). The pressure determination is based on raw data used for H2O concentration measurement, but with a different post-flight evaluation method, and can therefore be conducted at deferred time intervals on any desired flight track. The spectroscopic pressure is compared in-flight with the static ambient pressure of the aircraft avionic system and a micro-mechanical pressure sensor, located next to the open-path cell, over a pressure range from 150 hPa to 800 hPa, and a water vapour concentration range of more than three orders of magnitude. The correlation between the micro-mechanical pressure sensor measurements and the spectroscopic pressure measurements show an average deviation from linearity of only 0.14% and a small offset of 9.5 hPa. For the spectroscopic pressure evaluation we derive measurement uncertainties under laboratory conditions of 3.2% and 5.1% during in flight operation on the HALO airplane. Under certain flight conditions we quantified for the first time stalling-induced, dynamic pressure deviations of up to 30% (at 200 hPa) between the avionic sensor and the optical and mechanical pressure sensors integrated in HAI. Such severe local pressure deviations from the usually used avionic pressure are important to take into account for other airborne sensors employed on such fast flying platforms as the HALO aircraft.

  5. Airframe, wing, and tail aerodynamic characteristics of a 1/6-scale model of the rotor systems research aircraft with the rotors removed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mineck, R. E.; Freeman, C. E.

    1977-01-01

    A wind-tunnel investigation was conducted to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of the rotor systems research aircraft (RSRA) as the helicopter and the compound helicopter with the rotors removed. Data were obtained over ranges of angle of attack and angle of sideslip. Results are presented for the total loads on the airframe as well as the loads on the wing and the tail. The results indicate that the RSRA with the rotors removed has stable static longitidinal and directional characteristics and has stable effective dihedral.

  6. Impact analysis of composite aircraft structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pifko, Allan B.; Kushner, Alan S.

    1993-01-01

    The impact analysis of composite aircraft structures is discussed. Topics discussed include: background remarks on aircraft crashworthiness; comments on modeling strategies for crashworthiness simulation; initial study of simulation of progressive failure of an aircraft component constructed of composite material; and research direction in composite characterization for impact analysis.

  7. Raven Aircraft Launch

    USGS contractor Phil Owen of EnrGies, Inc. launches a Raven aircraft on the Missouri River near Lower Brule, S.D., during an August 2012 mission to monitor erosion on the river. Owen is accompanied by USGS and Bureau of Indian Affairs researchers.  ...

  8. From Germany to Antarctica: Airborne geodesy and geophysics and the utilization of the research aircraft HALO (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheinert, M.; Barthelmes, F.; Foerste, C.; Heyde, I.

    2013-12-01

    The geoid as an equipotential surface of the gravity potential plays a crucial role for the realiziation of the Global Geodetic Observation System (GGOS) of IAG (International Association of Geodesy). It is the major reference surface for physical height systems. The gravity potential is needed to precisely predict the orbits of artificial satellites of the earth. A precise static solution enters analyses of temporal changes of the gravity field due to mass transport processes between the different subsystems of the earth. However, also in neighbouring disciplines the geoid is applied. In oceanography, for example, the geoid serves as a reference surface for the determination of the mean sea-surface topography (MSST). In glaciology, it enters analyses of the thickness of ice bodies floating in polar waters, based on freeboard heights and the equilibrium supposition. To come up with high resolution global gravity field models, satellite observations - preferably of the dedicated satellite gravity missions - have to be combined with surface gravity data. Although the majority of the continental surface is captured by ground-based or near-surface gravity measurements - and gravity over the oceans is determined by satellite altimetry - still large gaps in surface gravity data exist. In this respect it is the Antarctic continent which suffers large data gaps, not only in surface gravity but also due to the polar gap of GOCE satellite gravimetry. Chairing the IAG Subcommission 2.4f 'Gravity and Geoid in Antarctica' (AntGG) the author will discuss the current status of gravity surveys in Antarctica. Especially airborne gravimetry has been and is being widely applied as the only reasonable method to survey large areas in this vast and hostile environment. As a novel application the German research aircraft HALO was utilized for a geodetic-geophysical flight mission. Measurements were realized to acquire data of the gravity and magnetic fields, of GNSS remote sensing and of laser altimetry over Italy and adjacent (Tyrrhenian, Adriatic and Ionian) seas. This so-called GEOHALO flight mission was carried out in the time period from June 2 to 12, 2012. The flights comprised seven parallel profiles directing from north-west to south-east, in a height of about 3,500 m, with a length of about 1,000 km each and a line spacing of about 40 km. These long profiles were complemented by four crossing profiles and a profile at an altitude of approx. 10 km along the same track as the center long profile. Special focus will be given to the results of airborne gravimetry and laser altimetry to further investigate the gravity field and the sea-surface topography in the Mediterranean. Furthermore, the status of HALO and future plans to utilize HALO for an Antarctic flight mission will be discussed. Applications of airborne gravimetry to investigate geodetic problems in Antarctica shall be shortly discussed, together with an outlook of AntGG.

  9. STOL Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Michael E. Fisher, President of AeroVisions International, has introduced the Culex light twin engine aircraft which offers economy of operation of a single engine plane, the ability to fly well on one engine, plus the capability of flying from short, unimproved fields of takeoff and landing distances less than 35 feet. Key element of design is an airfoil developed by Langley. Culex was originally intended to be factory built aircraft for special utility markets. However, it is now offered as a build-it-yourself kit plane.

  10. High altitude reconnaissance aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yazdo, Renee Anna; Moller, David

    1990-01-01

    At the equator the ozone layer ranges from 65,000 to 130,000 plus feet, which is beyond the capabilities of the ER-2, NASA's current high altitude reconnaissance aircraft. The Universities Space Research Association, in cooperation with NASA, is sponsoring an undergraduate program which is geared to designing an aircraft that can study the ozone layer at the equator. This aircraft must be able to cruise at 130,000 feet for six hours at Mach 0.7, while carrying 3,000 lbs. of payload. In addition, the aircraft must have a minimum range of 6,000 miles. In consideration of the novel nature of this project, the pilot must be able to take control in the event of unforeseen difficulties. Three aircraft configurations were determined to be the most suitable - a joined-wing, a biplane, and a twin-boom conventional airplane. The performance of each configuration was analyzed to investigate the feasibility of the project.

  11. Validation of the Passenger Ride Quality Apparatus (PRQA) for simulation of aircraft motions for ride-quality research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bigler, W. B., II

    1977-01-01

    The NASA passenger ride quality apparatus (PRQA), a ground based motion simulator, was compared to the total in flight simulator (TIFS). Tests were made on PRQA with varying stimuli: motions only; motions and noise; motions, noise, and visual; and motions and visual. Regression equations for the tests were obtained and subsequent t-testing of the slopes indicated that ground based simulator tests produced comfort change rates similar to actual flight data. It was recommended that PRQA be used in the ride quality program for aircraft and that it be validated for other transportation modes.

  12. An Electronic Workshop on the Performance Seeking Control and Propulsion Controlled Aircraft Results of the F-15 Highly Integrated Digital Electronic Control Flight Research Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powers, Sheryll Goecke (Compiler)

    1995-01-01

    Flight research for the F-15 HIDEC (Highly Integrated Digital Electronic Control) program was completed at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center in the fall of 1993. The flight research conducted during the last two years of the HIDEC program included two principal experiments: (1) performance seeking control (PSC), an adaptive, real-time, on-board optimization of engine, inlet, and horizontal tail position on the F-15; and (2) propulsion controlled aircraft (PCA), an augmented flight control system developed for landings as well as up-and-away flight that used only engine thrust (flight controls locked) for flight control. In September 1994, the background details and results of the PSC and PCA experiments were presented in an electronic workshop, accessible through the Dryden World Wide Web (http://www.dfrc.nasa.gov/dryden.html) and as a compact disk.

  13. Pathfinder aircraft flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Pathfinder research aircraft's wing structure is clearly defined as it soars under a clear blue sky during a test flight from Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, in November of 1996. Pathfinder was a lightweight, solar-powered, remotely piloted flying wing aircraft used to demonstrate the use of solar power for long-duration, high-altitude flight. Its name denotes its mission as the 'Pathfinder' or first in a series of solar-powered aircraft that will be able to remain airborne for weeks or months on scientific sampling and imaging missions. Solar arrays covered most of the upper wing surface of the Pathfinder aircraft. These arrays provided up to 8,000 watts of power at high noon on a clear summer day. That power fed the aircraft's six electric motors as well as its avionics, communications, and other electrical systems. Pathfinder also had a backup battery system that could provide power for two to five hours, allowing for limited-duration flight after dark. Pathfinder flew at airspeeds of only 15 to 20 mph. Pitch control was maintained by using tiny elevators on the trailing edge of the wing while turns and yaw control were accomplished by slowing down or speeding up the motors on the outboard sections of the wing. On September 11, 1995, Pathfinder set a new altitude record for solar-powered aircraft of 50,567 feet above Edwards Air Force Base, California, on a 12-hour flight. On July 7, 1997, it set another, unofficial record of 71,500 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility, Kauai, Hawaii. In 1998, Pathfinder was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus configuration. (See the Pathfinder Plus photos and project description.)

  14. Aircraft cybernetics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The use of computers for aircraft control, flight simulation, and inertial navigation is explored. The man-machine relation problem in aviation is addressed. Simple and self-adapting autopilots are described and the assets and liabilities of digital navigation techniques are assessed.

  15. An inverse-modelling approach for frequency response correction of capacitive humidity sensors in ABL research with small remotely piloted aircraft (RPA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wildmann, N.; Kaufmann, F.; Bange, J.

    2014-09-01

    The measurement of water vapour concentration in the atmosphere is an ongoing challenge in environmental research. Satisfactory solutions exist for ground-based meteorological stations and measurements of mean values. However, carrying out advanced research of thermodynamic processes aloft as well, above the surface layer and especially in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL), requires the resolution of small-scale turbulence. Sophisticated optical instruments are used in airborne meteorology with manned aircraft to achieve the necessary fast-response measurements of the order of 10 Hz (e.g. LiCor 7500). Since these instruments are too large and heavy for the application on small remotely piloted aircraft (RPA), a method is presented in this study that enhances small capacitive humidity sensors to be able to resolve turbulent eddies of the order of 10 m. The sensor examined here is a polymer-based sensor of the type P14-Rapid, by the Swiss company Innovative Sensor Technologies (IST) AG, with a surface area of less than 10 mm2 and a negligible weight. A physical and dynamical model of this sensor is described and then inverted in order to restore original water vapour fluctuations from sensor measurements. Examples of flight measurements show how the method can be used to correct vertical profiles and resolve turbulence spectra up to about 3 Hz. At an airspeed of 25 m s-1 this corresponds to a spatial resolution of less than 10 m.

  16. Jet aircraft hydrocarbon fuels technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Longwell, J. P. (Editor)

    1978-01-01

    A broad specification, referee fuel was proposed for research and development. This fuel has a lower, closely specified hydrogen content and higher final boiling point and freezing point than ASTM Jet A. The workshop recommended various priority items for fuel research and development. Key items include prediction of tradeoffs among fuel refining, distribution, and aircraft operating costs; combustor liner temperature and emissions studies; and practical simulator investigations of the effect of high freezing point and low thermal stability fuels on aircraft fuel systems.

  17. Neural networks for aircraft control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linse, Dennis

    1990-01-01

    Current research in Artificial Neural Networks indicates that networks offer some potential advantages in adaptation and fault tolerance. This research is directed at determining the possible applicability of neural networks to aircraft control. The first application will be to aircraft trim. Neural network node characteristics, network topology and operation, neural network learning and example histories using neighboring optimal control with a neural net are discussed.

  18. Commercial aircraft wake vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerz, Thomas; Holzpfel, Frank; Darracq, Denis

    2002-04-01

    This paper discusses the problem of wake vortices shed by commercial aircraft. It presents a consolidated European view on the current status of knowledge of the nature and characteristics of aircraft wakes and of technical and operational procedures of minimizing and predicting the vortex strength and avoiding wake encounters. Methodological aspects of data evaluation and interpretation, like the description of wake ages, the characterization of wake vortices, and the proper evaluation of wake data from measurement and simulation, are addressed in the first part. In the second part an inventory of our knowledge is given on vortex characterization and control, prediction and monitoring of vortex decay, vortex detection and warning, vortex encounter models, and wake-vortex safety assessment. Each section is concluded by a list of questions and required actions which may help to guide further research activities. The primary objective of the joint international efforts in wake-vortex research is to avoid potentially hazardous wake encounters for aircraft. Shortened aircraft separations under appropriate meteorological conditions, whilst keeping or even increasing the safety level, is the ultimate goal. Reduced time delays on the tactical side and increased airport capacities on the strategic side will be the benefits of these ambitious ventures for the air transportation industry and services.

  19. Pathfinder aircraft in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The unique Pathfinder solar-powered flying wing, is shown during a checkout flight from the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. This two-hour low-altitude flight over Rogers Dry Lake, Nov. 19, 1996, served to test aircraft systems and functional procedures, according to officials of AeroVironment, Inc., Pathfinder's developer and operator. Pathfinder was a lightweight, solar-powered, remotely piloted flying wing aircraft used to demonstrate the use of solar power for long-duration, high-altitude flight. Its name denotes its mission as the 'Pathfinder' or first in a series of solar-powered aircraft that will be able to remain airborne for weeks or months on scientific sampling and imaging missions. Solar arrays covered most of the upper wing surface of the Pathfinder aircraft. These arrays provided up to 8,000 watts of power at high noon on a clear summer day. That power fed the aircraft's six electric motors as well as its avionics, communications, and other electrical systems. Pathfinder also had a backup battery system that could provide power for two to five hours, allowing for limited-duration flight after dark. Pathfinder flew at airspeeds of only 15 to 20 mph. Pitch control was maintained by using tiny elevators on the trailing edge of the wing while turns and yaw control were accomplished by slowing down or speeding up the motors on the outboard sections of the wing. On September 11, 1995, Pathfinder set a new altitude record for solar-powered aircraft of 50,567 feet above Edwards Air Force Base, California, on a 12-hour flight. On July 7, 1997, it set another, unofficial record of 71,500 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility, Kauai, Hawaii. In 1998, Pathfinder was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus configuration. (See the Pathfinder Plus photos and project description.)

  20. A study of high-altitude manned research aircraft employing strut-braced wings of high-aspect-ratio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, P. M.; Deyoung, J.; Lovell, W. A.; Price, J. E.; Washburn, G. F.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of increased wing aspect ratio of subsonic aircraft on configurations with and without strut bracing. Results indicate that an optimum cantilever configuration, with a wing aspect ratio of approximately 26, has a 19% improvement in cruise range when compared to a baseline concept with a wing aspect ratio of approximately 10. An optimum strut braced configuration, with a wing aspect ratio of approximately 28, has a 31% improvment in cruise range when compared to the same baseline concept. This improvement is mainly due to the estimated reduction in wing weight resulting from use of lifting struts. All configurations assume the same mission payload and fuel. The drag characteristics of the wings are enhanced with the use of laminar flow airfoils. A method for determining the extent of attainable natural laminar flow, and methods for preliminary structural design and for aerodynamic analysis of wings lifting struts are presented.

  1. Recommendations for ground effects research for V/STOL and STOL aircraft and associated equipment for large scale testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhn, Richard E.

    1986-01-01

    The current understanding of the effects of ground proximity on V/STOL and STOL aircraft is reviewd. Areas covered include (1) single jet suckdown in hover, (2) fountain effects on multijet configurations, (3) STOL ground effects including the effect of the ground vortex flow field, (4) downwash at the tail, and (5) hot gas ingestion in both hover and STOL operation. The equipment needed for large scale testing to extend the state of the art is reviewed and developments in three areas are recommended as follows: (1) improve methods for simulating the engine exhaust and inlet flows; (2) develop a model support system that can simulate realistic rates of climb and descent as well as steady height operation; and (3) develop a blowing BLC ground board as an alternative to a moving belt ground board to properly simulate the flow on the ground.

  2. A throat-bypass stability system for a YF-12 aircraft research inlet using self-acting mechanical valves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, G. L.; Dustin, M. O.; Neiner, G. H.

    1975-01-01

    Results of a wind tunnel investigation are presented. The inlet was modified so that airflow can be removed through a porous cowl-bleed region in the vicinity of the throat. Bleed plenum exit flow area is controlled by relief type mechanical valves. Unlike valves in previous systems, these are made for use in a high Mach flight environment and include refinements so that the system could be tested on a NASA YF-12 aircraft. The valves were designed to provide their own reference pressure; hence, do not respond to slowly varying disturbances. However, the results show that the system can absorb internal-airflow-transients that are too fast for a conventional bypass door control system and that the two systems complement each other quite well. Increased tolerance to angle of attack and Mach number changes is indicated. The valves should provide sufficient time for the inlet control system to make geometry changes required to keep the inlet started.

  3. A throat-bypass stability system for a YF-12 aircraft research inlet using self-acting mechanical valves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, G. L.; Dustin, M. O.; Neiner, G. H.

    1975-01-01

    Results of a wind tunnel investigation are presented. The inlet was modified so that airflow can be removed through a porous cowl-bleed region in the vicinity of the throat. Bleed plenum exit flow area is controlled by relief type mechanical valves. Unlike valves in previous systems, these are made for use in a high Mach flight environment and include refinements so that the system could be tested on a NASA YF-12 aircraft. The valves were designed to provide their own reference pressure. The results show that the system can absorb internal-airflow-transients that are too fast for a conventional bypass door control system and that the two systems complement each other quite well. Increased tolerance to angle of attack and Mach number changes is indicated. The valves should provide sufficient time for the inlet control system to make geometry changes required to keep the inlet started.

  4. Aircraft Design Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Successful commercialization of the AirCraft SYNThesis (ACSYNT) tool has resulted in the creation of Phoenix Integration, Inc. ACSYNT has been exclusively licensed to the company, an outcome of a seven year, $3 million effort to provide unique software technology to a focused design engineering market. Ames Research Center formulated ACSYNT and in working with the Virginia Polytechnic Institute CAD Laboratory, began to design and code a computer-aided design for ACSYNT. Using a Joint Sponsored Research Agreement, Ames formed an industry-government-university alliance to improve and foster research and development for the software. As a result of the ACSYNT Institute, the software is becoming a predominant tool for aircraft conceptual design. ACSYNT has been successfully applied to high- speed civil transport configuration, subsonic transports, and supersonic fighters.

  5. Factors influencing aircraft ground handling performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yager, T. J.

    1983-01-01

    Problems associated with aircraft ground handling operations on wet runways are discussed and major factors which influence tire/runway braking and cornering traction capability are identified including runway characteristics, tire hydroplaning, brake system anomalies, and pilot inputs. Research results from tests with instrumented ground vehicles and aircraft, and aircraft wet runway accident investigation are summarized to indicate the effects of different aircraft, tire, and runway parameters. Several promising means are described for improving tire/runway water drainage capability, brake system efficiency, and pilot training to help optimize aircraft traction performance on wet runways.

  6. Perspectives on Highly Adaptive or Morphing Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGowan, Anna-Maria R.; Vicroy, Dan D.; Busan, Ronald C.; Hahn, Andrew S.

    2009-01-01

    The ability to adapt to different flight conditions has been fundamental to aircraft design since the Wright Brothers first flight. Over a hundred years later, unconventional aircraft adaptability, often called aircraft morphing has become a topic of considerable renewed interest. In the past two decades, this interest has been largely fuelled by advancements in multi-functional or smart materials and structures. However, highly adaptive or morphing aircraft is certainly a cross-discipline challenge that stimulates a wide range of design possibilities. This paper will review some of the history of morphing aircraft including recent research programs and discuss some perspectives on this work.

  7. Designing for aircraft structural crashworthiness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomson, R. G.; Caiafa, C.

    1981-01-01

    This report describes structural aviation crash dynamics research activities being conducted on general aviation aircraft and transport aircraft. The report includes experimental and analytical correlations of load-limiting subfloor and seat configurations tested dynamically in vertical drop tests and in a horizontal sled deceleration facility. Computer predictions using a finite-element nonlinear computer program, DYCAST, of the acceleration time-histories of these innovative seat and subfloor structures are presented. Proposed application of these computer techniques, and the nonlinear lumped mass computer program KRASH, to transport aircraft crash dynamics is discussed. A proposed FAA full-scale crash test of a fully instrumented radio controlled transport airplane is also described.

  8. Aircraft noise prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippone, Antonio

    2014-07-01

    This contribution addresses the state-of-the-art in the field of aircraft noise prediction, simulation and minimisation. The point of view taken in this context is that of comprehensive models that couple the various aircraft systems with the acoustic sources, the propagation and the flight trajectories. After an exhaustive review of the present predictive technologies in the relevant fields (airframe, propulsion, propagation, aircraft operations, trajectory optimisation), the paper addresses items for further research and development. Examples are shown for several airplanes, including the Airbus A319-100 (CFM engines), the Bombardier Dash8-Q400 (PW150 engines, Dowty R408 propellers) and the Boeing B737-800 (CFM engines). Predictions are done with the flight mechanics code FLIGHT. The transfer function between flight mechanics and the noise prediction is discussed in some details, along with the numerical procedures for validation and verification. Some code-to-code comparisons are shown. It is contended that the field of aircraft noise prediction has not yet reached a sufficient level of maturity. In particular, some parametric effects cannot be investigated, issues of accuracy are not currently addressed, and validation standards are still lacking.

  9. CAATER: Merlin IV, Aircraft Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefebvre, M.-P.; Cariolle, D.

    2003-04-01

    Merlin IV , is owned , operated and managed by Météo France. This aircraft has been especially modified and equipped for atmospheric research together with staff and infrastructure needed to support its use. Merlin IV , entirely dedicated to atmospheric research, is a versatile flying laboratory offering several scientific configurations: basic meteorological instrumentation, turbulent flux equipment, radiation measurement (Visible, Red, IR, UV, J(NO_2)) , radiance, ground temperature, microphysics sensors, in-situ and remote sensing chemistry instruments (NO-NO_2-NOy and PAN, Water Vapour ). Equipment and instrumentation can be easily installed on board through the cargo door . Within one day, configuration of the aircraft can be changed on site. Meteo France can study to install any new instrument in or on the aircraft. Real time data processing enables to visualize parameters during flights for adapting flight patterns to conditions. Access to the Merlin was offered through the EC-funded IHP-ARI contract, under a co-ordinated aircraft project (with MRF, U.K.; DLR, Germany and INSU/CNRS France) called CAATER (Co-ordinated Access to Aircraft for Transnational Environmental Research). Since 2000 access to the Merlin has been offered to 7 research groups from different EU Member States for about 10 flight hours each. A new project, with new aircraft ATR42, within the frame of an Integrated Infrastructure Initiative of the Sixth Framework Programme is currently in preparation.

  10. Aircraft engine pollution reduction.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudey, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    The effect of engine operation on the types and levels of the major aircraft engine pollutants is described and the major factors governing the formation of these pollutants during the burning of hydrocarbon fuel are discussed. Methods which are being explored to reduce these pollutants are discussed and their application to several experimental research programs are pointed out. Results showing significant reductions in the levels of carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons, and oxides of nitrogen obtained from experimental combustion research programs are presented and discussed to point out potential application to aircraft engines. An experimental program designed to develop and demonstrate these and other advanced, low pollution combustor design methods is described. Results that have been obtained to date indicate considerable promise for reducing advanced engine exhaust pollutants to levels significantly below current engines.

  11. The development of an augmentor wing jet STOL research aircraft (modified C-8A). Volume 2: Analysis of contractor's flight test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skavdahl, H.; Patterson, D. H.

    1972-01-01

    The initial flight test phase of the modified C-8A airplane was conducted. The primary objective of the testing was to establish the basic airworthiness of the research vehicle. This included verification of the structural design and evaluation of the aircraft's systems. Only a minimum amount of performance testing was scheduled; this has been used to provide a preliminary indication of the airplane's performance and flight characteristics for future flight planning. The testing included flutter and loads investigations up to the maximum design speed. The operational characteristics of all systems were assessed including hydraulics, environmental control system, air ducts, the vectoring conical nozzles, and the stability augmentation system (SAS). Approaches to stall were made at three primary flap settings: up, 30 deg and 65 deg, but full stalls were not scheduled. Minimum control speeds and maneuver margins were checked. All takeoffs and landings were conventional, and STOL performance was not scheduled during this phase of the evaluation.

  12. AD-1 aircraft in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The Ames-Dryden (AD)-1 was a research aircraft designed to investigate the concept of an oblique (or pivoting) wing. The movie clip runs about 17 seconds and has two air-to-air views of the AD-1. The first shot is from slightly above as the wing pivots to 60 degrees. The other angle is almost directly below the aircraft when the wing is fully pivoted.

  13. Multibody aircraft study, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, J. W.; Craven, E. P.; Farmer, B. T.; Honrath, J. F.; Stephens, R. E.; Bronson, C. E., Jr.; Meyer, R. T.; Hogue, J. G.

    1981-01-01

    The potential benefits of a multibody aircraft when compared to a single body aircraft are presented. The analyses consist principally of a detailed point design analysis of three multibody and one single body aircraft, based on a selected payload of 350,000 kg (771,618 lb), for final aircraft definitions; sensitivity studies to evaluate the effects of variations in payload, wing semispan body locations, and fuel price; recommendations as to the research and technology requirements needed to validate the multibody concept. Two, two body, one, three body, and one single body aircraft were finalized for the selected payload, with DOC being the prime figure of merit. When compared to the single body, the multibody aircraft showed a reduction in DOC by as much as 11.3 percent. Operating weight was reduced up to 14 percent, and fly away cost reductions ranged from 8.6 to 13.4 percent. Weight reduction, hence cost, of the multibody aircraft resulted primarily from the wing bending relief afforded by the bodies being located outboard on the wing.

  14. Multibody aircraft study, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, J. W.; Craven, E. P.; Farmer, B. T.; Honrath, J. F.; Stephens, R. E.; Bronson, C. E., Jr.; Meyer, R. T.; Hogue, J. H.

    1982-01-01

    The potential benefits of a multibody aircraft when compared to a single body aircraft are presented. The analyses consist principally of a detailed point design analysis of three multibody and one single body aircraft, based on a selected payload of 350,000 kg (771,618 lb), for final aircraft definitions; sensitivity studies to evaluate the effects of variations in payload, wing semispan body locations, and fuel price; recommendations as to the research and technology requirements needed to validate the multibody concept. Two, two body, one, three body, and one single body aircraft were finalized for the selected payload, with DOC being the prime figure of merit. When compared to the single body, the multibody aircraft showed a reduction in DOC by as much as 11.3 percent. Operating weight was reduced up to 14 percent, and fly away cost reductions ranged from 8.6 to 13.4 percent. Weight reduction, hence cost, of the multibody aircraft resulted primarily from the wing bending relief afforded by the bodies being located outboard on the wing.

  15. Educating with Aircraft Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Hobie

    1976-01-01

    Described is utilization of aircraft models, model aircraft clubs, and model aircraft magazines to promote student interest in aerospace education. The addresses for clubs and magazines are included. (SL)

  16. An Overview of the NASA Spring/Summer 2008 Arctic Campaign - ARCTAS (Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacob, Daniel J.; Clarke, Antony; Crawford, James H.; Dibbs, Jack; Ferrare, Richard A.; Hostetler, Chris A.; Maring, Hal; Russell, Philip B.; Singh, Hanwant B.

    2008-01-01

    ARCTAS (Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites) is a major NASA led airborne field campaign being performed in the spring and summer of 2008 at high latitudes (http://cloud1.arc.nasa.gov/arctas/). ARCTAS is a part of the International Polar Year program and its activities are closely coordinated with multiple U. S. (NOAA, DOE), Canadian, and European partners. Observational data from an ensemble of aircraft, surface, and satellite sensors are closely integrated with models of atmospheric chemistry and transport in this experiment. Principal NASA airborne platforms include a DC-8 for detailed atmospheric composition studies, a P-3 that focuses on aerosols and radiation, and a B-200 that is dedicated to remote sensing of aerosols. Satellite validation is a central activity in all these platforms and is mainly focused on CALIPSO, Aura, and Aqua satellites. Major ARCTAS themes are: (1) Long-range transport of pollution to the Arctic including arctic haze, tropospheric ozone, and persistent pollutants such as mercury; (2) Boreal forest fires and their implications for atmospheric composition and climate; (3) Aerosol radiative forcing from arctic haze, boreal fires, surface-deposited black carbon, and other perturbations; and (4) Chemical processes with focus on ozone, aerosols, mercury, and halogens. The spring deployment (April) is presently underway and is targeting plumes of anthropogenic and biomass burning pollution and dust from Asia and North America, arctic haze, stratosphere-troposphere exchange, and ozone photochemistry involving HOx and halogen radicals. The summer deployment (July) will target boreal forest fires and summertime photochemistry. The ARCTAS mission is providing a critical link to enhance the value of NASA satellite observations for Earth science. In this talk we will discuss the implementation of this campaign and some preliminary results.

  17. Making the Case for New Research to Support the Integration of Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems into the National Airspace System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McAdaragh, Raymon M.; Comstock, James R., Jr.; Ghatas, Rania W.; Burdette, Daniel W.; Trujillo, Anna C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the current state of sUAS regulation, their technical capabilities and the latest technologies that will allow for sUAS NAS integration. The research that is needed to demonstrate sUAS NAS integration capability is identified, and recommendations for conducting this necessary research are suggested.

  18. The lift-fan aircraft: Lessons learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deckert, Wallace H.

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes the highlights and results of a workshop held at NASA Ames Research Center in October 1992. The objective of the workshop was a thorough review of the lessons learned from past research on lift fans, and lift-fan aircraft, models, designs, and components. The scope included conceptual design studies, wind tunnel investigations, propulsion systems components, piloted simulation, flight of aircraft such as the SV-5A and SV-5B and a recent lift-fan aircraft development project. The report includes a brief summary of five technical presentations that addressed the subject The Lift-Fan Aircraft: Lessons Learned.

  19. Electromagnetic Propagation Prediction Inside Aircraft Cabins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hankins, Genevieve; Vahala, Linda; Beggs, John H.

    2004-01-01

    Electromagnetic propagation models for signal strength prediction within aircraft cabins are essential for evaluating and designing a wireless communication system to be implemented onboard aircraft. A model was developed using Wireless Valley's SitePlanner; which is commercial grade software intended for predictions within office buildings. The performance of the model was evaluated through a comparison with test data measurements taken on several aircraft. The comparison concluded that the model can accurately predict power propagation within the cabin. This model can enhance researchers understanding of power propagation within aircraft cabins and will aid in future research.

  20. Future Civil Aircraft and Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albers, J.; Zuk, J.

    1989-01-01

    New aircraft technologies are presented that have the potential to expand the air transportation system and reduce congestion through new operating capabilities while also providing greater levels of safety and environmental compatibility. These new capabilities will result from current and planned civil aeronautics technology at the NASA Ames, Lewis, and Langley Research Centers and will cover the complete spectrum of current aircraft and new vehicle concepts including rotorcraft (helicopters and tilt rotors), vertical and short takeoff and landing (V/STOL), and short takeoff and landing (STOL) aircraft, subsonic transports, high-speed transports, and hypersonic/transatmospheric vehicles. New technologies will improve efficiency, affordability, safety, and environmental compatibility of current aircraft and will enable the development of new transportation system. The new capabilities of vehicles could lead to substantial market opportunities and economic growth and could improve the competitive position of the U.S. aerospace industry.

  1. Project report: Aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Wuebbles, D.J.; Baughcum, S.; Metwally, M.; Seals, R.

    1994-04-01

    Analyses of scenarios of past and possible future emissions are an important aspect of assessing the potential environmental effects from aircraft, including the proposed high speed civil transport (HSCT). The development of a detailed three-dimensional database that accurately represents the integration of all aircraft emissions along realistic flight paths for such scenarios requires complex computational modeling capabilities. Such a detailed data set is required for the scenarios evaluated in this interim assessment. Within the NASA High-Speed Research Program, the Emissions Scenarios Committee provides a forum for identifying the required scenarios and evaluating the resulting database being developed with the advanced emissions modeling capabilities at the Boeing Company and McDonnell Douglas Corporation.

  2. Aircraft turbofan noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groeneweg, J. F.; Rice, E. J.

    1983-01-01

    Turbofan noise generation and suppression in aircraft engines are reviewed. The chain of physical processes which connect unsteady flow interactions with fan blades to far field noise is addressed. Mechanism identification and description, duct propagation, radiation and acoustic suppression are discussed. The experimental technique of fan inflow static tests are discussed. Rotor blade surface pressure and wake velocity measurements aid in the determination of the types and strengths of the generation mechanisms. Approaches to predicting or measuring acoustic mode content, optimizing treatment impedance to maximize attenuation, translating impedance into porous wall structure and interpreting far field directivity patterns are illustrated by comparisons of analytical and experimental results. The interdependence of source and acoustic treatment design to minimize far field noise is emphasized. Area requiring further research are discussed and the relevance of aircraft turbofan results to quieting other turbomachinery installations is addressed.

  3. Autonomous aircraft initiative study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hewett, Marle D.

    1991-01-01

    The results of a consulting effort to aid NASA Ames-Dryden in defining a new initiative in aircraft automation are described. The initiative described is a multi-year, multi-center technology development and flight demonstration program. The initiative features the further development of technologies in aircraft automation already being pursued at multiple NASA centers and Department of Defense (DoD) research and Development (R and D) facilities. The proposed initiative involves the development of technologies in intelligent systems, guidance, control, software development, airborne computing, navigation, communications, sensors, unmanned vehicles, and air traffic control. It involves the integration and implementation of these technologies to the extent necessary to conduct selected and incremental flight demonstrations.

  4. Subsonic Aircraft Safety Icing Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Sharon Monica; Reveley, Mary S.; Evans, Joni K.; Barrientos, Francesca A.

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control (IRAC) Project is one of four projects within the agency s Aviation Safety Program (AvSafe) in the Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD). The IRAC Project, which was redesigned in the first half of 2007, conducts research to advance the state of the art in aircraft control design tools and techniques. A "Key Decision Point" was established for fiscal year 2007 with the following expected outcomes: document the most currently available statistical/prognostic data associated with icing for subsonic transport, summarize reports by subject matter experts in icing research on current knowledge of icing effects on control parameters and establish future requirements for icing research for subsonic transports including the appropriate alignment. This study contains: (1) statistical analyses of accident and incident data conducted by NASA researchers for this "Key Decision Point", (2) an examination of icing in other recent statistically based studies, (3) a summary of aviation safety priority lists that have been developed by various subject-matter experts, including the significance of aircraft icing research in these lists and (4) suggested future requirements for NASA icing research. The review of several studies by subject-matter experts was summarized into four high-priority icing research areas. Based on the Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control (IRAC) Project goals and objectives, the IRAC project was encouraged to conduct work in all of the high-priority icing research areas that were identified, with the exception of the developing of methods to sense and document actual icing conditions.

  5. Structural integrity in aircraft.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardrath, H. F.

    1973-01-01

    The paper reviews briefly the current design philosophies for achieving long, efficient, and reliable service in aircraft structures. The strengths and weaknesses of these design philosophies and their demonstrated records of success are discussed. The state of the art has not been developed to the point where designing can be done without major test inspection and maintenance programs. A broad program of research is proposed through which a viable computerized design scheme will be provided during the next decade. The program will organize and correlate existing knowledge on fatigue and fracture behavior, identify gaps in this knowledge, and guide specific research to upgrade design capabilities.

  6. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 62: The Influence of Knowledge Diffusion on Aeronautics Innovation: The Research, Development, and Production of Large Commercial Aircraft in France, Germany, and the United Kingdom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Golich, Vicki L.

    1997-01-01

    This paper focuses on how European public policies-individually and collectively - influence the diffusion of knowledge and technology. It begins with an overview of the roles played historically and currently by European governments in the research, development and production (RD&P) of large commercial aircraft (LCA). The analytical framework brings together literature from global political economy, comparative politics, business management, and science and technology policy studies. It distinguishes between the production of knowledge, on the one hand, and the dissemination of knowledge, on the other. France, Germany, and the United Kingdom serve as the analytical cases. The paper concludes with a call for additional research in this area, some tentative lessons learned, and a discussion of the consequences of national strategies and policies for the diffusion of knowledge and technology in an era of globalization.

  7. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 62: The Influence of Knowledge Diffusion on Aeronautics Innovation: The Research, Development, and Production of Large Commercial Aircraft in France, Germany, and the United Kingdom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golich, Vicki L.; Pinelli, Thomas E.

    1997-01-01

    This paper focuses on how European public policies-individually and collectively - influence the diffusion of knowledge and technology. It begins with an overview of the roles played historically and currently by European governments in the Research, Development and Production (RD&P) of Large Commercial Aircraft (LCA). The analytical framework brings together literature from global political economy, comparative politics, business management, and science and technology policy studies. It distinguishes between the production of knowledge, on the one hand, and the dissemination of knowledge, on the other. France, Germany, and the United Kingdom serve as the analytical cases. The paper concludes with a call for additional research in this area, some tentative lessons learned, and a discussion of the consequences of national strategies and policies for the diffusion of knowledge and technology in an era of globalizaton.

  8. An evaluation of the performance of chemistry transport models by comparison with research aircraft observations. Part 1: Concepts and overall model performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunner, D.; Staehelin, J.; Rogers, H. L.; Köhler, M. O.; Pyle, J. A.; Hauglustaine, D.; Jourdain, L.; Berntsen, T. K.; Gauss, M.; Isaksen, I. S. A.; Meijer, E.; van Velthoven, P.; Pitari, G.; Mancini, E.; Grewe, V.; Sausen, R.

    2003-05-01

    A rigorous evaluation of five global Chemistry-Transport and two Chemistry-Climate Models operated by several different groups in Europe was performed by comparing the models with trace gas observations from a number of research aircraft measurement campaigns. Whenever possible the models were run over the four-year period 1995-1998 and at each simulation time step the instantaneous tracer fields were interpolated to all coinciding observation points. This approach allows for a very close comparison with observations and fully accounts for the specific meteorological conditions during the measurement flights, which is important considering the often limited availability and representativity of such trace gas measurements. A new extensive database including all major research aircraft and commercial airliner measurements between 1995 and 1998 as well as ozone soundings was established specifically to support this type of direct comparison. Quantitative methods were applied to judge model performance including the calculation of average concentration biases and the visualization of correlations and RMS errors in the form of so-called Taylor diagrams. We present the general concepts applied, the structure and content of the database, and an overall analysis of model skills over four distinct regions. These regions were selected to represent various degrees and types of pollution and to cover large geographical domains with sufficient availability of observations. Comparison of model results with the observations revealed specific problems for each individual model. This study suggests what further improvements are needed and can serve as a benchmark for re-evaluations of such improvements. In general all models show deficiencies with respect to both mean concentrations and vertical gradients of the important trace gases ozone, CO and NOx at the tropopause. Too strong two-way mixing across the tropopause is suggested to be the main reason for differences between simulated and observed CO and ozone values. The generally poor correlations between simulated and measured NOx values suggest that in particular the NOx input by lightning and the convective transport from the polluted boundary layer are still not well described by current parameterizations, which may lead to significant differences in the spatial and seasonal distribution of NOx in the models. Simulated OH concentrations, on the other hand, were found to be in surprisingly good agreement with measured values.

  9. An evaluation of the performance of chemistry transport models by comparison with research aircraft observations. Part 1: Concepts and overall model performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunner, D.; Staehelin, J.; Rogers, H. L.; Köhler, M. O.; Pyle, J. A.; Hauglustaine, D.; Jourdain, L.; Berntsen, T. K.; Gauss, M.; Isaksen, I. S. A.; Meijer, E.; van Velthoven, P.; Pitari, G.; Mancini, E.; Grewe, G.; Sausen, R.

    2003-10-01

    A rigorous evaluation of five global Chemistry-Transport and two Chemistry-Climate Models operated by several different groups in Europe, was performed. Comparisons were made of the models with trace gas observations from a number of research aircraft measurement campaigns during the four-year period 1995-1998. Whenever possible the models were run over the same four-year period and at each simulation time step the instantaneous tracer fields were interpolated to all coinciding observation points. This approach allows for a very close comparison with observations and fully accounts for the specific meteorological conditions during the measurement flights. This is important considering the often limited availability and representativity of such trace gas measurements. A new extensive database including all major research and commercial aircraft measurements between 1995 and 1998, as well as ozone soundings, was established specifically to support this type of direct comparison. Quantitative methods were applied to judge model performance including the calculation of average concentration biases and the visualization of correlations and RMS errors in the form of so-called Taylor diagrams. We present the general concepts applied, the structure and content of the database, and an overall analysis of model skills over four distinct regions. These regions were selected to represent various atmospheric conditions and to cover large geographical domains such that sufficient observations are available for comparison. The comparison of model results with the observations revealed specific problems for each individual model. This study suggests the further improvements needed and serves as a benchmark for re-evaluations of such improvements. In general all models show deficiencies with respect to both mean concentrations and vertical gradients of important trace gases. These include ozone, CO and NOx at the tropopause. Too strong two-way mixing across the tropopause is suggested to be the main reason for differences between simulated and observed CO and ozone values. The generally poor correlations between simulated and measured NOx values suggest that in particular the NOx input by lightning and the convective transport from the polluted boundary layer are still not well described by current parameterizations, which may lead to significant differences in the spatial and seasonal distribution of NOx in the models. Simulated OH concentrations, on the other hand, were found to be in surprisingly good agreement with measured values.

  10. World commercial aircraft accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, C.Y.

    1993-01-01

    This report is a compilation of all accidents world-wide involving aircraft in commercial service which resulted in the loss of the airframe or one or more fatality, or both. This information has been gathered in order to present a complete inventory of commercial aircraft accidents. Events involving military action, sabotage, terrorist bombings, hijackings, suicides, and industrial ground accidents are included within this list. Included are: accidents involving world commercial jet aircraft, world commercial turboprop aircraft, world commercial pistonprop aircraft with four or more engines and world commercial pistonprop aircraft with two or three engines from 1946 to 1992. Each accident is presented with information in the following categories: date of the accident, airline and its flight numbers, type of flight, type of aircraft, aircraft registration number, construction number/manufacturers serial number, aircraft damage, accident flight phase, accident location, number of fatalities, number of occupants, cause, remarks, or description (brief) of the accident, and finally references used. The sixth chapter presents a summary of the world commercial aircraft accidents by major aircraft class (e.g. jet, turboprop, and pistonprop) and by flight phase. The seventh chapter presents several special studies including a list of world commercial aircraft accidents for all aircraft types with 100 or more fatalities in order of decreasing number of fatalities, a list of collision accidents involving commercial aircrafts, and a list of world commercial aircraft accidents for all aircraft types involving military action, sabotage, terrorist bombings, and hijackings.

  11. Aircraft Electric Secondary Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Technologies resulted to aircraft power systems and aircraft in which all secondary power is supplied electrically are discussed. A high-voltage dc power generating system for fighter aircraft, permanent magnet motors and generators for aircraft, lightweight transformers, and the installation of electric generators on turbine engines are among the topics discussed.

  12. Crafting Flight: Aircraft Pioneers and the Contributions of the Men and Women of NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, James

    2003-01-01

    While this is a self-contained history of NASA Langley Research Center's contributions to flight, many other organizations around the country played a vital role in the work described in this book.When you pass through the front gates of NASA Langley Research Center you are entering an extraordinary place. You could easily miss that fact, however. A few years cross-state bicycle tour passed through the Center. As interesting as looping around Center was, the riders observed that nothing about the vaguely industrial site fit the conventional stereotypes of what high tech looks like. NASA Langley does not fit many stereotypes. It takes a close examination to discover the many ways it has contributed to development of flight. As part of the national celebrations commemorating the 100th anniversary of the Wright brothers first flight, James Schultz, an experienced journalist with a gift for translating the language of engineers and scientists into prose that nonspecialists can comprehend, has revised and expanded Winds of Change , his wonderful guide to the Center. This revised book, Crafting Flight , invites you inside. You will read about one of the Nation s oldest research and development facilities, a place of imagination and ingenuity.

  13. Advanced structures technology and aircraft safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccomb, H. G., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    NASA research and development on advanced aeronautical structures technology related to flight safety is reviewed. The effort is categorized as research in the technology base and projects sponsored by the Aircraft Energy Efficiency (ACEE) Project Office. Base technology research includes mechanics of composite structures, crash dynamics, and landing dynamics. The ACEE projects involve development and fabrication of selected composite structural components for existing commercial transport aircraft. Technology emanating from this research is intended to result in airframe structures with improved efficiency and safety.

  14. A parametric determination of transport aircraft price

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. L.

    1975-01-01

    Cost per unit weight and other airframe and engine cost relations are given. Power equations representing these relations are presented for six airplane groups: general aircraft, turboprop transports, small jet transports, conventional jet transports, wide-body transports, supersonic transports, and for reciprocating, turboshaft, and turbothrust engines. Market prices calculated for a number of aircraft by use of the equations together with the aircraft characteristics are in reasonably good agreement with actual prices. Such price analyses are of value in the assessment of new aircraft devices and designs and potential research and development programs.

  15. Advanced technology for future regional transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, L. J.

    1982-01-01

    In connection with a request for a report coming from a U.S. Senate committee, NASA formed a Small Transport Aircraft Technology (STAT) team in 1978. STAT was to obtain information concerning the technical improvements in commuter aircraft that would likely increase their public acceptance. Another area of study was related to questions regarding the help which could be provided by NASA's aeronautical research and development program to commuter aircraft manufacturers with respect to the solution of technical problems. Attention is given to commuter airline growth, current commuter/region aircraft and new aircraft in development, prospects for advanced technology commuter/regional transports, and potential benefits of advanced technology. A list is provided of a number of particular advances appropriate to small transport aircraft, taking into account small gas turbine engine component technology, propeller technology, three-dimensional wing-design technology, airframe aerodynamics/propulsion integration, and composite structure materials.

  16. Human factors in aircraft maintenance and inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepherd, William T.

    1992-01-01

    The events which have led to the intensive study of aircraft structural problems have contributed in no less measure to the study of human factors which influence aircraft maintenance and inspection. Initial research emphasis on aging aircraft maintenance and inspection has since broadened to include all aircraft types. Technicians must be equally adept at repairing old and new aircraft. Their skills must include the ability to repair sheet metal and composite materials; control cable and fly-by-wire systems; round dials and glass cockpits. Their work performance is heavily influenced by others such as designers, technical writers, job card authors, schedulers, and trainers. This paper describes the activities concerning aircraft and maintenance human factors.

  17. Design Methods and Optimization for Morphing Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crossley, William A.

    2005-01-01

    This report provides a summary of accomplishments made during this research effort. The major accomplishments are in three areas. The first is the use of a multiobjective optimization strategy to help identify potential morphing features that uses an existing aircraft sizing code to predict the weight, size and performance of several fixed-geometry aircraft that are Pareto-optimal based upon on two competing aircraft performance objectives. The second area has been titled morphing as an independent variable and formulates the sizing of a morphing aircraft as an optimization problem in which the amount of geometric morphing for various aircraft parameters are included as design variables. This second effort consumed most of the overall effort on the project. The third area involved a more detailed sizing study of a commercial transport aircraft that would incorporate a morphing wing to possibly enable transatlantic point-to-point passenger service.

  18. Ball lightning risk to aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doe, R.; Keul, A.

    2009-04-01

    Lightning is a rare but regular phenomenon for air traffic. Aircraft are designed to withstand lightning strikes. Research on lightning and aircraft can be called detailed and effective. In the last 57 years, 18 reported lightning aviation disasters with a fatality figure of at least 714 persons occurred. For comparison, the last JACDEC ten-year average fatality figure was 857. The majority encountered lightning in the climb, descent, approach and/or landing phase. Ball lightning, a metastable, rare lightning type, is also seen from and even within aircraft, but former research only reported individual incidents and did not generate a more detailed picture to ascertain whether it constitutes a significant threat to passenger and aircraft safety. Lacking established incident report channels, observations were often only passed on as "air-travel lore". In an effort to change this unsatisfactory condition, the authors have collected a first international dataset of 38 documented ball lightning aircraft incidents from 1938 to 2001 involving 13 reports over Europe, 13 over USA/Canada, and 7 over Russia. 18 (47%) reported ball lightning outside the aircraft, 18 (47%) inside, 2 cases lacked data. 8 objects caused minor damage, 8 major damage (total: 42%), only one a crash. No damage was reported in 18 cases. 3 objects caused minor crew injury. In most cases, ball lightning lasted several seconds. 11 (29%) incidents ended with an explosion of the object. A cloud-aircraft lightning flash was seen in only 9 cases (24%) of the data set. From the detailed accounts of air personnel in the last 70 years, it is evident that ball lightning is rarely, but consistently observed in connection with aircraft and can also occur inside the airframe. Reports often came from multiple professional witnesses and in several cases, damages were investigated by civil or military authorities. Although ball lightning is no main air traffic risk, the authors suggest that incident and accident reporting is expanded and in particular damage cases are routinely assessed and published. Aircrews should know that most ball lightning-aircraft-events require thunderstorm conditions, but not necessarily a cloud-aircraft lightning flash. With nearly 50% of inside-airframe ball lightning cases, safety precautions for airline passengers should be discussed and operationalized to minimize further risk.

  19. Tail contribution to the directional aerodynamic characteristics of a 1/6-scale model of the rotor systems research aircraft with a tail rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mineck, R. E.

    1977-01-01

    The results are presented of a wind tunnel investigation to determine the tail contribution to the directional aerodynamic characteristics of a 1/6-scale model of the rotor systems research aircraft (RSRA) with a tail rotor. No main rotor was used during the investigation. Data were obtained with and without the tail rotor over a range of sideslip angle and over a range of rotor collective pitch angle. The model with the tail rotor was tested at several advance ratios with and without thrust from the auxiliary thrust engines on the RSRA fuselage. Increasing the space between the tail-rotor hub and the vertical tail reduced the tail-rotor torque required at moderate to high rotor thrust. Increasing the exit dynamic pressure of the auxiliary thrust engines decreases the tail contribution to the static directional stability. The tail-rotor thrust and its interference provide a positive increment to the static directional stability. The tail contribution increases with forward speed. The adverse yawing moment of the airframe would strongly affect the thrust required of the tail rotor when the helicopter is hovering in a crosswind.

  20. Static and transient performance of YF-102 engine with up to 14 percent core airbleed for the quiet short-haul research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcardle, J. G.; Homyak, L.; Moore, A. S.

    1980-01-01

    An outdoor static test stand was used to measure the steady-state and transient performance of the YF-102 turbofan engine with core airbleed. The test configuration included a bellmouth inlet and a confluent-flow exhaust system similar in size to the quiet short-haul research aircraft (QSRA) exhaust system. For the steady-state tests, the engine operated satisfactorily with core bleed up to 14 percent of the core inlet flow. For the transient tests the engine accelerated and decelerated satisfactorily with no core bleed and with core bleed up to 11 percent of the core inlet flow (maximum tested). For some of the tests the core-bleed flow rate was scheduled to vary with fan discharge pressure, to simulate the QSRA bleed requirements. No stability, surge, stall, overtemperature, combustor flameout, or other operating problems were encountered in any of the tests. Steady-state and transient engine performance data are presented in graphs, and fuel-control trajectories for typical transient tests are shown.

  1. Combining active and passive remote sensing from research aircraft with atmospheric models to evaluate NOx emission fluxes and O3 formation in the Los Angeles Megacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baidar, Sunil; Oetjen, Hilke; Senff, Christoph; Alvarez, Raul, II; Hardesty, Michael; Langford, Andrew; Kim, Si-Wan; Trainer, Michael; Volkamer, Rainer

    2013-04-01

    Ozone (O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) are two important components of air pollution. We have measured vertical column amounts of NO2, and vertical profiles of O3 and wind speed by means of measurements of solar stray light by CU Airborne MAX-DOAS, and active remote sensing using the NOAA TOPAZ lidar, and the University of Leeds Doppler lidar aboard the NOAA Twin Otter research aircraft. A total of 52 flights (up to 4 hours each) were carried out between May 19 and July 19 2010 during the CalNex and CARES field campaigns. These flights cover most of California. The boundary layer height was measured by TOPAZ lidar, and trace gas concentrations of NO2 and O3 were integrated over boundary layer height. These column integrated quantities are then combined with direct wind speed measurements to quantify directly the pollutant flux across the boundary, as defined by the flight track. By tracking the pollution fluxes during transects that are flown upwind and in various distances downwind of a NOx emission source, the NOx emission rate, and the ozone formation rate are quantified. These pollutant fluxes are calculated here for the first time exclusively based on measurements (i.e., without need to infer wind speed from a model). These fluxes provide constraints to quantify localized NOx emissions, and are being compared with WRF-Chem model simulations.

  2. Systematic observations of Volcán Turrialba, Costa Rica, with small unmanned aircraft and aerostats (UAVs): the Costa Rican Airborne Research and Technology Applications (CARTA) missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pieri, D. C.; Diaz, J. A.; Bland, G.; Fladeland, M. M.; Abtahi, A.; Alan, A., Jr.; Alegria, O.; Azofeifa, S.; Berthold, R.; Corrales, E.; Fuerstenau, S.; Gerardi, J.; Herlth, D.; Hickman, G.; Hunter, G.; Linick, J.; Madrigal, Y.; Makel, D.; Miles, T.; Realmuto, V. J.; Storms, B.; Vogel, A.; Kolyer, R.; Weber, K.

    2014-12-01

    For several years, the University of Costa Rica, NASA Centers (e.g., JPL, ARC, GSFC/WFF, GRC) & NASA contractors-partners have made regular in situ measurements of aerosols & gases at Turrialba Volcano in Costa Rica, with aerostats (e.g., tethered balloons & kites), & free-flying fixed wing UAVs (e.g., Dragon Eye, Vector Wing 100, DELTA 150), at altitudes up to 12.5Kft ASL within 5km of the summit. Onboard instruments included gas detectors (e.g., SO2, CO2), visible & thermal IR cameras, air samplers, temperature pressure & humidity sensors, particle counters, & a nephelometer. Deployments are timed to support bimonthly overflights of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) onboard the NASA Terra satellite (26 deployments to date). In situ observations of dilute plume SO2 concentrations (~1-20ppmv), plume dimensions, and associated temperature, pressure, & humidity profiles, validate detailed radiative transfer-based SO2 retrievals, as well as archive-wide ASTER band-ratio SO2 algorithms. Our recent UAV-based CO2 observations confirm high concentrations (e.g., ~3000ppmv max at summit jet), with 1000-1500ppmv flank values, and essentially global background CO2 levels (400ppmv) over distal surroundings. Transient Turrialba He detections (up to 20ppmv) were obtained with a small (~10kg) airborne mass spectrometer on a light aircraft—a UAV version (~3kg) will deploy there soon on the UCR DELTA 500. Thus, these platforms, though small (most payloads <500gm), can perform valuable systematic measurements of potential eruption hazards, as well as of volcano processes. Because they are economical, flexible, and effective, such platforms promise unprecedented capabilities for researchers and responders throughout Central and South America, undertaking volcanic data acquisitions uniquely suited to such small aircraft in close proximity to known hazards, or that were previously only available using full-sized manned aircraft. This work was carried out, in part, at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory of the California Institute of Technology under NASA contract. We are grateful to the Universidad de Costa Rica, the NASA Airborne Science and Earth Surface & Interior Programs, the Dirección General de Aeronáutica Civil de Costa Rica, and FH Düsseldorf for their support.

  3. Eclipse program QF-106 aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This photo shows two QF-106 aircraft that were used for the Eclipse project, both parked at the Mojave Airport in Mojave, California. In 1997 and 1998, the Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards, California, supported and hosted a Kelly Space & Technology, Inc. project called Eclipse, which sought to demonstrate the feasibility of a reusable tow-launch vehicle concept. The project goal was to successfully tow, inflight, a modified QF-106 delta-wing aircraft with an Air Force C-141A transport aircraft. This would demonstrate the possibility of towing and launching an actual launch vehicle from behind a tow plane. Dryden was the responsible test organization and had flight safety responsibility for the Eclipse project. Dryden provided engineering, instrumentation, simulation, modification, maintenance, range support, and research pilots for the test program. The Air Force Flight Test Center (AFFTC), Edwards, California, supplied the C-141A transport aircraft and crew and configured the aircraft as needed for the tests. The AFFTC also provided the concept and detail design and analysis as well as hardware for the tow system and QF-106 modifications. Dryden performed the modifications to convert the QF-106 drone into the piloted EXD-01 (Eclipse eXperimental Demonstrator -01) experimental aircraft. Kelly Space & Technology hoped to use the results gleaned from the tow test in developing a series of low-cost, reusable launch vehicles. These tests demonstrated the validity of towing a delta-wing aircraft having high wing loading, validated the tow simulation model, and demonstrated various operational procedures, such as ground processing of in-flight maneuvers and emergency abort scenarios.

  4. Advanced Aircraft Structures program: an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Juergen; Schroeder, H. W.; Dittrich, Kay W.; Bauer, E. J.; Zippold, H.

    1999-07-01

    Requirements of future military aircraft structures are constantly increasing with advancing technological progress. While performance is still the main focus, costs have become a major issue in military aircraft procurement.In order to efficiently support its technological base oriented on the future demands of the market Daimler Chrysler Aerospace/Military Aircraft Division has inaugurated the Advanced Aircraft Structures Program, a collaborative research effort together with the German Aerospace Center and Daimler Chrysler Research and Technology, the corporate research division of Daimler Benz. The two key technologies to be pursued within the framework of this program are cost- effective composite structures and smart materials. This paper will give an overview of the Advanced Aircraft Structures Program with particular emphasis on smart structures technology as applied to active vibration damping, vibration isolation of equipment and composite health monitoring.

  5. Real-time flutter analysis of an active flutter-suppression system on a remotely piloted research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilyard, G. B.; Edwards, J. W.

    1983-01-01

    Flight-test results of the first three flights of an aeroelastic research wing are described. The flight flutter-test technique used to obtain real-time damping estimates from fast-frequency sweep data was obtained and the open-loop flutter boundary determined. Nyquist analyses of sweep maneuvers appear to provide additional valuable information about flutter suppression system operation, both in terms of phase-margin estimates and as a means of evaluating maneuver quality. An error in implementing the flutter-suppression system required in a one-half nominal gain configuration, which caused the wing to be unstable at lower Mach numbers than anticipated, and the vehicle experienced closed-loop flutter on its third flight. Real-time flutter-testing procedures were improved.

  6. Lateral and longitudinal aerodynamic stability and control parameters of the basic vortex flap research aircraft as determined from flight test data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suit, W. T.; Batterson, J. G.

    1986-01-01

    The aerodynamics of the basic F-106B were determined at selected points in the flight envelope. The test aircraft and flight procedures were presented. Aircraft instrumentation and the data system were discussed. The parameter extraction procedure was presented along with a discussion of the test flight results. The results were used to predict the aircraft motions for maneuvers that were not used to determine the vehicle aerodynamics. The control inputs used to maneuver the aircraft to get data for the determination of the aerodynamic parameters were discussed in the flight test procedures. The results from the current flight tests were compared with the results from wind tunnel test of the basic F-106B.

  7. Aircraft engine emission reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Birch, S.

    1994-01-01

    The paper discusses new concepts for combustion chambers to help create low pollution power plants and reduce engine emissions. Researchers see that internal combustion engines provide complete combustion when they are close to stoichiometry while gas turbines experience problems when they reach this ratio. It would be best to modify the equivalence ratio of the primary combustion zone which is responsible for the high level of NOx emissions. Reduction of pollutant emissions from aircraft engines are focused on three areas: (1) use of less polluting fuels; (2) modification of the combustion process; and (3) reduction of specific fuel consumption and consequently consumption overall.

  8. Hypersonic transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    A hypersonic transport aircraft design project was selected as a result of interactions with NASA Lewis Research Center personnel and fits the Presidential concept of the Orient Express. The Graduate Teaching Assistant (GTA) and an undergraduate student worked at the NASA Lewis Research Center during the 1986 summer conducting a literature survey, and relevant literature and useful software were collected. The computer software was implemented in the Computer Aided Design Laboratory of the Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department. In addition to the lectures by the three instructors, a series of guest lectures was conducted. The first of these lectures 'Anywhere in the World in Two Hours' was delivered by R. Luidens of NASA Lewis Center. In addition, videotaped copies of relevant seminars obtained from NASA Lewis were also featured. The first assignment was to individually research and develop the mission requirements and to discuss the findings with the class. The class in consultation with the instructors then developed a set of unified mission requirements. Then the class was divided into three design groups (1) Aerodynamics Group, (2) Propulsion Group, and (3) Structures and Thermal Analyses Group. The groups worked on their respective design areas and interacted with each other to finally come up with an integrated conceptual design. The three faculty members and the GTA acted as the resource persons for the three groups and aided in the integration of the individual group designs into the final design of a hypersonic aircraft.

  9. Innovative Materials for Aircraft Morphing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, J. O.; Wise, S. A.; Bryant, R. G.; Cano, R. J.; Gates, T. S.; Hinkley, J. A.; Rogowski, R. S.; Whitley, K. S.

    1997-01-01

    Reported herein is an overview of the research being conducted within the Materials Division at NASA Langley Research Center on the development of smart material technologies for advanced airframe systems. The research is a part of the Aircraft Morphing Program which is a new six-year research program to develop smart components for self-adaptive airframe systems. The fundamental areas of materials research within the program are computational materials; advanced piezoelectric materials; advanced fiber optic sensing techniques; and fabrication of integrated composite structures. This paper presents a portion of the ongoing research in each of these areas of materials research.

  10. Propulsion controlled aircraft computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cogan, Bruce R. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A low-cost, easily retrofit Propulsion Controlled Aircraft (PCA) system for use on a wide range of commercial and military aircraft consists of an propulsion controlled aircraft computer that reads in aircraft data including aircraft state, pilot commands and other related data, calculates aircraft throttle position for a given maneuver commanded by the pilot, and then displays both current and calculated throttle position on a cockpit display to show the pilot where to move throttles to achieve the commanded maneuver, or is automatically sent digitally to command the engines directly.

  11. Multidisciplinary Techniques and Novel Aircraft Control Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padula, Sharon L.; Rogers, James L.; Raney, David L.

    2000-01-01

    The Aircraft Morphing Program at NASA Langley Research Center explores opportunities to improve airframe designs with smart technologies. Two elements of this basic research program are multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) and advanced flow control. This paper describes examples where MDO techniques such as sensitivity analysis, automatic differentiation, and genetic algorithms contribute to the design of novel control systems. In the test case, the design and use of distributed shape-change devices to provide low-rate maneuvering capability for a tailless aircraft is considered. The ability of MDO to add value to control system development is illustrated using results from several years of research funded by the Aircraft Morphing Program.

  12. Multidisciplinary Techniques and Novel Aircraft Control Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padula, Sharon L.; Rogers, James L.; Raney, David L.

    2000-01-01

    The Aircraft Morphing Program at NASA Langley Research Center explores opportunities to improve airframe designs with smart technologies. Two elements of this basic research program are multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) and advanced flow control. This paper describes examples where MDO techniques such as sensitivity analysis, automatic differentiation, and genetic algorithms contribute to the design of novel control systems. In the test case, the design and use of distributed shapechange devices to provide low-rate maneuvering capability for a tailless aircraft is considered. The ability of MDO to add value to control system development is illustrated using results from several years of research funded by the Aircraft Morphing Program.

  13. 75 FR 8427 - Civil Supersonic Aircraft Panel Discussion

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-24

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Civil Supersonic Aircraft Panel Discussion AGENCY: Federal Aviation... persons that the FAA is participating in a panel session on civil supersonic aircraft research. The..., supersonic flight over land by civil aircraft has been prohibited in the United States. The Concorde was...

  14. 76 FR 30231 - Civil Supersonic Aircraft Panel Discussion

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-24

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Civil Supersonic Aircraft Panel Discussion AGENCY: Federal Aviation... persons that the FAA is conducting its fourth public meeting on civil supersonic aircraft research. The...) 493- 4864. Background: Since March 1973, supersonic flight over land by civil aircraft has...

  15. NASA progress in aircraft noise prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raney, J. P.; Padula, S. L.; Zorumski, W. E.

    1981-03-01

    Langley Research Center efforts to develop a methodology for predicting the effective perceived noise level (EPNL) produced by jet-powered CTOL aircraft to an accuracy of + or - 1.5 dB are summarized with emphasis on the aircraft noise prediction program (ANOPP) which contains a complete set of prediction methods for CTOL aircraft including propulsion system noise sources, aerodynamic or airframe noise sources, forward speed effects, a layered atmospheric model with molecular absorption, ground impedance effects including excess ground attenuation, and a received noise contouring capability. The present state of ANOPP is described and its accuracy and applicability to the preliminary aircraft design process is assessed. Areas are indicated where further theoretical and experimental research on noise prediction are needed. Topics covered include the elements of the noise prediction problem which are incorporated in ANOPP, results of comparisons of ANOPP calculations with measured noise levels, and progress toward treating noise as a design constraint in aircraft system studies.

  16. NASA progress in aircraft noise prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raney, J. P.; Padula, S. L.; Zorumski, W. E.

    1981-01-01

    Langley Research Center efforts to develop a methodology for predicting the effective perceived noise level (EPNL) produced by jet-powered CTOL aircraft to an accuracy of + or - 1.5 dB are summarized with emphasis on the aircraft noise prediction program (ANOPP) which contains a complete set of prediction methods for CTOL aircraft including propulsion system noise sources, aerodynamic or airframe noise sources, forward speed effects, a layered atmospheric model with molecular absorption, ground impedance effects including excess ground attenuation, and a received noise contouring capability. The present state of ANOPP is described and its accuracy and applicability to the preliminary aircraft design process is assessed. Areas are indicated where further theoretical and experimental research on noise prediction are needed. Topics covered include the elements of the noise prediction problem which are incorporated in ANOPP, results of comparisons of ANOPP calculations with measured noise levels, and progress toward treating noise as a design constraint in aircraft system studies.

  17. GaAs/Ge Solar Powered Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colozza, Anthony J.; Scheiman, David A.; Brinker, David J.

    1998-01-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) are being proposed for many applications for many applications including surveillance, mapping and atmospheric studies. These applications require a lightweight, low speed, medium to long duration aircraft. Due to the weight, speed, and altitude constraints imposed on such an aircraft, solar array generated electric power can be a viable alternative to air-breathing engines for certain missions. Development of such an aircraft is currently being funded under the Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program. NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) has built a Solar Electric Airplane to demonstrate UAV technology. This aircraft utilizes high efficiency Applied Solar Energy Corporation (ASEC) GaAs/Ge space solar cells. The cells have been provided by the Air Force through the ManTech Office.

  18. Promising Electric Aircraft Drive Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dudley, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    An overview of electric aircraft propulsion technology performance thresholds for key power system components is presented. A weight comparison of electric drive systems with equivalent total delivered energy is made to help identify component performance requirements, and promising research and development opportunities.

  19. Commercial aircraft fuel efficiency potential through 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, D.L.

    1990-01-01

    Aircraft are second only to motor vehicles in the use of motor fuels, and air travel is growing twice as fast. Since 1970 air travel has more than tripled, but the growth of fuel use has been restrained by a near doubling of efficiency, from 26.2 seat miles per gallon (SMPG) in 1970 to about 49 SMPG in 1989. This paper explores the potential for future efficiency improvements via the replacement of existing aircraft with 1990's generation'' and post 2000'' aircraft incorporating advances in engine and airframe technology. Today, new commercial passenger aircraft deliver 50--70 SMPG. New aircraft types scheduled for delivery in the early 1990's are expected to achieve 65--80 SMPG. Industry and government researchers have identified technologies capable of boosting aircraft efficiencies to the 100--150 SMPG range. Under current industry plans, which do not include a post-2000 generation of new aircraft, the total aircraft fleet should reach the vicinity of 65 SMPG by 2010. A new generation of 100--150 SMPG aircraft introduced in 2005 could raise the fleet average efficiency to 75--80 SMPG in 2010. In any case, fuel use will likely continue to grow at from 1--2%/yr. through 2010. 20 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Alternate Fuels for Use in Commercial Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daggett, David L.; Hendricks, Robert C.; Walther, Rainer; Corporan, Edwin

    2008-01-01

    The engine and aircraft Research and Development (R&D) communities have been investigating alternative fueling in near-term, midterm, and far-term aircraft. A drop in jet fuel replacement, consisting of a kerosene (Jet-A) and synthetic fuel blend, will be possible for use in existing and near-term aircraft. Future midterm aircraft may use a biojet and synthetic fuel blend in ultra-efficient airplane designs. Future far-term engines and aircraft in 50-plus years may be specifically designed to use a low- or zero-carbon fuel. Synthetic jet fuels from coal, natural gas, or other hydrocarbon feedstocks are very similar in performance to conventional jet fuel, yet the additional CO2 produced during the manufacturing needs to be permanently sequestered. Biojet fuels need to be developed specifically for jet aircraft without displacing food production. Envisioned as midterm aircraft fuel, if the performance and cost liabilities can be overcome, biofuel blends with synthetic jet or Jet-A fuels have near-term potential in terms of global climatic concerns. Long-term solutions address dramatic emissions reductions through use of alternate aircraft fuels such as liquid hydrogen or liquid methane. Either of these new aircraft fuels will require an enormous change in infrastructure and thus engine and airplane design. Life-cycle environmental questions need to be addressed.

  1. Altus aircraft on runway

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The remotely piloted Altus aircraft flew several developmental test flights from Rogers Dry Lake adjacent to NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif., in 1996. The Altus--the word is Latin for 'high'--is a variant of the Predator surveillance drone built by General Atomics/Aeronautical Systems, Inc. It is designed for high-altitude, long-duration scientific sampling missions, and is powered by a turbocharged four-cylinder piston engine. The first Altus was developed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology program, while a second Altus was built for a Naval Postgraduate School/Department of Energy program. A pilot in a control station on the ground flew the craft by radio signals, using visual cues from a video camera in the nose of the Altus and information from the craft's air data system. Equipped with a single-stage turbocharger during the 1996 test flights, the first Altus reached altitudes in the 37,000-foot range, while the similarly-equipped second Altus reached 43,500 feet during developmental flights at Dryden in the summer of 1997. The NASA Altus also set an endurance record of more than 26 hours while flying a science mission in late 1996 and still had an estimated 10 hours of fuel remaining when it landed. Now equipped with a two-stage turbocharger, the NASA Altus maintained an altitude of 55,000 feet for four hours during flight tests in 1999.

  2. AIRCRAFT DEPAINTING TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical paint strippers historically used for aircraft contained toxic and hazardous components; aircraft depainting operations are a major source of hazardous waste generation in DOD. Federal and state agencies have begun to restrict using these hazardous materials and Governme...

  3. Unmanned aircraft systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Unmanned platforms have become increasingly more common in recent years for acquiring remotely sensed data. These aircraft are referred to as Unmanned Airborne Vehicles (UAV), Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA), Remotely Piloted Vehicles (RPV), or Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS), the official term used...

  4. Turboprop aircraft against terrorism: a SWOT analysis of turboprop aircraft in CAS operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yavuz, Murat; Akkas, Ali; Aslan, Yavuz

    2012-06-01

    Today, the threat perception is changing. Not only for countries but also for defence organisations like NATO, new threat perception is pointing terrorism. Many countries' air forces become responsible of fighting against terorism or Counter-Insurgency (COIN) Operations. Different from conventional warfare, alternative weapon or weapon systems are required for such operatioins. In counter-terrorism operations modern fighter jets are used as well as helicopters, subsonic jets, Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS), turboprop aircraft, baloons and similar platforms. Succes and efficiency of the use of these platforms can be determined by evaluating the conditions, the threats and the area together. Obviously, each platform has advantages and disadvantages for different cases. In this research, examples of turboprop aircraft usage against terrorism and with a more general approach, turboprop aircraft for Close Air Support (CAS) missions from all around the world are reviewed. In this effort, a closer look is taken at the countries using turboprop aircraft in CAS missions while observing the fields these aircraft are used in, type of operations, specifications of the aircraft, cost and the maintenance factors. Thus, an idea about the convenience of using these aircraft in such operations can be obtained. A SWOT analysis of turboprop aircraft in CAS operations is performed. This study shows that turboprop aircraft are suitable to be used in counter-terrorism and COIN operations in low threat environment and is cost benefical compared to jets.

  5. Probing Aircraft Flight Test Hazard Mitigation for the Alternative Fuel Effects on Contrails and Cruise Emissions (ACCESS) Research Team . Volume 2; Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    The Alternative Fuel Effects on Contrails and Cruise Emissions (ACCESS) Project Integration Manager requested in July 2012 that the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) form a team to independently assess aircraft structural failure hazards associated with the ACCESS experiment and to identify potential flight test hazard mitigations to ensure flight safety. The ACCESS Project Integration Manager subsequently requested that the assessment scope be focused predominantly on structural failure risks to the aircraft empennage (horizontal and vertical tail). This report contains the Appendices to Volume I.

  6. Steering Aircraft Clear of Choppy Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    AeroTech Research (U.S.A.), Inc., a leader in turbulence-detection and warning systems, has been involved with NASA Aviation Safety research since 1998. AeroTech served as a contractor for the TPAWS government/industry development project, and was funded by NASA to develop the E-Turb Mode Radar algorithms and the TAPS software. (Other contributors to this project include the National Center for Atmospheric Research, the FAA, North Carolina State University, and the Research Triangle Institute.) The radar algorithms combine an aircraft's turbulenceresponse characteristics with radar measurements to determine the predicted turbulence loads the aircraft will experience, and present this information to the pilot. The TAPS software monitors and processes onboard aircraft sensor data; generates automatic reports when an aircraft encounters turbulence and a set turbulence threshold is exceeded; and then displays the reports and underlying information to ground personnel to improve situational awareness of the location and the severity of the turbulence encounter.

  7. Aircraft flight test trajectory control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menon, P. K. A.; Walker, R. A.

    1988-01-01

    Two control law design techniques are compared and the performance of the resulting controllers evaluated. The design requirement is for a flight test trajectory controller (FTTC) capable of closed-loop, outer-loop control of an F-15 aircraft performing high-quality research flight test maneuvers. The maneuver modeling, linearization, and design methodologies utilized in this research, are detailed. The results of applying these FTTCs to a nonlinear F-15 simulation are presented.

  8. Aircraft Drag Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bushnell, D. M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reviews aerodynamic drag reduction for friction, wave and vortex drag associated with supersonic cruise aircraft and suggests approaches and research directions which cover the spectrum from possibly significant to revolutionary. Various synergisms are also included, especially in regard to suction laminar flow control and flow separation control at cruise. The former may also enable improved low speed, high lift systems, lift to drag ratio for subsonic cruise, reduced parasitic viscous drag for favorable interference wave drag reduction approaches, and turbulent skin friction reduction via slot injection. Flow separation control at cruise proffers opportunities for increased leading edge thrust, increased lift increment from upper surface, increased fuselage lift/camber for wave drag due to lift reduction, improved performance of various favorable interference wave drag reduction schemes, as well as possibly better low speed, high-schemes and wing cruise performance. More speculative approaches include multi-stage aircraft, thrust vectoring for lift augmentation, as well as trim, and a number of conceptual wave and vortex drag reduction schemes.

  9. Toward scramjet aircraft. [progress in engine development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. A.; Huber, P. W.

    1978-01-01

    The possibility for civil, military, and remotely-piloted aviation above Mach 5 is discussed with reference to the scramjet. Actively cooled aircraft structures of low weight are described, together with jet nozzle design and combustion parameters. The scramjet is seen as operating alone or in tandem with ramjet propulsion, which would power an aircraft up to scramjet speeds. Attention is given to the specific impulse of the scramjet engine, with hydrogen as the primary fuel. Applications include: advanced reconnaissance and interceptor aircraft, strategic cruise (both aircraft and missiles), highly-maneuverable interceptor missiles, transports, aircraft-type launch vehicles, first stages for Space Shuttle launching craft, and single-stage-to-orbit vehicles. Research has focused on increasing the propulsion power of the scramjet engine, while reducing drag on the accompanying airframe.

  10. Aircraft Lightning Electromagnetic Environment Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ely, Jay J.; Nguyen, Truong X.; Szatkowski, George N.

    2011-01-01

    This paper outlines a NASA project plan for demonstrating a prototype lightning strike measurement system that is suitable for installation onto research aircraft that already operate in thunderstorms. This work builds upon past data from the NASA F106, FAA CV-580, and Transall C-180 flight projects, SAE ARP5412, and the European ILDAS Program. The primary focus is to capture airframe current waveforms during attachment, but may also consider pre and post-attachment current, electric field, and radiated field phenomena. New sensor technologies are being developed for this system, including a fiber-optic Faraday polarization sensor that measures lightning current waveforms from DC to over several Megahertz, and has dynamic range covering hundreds-of-volts to tens-of-thousands-of-volts. A study of the electromagnetic emission spectrum of lightning (including radio wave, microwave, optical, X-Rays and Gamma-Rays), and a compilation of aircraft transfer-function data (including composite aircraft) are included, to aid in the development of other new lightning environment sensors, their placement on-board research aircraft, and triggering of the onboard instrumentation system. The instrumentation system will leverage recent advances in high-speed, high dynamic range, deep memory data acquisition equipment, and fiber-optic interconnect.

  11. Morphing aircraft concepts, classifications, and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, Akhilesh K.; Kudva, Jayanth N.

    2004-07-01

    A morphing aircraft can be defined as an aircraft that changes configuration to maximize its performance at radically different flight conditions. These configuration changes can take place in any part of the aircraft, e.g. fuselage, wing, engine, and tail. Wing morphing is naturally the most important aspect of aircraft morphing as it dictates the aircraft performance in a given flight condition, and has been of interest to the aircraft designers since the beginning of the flight, progressing from the design of control surfaces to the variable-sweep wing. Recent research efforts (mainly under DARPA and NASA sponsorships) however, are focusing on even more dramatic configuration changes such as 200% change in aspect ratio, 50% change in wing area, 5o change in wing twist, and 20o change in wing sweep to lay the ground work for truly multi-mission aircraft. Such wing geometry and configuration changes, while extremely challenging, can be conceptually achieved in a variety of ways - folding, hiding, telescoping, expanding, and contracting a wing, coupling and decoupling multiple wing segments, etc. These concepts can be classified under a few 'independent' categories and sub-categories so as to permit a systematic evaluation of benefits and challenges. This paper presents: 1) a review of prior work leading to current R&D efforts, 2) classification of morphing designs, and 3) a summary of technical challenges encountered in designing a morphing aircraft.

  12. Future aircraft networks and schedules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Yan

    2011-07-01

    Because of the importance of air transportation scheduling, the emergence of small aircraft and the vision of future fuel-efficient aircraft, this thesis has focused on the study of aircraft scheduling and network design involving multiple types of aircraft and flight services. It develops models and solution algorithms for the schedule design problem and analyzes the computational results. First, based on the current development of small aircraft and on-demand flight services, this thesis expands a business model for integrating on-demand flight services with the traditional scheduled flight services. This thesis proposes a three-step approach to the design of aircraft schedules and networks from scratch under the model. In the first step, both a frequency assignment model for scheduled flights that incorporates a passenger path choice model and a frequency assignment model for on-demand flights that incorporates a passenger mode choice model are created. In the second step, a rough fleet assignment model that determines a set of flight legs, each of which is assigned an aircraft type and a rough departure time is constructed. In the third step, a timetable model that determines an exact departure time for each flight leg is developed. Based on the models proposed in the three steps, this thesis creates schedule design instances that involve almost all the major airports and markets in the United States. The instances of the frequency assignment model created in this thesis are large-scale non-convex mixed-integer programming problems, and this dissertation develops an overall network structure and proposes iterative algorithms for solving these instances. The instances of both the rough fleet assignment model and the timetable model created in this thesis are large-scale mixed-integer programming problems, and this dissertation develops subproblem schemes for solving these instances. Based on these solution algorithms, this dissertation also presents computational results of these large-scale instances. To validate the models and solution algorithms developed, this thesis also compares the daily flight schedules that it designs with the schedules of the existing airlines. Furthermore, it creates instances that represent different economic and fuel-prices conditions and derives schedules under these different conditions. In addition, it discusses the implication of using new aircraft in the future flight schedules. Finally, future research in three areas---model, computational method, and simulation for validation---is proposed.

  13. Review of factors affecting aircraft wet runway performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yager, T. J.

    1983-01-01

    Problems associated with aircraft operations on wet runways are discussed and major factors which influence tire/runway braking and cornering traction capability are identified including runway characteristics, tire hydroplaning, brake system anomalies, and pilot inputs. Research results from investigations conducted at the Langley Aircraft Landing Loads and Traction Facility and from tests with instrumented ground vehicles and aircraft are summarized to indicate the effects of different aircraft, tire, and runway parameters. Several promising means are described for improving tire/runway water drainage capability, brake system efficiency, and pilot training to help optimize aircraft traction performance on wet runways.

  14. Laser Powered Aircraft Takes Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    A team of NASA researchers from Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and Dryden Flight Research center have proven that beamed light can be used to power an aircraft, a first-in-the-world accomplishment to the best of their knowledge. Using an experimental custom built radio-controlled model aircraft, the team has demonstrated a system that beams enough light energy from the ground to power the propeller of an aircraft and sustain it in flight. Special photovoltaic arrays on the plane, similar to solar cells, receive the light energy and convert it to electric current to drive the propeller motor. In a series of indoor flights this week at MSFC, a lightweight custom built laser beam was aimed at the airplane `s solar panels. The laser tracks the plane, maintaining power on its cells until the end of the flight when the laser is turned off and the airplane glides to a landing. The laser source demonstration represents the capability to beam more power to a plane so that it can reach higher altitudes and have a greater flight range without having to carry fuel or batteries, enabling an indefinite flight time. The demonstration was a collaborative effort between the Dryden Center at Edward's, California, where the aircraft was designed and built, and MSFC, where integration and testing of the laser and photovoltaic cells was done. Laser power beaming is a promising technology for consideration in new aircraft design and operation, and supports NASA's goals in the development of revolutionary aerospace technologies. Photographed with their invention are (from left to right): David Bushman and Tony Frackowiak, both of Dryden; and MSFC's Robert Burdine.

  15. Recent Progress in V/STOL Aircraft Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, L.; Deckert, W.; Hickey, D.

    1981-01-01

    Results from wind tunnel and flight tests investigations for V/STOL aircraft are reviewed. Primary emphasis is given to technical results relating to three types of subsonic aircraft: a quiet STOL aircraft; a tilt rotor aircraft; and a turbofan V/STOL aircraft. Comparison and correlation between theoretical and experimental results and between wind tunnel and flight test results, is made. The quiet STOL aircraft technology results are primarily those derived from the NASA/Boeing Quiet Short Haul Technology (QSRA) program. The QSRA aircraft uses an upper surface blown flap and develops a usable engine-out landing approach lift coefficient of 5.5 and landing distances less than 1,000 ft. The tilt rotor aircraft technology results are those obtained from the NASA/Army/Navy/Bell (XV-15-TRRA) aircraft flight investigations. The TRRA is a twin rotor research aircraft capable of vertical takeoff and landing and cruise speeds of 300 knots. The turbofan V/STOL aircraft technology results are from static ground facility and wind tunnel investigations of a NASA/NAVY/Grumman full scale lift/cruise fan aircraft model, which features two tilting nacelles with TF-34 engines.

  16. Remotely piloted aircraft in the civil environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, T. J.; Nelms, W. P.; Karmarkar, J. S.

    1977-01-01

    Improved remotely piloted aircraft (RPAs), i.e., incorporating reductions in size, weight, and cost, are becoming available for civilian applications. Existing RPA programs are described and predicted into the future. Attention is given to the NASA Mini-Sniffer, which will fly to altitudes of more than 20,000 m, sample the atmosphere behind supersonic cruise aircraft, and telemeter the data to ground stations. Design and operating parameters of the aircraft are given, especially the optical sensing systems, and civilian RPA uses are outlined, including airborne research, remote mapping, rescue, message relay, and transportation of need materials. Civil regulatory factors are also dealt with.

  17. Systems integration studies for supersonic cruise aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mascitti, V. R.

    1975-01-01

    Technical progress in each of the disciplinary research areas affecting the design of supersonic cruise aircraft is discussed. The NASA AST/SCAR Program supported the integration of these technical advances into supersonic cruise aircraft configuration concepts. While the baseline concepts reflect differing design philosophy, all reflect a level of economic performance considerably above the current foreign aircraft as well as the former U.S. SST. Range-payload characteristics of the study configurating show significant improvement, while meeting environmental goals such as takeoff and landing noise and upper atmospheric pollution.

  18. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 59: Japanese Technological Innovation. Implications for Large Commercial Aircraft and Knowledge Diffusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kotler, Mindy L.

    1997-01-01

    This paper explores three factors-public policy, the Japanese (national) innovation system, and knowledge-that influence technological innovation in Japan. To establish a context for the paper, we examine Japanese culture and the U.S. and Japanese patent systems in the background section. A brief history of the Japanese aircraft industry as a source of knowledge and technology for other industries is presented. Japanese and U.S. alliances and linkages in three sectors-biotechnology, semiconductors, and large commercial aircraft (LCA)-and the importation, absorption, and diffusion of knowledge and technology are examined next. The paper closes with implications for diffusing knowledge and technology, U.S. public policy, and LCA.

  19. Terminal area automatic navigation, guidance, and control research using the Microwave Landing System (MLS). Part 2: RNAV/MLS transition problems for aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pines, S.

    1982-01-01

    The problems in navigation and guidance encountered by aircraft in the initial transition period in changing from distance measuring equipment, VORTAC, and barometric instruments to the more precise microwave landing system data type navaids in the terminal area are investigated. The effects of the resulting discontinuities on the estimates of position and velocity for both optimal (Kalman type navigation schemes) and fixed gain (complementary type) navigation filters, and the effects of the errors in cross track, track angle, and altitude on the guidance equation and control commands during the critical landing phase are discussed. A method is presented to remove the discontinuities from the navigation loop and to reconstruct an RNAV path designed to land the aircraft with minimal turns and altitude changes.

  20. Raptors and aircraft

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, D.G.; Ellis, D.H.; Johnson, T.H.

    1988-01-01

    Less than 5% of all bird strikes of aircraft are by raptor species, but damage to airframe structure or jet engine dysfunction are likely consequences. Beneficial aircraft-raptor interactions include the use of raptor species to frighten unwanted birds from airport areas and the use of aircraft to census raptor species. Many interactions, however, modify the raptor?s immediate behavior and some may decrease reproduction of sensitive species. Raptors may respond to aircraft stimuli by exhibiting alarm, increased heart rate, flushing or fleeing and occasionally by directly attacking intruding aircraft. To date, most studies reveal that raptor responses to aircraft are brief and do not limit reproduction; however, additional study is needed.

  1. Low Reynolds number, long endurance aircraft design

    SciTech Connect

    Foch, R.J.; Ailinger, K.G. )

    1992-02-01

    Airplanes are typically designed to maximize range at the highest practical cruising speed. However, several missions require extended duration rather than range, and favor the slowest possible cruise speed. Such missions include surveillance, radio relay, and ship's electronic decoy. These missions are ideally suited for advanced technology unmanned aircraft, either remotely piloted or autonomous. Feasibility studies have been conducted and flight demonstrator prototypes of such unique aircraft have been under steady research and development at the Naval Research Laboratory since 1978. This paper discusses the design aspects and tradeoffs unique to small, slow speed long endurance unmanned aircraft operating at wing chord Reynolds numbers between 150,000 and 500,000. Additionally, many of these low Reynolds number-driven design features have applicability to high altitude, long endurance aircraft. 6 refs.

  2. Tilt Rotor Aircraft Aeroacoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, Albert R.

    1996-01-01

    A fleet of civil tilt rotor transports offers a means of reducing airport congestion and point-to-point travel time. The speed, range, and fuel economy of these aircraft, along with their efficient use of vertiport area, make them good candidates for short-to-medium range civil transport. However, to be successfully integrated into the civilian community, the tilt rotor must be perceived as a quiet, safe, and economical mode of transportation that does not harm the environment. In particular, noise impact has been identified as a possible barrier to the civil tilt rotor. Along with rotor conversion-mode flight, and blade-vortex interaction noise during descent, hover mode is a noise problem for tilt rotor operations. In the present research, tilt rotor hover aeroacoustics have been studied analytically, experimentally, and computationally. Various papers on the subject were published as noted in the list of publications. More recently, experimental measurements were made on a 1/12.5 scale model of the XV-15 in hover and analyses of this data and extrapolations to full scale were also carried out. A dimensional analysis showed that the model was a good aeroacoustic approximation to the full-scale aircraft, and scale factors were derived to extrapolate the model measurements to the full-scale XV-15. The experimental measurements included helium bubble flow visualization, silk tuft flow visualization, 2-component hot wire anemometry, 7-hole pressure probe measurements, vorticity measurements, and outdoor far field acoustic measurements. The hot wire measurements were used to estimate the turbulence statistics of the flow field into the rotors, such as length scales, velocity scales, dissipation, and turbulence intermittency. Several different configurations of the model were tested: (1) standard configurations (single isolated rotor, two rotors without the aircraft, standard tilt rotor configuration); (2) flow control devices (the 'plate', the 'diagonal fences'); (3) basic configuration changes (increasing the rotor/rotor spacing, reducing the rotor plane/wing clearance. operating the rotors out of phase). Also, an approximation to Sikorsky's Variable Diameter Tilt Rotor (VDTR) configuration was tested, and some flow measurements were made on a semi-span configuration of the model. Acoustic predictions were made using LOWSON.M, a Mathematica code Mean aerodynamic models were developed based on hover performance predictions from HOVER.FOR. This hover prediction code used blade element theory for the aerodynamics, and Prandtl's Vortex theory to model the wake, along with empirical formulas for the effects of Reynolds number, Mach number, and stall. Aerodynamic models were developed from 7-hole pressure probe measurements of the mean velocity into the model rotors.

  3. Hypersonic aircraft design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alkamhawi, Hani; Greiner, Tom; Fuerst, Gerry; Luich, Shawn; Stonebraker, Bob; Wray, Todd

    1990-01-01

    A hypersonic aircraft is designed which uses scramjets to accelerate from Mach 6 to Mach 10 and sustain that speed for two minutes. Different propulsion systems were considered and it was decided that the aircraft would use one full scale turbofan-ramjet. Two solid rocket boosters were added to save fuel and help the aircraft pass through the transonic region. After considering aerodynamics, aircraft design, stability and control, cooling systems, mission profile, and landing systems, a conventional aircraft configuration was chosen over that of a waverider. The conventional design was chosen due to its landing characteristics and the relative expense compared to the waverider. Fuel requirements and the integration of the engine systems and their inlets are also taken into consideration in the final design. A hypersonic aircraft was designed which uses scramjets to accelerate from Mach 6 to Mach 10 and sustain that speed for two minutes. Different propulsion systems were considered and a full scale turbofan-ramjet was chosen. Two solid rocket boosters were added to save fuel and help the aircraft pass through the transonic reqion. After the aerodynamics, aircraft design, stability and control, cooling systems, mission profile, landing systems, and their physical interactions were considered, a conventional aircraft configuration was chosen over that of a waverider. The conventional design was chosen due to its landing characteristics and the relative expense compared to the waverider. Fuel requirements and the integration of the engine systems and their inlets were also considered in the designing process.

  4. Daedalus Project's Light Eagle - Human powered aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The Michelob Light Eagle is seen here in flight over Rogers Dry Lake at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The Light Eagle and Daedalus human powered aircraft were testbeds for flight research conducted at Dryden between January 1987 and March 1988. These unique aircraft were designed and constructed by a group of students, professors, and alumni of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology within the context of the Daedalus project. The construction of the Light Eagle and Daedalus aircraft was funded primarily by the Anheuser Busch and United Technologies Corporations, respectively, with additional support from the Smithsonian Air and Space Museum, MIT, and a number of other sponsors. To celebrate the Greek myth of Daedalus, the man who constructed wings of wax and feathers to escape King Minos, the Daedalus project began with the goal of designing, building and testing a human-powered aircraft that could fly the mythical distance, 115 km. To achieve this goal, three aircraft were constructed. The Light Eagle was the prototype aircraft, weighing 92 pounds. On January 22, 1987, it set a closed course distance record of 59 km, which still stands. Also in January of 1987, the Light Eagle was powered by Lois McCallin to set the straight distance, the distance around a closed circuit, and the duration world records for the female division in human powered vehicles. Following this success, two more aircraft were built, the Daedalus 87 and Daedalus 88. Each aircraft weighed approximately 69 pounds. The Daedalus 88 aircraft was the ship that flew the 199 km from the Iraklion Air Force Base on Crete in the Mediterranean Sea, to the island of Santorini in 3 hours, 54 minutes. In the process, the aircraft set new records in distance and endurance for a human powered aircraft. The specific areas of flight research conducted at Dryden included characterizing the rigid body and flexible dynamics of the Light Eagle, investigating sensors for an autopilot that could be used on high altitude or human powered aircraft, and determining the power required to fly the Daedalus aircraft. The research flights began in late December 1987 with a shake-down of the Light Eagle instrumentation and data transfer links. The first flight of the Daedalus 87 also occurred during this time. On February 7, 1988, the Daedalus 87 aircraft crashed on Rogers Dry Lakebed. The Daedalus 88, which later set the world record, was then shipped from MIT to replace the 87's research flights, and for general checkout procedures. Due to the accident, flight testing was extended four weeks and thus ended in mid-March 1988 after having achieved the major goals of the program; exploring the dynamics of low Reynolds number aircraft, and investigating the aeroelastic behavior of lightweight aircraft. The information obtained from this program had direct applications to the later design of many high-altitude, long endurance aircraft.

  5. Ion recombination in aircraft exhaust plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorokin, A.; Mirabel, P.

    In this article, a model which examines the evolution of ion concentrations in a hot aircraft exhaust plume on the ground is proposed. The model includes plume dilution and ion-ion recombination with coefficients which vary with temperature. A comparison of the model is made with the available ground-based experimental data obtained on the ATTAS research aircraft engines. From this comparison, an ion emission index of the order of 8 1016 ions/kg(fuel) inferred.

  6. Flight Controller Software Protects Lightweight Flexible Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2015-01-01

    Lightweight flexible aircraft may be the future of aviation, but a major problem is their susceptibility to flutter-uncontrollable vibrations that can destroy wings. Armstrong Flight Research Center awarded SBIR funding to Minneapolis, Minnesota-based MUSYN Inc. to develop software that helps program flight controllers to suppress flutter. The technology is now available for aircraft manufacturers and other industries that use equipment with automated controls.

  7. Innovations in Aircraft Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The Boeing 777 carries with it basic and applied research, technology, and aerodynamic knowledge honed at several NASA field centers. Several Langley Research Center innovations instrumental to the development of the aircraft include knowledge of how to reduce engine and other noise for passengers and terminal residents, increased use of lightweight aerospace composite structures for increased fuel efficiency and range, and wind tunnel tests confirming the structural integrity of 777 wing-airframe integration. Test results from Marshall Space Flight Center aimed at improving the performance of the Space Shuttle engines led to improvements in the airplane's new, more efficient jet engines. Finally, fostered by Ames Research Center, the Boeing 777 blankets that protect areas of the plane from high temperatures and fire have a lineage to Advanced Flexible Reusable Surface Insulation used on certain areas of the Space Shuttle. According to Boeing Company estimates, the 777 has captured three-quarters of new orders for airplanes in its class since the program was launched.

  8. Performance Evaluation Method for Dissimilar Aircraft Designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, H. J.

    1979-01-01

    A rationale is presented for using the square of the wingspan rather than the wing reference area as a basis for nondimensional comparisons of the aerodynamic and performance characteristics of aircraft that differ substantially in planform and loading. Working relationships are developed and illustrated through application to several categories of aircraft covering a range of Mach numbers from 0.60 to 2.00. For each application, direct comparisons of drag polars, lift-to-drag ratios, and maneuverability are shown for both nondimensional systems. The inaccuracies that may arise in the determination of aerodynamic efficiency based on reference area are noted. Span loading is introduced independently in comparing the combined effects of loading and aerodynamic efficiency on overall performance. Performance comparisons are made for the NACA research aircraft, lifting bodies, century-series fighter aircraft, F-111A aircraft with conventional and supercritical wings, and a group of supersonic aircraft including the B-58 and XB-70 bomber aircraft. An idealized configuration is included in each category to serve as a standard for comparing overall efficiency.

  9. Application of advanced technology to future long-range aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrader, O. E.

    1976-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to provide an overview assessment of three separate programs at Langley Research Center that have incorporated advanced technology into the design of long-range passenger and cargo aircraft. The first technology centers around the use of an span-loaded cargo aircraft with the payload distributed along the wing. This concept has the potential for reduced structural weights. The second technology is the application of laminar flow control (LFC) to the aircraft to reduce the aerodynamic drag. The use of LFC can reduce the fuel requirements during long-range cruise. The last program evaluates the production of alternate aircraft fuels from coal and the use of liquid hydrogen as an aircraft fuel. Coal-derived hydrogen as an aircraft fuel offers both the prospect for reduced dependence on petroleum fuels and improved performance for long-range aircraft.

  10. Vision-based aircraft guidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menon, P. K.

    1993-01-01

    Early research on the development of machine vision algorithms to serve as pilot aids in aircraft flight operations is discussed. The research is useful for synthesizing new cockpit instrumentation that can enhance flight safety and efficiency. With the present work as the basis, future research will produce low-cost instrument by integrating a conventional TV camera together with off-the=shelf digitizing hardware for flight test verification. Initial focus of the research will be on developing pilot aids for clear-night operations. Latter part of the research will examine synthetic vision issues for poor visibility flight operations. Both research efforts will contribute towards the high-speed civil transport aircraft program. It is anticipated that the research reported here will also produce pilot aids for conducting helicopter flight operations during emergency search and rescue. The primary emphasis of the present research effort is on near-term, flight demonstrable technologies. This report discusses pilot aids for night landing and takeoff and synthetic vision as an aid to low visibility landing.

  11. Price Determination of General Aviation, Helicopter, and Transport Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Joseph L.

    1978-01-01

    The NASA must assess its aeronautical research program with economic as well as performance measures. It thus is interested in what price a new technology aircraft would carry to make it attractive to the buyer. But what price a given airplane or helicopter will carry is largely a reflection of the manufacturer's assessment of the competitive market into which the new aircraft will be introduced. The manufacturer must weigh any new aerodynamic or system technology innovation he would add to an aircraft by the impact of this innovation upon the aircraft's economic attractiveness and price. The intent of this paper is to give price standards against which new technologies and the NASA's research program can be assessed. Using reported prices for general aviation, helicopter, and transport aircraft, price estimating relations in terms of engine and airframe characteristics have been developed. The relations are given in terms of the aircraft type, its manufactured empty weight, engine weight, horsepower or thrust. Factors for the effects of inflation are included to aid in making predictions of future aircraft prices. There are discussions of aircraft price in terms of number of passenger seats, airplane size and research and development costs related to an aircraft model, and indirectly as to how new technologies, aircraft complexity and inflation have affected these.

  12. Human Factors In Aircraft Automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billings, Charles

    1995-01-01

    Report presents survey of state of art in human factors in automation of aircraft operation. Presents examination of aircraft automation and effects on flight crews in relation to human error and aircraft accidents.

  13. Civil aircraft accident investigation.

    PubMed

    Haines, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    This talk reviews some historic aircraft accidents and some more recent. It reflects on the division of accident causes, considering mechanical failures and aircrew failures, and on aircrew training. Investigation results may lead to improved aircraft design, and to appropriate crew training. PMID:24057309

  14. Lightning protection of aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, F. A.; Plumer, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    The current knowledge concerning potential lightning effects on aircraft and the means that are available to designers and operators to protect against these effects are summarized. The increased use of nonmetallic materials in the structure of aircraft and the constant trend toward using electronic equipment to handle flight-critical control and navigation functions have served as impetus for this study.

  15. Cable Tensiometer for Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nunnelee, Mark (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    The invention is a cable tensiometer that can be used on aircraft for real-time, in-flight cable tension measurements. The invention can be used on any aircraft cables with high precision. The invention is extremely light-weight, hangs on the cable being tested and uses a dual bending beam design with a high mill-volt output to determine tension.

  16. General Aviation Aircraft Reliability Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettit, Duane; Turnbull, Andrew; Roelant, Henk A. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This reliability study was performed in order to provide the aviation community with an estimate of Complex General Aviation (GA) Aircraft System reliability. To successfully improve the safety and reliability for the next generation of GA aircraft, a study of current GA aircraft attributes was prudent. This was accomplished by benchmarking the reliability of operational Complex GA Aircraft Systems. Specifically, Complex GA Aircraft System reliability was estimated using data obtained from the logbooks of a random sample of the Complex GA Aircraft population.

  17. Application of a ground based minicomputer system for real time, closed loop control of remotely piloted aircraft models used in stall/spin research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montoya, R. J.; Jai, A. R.

    1979-01-01

    The paper describes a minicomputer-based, real-time closed loop remote control system at NASA Langley outdoor facility which is used to determine the stall/departure/spin characteristics of high-performance aircraft. The experiments are conducted with 15% dynamically scaled, unpowered models that are dropped from 3000 m and ground controlled. The effects of time delays and sampling rates on the stability of the control system and the selection of digital algorithms to meet frequency response and real time constraints are examined. Also described is the implementation of the modular software for the flexible programming of multi-axis control laws.

  18. Modeling Programs Increase Aircraft Design Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2012-01-01

    Flutter may sound like a benign word when associated with a flag in a breeze, a butterfly, or seaweed in an ocean current. When used in the context of aerodynamics, however, it describes a highly dangerous, potentially deadly condition. Consider the case of the Lockheed L-188 Electra Turboprop, an airliner that first took to the skies in 1957. Two years later, an Electra plummeted to the ground en route from Houston to Dallas. Within another year, a second Electra crashed. In both cases, all crew and passengers died. Lockheed engineers were at a loss as to why the planes wings were tearing off in midair. For an answer, the company turned to NASA s Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT) at Langley Research Center. At the time, the newly renovated wind tunnel offered engineers the capability of testing aeroelastic qualities in aircraft flying at transonic speeds near or just below the speed of sound. (Aeroelasticity is the interaction between aerodynamic forces and the structural dynamics of an aircraft or other structure.) Through round-the-clock testing in the TDT, NASA and industry researchers discovered the cause: flutter. Flutter occurs when aerodynamic forces acting on a wing cause it to vibrate. As the aircraft moves faster, certain conditions can cause that vibration to multiply and feed off itself, building to greater amplitudes until the flutter causes severe damage or even the destruction of the aircraft. Flutter can impact other structures as well. Famous film footage of the Tacoma Narrows Bridge in Washington in 1940 shows the main span of the bridge collapsing after strong winds generated powerful flutter forces. In the Electra s case, faulty engine mounts allowed a type of flutter known as whirl flutter, generated by the spinning propellers, to transfer to the wings, causing them to vibrate violently enough to tear off. Thanks to the NASA testing, Lockheed was able to correct the Electra s design flaws that led to the flutter conditions and return the aircraft to safe flight. Today, all aircraft must have a flutter boundary 15 percent beyond the aircraft s expected maximum speed to ensure that flutter conditions are not encountered in flight. NASA continues to support research in new aircraft designs to improve knowledge of aeroelasticity and flutter. Through platforms such as Dryden Flight Research Center s Active Aeroelastic Wing (AAW) research aircraft, the Agency researches methods for in-flight validation of predictions and for controlling and taking advantage of aeroelastic conditions to enhance aircraft performance.

  19. Why aircraft disinsection?

    PubMed Central

    Gratz, N. G.; Steffen, R.; Cocksedge, W.

    2000-01-01

    A serious problem is posed by the inadvertent transport of live mosquitoes aboard aircraft arriving from tropical countries where vector-borne diseases are endemic. Surveys at international airports have found many instances of live insects, particularly mosquitoes, aboard aircraft arriving from countries where malaria and arboviruses are endemic. In some instances mosquito species have been established in countries in which they have not previously been reported. A serious consequence of the transport of infected mosquitoes aboard aircraft has been the numerous cases of "airport malaria" reported from Europe, North America and elsewhere. There is an important on-going need for the disinsection of aircraft coming from airports in tropical disease endemic areas into nonendemic areas. The methods and materials available for use in aircraft disinsection and the WHO recommendations for their use are described. PMID:10994283

  20. Nondestructive testing technology integration for commercial aircraft operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Register, Jeff

    1995-07-01

    A number of NDT technology transfer programs now exist within the aviation industry. The Aging Aircraft Research Program was initiated to enhance airline inspection capability. This paper addresses NFT technology integration for commercial aircraft operators, and critical issues such as research subject identification and project management.