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1

Oblique Wing Remotely Piloted Research Aircraft. Volume 1: Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Ames/DSI oblique wing remotely piloted research aircraft is a highly unusual, variable remotely piloted vehicle whose configuration and capabilities are the result of certain initial design guidelines that, in terms of conventional aircraft structures and configurations, would be considered to be contradictory and unachievable. Accordingly, the novel design of the yawed wing RPV is at odds in many respects with conventional aircraft practice. Novelty, then, forms the first, unwritten, design guideline. This design is intended to move away from convention in geometry, structure, and materials. The specific guidelines followed in the design of the yawed wing RPV and a short discussion of the impact of each on the configuration of the vehicle are presented.

1974-01-01

2

Application of modern control design methodology to oblique wing research aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Linear Quadratic Regulator synthesis technique was used to design an explicit model following control system for the Oblique Wing Research Aircraft (OWRA). The forward path model (Maneuver Command Generator) was designed to incorporate the desired flying qualities and response decoupling. The LQR synthesis was based on the use of generalized controls, and it was structured to provide a proportional/integral error regulator with feedforward compensation. An unexpected consequence of this design approach was the ability to decouple the control synthesis into separate longitudinal and lateral directional designs. Longitudinal and lateral directional control laws were generated for each of the nine design flight conditions, and gain scheduling requirements were addressed. A fully coupled 6 degree of freedom open loop model of the OWRA along with the longitudinal and lateral directional control laws was used to assess the closed loop performance of the design. Evaluations were performed for each of the nine design flight conditions.

Vincent, James H.

1991-01-01

3

A piloted evaluation of an oblique-wing research aircraft motion simulation with decoupling control laws  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Ames Research Center developed an oblique-wing research plane from NASA's digital fly-by-wire airplane. Oblique-wing airplanes show large cross-coupling in control and dynamic behavior which is not present on conventional symmetric airplanes and must be compensated for to obtain acceptable handling qualities. The large vertical motion simulator at NASA Ames-Moffett was used in the piloted evaluation of a proposed flight control system designed to provide decoupled handling qualities. Five discrete flight conditions were evaluated ranging from low altitude subsonic Mach numbers to moderate altitude supersonic Mach numbers. The flight control system was effective in generally decoupling the airplane. However, all participating pilots objected to the high levels of lateral acceleration encountered in pitch maneuvers. In addition, the pilots were more critical of left turns (in the direction of the trailing wingtip when skewed) than they were of right turns due to the tendency to be rolled into the left turns and out of the right turns. Asymmetric side force as a function of angle of attack was the primary cause of lateral acceleration in pitch. Along with the lateral acceleration in pitch, variation of rolling and yawing moments as functions of angle of attack caused the tendency to roll into left turns and out of right turns.

Kempel, Robert W.; Mcneill, Walter E.; Gilyard, Glenn B.; Maine, Trindel A.

1988-01-01

4

Oblique-wing supersonic aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An aircraft including a single fuselage having a main wing and a horizontal stabilizer airfoil pivotally attached at their centers to the fuselage is described. The pivotal attachments allow the airfoils to be yawed relative to the fuselage for high speed flight, and to be positioned at right angles with respect to the fuselage during takeoff, landing, and low speed flight. The main wing and the horizontal stabilizer are upwardly curved from their center pivotal connections towards their ends to form curvilinear dihedrals.

Jones, R. T. (inventor)

1976-01-01

5

An integrated study of structures, aerodynamics and controls on the forward swept wing X-29A and the oblique wing research aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of an integrated study of structures, aerodynamics, and controls using the STARS program on two advanced airplane configurations are presented. Results for the X-29A include finite element modeling, free vibration analyses, unsteady aerodynamic calculations, flutter/divergence analyses, and an aeroservoelastic controls analysis. Good correlation is shown between STARS results and various other verified results. The tasks performed on the Oblique Wing Research Aircraft include finite element modeling and free vibration analyses.

Dawson, Kenneth S.; Fortin, Paul E.

1987-01-01

6

The Leading Edge 250: Oblique wing aircraft configuration project, volume 4  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design of a high speed transport aircraft using the oblique wing concept as a part of the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) aircraft study is the Leading Edge 250 capable of travelling at Mach 4 with 250 passengers and has a 6,500 nautical mile range. Its innovation lies within its use of the unconventional oblique wing to provide efficient flight at any Mach number. Wave drag is kept to a minimum at high speed, while high lift is attained during critical takeoff and landing maneuvers by varying the sweep of the wing.

Schmidt, Andre; Moore, Peri; Nguyen, Dan; Oganesyan, Petros; Palmer, Charles

1988-01-01

7

Flight-determined aerodynamic derivatives of the AD-1 oblique-wing research airplane  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The AD-1 is a variable-sweep oblique-wing research airplane that exhibits unconventional stability and control characteristics. In this report, flight-determined and predicted stability and control derivatives for the AD-1 airplane are compared. The predictions are based on both wind tunnel and computational results. A final best estimate of derivatives is presented.

Sim, A. G.; Curry, R. E.

1984-01-01

8

Oblique-wing research airplane motion simulation with decoupling control laws  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A large piloted vertical motion simulator was used to assess the performance of a preliminary decoupling control law for an early version of the F-8 oblique wing research demonstrator airplane. Evaluations were performed for five discrete flight conditions, ranging from low-altitude subsonic Mach numbers to moderate-altitude supersonic Mach numbers. Asymmetric sideforce as a function of angle of attack was found to be the primary cause of both the lateral acceleration noted in pitch and the tendency to roll into left turns and out of right turns. The flight control system was shown to be effective in generally decoupling the airplane and reducing the lateral acceleration in pitch maneuvers.

Kempel, Robert W.; Mc Neill, Walter E.; Maine, Trindel A.

1988-01-01

9

Oblique wing transonic transport configuration development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Studies of transport aircraft designed for boom-free supersonic flight show the variable sweep oblique wing to be the most efficient configuration for flight at low supersonic speeds. Use of this concept leads to a configuration that is lighter, quieter, and more fuel efficient than symmetric aircraft designed for the same mission. Aerodynamic structural, weight, aeroelastic and flight control studies show the oblique wing concept to be technically feasible. Investigations are reported for wing planform and thickness, pivot design and weight estimation, engine cycle (bypass ratio), and climb, descent and reserve fuel. Results are incorporated into a final configuration. Performance, weight, and balance characteristics are evaluated. Flight control requirements are reviewed, and areas in which further research is needed are identified.

1977-01-01

10

In-flight total forces, moments and static aeroelastic characteristics of an oblique-wing research airplane  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A low-speed flight investigation has provided total force and moment coefficients and aeroelastic effects for the AD-1 oblique-wing research airplane. The results were interpreted and compared with predictions that were based on wind tunnel data. An assessment has been made of the aeroelastic wing bending design criteria. Lateral-directional trim requirements caused by asymmetry were determined. At angles of attack near stall, flow visualization indicated viscous flow separation and spanwise vortex flow. These effects were also apparent in the force and moment data.

Curry, R. E.; Sim, A. G.

1984-01-01

11

F-8 oblique wing structural feasibility study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility of fitting a rotating oblique wing on an F-8 aircraft to produce a full scale manned prototype capable of operating in the transonic and supersonic speed range was investigated. The strength, aeroelasticity, and fatigue life of such a prototype are analyzed. Concepts are developed for a new wing, a pivot, a skewing mechanism, control systems that operate through the pivot, and a wing support assembly that attaches in the F-8 wing cavity. The modification of the two-place NTF-8A aircraft to the oblique wing configuration is discussed.

Koltko, E.; Katz, A.; Bell, M. A.; Smith, W. D.; Lauridia, R.; Overstreet, C. T.; Klapprott, C.; Orr, T. F.; Jobe, C. L.; Wyatt, F. G.

1975-01-01

12

Role of research aircraft in technology development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The United States's aeronautical research program has been rich in the use of research aircraft to explore new flight regimes, develop individual aeronautical concepts, and investigate new vehicle classes and configurations. This paper reviews the NASA supercritical wing, digital fly-by-wire, HiMAT, and AD-1 oblique-wing flight research programs, and draws from these examples general conclusions regarding the role and impact of research aircraft in technology development. The impact of a flight program on spinoff technology is also addressed. The secondary, serendipitous results are often highly significant. Finally, future research aircraft programs are examined for technology trends and expected results.

Szalai, K. J.

1984-01-01

13

Experimental Aerodynamic Characteristics of an Oblique Wing for the F-8 OWRA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental investigation was conducted during June-July 1987 in the NASA Ames 11-Foot Transonic Wind Tunnel to study the aerodynamic performance and stability and control characteristics of a 0.087-scale model of an F-8 airplane fitted with an oblique wing. This effort was part of the Oblique Wing Research Aircraft (OWRA) program performed in conjunction with Rockwell International. The Ames-designed, aspect ratio 10.47, tapered wing used specially designed supercritical airfoils with 0.14 thickness/chord ratio at the root and 0.12 at the 85% span location. The wing was tested at two different mounting heights above the fuselage. Performance and longitudinal stability data were obtained at sweep angles of 0deg, 30deg, 45deg, 60deg, and 65deg at Mach numbers ranging from 0.30 to 1.40. Reynolds number varied from 3.1 x 10(exp 6)to 5.2 x 10(exp 6), based on the reference chord length. Angle of attack was varied from -5deg to 18deg. The performance of this wing is compared with that of another oblique wing, designed by Rockwell International, which was tested as part of the same development program. Lateral-directional stability data were obtained for a limited combination of sweep angles and Mach numbers. Sideslip angle was varied from -5deg to +5deg. Landing flap performance was studied, as were the effects of cruise flap deflections to achieve roll trim and tailor wing camber for various flight conditions. Roll-control authority of the flaps and ailerons was measured. A novel, deflected wing tip was evaluated for roll-control authority at high sweep angles.

Kennelly, Robert A., Jr.; Carmichael, Ralph L.; Smith, Stephen C.; Strong, James M.; Kroo, Ilan M.

1999-01-01

14

Transonic wind tunnel test of a 14 percent thick oblique wing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental investigation was conducted at the ARC 11- by 11-Foot Transonic Wind Tunnel as part of the Oblique Wing Research Aircraft Program to study the aerodynamic performance and stability characteristics of a 0.087-scale model of an F-8 airplane fitted with an oblique wing designed by Rockwell International. The 10.3 aspect ratio, straight-tapered wing of 0.14 thickness/chord ratio was tested at two different mounting heights above the fuselage. Additional tests were conducted to assess low-speed behavior with and without flaps, aileron effectiveness at representative flight conditions, and transonic drag divergence with 0 degree wing sweep. Longitudinal stability data were obtained at sweep angles of 0, 30, 45, 60, and 65 degrees, at Mach numbers ranging from 0.25 to 1.40. Test Reynolds numbers varied from 3.2 to 6.6 x 10 exp 6/ft. and angle of attack ranged from -5 to +18 degrees. Most data were taken at zero sideslip, but a few runs were at sideslip angles of +/- 5 degrees. The raised wing position proved detrimental overall, although side force and yawing moment were reduced at some conditions. Maximum lift coefficient with the flaps deflected was found to fall short of the value predicted in the preliminary design document. The performance and trim characteristics of the present wing are generally inferior to those obtained for a previously tested wing designed at ARC.

Kennelly, Robert A., Jr.; Kroo, Ilan M.; Strong, James M.; Carmichael, Ralph L.

1990-01-01

15

Decoupling Control For Oblique-Wing Airplane  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Technical memorandum proposes procedure for mathematical synthesis of control signals proportional to commanded deflections of rudder, elevators, and ailerons of oblique-wing airplane. Procedure designed to generate signals compensating for aerodynamical and inertial cross-coupling among yawing, pitching, and rolling motions. Control interactions decoupled by feedforward and feedback.

Kempel, Robert W.; Pahle, Joseph W.; Alag, Gurbux S.

1992-01-01

16

An Analytical Study for Subsonic Oblique Wing Transport Concept  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The oblique wing concept has been investigated for subsonic transport application for a cruise Mach number of 0.95. Three different mission applications were considered and the concept analyzed against the selected mission requirements. Configuration studies determined the best area of applicability to be a commercial passenger transport mission. The critical parameter for the oblique wing concept was found to be aspect ratio which was limited to a value of 6.0 due to aeroelastic divergence. Comparison of the concept final configuration was made with fixed winged configurations designed to cruise at Mach 0.85 and 0.95. The crossover Mach number for the oblique wing concept was found to be Mach 0.91 for takeoff gross weight and direct operating cost. Benefits include reduced takeoff distance, installed thrust and mission block fuel and improved community noise characteristics. The variable geometry feature enables the final configuration to increase range by 10% at Mach 0.712 and to increase endurance by as much as 44%.

Bradley, E. S.; Honrath, J.; Tomlin, K. H.; Swift, G.; Shumpert, P.; Warnock, W.

1976-01-01

17

Two-stage earth-to-orbit transport with translating oblique wings for booster recovery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A two-stage earth-to-orbit transport includes an orbiter vehicle and a pair of boosters, each having a depolyable oblique wing located along a longitudinal axis of the booster. The wing is deployed in an oblique disposition in supersonic and hypersonic speeds, and disposed at 90.degree. for subsonic speeds encountered during entry. The oblique wing is driven axially and rotated by means of a turret mounted on rails.

MacConochie, Ian O. (Inventor); Briener, Charles A. (Inventor)

1991-01-01

18

Aircraft fire safety research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the past 15 years, very significant progress has been made toward enhancing aircraft fire safety in both normal and hostile (combat) operational environments. Most of the major aspects of the aircraft fire safety problem are touched upon here. The technology of aircraft fire protection, although not directly applicable in all cases to spacecraft fire scenarios, nevertheless does provide a solid foundation to build upon. This is particularly true of the extensive research and testing pertaining to aircraft interior fire safety and to onboard inert gas generation systems, both of which are still active areas of investigation.

Botteri, Benito P.

1987-01-01

19

Aileron and Krueger nose flap effectiveness measured on an oblique wing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects that deflection of conventional ailerons have on the lateral/directional characteristics of an oblique wing mounted on top of a body of revolution were measured. The wing had an aspect ratio of 6 (based on the unswept wing span) and was tested at various sweep angles ranging from 0 deg to 60 deg. Krueger nose flaps mounted on drooped-nose flaps were investigated on the downstream wing panel (for sweep angles of 45 deg and 60 deg) in an attempt to create more symmetrical spanwise wing stalling at high lift coefficients. The tests were conducted over a Mach number range of 0.25 to 1.4 and an angle-of-attack range from -3 deg to 28 deg. With the oblique wing in the swept position, considerable difference in the aileron effectiveness was measured for positive or negative differential aileron deflections. With the wing swept 45 deg at a Mach number of 0.8 and above, an extension of the span of the Krueger nose flaps on the downstream wing panel did not improve the linearity of the pitching-, rolling-, and yawing-moment curves.

Hopkins, E. J.; Lovette, G. H.

1977-01-01

20

Pilotless Aircraft Research Division  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Technician William Ferguson adjusts coupling on typical NACA D4 automatic control research missile with double Deacon booster, August 18, 1950. Joseph Shortal noted that a new research authorization (RA 1525) was issued on September 29, 1948 'to study various automatic stabilization systems for pilotless aircraft.' Earlier research had revealed aerodynamic control problems at speeds beyond Mach 1. The first two development missiles in this research program were launched in April 1949; the first stabilized missile on May 24, 1949. That flight was successful and 'verified the wing-tip aileron control system, the adaptation of the gyro-actuated control to supersonic flight, and a method for calculating rolling response.' 'A typical D4 missile is shown on the launcher.... This particular missile was launched August 1950, by which time the booster had been changed to a double-Deacon System to obtain higher speeds. The D4 missile configuration was also found to be a desirable one from pitch and yaw considerations in later flights. Its general configuration was followed later in the design of the Navy-Martin Bullpup air-to-ground guided missile.' Excerpts from Joseph Shortal's history of Wallops Station.

1950-01-01

21

Advanced aircraft for atmospheric research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of aircraft for high-altitude research is described in terms of program objectives and environmental, technological limitations, and the work on the Perseus A aircraft. The need for these advanced aircraft is proposed in relation to atmospheric science issues such as greenhouse trapping, the dynamics of tropical cyclones, and stratospheric ozone. The implications of the study on aircraft design requirements is addressed with attention given to the basic categories of high-altitude, long-range, long-duration, and nap-of-the-earth aircraft. A strategy is delineated for a platform that permits unique stratospheric measurements and is a step toward a more advanced aircraft. The goal of Perseus A is to carry scientific air sampling payloads weighing at least 50 kg to altitudes of more than 25 km. The airfoils are designed for low Reynolds numbers, the structural weight is very low, and the closed-cycle power plant runs on liquid oxygen.

Russell, P.; Wegener, S.; Langford, J.; Anderson, J.; Lux, D.; Hall, D. W.

1991-01-01

22

Research developments for aircraft safety  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper deals with an aviation safety technology program, whose objective is to provide technology for near-term application to civil transport aircraft and for designing the next generation of advanced transports. The influence of research and development efforts on current safety levels and aircraft operating efficiency is examined.

Hodge, K. E.

1980-01-01

23

NASA Aircraft Controls Research, 1983  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The workshop consisted of 24 technical presentations on various aspects of aircraft controls, ranging from the theoretical development of control laws to the evaluation of new controls technology in flight test vehicles. A special report on the status of foreign aircraft technology and a panel session with seven representatives from organizations which use aircraft controls technology were also included. The controls research needs and opportunities for the future as well as the role envisioned for NASA in that research were addressed. Input from the panel and response to the workshop presentations will be used by NASA in developing future programs.

Beasley, G. P. (compiler)

1984-01-01

24

Effect of wing bend on the experimental force and moment characteristics of an oblique wing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Static longitudinal and lateral/directional force and moment characteristics are presented for an elliptical oblique wing mounted on top of a Sears-Haack body of revolution. The wing had an aspect ratio of 6 (based on the unswept span) and was tested at various sweep angles relative to the body axis ranging from 0 to 60 deg. In an attempt to create more symmetrical spanwise wing stalling characteristics, both wing panels were bent upward to produce washout on the trailing wing panel and washing on the leading wing panel. Small fluorescent tufts were attached to the wing surface to indicate the stall progression on the wing. The tests were conducted throughout a Mach number range from 0.6 to 1.4 at a constant unit Reynolds number of 8.2 x 10 per meter. The test results indicate that upward bending of the wing panels had only a small effect on the linearity of the moment curves and would require an impractical wing-pivot location at low lift to eliminate the rolling moment resulting from this bending.

Hopkins, E. J.; Nelson, E. R.

1976-01-01

25

Pressure-sensitive paint measurements on a supersonic high-sweep oblique wing model. [conducted in the NASA Ames 9- by 7-ft Supersonic Wind Tunnel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The pressure-sensitive paint method was used in the test of a high-sweep oblique wing model, conducted in the NASA Ames 9- by 7-ft Supersonic Wind Tunnel. Surface pressure data was acquired from both the luminescent paint and conventional pressure taps at Mach numbers between M = 1.6 and 2.0. In addition, schlieren photographs of the outer flow were used to determine the location of shock waves impinging on the model. The results show that the luminescent pressure-sensitive paint can capture both global and fine features of the static surface pressure field. Comparison with conventional pressure tap data shows good agreement between the two techniques, and that the luminescent paint data can be used to make quantitative measurements of the pressure changes over the model surface. The experiment also demonstrates the practical considerations and limitations that arise in the application of this technique under supersonic flow conditions in large-scale facilities, as well as the directions in which future research is necessary in order to make this technique a more practical wind-tunnel testing tool.

McLachlan, B. G.; Bell, J. H.; Park, H.; Kennelly, R. A.; Schreiner, J. A.; Smith, S. C.; Strong, J. M.; Gallery, J.; Gouterman, M.

1995-01-01

26

Report on research and technology-FY 1981  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

More than 65 technical reports, papers, and articles published by personnel and contractors at the Dryden Flight Research Center are listed. Activities performed for the Offices of Aeronautics and Space Technology, Space and Terrestrial Applications, Space Transportation Systems, and Space Tracking and Data Systems are summarized. Preliminary stability and control derivatives were determined for the shuttle orbiter at hypersonic speeds from the data obtained at reentry. The shuttle tile tests, spin research vehicle nose shapes flight investigations, envelope expansion flights for the Ames tilt rotor research aircraft, and the AD-1 oblique wing programs were completed as well as the KC-135 winglet program.

1981-01-01

27

Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This Final Report summarizes the work accomplished by the Boeing Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research (SUGAR) team in Phase 1, which includes the time period of October 2008 through March 2010. The team consisted of Boeing Research and Technology, Boeing Commercial Airplanes, General Electric, and Georgia Tech. The team completed the development of a comprehensive future scenario for world-wide commercial aviation, selected baseline and advanced configurations for detailed study, generated technology suites for each configuration, conducted detailed performance analysis, calculated noise and emissions, assessed technology risks, and developed technology roadmaps. Five concepts were evaluated in detail: 2008 baseline, N+3 reference, N+3 high span strut braced wing, N+3 gas turbine battery electric concept, and N+3 hybrid wing body. A wide portfolio of technologies was identified to address the NASA N+3 goals. Significant improvements in air traffic management, aerodynamics, materials and structures, aircraft systems, propulsion, and acoustics are needed. Recommendations for Phase 2 concept and technology projects have been identified.

Bradley, Marty K.; Droney, Christopher K.

2011-01-01

28

The F-18 systems research aircraft facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To help ensure that new aerospace initiatives rapidly transition to competitive U.S. technologies, NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility has dedicated a systems research aircraft facility. The primary goal is to accelerate the transition of new aerospace technologies to commercial, military, and space vehicles. Key technologies include more-electric aircraft concepts, fly-by-light systems, flush airdata systems, and advanced computer architectures. Future aircraft that will benefit are the high-speed civil transport and the National AeroSpace Plane. This paper describes the systems research aircraft flight research vehicle and outlines near-term programs.

Sitz, Joel R.

1992-01-01

29

Airborne Subscale Transport Aircraft Research Testbed: Aircraft Model Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Airborne Subscale Transport Aircraft Research (AirSTAR) testbed being developed at NASA Langley Research Center is an experimental flight test capability for research experiments pertaining to dynamics modeling and control beyond the normal flight envelope. An integral part of that testbed is a 5.5% dynamically scaled, generic transport aircraft. This remotely piloted vehicle (RPV) is powered by twin turbine engines and includes a collection of sensors, actuators, navigation, and telemetry systems. The downlink for the plane includes over 70 data channels, plus video, at rates up to 250 Hz. Uplink commands for aircraft control include over 30 data channels. The dynamic scaling requirement, which includes dimensional, weight, inertial, actuator, and data rate scaling, presents distinctive challenges in both the mechanical and electrical design of the aircraft. Discussion of these requirements and their implications on the development of the aircraft along with risk mitigation strategies and training exercises are included here. Also described are the first training (non-research) flights of the airframe. Additional papers address the development of a mobile operations station and an emulation and integration laboratory.

Jordan, Thomas L.; Langford, William M.; Hill, Jeffrey S.

2005-01-01

30

Effect of drooped-nose flaps on the experimental force and moment characteristics of an oblique wing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Six-component experimental force and moment data are presented for a low aspect ratio, oblique wing equipped with drooped-nose flaps and mounted on top of a body of revolution. These flaps were investigated on the downstream wing panel with the nose drooped 5 deg, 10 deg, 20 deg, and 30 deg, and on both wing panels with the nose drooped 30 deg. It was to determine if such flaps would make the moment curves more linear by controlling the flow separation on the downstream wing panel at high lift coefficients. The wing was elliptical in planform and had an aspect ratio of 6.0 (based on the unswept wing span). The wing was tested at sweep angles of 45 deg and 50 deg throughout the Mach number range from 0.25 to 0.95. The drooped-nose flaps alone were not effective in making the moment curves more linear; however, a previous study showed that Kruger nose flaps improved the linearity of the moment curves when the Kruger flaps were used on only the downstream wing panel equipped with drooped-nose flaps deflected 5 deg.

Hopkins, E. J.; Lovette, G. H.

1976-01-01

31

The NASA aircraft icing research program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of the NASA aircraft icing research program is to develop and make available to industry icing technology to support the needs and requirements for all-weather aircraft designs. Research is being done for both fixed wing and rotary wing applications. The NASA program emphasizes technology development in two areas, advanced ice protection concepts and icing simulation. Reviewed here are the computer code development/validation, icing wind tunnel testing, and icing flight testing efforts.

Shaw, Robert J.; Reinmann, John J.

1990-01-01

32

NASA Wake Vortex Research for Aircraft Spacing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is addressing airport capacity enhancements during instrument meteorological conditions through the Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) program. Within TAP, the Reduced Spacing Operations (RSO) subelement at the NASA Langley Research Center is developing an Aircraft Vortex Spacing System (AVOSS). AVOSS will integrate the output of several inter-related areas to produce weather dependent, dynamic wake vortex spacing criteria. These areas include current and predicted weather conditions, models of wake vortex transport and decay in these weather conditions, real-time feedback of wake vortex behavior from sensors, and operationally acceptable aircraft/wake interaction criteria. In today's ATC system, the AVOSS could inform ATC controllers when a fixed reduced separation becomes safe to apply to large and heavy aircraft categories. With appropriate integration into the Center/TRACON Automation System (CTAS), AVOSS dynamic spacing could be tailored to actual generator/follower aircraft pairs rather than a few broad aircraft categories.

Perry, R. Brad; Hinton, David A.; Stuever, Robert A.

1996-01-01

33

AD-1 with research pilot Richard E. Gray  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Standing in front of the AD-1 Oblique Wing research aircraft is research pilot Richard E. Gray. Richard E. Gray joined National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas, in November 1978, as an aerospace research pilot. In November 1981, Dick joined the NASA's Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility, Edwards, California, as a research pilot. Dick was a former Co-op at the NASA Flight Research Center (a previous name of the Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility), serving as an Operations Engineer. At Ames-Dryden, Dick was a pilot for the F-14 Aileron Rudder Interconnect Program, AD-1 Oblique Wing Research Aircraft, F-8 Digital Fly-By-Wire and Pilot Induced Oscillations investigations. He also flew the F-104, T-37, and the F-15. On November 8, 1982, Gray was fatally injured in a T-37 jet aircraft while making a pilot proficiency flight. Dick graduated with a Bachelors degree in Aeronautical Engineering from San Jose State University in 1969. He joined the U.S. Navy in July 1969, becoming a Naval Aviator in January 1971, when he was assigned to F-4 Phantoms at Naval Air Station (NAS) Miramar, California. In 1972, he flew 48 combat missions in Vietnam in F-4s with VF-111 aboard the USS Coral Sea. After making a second cruise in 1973, Dick was assigned to Air Test and Evaluation Squadron Four (VX-4) at NAS Point Mugu, California, as a project pilot on various operational test and evaluation programs. In November 1978, Dick retired from the Navy and joined NASA's Johnson Space Center. At JSC Gray served as chief project pilot on the WB-57F high-altitude research projects and as the prime television chase pilot in a T-38 for the landing portion of the Space Shuttle orbital flight tests. Dick had over 3,000 hours in more than 30 types of aircraft, an airline transport rating, and 252 carrier arrested landings. He was a member of the Society of Experimental Test Pilots serving on the Board of Directors as Southwest Section Technical Adviser in 1981/1982. Richard E. Gray was born March 11, 1945 in Newport News, Virginia; he died on November 8, 1982 at Edwards, California, in a T-37 spin accident. The Ames-Dryden-1 (AD-1) aircraft was designed to investigate the concept of an oblique (pivoting) wing. The wing could be rotated on its center pivot, so that it could be set at its most efficient angle for the speed at which the aircraft was flying. NASA Ames Research Center Aeronautical Engineer Robert T. Jones conceived the idea of an oblique wing. His wind tunnel studies at Ames (Moffett Field, CA) indicated that an oblique wing design on a supersonic transport might achieve twice the fuel economy of an aircraft with conventional wings. The oblique wing on the AD-1 pivoted about the fuselage, remaining perpendicular to it during slow flight and rotating to angles of up to 60 degrees as aircraft speed increased. Analytical and wind tunnel studiesthat Jones conducted at Ames indicated that a transport-sized oblique-wing aircraft flying at speeds of up to Mach 1.4 (1.4 times the speed of sound) would have substantially better aerodynamic performance than aircraft with conventional wings. The AD-1 structure allowed the project to complete all of its technical objectives. The type of low-speed, low-cost vehicle - as expected - exhibited aeroelastic and pitch-roll-coupling effects that contributed to poor handling at sweep angles above 45 degrees. The fiberglass structure limited the wing stiffness that would have improved the handling qualities. Thus, after completion of the AD-1 project, there was still a need for a transonic oblique-wing research aircraft to assess the effects of compressibility, evaluate a more representative structure, and analyze flight performance at transonic speeds (those on either side of the speed of sound). The aircraft was delivered to the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, CA, in March 1979 and its first flight was on December 21, 1979. Piloting the aircraft on that flight, as well as on its last flight on August 7, 1982, was NASA Research Pilot Thomas C. McMurtry. The AD-1

1982-01-01

34

VSTOL Systems Research Aircraft (VSRA) Harrier  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Ames Research Center has developed and is testing a new integrated flight and propulsion control system that will help pilots land aircraft in adverse weather conditions and in small confined ares (such as, on a small ship or flight deck). The system is being tested in the V/STOL (Vertical/Short Takeoff and Landing) Systems research Aircraft (VSRA), which is a modified version of the U.S. Marine Corps's AV-8B Harrier jet fighter, which can take off and land vertically. The new automated flight control system features both head-up and panel-mounted computer displays and also automatically integrates control of the aircraft's thrust and thrust vector control, thereby reducing the pilot's workload and help stabilize the aircraft for landing. Visiting pilots will be encouraged to test the new system and provide formal evaluation flights data and feedback. An actual flight test and the display panel of control system are shown in this video.

1994-01-01

35

Ageing aircraft research in the Netherlands  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The problems of aging aircraft are worldwide. Hence, international cooperative actions to overcome or prevent problems should be taken. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the Netherlands Civil Aviation Department (RLD) signed a Memorandum of Cooperation in the area of structural integrity, with specific reference to research on problems in the area of aging aircraft. Here, an overview is given of aging research that is going on in the Netherlands. The work described is done largely at the National Aerospace Laboratory; much of the research is part of the forementioned cooperative agreement.

Dejonge, J. B.; Bartelds, G.

1992-01-01

36

NASA's Research in Aircraft Vulnerability Mitigation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since its inception in 1958, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA) role in civil aeronautics has been to develop high-risk, high-payoff technologies to meet critical national aviation challenges. Following the events of Sept. 11, 2001, NASA recognized that it now shared the responsibility for improving homeland security. The NASA Strategic Plan was modified to include requirements to enable a more secure air transportation system by investing in technologies and collaborating with other agencies, industry, and academia. NASA is conducting research to develop and advance innovative and commercially viable technologies that will reduce the vulnerability of aircraft to threats or hostile actions, and identify and inform users of potential vulnerabilities in a timely manner. Presented in this paper are research plans and preliminary status for mitigating the effects of damage due to direct attacks on civil transport aircraft. The NASA approach to mitigation includes: preventing loss of an aircraft due to a hit from man-portable air defense systems; developing fuel system technologies that prevent or minimize in-flight vulnerability to small arms or other projectiles; providing protection from electromagnetic energy attacks by detecting directed energy threats to aircraft and on/off-board systems; and minimizing the damage due to high-energy attacks (explosions and fire) by developing advanced lightweight, damage-resistant composites and structural concepts. An approach to preventing aircraft from being used as weapons of mass destruction will also be discussed.

Allen, Cheryl L.

2005-01-01

37

Rotor systems research aircraft simulation mathematical model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analytical model developed for evaluating and verifying advanced rotor concepts is discussed. The model was used during in both open loop and real time man-in-the-loop simulation during the rotor systems research aircraft design. Future applications include: pilot training, preflight of test programs, and the evaluation of promising concepts before their implementation on the flight vehicle.

Houck, J. A.; Moore, F. L.; Howlett, J. J.; Pollock, K. S.; Browne, M. M.

1977-01-01

38

Overview of high performance aircraft propulsion research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The overall scope of the NASA Lewis High Performance Aircraft Propulsion Research Program is presented. High performance fighter aircraft of interest include supersonic flights with such capabilities as short take off and vertical landing (STOVL) and/or high maneuverability. The NASA Lewis effort involving STOVL propulsion systems is focused primarily on component-level experimental and analytical research. The high-maneuverability portion of this effort, called the High Alpha Technology Program (HATP), is part of a cooperative program among NASA's Lewis, Langley, Ames, and Dryden facilities. The overall objective of the NASA Inlet Experiments portion of the HATP, which NASA Lewis leads, is to develop and enhance inlet technology that will ensure high performance and stability of the propulsion system during aircraft maneuvers at high angles of attack. To accomplish this objective, both wind-tunnel and flight experiments are used to obtain steady-state and dynamic data, and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes are used for analyses. This overview of the High Performance Aircraft Propulsion Research Program includes a sampling of the results obtained thus far and plans for the future.

Biesiadny, Thomas J.

1992-01-01

39

High temperature aircraft research furnace facilities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Focus is on the design, fabrication, and development of the High Temperature Aircraft Research Furnace Facilities (HTARFF). The HTARFF was developed to process electrically conductive materials with high melting points in a low gravity environment. The basic principle of operation is to accurately translate a high temperature arc-plasma gas front as it orbits around a cylindrical sample, thereby making it possible to precisely traverse the entire surface of a sample. The furnace utilizes the gas-tungsten-arc-welding (GTAW) process, also commonly referred to as Tungsten-Inert-Gas (TIG). The HTARFF was developed to further research efforts in the areas of directional solidification, float-zone processing, welding in a low-gravity environment, and segregation effects in metals. The furnace is intended for use aboard the NASA-JSC Reduced Gravity Program KC-135A Aircraft.

Smith, James E., Jr.; Cashon, John L.

1992-01-01

40

Advanced instrumentation for aircraft icing research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A compact and rugged probe based on the phase Doppler method was evaluated as a means for characterizing icing clouds using airborne platforms and for advancing aircraft icing research in large scale wind tunnels. The Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA) upon which the new probe was based is now widely recognized as an accurate method for the complete characterization of sprays. The prototype fiber optic-based probe was evaluated in simulated aircraft icing clouds and found to have the qualities essential to providing information that will advance aircraft icing research. Measurement comparisons of the size and velocity distributions made with the standard PDPA and the fiber optic probe were in excellent agreement as were the measurements of number density and liquid water content. Preliminary testing in the NASA Lewis Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) produced reasonable results but revealed some problems with vibration and signal quality at high speeds. The cause of these problems were identified and design changes were proposed to eliminate the shortcomings of the probe.

Bachalo, W.; Smith, J.; Rudoff, R.

1990-01-01

41

Aircraft Turbine Engine Control Research at NASA Glenn Research Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper provides an overview of the aircraft turbine engine control research at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). A brief introduction to the engine control problem is first provided with a description of the state-of-the-art control law structure. A historical aspect of engine control development since the 1940s is then provided with a special emphasis on the contributions of GRC. With the increased emphasis on aircraft safety, enhanced performance, and affordability, as well as the need to reduce the environmental impact of aircraft, there are many new challenges being faced by the designers of aircraft propulsion systems. The Controls and Dynamics Branch (CDB) at GRC is leading and participating in various projects to develop advanced propulsion controls and diagnostics technologies that will help meet the challenging goals of NASA Aeronautics Research Mission programs. The rest of the paper provides an overview of the various CDB technology development activities in aircraft engine control and diagnostics, both current and some accomplished in the recent past. The motivation for each of the research efforts, the research approach, technical challenges, and the key progress to date are summarized.

Garg, Sanjay

2013-01-01

42

Conceptual/preliminary design study of subsonic v/stol and stovl aircraft derivatives of the S-3A  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computerized aircraft synthesis program was used to examine the feasibility and capability of a V/STOL aircraft based on the Navy S-3A aircraft. Two major airframe modifications are considered: replacement of the wing, and substitution of deflected thrust turbofan engines similar to the Pegasus engine. Three planform configurations for the all composite wing were investigated: an unconstrained span design, a design with the span constrained to 64 feet, and an unconstrained span oblique wing design. Each design was optimized using the same design variables, and performance and control analyses were performed. The oblique wing configuration was found to have the greatest potential in this application. The mission performance of these V/STOL aircraft compares favorably with that of the CTOL S-3A.

Kidwell, G. H., Jr.

1981-01-01

43

Aircraft Turbine Engine Control Research at NASA Glenn Research Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This lecture will provide an overview of the aircraft turbine engine control research at NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Glenn Research Center (GRC). A brief introduction to the engine control problem is first provided with a description of the current state-of-the-art control law structure. A historical aspect of engine control development since the 1940s is then provided with a special emphasis on the contributions of GRC. The traditional engine control problem has been to provide a means to safely transition the engine from one steady-state operating point to another based on the pilot throttle inputs. With the increased emphasis on aircraft safety, enhanced performance and affordability, and the need to reduce the environmental impact of aircraft, there are many new challenges being faced by the designers of aircraft propulsion systems. The Controls and Dynamics Branch (CDB) at GRC is leading and participating in various projects in partnership with other organizations within GRC and across NASA, other government agencies, the U.S. aerospace industry, and academia to develop advanced propulsion controls and diagnostics technologies that will help meet the challenging goals of NASA programs under the Aeronautics Research Mission. The second part of the lecture provides an overview of the various CDB technology development activities in aircraft engine control and diagnostics, both current and some accomplished in the recent past. The motivation for each of the research efforts, the research approach, technical challenges and the key progress to date are summarized. The technologies to be discussed include system level engine control concepts, gas path diagnostics, active component control, and distributed engine control architecture. The lecture will end with a futuristic perspective of how the various current technology developments will lead to an Intelligent and Autonomous Propulsion System requiring none to very minimum pilot interface, interfacing directly with the flight management system to determine its mode of operation, and providing personalized engine control to optimize its performance given the current condition and mission objectives.

Garg, Sanjay

2014-01-01

44

Rotor systems research aircraft predesign study. Volume 3: Predesign report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The features of two aircraft designs were selected to be included in the single RSRA configuration. A study was conducted for further preliminary design and a more detailed analysis of development plans and costs. An analysis was also made of foreseeable technical problems and risks, identification of parallel research which would reduce risks and/or add to the basic capability of the aircraft, and a draft aircraft specification.

Schmidt, S. A.; Linden, A. W.

1972-01-01

45

X-38 research aircraft landing - computer animation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the mid-1990's researchers at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, and Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas, began working actively with the sub-scale X-38 prototype crew return vehicle (CRV). This was an unpiloted lifting body designed at 80 percent of the size of a projected emergency crew return vehicle for the International Space Station. The X-38 and the actual CRV are patterned after a lifting-body shape first employed in the Air Force X-23 (SV-5) program in the mid-1960's and the Air Force-NASA X-24A lifting-body project in the early to mid-1970's. Built by Scaled Composites, Inc., in Mojave, California, and outfitted with avionics, computer systems, and other hardware at Johnson Space Center, two X-38 aircraft were involved in flight research at Dryden beginning in July of 1997. Before that, however, Dryden conducted some 13 flights at a drop zone near California City, California. These tests were done with a 1/6-scale model of the X-38 aircraft to test the parafoil concept that would be employed on the X-38 aircraft and the actual CRV. The basic concept is that the actual CRV will use an inertial navigation system together with the Global Positioning System of satellites to guide it from the International Space Station into the earth's atmosphere. A deorbit engine module will redirect the vehicle from orbit into the atmosphere where a series of parachutes and a parafoil will deploy in sequence to bring the vehicle to a landing, possibly in a field next to a hospital. Flight research at NASA Dryden for the X-38 began with an unpiloted captive carry flight in which the vehicle remained attached to its future launch vehicle, the Dryden B-52 008. There were four captive flights in 1997 and three in 1998, plus the first drop test on March 12, 1998, using the parachutes and parafoil. Further captive and drop tests occurred in 1999. Although the X-38 landed safely on the lakebed at Edwards after the March 1998 drop test, there had been some problems with the parafoil. Intermediate parafoil tests at the Army Yuma Proving Grounds in Arizona enabled the project to resolve these problems and resume flight research. In the drop tests, the X-38 vehicles have been autonomous after air launch from the B-52. After they deploy the parafoil, they have remained autonomous, but there is also a manual mode that allows control from the ground. The X-38 vehicles (designated V131 and V132) are each 24.5 feet long. The actual CRV to be flown in space is expected to be 30 feet long. This is a 21-second computer animation clip showing the X-38 vehicle under its main parachute gliding in for a Global Positioning System-guided landing on a dry desert lakebed.

1997-01-01

46

V/STOL tilt rotor aircraft study. Volume 2: Preliminary design of research aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A preliminary design study was conducted to establish a minimum sized, low cost V/STOL tilt-rotor research aircraft with the capability of performing proof-of-concept flight research investigations applicable to a wide range of useful military and commercial configurations. The analysis and design approach was based on state-of-the-art methods and maximum use of off-the-shelf hardware and systems to reduce development risk, procurement cost and schedules impact. The rotors to be used are of 26 foot diameter and are the same as currently under construction and test as part of NASA Tilt-Rotor Contract NAS2-6505. The aircraft has a design gross weight of 12,000 lbs. The proposed engines to be used are Lycoming T53-L-13B rated at 1550 shaft horsepower which are fully qualified. A flight test investigation is recommended which will determine the capabilities and limitations of the research aircraft.

1972-01-01

47

X-38 research aircraft deorbit - computer animation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the mid-1990's researchers at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, and Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas, began working actively with the sub-scale X-38 prototype crew return vehicle (CRV). This was an unpiloted lifting body designed at 80 percent of the size of a projected emergency crew return vehicle for the International Space Station. The X-38 and the actual CRV are patterned after a lifting-body shape first employed in the Air Force X-23 (SV-5) program in the mid-1960's and the Air Force-NASA X-24A lifting-body project in the early to mid-1970's. Built by Scaled Composites, Inc., in Mojave, California, and outfitted with avionics, computer systems, and other hardware at Johnson Space Center, two X-38 aircraft were involved in flight research at Dryden beginning in July of 1997. Before that, however, Dryden conducted some 13 flights at a drop zone near California City, California. These tests were done with a 1/6-scale model of the X-38 to test the parafoil concept that would be employed on the X-38 and the actual CRV. The basic concept is that the actual CRV will use an inertial navigation system together with the Global Positioning System of satellites to guide it from the International Space Station into the earth's atmosphere. A deorbit engine module will redirect the vehicle from orbit into the atmosphere where a series of parachutes and a parafoil will deploy in sequence to bring the vehicle to a landing, possibly in a field next to a hospital. Flight research at NASA Dryden for the X-38 began with an unpiloted captive carry flight in which the vehicle remained attached to its future launch vehicle, the Dryden B-52 008. There were four captive flights in 1997 and three in 1998, plus the first drop test on March 12, 1998, using the parachutes and parafoil. Further captive and drop tests occurred in 1999. Although the X-38 landed safely on the lakebed at Edwards after the March 1998 drop test, there had been some problems with the parafoil. Intermediate parafoil tests at the Army Yuma Proving Grounds in Arizona enabled the project to resolve these problems and resume flight research. In the drop tests, the X-38 vehicles have been autonomous after airlaunch from the B-52. After they deploy the parafoil, they have remained autonomous, but there is also a manual mode that allows control from the ground. The X-38 vehicles (designated V131 and V132) are each 24.5 feet long. The actual CRV to be flown in space is expected to be 30 feet long. This is short 16-second computer animation clip showing the X-38 vehicle performing a deorbit engine burn, bringing the vehicle around 180 degrees and then jettisoning the solid rocket pack to reduce its re-entry weight.

1997-01-01

48

Design and physical characteristics of the Transonic Aircraft Technology (TACT) research aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Transonic Aircraft Technology (TACT) research program provided data necessary to verify aerodynamic concepts, such as the supercritical wing, and to gain the confidence required for the application of such technology to advanced high performance aircraft. An F-111A aircraft was employed as the flight test bed to provide full scale data. The data were correlated extensively with predictions based on data obtained from wind tunnel tests. An assessment of the improvement afforded at transonic speeds in drag divergence, maneuvering performance, and airplane handling qualities by the use of the supercritical wing was included in the program. Transonic flight and wind tunnel testing techniques were investigated, and specific research technologies evaluated were also summarized.

Painter, W. D.; Caw, L. J.

1978-01-01

49

NASA Glenn's Contributions to Aircraft Engine Noise Research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This presentation reviews engine noise research conducted at the NASA Glenn Research Center over the past 70 years. This report includes a historical perspective of the Center and the facilities used to conduct the research. Major noise research programs are highlighted to show their impact on industry and on the development of aircraft noise reduction technology. Noise reduction trends are discussed, and future aircraft concepts are presented. Since the 1960s, research results show that the average perceived noise level has been reduced by about 20 decibels (dB). Studies also show that, depending on the size of the airport, the aircraft fleet mix, and the actual growth in air travel, another 15 to 17 dB reduction will be required to achieve NASAs long-term goal of providing technologies to limit objectionable noise to the boundaries of an average airport.

Huff, Dennis L.

2014-01-01

50

Experimental aerothermodynamic research of hypersonic aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The 2-D and 3-D advance computer codes being developed for use in the design of such hypersonic aircraft as the National Aero-Space Plane require comparison of the computational results with a broad spectrum of experimental data to fully assess the validity of the codes. This is particularly true for complex flow fields with control surfaces present and for flows with separation, such as leeside flow. Therefore, the objective is to provide a hypersonic experimental data base required for validation of advanced computational fluid dynamics (CFD) computer codes and for development of more thorough understanding of the flow physics necessary for these codes. This is being done by implementing a comprehensive test program for a generic all-body hypersonic aircraft model in the NASA/Ames 3.5 foot Hypersonic Wind Tunnel over a broad range of test conditions to obtain pertinent surface and flowfield data. Results from the flow visualization portion of the investigation are presented.

Cleary, Joseph W.

1987-01-01

51

X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft in flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The tailless X-36 technology demonstrator research aircraft cruises over the California desert at low altitude during a 1997 research flight. The NASA/Boeing X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft program successfully demonstrated the tailless fighter design using advanced technologies to improve the maneuverability and survivability of possible future fighter aircraft. The program met or exceeded all project goals. For 31 flights during 1997 at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, the project team examined the aircraft's agility at low speed / high angles of attack and at high speed / low angles of attack. The aircraft's speed envelope reached up to 206 knots (234 mph). This aircraft was very stable and maneuverable. It handled very well. The X-36 vehicle was designed to fly without the traditional tail surfaces common on most aircraft. Instead, a canard forward of the wing was used as well as split ailerons and an advanced thrust-vectoring nozzle for directional control. The X-36 was unstable in both pitch and yaw axes, so an advanced, single-channel digital fly-by-wire control system (developed with some commercially available components) was put in place to stabilize the aircraft. Using a video camera mounted in the nose of the aircraft and an onboard microphone, the X-36 was remotely controlled by a pilot in a ground station virtual cockpit. A standard fighter-type head-up display (HUD) and a moving-map representation of the vehicle's position within the range in which it flew provided excellent situational awareness for the pilot. This pilot-in-the-loop approach eliminated the need for expensive and complex autonomous flight control systems and the risks associated with their inability to deal with unknown or unforeseen phenomena in flight. Fully fueled the X-36 prototype weighed approximately 1,250 pounds. It was 19 feet long and three feet high with a wingspan of just over 10 feet. A Williams International F112 turbofan engine provided close to 700 pounds of thrust. A typical research flight lasted 35 to 45 minutes from takeoff to touchdown. A total of 31 successful research flights were flown from May 17, 1997, to November 12, 1997, amassing 15 hours and 38 minutes of flight time. The aircraft reached an altitude of 20,200 feet and a maximum angle of attack of 40 degrees. In a follow-on effort, the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, contracted with Boeing to fly AFRL's Reconfigurable Control for Tailless Fighter Aircraft (RESTORE) software as a demonstration of the adaptability of the neural-net algorithm to compensate for in-flight damage or malfunction of effectors, such as flaps, ailerons and rudders. Two RESTORE research flights were flown in December 1998, proving the viability of the software approach. The X-36 aircraft flown at the Dryden Flight Research Center in 1997 was a 28-percent scale representation of a theoretical advanced fighter aircraft. The Boeing Phantom Works (formerly McDonnell Douglas) in St. Louis, Missouri, built two of the vehicles in a cooperative agreement with the Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California.

1997-01-01

52

X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft arrival at Dryden  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA and McDonnell Douglas Corporation (MDC) personnel remove protective covers from the newly arrived NASA/McDonnell Douglas Corporation X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft. It arrived at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, on July 2, 1996. The NASA/Boeing X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft program successfully demonstrated the tailless fighter design using advanced technologies to improve the maneuverability and survivability of possible future fighter aircraft. The program met or exceeded all project goals. For 31 flights during 1997 at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, the project team examined the aircraft's agility at low speed / high angles of attack and at high speed / low angles of attack. The aircraft's speed envelope reached up to 206 knots (234 mph). This aircraft was very stable and maneuverable. It handled very well. The X-36 vehicle was designed to fly without the traditional tail surfaces common on most aircraft. Instead, a canard forward of the wing was used as well as split ailerons and an advanced thrust-vectoring nozzle for directional control. The X-36 was unstable in both pitch and yaw axes, so an advanced, single-channel digital fly-by-wire control system (developed with some commercially available components) was put in place to stabilize the aircraft. Using a video camera mounted in the nose of the aircraft and an onboard microphone, the X-36 was remotely controlled by a pilot in a ground station virtual cockpit. A standard fighter-type head-up display (HUD) and a moving-map representation of the vehicle's position within the range in which it flew provided excellent situational awareness for the pilot. This pilot-in-the-loop approach eliminated the need for expensive and complex autonomous flight control systems and the risks associated with their inability to deal with unknown or unforeseen phenomena in flight. Fully fueled the X-36 prototype weighed approximately 1,250 pounds. It was 19 feet long and three feet high with a wingspan of just over 10 feet. A Williams International F112 turbofan engine provided close to 700 pounds of thrust. A typical research flight lasted 35 to 45 minutes from takeoff to touchdown. A total of 31 successful research flights were flown from May 17, 1997, to November 12, 1997, amassing 15 hours and 38 minutes of flight time. The aircraft reached an altitude of 20,200 feet and a maximum angle of attack of 40 degrees. In a follow-on effort, the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, contracted with Boeing to fly AFRL's Reconfigurable Control for Tailless Fighter Aircraft (RESTORE) software as a demonstration of the adaptability of the neural-net algorithm to compensate for in-flight damage or malfunction of effectors, such as flaps, ailerons and rudders. Two RESTORE research flights were flown in December 1998, proving the viability of the software approach. The X-36 aircraft flown at the Dryden Flight Research Center in 1997 was a 28-percent scale representation of a theoretical advanced fighter aircraft. The Boeing Phantom Works (formerly McDonnell Douglas) in St. Louis, Missouri, built two of the vehicles in a cooperative agreement with the Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California.

1996-01-01

53

X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft arrival at Dryden  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA/McDonnell Douglas Corporation (MDC) X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft is steered to it's hangar at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, following arrival on July 2, 1996. The NASA/Boeing X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft program successfully demonstrated the tailless fighter design using advanced technologies to improve the maneuverability and survivability of possible future fighter aircraft. The program met or exceeded all project goals. For 31 flights during 1997 at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, the project team examined the aircraft's agility at low speed / high angles of attack and at high speed / low angles of attack. The aircraft's speed envelope reached up to 206 knots (234 mph). This aircraft was very stable and maneuverable. It handled very well. The X-36 vehicle was designed to fly without the traditional tail surfaces common on most aircraft. Instead, a canard forward of the wing was used as well as split ailerons and an advanced thrust-vectoring nozzle for directional control. The X-36 was unstable in both pitch and yaw axes, so an advanced, single-channel digital fly-by-wire control system (developed with some commercially available components) was put in place to stabilize the aircraft. Using a video camera mounted in the nose of the aircraft and an onboard microphone, the X-36 was remotely controlled by a pilot in a ground station virtual cockpit. A standard fighter-type head-up display (HUD) and a moving-map representation of the vehicle's position within the range in which it flew provided excellent situational awareness for the pilot. This pilot-in-the-loop approach eliminated the need for expensive and complex autonomous flight control systems and the risks associated with their inability to deal with unknown or unforeseen phenomena in flight. Fully fueled the X-36 prototype weighed approximately 1,250 pounds. It was 19 feet long and three feet high with a wingspan of just over 10 feet. A Williams International F112 turbofan engine provided close to 700 pounds of thrust. A typical research flight lasted 35 to 45 minutes from takeoff to touchdown. A total of 31 successful research flights were flown from May 17, 1997, to November 12, 1997, amassing 15 hours and 38 minutes of flight time. The aircraft reached an altitude of 20,200 feet and a maximum angle of attack of 40 degrees. In a follow-on effort, the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, contracted with Boeing to fly AFRL's Reconfigurable Control for Tailless Fighter Aircraft (RESTORE) software as a demonstration of the adaptability of the neural-net algorithm to compensate for in-flight damage or malfunction of effectors, such as flaps, ailerons and rudders. Two RESTORE research flights were flown in December 1998, proving the viability of the software approach. The X-36 aircraft flown at the Dryden Flight Research Center in 1997 was a 28-percent scale representation of a theoretical advanced fighter aircraft. The Boeing Phantom Works (formerly McDonnell Douglas) in St. Louis, Missouri, built two of the vehicles in a cooperative agreement with the Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California.

1996-01-01

54

X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft arrival at Dryden  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA/McDonnell Douglas Corporation (MDC) X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft in it's hangar at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, following its arrival on July 2, 1996. The NASA/Boeing X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft program successfully demonstrated the tailless fighter design using advanced technologies to improve the maneuverability and survivability of possible future fighter aircraft. The program met or exceeded all project goals. For 31 flights during 1997 at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, the project team examined the aircraft's agility at low speed / high angles of attack and at high speed / low angles of attack. The aircraft's speed envelope reached up to 206 knots (234 mph). This aircraft was very stable and maneuverable. It handled very well. The X-36 vehicle was designed to fly without the traditional tail surfaces common on most aircraft. Instead, a canard forward of the wing was used as well as split ailerons and an advanced thrust-vectoring nozzle for directional control. The X-36 was unstable in both pitch and yaw axes, so an advanced, single-channel digital fly-by-wire control system (developed with some commercially available components) was put in place to stabilize the aircraft. Using a video camera mounted in the nose of the aircraft and an onboard microphone, the X-36 was remotely controlled by a pilot in a ground station virtual cockpit. A standard fighter-type head-up display (HUD) and a moving-map representation of the vehicle's position within the range in which it flew provided excellent situational awareness for the pilot. This pilot-in-the-loop approach eliminated the need for expensive and complex autonomous flight control systems and the risks associated with their inability to deal with unknown or unforeseen phenomena in flight. Fully fueled the X-36 prototype weighed approximately 1,250 pounds. It was 19 feet long and three feet high with a wingspan of just over 10 feet. A Williams International F112 turbofan engine provided close to 700 pounds of thrust. A typical research flight lasted 35 to 45 minutes from takeoff to touchdown. A total of 31 successful research flights were flown from May 17, 1997, to November 12, 1997, amassing 15 hours and 38 minutes of flight time. The aircraft reached an altitude of 20,200 feet and a maximum angle of attack of 40 degrees. In a follow-on effort, the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, contracted with Boeing to fly AFRL's Reconfigurable Control for Tailless Fighter Aircraft (RESTORE) software as a demonstration of the adaptability of the neural-net algorithm to compensate for in-flight damage or malfunction of effectors, such as flaps, ailerons and rudders. Two RESTORE research flights were flown in December 1998, proving the viability of the software approach. The X-36 aircraft flown at the Dryden Flight Research Center in 1997 was a 28-percent scale representation of a theoretical advanced fighter aircraft. The Boeing Phantom Works (formerly McDonnell Douglas) in St. Louis, Missouri, built two of the vehicles in a cooperative agreement with the Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California.

1996-01-01

55

X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft arrival at Dryden  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA and McDonnell Douglas Corporation (MDC) personnel wait to attach a hoist to the X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft, which arrived at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, on July 2, 1996. The NASA/Boeing X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft program successfully demonstrated the tailless fighter design using advanced technologies to improve the maneuverability and survivability of possible future fighter aircraft. The program met or exceeded all project goals. For 31 flights during 1997 at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, the project team examined the aircraft's agility at low speed / high angles of attack and at high speed / low angles of attack. The aircraft's speed envelope reached up to 206 knots (234 mph). This aircraft was very stable and maneuverable. It handled very well. The X-36 vehicle was designed to fly without the traditional tail surfaces common on most aircraft. Instead, a canard forward of the wing was used as well as split ailerons and an advanced thrust-vectoring nozzle for directional control. The X-36 was unstable in both pitch and yaw axes, so an advanced, single-channel digital fly-by-wire control system (developed with some commercially available components) was put in place to stabilize the aircraft. Using a video camera mounted in the nose of the aircraft and an onboard microphone, the X-36 was remotely controlled by a pilot in a ground station virtual cockpit. A standard fighter-type head-up display (HUD) and a moving-map representation of the vehicle's position within the range in which it flew provided excellent situational awareness for the pilot. This pilot-in-the-loop approach eliminated the need for expensive and complex autonomous flight control systems and the risks associated with their inability to deal with unknown or unforeseen phenomena in flight. Fully fueled the X-36 prototype weighed approximately 1,250 pounds. It was 19 feet long and three feet high with a wingspan of just over 10 feet. A Williams International F112 turbofan engine provided close to 700 pounds of thrust. A typical research flight lasted 35 to 45 minutes from takeoff to touchdown. A total of 31 successful research flights were flown from May 17, 1997, to November 12, 1997, amassing 15 hours and 38 minutes of flight time. The aircraft reached an altitude of 20,200 feet and a maximum angle of attack of 40 degrees. In a follow-on effort, the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, contracted with Boeing to fly AFRL's Reconfigurable Control for Tailless Fighter Aircraft (RESTORE) software as a demonstration of the adaptability of the neural-net algorithm to compensate for in-flight damage or malfunction of effectors, such as flaps, ailerons and rudders. Two RESTORE research flights were flown in December 1998, proving the viability of the software approach. The X-36 aircraft flown at the Dryden Flight Research Center in 1997 was a 28-percent scale representation of a theoretical advanced fighter aircraft. The Boeing Phantom Works (formerly McDonnell Douglas) in St. Louis, Missouri, built two of the vehicles in a cooperative agreement with the Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California.

1996-01-01

56

Experimental aerothermodynamic research of hypersonic aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wind tunnel tests were conducted to establish a benchmark experimental data base for a genetic hypersonic aircraft vehicle. Comprehensive measurements were made at Mach 7 to give flow visualization, surface pressure, surface convective heat transfer, and flow field Pitot pressure for a delta platform all-body vehicle. The tests were conducted in the NASA/Ames 3.5-Foot Hypersonic Wind Tunnel at Reynolds numbers sufficient to give turbulent flow. Comparisons are made of the experimental results with computational solutions of the flow by an upwind parabolized Navier-Stokes code developed at Ames. Good agreement of experiment with solutions by the code is demonstrated.

Cleary, Joseph W.

1990-01-01

57

X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft in flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The lack of a vertical tail on the X-36 technology demonstrator is evident as the remotely piloted aircraft flies a low-altitude research flight above Rogers Dry Lake at Edwards Air Force Base in the California desert on October 30, 1997. The NASA/Boeing X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft program successfully demonstrated the tailless fighter design using advanced technologies to improve the maneuverability and survivability of possible future fighter aircraft. The program met or exceeded all project goals. For 31 flights during 1997 at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, the project team examined the aircraft's agility at low speed / high angles of attack and at high speed / low angles of attack. The aircraft's speed envelope reached up to 206 knots (234 mph). This aircraft was very stable and maneuverable. It handled very well. The X-36 vehicle was designed to fly without the traditional tail surfaces common on most aircraft. Instead, a canard forward of the wing was used as well as split ailerons and an advanced thrust-vectoring nozzle for directional control. The X-36 was unstable in both pitch and yaw axes, so an advanced, single-channel digital fly-by-wire control system (developed with some commercially available components) was put in place to stabilize the aircraft. Using a video camera mounted in the nose of the aircraft and an onboard microphone, the X-36 was remotely controlled by a pilot in a ground station virtual cockpit. A standard fighter-type head-up display (HUD) and a moving-map representation of the vehicle's position within the range in which it flew provided excellent situational awareness for the pilot. This pilot-in-the-loop approach eliminated the need for expensive and complex autonomous flight control systems and the risks associated with their inability to deal with unknown or unforeseen phenomena in flight. Fully fueled the X-36 prototype weighed approximately 1,250 pounds. It was 19 feet long and three feet high with a wingspan of just over 10 feet. A Williams International F112 turbofan engine provided close to 700 pounds of thrust. A typical research flight lasted 35 to 45 minutes from takeoff to touchdown. A total of 31 successful research flights were flown from May 17, 1997, to November 12, 1997, amassing 15 hours and 38 minutes of flight time. The aircraft reached an altitude of 20,200 feet and a maximum angle of attack of 40 degrees. In a follow-on effort, the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, contracted with Boeing to fly AFRL's Reconfigurable Control for Tailless Fighter Aircraft (RESTORE) software as a demonstration of the adaptability of the neural-net algorithm to compensate for in-flight damage or malfunction of effectors, such as flaps, ailerons and rudders. Two RESTORE research flights were flown in December 1998, proving the viability of the software approach. The X-36 aircraft flown at the Dryden Flight Research Center in 1997 was a 28-percent scale representation of a theoretical advanced fighter aircraft. The Boeing Phantom Works (formerly McDonnell Douglas) in St. Louis, Missouri, built two of the vehicles in a cooperative agreement with the Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California.

1997-01-01

58

X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft in flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The X-36 technology demonstrator shows off its distinctive shape as the remotely piloted aircraft flies a research mission over the Southern California desert on October 30, 1997. The NASA/Boeing X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft program successfully demonstrated the tailless fighter design using advanced technologies to improve the maneuverability and survivability of possible future fighter aircraft. The program met or exceeded all project goals. For 31 flights during 1997 at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, the project team examined the aircraft's agility at low speed / high angles of attack and at high speed / low angles of attack. The aircraft's speed envelope reached up to 206 knots (234 mph). This aircraft was very stable and maneuverable. It handled very well. The X-36 vehicle was designed to fly without the traditional tail surfaces common on most aircraft. Instead, a canard forward of the wing was used as well as split ailerons and an advanced thrust-vectoring nozzle for directional control. The X-36 was unstable in both pitch and yaw axes, so an advanced, single-channel digital fly-by-wire control system (developed with some commercially available components) was put in place to stabilize the aircraft. Using a video camera mounted in the nose of the aircraft and an onboard microphone, the X-36 was remotely controlled by a pilot in a ground station virtual cockpit. A standard fighter-type head-up display (HUD) and a moving-map representation of the vehicle's position within the range in which it flew provided excellent situational awareness for the pilot. This pilot-in-the-loop approach eliminated the need for expensive and complex autonomous flight control systems and the risks associated with their inability to deal with unknown or unforeseen phenomena in flight. Fully fueled the X-36 prototype weighed approximately 1,250 pounds. It was 19 feet long and three feet high with a wingspan of just over 10 feet. A Williams International F112 turbofan engine provided close to 700 pounds of thrust. A typical research flight lasted 35 to 45 minutes from takeoff to touchdown. A total of 31 successful research flights were flown from May 17, 1997, to November 12, 1997, amassing 15 hours and 38 minutes of flight time. The aircraft reached an altitude of 20,200 feet and a maximum angle of attack of 40 degrees. In a follow-on effort, the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, contracted with Boeing to fly AFRL's Reconfigurable Control for Tailless Fighter Aircraft (RESTORE) software as a demonstration of the adaptability of the neural-net algorithm to compensate for in-flight damage or malfunction of effectors, such as flaps, ailerons and rudders. Two RESTORE research flights were flown in December 1998, proving the viability of the software approach. The X-36 aircraft flown at the Dryden Flight Research Center in 1997 was a 28-percent scale representation of a theoretical advanced fighter aircraft. The Boeing Phantom Works (formerly McDonnell Douglas) in St. Louis, Missouri, built two of the vehicles in a cooperative agreement with the Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California.

1997-01-01

59

Flight Testing the Rotor Systems Research Aircraft (RSRA)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the late 1960s, efforts to advance the state-of-the-art in rotor systems technology indicated a significant gap existed between our ability to accurately predict the characteristics of a complex rotor system and the results obtained through flight verification. Even full scale wind tunnel efforts proved inaccurate because of the complex nature of a rotating, maneuvering rotor system. The key element missing, which prevented significant advances, was our inability to precisely measure the exact rotor state as a function of time and flight condition. Two Rotor Research Aircraft (RSRA) were designed as pure research aircraft and dedicated rotor test vehicles whose function is to fill the gap between theory, wind tunnel testing, and flight verification. The two aircraft, the development of the piloting techniques required to safely fly the compound helicopter, the government flight testing accomplished to date, and proposed future research programs.

Hall, G. W.; Merrill, R. K.

1983-01-01

60

Guidelines for composite materials research related to general aviation aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Guidelines for research on composite materials directed toward the improvement of all aspects of their applicability for general aviation aircraft were developed from extensive studies of their performance, manufacturability, and cost effectiveness. Specific areas for research and for manufacturing development were identified and evaluated. Inputs developed from visits to manufacturers were used in part to guide these evaluations, particularly in the area of cost effectiveness. Throughout the emphasis was to direct the research toward the requirements of general aviation aircraft, for which relatively low load intensities are encountered, economy of production is a prime requirement, and yet performance still commands a premium. A number of implications regarding further directions for developments in composites to meet these requirements also emerged from the studies. Chief among these is the need for an integrated (computer program) aerodynamic/structures approach to aircraft design.

Dow, N. F.; Humphreys, E. A.; Rosen, B. W.

1983-01-01

61

Materials research for aircraft fire safety  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The thermochemical and flammability characteristics of two polymeric composites currently in use and seven others being considered for use as aircraft interior panels are described. The properties studied included: (1) limiting oxygen index of the composite constituents; (2) fire containment capability of the composite; (3) smoke evolution from the composite; (4) thermogravimetric analysis; (5) composition of the volatile products of thermal degradation; and (6) relative toxicity of the volatile products of pyrolysis. The performance of high-temperature laminating resins such as bismaleimides is compared with the performance of phenolics and epoxies. The relationship of increased fire safety with the use of polymers with high anaerobic char yield is shown. Processing parameters of the state-of-the-art and the advanced bismaleimide composites are detailed.

Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.; Bricker, R. W.

1976-01-01

62

STOVL aircraft simulation for integrated flight and propulsion control research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The United States is in the initial stages of committing to a national program to develop a supersonic short takeoff and vertical landing (STOVL) aircraft. The goal of the propulsion community in this effort is to have the enabling propulsion technologies for this type aircraft in place to permit a low risk decision regarding the initiation of a research STOVL supersonic attack/fighter aircraft in the late mid-90's. This technology will effectively integrate, enhance, and extend the supersonic cruise, STOVL and fighter/attack programs to enable U.S. industry to develop a revolutionary supersonic short takeoff and vertical landing fighter/attack aircraft in the post-ATF period. A joint NASA Lewis and NASA Ames research program, with the objective of developing and validating technology for integrated-flight propulsion control design methodologies for short takeoff and vertical landing (STOVL) aircraft, was planned and is underway. This program, the NASA Supersonic STOVL Integrated Flight-Propulsion Controls Program, is a major element of the overall NASA-Lewis Supersonic STOVL Propulsion Technology Program. It uses an integrated approach to develop an integrated program to achieve integrated flight-propulsion control technology. Essential elements of the integrated controls research program are realtime simulations of the integrated aircraft and propulsion systems which will be used in integrated control concept development and evaluations. This paper describes pertinent parts of the research program leading up to the related realtime simulation development and remarks on the simulation structure to accommodate propulsion system hardware drop-in for real system evaluation.

Mihaloew, James R.; Drummond, Colin K.

1989-01-01

63

Aircraft  

DOEpatents

This disclosure provides a solar rechargeable aircraft that is inexpensive to produce, is steerable, and can remain airborne almost indefinitely. The preferred aircraft is a span-loaded flying wing, having no fuselage or rudder. Travelling at relatively slow speeds, and having a two-hundred foot wingspan that mounts photovoltaic cells on most all of the wing's top surface, the aircraft uses only differential thrust of its eight propellers to turn. Each of five sections of the wing has one or more engines and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other sections, to avoid loading them. Five two-sided photovoltaic arrays, in all, are mounted on the wing, and receive photovoltaic energy both incident on top of the wing, and which is incident also from below, through a bottom, transparent surface. The aircraft is capable of a top speed of about ninety miles per hour, which enables the aircraft to attain and can continuously maintain altitudes of up to sixty-five thousand feet. Regenerative fuel cells in the wing store excess electricity for use at night, such that the aircraft can sustain its elevation indefinitely. A main spar of the wing doubles as a pressure vessel that houses hydrogen and oxygen gasses for use in the regenerative fuel cell. The aircraft has a wide variety of applications, which include weather monitoring and atmospheric testing, communications, surveillance, and other applications as well.

Hibbs, Bart D. (1732 N. Grand Oaks, Altadena, CA 91001); Lissaman, Peter B. S. (3276 Rubio Canyon Rd., Altadena, CA 91001); Morgan, Walter R. (3217 Amarillo Ave., Simi Valley, CA 93063); Radkey, Robert L. (70 Eddystone Ct., Redwood City, CA 94065)

1998-01-01

64

Aircraft  

DOEpatents

This disclosure provides a solar rechargeable aircraft that is inexpensive to produce, is steerable, and can remain airborne almost indefinitely. The preferred aircraft is a span-loaded flying wing, having no fuselage or rudder. Travelling at relatively slow speeds, and having a two-hundred foot wingspan that mounts photovoltaic cells on most all of the wing`s top surface, the aircraft uses only differential thrust of its eight propellers to turn. Each of five sections of the wing has one or more engines and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other sections, to avoid loading them. Five two-sided photovoltaic arrays, in all, are mounted on the wing, and receive photovoltaic energy both incident on top of the wing, and which is incident also from below, through a bottom, transparent surface. The aircraft is capable of a top speed of about ninety miles per hour, which enables the aircraft to attain and can continuously maintain altitudes of up to sixty-five thousand feet. Regenerative fuel cells in the wing store excess electricity for use at night, such that the aircraft can sustain its elevation indefinitely. A main spar of the wing doubles as a pressure vessel that houses hydrogen and oxygen gases for use in the regenerative fuel cell. The aircraft has a wide variety of applications, which include weather monitoring and atmospheric testing, communications, surveillance, and other applications as well. 31 figs.

Hibbs, B.D.; Lissaman, P.B.S.; Morgan, W.R.; Radkey, R.L.

1998-09-22

65

Long range view of materials research for civil transport aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The impact of various material technology advancements on the economics of civil transport aircraft is investigated. Benefits of advances in both airframe and engine materials are considered. Benefits are measured primarily by improvements in return on investment for an operator. Materials research and development programs which lead to the greatest benefits are assessed with regards to cost, risk, and commonality with other programs. Emphasis of the paper is on advanced technology subsonic/transonic transports (ATT type aircraft) since these are likely to be the next generation of commercial transports.

Ardema, M. D.; Waters, M. H.

1974-01-01

66

Lockheed ER-2 #806 high altitude research aircraft during landing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

ER-2 tail number 806, is one of two Airborne Science ER-2s used as science platforms by Dryden. The aircraft are platforms for a variety of high-altitude science missions flown over various parts of the world. They are also used for earth science and atmospheric sensor research and development, satellite calibration and data validation. The ER-2s are capable of carrying a maximum payload of 2,600 pounds of experiments in a nose bay, the main equipment bay behind the cockpit, two wing-mounted superpods and small underbody and trailing edges. Most ER-2 missions last about six hours with ranges of about 2,200 nautical miles. The aircraft typically fly at altitudes above 65,000 feet. On November 19, 1998, the ER-2 set a world record for medium weight aircraft reaching an altitude of 68,700 feet. The aircraft is 63 feet long, with a wingspan of 104 feet. The top of the vertical tail is 16 feet above ground when the aircraft is on the bicycle-type landing gear. Cruising speeds are 410 knots, or 467 miles per hour, at altitude. A single General Electric F-118 turbofan engine rated at 17,000 pounds thrust powers the ER-2.

1998-01-01

67

Lockheed ER-2 #806 high altitude research aircraft in flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

ER-2 tail number 806, is one of two Airborne Science ER-2s used as science platforms by Dryden. The aircraft are platforms for a variety of high-altitude science missions flown over various parts of the world. They are also used for earth science and atmospheric sensor research and development, satellite calibration and data validation. The ER-2s are capable of carrying a maximum payload of 2,600 pounds of experiments in a nose bay, the main equipment bay behind the cockpit, two wing-mounted superpods and small underbody and trailing edges. Most ER-2 missions last about six hours with ranges of about 2,200 nautical miles. The aircraft typically fly at altitudes above 65,000 feet. On November 19, 1998, the ER-2 set a world record for medium weight aircraft reaching an altitude of 68,700 feet. The aircraft is 63 feet long, with a wingspan of 104 feet. The top of the vertical tail is 16 feet above ground when the aircraft is on the bicycle-type landing gear. Cruising speeds are 410 knots, or 467 miles per hour, at altitude. A single General Electric F-118 turbofan engine rated at 17,000 pounds thrust powers the ER-2.

1998-01-01

68

Lockheed ER-2 #809 high altitude research aircraft in flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

ER-2 tail number 809, is one of two Airborne Science ER-2s used as science platforms by Dryden. The aircraft are platforms for a variety of high-altitude science missions flown over various parts of the world. They are also used for earth science and atmospheric sensor research and development, satellite calibration and data validation. The ER-2s are capable of carrying a maximum payload of 2,600 pounds of experiments in a nose bay, the main equipment bay behind the cockpit, two wing-mounted superpods and small underbody and trailing edges. Most ER-2 missions last about six hours with ranges of about 2,200 nautical miles. The aircraft typically fly at altitudes above 65,000 feet. On November 19, 1998, the ER-2 set a world record for medium weight aircraft reaching an altitude of 68,700 feet. The aircraft is 63 feet long, with a wingspan of 104 feet. The top of the vertical tail is 16 feet above ground when the aircraft is on the bicycle-type landing gear. Cruising speeds are 410 knots, or 467 miles per hour, at altitude. A single General Electric F-118 turbofan engine rated at 17,000 pounds thrust powers the ER-2.

1998-01-01

69

Lockheed ER-2 high altitude research aircraft in flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

ER-2 tail number 706, is one of two Airborne Science ER-2s used as science platforms by Dryden. The aircraft are platforms for a variety of high-altitude science missions flown over various parts of the world. They are also used for earth science and atmospheric sensor research and development, satellite calibration and data validation. The ER-2s are capable of carrying a maximum payload of 2,600 pounds of experiments in a nose bay, the main equipment bay behind the cockpit, two wing-mounted superpods and small underbody and trailing edges. Most ER-2 missions last about six hours with ranges of about 2,200 nautical miles. The aircraft typically fly at altitudes above 65,000 feet. On November 19, 1998, the ER-2 set a world record for medium weight aircraft reaching an altitude of 68,700 feet. The aircraft is 63 feet long, with a wingspan of 104 feet. The top of the vertical tail is 16 feet above ground when the aircraft is on the bicycle-type landing gear. Cruising speeds are 410 knots, or 467 miles per hour, at altitude. A single General Electric F-118 turbofan engine rated at 17,000 pounds thrust powers the ER-2.

1997-01-01

70

Lockheed ER-2 #809 high altitude research aircraft in flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

ER-2 tail number 809, is one of two Airborne Science ER-2s used as science platforms by Dryden. The aircraft are platforms for a variety of high-altitude science missions flown over various parts of the world. They are also used for earth science and atmospheric sensor research and development, satellite calibration and data validation. The ER-2s are capable of carrying a maximum payload of 2,600 pounds of experiments in a nose bay, the main equipment bay behind the cockpit, two wing-mounted superpods and small underbody and trailing edges. Most ER-2 missions last about six hours with ranges of about 2,200 nautical miles. The aircraft typically fly at altitudes above 65,000 feet. On November 19, 1998, the ER-2 set a world record for medium weight aircraft reaching an altitude of 68,700 feet. The aircraft is 63 feet long, with a wingspan of 104 feet. The top of the vertical tail is 16 feet above ground when the aircraft is on the bicycle-type landing gear. Cruising speeds are 410 knots, or 467 miles per hour, at altitude. A single General Electric F118 turbofan engine rated at 17,000 pounds thrust powers the ER-2.

1999-01-01

71

Backscatter-depolarisation lidars on high-altitude research aircraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article presents an overview of the development and the applications of two compact elastic backscatter depolarisation lidars, installed on-board the high-altitude research aircraft Myasishchev M-55 Geophysica. The installation of the lidars is intended for simultaneous probing of air parcels respectively upward and downward from the aircraft flight altitude to identify the presence of clouds (or aerosol )above and below the aircraft and to collocate them with in situ instruments. The lidar configuration and the procedure for its on-ground validation is outlined. Example of airborne measurements include polar stratospheric clouds, both synoptical and in lee-waves, ultra-thin cirrus clouds around the tropical tropopause and observation of aerosol layers emerging from the top of deep tropical convection.

Mitev, Valentin; Matthey, Renaud; Makarov, Vladislav

2014-11-01

72

Flight research capabilities of the NASA/Army rotor systems research aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A description is given of the capabilities and limitations of the Rotor Systems Research Aircraft (RSRA) that was demonstrated during the development contract, and assesses the expected research capabilities of the RSRA on delivery to the government.

White, S., Jr.; Condon, G. W.

1978-01-01

73

NASA research on structures and materials for supersonic cruise aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The technology and data base necessary for sound technical decisions regarding long haul supersonic cruise aircraft transportation systems are considered. The objectives and status of the research elements in the structures and materials program phase of the program are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on reductions in structural mass by research on advanced structural concepts, light-weight materials, improved loads, aeroelastic predictive techniques, and by development of efficient structural design procedures.

Cooper, P. A.; Heldenfels, R. R.

1976-01-01

74

Effects of asymmetry on the dynamic stability of aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The oblique wing concept for transonic aircraft was proposed to reduce drag. The dynamic stability of the aircraft was investigated by analytically determining the stability derivatives at angles of skew ranging from 0 and 45 deg and using these stability derivatives in a linear analysis of the coupled aircraft behavior. The stability derivatives were obtained using a lifting line aerodynamic theory and found to give reasonable agreement with derivatives developed in a previous study for the same aircraft. In the dynamic analysis, no instability or large changes occurred in the root locations for skew angles varying from 0 to 45 deg with the exception of roll convergence. The damping in roll, however, decreased by an order of magnitude. Rolling was a prominent feature of all the oscillatory mode shapes at high skew angles.

Fantino, R. E.; Parsons, E. K.; Powell, J. D.; Shevell, R. S.

1975-01-01

75

Quiet short-haul research aircraft familiarization document, revision 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design features and general characteristics of the Quiet Short Haul Research Aircraft are described. Aerodynamic characteristics and performance are discussed based on predictions and early flight test data. Principle airplane systems, including the airborne data acquisition system, are also described. The aircraft was designed and built to fulfill the need for a national research facility to explore the use of upper surface blowing, propulsive lift technology in providing short takeoff and landing capability, and perform advanced experiments in various technical disciplines such as aerodynamics, propulsion, stability and control, handling qualities, avionics and flight control systems, trailing vortex phenomena, acoustics, structure and loads, operating systems, human factors, and airworthiness/certification criteria. An unusually austere approach using experimental shop practices resulted in a low cost and high research capability.

Eppel, J. C.

1981-01-01

76

An Indispensable Ingredient: Flight Research and Aircraft Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flight research-the art of flying actual vehicles in the atmosphere in order to collect data about their behavior-has played a historic and decisive role in the design of aircraft. Naturally, wind tunnel experiments, computational fluid dynamics, and mathematical analyses all informed the judgments of the individuals who conceived of new aircraft. But flight research has offered moments of realization found in no other method. Engineer Dale Reed and research pilot Milt Thompson experienced one such epiphany on March 1, 1963, at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Dryden Flight Research Center in Edwards, California. On that date, Thompson sat in the cockpit of a small, simple, gumdrop-shaped aircraft known as the M2-F1, lashed by a long towline to a late-model Pontiac Catalina. As the Pontiac raced across Rogers Dry Lake, it eventually gained enough speed to make the M2-F1 airborne. Thompson braced himself for the world s first flight in a vehicle of its kind, called a lifting body because of its high lift-to-drag ratio. Reed later recounted what he saw:

Gorn, Michael H.

2003-01-01

77

NASA Dryden Flight Research Center: Unmanned Aircraft Operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews several topics related to operating unmanned aircraft in particular sharing aspects of unmanned aircraft from the perspective of a pilot. There is a section on the Global Hawk project which contains information about the first Global Hawk science mission, (i.e., Global Hawk Pacific (GloPac). Included in this information is GloPac science highlights, a listing of the GloPac Instruments. The second Global Hawk science mission was Genesis and Rapid Intensification Process (GRIP), for the NASA Hurricane Science Research Team. Information includes the instrumentation and the flights that were undertaken during the program. A section on Ikhana is next. This section includes views of the Ground Control Station (GCS), and a discussion of how the piloting of UAS is different from piloting in a manned aircraft. There is also discussion about displays and controls of aircraft. There is also discussion about what makes a pilot. The last section relates the use of Ikhana in the western states fire mission.

Pestana, Mark

2010-01-01

78

Research in robust control for hypersonic aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The research during the second reporting period has focused on robust control design for hypersonic vehicles. An already existing design for the Hypersonic Winged-Cone Configuration has been enhanced. Uncertainty models for the effects of propulsion system perturbations due to angle of attack variations, structural vibrations, and uncertainty in control effectiveness were developed. Using H(sub infinity) and mu-synthesis techniques, various control designs were performed in order to investigate the impact of these effects on achievable robust performance.

Calise, A. J.

1993-01-01

79

Research in robust control for hypersonic aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The research during the third reporting period focused on fixed order robust control design for hypersonic vehicles. A new technique was developed to synthesize fixed order H(sub infinity) controllers. A controller canonical form is imposed on the compensator structure and a homotopy algorithm is employed to perform the controller design. Various reduced order controllers are designed for a simplified version of the hypersonic vehicle model used in our previous studies to demonstrate the capabilities of the code. However, further work is needed to investigate the issue of numerical ill-conditioning for large order systems and to make the numerical approach more reliable.

Calise, A. J.

1994-01-01

80

Civil aircraft vortex wake. TsAGI's research activities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper provides a review of research conducted in TsAGI (Central AeroHydrodynamic Institute) concerning a vortex wake behind an airliner. The research into this area of theoretical and practical importance have been done both in Russia and in other countries, for which these studies became a vital necessity at the end of the 20th century. The paper describes the main methods and ratios on which software systems used to calculate the evolution of a vortex wake in a turbulent atmosphere are based. Verification of calculation results proved their acceptable consistency with the known experimental data. The mechanism of circulation loss in a vortex wake which is based on the analytical solution for the problem of two vortices diffusing in a viscous fluid is also described. The paper also describes the model of behavior of an aircraft which has deliberately or unintentionally entered a vortex wake behind another aircraft. Approximated results of calculations performed according to this model by means of artificial neural networks enabled the researchers to model the dynamics of an aircraft in a vortex wake on flight simulators on-line.

Chernyshev, S. L.; Gaifullin, A. M.; Sviridenko, Yu. N.

2014-11-01

81

A candidate V/STOL research aircraft design concept using an S-3A aircraft and 2 Pegasus 11 engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A candidate V/STOL research aircraft concept which uses an S-3A airframe and two Pegasus 11 engines was studied to identify a feasible V/STOL national flight facility that could be obtained at the lowest possible cost for the demonstration of V/STOL technology, inflight simulation, and flight research. The rationale for choosing the configuration, a description of the configuration, and the capability of a fully developed aircraft are discussed.

Lampkin, B. A.

1980-01-01

82

Rotor systems research aircraft risk-reduction shake test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A shake test and an extensive analysis of results were performed to evaluate the possibility of and the method for dynamically calibrating the Rotor Systems Research Aircraft (RSRA). The RSRA airframe was subjected to known vibratory loads in several degrees of freedom and the responses of many aircraft transducers were recorded. Analysis of the transducer responses using the technique of dynamic force determination showed that the RSRA, when used as a dynamic measurement system, could predict, a posteriori, an excitation force in a single axis to an accuracy of about 5 percent and sometimes better. As the analysis was broadened to include multiple degrees of freedom for the excitation force, the predictive ability of the measurement system degraded to about 20 percent, with the error occasionally reaching 100 percent. The poor performance of the measurement system is explained by the nonlinear response of the RSRA to vibratory forces and the inadequacy of the particular method used in accounting for this nonlinearity.

Wellman, J. Brent

1990-01-01

83

Predesign report for the rotor systems research aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A conceptual predesign of a compound helicopter for conducting rotor research is presented. The aircraft was selected by the Government as the better of two concepts submitted. The helicopter is a three place vehicle in the 24,000 pound gross weight class. It has been determined that the helicopter satisfies the requirements for the rotor research mission. The model has been predesigned sufficiently to allow an assessment of its performance and stability and control characteristics. A brief treatment of these subjects is included.

1972-01-01

84

Airframe self-noise: Four years of research. [aircraft noise reduction for commercial aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A critical assessment of the state of the art in airframe self-noise is presented. Full-scale data on the intensity, spectra and directivity of this noise source are evaluated in the light of the comprehensive theory developed by Ffowcs-Williams and Hawkins. Vibration of panels on commercial aircraft is identified as a possible additional source of airframe noise. The present understanding and methods for prediction of other component sources - airfoils, struts, and cavities - are discussed, and areas for further research as well as potential methods for airframe noise reduction are identified. Finally, the various experimental methods which have been developed for airframe noise research are discussed and sample results are presented.

Hardin, J. C.

1976-01-01

85

Light transport and general aviation aircraft icing research requirements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A short term and a long term icing research and technology program plan was drafted for NASA LeRC based on 33 separate research items. The specific items listed resulted from a comprehensive literature search, organized and assisted by a computer management file and an industry/Government agency survey. Assessment of the current facilities and icing technology was accomplished by presenting summaries of ice sensitive components and protection methods; and assessments of penalty evaluation, the experimental data base, ice accretion prediction methods, research facilities, new protection methods, ice protection requirements, and icing instrumentation. The intent of the research plan was to determine what icing research NASA LeRC must do or sponsor to ultimately provide for increased utilization and safety of light transport and general aviation aircraft.

Breeze, R. K.; Clark, G. M.

1981-01-01

86

Broadband electromagnetic sensors for aircraft lightning research. [electromagnetic effects of lightning on aircraft digital equipment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A set of electromagnetic sensors, or electrically-small antennas, is described. The sensors are designed for installation on an F-106 research aircraft for the measurement of electric and magnetic fields and currents during a lightning strike. The electric and magnetic field sensors mount on the aircraft skin. The current sensor mounts between the nose boom and the fuselage. The sensors are all on the order of 10 cm in size and should produce up to about 100 V for the estimated lightning fields. The basic designs are the same as those developed for nuclear electromagnetic pulse studies. The most important electrical parameters of the sensors are the sensitivity, or equivalent area, and the bandwidth (or rise time). Calibration of sensors with simple geometries is reliably accomplished by a geometric analysis; all the sensors discussed possess geometries for which the sensitivities have been calculated. For the calibration of sensors with more complex geometries and for general testing of all sensors, two transmission lines were constructed to transmit known pulsed fields and currents over the sensors.

Trost, T. F.; Zaepfel, K. P.

1980-01-01

87

Joined-wing research airplane feasibility study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The joined wing is a new type of aircraft configuration which employs tandem wings arranged to form diamond shapes in plan view and front view. Wind-tunnel tests and finite-element structural analyses have shown that the joined wing provides the following advantages over a comparable wing-plus-tail system; lighter weight and higher stiffness, higher span-efficiency factor, higher trimmed maximum lift coefficient, lower wave drag, plus built-in direct lift and direct sideforce control capability. To verify these advantages at full scale a manned research airplane is required. A study has therefore been performed of the feasibility of constructing such an airplane, using the fuselage and engines of the existing NAA AD-1 oblique-wing airplane. Cost and schedule constraints favored converting the AD-1 rather than constructing a totally new airframe. By removing the outboard wing panels the configuration can simulate wings joined at 60, 80, or 100 percent of span. For maximum versatility the aircraft has alternative control surfaces (such as ailerons and elevators on the front and/or rear wings), and a removeable canard to explore canard/joined-wing interactions at high-lift conditions. Design, performance, and flying qualities are discussed.

Wolkovitch, J.

1984-01-01

88

Aircraft aeroelasticity and structural dynamics research at the NASA Langley Research Center: Some illustrative results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Highlights of nine different research studies are described. Five of these topics relate directly to fixed-wing aircraft and range from flutter studies using relatively simple and inexpensive wind-tunnel models to buffet studies of the vertical tails of an advanced high performance configuration. The other four topics relate directly to rotary-wing aircraft and range from studies of the performance and vibration characteristics of an advanced rotor design to optimization of airframe structures for vibration attenuation.

Doggett, Robert V., Jr.; Cazier, F. W., Jr.

1988-01-01

89

Technical Seminar: "Progress in Aircraft Noise Research""" - Duration: 1:18:49.  

NASA Video Gallery

Advances in aircraft noise research can be attributed to the development of new technologies and sustained collaboration with industry, universities and government organizations. Emphasis has been ...

90

Researches on integrated evaluation methods for military aircraft's MTTR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exerting combat efficiency of military aircraft relies heavily on its own quality characteristics, such as reliability, maintainability and supportability. Reducing aircraft's Mean Time To Repair (MTTR) is one of the significant targets for the maintenance of military aircraft to concern. However, scientifically evaluating MTTR still faces many problems. This paper mainly aims at the problems that acquiring data, which is

Kun Jiang; Jinfeng Lv; Chuan Lv; Meihui Wang

2011-01-01

91

Overview of NASA research in fiber optics for aircraft controls  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The challenge of those involved in aircraft control system hardware development is to accommodate an ever-increasing complexity in aircraft control, while limiting the size and weight of the components and improving system reliability. A technology that displays promise towards this end is fiber optics. The primary advantages of employing optical fibers, passive optical sensors and optically controlled actuators are weight/volume reduction, immunity from electromagnetic effects, high bandwidth capabilities and freedom from short circuits/sparking contacts. Since 1975, NASA Lewis has been performing in-house, contract and grant research in fiber optic sensors, high temperature electro-optic switches and fly-by-light control system architecture. Passive optical sensor development is an essential yet challenging area of work and has therefore received much attention during this period. A major effort to develop fly-by-light control system technology, known as the Fiber Optic Control System Integration (FOCSI) program, was initiated in 1985 as a cooperative effort between NASA and DOD. Phase 1 of FOCSI, completed in 1986, was aimed at the design of a fiber optic integrated propulsion/flight control system. Phase 2 will provide subcomponent and system development and system testing. In addition to a summary of the benefits of fiber optics, the FOCSI program, sensor advances, and future directions in the NASA Lewis program are discussed.

Seng, Gary T.

1988-01-01

92

HAI: A new TDLAS hygrometer for the HALO research aircraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water vapor is the most important greenhouse gas in the Earth's atmosphere and a key component for several physical and chemical processes. Therefore it is a key parameter to be measured during most research campaigns. The Hygrometer for Atmospheric Investigations (HAI) is especially designed for operations on the research aircraft HALO (High Altitude and LOng range research aircraft). HAI permits both, the in-situ measurement of water vapor with an open-path cell and the measurement of total water with an extractive close-path absorption cell. We are using TDLAS (Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy) in two water absorption bands with different line strength to increase the dynamical range. With this concept it is possible to measure from the middle troposphere up to the stratosphere. The open-path cell outside of the fuselage consists of a robust, aerodynamically designed aluminum structure with a single integrated White-cell for both laser beams. Although the mirror separation is only 15cm the cell allows an open absorption path of 4.8m. The detection of higher H2O concentrations is realized with a fiber coupled 1.4µm DFB diode laser. Inside the UTLS layer were small concentrations in the low ppm range are common, we employ up to 20 times stronger fundamental ro-vibration lines of the water molecule near 2.6µm. To supply this, the fiber coupled 2.6µm laser setup was developed and is a part of the HAI. Both detection wavelengths are introduced in the same open path cell via glass fibers which provide water measurements with a minimum of parasitic absorption. We will present the spectrometer design for high-quality airborne water measurements. Furthermore, first laboratory measurements will be shown.

Klostermann, Tim; Afchine, Armin; Barthel, Jochen; Höh, Matthias; Wagner, Steven; Witzel, Oliver; Saathoff, Harald; Schiller, Cornelius; Ebert, Volker

2010-05-01

93

Simulation of the XV-15 tilt rotor research aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effective use of simulation from issuance of the request for proposal through conduct of a flight test program for the XV-15 Tilt Rotor Research Aircraft is discussed. From program inception, simulation complemented all phases of XV-15 development. The initial simulation evaluations during the source evaluation board proceedings contributed significantly to performance and stability and control evaluations. Eight subsequent simulation periods provided major contributions in the areas of control concepts; cockpit configuration; handling qualities; pilot workload; failure effects and recovery procedures; and flight boundary problems and recovery procedures. The fidelity of the simulation also made it a valuable pilot training aid, as well as a suitable tool for military and civil mission evaluations. Simulation also provided valuable design data for refinement of automatic flight control systems. Throughout the program, fidelity was a prime issue and resulted in unique data and methods for fidelity evaluation which are presented and discussed.

Churchill, G. B.; Dugan, D. C.

1982-01-01

94

Current and Future Research in Active Control of Lightweight, Flexible Structures Using the X-56 Aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The X-56 Multi-Utility Technology Testbed aircraft system is a versatile experimental research flight platform. The system was primarily designed to investigate active control of lightweight flexible structures, but is reconfigurable and capable of hosting a wide breadth of research. Current research includes flight experimentation of a Lockheed Martin designed active control flutter suppression system. Future research plans continue experimentation with alternative control systems, explore the use of novel sensor systems, and experiments with the use of novel control effectors. This paper describes the aircraft system, current research efforts designed around the system, and future planned research efforts that will be hosted on the aircraft system.

Ryan, John J.; Bosworth, John T.; Burken, John J.; Suh, Peter M.

2014-01-01

95

Wind tunnel and flight test of the XV-15 Tilt Rotor Research Aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The XV-15 Tilt Rotor Research Aircraft Project involves design, fabrication, and flight testing of two aircraft. This program is currently in the test phase for concept evaluation and substantiation of design. As part of this evaluation, one of the aircraft was tested in the NASA-Ames 40- by 80-foot wind tunnel. The status of testing to date and some of the results of the wind tunnel and flight tests are presented.

Marr, R. L.; Blackman, S.; Weiberg, J. A.; Schroers, L. G.

1979-01-01

96

NASA Now: Phase Change and Forces of Flight: Aircraft Icing Research - Duration: 7:03.  

NASA Video Gallery

Tour the Icing Research Tunnel with Judith VanZante, aeromechanical engineer and icing specialist. VanZante explains the hazards of ice on aircraft, how it is formed, and why the research on ice pl...

97

Acceleration display system for aircraft zero-gravity research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The features, design, calibration, and testing of Lewis Research Center's acceleration display system for aircraft zero-gravity research are described. Specific circuit schematics and system specifications are included as well as representative data traces from flown trajectories. Other observations learned from developing and using this system are mentioned where appropriate. The system, now a permanent part of the Lewis Learjet zero-gravity program, provides legible, concise, and necessary guidance information enabling pilots to routinely fly accurate zero-gravity trajectories. Regular use of this system resulted in improvements of the Learjet zero-gravity flight techniques, including a technique to minimize later accelerations. Lewis Gates Learjet trajectory data show that accelerations can be reliably sustained within 0.01 g for 5 consecutive seconds, within 0.02 g for 7 consecutive seconds, and within 0.04 g for up to 20 second. Lewis followed the past practices of acceleration measurement, yet focussed on the acceleration displays. Refinements based on flight experience included evolving the ranges, resolutions, and frequency responses to fit the pilot and the Learjet responses.

Millis, Marc G.

1987-01-01

98

Investigations into the triggered lightning response of the F106B thunderstorm research aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation has been conducted into the lightning characteristics of the NASA F106B thunderstorm research aircraft. The investigation includes analysis of measured data from the aircraft in the time and frequency domains. Linear and nonlinear computer modelling has also been performed. In addition, new computer tools have been developed, including a new enhanced nonlinear air breakdown model, and a subgrid model useful for analyzing fine details of the aircraft's geometry. Comparison of measured and calculated electromagnetic responses of the aircraft to a triggered lightning environment are presented.

Rudolph, Terence H.; Perala, Rodney A.; Mckenna, Paul M.; Parker, Steven L.

1985-01-01

99

Recent Developments in Aircraft Flyover Noise Simulation at NASA Langley Research Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Langley Research Center is involved in the development of a new generation of synthesis and simulation tools for creation of virtual environments used in the study of aircraft community noise. The original emphasis was on simulation of flyover noise associated with subsonic fixed wing aircraft. Recently, the focus has shifted to rotary wing aircraft. Many aspects of the simulation are applicable to both vehicle classes. Other aspects, particularly those associated with synthesis, are more vehicle specific. This paper discusses the capabilities of the current suite of tools, their application to fixed and rotary wing aircraft, and some directions for the future.

Rizzi, Stephen A.; Sullivan, Brenda M.; Aumann, Aric R.

2008-01-01

100

Performance and safety aspects of the XV-15 tilt rotor research aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aircraft performance is presented illustrating the flexibility and capability of the XV-15 to conduct its planned proof-of-concept flight research in the areas of dynamics, stability and control, and aerodynamics. Additionally, the aircraft will demonstrate mission-type performance typical of future operational aircraft. The aircraft design is described and discussed with emphasis on the safety and fail-operate features of the aircraft and its systems. Two or more levels of redundancy are provided in the dc and ac electrical systems, hydraulics, conversion, flaps, landing gear extension, SCAS, and force-feel. RPM is maintained by a hydro-electrical blade pitch governor that consists of a primary and standby governor with a cockpit wheel control for manual backup. The two engines are interconnected for operation on a single engine. In the event of total loss of power, the aircraft can enter autorotation starting from the airplane as well as the helicopter mode of flight.

Wernicke, K. G.

1977-01-01

101

Research of the military aircraft maintenance support mode based on the prognostics and health management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper first introduces the actuality of the maintenance support for domestic military aircrafts. Then, we build the maintenance support system of the military aircraft through the technology of PHM. The system is specified and its impacts on maintenance support under PHM are analyzed, the corresponding maintenance support mode is then researched starting from the four kinds of force of

Deyao Mao; Chuan Lv; Jianming Shi; Yingzhi Zou; Zhiqi Guo

2010-01-01

102

Tiltrotor research aircraft composite blade repairs: Lessons learned  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The XV-15, N703NA Tiltrotor Research Aircraft located at the NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California, currently uses a set of composite rotor blades of complex shape known as the advanced technology blades (ATBs). The main structural element of the blades is a D-spar constructed of unidirectional, angled fiberglass/graphite, with the aft fairing portion of the blades constructed of a fiberglass cross-ply skin bonded to a Nomex honeycomb core. The blade tip is a removable laminate shell that fits over the outboard section of the spar structure, which contains a cavity to retain balance weights. Two types of tip shells are used for research. One is highly twisted (more than a conventional helicopter blade) and has a hollow core constructed of a thin Nomex-honeycomb-and-fiberglass-skin sandwich; the other is untwisted with a solid Nomex honeycomb core and a fiberglass cross-ply skin. During initial flight testing of the blades, a number of problems in the composite structure were encountered. These problems included debonding between the fiberglass skin and the honeycomb core, failure of the honeycomb core, failures in fiberglass splices, cracks in fiberglass blocks, misalignment of mated composite parts, and failures of retention of metal fasteners. Substantial time was spent in identifying and repairing these problems. Discussed here are the types of problems encountered, the inspection procedures used to identify each problem, the repairs performed on the damaged or flawed areas, the level of criticality of the problems, and the monitoring of repaired areas. It is hoped that this discussion will help designers, analysts, and experimenters in the future as the use of composites becomes more prevalent.

Espinosa, Paul S.; Groepler, David R.

1991-01-01

103

Tiltrotor Research Aircraft composite blade repairs - Lessons learned  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The XV-15, N703NA Tiltrotor Research Aircraft located at the NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California, currently uses a set of composite rotor blades of complex shape known as the advanced technology blades (ATBs). The main structural element of the blades is a D-spar constructed of unidirectional, angled fiberglass/graphite, with the aft fairing portion of the blades constructed of a fiberglass cross-ply skin bonded to a Nomex honeycomb core. The blade tip is a removable laminate shell that fits over the outboard section of the spar structure, which contains a cavity to retain balance weights. Two types of tip shells are used for research. One is highly twisted (more than a conventional helicopter blade) and has a hollow core constructed of a thin Nomex-honeycomb-and-fiberglass-skin sandwich; the other is untwisted with a solid Nomex honeycomb core and a fiberglass cross-ply skin. During initial flight testing of the blades, a number of problems in the composite structure were encountered. These problems included debonding between the fiberglass skin and the honeycomb core, failure of the honeycomb core, failures in fiberglass splices, cracks in fiberglass blocks, misalignment of mated composite parts, and failures of retention of metal fasteners. Substantial time was spent in identifying and repairing these problems. Discussed here are the types of problems encountered, the inspection procedures used to identify each problem, the repairs performed on the damaged or flawed areas, the level of criticality of the problems, and the monitoring of repaired areas. It is hoped that this discussion will help designers, analysts, and experimenters in the future as the use of composites becomes more prevalent.

Espinosa, Paul S.; Groepler, David R.

1992-01-01

104

X-38 research aircraft - First drop flight and landing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the mid-1990's researchers at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, and Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas, began working actively with the sub-scale X-38 prototype crew return vehicle (CRV). This was an unpiloted lifting body designed at 80 percent of the size of a projected emergency crew return vehicle for the International Space Station. The X-38 and the actual CRV are patterned after a lifting-body shape first employed in the Air Force X-23 (SV-5) program in the mid-1960's and the Air Force-NASA X-24A lifting-body project in the early to mid-1970's. Built by Scaled Composites, Inc., in Mojave, California, and outfitted with avionics, computer systems, and other hardware at Johnson Space Center, two X-38 aircraft were involved in flight research at Dryden beginning in July of 1997. Before that, however, Dryden conducted some 13 flights at a drop zone near California City, California. Those tests were done with a 1/6-scale model of the X-38 aircraft to test the parafoil concept that would be employed on the X-38 and the actual CRV. The basic concept is that the actual CRV will use an inertial navigation system together with the Global Positioning System of satellites to guide it from the International Space Station into the Earth's atmosphere. A deorbit engine module will redirect the vehicle from orbit into the atmosphere where a series of parachutes and a parafoil will deploy in sequence to bring the vehicle to a landing, possibly in a field next to a hospital. Flight research at NASA Dryden for the X-38 began with an unpiloted captive carry flight in which the vehicle remained attached to its future launch vehicle the Dryden B-52 008. There were four captive flights in 1997 and three in 1998, plus the first drop test on March 12, 1998, using the parachutes and parafoil. Further captive and drop tests occurred in 1999. Although the X-38 landed safely on the lakebed at Edwards after the March 1998 drop test, there had been some problems with the parafoil. Intermediate parafoil tests at the Army Yuma Proving Grounds in Arizona enabled the project to resolve these problems and resume flight research. In the drop tests, the X-38 vehicles have been autonomous after airlaunch from the B-52. After they deploy the parafoil, they have remained autonomous, but there is also a manual mode that allows controls from the ground. The X-38 vehicles (designated V131 and V132) are each 24.5 feet long. The actual CRV to be flown in space is expected to be 30 feet long. This is a 16-second clip showing the X-38 vehicle toward the end of its first drop flight rapidly approaching the ground and then sliding to a landing in the desert test ranges at Edwards Air Force Base in California.

1998-01-01

105

X-38 research aircraft launch from Space Station - computer animation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the mid-1990's researchers at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, and Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas, began working actively with the sub-scale X-38 prototype crew return vehicle (CRV). This was an unpiloted lifting body designed at 80 percent of the size of a projected emergency crew return vehicle for the International Space Station. The X-38 and the actual CRV are patterned after a lifting-body shape first employed in the Air Force X-23 (SV-5) program in the mid-1960's and the Air Force-NASA X-24A lifting-body project in the early to mid-1970's. Built by Scaled Composites, Inc., in Mojave, CA, and outfitted with avionics, computer systems, and other hardware at Johnson Space Center, two X-38 aircraft were involved in flight research at Dryden beginning in July of 1997. Before that, however, Dryden conducted some 13 flights at a drop zone near California City, California. These tests were done with a 1/6-scale model of the X-38 aircraft to test the parafoil concept that would be employed on the X-38 and the actual CRV. The basic concept is that the actual CRV will use an inertial navigation system together with the Global Positioning System of satellites to guide it from the International Space Station into the earth's atmosphere. A deorbit engine module will redirect the vehicle from orbit into the atmosphere where a series of parachutes and a parafoil will deploy in sequence to bring the vehicle to a landing, possibly in a field next to a hospital. Flight research at NASA Dryden for the X-38 began with an unpiloted captive carry flight in which the vehicle remained attached to its future launch vehicle, the Dryden B-52 008. There were four captive flights in 1997 and three in 1998, plus the first drop test on March 12, 1998, using the parachutes and parafoil. Further captive and drop tests occurred in 1999. Although the X-38 landed safely on the lakebed at Edwards after the March 1998 drop test, there had been some problems with the parafoil. Intermediate parafoil tests at the Army Yuma Proving Grounds in Arizona enabled the project to resolve these problems and resume flight research. In the drop tests, the X-38 vehicles have been autonomous after airlaunch from the B-52. After they deploy the parafoil, they have remained autonomous, but there is also a manual mode that allows control from the ground. The X-38 vehicles (designated V131 and V132) are each 24.5 feet long. The actual CRV to be flown in space is expected to be 30 feet long. This is a short 16-second computer animation clip showing the X-38 vehicle being released from Pressurized Mating Adapter No. 3 and moving away from the International Space Station toward earth.

1997-01-01

106

Rotor systems research aircraft predesign study. Volume 2: Conceptual study report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The overall feasibility of the technical requirements and concepts for a rotor system research aircraft (RSRA) was determined. The designs of two aircraft were then compared against the RSRA requirements. One of these is an all new aircraft specifically designed as an RSRA vehicle. A new main rotor, transmission, wings, and fuselage are included in this design. The second aircraft uses an existing Sikorsky S-61 main rotor, an S-61 roller gearbox, and a highly modified Sikorsky S-67 airframe. The wing for this aircraft is a new design. Both aircraft employ a fan-in-fin anti-torque/yaw control system, T58-GE-16 engines for rotor power, and TF34-GE-2 turbofans for auxiliary thrust. Each aircraft meets the basic requirements and goals of the program. The all new aircraft has inflight variable main rotor shaft tilt, a side-by-side cockpit seating arrangement, and is slightly faster in the compound mode. It is also somewhat lighter since it uses new dynamic components specifically designed for the RSRA. Preliminary development plans, including schedules and costs, were prepared for both of these aircraft.

Schmidt, S. A.; Linden, A. W.

1972-01-01

107

Global stratospheric change: Requirements for a Very-High-Altitude Aircraft for Atmospheric Research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The workshop on Requirements for a Very-High-Altitude Aircraft for Atmospheric Research, sponsored by NASA Ames Research Center, was held July 15 to 16, 1989, at Truckee, CA. The workshop had two purposes: to assess the scientific justification for a new aircraft that will support stratospheric research beyond the altitudes accessible to the NASA ER-2; and to determine the aircraft characteristics (e.g., ceiling altitude, payload accommodations, range, flight duration, operational capabilities) required to perform the stratospheric research referred to in the justification. To accomplish these purposes, the workshop brought together a cross-section of stratospheric scientists with several aircraft design and operations experts. The stratospheric scientists included theoreticians as well as experimenters with experience in remote and in situ measurements from satellites, rockets, balloons, aircraft, and the ground. Discussions of required aircraft characteristics focused on the needs of stratospheric research. It was recognized that an aircraft optimal for stratospheric science would also be useful for other applications, including remote measurements of Earth's surface. A brief description of these other applications was given at the workshop.

1989-01-01

108

Increased Gulf Aerosol Formation due to Oil Research aircraft performing measurements to characterize aerosol plume  

E-print Network

Horizon Oil Spill. Science 331, 11 March 2011 #12;#12; Dynamics of plume monitored in time position and composition Composition of oil spill reflected in aerosolIncreased Gulf Aerosol Formation due to Oil Research aircraft performing measurements

Toohey, Darin W.

109

NASA-Langley Research Center's Aircraft Condition Analysis and Management System Implementation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document describes the hardware implementation design and architecture of Aeronautical Radio Incorporated (ARINC)'s Aircraft Condition Analysis and Management System (ACAMS), which was developed at NASA-Langley Research Center (LaRC) for use in its Airborne Research Integrated Experiments System (ARIES) Laboratory. This activity is part of NASA's Aviation Safety Program (AvSP), the Single Aircraft Accident Prevention (SAAP) project to develop safety-enabling technologies for aircraft and airborne systems. The fundamental intent of these technologies is to allow timely intervention or remediation to improve unsafe conditions before they become life threatening.

Frye, Mark W.; Bailey, Roger M.; Jessup, Artie D.

2004-01-01

110

A study for active control research and validation using the Total In-Flight Simulator (TIFS) aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of a feasibility study and preliminary design for active control research and validation using the Total In-Flight Simulator (TIFS) aircraft are documented. Active control functions which can be demonstrated on the TIFS aircraft and the cost of preparing, equipping, and operating the TIFS aircraft for active control technology development are determined. It is shown that the TIFS aircraft is as a suitable test bed for inflight research and validation of many ACT concepts.

Chen, R. T. N.; Daughaday, H.; Andrisani, D., II; Till, R. D.; Weingarten, N. C.

1975-01-01

111

The Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS): Research Collaborations with the NASA Langley Research Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The aviation industry is an integral part of the world s economy. Travelers have consistently chosen aviation as their mode of transportation as it is reliable, time efficient and safe. The out- dated Hub and Spoke system, coupled with high demand, has led to delays, cancellations and gridlock. NASA is developing innovative solutions to these and other air transportation problems. This research is being conducted through partnerships with federal agencies, industry stakeholders, and academia, specifically the University of Nebraska at Omaha. Each collaborator is pursuing the NASA General Aviation Roadmap through their involvement in the expansion of the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS). SATS will utilize technologically advanced small aircraft to transport travelers to and from rural and isolated communities. Additionally, this system will provide a safe alternative to the hub and spoke system, giving more time to more people through high-speed mobility and increased accessibility.

Tarry, Scott E.; Bowen, Brent D.; Nickerson, Jocelyn S.

2002-01-01

112

Aircraft noise effects on sleep: mechanisms, mitigation and research needs.  

PubMed

There is an ample number of laboratory and field studies which provide sufficient evidence that aircraft noise disturbs sleep and, depending on traffic volume and noise levels, may impair behavior and well-being during the day. Although clinical sleep disorders have been shown to be associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases, only little is known about the long-term effects of aircraft noise disturbed sleep on health. National and international laws and guidelines try to limit aircraft noise exposure facilitating active and passive noise control to prevent relevant sleep disturbances and its consequences. Adopting the harmonized indicator of the European Union Directive 2002/49/EC, the WHO Night Noise Guideline for Europe (NNG) defines four Lnight , outside ranges associated with different risk levels of sleep disturbance and other health effects ( < 30, 30-40, 40-55, and> 55 dBA). Although traffic patterns differing in number and noise levels of events that lead to varying degrees of sleep disturbance may result in the same Lnight , simulations of nights with up to 200 aircraft noise events per night nicely corroborate expert opinion guidelines formulated in WHO's NNG. In the future, large scale field studies on the effects of nocturnal (aircraft) noise on sleep are needed. They should involve representative samples of the population including vulnerable groups like children and chronically ill subjects. Optimally, these studies are prospective in nature and examine the long-term consequences of noise-induced sleep disturbances. Furthermore, epidemiological case-control studies on the association of nocturnal (aircraft) noise exposure and cardiovascular disease are needed. Despite the existing gaps in knowledge on long-term health effects, sufficient data are available for defining limit values, guidelines and protection concepts, which should be updated with the availability of new data. PMID:20472955

Basner, Mathias; Griefahn, Barbara; Berg, Martin van den

2010-01-01

113

Microgravity research during aircraft parabolic flights: the 20 ESA campaigns.  

PubMed

Aircraft parabolic flights provide repeated periods of up to 20 seconds of reduced gravity during ballistic flight manoeuvres, preceded and followed by 20 seconds of 1.8 g. Such flights are used to conduct short microgravity investigations in physical and life sciences, to test instrumentation and to train astronauts before a spaceflight. Since 1984, ESA's Microgravity Projects Division has organised 20 parabolic flight campaigns using three different types of aircraft. More than 1700 parabolas have been flown, representing nine and half hours of microgravity in slices of 20 seconds, or equivalently, six low Earth orbits. A total of 235 experiments have been performed using this unique microgravity tool. PMID:14971370

Pletser, V

1995-05-01

114

The NASA Earth Research-2 (ER-2) Aircraft: A Flying Laboratory for Earth Science Studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, has two Lockheed Martin Corporation (Bethesda, Maryland) Earth Research-2 (ER2) aircraft that serve as high-altitude and long-range flying laboratories. The ER-2 aircraft has been successfully utilized to conduct scientific studies of stratospheric and tropospheric chemistry, land-use mapping, disaster assessment, preliminary testing and calibration and validation of satellite sensors. The research missions for the ER-2 aircraft are planned, implemented, and managed by the Dryden Flight Research Center Science Mission Directorate. Maintenance and instrument payload integration is conducted by Dryden personnel. The ER-2 aircraft provides experimenters with a wide array of payload accommodations areas with suitable environment control with required electrical and mechanical interfaces. Missions may be flown out of Dryden or from remote bases worldwide, according to research requirements. The NASA ER-2 aircraft is utilized by a variety of customers, including U.S. Government agencies, civilian organizations, universities, and state governments. The combination of the ER-2 aircraft s range, endurance, altitude, payload power, payload volume and payload weight capabilities complemented by a trained maintenance and operations team provides an excellent and unique platform system to the science community and other customers.

Navarro, Robert

2007-01-01

115

X-38 research aircraft deorbit burn - computer animation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the mid-1990's researchers at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, and Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas, began working actively with the sub-scale X-38 prototype crew return vehicle (CRV). This was an unpiloted lifting body designed at 80 percent of the size of a projected emergency crew return vehicle for the International Space Station. The X-38 and the actual CRV are patterned after a lifting-body shape first employed in the Air Force X-23 (SV-5) program in the mid-1960's and the Air Force-NASA X-24A lifting-body project in the early to mid-1970's. Built by Scaled Composites, Inc., in Mojave, California, and outfitted with avionics, computer systems, and other hardware at Johnson Space Center, two X-38 aircraft were involved in flight research at Dryden beginning in July of 1997. Before that, however, Dryden conducted some 13 flights at a drop zone near California City, California. These tests were done with a 1/6-scale model of the X-38 to test the parafoil concept that would be employed on the X-38 and the actual CRV. The basic concept is that the actual CRV will use an inertial navigation system together with the Global Positioning System of satellites to guide it from the International Space Station into the earth's atmosphere. A deorbit engine module will redirect the vehicle from orbit into the atmosphere where a series of parachutes and a parafoil will deploy in sequence to bring the vehicle to a landing, possibly in a field next to a hospital. Flight research at NASA Dryden for the X-38 began with an unpiloted captive carry flight in which the vehicle remained attached to its future launch vehicle, the Dryden B-52 008. There were four captive flights in 1997 and three in 1998 plus the first drop test on March 12, 1998, using the parachutes and parafoil. Further captive and drop tests occurred in 1999. Although the X-38 landed safely on the lakebed at Edwards after the March 1998 drop test, there had been some problems with the parafoil. Intermediate parafoil tests at the Army Yuma Proving Grounds in Arizona enabled the project to resolve these problems and resume the flight research. In the drop tests, the X-38 vehicles have been autonomous after airlaunch from the B-52. After they deploy the parafoil, they have remained autonomous, but there is also a manual mode that allows control from the ground. The X-38 vehicles (designated V131 and V132) are each 24.5 feet long. The actual CRV to be flown in space is expected to be 30 feet long. This is a short 21-second computer animation clip showing the X-38 vehicle returning to the atmosphere from orbit.

1997-01-01

116

X-38 research aircraft atmospheric reentry - computer animation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the mid-1990's researchers at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, and Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas, began working actively with the sub-scale X-38 prototype crew return vehicle (CRV). This was an unpiloted lifting body designed at 80 percent of the size of a projected emergency crew return vehicle for the International Space Station. The X-38 and the actual CRV are patterned after a lifting-body shape first employed in the Air Force X-23 (SV-5) program in the mid-1960's and the Air Force-NASA X-24A lifting-body project in the early to mid-1970's. Built by Scaled Composites, Inc., in Mojave, California, and outfitted with avionics, computer systems, and other hardware at Johnson Space Center, two X-38 aircraft were involved in flight research at Dryden beginning in July of 1997. Before that, however, Dryden conducted some 13 flights at a drop zone near California City, California. These tests were done with a 1/6-scale model of the X-38 to test the parafoil concept that would be employed on the X-38 and the actual CRV. The basic concept is that the actual CRV will use an inertial navigation system together with the Global Positioning System of satellites to guide it from the International Space Station into the Earth's atmosphere. A deorbit engine module will redirect the vehicle from orbit into the atmosphere where a series of parachutes and a parafoil will deploy in sequence to bring the vehicle to a landing, possibly in a field next to a hospital. Flight research at NASA Dryden for the X-38 began with an unpiloted captive carry flight in which the vehicle remained attached to its future launch vehicle, the Dryden B-52 008. There were four captive flights in 1997 and three in 1998, plus the first drop test on March 12, 1998, using the parachutes and parafoil. Further captive and drop tests occurred in 1999. Although the X-38 landed safely on the lakebed at Edwards after the March 1998 drop test, there had been some problems with the parafoil. Intermediate parafoil tests at the Army Yuma Proving Grounds in Arizona enabled the project to resolve these problems and resume the flight research. In the drop tests, the X-38 vehicles have been autonomous after airlaunch from the B-52. After they deploy the parafoil, they have remained autonomous, but there is also a manual mode that allows control from the ground. The X-38 vehicles (designated V131 and V132) are each 24.5 feet long. The actual CRV to be flown in space is expected to be 30 feet long. This 30-second computer animation clip shows the X-38 vehicle experiencing frictional heating as it reenters the Earth's atmosphere and then gliding under its main parachute on its way to a Global Positioning System-guided landing.

1997-01-01

117

The History of the XV-15 Tilt Rotor Research Aircraft from Concept to Flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This monograph is a testament to the efforts of many people overcoming multiple technical challenges encountered while developing the XV-15 tilt rotor research aircraft. The Ames involvement with the tilt rotor aircraft began in 1957 with investigations of the performance and dynamic behavior of the Bell XV-3 tilt rotor aircraft. At that time, Ames Research Center was known as the Ames Aeronautical Laboratory of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). As we approach the new millennium, and after more than 40 years of effort and the successful completion of our initial goals, it is appropriate to reflect on the technical accomplishments and consider the future applications of this unique aircraft class, the tilt rotor. The talented engineers, technicians, managers, and leaders at Ames have worked hard with their counterparts in the U.S. rotorcraft industry to overcome technology barriers and to make the military and civil tilt rotor aircraft safer, environmentally acceptable, and more efficient. The tilt rotor aircraft combines the advantages of vertical takeoff and landing capabilities, inherent to the helicopter, with the forward speed and range of a fixed wing turboprop airplane. Our studies have shown that this new vehicle type can provide the aviation transportation industry with the flexibility for highspeed, long-range flight, coupled with runway-independent operations, thus having a significant potential to relieve airport congestion. We see the tilt rotor aircraft as an element of the solution to this growing air transport problem.

Maisel, Martin D.; Giulianetti, Demo J.; Dugan, Daniel C.

2000-01-01

118

{open_quotes}Airborne Research Australia (ARA){close_quotes} a new research aircraft facility on the southern hemisphere  

SciTech Connect

{open_quotes}Airborne Research Australia{close_quotes} (ARA) is a new research aircraft facility in Australia. It will serve the scientific community of Australia and will also make its aircraft and expertise available for commercial users. To cover the widest possible range of applications, the facility will operate up to five research aircraft, from a small, low-cost platform to medium-sized multi-purpose aircraft, as well as a unique high altitude aircraft capable of carrying scientific loads to altitudes of up to 15km. The aircraft will be equipped with basic instrumentation and data systems, as well as facilities to mount user-supplied instrumentation and systems internally and externally on the aircraft. The ARA operations base consisting of a hangar, workshops, offices, laboratories, etc. is currently being constructed at Parafield Airport near Adelaide/South Australia. The following text reports about the current state of development of the facility. An update will be given in a presentation at the Conference. 6 figs.

Hacker, J.M. [Flinders Univ. of South Australia, Adelaide (Australia)

1996-11-01

119

Research on hypersonic aircraft using pre-cooled turbojet engines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Systems analysis of a Mach 5 class hypersonic aircraft is performed. The aircraft can fly across the Pacific Ocean in 2 h. A multidisciplinary optimization program for aerodynamics, structure, propulsion, and trajectory is used in the analysis. The result of each element model is improved using higher accuracy analysis tools. The aerodynamic performance of the hypersonic aircraft is examined through hypersonic wind tunnel tests. A thermal management system based on the data of the wind tunnel tests is proposed. A pre-cooled turbojet engine is adopted as the propulsion system for the hypersonic aircraft. The engine can be operated continuously from take-off to Mach 5. This engine uses a pre-cooling cycle using cryogenic liquid hydrogen. The high temperature inlet air of hypersonic flight would be cooled by the same liquid hydrogen used as fuel. The engine is tested under sea level static conditions. The engine is installed on a flight test vehicle. Both liquid hydrogen fuel and gaseous hydrogen fuel are supplied to the engine from a tank and cylinders installed within the vehicle. The designed operation of major components of the engine is confirmed. A large amount of liquid hydrogen is supplied to the pre-cooler in order to make its performance sufficient for Mach 5 flight. Thus, fuel rich combustion is adopted at the afterburner. The experiments are carried out under the conditions that the engine is mounted upon an experimental airframe with both set up either horizontally or vertically. As a result, the operating procedure of the pre-cooled turbojet engine is demonstrated.

Taguchi, Hideyuki; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Kojima, Takayuki; Ueno, Atsushi; Imamura, Shunsuke; Hongoh, Motoyuki; Harada, Kenya

2012-04-01

120

Aircraft ground vibration testing at NASA Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

At the NASA Ames Research Center's Dryden Flight Research Facility at Edwards Air Force Base, California, a variety of ground vibration test techniques has been applied to an assortment of new or modified aerospace research vehicles. This paper presents a summary of these techniques and the experience gained from various applications. The role of ground vibration testing in the qualification of new and modified aircraft for flight is discussed. Data are presented for a wide variety of aircraft and component tests, including comparisons of sine-dwell, single-input random, and multiple-input random excitation methods on a JetStar airplane.

Kehoe, Michael W.

1987-01-01

121

Conceptual design study of a Harrier V/STOL research aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

MCAIR recently completed a conceptual design study to define modification approaches to, and derive planning prices for the conversion of a two place Harrier to a V/STOL control, display and guidance research aircraft. Control concepts such as rate damping, attitude stabilization, velocity command, and cockpit controllers are to be demonstrated. Display formats will also be investigated, and landing, navigation and guidance systems flight tested. The rear cockpit is modified such that it can be quickly adapted to faithfully simulate the controls, displays and handling qualities of a Type A or Type B V/STOL. The safety pilot always has take command capability. The modifications studied fall into two categories: basic modifications and optional modifications. Technical descriptions of the basic modifications and of the optional modifications are presented. The modification plan and schedule as well as the test plan and schedule are presented. The failure mode and effects analysis, aircraft performance, aircraft weight, and aircraft support are discussed.

Bode, W. E.; Berger, R. L.; Elmore, G. A.; Lacey, T. R.

1978-01-01

122

Prospect and Recent Research & Development for Civil Use Autonomous Unmanned Aircraft as UAV and MAV  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the present state of research and development for civil use autonomous unmanned aircraft. In particular, the history of civil use UAVs, the research and development in the world and in Japan, and the subjects and prospects for control and operation systems of civil use autonomous UAVs are described.

Nonami, Kenzo

123

Military aircraft and missile technology at the Langley Research Center: A selected bibliography  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A compilation of reference material is presented on the Langley Research Center's efforts in developing advanced military aircraft and missile technology over the past twenty years. Reference material includes research made in aerodynamics, performance, stability, control, stall-spin, propulsion integration, flutter, materials, and structures.

Maddalon, D. V.

1980-01-01

124

NASA/Army Rotorcraft Technology. Volume 3: Systems Integration, Research Aircraft, and Industry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is part 3 of the conference proceedings on rotorcraft technology. This volume is divided into areas on systems integration, research aircraft, and industry. Representative titles from each area are: system analysis in rotorcraft design, the past decade; rotorcraft flight research with emphasis on rotor systems; and an overview of key technology thrusts at Bell Helicopter Textron.

1988-01-01

125

The Project CAATER (Co-ordinated Access to Aircraft for Transnational Environmental Research)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Four European Research Aircraft (DLR, Germany; MRF, U.K.; Meteo France and INSU, France), well established in the field of airborne environmental research, have been made available for trans-national access to European scientists within the fifth Framework program of the European Commission (\\underline {I}mprovement of the \\underline {H}uman \\underline {P}otential-\\underline {A}ccess to \\underline {R}esearch \\underline {I}nfrastructures-IHP-ARI). Scientists without similar or suitable facilities in their home countries, or those interested but inexperienced in meteorological, chemical or remote sensing data from aircraft measurements could ask for aircraft access. Once selected through a peer review process by an Allocation Committee of international experts, they get the opportunity to perform an experiment onboard one of the four aircraft. A facilitator at each infrastructure attends to the CAATER users throughout the whole project. The scientists are instructed in all terms related to an aircraft campaign spanning from the planning of flight patterns through the preparation of instrument integration, subsequent test- / familiarization flights, to the research flights themselves and to subsequent data processing , data analysis and publication of results. They get a deep insight into the flight facilities operating the aircraft and into the correspondent infrastructure of those large scale European research establishments. During this access the CAATER users are integrated into various scientific groups well experienced in airborne research. CAATER is the successor program to a similar one established in the 4th framework program of EC "Training and Mobility of Researchers" under the acronym STAAARTE (\\underline {S}cientific \\underline {T}raining and \\underline {A}ccess to \\underline {A}ircraft for \\underline {A}tmospheric \\underline {R}esearch \\underline {T}hroughout \\underline {E}urope). Since then, training and access for many young European scientists from many European countries has significantly contributed to the EC objectives of increasing research over a wider European area . Due to the success of STAAARTE and CAATER it is planned to apply for a continuation of these access activities within the sixth framework program of the EC. The access program should be then integrated into the existing and still expanding network of European research aircraft operators in order to complement each other and enlarge the choice for European scientists looking for access to these rare and unique infrastructure installations.

Krautstrunk, M.

2003-04-01

126

Simulation test results for lift/cruise fan research and technology aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A flight simulation program was conducted on the flight simulator for advanced aircraft (FSAA). The flight simulation was a part of a contracted effort to provide a lift/cruise fan V/STOL aircraft mathematical model for flight simulation. The simulated aircraft is a configuration of the Lift/Cruise Fan V/STOL research technology aircraft (RTA). The aircraft was powered by three gas generators driving three fans. One lift fan was installed in the nose of the aircraft, and two lift/cruise fans at the wing root. The thrust of these fans was modulated to provide pitch and roll control, and vectored to provide yaw, side force control, and longitudinal translation. Two versions of the RTA were defined. One was powered by the GE J97/LF460 propulsion system which was gas-coupled for power transfer between fans for control. The other version was powered by DDA XT701 gas generators driving 62 inch variable pitch fans. The flight control system in both versions of the RTA was the same.

Bland, M. P.; Konsewicz, R. K.

1976-01-01

127

Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research Phase II: N+4 Advanced Concept Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This final report documents the work of the Boeing Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research (SUGAR) team on Task 1 of the Phase II effort. The team consisted of Boeing Research and Technology, Boeing Commercial Airplanes, General Electric, and Georgia Tech. Using a quantitative workshop process, the following technologies, appropriate to aircraft operational in the N+4 2040 timeframe, were identified: Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG), Hydrogen, fuel cell hybrids, battery electric hybrids, Low Energy Nuclear (LENR), boundary layer ingestion propulsion (BLI), unducted fans and advanced propellers, and combinations. Technology development plans were developed.

Bradley, Marty K.; Droney, Christopher K.

2012-01-01

128

The NASA structures and materials research program for supersonic cruise aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The structures and materials part of the NASA Supersonic Cruise Aircraft Research (SCAR) program is reviewed. It is pointed out that in more than three years of work significant new technology has been generated. The aircraft configurations which are efficient aerodynamically have aeroelastic problems that must be alleviated by configuration changes, active controls, or additional structural mass. An approach involving the application of advanced composite materials has the highest potential for structural weight reduction. Attention is given to the structural concepts for an arrow-wing supersonic aircraft and the techniques used in the investigations. It is expected that continuing research in SCAR structures and materials should bring high payoffs in the late 1980s.

Cooper, P. A.; Heldenfels, R. R.

1976-01-01

129

Aircraft and avionic related research required to develop an effective high-speed runway exit system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research was conducted to increase airport capacity by studying the feasibility of the longitudinal separation between aircraft sequences on final approach. The multidisciplinary factors which include the utility of high speed exits for efficient runway operations were described along with recommendations and highlights of these studies.

Schoen, M. L.; Hosford, J. E.; Graham, J. M., Jr.; Preston, O. W.; Frankel, R. S.; Erickson, J. B.

1979-01-01

130

GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, VOL. ???, NO. , PAGES 1?? , Novel aerosol/gas inlet for aircraft based measurements  

E-print Network

is moved by a stepper motor to occlude the inlet opening and gas is sampled perpendicular to the bulk flowGEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, VOL. ???, NO. , PAGES 1?? , Novel aerosol/gas inlet for aircraft Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA Abstract A novel inlet has been designed for selective sampling of gas

Wennberg, Paul

131

Application of a cost/performance measurement system on a research aircraft project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The fundamentals of the cost/performance management system used in the procurement of two tilt rotor aircraft for a joint NASA/Army research project are discussed. The contractor's reporting system and the GPO's analyses are examined. The use of this type of reporting system is assessed. Recommendations concerning the use of like systems on future projects are included.

Diehl, J. J.

1978-01-01

132

A research program to reduce the interior noise in general aviation aircraft, index and summary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report is an index of the published works from NASA Grant NSG 1301, entitled A Research Program to Reduce the Interior Noise in General Aviation Aircraft. Included are a list of all published reports and papers, a compilation of test specimen characteristics, and summaries of each published work.

Morgan, L.; Jackson, K.; Roskam, J.

1985-01-01

133

The all-electric aircraft - A systems view and proposed NASA research Programs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is expected that all-electric aircraft, whether military or commercial, will exhibit reduced weight, acquisition cost and fuel consumption, an expanded flight envelope and improved survivability and reliability, simpler maintenance, and reduced support equipment. Also noteworthy are dramatic improvements in mission adaptability, based on the degree to which control system performance relies on easily exchanged software. Flight-critical secondary power and control systems whose malfunction would mean loss of an aircraft pose failure detection and design methodology problems, however, that have only begun to be addressed. NASA-sponsored research activities concerned with these problems and prospective benefits are presently discussed.

Spitzer, C. R.

1984-01-01

134

Subminiaturization for ERAST instrumentation (Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We are focusing on the Argus as an example to demonstrate our philosophy on miniaturization of airborne analytical instruments for the study of atmospheric chemistry. Argus is a two channel, tunable-diode laser absorption spectrometer developed at NASA for the measurement of nitrogen dioxide (N2O) (4.5 micrometers) and ammonia (CH3) (3.3 micrometers) at the 0.1 parts per billion (ppb) level from the Perseus aircraft platform at altitudes up to 30 km. Although Argus' mass is down to 23 kg from the 197 kg Atlas, its predecessor, our goal is to design a next-generation subminiaturized instrument weighing less than 1 kg, measuring a few cm(exp 3) and able to eliminate dewars for cooling. Current designs enable use to make a small,inexpensive, monolithic spectrometer without the required sensitivity range. Further work is on its way to increase sensitivity. We are continuing to zero-base the technical approach in terms of the specifications for the given instrument. We are establishing a check list of questions to hone into the best micromachining approach and to superpose on the answers insights in scaling laws and flexible engineering designs to enable more relaxed tolerances for the smallest of the components.

Madou, Marc; Lowenstein, Max; Wegener, Steven

1995-01-01

135

Longitudinal stability and control characteristics of the Quiet Short-Haul Research Aircraft (QSRA)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flight experiments were conducted to evaluate various aerodynamic characteristics of the Quiet Short-Haul Research Aircraft (QSRA), an experimental aircraft that makes use of the upper-surface blown (USB) powered-lift concept. Time-history records from maneuvers performed with the aircraft in landing-approach and take-off configurations (with its stability augmentation system disengaged) were analyzed to obtain longitudinal stability and control derivatives and performance characteristics. The experiments included measuring the aircraft responses to variations in the deflection of direct-lift control spoilers and to thrust variations as well as to elevator inputs. The majority of the results are given for the aircraft in a landing configuration with the USB flaps at 50 degrees. For this configuration, if the static longitudinal stability is defined as the variation of the pitching-moment coefficient with the lift coefficient at a constant thrust coefficient, this stability decreases significantly with increasing angle of attack above 9 degrees. For this configuration, at small and negative angles of attack and high levels of thrust, the elevators and the horizontal stabilizer lost effectiveness owing to incipent stalling, but this occurred only during unsteady maneuvers and for brief time intervals.

Stephenson, Jack D.; Hardy, Gordon H.

1989-01-01

136

Lockheed ER-2 #709 high altitude research aircraft during take off  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

ER-2 tail number 709, is one of two Airborne Science ER-2s used as science platforms by Dryden. The aircraft are platforms for a variety of high-altitude science missions flown over various parts of the world. They are also used for earth science and atmospheric sensor research and development, satellite calibration and data validation. The ER-2s are capable of carrying a maximum payload of 2,600 pounds of experiments in a nose bay, the main equipment bay behind the cockpit, two wing-mounted superpods and small underbody and trailing edges. Most ER-2 missions last about six hours with ranges of about 2,200 nautical miles. The aircraft typically fly at altitudes above 65,000 feet. On November 19, 1998, the ER-2 set a world record for medium weight aircraft reaching an altitude of 68,700 feet. The aircraft is 63 feet long, with a wingspan of 104 feet. The top of the vertical tail is 16 feet above ground when the aircraft is on the bicycle-type landing gear. Cruising speeds are 410 knots, or 467 miles per hour, at altitude. A single General Electric F-118 turbofan engine rated at 17,000 pounds thrust powers the ER-2.

1998-01-01

137

Aircrew-aircraft integration: A summary of US Army research programs and plans  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A review of selected programs which illustrate the research efforts of the U.S. Army Aeromechanics Laboratory in the area of aircrew-aircraft integration is presented. Plans for research programs to support the development of future military rotorcraft are also described. The crew of a combat helicopter must, in general, perform two major functions during the conduct of a particular mission: flightpath control and mission management. Accordingly, the research programs described are being conducted in the same two major categories: (1) flightpath control, which encompasses the areas of handling qualities, stability and control, and displays for the pilot's control of the rotorcraft's flightpath, and (2) mission management, which includes human factors and cockpit integration research topics related to performance of navigation, communication, and aircraft systems management tasks.

Key, D. L.; Aiken, E. W.

1984-01-01

138

Practical Application of a Subscale Transport Aircraft for Flight Research in Control Upset and Failure Conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Over the past decade, the goal of reducing the fatal accident rate of large transport aircraft has resulted in research aimed at the problem of aircraft loss-of-control. Starting in 1999, the NASA Aviation Safety Program initiated research that included vehicle dynamics modeling, system health monitoring, and reconfigurable control systems focused on flight regimes beyond the normal flight envelope. In recent years, there has been an increased emphasis on adaptive control technologies for recovery from control upsets or failures including damage scenarios. As part of these efforts, NASA has developed the Airborne Subscale Transport Aircraft Research (AirSTAR) flight facility to allow flight research and validation, and system testing for flight regimes that are considered too risky for full-scale manned transport airplane testing. The AirSTAR facility utilizes dynamically-scaled vehicles that enable the application of subscale flight test results to full scale vehicles. This paper describes the modeling and simulation approach used for AirSTAR vehicles that supports the goals of efficient, low-cost and safe flight research in abnormal flight conditions. Modeling of aerodynamics, controls, and propulsion will be discussed as well as the application of simulation to flight control system development, test planning, risk mitigation, and flight research.

Cunningham, Kevin; Foster, John V.; Morelli, Eugene A.; Murch, Austin M.

2008-01-01

139

The NASA Dryden Flight Research Center Unmanned Aircraft System Service Capabilities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Over 60 years of Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) expertise at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Dryden Flight Research Center are being leveraged to provide capability and expertise to the international UAS community. The DFRC brings together technical experts, UAS, and an operational environment to provide government and industry a broad capability to conduct research, perform operations, and mature systems, sensors, and regulation. The cornerstone of this effort is the acquisition of both a Global Hawk (Northrop Grumman Corporation, Los Angeles, California) and Predator B (General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc., San Diego, California) unmanned aircraft system (UAS). In addition, a test range for small UAS will allow developers to conduct research and development flights without the need to obtain approval from civil authorities. Finally, experts are available to government and industry to provide safety assessments in support of operations in civil airspace. These services will allow developers to utilize limited resources to their maximum capability in a highly competitive environment.

Bauer, Jeff

2007-01-01

140

The NASA Dryden Flight Research Center Unmanned Aircraft System Service Capabilities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Over 60 years of Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) expertise at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center are being leveraged to provide capability and expertise to the international UAS community. The DFRC brings together technical experts, UAS, and an operational environment to provide government and industry a broad capability to conduct research, perform operations, and mature systems, sensors, and regulation. The cornerstone of this effort is the acquisition of both a Global Hawk (Northrop Grumman Corporation, Los Angeles, California) and Predator B (General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc., San Diego, California) unmanned aircraft system (UAS). In addition, a test range for small UAS will allow developers to conduct research and development flights without the need to obtain approval from civil authorities. Finally, experts are available to government and industry to provide safety assessments in support of operations in civil airspace. These services will allow developers to utilize limited resources to their maximum capability in a highly competitive environment.

Bauer, Jeff

2007-01-01

141

Concept to Reality: Contributions of the Langley Research Center to US Civil Aircraft of the 1990s  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document is intended to be a companion to NASA SP-2000-4519, 'Partners in Freedom: Contributions of the Langley Research Center to U.S. Military Aircraft of the 1990s'. Material included in the combined set of volumes provides informative and significant examples of the impact of Langley's research on U.S. civil and military aircraft of the 1990s. This volume, 'Concept to Reality: Contributions of the NASA Langley Research Center to U.S. Civil Aircraft of the 1990s', highlights significant Langley contributions to safety, cruise performance, takeoff and landing capabilities, structural integrity, crashworthiness, flight deck technologies, pilot-vehicle interfaces, flight characteristics, stall and spin behavior, computational design methods, and other challenging technical areas for civil aviation. The contents of this volume include descriptions of some of the more important applications of Langley research to current civil fixed-wing aircraft (rotary-wing aircraft are not included), including commercial airliners, business aircraft, and small personal-owner aircraft. In addition to discussions of specific aircraft applications, the document also covers contributions of Langley research to the operation of civil aircraft, which includes operating problems. This document is organized according to disciplinary technologies, for example, aerodynamics, structures, materials, and flight systems. Within each discussion, examples are cited where industry applied Langley technologies to specific aircraft that were in operational service during the 1990s and the early years of the new millennium. This document is intended to serve as a key reference for national policy makers, internal NASA policy makers, Congressional committees, the media, and the general public. Therefore, it has been written for a broad general audience and does not presume any significant technical expertise. An extensive bibliography is provided for technical specialists and others who desire a more indepth discussion of the contributions.

Chambers, Joseph R.

2003-01-01

142

Man-vehicle systems research facility advanced aircraft flight simulator throttle mechanism  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Advanced Aircraft Flight Simulator is equipped with a motorized mechanism that simulates a two engine throttle control system that can be operated via a computer driven performance management system or manually by the pilots. The throttle control system incorporates features to simulate normal engine operations and thrust reverse and vary the force feel to meet a variety of research needs. While additional testing to integrate the work required is principally now in software design, since the mechanical aspects function correctly. The mechanism is an important part of the flight control system and provides the capability to conduct human factors research of flight crews with advanced aircraft systems under various flight conditions such as go arounds, coupled instrument flight rule approaches, normal and ground operations and emergencies that would or would not normally be experienced in actual flight.

Kurasaki, S. S.; Vallotton, W. C.

1985-01-01

143

Integrated control and display research for transition and vertical flight on the NASA V/STOL Research Aircraft (VSRA)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results of a substantial body of ground-based simulation experiments indicate that a high degree of precision of operation for recovery aboard small ships in heavy seas and low visibility with acceptable levels of effort by the pilot can be achieved by integrating the aircraft flight and propulsion controls. The availability of digital fly-by-wire controls makes it feasible to implement an integrated control design to achieve and demonstrate in flight the operational benefits promised by the simulation experience. It remains to validate these systems concepts in flight to establish their value for advanced short takeoff vertical landing (STOVL) aircraft designs. This paper summarizes analytical studies and simulation experiments which provide a basis for the flight research program that will develop and validate critical technologies for advanced STOVL aircraft through the development and evaluation of advanced, integrated control and display concepts, and lays out the plan for the flight program that will be conducted on NASA's V/STOL Research Aircraft (VSRA).

Foster, John D.; Moralez, Ernesto, III; Franklin, James A.; Schroeder, Jeffery A.

1987-01-01

144

Bibliography of Supersonic Cruise Aircraft Research (SCAR) Program from 1972 to Mid-1977  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This bibliography documents publications of the supersonic cruise aircraft research (SCAR) program that were generated during the first 5 years of effort. The reports are arranged according to systems studies and five SCAR disciplines: propulsion, stratospheric emissions impact, structures and materials, aerodynamic performance, and stability and control. The specific objectives of each discipline are summarized. Annotation is included for all NASA inhouse and low-number contractor reports. There are 444 papers and articles included.

Hoffman, S.

1977-01-01

145

NASA rotor system research aircraft flight-test data report: Helicopter and compound configuration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The flight test activities of the Rotor System Research Aircraft (RSRA), NASA 740, from June 30, 1981 to August 5, 1982 are reported. Tests were conducted in both the helicopter and compound configurations. Compound tests reconfirmed the Sikorsky flight envelope except that main rotor blade bending loads reached endurance at a speed about 10 knots lower than previously. Wing incidence changes were made from 0 to 10 deg.

Erickson, R. E.; Kufeld, R. M.; Cross, J. L.; Hodge, R. W.; Ericson, W. F.; Carter, R. D. G.

1984-01-01

146

WashingtonPost.com: Researchers Ape Nature With Flapping-Wing Aircraft  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A Washington Post article from September 1, 2003 looks back at a significant moment in aviation when, in spring 2002, researchers successfully demonstrated an ornithopter capable of hovering. An ornithopter is a kind of aircraft that mimics flying creatures by using flapping wings instead of conventional propulsion systems. Many potential applications exist for future ornithopters, including Mars missions and military reconnaissance. September 12, 2003 NSDL MET Report.

Rajagopalan, Sumitra

147

Flight assessment of a large supersonic drone aircraft for research use  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An assessment is made of the capabilities of the BQM-34E supersonic drone aircraft as a test bed research vehicle. This assessment is made based on a flight conducted for the purpose of obtaining flight test measurements of wing loads at various maneuver flight conditions. Flight plan preparation, flight simulation, and conduct of the flight test are discussed along with a presentation of the test data obtained and an evaluation of how closely the flight test followed the test plan.

Eckstrom, C. V.; Peele, E. L.

1974-01-01

148

Overview of Fundamental High-Lift Research for Transport Aircraft at NASA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA has had a long history in fundamental and applied high lift research. Current programs provide a focus on the validation of technologies and tools that will enable extremely short take off and landing coupled with efficient cruise performance, simple flaps with flow control for improved effectiveness, circulation control wing concepts, some exploration into new aircraft concepts, and partnership with Air Force Research Lab in mobility. Transport high-lift development testing will shift more toward mid and high Rn facilities at least until the question: "How much Rn is required" is answered. This viewgraph presentation provides an overview of High-Lift research at NASA.

Leavitt, L. D.; Washburn, A. E.; Wahls, R. A.

2007-01-01

149

Performance of an Electro-Hydrostatic Actuator on the F-18 Systems Research Aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An electro-hydrostatic actuator was evaluated at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The primary goal of testing this actuator system was the flight demonstration of power-by-wire technology on a primary flight control surface. The electro-hydrostatic actuator uses an electric motor to drive a hydraulic pump and relies on local hydraulics for force transmission. This actuator replaced the F-18 standard left aileron actuator on the F-18 Systems Research Aircraft and was evaluated throughout the Systems Research Aircraft flight envelope. As of July 24, 1997 the electro-hydrostatic actuator had accumulated 23.5 hours of flight time. This paper presents the electro-hydrostatic actuator system configuration and component description, ground and flight test plans, ground and flight test results, and lessons learned. This actuator performs as well as the standard actuator and has more load capability than required by aileron actuator specifications of McDonnell- Douglas Aircraft, St. Louis, Missouri. The electro-hydrostatic actuator system passed all of its ground tests with the exception of one power-off test during unloaded dynamic cycling.

Navarro, Robert

1997-01-01

150

Specially equipped aircraft used in Florida airborne field mill research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

CO2 study site manager and plant physiologist Graham Hymus (left) examines scrub oak foliage while project engineer David Johnson (right) looks on. The life sciences study is showing that rising levels of carbon dioxide in our atmosphere, caused by the burning of fossil fuels, could spur plant growth globally. The site of KSC's study is a natural scrub oak area near the Vehicle Assembly Building. Twelve-foot areas of scrub oak have been enclosed in 16 open-top test chambers into which CO2 has been blown. Five scientists from NASA and the Smithsonian Environmental Research Center in Edgewater, Md., work at the site to monitor experiments and keep the site running. Scientists hope to continue the study another five to 10 years. More information on this study can be found in Release No. 57- 00. Additional photos can be found at: www- pao.ksc.nasa.gov/captions/subjects/co2study.htm

2000-01-01

151

Follow on Researches for X-56A Aircraft at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center (Progress Report)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A lot of composite materials are used for the modern aircraft to reduce its weight. Aircraft aeroservoelastic models are typically characterized by significant levels of model parameter uncertainty due to composite manufacturing process. Small modeling errors in the finite element model will eventually induce errors in the structural flexibility and mass, thus propagating into unpredictable errors in the unsteady aerodynamics and the control law design. One of the primary objectives of X-56A aircraft is the flight demonstration of active flutter suppression, and therefore in this study, the identification of the primary and secondary modes is based on the flutter analysis of X-56A aircraft. It should be noted that for all three Mach number cases rigid body modes and mode numbers seven and nine are participated 89.1 92.4 % of the first flutter mode. Modal participation of the rigid body mode and mode numbers seven and nine for the second flutter mode are 94.6 96.4%. Rigid body mode and the first two anti-symmetric modes, eighth and tenth modes, are participated 93.2 94.6% of the third flutter mode. Therefore, rigid body modes and the first four flexible modes of X-56A aircraft are the primary modes during the model tuning procedure. The ground vibration test-validated structural dynamic finite element model of the X-56A aircraft is to obtain in this study. The structural dynamics finite element model of X-56A aircraft is improved using the parallelized big-bang big-crunch algorithm together with a hybrid optimization technique.

Pak, Chan-Gi

2012-01-01

152

Flight Test Experience with an Electromechanical Actuator on the F-18 Systems Research Aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Development of reliable power-by-wire actuation systems for both aeronautical and space applications has been sought recently to eliminate hydraulic systems from aircraft and spacecraft and thus improve safety, efficiency, reliability, and maintainability. The Electrically Powered Actuation Design (EPAD) program was a joint effort between the Air Force, Navy, and NASA to develop and fly a series of actuators validating power-by-wire actuation technology on a primary flight control surface of a tactical aircraft. To achieve this goal, each of the EPAD actuators was installed in place of the standard hydraulic actuator on the left aileron of the NASA F/A-18B Systems Research Aircraft (SRA) and flown throughout the SRA flight envelope. Numerous parameters were recorded, and overall actuator performance was compared with the performance of the standard hydraulic actuator on the opposite wing. This paper discusses the integration and testing of the EPAD electromechanical actuator (EMA) on the SRA. The architecture of the EMA system is discussed, as well as its integration with the F/A-18 Flight Control System. The flight test program is described, and actuator performance is shown to be very close to that of the standard hydraulic actuator it replaced. Lessons learned during this program are presented and discussed, as well as suggestions for future research.

Jensen, Stephen C.; Jenney, Gavin D.; Raymond, Bruce; Dawson, David; Flick, Brad (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

153

Flight Test Experience With an Electromechanical Actuator on the F-18 Systems Research Aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Development of reliable power-by-wire actuation systems for both aeronautical and space applications has been sought recently to eliminate hydraulic systems from aircraft and spacecraft and thus improve safety, efficiency, reliability, and maintainability. The Electrically Powered Actuation Design (EPAD) program was a joint effort between the Air Force, Navy, and NASA to develop and fly a series of actuators validating power-by-wire actuation technology on a primary flight control surface of a tactical aircraft. To achieve this goal, each of the EPAD actuators was installed in place of the standard hydraulic actuator on the left aileron of the NASA F/A-18B Systems Research Aircraft (SRA) and flown throughout the SRA flight envelope. Numerous parameters were recorded, and overall actuator performance was compared with the performance of the standard hydraulic actuator on the opposite wing. This paper discusses the integration and testing of the EPAD electromechanical actuator (EMA) on the SRA. The architecture of the EMA system is discussed, as well as its integration with the F/A-18 Flight Control System. The flight test program is described, and actuator performance is shown to be very close to that of the standard hydraulic actuator it replaced. Lessons learned during this program are presented and discussed, as well as suggestions for future research.

Jensen, Stephen C.; Jenney, Gavin D.; Raymond, Bruce; Dawson, David

2000-01-01

154

Atmospheric effects of stratospheric aircraft - A status report from NASA's High-Speed Research Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Studies have indicated that, with sufficient technology development, future high-speed civil transport aircraft could be economically competitive with long-haul subsonic aircraft. However, uncertainty about atmospheric pollution, along with community noise and sonic boom, continues to be a major concern which is being addressed in the planned six-year High-Speed Research Program begun in 1990. Building on NASA's research in atmospheric science and emissions reduction, current analytical predictions indicate that an operating range may exist at altitudes below 20 km (i.e., corresponding to a cruise Mach number of approximately 2.4) where the goal level of 5 gm equivalent NO2 emissions/kg fuel will deplete less than one percent of column ozone. Because it will not be possible to directly measure the impact of an aircraft fleet on the atmosphere, the only means of assessment will be prediction. The process of establishing credibility for the predicted effects will likely be complex and involve continued model development and testing against climatological patterns. In particular, laboratory simulation of heterogeneous chemistry and other effects, and direct measurements of well understood tracers in the troposphere and stratosphere are being used to improve the current models.

Wesoky, Howard L.; Prather, Michael J.

1991-01-01

155

Advanced AFCS developments on the XV-15 tilt rotor research aircraft. [Automatic Flight Control System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design criteria and control and handling qualities of the Automatic Flight Control System (AFCS), developed in the framework of the XV-15 tilt-rotor research aircraft, are evaluated, differentiating between the stability and control criteria. A technically aggressive SCAS control law was implemented, demonstrating that significant benefits accrue when stability criteria are separated from design criteria; the design analyses for application of the control law are presented, and the limit bandwidth for stabilization in hovering flight is shown to be defined by rotor or control lag functions. Flight tests of the aircraft resulted in a rating of 3 on the Cooper-Harper scale; a possibility of achieving a rating of 2 is expected if the system is applied to the yaw and heave control modes.

Churchill, G. B.; Gerdes, R. M.

1984-01-01

156

The Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS), Higher Volume Operations (HVO) Concept and Research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ability to conduct concurrent, multiple aircraft operations in poor weather at virtually any airport offers an important opportunity for a significant increase in the rate of flight operations, a major improvement in passenger convenience, and the potential to foster growth of operations at small airports. The Small Aircraft Transportation System, (SATS) Higher Volume Operations (HVO) concept is designed to increase capacity at the 3400 non-radar, non-towered airports in the United States where operations are currently restricted to one-in/one-out procedural separation during low visibility or ceilings. The concept s key feature is that pilots maintain their own separation from other aircraft using air-to-air datalink and on-board software within the Self-Controlled Area (SCA), an area of flight operations established during poor visibility and low ceilings around an airport without Air Traffic Control (ATC) services. While pilots self-separate within the SCA, an Airport Management Module (AMM) located at the airport assigns arriving pilots their sequence based on aircraft performance, position, winds, missed approach requirements, and ATC intent. The HVO design uses distributed decision-making, safe procedures, attempts to minimize pilot and controller workload, and integrates with today's ATC environment. The HVO procedures have pilots make their own flight path decisions when flying in Instrument Metrological Conditions (IMC) while meeting these requirements. This paper summarizes the HVO concept and procedures, presents a summary of the research conducted and results, and outlines areas where future HVO research is required. More information about SATS HVO can be found at http://ntrs.nasa.gov.

Baxley, B.; Williams, D.; Consiglio, M.; Adams, C.; Abbott, T.

2005-01-01

157

Comparison of Profiling Microwave Radiometer, Aircraft, and Radiosonde Measurements From the Alliance Icing Research Study (AIRS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measurements from a profiling microwave radiometer are compared to measurements from a research aircraft and radiosondes. Data compared is temperature, water vapor, and liquid water profiles. Data was gathered at the Alliance Icing Research Study (AIRS) at Mirabel Airport outside Montreal, Canada during December 1999 and January 2000. All radiometer measurements were found to lose accuracy when the radome was wet. When the radome was not wetted, the radiometer was seen to indicate an inverted distribution of liquid water within a cloud. When the radiometer measurements were made at 15 deg. instead of the standard zenith, the measurements were less accurate.

Reehorst, Andrew L.

2001-01-01

158

Partners in Freedom: Contributions of the Langley Research Center to U.S. Military Aircraft of the 1990's  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Established in 1917 as the nation#s first civil aeronautics research laboratory under the National Advisory Commit-tee for Aeronautics (NACA), Langley was a small laboratory that solved the problems of flight for military and civil aviation. Throughout history, Langley has maintained a working partnership with the Department of Defense, U.S. industry, universities, and other government agencies to support the defense of the nation with research. During World War II, Langley directed virtually all of its workforce and facilities to research for military aircraft. Following the war, a balanced program of military and civil projects was undertaken. In some instances Langley research from one aircraft program helped solve a problem in another. At the conclusion of some programs, Langley obtained the research models for additional tests to learn more about previously unknown phenomena. The data also proved useful in later developmental programs. Many of the military aircraft in the U.S. inventory as of late 1999 were over 20 years old. Langley activities that contributed to the development of some of these aircraft began over 50 years prior. This publication documents the role, from early concept stages to problem solving for fleet aircraft, that Langley played in the military aircraft fleet of the United States for the 1990's.

Chambers, Joseph R.

2000-01-01

159

The SR-71 Test Bed Aircraft: A Facility for High-Speed Flight Research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The SR-71 test bed aircraft is shown to be a unique platform to flight-test large experiments to supersonic Mach numbers. The test bed hardware mounted on the SR-71 upper fuselage is described. This test bed hardware is composed of a fairing structure called the "canoe" and a large "reflection plane" flat plate for mounting experiments. Total experiment weights, including the canoe and reflection plane, as heavy as 14,500 lb can be mounted on the aircraft and flight-tested to speeds as fast as Mach 3.2 and altitudes as high as 80,000 ft. A brief description of the SR-71 aircraft is given, including details of the structural modifications to the fuselage, modifications to the J58 engines to provide increased thrust, and the addition of a research instrumentation system. Information is presented based on flight data that describes the SR-71 test bed aerodynamics, stability and control, structural and thermal loads, the canoe internal environment, and reflection plane flow quality. Guidelines for designing SR-71 test bed experiments are also provided.

Corda, Stephen; Moes, Timothy R.; Mizukami, Masashi; Hass, Neal E.; Jones, Daniel; Monaghan, Richard C.; Ray, Ronald J.; Jarvis, Michele L.; Palumbo, Nathan

2000-01-01

160

Advancement of proprotor technology. Task 1: Design study summary. [aerodynamic concept of minimum size tilt proprotor research aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A tilt-proprotor proof-of-concept aircraft design study has been conducted. The results are presented. The ojective of the contract is to advance the state of proprotor technology through design studies and full-scale wind-tunnel tests. The specific objective is to conduct preliminary design studies to define a minimum-size tilt-proprotor research aircraft that can perform proof-of-concept flight research. The aircraft that results from these studies is a twin-engine, high-wing aircraft with 25-foot, three-bladed tilt proprotors mounted on pylons at the wingtips. Each pylon houses a Pratt and Whitney PT6C-40 engine with a takeoff rating of 1150 horsepower. Empty weight is estimated at 6876 pounds. The normal gross weight is 9500 pounds, and the maximum gross weight is 12,400 pounds.

1969-01-01

161

V/STOL systems research aircraft: A tool for cockpit integration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The next generation ASTOVL aircraft will have a complicated propulsion system. The configuration choices include Direct Lift, Lift-Fan and Lift + Lift/Cruise but the aircraft must also have supersonic performance and low-observable characteristics. The propulsion system may have features such as flow blockers, vectoring nozzles and flow transfer schemes. The flight control system will necessarily fully integrate the aerodynamic surfaces and the propulsive elements. With a fully integrated, fly-by-wire flight/propulsion control system, the options for cockpit integration are interesting and varied. It is possible to de-couple longitudinal and vertical responses allowing the pilot to close the loop on flightpath and flightpath acceleration directly. In the hover, the pilot can control the translational rate directly without having to stabilize the inner rate and attitude loops. The benefit of this approach, reduced workload and increased precision, has previously been demonstrated through several motion-based simulations. In order to prove the results in flight, the V/STOL System Research Aircraft (VSRA) was developed at the NASA Ames Research Center. The VSRA is the YAV-8B Prototype modified with a research flight control system using a series-parallel servo configuration in all the longitudinal degrees of freedom (including thrust and thrust vector angle) to provide an integrated flight and propulsion control system in a limited envelope. Development of the system has been completed and flight evaluations of the response types have been performed. In this paper we will discuss the development of the VSRA, the evolution of the flightpath command and translational rate command response types and the Guest Pilot evaluations of the system. Pilot evaluation results are used to draw conclusions regarding the suitability of the system to satisfy V/STOL requirements.

Stortz, Michael W.; ODonoghue, Dennis P.

1995-01-01

162

Application of the Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA) 'MASC' in Atmospheric Boundary Layer Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The remotely piloted aircraft (RPA) MASC (Multipurpose Airborne Sensor Carrier) was developed at the University of Tübingen in cooperation with the University of Stuttgart, University of Applied Sciences Ostwestfalen-Lippe and 'ROKE-Modelle'. Its purpose is the investigation of thermodynamic processes in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL), including observations of temperature, humidity and wind profiles, as well as the measurement of turbulent heat, moisture and momentum fluxes. The aircraft is electrically powered, has a maximum wingspan of 3.40 m and a total weight of 5-8 kg, depending on battery- and payload. The standard meteorological payload consists of temperature sensors, a humidity sensor, a flow probe, an inertial measurement unit and a GNSS. In normal operation, the aircraft is automatically controlled by the ROCS (Research Onboard Computer System) autopilot to be able to fly predefined paths at constant altitude and airspeed. Since 2010 the system has been tested and improved intensively. In September 2012 first comparative tests could successfully be performed at the Lindenberg observatory of Germany's National Meteorological Service (DWD). In 2013, several campaigns were done with the system, including fundamental boundary layer research, wind energy meteorology and assistive measurements to aerosol investigations. The results of a series of morning transition experiments in summer 2013 will be presented to demonstrate the capabilities of the measurement system. On several convective days between May and September, vertical soundings were done to record the evolution of the ABL in the early morning, from about one hour after sunrise, until noon. In between the soundings, flight legs of up to 1 km length were performed to measure turbulent statistics and fluxes at a constant altitude. With the help of surface flux measurements of a sonic anemometer, methods of similarity theory could be applied to the RPA flux measurements to compare them to literature. The results show prospects and limitations of boundary layer research with a single RPA at the present state of the art.

Wildmann, Norman; Bange, Jens

2014-05-01

163

Cost and schedule management on the quiet short-haul research aircraft project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Quiet Short-Haul Research Aircraft (QSRA) Project, one of the largest aeronautical programs undertaken by NASA to date, achieved a significant cost underrun. This is attributed to numerous factors, not the least of which were the contractual arrangement and the system of cost and schedule management employed by the contractor. This paper summarizes that system and the methods used for cost/performance measurement by the contractor and by the NASA project management. Recommendations are made for the use of some of these concepts in particular for future programs of a similar nature.

Wilcox, D. E.; Patterakis, P.

1979-01-01

164

Free float acceleration measurements aboard NASA's KC-135 Microgravity Research Aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A three-axis accelerometer subsystem, developed as part of a get-away-special Ga-As crystal growth system for the Space Shuttle, is described. Each axis of this subsystem contains a quartz flexure accelerometer capable of dc measurements, custom-designed measurement circuitry, a programmable microcomputer for measurement control and data reduction, and memory for recording data. The subsystem was flown as a free float experiment aboard the NASA KC-135 microgravity research aircraft, yielding measurements of accelerations during free float at a resolution of 10 micro-g.

Bellows, A. H.; Matthiesen, D. H.; Duchene, G. A.

1990-01-01

165

Variable pitch fan system for NASA/Navy research and technology aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Preliminary design of a shaft driven, variable-pitch lift fan and lift-cruise fan was conducted for a V/STOL Research and Technology Aircraft. The lift fan and lift-cruise fan employed a common rotor of 157.5 cm diameter, 1.18 pressure ratio variable-pitch fan designed to operate at a rotor-tip speed of 284 mps. Fan performance maps were prepared and detailed aerodynamic characteristics were established. Cost/weight/risk trade studies were conducted for the blade and fan case. Structural sizing was conducted for major components and weights determined for both the lift and lift-cruise fans.

Ryan, W. P.; Black, D. M.; Yates, A. F.

1977-01-01

166

MASC - a small Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA) for wind energy research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Originally designed for atmospheric boundary layer research, the MASC (Multipurpose Airborne Sensor Carrier) RPA (Remotely Piloted Aircraft, also known as Unmanned Aerial Vehicle, UAV) is capable of making in-situ measurements of temperature, humidity and wind in high resolution and precision. The autopilot system ROCS (Research Onboard Computer System) enables the aircraft to fly pre-defined routes between waypoints at constant altitude and airspeed. The system manages to operate in wind speeds up to 15 m s-1 safely. It is shown that a MASC can fly as close as one rotor diameter upstream and downstream of running wind turbines at these wind speeds and take valuable data of incoming flow and wake. The flexible operation of an RPA at the size of a MASC can be a major advantage of the system compared to tower measurements and remote sensing in wind energy research. In the project "Lidar Complex" comparisons of RPA measurements with lidar systems and tower measurements are carried out at two different test sites. First results, including turbulence and wake measurements, from a campaign in autumn 2013 are presented.

Wildmann, N.; Hofsäß, M.; Weimer, F.; Joos, A.; Bange, J.

2014-05-01

167

An Evaluation Technique for an F/A-18 Aircraft Loads Model Using F/A-18 Systems Research Aircraft Flight Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A limited evaluation of the F/A-18 baseline loads model was performed on the Systems Research Aircraft at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center (Edwards, California). Boeing developed the F/A-18 loads model using a linear aeroelastic analysis in conjunction with a flight simulator to determine loads at discrete locations on the aircraft. This experiment was designed so that analysis of doublets could be used to establish aircraft aerodynamic and loads response at 20 flight conditions. Instrumentation on the right outboard leading edge flap, left aileron, and left stabilator measured the hinge moment so that comparisons could be made between in-flight-measured hinge moments and loads model-predicted values at these locations. Comparisons showed that the difference between the loads model-predicted and in-flight-measured hinge moments was up to 130 percent of the flight limit load. A stepwise regression technique was used to determine new loads derivatives. These derivatives were placed in the loads model, which reduced the error to within 10 percent of the flight limit load. This paper discusses the flight test methodology, a process for determining loads coefficients, and the direct comparisons of predicted and measured hinge moments and loads coefficients.

Olney, Candida D.; Hillebrandt, Heather; Reichenbach, Eric Y.

2000-01-01

168

Intelligent agent for aircraft collision avoidance  

E-print Network

of aircraft to aircraft communication for free flight environment is Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast. In this research, the focus is on constructing a traffic agent, utilizing aircraft to aircraft information for flight management system...

Shandy, Surya Utama

2002-01-01

169

An experimental and analytical method for approximate determination of the tilt rotor research aircraft rotor/wing download  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The XV-15 Tilt Rotor Research Aircraft download phenomenon was analyzed. This phenomenon is a direct result of the two rotor wakes impinging on the wing upper surface when the aircraft is in the hover configuration. For this study the analysis proceeded along tow lines. First was a method whereby results from actual hover tests of the XV-15 aircraft were combined with drag coefficient results from wind tunnel tests of a wing that was representative of the aircraft wing. Second, an analytical method was used that modeled that airflow caused gy the two rotors. Formulas were developed in such a way that acomputer program could be used to calculate the axial velocities were then used in conjunction with the aforementioned wind tunnel drag coefficinet results to produce download values. An attempt was made to validate the analytical results by modeling a model rotor system for which direct download values were determinrd..

Jordon, D. E.; Patterson, W.; Sandlin, D. R.

1985-01-01

170

NASA rotor systems research aircraft: Fixed-wing configuration flight-test results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The fixed-wing, airplane configuration flight-test results of the Rotor System Research Aircraft (RSRA), NASA 740, at Ames/Dryden Flight Research Center are documented. Fourteen taxi and flight tests were performed from December 1983 to October 1984. This was the first time the RSRA was flown with the main rotor removed; the tail rotor was installed. These tests confirmed that the RSRA is operable as a fixed-wing aircraft. Data were obtained for various takeoff and landing distances, control sensitivity, trim and dynamics stability characteristics, performance rotor-hub drag, and acoustics signature. Stability data were obtained with the rotor hub both installed and removed. The speed envelope was developed to 261 knots true airspeed (KTAS), 226 knots calibrated airspeed (KCAS) at 10,000 ft density altitude. The airplane was configured at 5 deg. wing incidence with 5 deg. wing flaps as a normal configuration. Level-flight data were acquired at 167 KCAS for wing incidence from 0 to 10 deg. Step inputs and doublet inputs of various magnitudes were utilized to acquire dynamic stability and control sensitivity data. Sine-wave inputs of constantly increasing frequency were used to generate parameter identification data. The maximum load factor attained was 2.34 g at 206 KCAS.

Erickson, R. E.; Cross, J. L.; Kufeld, R. M.; Acree, C. W.; Nguyen, D.; Hodge, R. W.

1986-01-01

171

Lateral-directional stability and control characteristics of the Quiet Short-Haul Research Aircraft (QSRA)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results are presented of flight experiments to determine the lateral-directional stability and control characteristics of the Quiet Short-Haul Research Aircraft (QSRA), an experimental aircraft designed to furnish information on various aerodynamic characteristics of a transport type of airplane that makes use of the upper-surface blown (USB) flap technology to achieve short takeoff and landing (STOL) performance. The flight program designed to acquire the data consisted of maneuvers produced by rudder and control-wheel inputs with the airplane in several configurations that had been proposed for landing approach and takeoff operation. The normal stability augmentation system was not engaged during these maneuvers. Time-history records from the maneuvers were analyzed with a parameter estimation procedure to extract lateral-directional stability and control derivatives. For one aircraft configuration in which the USB flaps were deflected 50 deg, several maneuvers were performed to determine the effects of varying the average angle of attack, varying the thrust coefficient, and setting the airplane's upper surface spoilers at a 13 deg symmetrical bias angle . The effects on the lateral characteristics of deflecting the spoilers were rather small and generally favorable. The data indicate that for one test, conducted at low thrust (a thrust coefficient of 0.38), compared with results from tests at thrust coefficients of 0.77 and larger, there was a significant decrease in the lateral control effectiveness, in the yaw damping and in the directional derivative. The directional derivative was also decreased (by about 30 percent) when the average angle of attack of the test was increased from 3 to 16 deg.

Stephenson, Jack D.; Jeske, James A.; Hardy, Gordon H.

1990-01-01

172

Enabling Electric Propulsion for Flight - Hybrid Electric Aircraft Research at AFRC  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Advances in electric machine efficiency and energy storage capability are enabling a new alternative to traditional propulsion systems for aircraft. This has already begun with several small concept and demonstration vehicles, and NASA projects this technology will be essential to meet energy and emissions goals for commercial aviation in the next 30 years. In order to raise the Technology Readiness Level of electric propulsion systems, practical integration and performance challenges will need to be identified and studied in the near-term so that larger, more advanced electric propulsion system testbeds can be designed and built. Researchers at NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center are building up a suite of test articles for the development, integration, and validation of these systems in a real world environment.

Clarke, Sean; Lin, Yohan; Kloesel, Kurt; Ginn, Starr

2014-01-01

173

Efficient, Low-Cost Fan System Research for General Aviation and Commuter Aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document reports research investigations into efficient, low-cost fan system concepts for high bypass turbofans for future general aviation and commuter aircraft. The research specifically addressed lower pressure ratio fans for good propulsive efficiencies in the 200 to 400 knot flight speed regime. Aerodynamic design analyses yielded predicted efficiency in area of 91 to 92 percent (adiabatic). Low-cost manufacturing studies yielded an aluminum blisk rotor and investment cast stator having lowest cost. Structural design analyses yielded a design having excellent vibratory characteristics and the ability to pass One- and Four-pound bird strikes satisfactorily. The low speed and low pressure fans of the study are estimated to have 24 to 30 EPNdB lower community noise levels than larger, high pressure ratio transonic fans.

Merrill, G. L.

2003-01-01

174

CV-990 Landing Systems Research Aircraft (LSRA) flight #145 drilling of shuttle tire using Tire Assa  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Created from a 1/16th model of a German World War II tank, the TAV (Tire Assault Vehicle) was an important safety feature for the Convair 990 Landing System Research Aircraft, which tested space shuttle tires. It was imperative to know the extreme conditions the shuttle tires could tolerate at landing without putting the shuttle and its crew at risk. In addition, the CV990 was able to land repeatedly to test the tires. The TAV was built from a kit and modified into a radio controlled, video-equipped machine to drill holes in aircraft test tires that were in imminent danger of exploding because of one or more conditions: high air pressure, high temperatures, and cord wear. An exploding test tire releases energy equivalent to two and one-half sticks of dynamite and can cause severe injuries to anyone within 50 ft. of the explosion, as well as ear injury - possibly permanent hearing loss - to anyone within 100 ft. The degree of danger is also determined by the temperature pressure and cord wear of a test tire. The TAV was developed by David Carrott, a PRC employee under contract to NASA.

1995-01-01

175

Interior and exterior fuselage noise measured on NASA's C-8a augmentor wing jet-STOL research aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Interior and exterior fuselage noise levels were measured on NASA's C-8A Augmentor Wing Jet-STOL Research Aircraft in order to provide design information for the Quiet Short-Haul Research Aircraft (QSRA), which will use a modified C-8A fuselage. The noise field was mapped by 11 microphones located internally and externally in three areas: mid-fuselage, aft fuselage, and on the flight deck. Noise levels were recorded at four power settings varying from takeoff to flight idle and were plotted in one-third octave band spectra. The overall sound pressure levels of the external noise field were compared to previous tests and found to correlate well with engine primary thrust levels. Fuselage values were 145 + or - 3 dB over the aircraft's normal STOL operating range.

Shovlin, M. D.

1977-01-01

176

Development of test methods for scale model simulation of aerial applications in the NASA Langley Vortex Research Facility. [agricultural aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of basic research to improve aerial applications technology, methods were developed at the Langley Vortex Research Facility to simulate and measure deposition patterns of aerially-applied sprays and granular materials by means of tests with small-scale models of agricultural aircraft and dynamically-scaled test particles. Interactions between the aircraft wake and the dispersed particles are being studied with the objective of modifying wake characteristics and dispersal techniques to increase swath width, improve deposition pattern uniformity, and minimize drift. The particle scaling analysis, test methods for particle dispersal from the model aircraft, visualization of particle trajectories, and measurement and computer analysis of test deposition patterns are described. An experimental validation of the scaling analysis and test results that indicate improved control of chemical drift by use of winglets are presented to demonstrate test methods.

Jordan, F. L., Jr.

1980-01-01

177

Simulation validation of the XV-15 tilt-rotor research aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of a simulation validation program of the XV-15 tilt-rotor research aircraft are detailed, covering such simulation aspects as the mathematical model, visual system, motion system, cab aural system, cab control loader system, pilot perceptual fidelity, and generic tilt rotor applications. Simulation validation was performed for the hover, low-speed, and sideward flight modes, with consideration of the in-ground rotor effect. Several deficiencies of the mathematical model and the simulation systems were identified in the course of the simulation validation project, and some were corrected. It is noted that NASA's Vertical Motion Simulator used in the program is an excellent tool for tilt-rotor and rotorcraft design, development, and pilot training.

Ferguson, S. W.; Hanson, G. D.; Churchill, G. B.

1984-01-01

178

The flight test program for the hydrogen powered NASP/X-30 research aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASP/X-30 will be the first U.S. manned aircraft to be powered with hydrogen. Flight testing the X-30 powered with liquid and/or slush hydrogen along with its high speed capability will present unique challenges to the flight test community. The paper describes the overall X-30 flight research program along with some of the key technology challenges. A flight test envelope expansion concept is described along with typical mission profiles. Flight test problems unique to this class of vehicle will be outlined as well as some preliminary thoughts as to solutions to those problems. The X-30 ground operations with hydrogen must be compatible with the normal operations at the flight test site. A concept for the ground support system will be introduced.

Wierzbanowski, Theodore; Armstrong, Johnny G.

1991-01-01

179

Aerodynamic configuration development of the highly maneuverable aircraft technology remotely piloted research vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The aerodynamic development of the highly maneuverable aircraft technology remotely piloted research vehicle (HiMAT/RPRV) from the conceptual design to the final configuration is presented. The design integrates several advanced concepts to achieve a high degree of transonic maneuverability, and was keyed to sustained maneuverability goals while other fighter typical performance characteristics were maintained. When tests of the baseline configuration indicated deficiencies in the technology integration and design techniques, the vehicle was reconfigured to satisfy the subcritical and supersonic requirements. Drag-due-to-lift levels only 5 percent higher than the optimum were obtained for the wind tunnel model at a lift coefficient of 1 for Mach numbers of up to 0.8. The transonic drag rise was progressively lowered with the application of nonlinear potential flow analyses coupled with experimental data.

Gingrich, P. B.; Child, R. D.; Panageas, G. N.

1977-01-01

180

U.S. Supersonic Commercial Aircraft: Assessing NASA's High Speed Research Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The legislatively mandated objectives of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) include "the improvement of the usefulness, performance, speed, safety, and efficiency of aeronautical and space vehicles" and "preservation of the United States' preeminent position in aeronautics and space through research and technology development related to associated manufacturing processes." Most of NASA's activities are focused on the space-related aspects of these objectives. However, NASA also conducts important work related to aeronautics. NASA's High Speed Research (HSR) Program is a focused technology development program intended to enable the commercial development of a high speed (i.e., supersonic) civil transport (HSCT). However, the HSR Program will not design or test a commercial airplane (i.e., an HSCT); it is industry's responsibility to use the results of the HSR Program to develop an HSCT. An HSCT would be a second generation aircraft with much better performance than first generation supersonic transports (i.e., the Concorde and the Soviet Tu-144). The HSR Program is a high risk effort: success requires overcoming many challenging technical problems involving the airframe, propulsion system, and integrated aircraft. The ability to overcome all of these problems to produce an affordable HSCT is far from certain. Phase I of the HSR Program was completed in fiscal year 1995; it produced critical information about the ability of an HSCT to satisfy environmental concerns (i-e., noise and engine emissions). Phase II (the final phase according to current plans) is scheduled for completion in 2002. Areas of primary emphasis are propulsion, airframe materials and structures, flight deck systems, aerodynamic performance, and systems integration.

1997-01-01

181

NASA/USRA high altitude research aircraft. Gryphon: Soar like an eagle with the roar of a lion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

At the equator, the ozone layer ranges from 65,000 to 130,000+ feet. This is beyond the capabilities of the ER-2, which is NASA's current high altitude reconnaissance aircraft. The Universities Space Research Association, in cooperation with NASA, is sponsoring an undergraduate program which is geared to designing an aircraft that can study the ozoned layer at the equator. This aircraft must be able to satisfy four mission profiles. Mission one is a polar mission which ranges from Chile to the South Pole and back to Chile, a total range of 6000 n. mi. at 100,000 feet with a 2500 lb. payload. The second mission is also a polar mission with a decreased altitude of 70,000 feet and an increased payload of 4000 lb. For the third mission, the aircraft will take-off at NASA Ames, cruise at 100,000 feet carrying a 2500 lb. payload, and land in Puerto Montt, Chile. The final mission requires the aircraft to take-off at NASA Ames, cruise at 100,000 feet with a 1000 lb. payload, make an excursion to 120,000 feet, and land at Howard AFB, Panama. All three missions require that a subsonic Mach number be maintained due to constraints imposed by the air sampling equipment. The aircraft need not be manned for all four missions. Three aircraft configurations were determined to be the most suitable for meeting the above requirements. The performance of each configuration is analyzed to investigate the feasibility of the project requirements. In the event that a requirement can not be obtained within the given constraints, recommendations for proposal modifications are given.

Rivera, Jose; Nunes, Anne; Mcray, Mike; Wong, Walter; Ong, Audrey; Coble, Scott

1991-01-01

182

A Correlation Between Flight-Determined Derivatives and Wind-Tunnel Data for the X-24B Research Aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Longitudinal and lateral-directional estimates of the aerodynamic derivatives of the X-24B research aircraft were obtained from flight data by using a modified maximum likelihood estimation method. Data were obtained over a Mach number range from 0.35 to 1.72 and over an angle of attack range from 3.5 deg. to 15.7 deg. Data are presented for a subsonic and transonic configuration. The flight derivatives were generally consistent and documented the aircraft well. The correlation between the flight data and wind-tunnel predictions is presented and discussed.

Sim, Alex G.

1997-01-01

183

A Correlation Between Flight-Determined Derivatives and Wind-Tunnel Data for the X-24B Research Aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Longitudinal and lateral-directional estimates of the aerodynamic derivatives of the X-24B research aircraft were obtained from flight data by using a modified maximum likelihooa estimation method. Data were obtained over a Mach number range from 0.35 to 1.72 and over an angle of attack range from 3.5deg to 15.7deg. Data are presented for a subsonic and a transonic configuration. The flight derivatives were generally consistent and documented the aircraft well. The correlation between the flight data and wind-tunnel predictions is presented and discussed.

Sim, Alex G.

1976-01-01

184

Strain Gage Loads Calibration Testing with Airbag Support for the Gulfstream III SubsoniC Research Aircraft Testbed (SCRAT)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the design and conduct of the strain-gage load calibration ground test of the SubsoniC Research Aircraft Testbed, Gulfstream III aircraft, and the subsequent data analysis and results. The goal of this effort was to create and validate multi-gage load equations for shear force, bending moment, and torque for two wing measurement stations. For some of the testing the aircraft was supported by three airbags in order to isolate the wing structure from extraneous load inputs through the main landing gear. Thirty-two strain gage bridges were installed on the left wing. Hydraulic loads were applied to the wing lower surface through a total of 16 load zones. Some dead-weight load cases were applied to the upper wing surface using shot bags. Maximum applied loads reached 54,000 lb. Twenty-six load cases were applied with the aircraft resting on its landing gear, and 16 load cases were performed with the aircraft supported by the nose gear and three airbags around the center of gravity. Maximum wing tip deflection reached 17 inches. An assortment of 2, 3, 4, and 5 strain-gage load equations were derived and evaluated against independent check cases. The better load equations had root mean square errors less than 1 percent. Test techniques and lessons learned are discussed.

Lokos, William A.; Miller, Eric J.; Hudson, Larry D.; Holguin, Andrew C.; Neufeld, David C.; Haraguchi, Ronnie

2015-01-01

185

Identification of linearized equations of motion for the fixed wing configuration of the rotor systems research aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this report is to establish linear, decoupled models of rigid body motion for the fixed wing configuration of the Rotor Systems Research Aircraft (RSRA). Longitudinal and lateral control surface fixed linear models were created from aircraft time histories using current system identification techniques. Models were obtained from computer simulation at 160 KCAS and 200 KCAS, and from flight data at 160 KCAS. Comparisons were performed to examine modeling accuracy, variation of dynamics with airspeed and correlation of simulation and flight data results. The results showed that the longitudinal and lateral linear models accurately predicted RSRA dynamics. The flight data results showed that no significant handling qualities problems were present in the RSRA fixed wing aircraft at the flight speed tested.

Balough, D. L.; Sandlin, D. R.

1986-01-01

186

Advanced Technology Blade testing on the XV-15 Tilt Rotor Research Aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The XV-15 Tilt Rotor Research Aircraft has just completed the first series of flight tests with the Advanced Technology Blade (ATB) rotor system. The ATB are designed specifically for flight research and provide the ability to alter blade sweep and tip shape. A number of problems were encountered from first installation through envelope expansion to airplane mode flight that required innovative solutions to establish a suitable flight envelope. Prior to operation, the blade retention hardware had to be requalified to a higher rated centrifugal load, because the blade weight was higher than expected. Early flights in the helicopter mode revealed unacceptably high vibratory control system loads which required a temporary modification of the rotor controls to achieve higher speed flight and conversion to airplane mode. The airspeed in airplane mode was limited, however, because of large static control loads. Furthermore, analyses based on refined ATB blade mass and inertia properties indicated a previously unknown high-speed blade mode instability, also requiring airplane-mode maximum airspeed to be restricted. Most recently, a structural failure of an ATB cuff (root fairing) assembly retention structure required a redesign of the assembly. All problems have been addressed and satisfactory solutions have been found to allow continued productive flight research of the emerging tilt rotor concept.

Wellman, Brent

1992-01-01

187

Research In Nonlinear Flight Control for Tiltrotor Aircraft Operating in the Terminal Area  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The research during the first year of the effort focused on the implementation of the recently developed combination of neural net work adaptive control and feedback linearization. At the core of this research is the comprehensive simulation code Generic Tiltrotor Simulator (GTRS) of the XV-15 tilt rotor aircraft. For this research the GTRS code has been ported to a Fortran environment for use on PC. The emphasis of the research is on terminal area approach procedures, including conversion from aircraft to helicopter configuration. This report focuses on the longitudinal control which is the more challenging case for augmentation. Therefore, an attitude command attitude hold (ACAH) control augmentation is considered which is typically used for the pitch channel during approach procedures. To evaluate the performance of the neural network adaptive control architecture it was necessary to develop a set of low order pilot models capable of performing such tasks as, follow desired altitude profiles, follow desired speed profiles, operate on both sides of powercurve, convert, including flaps as well as mastangle changes, operate with different stability and control augmentation system (SCAS) modes. The pilot models are divided in two sets, one for the backside of the powercurve and one for the frontside. These two sets are linearly blended with speed. The mastangle is also scheduled with speed. Different aspects of the proposed architecture for the neural network (NNW) augmented model inversion were also demonstrated. The demonstration involved implementation of a NNW architecture using linearized models from GTRS, including rotor states, to represent the XV-15 at various operating points. The dynamics used for the model inversion were based on the XV-15 operating at 30 Kts, with residualized rotor dynamics, and not including cross coupling between translational and rotational states. The neural network demonstrated ACAH control under various circumstances. Future efforts will include the implementation into the Fortran environment of GTRS, including pilot modeling and NNW augmentation for the lateral channels. These efforts should lead to the development of architectures that will provide for fully automated approach, using similar strategies.

Calise, A. J.; Rysdyk, R.

1996-01-01

188

A History of Full-Scale Aircraft and Rotorcraft Crash Testing and Simulation at NASA Langley Research Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper summarizes 2-1/2 decades of full-scale aircraft and rotorcraft crash testing performed at the Impact Dynamics Research Facility (IDRF) located at NASA Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia. The IDRF is a 240-ft.-high steel gantry that was built originally as a lunar landing simulator facility in the early 1960's. It was converted into a full-scale crash test facility for light aircraft and rotorcraft in the early 1970 s. Since the first full-scale crash test was preformed in February 1974, the IDRF has been used to conduct: 41 full-scale crash tests of General Aviation (GA) aircraft including landmark studies to establish baseline crash performance data for metallic and composite GA aircraft; 11 full-scale crash tests of helicopters including crash qualification tests of the Bell and Sikorsky Advanced Composite Airframe Program (ACAP) prototypes; 48 Wire Strike Protection System (WSPS) qualification tests of Army helicopters; 3 vertical drop tests of Boeing 707 transport aircraft fuselage sections; and, 60+ crash tests of the F-111 crew escape module. For some of these tests, nonlinear transient dynamic codes were utilized to simulate the impact response of the airframe. These simulations were performed to evaluate the capabilities of the analytical tools, as well as to validate the models through test-analysis correlation. In September 2003, NASA Langley closed the IDRF facility and plans are underway to demolish it in 2007. Consequently, it is important to document the contributions made to improve the crashworthiness of light aircraft and rotorcraft achieved through full-scale crash testing and simulation at the IDRF.

Jackson, Karen E.; Boitnott, Richard L.; Fasanella, Edwin L.; Jones, Lisa E.; Lyle, Karen H.

2004-01-01

189

Production Support Flight Control Computers: Research Capability for F/A-18 Aircraft at Dryden Flight Research Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) is working with the United States Navy to complete ground testing and initiate flight testing of a modified set of F/A-18 flight control computers. The Production Support Flight Control Computers (PSFCC) can give any fleet F/A-18 airplane an in-flight, pilot-selectable research control law capability. NASA DFRC can efficiently flight test the PSFCC for the following four reasons: (1) Six F/A-18 chase aircraft are available which could be used with the PSFCC; (2) An F/A-18 processor-in-the-loop simulation exists for validation testing; (3) The expertise has been developed in programming the research processor in the PSFCC; and (4) A well-defined process has been established for clearing flight control research projects for flight. This report presents a functional description of the PSFCC. Descriptions of the NASA DFRC facilities, PSFCC verification and validation process, and planned PSFCC projects are also provided.

Carter, John F.

1997-01-01

190

Small transport aircraft technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Information on commuter airline trends and aircraft developments is provided to upgrade the preliminary findings of a NASA-formed small transport aircraft technology (STAT) team, established to determine whether the agency's research and development programs could help commuter aircraft manufacturers solve technical problems related to passenger acceptance and use of 19- to 50-passenger aircraft. The results and conclusions of the full set of completed STAT studies are presented. These studies were performed by five airplane manufacturers, five engine manufacturers, and two propeller manufacturers. Those portions of NASA's overall aeronautics research and development programs which are applicable to commuter aircraft design are summarized. Areas of technology that might beneficially be expanded or initiated to aid the US commuter aircraft manufacturers in the evolution of improved aircraft for the market are suggested.

Williams, L. J.

1983-01-01

191

Integrating Multiple Autonomous Underwater Vessels, Surface Vessels and Aircraft into Oceanographic Research Vessel Operations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Autonomous platforms are increasingly used as components of Integrated Ocean Observing Systems and oceanographic research cruises. Systems deployed can include gliders or propeller-driven autonomous underwater vessels (AUVs), autonomous surface vessels (ASVs), and unmanned aircraft systems (UAS). Prior field campaigns have demonstrated successful communication, sensor data fusion and visualization for studies using gliders and AUVs. However, additional requirements exist for incorporating ASVs and UASs into ship operations. For these systems to be optimally integrated into research vessel data management and operational planning systems involves addressing three key issues: real-time field data availability, platform coordination, and data archiving for later analysis. A fleet of AUVs, ASVs and UAS deployed from a research vessel is best operated as a system integrated with the ship, provided communications among them can be sustained. For this purpose, Disruptive Tolerant Networking (DTN) software protocols for operation in communication-challenged environments help ensure reliable high-bandwidth communications. Additionally, system components need to have considerable onboard autonomy, namely adaptive sampling capabilities using their own onboard sensor data stream analysis. We discuss Oceanographic Decision Support System (ODSS) software currently used for situational awareness and planning onshore, and in the near future event detection and response will be coordinated among multiple vehicles. Results from recent field studies from oceanographic research vessels using AUVs, ASVs and UAS, including the Rapid Environmental Picture (REP-12) cruise, are presented describing methods and results for use of multi-vehicle communication and deliberative control networks, adaptive sampling with single and multiple platforms, issues relating to data management and archiving, and finally challenges that remain in addressing these technological issues. Significantly, the use of UAS on oceanographic research vessels is just beginning. We report on several initial field efforts which demonstrated that UAS improve spatial and temporal mapping of ocean features, as well as monitoring marine mammal populations, ocean color, sea ice and wave fields and air-sea gas exchange. These studies however also confirm the challenges for shipboard computer systems ingesting and archiving UAS high resolution video, SAR and lidar data. We describe the successful inclusion of DTN communications for: 1) passing video data between two UAS or a UAS and ship; 2) for inclusion of ASVs as communication nodes for AUVs; as well as, 3) enabling extension of adaptive sampling software from AUVs and ASVs to include UAS. In conclusion, we describe how autonomous sampling systems may be best integrated into shipboard oceanographic vessel research to provide new and more comprehensive time-space ocean and atmospheric data collection that is important not only for scientific study, but also for sustainable ocean management, including emergency response capabilities. The recent examples of such integrated studies highlighted confirm ocean and atmospheric studies can more cost-effectively pursued, and in some cases only accomplished, by combining underwater, surface and aircraft autonomous systems with research vessel operations.

McGillivary, P. A.; Borges de Sousa, J.; Martins, R.; Rajan, K.

2012-12-01

192

Aerodynamic characteristics of a 1/6-scale model of the rotor systems research aircraft with the rotors removed. [wind tunnel tests of aircraft models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A wind-tunnel investigation was conducted to refine the aerodynamic characteristics of the rotor systems research aircraft. For the investigation, a 1/6-scale model without a main rotor or a tail rotor was used. The model provided the capability for testing different engine nacelle sizes, engine pylon fairings, and tail configurations. The engine thrust effects were modeled by small engine simulators (fans). Data were obtained primarily over an angle-of-attack range from -13 deg to 13 deg at several values of sideslip. Stability characteristics and control effectiveness were investigated. The model with the scaled engine nacelles and the combination T-tail and lower horizontal tail displayed longitudinal and lateral-directional stability. Results show that by reducing the horizontal or vertical-tail span the longitudinal stability is decreased. Reducing the engine nacelle size increases the static stability of the model. Effective dihedral is essentially zero at 0 deg angle of attack and 0 deg wing incidence.

Mineck, R. E.; Freeman, C. R.; Hassell, J. L., Jr.

1976-01-01

193

Using Hyperspectral Aircraft Remote Sensing to Support Ecosystems Services Research in New England Lakes and Ponds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Northeastern lakes and ponds provide important ecosystem services to New England residents and visitors. These include the provisioning of abundant, clean water for consumption, agriculture, and industry as well as cultural services (recreation, aesthetics, and wilderness experiences) which enhance local economies and quality of life. Less understood, but equally important, are the roles that these lakes play in protecting all life through supportive services such as nutrient cycling. Nitrogen and phosphorus have a direct impact on the condition of fresh water lakes. Excesses of these nutrients can lead to eutrophication, toxic cyanobacteria blooms, decreased biodiversity, and loss of ecosystem function leading to a reduction in the availability and delivery of ecosystem services. In this study, we examined how variations in lake nutrient concentrations and phytoplankton pigment concentrations correlated with changes in the potential to provide cultural ecosystem services. Using a NASA Cessna 206 aircraft, hyperspectral data were collected during late summer 2009 from 55 lakes in New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island over a 2 day period. From the spectral data, algorithms were created which estimated concentrations of chlorophyll a, phycocyanin, and colored dissolved organic matter. The remotely sensed estimates were supplemented by in situ chlorophyll a, total nitrogen, total phosphorus and lake color data from 43 lakes sampled by field crews from the New England states. The purpose of this research is to understand how variations in lake nutrient concentrations and phytoplankton pigment concentrations correlate with changes in availability of cultural ecosystem services in the surveyed lakes. This dataset will be combined with information from the EPA National Lake Survey (2007), the EPA New England Lakes and Ponds Survey (2008) and the USGS SPARROW model to explore the association between lake condition and the provisioning of ecosystem services on a regional scale. Under the EPA Ecological Services Research Program (ESRP), this information will provide managers and researchers with a better understanding of links between management decisions affecting nutrient fluxes and impacts on selected ecosystem services.

Keith, D. J.; Milstead, B.; Walker, H.; Worthy, D.; Szykman, J.; Wusk, M.; Kagey, L.; Howell, C.; Snook, H.; Drueke, C.

2010-12-01

194

HAMP - the microwave package on the High Altitude and LOng range research aircraft (HALO)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An advanced package of microwave remote sensing instrumentation has been developed for the operation on the new German High Altitude LOng range research aircraft (HALO). The HALO Microwave Package, HAMP, consists of two nadir-looking instruments: a cloud radar at 36 GHz and a suite of passive microwave radiometers with 26 frequencies in different bands between 22.24 and 183.31 ± 12.5 GHz. We present a description of HAMP's instrumentation together with an illustration of its potential. To demonstrate this potential, synthetic measurements for the implemented passive microwave frequencies and the cloud radar based on cloud-resolving and radiative transfer model calculations were performed. These illustrate the advantage of HAMP's chosen frequency coverage, which allows for improved detection of hydrometeors both via the emission and scattering of radiation. Regression algorithms compare HAMP retrieval with standard satellite instruments from polar orbiters and show its advantages particularly for the lower atmosphere with a root-mean-square error reduced by 5 and 15% for temperature and humidity, respectively. HAMP's main advantage is the high spatial resolution of about 1 km, which is illustrated by first measurements from test flights. Together these qualities make it an exciting tool for gaining a better understanding of cloud processes, testing retrieval algorithms, defining future satellite instrument specifications, and validating platforms after they have been placed in orbit.

Mech, M.; Orlandi, E.; Crewell, S.; Ament, F.; Hirsch, L.; Hagen, M.; Peters, G.; Stevens, B.

2014-12-01

195

Preliminary design of propulsion system for V/STOL research and technology aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The V/STOL Research and Technology Aircraft (RTA)propulsion system design effort is limited to components of the lift/cruise engines, turboshaft engine modifications, lift fan assembly, and propulsion system performance generation. The uninstalled total net thrust with all engines and fans operating at intermediate power was 37,114 pounds. Uninstalled system total net thrust was 27,102 pounds when one lift/cruise is inoperative. Components have lives above the 500 hours of the RTA duty cycle. The L/C engine used in a fixed nacelle has the cross shaft forward of the reduction gear whereas the cross shaft is aft of the reduction gear in a tilt nacelle L/C engine. The lift/cruise gearbox contains components and technologies from other DDA engines. The rotor has a 62-inch diameter and contains 22 composite blades that have a hub/tip ratio of 0.454. The blade pitch change mechanism contains hydraulic and mechanical redundancy. The lift fan assembly is completely self-contained including oil cooling in 10 exit vanes.

1977-01-01

196

Aerodynamic characteristics of a 1/6-scale powered model of the rotor systems research aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A wind-tunnel investigation was conducted to determine the effects of the main-rotor wake on the aerodynamic characteristics of the rotor systems research aircraft (RSRA). For the investigation, a 1/6-scale model with a four-blade articulated main rotor was used. Tests were conducted with and without the main rotor. Both the helicopter and the compound helicopter were tested. The latter configuration included the auxiliary thrust engines and the variable-incidence wing. Data were obtained over ranges of angle of attack, angle of sideslip, and main-rotor collective pitch angle at several main-rotor advance ratios. Results are presented for the total loads on the airframe as well as the loads on the rotor, the wing, and the tail. The results indicated that without the effect of the rotor wake, the RSRA had static longitudinal and directional stability and positive effective dihedral. With the effect of the main rotor and its wake, the RSRA exhibited longitudinal instability but retained static directional stability and positive effective dihedral.

Mineck, R. E.; Freeman, C. E.

1977-01-01

197

A review of ONERA aerodynamic research in support of a future supersonic transport aircraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ONERA activities concerning the aerodynamics of the future supersonic transport aircraft are reviewed. Section 1 is devoted to the performance prediction and detailed comparisons between CFD and wind-tunnel data are presented and discussed. Section 2 addresses the problem of the drag prediction in cruise flight conditions from wind-tunnel data. Skin friction coefficients values measured in flight are compared to the results of boundary layer computations. Section 3 is devoted to wing designs with numerical optimisation techniques. Several examples are presented and discussed. Results concerning riblets and laminar flow control are given in Section 4 part which also will present experiments carried out for attachment line contamination investigation. Results from basic research on supersonic laminar flows are also be presented. Section 5 deals with activities on air intake aerodynamics. After a brief recall of supersonic air intakes operational modes and a description of the Concorde air intake, comparisons between CFD and wind tunnel data on a generic 2D intake are presented. Basic experiments on intake internal flow are described and the problem of the internal shock control is addressed.

Thibert, J. J.; Arnal, D.

2000-11-01

198

Calibration of 3-D wind measurements on a single engine research aircraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An innovative calibration method for the wind speed measurement using a boom mounted Rosemount model 858 AJ air velocity probe is introduced. The method is demonstrated for a sensor system installed on a medium size research aircraft which is used for measurements in the atmospheric boundary layer. The method encounters a series of coordinated flight manoeuvres to directly estimate the aerodynamic influences on the probe and to calculate the measurement uncertainties. The introduction of a differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) combined with a high accuracy Inertial Reference System (IRS) has brought major advances to airborne measurement techniques. The exact determination of geometrical height allows the use of the pressure signal as an independent parameter. Furthermore, the exact height information and the stepwise calibration process lead to maximum accuracy. The results show a measurement uncertainty for the aerodynamic influence of the dynamic and static pressures of 0.1 hPa. The applied parametrisation does not require any height dependencies or time shifts. After extensive flight tests a correction for the flow angles (attack and sideslip angles) was found, which is necessary for a successful wind calculation. A new method is demonstrated to correct for the aerodynamic influence on the sideslip angle. For the 3-D wind vector (with 100 Hz resolution) a novel error propagation scheme is tested, which determines the measurement uncertainties to be 0.3 m s-1 for the horizontal and 0.2 m s-1 for the vertical wind components.

Mallaun, C.; Giez, A.; Baumann, R.

2015-02-01

199

X-38 research aircraft removal from Shuttle cargo bay - computer animation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the mid-1990's researchers at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, and Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas, began working actively with the sub-scale X-38 prototype crew return vehicle (CRV). This was an unpiloted lifting body designed at 80 percent of the size of a projected emergency crew return vehicle for the International Space Station. The X-38 and the actual CRV are patterned after a lifting-body shape first employed in the Air Force X-23 (SV-5) program in the mid-1960's and the Air Force-NASA X-24A lifting-body project in the early to mid-1970's. Built by Scaled Composites, Inc., in Mojave, California, and outfitted with avionics, computer systems, and other hardware at Johnson Space Center, two X-38 aircraft were involved in flight research at Dryden beginning in July of 1997. Before that, however, Dryden conducted some 13 flights at a drop zone near California City, California. These tests were done with a 1/6-scale model of the X-38 aircraft to test the parafoil concept that would be employed on the X-38 and the actual CRV. The basic concept is that the actual CRV will use an inertial navigation system together with the Global Positioning System of satellites to guide it from the International Space Station into the earth's atmosphere. A deorbit engine module will redirect the vehicle from orbit into the atmosphere where a series of parachutes and a parafoil will deploy in sequence to bring the vehicle to a landing, possibly in a field next to a hospital. Flight research at NASA Dryden for the X-38 began with an unpiloted captive carry flight in which the vehicle remained attached to its future launch vehicle, the Dryden B-52 008. There were four captive flights in 1997 and three in 1998, plus the first drop test on March 12, 1998, using the parachutes and parafoil. Further captive and drop tests occurred in 1999. Although the X-38 landed safely on the lakebed at Edwards after the March 1998 drop test, there had been some problems with the parafoil. Intermediate parafoil tests at the Army Yuma Proving Grounds in Arizona enabled the project to resolve these problems and resume flight research. In the drop tests, the X-38 vehicles have been autonomous after airlaunch from the B-52. After they deploy the parafoil, they have remained autonomous, but there is also a manual mode that allows control from the ground. The X-38 vehicles (designated V131 and V132) are each 24.5 feet long. The actual CRV to be flown in space is expected to be 30 feet long. This is a short 13-second computer animation clip showing the X-38 vehicle being removed from the shuttle cargo bay by the Space Station Remote Manipulator System robotic arm and then being attached to Pressurized Mating Adopter No. 3 located on the United States Habitation Module of the International Space Station.

1997-01-01

200

X-38 research aircraft - second drop flight from NB-52B mothership  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the mid-1990's researchers at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, and Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas, began working actively with the sub-scale X-38 prototype crew return vehicle (CRV). This was an unpiloted lifting body designed at 80 percent of the size of a projected emergency crew return vehicle for the International Space Station. The X-38 and the actual CRV are patterned after a lifting-body shape first employed in the Air Force X-23 (SV-5) program in the mid-1960's and the Air Force-NASA X-24A lifting-body project in the early to mid-1970's. Built by Scaled Composites, Inc., in Mojave, California, and outfitted with avionics, computer systems, and other hardware at Johnson Space Center, two X-38 aircraft were involved in flight research at Dryden beginning in July of 1997. Before that, however, Dryden conducted some 13 flights at a drop zone near California City, California. These tests were done with a 1/6-scale model of the X-38 aircraft to test the parafoil concept that would be employed on the X-38 and the actual CRV. The basic concept is that the actual CRV will use an inertial navigation system together with the Global Positioning System of satellites to guide it from the International Space Station into the Earth's atmosphere. A deorbit engine module will redirect the vehicle from orbit into the atmosphere where a series of parachutes and a parafoil will deploy in sequence to bring the vehicle to a landing, possibly in a field next to a hospital. Flight research at NASA Dryden for the X-38 began with an unpiloted captive carry flight in which the vehicle remained attached to its future launch vehicle, the Dryden B-52 008. There were four captive flights in 1997 and three in 1998, plus the first drop test on March 12, 1998, using the parachutes and parafoil. Further captive and drop tests occurred in 1999, including one on February 6, 1999. Although the X-38 landed safely on the lakebed at Edwards after the March 1998 drop test, there had been some problems with the parafoil. Intermediate parafoil tests at the Army Yuma Proving Grounds in Arizona enabled the project to resolve these problems and resume flight research. In the drop tests, the X-38 vehicles have been autonomous after airlaunch from the B-52. After they deploy the parafoil, they have remained autonomous, but there is also a manual mode which allows control from the ground. The X-38 vehicles (designated V131 and V132) are each 24.5 feet long. The actual CRV to be flown in space is expected to be 30 feet long. This 32-second film clip shows the X-38 vehicle on its second test flight, dropping away for the NB-52B mothership and jettisoning the stabilizing drogue chute door. Included are several shots of the vehicle under its main parachute (parafoil) until it finally touches down on Rogers Dry Lake at Edwards Air Force Base, California.

1999-01-01

201

X-38 research aircraft mounted in Shuttle docked at Space Station - computer animation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the mid-1990's researchers at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, and Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas, began working actively with the sub-scale X-38 prototype crew return vehicle (CRV). This was an unpiloted lifting body designed at 80 percent of the size of a projected emergency crew return vehicle for the International Space Station. The X-38 and the actual CRV are patterned after a lifting-body shape first employed in the Air Force X-23 (SV-5) program in the mid-1960's and the Air Force-NASA X-24A lifting-body project in the early to mid-1970's. Built by Scaled Composites, Inc., in Mojave, California, and outfitted with avionics, computer systems, and other hardware at Johnson Space Center, two X-38 aircraft were involved in flight research at Dryden beginning in July of 1997. Before that, however, Dryden conducted some 13 flights at a drop zone near California City, California. These tests were done with a 1/6-scale model of the X-38 aircraft to test the parafoil concept that would be employed on the X-38 and the actual CRV. The basic concept is that the actual CRV will use an inertial navigation system together with the Global Positioning System of satellites to guide it from the International Space Station into the Earth's atmosphere. A deorbit engine module will redirect the vehicle from orbit into the atmosphere where a series of parachutes and a parafoil will deploy in sequence to bring the vehicle to a landing, possibly in a field next to a hospital. Flight research at NASA Dryden for the X-38 began with an unpiloted captive carry flight in which the vehicle remained attached to its future launch vehicle, the Dryden B-52 008. There were four captive flights in 1997 and three in 1998, plus the first drop test on March 12, 1998, using the parachutes and parafoil. Further captive and drop tests occurred in 1999. Although the X-38 landed safely on the lakebed at Edwards after the March 1998 drop test, there had been some problems with the parafoil. Intermediate parafoil tests at the Army Yuma Proving Grounds in Arizona enabled the project to resolve these problems and resume flight research. In the drop tests, the X-38 vehicles have been autonomous after airlaunch from the B-52. After they deploy the parafoil, they have remained autonomous, but there is also a manual mode that allows control from the ground. The X-38 vehicles (designated V131 and V132) are each 24.5 feet long. The actual CRV to be flown in space is expected to be 30 feet long. This 21-second computer animation clip shows the space shuttle approaching the Pressurized Mating Adapter No. 2 located on node 2 of the International Space Station. If you look closely you can just see the X-38 crew return vehicle in the shuttle cargo bay.

1997-01-01

202

Research and technology program perspectives for general aviation and commuter aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The uses, benefits, and technology needs of the U.S. general aviation industry were studied in light of growing competition from foreign general aviation manufacturers, especially in the commuter and business jet aircraft markets.

Bauchspies, J. S.; Simpson, W. E.

1982-01-01

203

In-flight control and communication architecture of the GLORIA imaging limb-sounder on atmospheric research aircraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Gimballed Limb Observer for Radiance Imaging of the Atmosphere (GLORIA), a Fourier transform spectrometer based limb spectral imager, operates on high-altitude research aircraft to study the transit region between the troposphere and the stratosphere. It is one of the most sophisticated systems to be flown on research aircraft in Europe, requiring constant monitoring and human intervention in addition to an automation system. To ensure proper functionality and interoperability on multiple platforms, a flexible control and communication system was laid out. The architectures of the communication system as well as the protocols used are reviewed. The integration of this architecture in the automation process as well as the scientific campaign flight application context are discussed.

Kretschmer, E.; Bachner, M.; Blank, J.; Dapp, R.; Ebersoldt, A.; Friedl-Vallon, F.; Guggenmoser, T.; Gulde, T.; Hartmann, V.; Lutz, R.; Maucher, G.; Neubert, T.; Oelhaf, H.; Preusse, P.; Schardt, G.; Schmitt, C.; Schönfeld, A.; Tan, V.

2015-02-01

204

Study of the application of advanced technologies to long-range transport aircraft. Volume 2: Research and development requirements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Investigations were conducted to evaluate the relative benefits attainable through the exploitation of advanced technologies and to identify future research and development efforts required to permit the application of selected technologies to transport aircraft entering commercial operation in 1985. Results show that technology advances, particularly in the areas of composite materials, supercritical aerodynamics, and active control systems, will permit the development of long-range, high-payload commercial transports operating at high-subsonic speeds with direct operating costs lower than those of current aircraft. These advanced transports also achieve lower noise levels and lower engine pollutant emissions than current transports. Research and development efforts, including analytical investigations, laboratory test programs, and flight test programs, are required in essentially all technology areas to achieve the potential technology benefits.

Lange, R. H.; Sturgeon, R. F.; Adams, W. E.; Bradley, E. S.; Cahill, J. F.; Eudaily, R. R.; Hancock, J. P.; Moore, J. W.

1972-01-01

205

Users Guide for NASA Lewis Research Center DC-9 Reduced-Gravity Aircraft Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The document provides guidelines and information for users of the DC-9 Reduced-Gravity Aircraft Program. It describes the facilities, requirements for test personnel, equipment design and installation, mission preparation, and in-flight procedures. Those who have used the KC-135 reduced-gravity aircraft will recognize that many of the procedures and guidelines are the same, to ensure a commonality between the DC-9 and KC-135 programs.

Yaniec, John S.

1995-01-01

206

Assessing Regional Scale Fluxes of Mass, Momentum, and Energy with Small Environmental Research Aircraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural ecosystems are rarely structurally or functionally homogeneous. This is true for the complex coastal regions of Magdalena Bay, Baja California Sur, Mexico, and the Barrow Peninsula on the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska. The coastal region of Magdalena Bay is comprised of the Pacific coastal ocean, eutrophic lagoon, mangroves, and desert ecosystems all adjacent and within a few kilometers, while the Barrow Peninsula is a mosaic of small ponds, thaw lakes, different aged vegetated thaw-lake basins ( VDTLBs ) and interstitial tundra which have been dynamically formed by both short- and long-term processes. We used a combination of tower- and small environmental research aircraft (SERA)-based eddy covariance measurements to characterize the spatial and temporal patterns of CO2, latent, and sensible heat fluxes along with MODIS NDVI, and land surface information, to scale the SERA-based CO2 fluxes up to the regional scale. In the first part of this research, the spatial variability in ecosystem fluxes from the Pacific coastal ocean, eutrophic lagoon, mangroves, and desert areas of northern Magdalena Bay were studied. SERA-derived average midday CO2 fluxes from the desert showed a slight uptake of -1.32 mumol CO2 m-2 s-1, the coastal ocean also showed uptake of -3.48 mumol CO2 m-2 s -1, and the lagoon mangroves showed the highest uptake of -8.11 mumol CO2 m-2 s-1. Additional simultaneous measurements of NDVI allowed simple linear modeling of CO2 flux as a function of NDVI for the mangroves of the Magdalena Bay region. In the second part of this research, the spatial variability of ecosystem fluxes across the 1802 km2 Barrow Peninsula region was studied. During typical 2006 summer conditions, the midday hourly CO2 flux over the region was -2.04 x 105 kgCO2 hr-1. The CO2 fluxes among the interstitial tundra, Ancient and Old VDTLBs, as well as between the Medium and Young VDTLBs were not significantly different. Combined, the interstitial tundra and Old and Ancient VDTLBs, represent ˜67% of the Barrow Peninsula surface area, accounting for ˜59% of the regional flux signal. Though the Medium and Young VDTLBs represent ˜11% of the surface area, they account for a large portion, ˜35%, of the total regional flux. The remaining ˜22% of the surface area are lakes and contributed the remaining ˜6% of the total regional flux. Previous studies treated vegetated areas of the region as a single surface type with measurements from a few study sites; doing so could underestimate the regional flux by ˜22%. The San Diego State University Sky Arrow 650TCN Environmental Research Aircraft proved to be an effective tool in characterizing land-atmosphere fluxes of energy, CO2 and water across heterogeneous landscapes at the scale of 1 km, and was capable of discriminating fluxes from the various ecosystem and land surface types a few kilometers distant. Here, we demonstrate that SERA-based approaches have the ability to cover large spatial scales while measuring the turbulent fluxes across a number of surfaces and combined with ground- and satellite-based measurements provide a valuable tool for both scaling and validation of regional-scale fluxes.

Zulueta, Rommel Callejo

207

Application of Piloted Simulation to High-Angle-of-Attack Flight-Dynamics Research for Fighter Aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper reviews the use of piloted simulation at Langley Research Center as part of the NASA High-Angle-of-Attack Technology Program (HATP), which was created to provide concepts and methods for the design of advanced fighter aircraft. A major research activity within this program is the development of the design processes required to take advantage of the benefits of advanced control concepts for high-angle-of-attack agility. Fundamental methodologies associated with the effective use of piloted simulation for this research are described, particularly those relating to the test techniques, validation of the test results, and design guideline/criteria development.

Ogburn, Marilyn E.; Foster, John V.; Hoffler, Keith D.

2005-01-01

208

An analytical investigation of acquisition techniques and system integration studies for a radar aircraft guidance research facility, phase 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A review of user requirements and updated instrumentation plans are presented for the aircraft tracking and guidance facility at NASA Wallops Station. User demand has increased as a result of new flight research programs; however, basic requirements remain the same as originally reported. Instrumentation plans remain essentially the same but with plans for up- and down-link telemetry more firm. With slippages in the laser acquisition schedule, added importance is placed on the FPS-16 radar as the primary tracking device until the laser is available. Limited simulation studies of a particular Kalman-type filter are also presented. These studies simulated the use of the filter in a helicopter guidance loop in a real-time mode. Disadvantages and limitations of this mode of operation are pointed out. Laser eyesafety calculations show that laser tracking of aircraft is readily feasible from the eyesafety viewpoint.

Thompson, W. S.; Ruedger, W. H.

1973-01-01

209

Remote sensing as a research tool. [sea ice surveillance from aircraft and spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The application of aircraft and spacecraft remote sensing techniques to sea ice surveillance is evaluated. The effects of ice in the air-sea-ice system are examined. The measurement principles and characteristics of remote sensing methods for aircraft and spacecraft surveillance of sea ice are described. Consideration is given to ambient visible light, IR, passive microwave, active microwave, and laser altimeter and sonar systems. The applications of these systems to sea ice surveillance are discussed and examples are provided. Particular attention is placed on the use of microwave data and the relation between ice thickness and sea ice interactions. It is noted that spacecraft and aircraft sensing techniques can successfully measure snow cover; ice thickness; ice type; ice concentration; ice velocity field; ocean temperature; surface wind vector field; and air, snow, and ice surface temperatures.

Carsey, F. D.; Zwally, H. J.

1986-01-01

210

Trajectory module of the NASA Ames Research Center aircraft synthesis program ACSYNT  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A program was developed to calculate trajectories for both military and commercial aircraft for use in the aircraft synthesis program, ACSYNT. The function of the trajectory module was to calculate the changes in the vehicle's flight conditions and weight, as fuel is consumed, during the flying of one or more missions. The trajectory calculations started with a takeoff, followed by up to 12 phases chosen from among the following: climb, cruise, acceleration, combat, loiter, descent, and paths. In addition, a balanced field length was computed. The emphasis was on relatively simple formulations and analytic expressions suitable for rapid computation since a prescribed trajectory had to be calculated many times in the process of converging an aircraft design, or finding an optimum configuration. The trajectory module consists of about 2500 cards and operational on a CDC 7600 computer.

Tauber, M. E.; Paterson, J. A.

1978-01-01

211

A study to define the research and technology requirements for advanced turbo/propfan transport aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility of the propfan relative to the turbofan is summarized, using the Douglas DC-9 Super 80 (DS-8000) as the actual operational base aircraft. The 155 passenger economy class aircraft (31,775 lb 14,413 kg payload), cruise Mach at 0.80 at 31,000 ft (8,450 m) initial altitude, and an operational capability in 1985 was considered. Three propfan arrangements, wing mounted, conventional horizontal tail aft mounted, and aft fuselage pylon mounted are selected for comparison with the DC-9 Super 80 P&WA JT8D-209 turbofan powered aircraft. The configuration feasibility, aerodynamics, propulsion, structural loads, structural dynamics, sonic fatigue, acoustics, weight maintainability, performance, rough order of magnitude economics, and airline coordination are examined. The effects of alternate cruise Mach number, mission stage lengths, and propfan design characteristics are considered. Recommendations for further study, ground testing, and flight testing are included.

Goldsmith, I. M.

1981-01-01

212

Real-time application of advanced three-dimensional graphic techniques for research aircraft simulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Visual aids are valuable assets to engineers for design, demonstration, and evaluation. Discussed here are a variety of advanced three-dimensional graphic techniques used to enhance the displays of test aircraft dynamics. The new software's capabilities are examined and possible future uses are considered.

Davis, Steven B.

1990-01-01

213

A NASA/University/Industry Consortium for Research on Aircraft Ice Protection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

From 1982 through 1987, an unique consortium was functioning which involved government (NASA), academia (Wichita State Univ.) and twelve industries. The purpose was the development of a better ice protection systems for aircraft. The circumstances which brought about this activity are described, the formation and operation recounted, and the effectiveness of the ventue evaluated.

Zumwalt, Glen W.

1989-01-01

214

Mesoscale and Convective-Scale Characteristics of Mature Hurricanes. Part I: General Observations by Research Aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

The analysis of instrumented aircraft data from four recent mature hurricanes reveals common mesoscale and convective-scale features. The structure and organization of the convection, precipitation, and wind flow are studied by combining the airborne observations, using basic instrumentation, with quantitative radar measurements.Three predominant precipitation features seen are 1) the eyewall, 2) a stratiform rain region adjacent to and outside the

David F. Jorgensen

1984-01-01

215

Experimental research on photocatalytic oxidation air purification technology applied to aircraft cabins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The experiment presented in this report was performed in a simulated aircraft cabin to evaluate the air cleaning effects of two air purification devices that used photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) technology. Objective physical, chemical and physiological measurements and subjective human assessments were used for the evaluation. Comparisons were made between conditions with and without the PCO units installed in the re-circulated

Yuexia Sun; Lei Fang; David P. Wyona; Peter Strøm-Tejsena

216

EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH ON PHOTOCATALYTIC OXIDATION AIR PURIFICATION TECHNOLOGY APPLIED TO AIRCRAFT CABINS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The experiment presented in this report was performed in a simulated aircraft cabin to evaluate the air cleaning effects of two air purification devices using Photocatalytic Oxidation (PCO) technology. Objective physical, chemical and physiological measurements and subjective human assessments were used for the evaluation. Comparisons were made between conditions with and without the PCO units installed in the re-circulated air

YX Sun; L Lagercrantz

2005-01-01

217

Experimental research on photocatalytic oxidation air purification technology applied to aircraft cabins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The experiment presented in this report was performed in a simulated aircraft cabin to evaluate the air cleaning effects of two air purification devices that used photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) technology. Objective physical, chemical and physiological measurements and subjective human assessments were used for the evaluation. Comparisons were made between conditions with and without the PCO units installed in the re-circulated

Yuexia Sun; Lei Fang; David P. Wyon; Armin Wisthaler; Love Lagercrantz; Peter Strøm-Tejsen

2008-01-01

218

A review of ONERA aerodynamic research in support of a future supersonic transport aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ONERA activities concerning the aerodynamics of the future supersonic transport aircraft are reviewed. Section 1 is devoted to the performance prediction and detailed comparisons between CFD and wind-tunnel data are presented and discussed. Section 2 addresses the problem of the drag prediction in cruise flight conditions from wind-tunnel data. Skin friction coefficients values measured in flight are compared to

J. J Thibert; D Arnal

2000-01-01

219

V/STOL tilt rotor study. Volume 5: A mathematical model for real time flight simulation of the Bell model 301 tilt rotor research aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A mathematical model for real-time flight simulation of a tilt rotor research aircraft was developed. The mathematical model was used to support the aircraft design, pilot training, and proof-of-concept aspects of the development program. The structure of the mathematical model is indicated by a block diagram. The mathematical model differs from that for a conventional fixed wing aircraft principally in the added requirement to represent the dynamics and aerodynamics of the rotors, the interaction of the rotor wake with the airframe, and the rotor control and drive systems. The constraints imposed on the mathematical model are defined.

Harendra, P. B.; Joglekar, M. J.; Gaffey, T. M.; Marr, R. L.

1973-01-01

220

A perspective on 15 years of proof-of-concept aircraft development and flight research at Ames-Moffett by the Rotorcraft and Powered-Lift Flight Projects Division, 1970-1985  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A proof-of-concept (POC) aircraft is defined and the concept of interest described for each of the six aircraft developed by the Ames-Moffet Rotorcraft and Powered-Lift Flight Projects Division from 1970 through 1985; namely, the OV-10, the C-8A Augmentor Wing, the Quiet Short-Haul Research Aircraft (QSRA), the XV-15 Tilt Rotor Research Aircraft (TRRA), the Rotor Systems Research Aircraft (RSRA)-compound, and the yet-to-fly RSRA/X-Wing Aircraft. The program/project chronology and most noteworthy features of the concepts are reviewed. The paper discusses the significance of each concept and the project demonstrating it; it briefly looks at what concepts are on the horizon as potential POC research aircraft and emphasizes that no significant advanced concept in aviation technology has ever been accepted by civilian or military users without first completing a demonstration through flight testing.

Few, David D.

1987-01-01

221

The European Research Infrastructure IAGOS - From dedicated field studies to routine observations of the atmosphere by instrumented passenger aircraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The global distribution of trace species is controlled by a complex interplay between natural and anthropogenic sources and sinks, atmospheric short- to long-range transport, and in future by diverse, largely not yet quantified feedback mechanisms such as enhanced evaporation of water vapour in a warming climate or possibly the release of methane from melting marine clathrates. Improving global trace gas budgets and reducing the uncertainty of climate predictions crucially requires representative data from routine long-term observations as independent constraint for the evaluation and improvement of model parameterizations. IAGOS (In-service Aircraft for a Global Observing System; www.iagos.org) is a new European Research Infrastructure which operates a unique global observing system by deploying autonomous instruments aboard a fleet of passenger aircraft. IAGOS consists of two complementary building blocks: IAGOS-CORE deploys newly developed high-tech instrumentation for regular in-situ measurements of atmospheric chemical species (O3, CO, CO2, NOx, NOy, H2O, CH4), aerosols and cloud particles. Involved airlines ensure global operation of the network. In IAGOS-CARIBIC a cargo container is operated as a flying laboratory aboard one passenger aircraft. IAGOS aims at the provision of long-term, frequent, regular, accurate, and spatially resolved in-situ observations of the atmospheric chemical composition in the UTLS and the extra tropical troposphere and on vertical profiles of greenhouse gases, reactive trace gases and aerosols throughout the troposphere. It builds on almost 20 years of scientific and technological expertise gained in the research projects MOZAIC (Measurement of Ozone and Water Vapour on Airbus In-service Aircraft) and CARIBIC (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the Atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container). The European consortium includes research centres, universities, national weather services, airline operators and aviation industry. IAGOS provides data for fundamental scientific research and for policy makers, including air quality forecasting, verification of CO2 emissions and Kyoto protocol monitoring, numerical weather prediction, and validation of satellite products. There is also a strong interest of the aviation sector by means of airlines who agreed to provide free transportation of the equipment. Reasons are their intention to contribute to a better understanding of climate change and the budgets of greenhouse gases with particular emphasis on the impact of aviation. Such knowledge forms the scientific basis for the development of abatement strategies and emission trading. IAGOS is planned to be an open infrastructure in two aspects. The data measured onboard the aircraft will be transferred to a central data base and interested users can access the data base free of charge after having signed a data protocol. Access to real-time data will also be free of charge and is foreseen to be achieved in the framework of Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) via the European meteorological network. The presentation will introduce the research infrastructure and its role in the emerging integrated global atmospheric observing system. Data management, quality assurance tools and links between IAGOS and other research infrastructures in the domain of atmospheric observation will be discussed.

Petzold, Andreas; Volz-Thomas, Andreas; Gerbig, Christoph; Thouret, Valerie; Cammas, Jean-Pierre; Brenninkmeijer, Carl A. M.; Iagos Team

2013-04-01

222

Government financial support for civil aircraft research, technology and development in four European countries and the United States  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data on the levels of government financial support for civil aircraft airframe and engine (CAAE) research and technology (R&T) in the United States and Europe (United Kingdom, West Germany, France and The Netherlands) and means of comparing these levels are provided. Data are presented for the years 1974-1977. European R&T expenditure data were obtained through visits to each of the four European countries, to the Washington office of the European Communities, and by a search of applicable literature. CAAE R&T expenditure data for the United States were obtained from NASA and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA).

Chandler, B.; Golaszewski, R.; Patten, C.; Rudman, B.; Scott, R.

1980-01-01

223

V/STOL tilt rotor research aircraft. Volume 3: Ship 2 instrumentation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Information covering sensor cables, sensor installation, and sensor calibration for the XV-15 aircraft number 2 is included. For each junction box (J-box) designation there is a schematic of the J-box disconnect harness, instrumentation worksheets which show sensor location, and calibration data sheets for each sensor associated with that J-box. An index of measurement data codes to J-box locations is given in a table. Cross references are given.

1978-01-01

224

A review of US Army aircrew-aircraft integration research programs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

If the U.S. Army's desire to develop a one crew version of the Light Helicopter Family (LHX) helicopter is to be realized, both flightpath management and mission management will have to be performed by one crew. Flightpath management, the helicopter pilot, and the handling qualities of the helicopter were discussed. In addition, mission management, the helicopter pilot, and pilot control/display interface were considered. Aircrew-aircraft integration plans and programs were reviewed.

Key, D. C.; Aiken, E. W.

1984-01-01

225

Military Aircraft Emissions Research - Case of Hercules Cargo Plane (C-130H) Emissions  

SciTech Connect

Tactical airlifter like C-130H has been in use for more than 50 years, and is expected to serve for many years to come. However, the emission characteristics data of the aircraft are scarce. To increase our understanding of turboprop engine emissions, emissions from a military C-130H cargo aircraft were characterized in field conditions in the fall of 2005. Particulate and gaseous pollutants were measured by conventional and advanced instrumentation platforms that were built with in-situ extractive or remote optical sensing technologies. The measurements performed at the C-130H engine exhaust exit showed increased levels of emissions as the engine power setting increased. In contrast, there was no such a relationship found for the C-130H emitted particulate matter (as a function of engine power setting) measured at about 15-m downstream of the engine exhaust plane. The emitted gaseous species measured at both locations were, however, proportional to the engine power setting and comparable (at both locations) when corrected for ambient dilution indicating the lack of particulate emission-power setting relationship at the far field is unique. The result clearly indicates that the aircraft emission factor or index for particulate matter cannot be experimentally determined at a downstream location away from the exhaust exit and has to be determined right at the engine exhaust plane. Emission indices that are needed for air quality modeling will be presented.

Cheng, Mengdawn [ORNL; Corporan, E. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH; DeWitt, M. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH; Harris, B. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Raleigh, North Carolina; Hashmonay, R. [Arcadis, Inc., Durham, North Carolina; Holdren, M. [Battelle, Columbus; Kaganan, R. [Arcadis, Inc., Durham, North Carolina; Spicer, C. [Battelle, Columbus

2007-01-01

226

Aircraft operations management manual  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA aircraft operations program is a multifaceted, highly diverse entity that directly supports the agency mission in aeronautical research and development, space science and applications, space flight, astronaut readiness training, and related activities through research and development, program support, and mission management aircraft operations flights. Users of the program are interagency, inter-government, international, and the business community. This manual provides guidelines to establish policy for the management of NASA aircraft resources, aircraft operations, and related matters. This policy is an integral part of and must be followed when establishing field installation policy and procedures covering the management of NASA aircraft operations. Each operating location will develop appropriate local procedures that conform with the requirements of this handbook. This manual should be used in conjunction with other governing instructions, handbooks, and manuals.

1992-01-01

227

An inverse modelling approach for frequency response correction of capacitive humidity sensors in ABL research with small unmanned aircraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The measurement of water-vapour concentration in the atmosphere is an ongoing challenge in environmental research. Satisfactory solutions are present for ground-based meteorological stations and measurements of mean values. However, advanced research of thermodynamic processes also aloft, above the surface layer and especially in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL), requires the resolution of small-scale turbulence. Sophisticated optical instruments are used in airborne meteorology with manned aircraft to achieve the necessary fast response measurements in the order of 1 Hz (e.g. LiCor 7500). Since these instruments are too large and heavy for the application on the promising platforms of small remotely piloted aircraft (RPA), a method is presented in this study, that enhances small capacitive humidity sensors to be able to resolve turbulent eddies in the order of 10 m. For this purpose a physical and dynamical model of such a sensor is described and inverted in order to restore original water vapour fluctuations from sensor measurements. Examples of flight measurements show how the method can be used to correct vertical profiles and resolve turbulence spectra up to about 3 Hz.

Wildmann, N.; Kaufmann, F.; Bange, J.

2014-05-01

228

A flight evaluation of a trailing anemometer for low-speed calibrations of airspeed systems on research aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research airspeed systems on three low-speed general aviation airplanes were calibrated by the trailing anemometer method. Each airplane was fitted with an NASA pitot-static pressure tube mounted on either a nose or wing boom. The uncalibrated airspeed systems contained residual static-pressure position errors which were too large for high-accuracy flight research applications. The trailing anemometer calibration was in agreement with the tower flyby calibration for the one aircraft for which the comparison was made. The continuous deceleration technique for the trailing anemometer method offers reduced test time with no appreciable loss of accuracy for airspeed systems with pitot-static system lag characteristics similar to those described.

Fisher, B. D.; Holmes, B. J.; Stough, H. P., III

1978-01-01

229

Soil analyses and evaluations at the impact dynamics research facility for two full-scale aircraft crash tests  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The aircraft structural crash behavior and occupant survivability for aircraft crashes on a soil surface was studied. The results of placement, compaction, and maintenance of two soil test beds are presented. The crators formed by the aircraft after each test are described.

Cheng, R. Y. K.

1977-01-01

230

Wet runways. [aircraft landing and directional control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aircraft stopping and directional control performance on wet runways is discussed. The major elements affecting tire/ground traction developed by jet transport aircraft are identified and described in terms of atmospheric, pavement, tire, aircraft system and pilot performance factors or parameters. Research results are summarized, and means for improving or restoring tire traction/aircraft performance on wet runways are discussed.

Horne, W. B.

1975-01-01

231

Static investigation of the circulation control wing/upper surface blowing concept applied to the quiet short haul research aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Full scale static investigations were conducted on the Quiet Short Haul Research Aircraft (QSRA) to determine the thrust deflecting capabilities of the circulation control wing/upper surface blowing (CCW/USB) concept. This scheme, which combines favorable characteristics of both the A-6/CCW and QSRA, employs the flow entrainment properties of CCW to pneumatically deflect engine thrust in lieu of the mechanical USB flap system. Results show that the no moving parts blown system produced static thrust deflections in the range of 40 deg to 97 deg (depending on thrust level) with a CCW pressure of 208,900 Pa (30.3 psig). In addition, the ability to vary horizontal forces from thrust to drag while maintaining a constant vertical (or lift) value was demonstrated by varying the blowing pressure. The versatility of the CCW/USB system, if applied to a STOL aircraft, was confirmed, where rapid conversion from a high drag approach mode to a thrust recovering waveoff or takeoff configuration could be achieved by nearly instantaneous blowing pressure variation.

Eppel, J. C.; Shovlin, M. D.; Jaynes, D. N.; Englar, R. J.; Nichols, J. H., Jr.

1982-01-01

232

Preliminary results for an aeromagnetic survey flown over Italy using the HALO (High Altitude and LOng range) research aircraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In June 2012 the GEOHALO mission was flown over Italy using the high altitude and long-range German research aircraft HALO (Gulfstream jet - G550). One goal of the mission was to demonstrate the feasibility of using geodetic and geophysical instrumentation on such fast flying aircraft. The magnetic data were collected through two independent acquisition chains placed inside under-wing containers. Each chain included a total intensity cesium magnetometer, a three-component fluxgate magnetometer, several temperature censors and a digitizer. Seven parallel profiles, each around 1000 km long, were flown over the Apennine peninsula from north-west to south-east. The flight altitude was about 3500 m and the survey line spacing around 40 km. These long profiles were complemented by four crossing profiles, and a repeated flight line at a higher altitude (approx. 10500 m). The measured magnetic data appear to be consistent with the expected signal. Here we present preliminary results of the data processing. From the calibration maneuvers we have been able to correct the data for most of the plane generated signal. High frequency noise, probably associated with the plane engines, has been filtered out. Along profile data are compared with the Italian aeromagnetic grid as provided by the last version of the WDMAM (World Digital Magnetic Anomaly Map).

Lesur, V.; Schachtschneider, R.; Gebler, A.

2013-12-01

233

The Aircraft Morphing Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the last decade smart technologies have become enablers that cut across traditional boundaries in materials science and engineering. Here we define smart to mean embedded actuation, sensing, and control logic in a tightly coupled feedback loop. While multiple successes have been achieved in the laboratory, we have yet to see the general applicability of smart devices to real aircraft systems. The NASA Aircraft Morphing program is an attempt to couple research across a wide range of disciplines to integrate smart technologies into high payoff aircraft applications. The program bridges research in seven individual disciplines and combines the effort into activities in three primary program thrusts. System studies are used to assess the highest- payoff program objectives, and specific research activities are defined to address the technologies required for development of smart aircraft systems. In this paper we address the overall program goals and programmatic structure, and discuss the challenges associated with bringing the technologies to fruition.

Wlezien, R. W.; Horner, G. C.; McGowan, A. R.; Padula, S. L.; Scott, M. A.; Silcox, R. J.; Simpson, J. O.

1998-01-01

234

Definition of propulsion system for V/STOL research and technology aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wind tunnel test support, aircraft contractor support, a propulsion system computer card deck, preliminary design studies, and propulsion system development plan are reported. The Propulsion system consists of two lift/cruise turbofan engines, one turboshaft engine and one lift fan connected together with shafting into a combiner gearbox. Distortion parameter levels from 40 x 80 test data were within the established XT701-AD-700 limits. The three engine-three fan system card deck calculates either vertical or conventional flight performance, installed or uninstalled. Design study results for XT701 engine modifications, bevel gear cross shaft location, fixed and tilt fan frames and propulsion system controls are described. Optional water-alcohol injection increased total net thrust 10.3% on a 90 F day. Engines have sufficient turbine life for 500 hours of the RTA duty cycle.

1977-01-01

235

Recent developments in rotary-balance testing of fighter aircraft configurations at NASA Ames Research Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two rotary balance apparatuses were developed for testing airplane models in a coning motion. A large scale apparatus, developed for use in the 12-Foot Pressure Wind tunnel primarily to permit testing at high Reynolds numbers, was recently used to investigate the aerodynamics of 0.05-scale model of the F-15 fighter aircraft. Effects of Reynolds number, spin rate parameter, model attitude, presence of a nose boom, and model/sting mounting angle were investigated. A smaller apparatus, which investigates the aerodynamics of bodies of revolution in a coning motion, was used in the 6-by-6 foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel to investigate the aerodynamic behavior of a simple representation of a modern fighter, the Standard Dynamic Model (SDM). Effects of spin rate parameter and model attitude were investigated. A description of the two rigs and a discussion of some of the results obtained in the respective test are presented.

Malcolm, G. N.; Schiff, L. B.

1985-01-01

236

Recent progress in research pertaining to estimates of gas-side heat transfer in an aircraft gas turbine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A decade ago several important fundamental heat transfer phenomena were identified which were considered basic to the ability to predict heat transfer loads in aircraft gas turbines. The progress in addressing these fundamentals over the past ten years is assessed. Much reseach effort has been devoted to their study in university, industry and government labs and significant progress has been achieved. Advances in computer technology have enabled the modeling of complex 3-D fluid flow in gas turbines so necessary for heat transfer calculations. Advances in instrumentation plus improved data acquisition have brought about more reliable data sets. While much has advanced in the 1980's, much challenging research remains to be done. Several of these areas are suggested.

Graham, Robert W.

1989-01-01

237

Lewis icing research tunnel test of the aerodynamic effects of aircraft ground deicing/anti-icing fluids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A wind tunnel investigation of the effect of aircraft ground deicing/anti-icing fluids on the aerodynamic characteristics of a Boeing 737-200ADV airplane was conducted. The test was carried out in the NASA Lewis Icing Research Tunnel. Fluids tested include a Newtonian deicing fluid, three non-Newtonian anti-icing fluids commercially available during or before 1988, and eight new experimental non-Newtonian fluids developed by four fluid manufacturers. The results show that fluids remain on the wind after liftoff and cause a measurable lift loss and drag increase. These effects are dependent on the high-lift configuration and on the temperature. For a configuration with a high-lift leading-edge device, the fluid effect is largest at the maximum lift condition. The fluid aerodynamic effects are related to the magnitude of the fluid surface roughness, particularly in the first 30 percent chord. The experimental fluids show a significant reduction in aerodynamic effects.

Runyan, L. James; Zierten, Thomas A.; Hill, Eugene G.; Addy, Harold E., Jr.

1992-01-01

238

A Model for Space Shuttle Orbiter Tire Side Forces Based on NASA Landing Systems Research Aircraft Test Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Forces generated by the Space Shuttle orbiter tire under varying vertical load, slip angle, speed, and surface conditions were measured using the Landing System Research Aircraft (LSRA). Resulting data were used to calculate a mathematical model for predicting tire forces in orbiter simulations. Tire side and drag forces experienced by an orbiter tire are cataloged as a function of vertical load and slip angle. The mathematical model is compared to existing tire force models for the Space Shuttle orbiter. This report describes the LSRA and a typical test sequence. Testing methods, data reduction, and error analysis are presented. The LSRA testing was conducted on concrete and lakebed runways at the Edwards Air Force Flight Test Center and on concrete runways at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). Wet runway tire force tests were performed on test strips made at the KSC using different surfacing techniques. Data were corrected for ply steer forces and conicity.

Carter, John F.; Nagy, Christopher J.; Barnicki, Joseph S.

1997-01-01

239

OVRhyp, Scramjet Test Aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A preliminary design for an unmanned hypersonic research vehicle to test scramjet engines is presented. The aircraft will be launched from a carrier aircraft at an altitude of 40,000 feet at Mach 0.8. The vehicle will then accelerate to Mach 6 at an altitude of 100,000 feet. At this stage the prototype scramjet will be employed to accelerate the vehicle to Mach 10 and maintain Mach 10 flight for 2 minutes. The aircraft will then decelerate and safely land.

Aslan, J.; Bisard, T.; Dallinga, S.; Draper, K.; Hufford, G.; Peters, W.; Rogers, J.

1990-01-01

240

ALADINA - an unmanned research aircraft for observing vertical and horizontal distributions of ultrafine particles within the atmospheric boundary layer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the unmanned research aircraft Carolo P360 "ALADINA" (Application of Light-weight Aircraft for Detecting IN-situ Aerosol) for investigating the horizontal and vertical distribution of ultrafine particles in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). It has a wingspan of 3.6 m, a maximum take-off weight of 25 kg and is equipped with aerosol instrumentation and meteorological sensors. A first application of the system, together with the unmanned research aircraft MASC (Multi-Purpose Airborne Carrier) of the Eberhard-Karls University of Tübingen (EKUT), is described. As small payload for ALADINA, two condensation particle counters (CPC) and one optical particle counter (OPC) were miniaturized by re-arranging the vital parts and composing them in a space saving way in the front compartment of the airframe. The CPCs are improved concerning the lower detection threshold and the response time. Each system was characterized in the laboratory and calibrated with test aerosols. The CPCs are operated with two different lower detection threshold diameters of 6 and 18 nm. The amount of ultrafine particles, which is an indicator for new particle formation, is derived from the difference in number concentrations of the two CPCs. Turbulence and thermodynamic structure of the boundary layer are described by measurements of fast meteorological sensors that are mounted at the aircraft nose. A first demonstration of ALADINA and a feasibility study were conducted in Melpitz near Leipzig, Germany, at the Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) station of the Leibniz Institute for Tropospheric Research (TROPOS) on two days in October 2013. There, various ground-based instruments are installed for long-term atmospheric monitoring. The ground-based infrastructure provides valuable additional background information to embed the flights in the continuous atmospheric context and is used for validation of the airborne results. The development of the boundary layer, derived from backscatter signals of a portable Raman lidar POLLYXT, allows a quick overview of the current vertical structure of atmospheric particles. Ground-based aerosol number concentrations are consistent with the results from flights in heights of a few meters. In addition, a direct comparison of ALADINA aerosol data and ground-based aerosol data, sampling the air at the same location, shows comparable values. MASC was operated simultaneously with complementary flight patterns. It is equipped with the same meteorological instruments that offer the possibility to determine turbulent fluxes. Therefore additional information about meteorological conditions was collected in the lowest part of the atmosphere. Vertical profiles up to 1000 m altitude indicate a high variability with distinct layers of aerosol especially for the small particles of a few nanometers in diameter. Particle bursts were observed on one day during the boundary layer development in the morning.

Altstädter, B.; Platis, A.; Wehner, B.; Scholtz, A.; Lampert, A.; Wildmann, N.; Hermann, M.; Käthner, R.; Bange, J.; Baars, H.

2014-12-01

241

Mystery Aircraft  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Federation of American Scientists offers this unique perspective into classified government aircraft, "some of which actually exist, some of which certainly do not, and all of which are fascinating in a way." This site is divided into two main sections. The first provides insight into several aircraft that were initially shrouded in secrecy but have since been revealed to the public. Some examples include the SR-71, the B-2, and the Hyper-X. The second section is devoted to aircraft that may or may not be currently under development or in operation by the US government. The much popularized Aurora is in this section, as well as exotic propulsion aircraft.

242

Aircraft Cabin Environmental Quality Sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Indoor Environment Department at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) teamed with seven universities to participate in a Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Center of Excellence (COE) for research on environmental quality in aircraft. This report describes research performed at LBNL on selecting and evaluating sensors for monitoring environmental quality in aircraft cabins, as part of Project 7 of the FAA's

Lara Gundel; Thomas Kirchstetter; Michael Spears; Douglas Sullivan

2010-01-01

243

X-15s, HL-10, M2-F1, and M2-F2 Lifting Body research aircraft in main NASA hangar  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hangar 4802 at the NASA Flight Research Center in 1966. Aircraft on left include (left to right): HL-10, M2-F2, M2-F1, F-4A, F5D-1, F-104 (barely visible) and C-47. Aircraft on the right side (left to right) include: X-15-1 (56-6670), X-15-3 (56-6672), and X-15-2 (56-6671). Hangar 4802 had been the main hangar at the Flight Research Center (FRC--now the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, CA) and before that, the High-Speed Flight Station, since 1954. During 1966, the two main flight research projects at the FRC were the lifting bodies (including the M2-F1, M2-F2, and HL-10) and the X-15.

1966-01-01

244

Flight evaluation of advanced controls and displays for transition and landing on the NASA V/STOL systems research aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flight experiments were conducted on Ames Research Center's V/STOL Systems Research Aircraft (VSRA) to assess the influence of advanced control modes and head-up displays (HUD's) on flying qualities for precision approach and landing operations. Evaluations were made for decelerating approaches to hover followed by a vertical landing and for slow landings for four control/display mode combinations: the basic YAV-8B stability augmentation system; attitude command for pitch, roll, and yaw; flightpath/acceleration command with translational rate command in the hover; and height-rate damping with translational-rate command. Head-up displays used in conjunction with these control modes provided flightpath tracking/pursuit guidance and deceleration commands for the decelerating approach and a mixed horizontal and vertical presentation for precision hover and landing. Flying qualities were established and control usage and bandwidth were documented for candidate control modes and displays for the approach and vertical landing. Minimally satisfactory bandwidths were determined for the translational-rate command system. Test pilot and engineer teams from the Naval Air Warfare Center, the Boeing Military Airplane Group, Lockheed Martin, McDonnell Douglas Aerospace, Northrop Grumman, Rolls-Royce, and the British Defense Research Agency participated in the program along with NASA research pilots from the Ames and Lewis Research Centers. The results, in conjunction with related ground-based simulation data, indicate that the flightpath/longitudinal acceleration command response type in conjunction with pursuit tracking and deceleration guidance on the HUD would be essential for operation to instrument minimums significantly lower than the minimums for the AV-8B. It would also be a superior mode for performing slow landings where precise control to an austere landing area such as a narrow road is demanded. The translational-rate command system would reduce pilot workload for demanding vertical landing tasks aboard ship and in confined land-based sites.

Franklin, James A.; Stortz, Michael W.; Borchers, Paul F.; Moralez, Ernesto, III

1996-01-01

245

Aircraft-vehicle system interaction. An evaluation of NASA's program in human factors research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research in the areas of man machine interaction and human factors engineering are assessed in relation to improved effeciency and aviation safety. The appropriateness, relevance, adequacy, and timeliness of the research is evaluated, and recommendations are provided regarding the objectives, approach and content.

1982-01-01

246

Aircraft flight characteristics in icing conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aircraft flight dynamic characteristics can be greatly changed by ice accretion, which has been considered a considerable threat to aircraft flight safety for a long time. An overview of the studies on several ice accretion effects on aircraft flight dynamics is presented here. Special attention is paid to the following areas: ways to obtain the aerodynamic data of iced aircraft, flight dynamic modeling and simulation for iced aircraft, effects of ice accretion on aircraft stability and control as well as on flight performance and aircraft icing envelope protection and control adaption. Finally based on the progress of existing research in these areas, some key issues which deserve more attention for researchers to resolve are addressed, including obtaining aerodynamic data of iced aircraft through numerical simulation method, consummating the existing calculation models about effects of ice accretion on aircraft aerodynamic derivatives and enhancing the investigation on problems of tailplane ice accretion.

Cao, Yihua; Wu, Zhenlong; Su, Yuan; Xu, Zhongda

2015-04-01

247

Probing emissions of military cargo aircraft: description of a joint field measurement Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program.  

PubMed

To develop effective air quality control strategies for military air bases, there is a need to accurately quantify these emissions. In support of the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program project, the particulate matter (PM) and gaseous emissions from two T56 engines on a parked C-130 aircraft were characterized at the Kentucky Air National Guard base in Louisville, KY. Conventional and research-grade instrumentation and methodology were used in the field campaign during the first week of October 2005. Particulate emissions were sampled at the engine exit plane and at 15 m downstream. In addition, remote sensing of the gaseous species was performed via spectroscopic techniques at 5 and 15 m downstream of the engine exit. It was found that PM mass and number concentrations measured at 15-m downstream locations, after dilution-correction generally agreed well with those measured at the engine exhaust plane; however, higher variations were observed in the far-field after natural dilution of the downstream measurements was accounted for. Using carbon dioxide-normalized data we demonstrated that gas species measurements by extractive and remote sensing techniques agreed reasonably well. PMID:18581808

Cheng, Meng-Dawn; Corporan, Edwin; DeWitt, Matthew J; Spicer, Chester W; Holdren, Michael W; Cowen, Kenneth A; Laskin, Alex; Harris, David B; Shores, Richard C; Kagann, Robert; Hashmonay, Ram

2008-06-01

248

Alternate Fuels for use in Commercial Aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

The engine and commercial aircraft research and development communities have been investigating the practicality of using alternative fuels in near, mid, and far-term aircraft. Presently, it appears that an approach of using a \\

David L. Daggett; Robert C. Hendricks; Edwin Corporan

249

V/STOL tilt rotor research aircraft. Volume 1: General information, revision C  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The configuration, operation and maintenance requirements for the contractor-furnished portion of the XV-15 research instrumentation and data acquisition system are defined. Descriptions of systems operation, maintenance and checkout procedures, and cable designations are given.

Kimbell, M.; Whitener, A.

1980-01-01

250

The insertion of human dynamics models in the flight control loops of V/STOL research aircraft. Appendix 2: The optimal control model of a pilot in V/STOL aircraft control loops  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview is presented of research work focussed on the design and insertion of classical models of human pilot dynamics within the flight control loops of V/STOL aircraft. The pilots were designed and configured for use in integrated control system research and design. The models of human behavior that were considered are: McRuer-Krendel (a single variable transfer function model); and Optimal Control Model (a multi-variable approach based on optimal control and stochastic estimation theory). These models attempt to predict human control response characteristics when confronted with compensatory tracking and state regulation tasks. An overview, mathematical description, and discussion of predictive limitations of the pilot models is presented. Design strategies and closed loop insertion configurations are introduced and considered for various flight control scenarios. Models of aircraft dynamics (both transfer function and state space based) are developed and discussed for their use in pilot design and application. Pilot design and insertion are illustrated for various flight control objectives. Results of pilot insertion within the control loops of two V/STOL research aricraft (Sikorski Black Hawk UH-60A, McDonnell Douglas Harrier II AV-8B) are presented and compared against actual pilot flight data. Conclusions are reached on the ability of the pilot models to adequately predict human behavior when confronted with similar control objectives.

Zipf, Mark E.

1989-01-01

251

Airborne measurements of CO2 and CH4 onboard the UK FAAM research aircraft using a, Los Gatos Research Inc, cavity enhanced absorption spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Airborne measurements of CO2 and CH4 have been made using the UK Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM) BAe-146 research aircraft since spring 2011.The measurement system uses a commercially available analyser, based on the off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy technique, from Los Gatos Research Inc (FGGA, Model RMT-200). During the first year of operation (29 flights), 1 Hz measurements were found to be accurate to 0.07 ± 2.48ppbv for CH4 and -0.06± 0.66ppmv for CO2. In summer 2011, as part of the BORTAS project (Quantifying the impact of BOReal forest fires on Tropospheric oxidants over the Atlantic using Aircraft and Satellites), outflow from boreal forest fires was measured in Eastern Canada. A number of fresh and photochemically-aged plumes were identified using simultaneous HCN measurements, a widely used tracer for biomass burning. In the freshest plumes, strong relationships were found between CH4, CO2 and other tracers for biomass burning. From this we were able to estimate that 6.9±0.8 g of CH4 and 1551±213 g of CO2 were released into the atmosphere per kg of dry matter burnt. These emission factors are in good agreement with estimates from previous studies in boreal regions. However for aged plumes the correlations between CH4 and other biomass burning tracers were not as robust, most likely due to mixing from other CH4 emission sources, such as the wetland regions. The role of additional emission sources will be investigated using the UK Met Office NAME atmospheric dispersion model and the HYSPLIT trajectory model. Using tailored back trajectory analysis, we will present an interpretation of this new dataset in the context of air mass/fire origin, relating this to MODIS fire maps and source strength.

O'Shea, S.; Bauguitte, S.; Muller, J. B.; Le Breton, M.; Gallagher, M. W.; Allen, G.; Percival, C. J.

2012-12-01

252

Researcher's guide to the NASA Ames Flight Simulator for Advanced Aircraft (FSAA)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Performance, limitations, supporting software, and current checkout and operating procedures are presented for the flight simulator, in terms useful to the researcher who intends to use it. Suggestions to help the researcher prepare the experimental plan are also given. The FSAA's central computer, cockpit, and visual and motion systems are addressed individually but their interaction is considered as well. Data required, available options, user responsibilities, and occupancy procedures are given in a form that facilitates the initial communication required with the NASA operations' group.

Sinacori, J. B.; Stapleford, R. L.; Jewell, W. F.; Lehman, J. M.

1977-01-01

253

Design of a high-performance rotary stratified-charge research aircraft engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The power section for an advanced rotary stratified-charge general aviation engine has been designed under contract to NASA. The single-rotor research engine of 40 cubic-inches displacement (RCI-40), now being procured for test initiation this summer, is targeted for 320 T.O. horse-power in a two-rotor production engine. The research engine is designed for operating on jet-fuel, gasoline or diesel fuel and will be used to explore applicable advanced technologies and to optimize high output performance variables. Design of major components of the engine is described in this paper.

Jones, C.; Mount, R. E.

1984-01-01

254

ANALYSIS OF AIRCRAFT MOTIONS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This program was developed by Ames Research Center, in cooperation with the National Transportation Safety Board, as a technique for deriving time histories of an aircraft's motion from Air Traffic Control (ATC) radar records. This technique uses the radar range and azimuth data, along with the downlinked altitude data, to derive an expanded set of data which includes airspeed, lift, attitude angles (pitch, roll, and heading), etc. This technique should prove useful as a source of data in the investigation of commercial airline accidents and in the analysis of accidents involving aircraft which do not have onboard data recorders (e.g., military, short-haul, and general aviation). The technique used to determine the aircraft motions involves smoothing of raw radar data. These smoothed results, in combination with other available information (wind profiles and aircraft performance data), are used to derive the expanded set of data. This program uses a cubic least-square fit to smooth the raw data. This moving-arc procedure provides a smoothed time history of the aircraft position, the inertial velocities, and accelerations. Using known winds, these inertial data are transformed to aircraft stability axes to provide true airspeed, thrust-drag, lift, and roll angle. Further derivation, based on aircraft dependent performance data, can determine the aircraft angle of attack, pitch, and heading angle. Results of experimental tests indicate that values derived from ATC radar records using this technique agree favorably with airborne measurements. This program is written in FORTRAN IV to be executed in the batch mode, and has been implemented on a CDC 6000 series computer with a central memory requirement of 64k (octal) of 60 bit words.

Wingrove, R. C.

1994-01-01

255

Start Up Research Effort in Fluid Mechanics. Advanced Methods for Acoustic and Thrust Benefits for Aircraft Engine Nozzle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In accordance with the project plan for the report period in the proposal titled above, HU and FML teams investigated two sets of concepts for reduction of noise and improvement in efficiency for jet exhaust nozzles of aircraft engines and screws for mixers, fans, propellers and boats. The main achievements in the report period are: (a) Publication of the paper in the AIAA Journal, which described our concepts and some results. (b) The Award in the Civil Research and Development Foundation (CRDF) competition. This 2 year grant for Hampton University (HU) and Central AeroHydrodynamic Institute (TSAGI, Moscow, Russia) supports the research implementation under the current NASA FAR grant. (c) Selection for funding by NASA HQ review panel of the Partnership Awards Concept Paper. This two year grant also will support our current FAR grant. (d) Publication of a Mobius Strip concept in NASA Technical Briefs, June, 1996, and a great interest of many industrial companies in this invention. Successful experimental results with the Mobius shaped screw for mixers, which save more than 30% of the electric power by comparison with the standard screws. Creation of the scientific-popular video-film which can be used for commercial and educational purposes. (e) Organization work, joint meetings and discussions of the NASA LARC JNL Team and HU professors and administration for the solution of actual problems and effective work of the Fluid Mechanics Laboratory at Hampton University. In this report the main designs are enumerated. It also contains for both concept sets: (1) the statement of the problem for each design, some results, publications, inventions, patents, our vision for continuation of this research, and (2) present and expected problems in the future.

White, Samuel G.; Gilinsky, Mikhail M.

1997-01-01

256

Dryden Aircraft Photo Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Any lover of airplanes is bound to enjoy this collection of digitized photos "of many of the unique research aircraft" from the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center in Edwards, California. The photos go back to the 1940s and into the present. Multiple resolutions are available. The collection is regularly updated. Visitors can browse the entire list alphabetically, or go right to the most recent postings in "What's New" or check out the Slide Show of selected photos. Each photo is accompanied by a short description of the aircraft's flight history. Some other miscellaneous photos include the shock wave of a T-38 at Mach 1.1 and photos of Dryden pilots.

257

New Capabilities for Arctic Research Through the Use of Unmanned Aircraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Airborne measurements are crucial to observing and understanding atmospheric climate processes. Starting in the early 1990s, the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Monitoring (ARM) program pushed the frontiers of atmospheric research with aerial campaigns in Oklahoma and later on the North Slope of Alaska. That work addressed a long-standing priority of the program, namely, improving the representation of clouds in climate models.

Desilets, Darin; Zak, Bernard D.; Ivey, Mark D.

2013-11-01

258

Antimisting-fuel research and development for commercial aircraft. Final summary report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report covers the research, development, testing, and evaluation conducted by the Federal Aviation Administration in pursuit of an effective, feasible antimisting agent for kerosene jet fuels that would prevent or reduce the dangers of postcrash, fuel-mist fires. For the past eight years, most of this effort was focused on a high-molecular-weight polymer, FM-9, as a representative agent to prove

Yaffee

1986-01-01

259

Ball lightning risk to aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lightning is a rare but regular phenomenon for air traffic. Aircraft are designed to withstand lightning strikes. Research on lightning and aircraft can be called detailed and effective. In the last 57 years, 18 reported lightning aviation disasters with a fatality figure of at least 714 persons occurred. For comparison, the last JACDEC ten-year average fatality figure was 857. The

R. Doe; A. Keul

2009-01-01

260

Environmental research brief: Pollution prevention assessment for a manufacturer of aircraft landing gear  

SciTech Connect

The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a Pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacture who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lac the expertise to do so. In an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) we established at selected universities and procedures were adapted from the EPA Waste Minimization Opportunity Assessment Manual. The WMAC team at the University of Tennessee performed an assessment at a plant that manufactures outboard motors for water craft. Three basic subunits received from other manufacturing plants undergo primarily painting and assembly operations in order to produce the final product. The team`s report, detailing findings and recommendations, indicated that paint overspray waste and spent clean-up solvent are generated in large quantities and that significant cost savings could be achieved by installing robotic paint application equipment. This Research Brief was developed by the principal investigators and EPA`s National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Cincinnati, OH, to announce key findings of an ongoing research project that is fully documented in a separate report of the same title available from University City Science Center.

Jendrucko, R.J.; Morton, S.D.; Thomas, T.M. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Engineering Science and Mechanics; Looby, G.P. [University City Science Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

1995-08-01

261

Alternative aircraft fuels technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA is studying the characteristics of future aircraft fuels produced from either petroleum or nonpetroleum sources such as oil shale or coal. These future hydrocarbon based fuels may have chemical and physical properties that are different from present aviation turbine fuels. This research is aimed at determining what those characteristics may be, how present aircraft and engine components and materials would be affected by fuel specification changes, and what changes in both aircraft and engine design would be required to utilize these future fuels without sacrificing performance, reliability, or safety. This fuels technology program was organized to include both in-house and contract research on the synthesis and characterization of fuels, component evaluations of combustors, turbines, and fuel systems, and, eventually, full-scale engine demonstrations. A review of the various elements of the program and significant results obtained so far are presented.

Grobman, J.

1976-01-01

262

Aircraft liftmeter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A display for aiding the pilot of an aircraft in anomalous wind environments is described. Wind velocity components are measured by an instrument, processed by a computer and a vector generator, and then displayed as a vector. The display utilizes the measurements of ground speed and of wind velocity in three mutually perpendicular directions. This display will also show changes in lift of an aircraft.

Millen, E. W. (inventor)

1986-01-01

263

Probing Aircraft Flight Test Hazard Mitigation for the Alternative Fuel Effects on Contrails & Cruise Emissions (ACCESS) Research Team  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Alternative Fuel Effects on Contrails & Cruise Emissions (ACCESS) Project Integration Manager requested in July 2012 that the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) form a team to independently assess aircraft structural failure hazards associated with the ACCESS experiment and to identify potential flight test hazard mitigations to ensure flight safety. The ACCESS Project Integration Manager subsequently requested that the assessment scope be focused predominantly on structural failure risks to the aircraft empennage raft empennage.

Kelly, Michael J.

2013-01-01

264

NASA's F-15B Research Testbed aircraft flies in the supersonic shock wave of a U.S. Navy F-5E as par  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's F-15B Research Testbed aircraft recently flew in the supersonic shock wave of a U.S. Navy F-5E in support of the F-5 Shaped Sonic Boom Demonstration (SSBD) project, part of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency's (DARPA) Quiet Supersonic Platform (QSP) program. The flights originated from the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards, California. Four flights were flown in order to measure the F-5E's near-field (close-up) sonic boom signature at Mach 1.4, during which more than 50 shockwave patterns were measured at distances as close as 100 feet below the F-5E.

2002-01-01

265

Raven Aircraft Launch  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS contractor Phil Owen of EnrGies, Inc. launches a Raven aircraft on the Missouri River near Lower Brule, S.D., during an August 2012 mission to monitor erosion on the river. Owen is accompanied by USGS and Bureau of Indian Affairs researchers.  ...

266

Effects of aircraft noise and sonic booms on fish and wildlife: results of a survey of u. s. fish and wildlife service endangered species and ecological services field offices, refuges, hatcheries, and research centers  

SciTech Connect

The National Ecology Research Center (Center), as part of an ongoing research study on the effects of low-altitude aircraft operations on fish and wildlife, conducted a survey in January 1987 of all U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) regional directors, research center directors, Ecological Services and Endangered Species field offices supervisors, refuge manager, and hatchery manager. The objective of the survey was to determine the nature and extent of aircraft-induced impacts on fish and wildlife species, populations, and habitat utilization. The field-installation managers and biologists were asked to provide background information or data on fish and wildlife reactions to low-altitude aircraft disturbances, including physiological, behavioral, and reproductive/population effects. Specifically, the survey asked for information such as: observations pf amo,a; reaction(s) to aircraft operations, e.g., desert bighorn sheep scare behavior in response to aircraft overflights and hatchery fish seizures and death following intense sonic booms; and instances of areas where aircraft noise is known or believed to be responsible for reduced population size, e.g. areas along heavily used aircraft flight corridors where breeding waterfowl densities are lower than in similar habitat away from the noise area.

Gladwin, D.N.; Asherin, D.A.; Manci, K.M.

1988-06-01

267

High altitude reconnaissance aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

At the equator the ozone layer ranges from 65,000 to 130,000 plus feet, which is beyond the capabilities of the ER-2, NASA's current high altitude reconnaissance aircraft. The Universities Space Research Association, in cooperation with NASA, is sponsoring an undergraduate program which is geared to designing an aircraft that can study the ozone layer at the equator. This aircraft must be able to cruise at 130,000 feet for six hours at Mach 0.7, while carrying 3,000 lbs. of payload. In addition, the aircraft must have a minimum range of 6,000 miles. In consideration of the novel nature of this project, the pilot must be able to take control in the event of unforeseen difficulties. Three aircraft configurations were determined to be the most suitable - a joined-wing, a biplane, and a twin-boom conventional airplane. The performance of each configuration was analyzed to investigate the feasibility of the project.

Yazdo, Renee Anna; Moller, David

1990-01-01

268

Pilot Comments From the Boeing High Speed Research Aircraft, Cycle 3, Simulation Study of the Effects of Aeroservoelasticity (LaRC.3)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is a compilation of pilot comments from the Boeing High Speed Research Aircraft, Cycle 3, simulation study (LaRC.3) of the effects of aeroservoelasticity, conducted from October to December 1997 at NASA Langley Research Center. This simulation study was conducted using the Visual Motion Simulator. The comments are from direct tape transcriptions and have been edited for spelling only. These comments were made on tape following the completion of each flight card, immediately after the pilot was satisfied with his practice and data recording runs. Six pilots were used in the evaluation and they are identified as pilots A through F.

Bailey, Melvin L. (Editor)

2000-01-01

269

Follow on Research for Multi-Utility Technology Test Bed Aircraft at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center (FY13 Progress Report)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Modern aircraft employ a significant fraction of their weight in composite materials to reduce weight and improve performance. Aircraft aeroservoelastic models are typically characterized by significant levels of model parameter uncertainty due to the composite manufacturing process. Small modeling errors in the finite element model will eventually induce errors in the structural flexibility and mass, thus propagating into unpredictable errors in the unsteady aerodynamics and the control law design. One of the primary objectives of Multi Utility Technology Test-bed (MUTT) aircraft is the flight demonstration of active flutter suppression, and therefore in this study, the identification of the primary and secondary modes for the structural model tuning based on the flutter analysis of MUTT aircraft. The ground vibration test-validated structural dynamic finite element model of the MUTT aircraft is created in this study. The structural dynamic finite element model of MUTT aircraft is improved using the in-house Multi-disciplinary Design, Analysis, and Optimization tool. In this study, two different weight configurations of MUTT aircraft have been improved simultaneously in a single model tuning procedure.

Pak, Chan-Gi

2013-01-01

270

Jet aircraft hydrocarbon fuels technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A broad specification, referee fuel was proposed for research and development. This fuel has a lower, closely specified hydrogen content and higher final boiling point and freezing point than ASTM Jet A. The workshop recommended various priority items for fuel research and development. Key items include prediction of tradeoffs among fuel refining, distribution, and aircraft operating costs; combustor liner temperature and emissions studies; and practical simulator investigations of the effect of high freezing point and low thermal stability fuels on aircraft fuel systems.

Longwell, J. P. (editor)

1978-01-01

271

Neural networks for aircraft control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Current research in Artificial Neural Networks indicates that networks offer some potential advantages in adaptation and fault tolerance. This research is directed at determining the possible applicability of neural networks to aircraft control. The first application will be to aircraft trim. Neural network node characteristics, network topology and operation, neural network learning and example histories using neighboring optimal control with a neural net are discussed.

Linse, Dennis

1990-01-01

272

Pilotless Aircraft Research Division  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The launching of the first rocket at the NACA's Wallop's Island Facility on June 27, 1945. Joseph Shortal described this launch as follows: 'The initial operations on June 27, 1945 on Wallops were to check the tracking station location and operation, check the use of CW (Doppler radar for measuring velocities of missiles and to gain experience with actual rockets. Five 3.25 inch rockets were fired at 39.4 elevation angle, and one each at 33.7, 29.3, and 21.5. All were fired in a direction parallel to the beach to simulate the first Tiamat missile launching. Four of the eight rockets were tracked satisfactorily by the SCR-584 radar located at the mainland tracking station 2 and a strong signal was obtained on the CW radar. As [Ray W.] Hooker stated in his official report on the operations, 'In general, the operation was successful.' [Germain S.] Brown, in his diary expressed it this way: 'Hooker and gang arrived by B24 at 10:30. Went to Island and launched about eight rockets with satisfactory results. Lt. Rucker and 3 Navy enlisted men assisted us.' 'For this operation the rockets and the ordnance personnel were supplied by the Patuxent Naval Air Station. Navy Buaer had established a special project to cover this cooperation with NACA.' Excerpts from Joseph Shortal's history of Wallops Station.

1945-01-01

273

Aircraft cybernetics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of computers for aircraft control, flight simulation, and inertial navigation is explored. The man-machine relation problem in aviation is addressed. Simple and self-adapting autopilots are described and the assets and liabilities of digital navigation techniques are assessed.

1977-01-01

274

Aircraft icing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the background to and the current status of analyses developed to address the problem of icing on aircraft. Methods for water droplet trajectory calculation, ice accretion prediction, aerodynamic performance degradation and an overview of ice protection system modelling are presented. The paper addresses the issues involved in the development of icing analyses including problem formulation and assumptions,

R. W. Gent; N. P. Dart; J. T. Cansdale

2000-01-01

275

Small Transport Aircraft Technology /STAT/ Propulsion Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Small Transport Aircraft Technology (STAT) Propulsion Study was established to identify technology requirements and define the research and development required for new commuter aircraft. Interim results of the studies defined mission and design characteristics for 30- and 50-passenger aircraft. Sensitivities were defined that relate changes in engine specific fuel consumption (SFC), weight, and cost (including maintenance) to changes in the aircraft direct operating cost (DOC), takeoff gross weight, and empty weight. A comparison of performance and economic characteristics is presented between aircraft powered by 1980 production engines and those powered by a 1990 advanced technology baseline engine.

Heldenbrand, R. W.; Baerst, C. F.; Rowse, J. H.

1980-01-01

276

Factors influencing aircraft ground handling performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Problems associated with aircraft ground handling operations on wet runways are discussed and major factors which influence tire/runway braking and cornering traction capability are identified including runway characteristics, tire hydroplaning, brake system anomalies, and pilot inputs. Research results from tests with instrumented ground vehicles and aircraft, and aircraft wet runway accident investigation are summarized to indicate the effects of different aircraft, tire, and runway parameters. Several promising means are described for improving tire/runway water drainage capability, brake system efficiency, and pilot training to help optimize aircraft traction performance on wet runways.

Yager, T. J.

1983-01-01

277

Perspectives on Highly Adaptive or Morphing Aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ability to adapt to different flight conditions has been fundamental to aircraft design since the Wright Brothers first flight. Over a hundred years later, unconventional aircraft adaptability, often called aircraft morphing has become a topic of considerable renewed interest. In the past two decades, this interest has been largely fuelled by advancements in multi-functional or smart materials and structures. However, highly adaptive or morphing aircraft is certainly a cross-discipline challenge that stimulates a wide range of design possibilities. This paper will review some of the history of morphing aircraft including recent research programs and discuss some perspectives on this work.

McGowan, Anna-Maria R.; Vicroy, Dan D.; Busan, Ronald C.; Hahn, Andrew S.

2009-01-01

278

Airframe, wing, and tail aerodynamic characteristics of a 1/6-scale model of the rotor systems research aircraft with the rotors removed  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A wind-tunnel investigation was conducted to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of the rotor systems research aircraft (RSRA) as the helicopter and the compound helicopter with the rotors removed. Data were obtained over ranges of angle of attack and angle of sideslip. Results are presented for the total loads on the airframe as well as the loads on the wing and the tail. The results indicate that the RSRA with the rotors removed has stable static longitidinal and directional characteristics and has stable effective dihedral.

Mineck, R. E.; Freeman, C. E.

1977-01-01

279

Designing for aircraft structural crashworthiness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report describes structural aviation crash dynamics research activities being conducted on general aviation aircraft and transport aircraft. The report includes experimental and analytical correlations of load-limiting subfloor and seat configurations tested dynamically in vertical drop tests and in a horizontal sled deceleration facility. Computer predictions using a finite-element nonlinear computer program, DYCAST, of the acceleration time-histories of these innovative seat and subfloor structures are presented. Proposed application of these computer techniques, and the nonlinear lumped mass computer program KRASH, to transport aircraft crash dynamics is discussed. A proposed FAA full-scale crash test of a fully instrumented radio controlled transport airplane is also described.

Thomson, R. G.; Caiafa, C.

1981-01-01

280

Survey on effect of surface winds on aircraft design and operation and recommendations for needed wind research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A survey of the effect of environmental surface winds and gusts on aircraft design and operation is presented. A listing of the very large number of problems that are encountered is given. Attention is called to the many studies that have been made on surface winds and gusts, but development in the engineering application of these results to aeronautical problems is pointed out to be still in the embryonic stage. Control of the aircraft is of paramount concern. Mathematical models and their application in simulation studies of airplane operation and control are discussed, and an attempt is made to identify their main gaps or deficiencies. Key reference material is cited. The need for better exchange between the meteorologist and the aeronautical engineer is discussed. Suggestions for improvements in the wind and gust models are made.

Houbolt, J. C.

1973-01-01

281

The NASA Thunderstorm Overflight Program (TOP): Research in atmospheric electricity from an instrumented U-2 aircraft platform  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview of the NASA Thunderstorm Overflight Program (TOP) is presented. The various instruments flown on the NASA U-2 aircraft, as well as the ground instrumentation used to collect optical and electronic signature from the lightning events, are discussed. Samples of some of the photographic and electronic signatures are presented. Approximately 6400 electronic data samples of optical pulses were collected and are being analyzed.

Vaughan, O. H., Jr.

1983-01-01

282

Aircraft noise prediction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This contribution addresses the state-of-the-art in the field of aircraft noise prediction, simulation and minimisation. The point of view taken in this context is that of comprehensive models that couple the various aircraft systems with the acoustic sources, the propagation and the flight trajectories. After an exhaustive review of the present predictive technologies in the relevant fields (airframe, propulsion, propagation, aircraft operations, trajectory optimisation), the paper addresses items for further research and development. Examples are shown for several airplanes, including the Airbus A319-100 (CFM engines), the Bombardier Dash8-Q400 (PW150 engines, Dowty R408 propellers) and the Boeing B737-800 (CFM engines). Predictions are done with the flight mechanics code FLIGHT. The transfer function between flight mechanics and the noise prediction is discussed in some details, along with the numerical procedures for validation and verification. Some code-to-code comparisons are shown. It is contended that the field of aircraft noise prediction has not yet reached a sufficient level of maturity. In particular, some parametric effects cannot be investigated, issues of accuracy are not currently addressed, and validation standards are still lacking.

Filippone, Antonio

2014-07-01

283

An Electronic Workshop on the Performance Seeking Control and Propulsion Controlled Aircraft Results of the F-15 Highly Integrated Digital Electronic Control Flight Research Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flight research for the F-15 HIDEC (Highly Integrated Digital Electronic Control) program was completed at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center in the fall of 1993. The flight research conducted during the last two years of the HIDEC program included two principal experiments: (1) performance seeking control (PSC), an adaptive, real-time, on-board optimization of engine, inlet, and horizontal tail position on the F-15; and (2) propulsion controlled aircraft (PCA), an augmented flight control system developed for landings as well as up-and-away flight that used only engine thrust (flight controls locked) for flight control. In September 1994, the background details and results of the PSC and PCA experiments were presented in an electronic workshop, accessible through the Dryden World Wide Web (http://www.dfrc.nasa.gov/dryden.html) and as a compact disk.

Powers, Sheryll Goecke (compiler)

1995-01-01

284

Rapid, optical measurement of the atmospheric pressure on a fast research aircraft using open-path TDLAS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Because of the high travel speed, the complex flow dynamics around an aircraft, and the complex dependency of the fluid dynamics on numerous airborne parameters, it is quite difficult to obtain accurate pressure values at a specific instrument location of an aircraft's fuselage. Complex simulations using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models can in theory computationally "transfer" pressure values from one location to another. However, for long flight patterns, this process is inconvenient and cumbersome. Furthermore, these CFD transfer models require a local experimental validation, which is rarely available. In this paper, we describe an integrated approach for a spectroscopic, calibration-free, in-flight pressure determination in an open-path White cell on an aircraft fuselage using ambient, atmospheric water vapour as the "sensor species". The presented measurements are realised with the HAI (Hygrometer for Atmospheric Investigations) instrument, built for multiphase water detection via calibration-free TDLAS (tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy). The pressure determination is based on raw data used for H2O concentration measurement, but with a different post-flight evaluation method, and can therefore be conducted at deferred time intervals on any desired flight track. The spectroscopic pressure is compared in-flight with the static ambient pressure of the aircraft avionic system and a micro-mechanical pressure sensor, located next to the open-path cell, over a pressure range from 150 to 800 hPa, and a water vapour concentration range of more than 3 orders of magnitude. The correlation between the micro-mechanical pressure sensor measurements and the spectroscopic pressure measurements shows an average deviation from linearity of only 0.14% and a small offset of 9.5 hPa. For the spectroscopic pressure evaluation we derive measurement uncertainties under laboratory conditions of 3.2 and 5.1% during in-flight operation on the HALO airplane. Under certain flight conditions we quantified, for the first time, stalling-induced, dynamic pressure deviations of up to 30% (at 200 hPa) between the avionic sensor and the optical and mechanical pressure sensors integrated in HAI. Such severe local pressure deviations from the typically used avionic pressure are important to take into account for other airborne sensors employed on such fast flying platforms as the HALO aircraft.

Buchholz, B.; Afchine, A.; Ebert, V.

2014-11-01

285

Rapid, optical measurement of the atmospheric pressure on a fast research aircraft using open-path TDLAS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Because of the high travel speed, the complex flow dynamics around an aircraft and the complex dependency of the fluid dynamics on numerous airborne parameters, it is quite difficult to obtain accurate pressure values at a specific instrument location of an aircraft's fuselage. Complex simulations using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models can in theory computationally "transfer" pressure values from one location to another. However, for long flight patterns, this process is inconvenient and cumbersome. Furthermore these CFD transfer models require a local experimental validation, which is rarely available. In this paper, we describe an integrated approach for a spectroscopic, calibration-free, in-flight pressure determination in an open-path White cell on an aircraft fuselage using ambient, atmospheric water vapour as the "sensor species". The presented measurements are realized with the HAI (Hygrometer for Atmospheric Investigations) instrument, built for multiphase water detection via calibration-free TDLAS (tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy). The pressure determination is based on raw data used for H2O concentration measurement, but with a different post-flight evaluation method, and can therefore be conducted at deferred time intervals on any desired flight track. The spectroscopic pressure is compared in-flight with the static ambient pressure of the aircraft avionic system and a micro-mechanical pressure sensor, located next to the open-path cell, over a pressure range from 150 hPa to 800 hPa, and a water vapour concentration range of more than three orders of magnitude. The correlation between the micro-mechanical pressure sensor measurements and the spectroscopic pressure measurements show an average deviation from linearity of only 0.14% and a small offset of 9.5 hPa. For the spectroscopic pressure evaluation we derive measurement uncertainties under laboratory conditions of 3.2% and 5.1% during in flight operation on the HALO airplane. Under certain flight conditions we quantified for the first time stalling-induced, dynamic pressure deviations of up to 30% (at 200 hPa) between the avionic sensor and the optical and mechanical pressure sensors integrated in HAI. Such severe local pressure deviations from the usually used avionic pressure are important to take into account for other airborne sensors employed on such fast flying platforms as the HALO aircraft.

Buchholz, B.; Afchine, A.; Ebert, V.

2014-05-01

286

AD-1 aircraft in flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Ames-Dryden (AD)-1 was a research aircraft designed to investigate the concept of an oblique (or pivoting) wing. The movie clip runs about 17 seconds and has two air-to-air views of the AD-1. The first shot is from slightly above as the wing pivots to 60 degrees. The other angle is almost directly below the aircraft when the wing is fully pivoted.

1980-01-01

287

X-29 - views of aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two X-29 aircraft, featuring one of the most unusual designs in aviation history, were flown at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif., as technology demonstrators to investigate a host of advanced concepts and technologies. In this 29-second film clip the camera pans along the aircraft from nose to tail and then air-to-air as the shot sweeps from beside the X-29 around to the front.

1989-01-01

288

Influencing Aircraft Wing Vortices  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Results presented here were obtained within a project which was part of the Collaborative Research Centre SFB 401 “Flow Modulation\\u000a and Fluid-Structure Interaction at Airplane Wings” funding from the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG). The goal of this\\u000a project was to gain better understanding of aircraft wake vortices in order to investigate possibilities to mitigate the hazard\\u000a posed by these to following

R. Hörnschemeyer; G. Neuwerth; R. Henke

289

Multibody aircraft study, volume 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The potential benefits of a multibody aircraft when compared to a single body aircraft are presented. The analyses consist principally of a detailed point design analysis of three multibody and one single body aircraft, based on a selected payload of 350,000 kg (771,618 lb), for final aircraft definitions; sensitivity studies to evaluate the effects of variations in payload, wing semispan body locations, and fuel price; recommendations as to the research and technology requirements needed to validate the multibody concept. Two, two body, one, three body, and one single body aircraft were finalized for the selected payload, with DOC being the prime figure of merit. When compared to the single body, the multibody aircraft showed a reduction in DOC by as much as 11.3 percent. Operating weight was reduced up to 14 percent, and fly away cost reductions ranged from 8.6 to 13.4 percent. Weight reduction, hence cost, of the multibody aircraft resulted primarily from the wing bending relief afforded by the bodies being located outboard on the wing.

Moore, J. W.; Craven, E. P.; Farmer, B. T.; Honrath, J. F.; Stephens, R. E.; Bronson, C. E., Jr.; Meyer, R. T.; Hogue, J. H.

1982-01-01

290

An inverse-modelling approach for frequency response correction of capacitive humidity sensors in ABL research with small remotely piloted aircraft (RPA)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The measurement of water vapour concentration in the atmosphere is an ongoing challenge in environmental research. Satisfactory solutions exist for ground-based meteorological stations and measurements of mean values. However, carrying out advanced research of thermodynamic processes aloft as well, above the surface layer and especially in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL), requires the resolution of small-scale turbulence. Sophisticated optical instruments are used in airborne meteorology with manned aircraft to achieve the necessary fast-response measurements of the order of 10 Hz (e.g. LiCor 7500). Since these instruments are too large and heavy for the application on small remotely piloted aircraft (RPA), a method is presented in this study that enhances small capacitive humidity sensors to be able to resolve turbulent eddies of the order of 10 m. The sensor examined here is a polymer-based sensor of the type P14-Rapid, by the Swiss company Innovative Sensor Technologies (IST) AG, with a surface area of less than 10 mm2 and a negligible weight. A physical and dynamical model of this sensor is described and then inverted in order to restore original water vapour fluctuations from sensor measurements. Examples of flight measurements show how the method can be used to correct vertical profiles and resolve turbulence spectra up to about 3 Hz. At an airspeed of 25 m s-1 this corresponds to a spatial resolution of less than 10 m.

Wildmann, N.; Kaufmann, F.; Bange, J.

2014-09-01

291

Aircraft Engines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Presented by Florida International University and NASA, this website presents a brief tutorial on the schematics for different car and aircraft engines, their cooling mechanisms, and engine development history. Here, visitors will find information on air-breathing, turboprop, turbofan, prop-fan, and ramjet engines along with handy and clear illustrations of each. This is a useful resource for educators looking for a brief, introductory handout for students in mechanical engineering and aeronautics or for students seeking material to simply illustrate the differences between engine types.

292

The lift-fan aircraft: Lessons learned  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report summarizes the highlights and results of a workshop held at NASA Ames Research Center in October 1992. The objective of the workshop was a thorough review of the lessons learned from past research on lift fans, and lift-fan aircraft, models, designs, and components. The scope included conceptual design studies, wind tunnel investigations, propulsion systems components, piloted simulation, flight of aircraft such as the SV-5A and SV-5B and a recent lift-fan aircraft development project. The report includes a brief summary of five technical presentations that addressed the subject The Lift-Fan Aircraft: Lessons Learned.

Deckert, Wallace H.

1995-01-01

293

Validation of the Passenger Ride Quality Apparatus (PRQA) for simulation of aircraft motions for ride-quality research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA passenger ride quality apparatus (PRQA), a ground based motion simulator, was compared to the total in flight simulator (TIFS). Tests were made on PRQA with varying stimuli: motions only; motions and noise; motions, noise, and visual; and motions and visual. Regression equations for the tests were obtained and subsequent t-testing of the slopes indicated that ground based simulator tests produced comfort change rates similar to actual flight data. It was recommended that PRQA be used in the ride quality program for aircraft and that it be validated for other transportation modes.

Bigler, W. B., II

1977-01-01

294

Subsonic Aircraft Safety Icing Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control (IRAC) Project is one of four projects within the agency s Aviation Safety Program (AvSafe) in the Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD). The IRAC Project, which was redesigned in the first half of 2007, conducts research to advance the state of the art in aircraft control design tools and techniques. A "Key Decision Point" was established for fiscal year 2007 with the following expected outcomes: document the most currently available statistical/prognostic data associated with icing for subsonic transport, summarize reports by subject matter experts in icing research on current knowledge of icing effects on control parameters and establish future requirements for icing research for subsonic transports including the appropriate alignment. This study contains: (1) statistical analyses of accident and incident data conducted by NASA researchers for this "Key Decision Point", (2) an examination of icing in other recent statistically based studies, (3) a summary of aviation safety priority lists that have been developed by various subject-matter experts, including the significance of aircraft icing research in these lists and (4) suggested future requirements for NASA icing research. The review of several studies by subject-matter experts was summarized into four high-priority icing research areas. Based on the Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control (IRAC) Project goals and objectives, the IRAC project was encouraged to conduct work in all of the high-priority icing research areas that were identified, with the exception of the developing of methods to sense and document actual icing conditions.

Jones, Sharon Monica; Reveley, Mary S.; Evans, Joni K.; Barrientos, Francesca A.

2008-01-01

295

Project report: Aircraft  

SciTech Connect

Analyses of scenarios of past and possible future emissions are an important aspect of assessing the potential environmental effects from aircraft, including the proposed high speed civil transport (HSCT). The development of a detailed three-dimensional database that accurately represents the integration of all aircraft emissions along realistic flight paths for such scenarios requires complex computational modeling capabilities. Such a detailed data set is required for the scenarios evaluated in this interim assessment. Within the NASA High-Speed Research Program, the Emissions Scenarios Committee provides a forum for identifying the required scenarios and evaluating the resulting database being developed with the advanced emissions modeling capabilities at the Boeing Company and McDonnell Douglas Corporation.

Wuebbles, D.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Baughcum, S. [Boeing Co., Seattle, WA (United States). Commercial Airplane Group; Metwally, M. [McDonnell Douglas Corp., Long Beach, CA (United States); Seals, R. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Hampton, VA (United States). Atmospheric Science Div.

1994-04-01

296

Autonomous aircraft initiative study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of a consulting effort to aid NASA Ames-Dryden in defining a new initiative in aircraft automation are described. The initiative described is a multi-year, multi-center technology development and flight demonstration program. The initiative features the further development of technologies in aircraft automation already being pursued at multiple NASA centers and Department of Defense (DoD) research and Development (R and D) facilities. The proposed initiative involves the development of technologies in intelligent systems, guidance, control, software development, airborne computing, navigation, communications, sensors, unmanned vehicles, and air traffic control. It involves the integration and implementation of these technologies to the extent necessary to conduct selected and incremental flight demonstrations.

Hewett, Marle D.

1991-01-01

297

Aircraft turbofan noise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Turbofan noise generation and suppression in aircraft engines are reviewed. The chain of physical processes which connect unsteady flow interactions with fan blades to far field noise is addressed. Mechanism identification and description, duct propagation, radiation and acoustic suppression are discussed. The experimental technique of fan inflow static tests are discussed. Rotor blade surface pressure and wake velocity measurements aid in the determination of the types and strengths of the generation mechanisms. Approaches to predicting or measuring acoustic mode content, optimizing treatment impedance to maximize attenuation, translating impedance into porous wall structure and interpreting far field directivity patterns are illustrated by comparisons of analytical and experimental results. The interdependence of source and acoustic treatment design to minimize far field noise is emphasized. Area requiring further research are discussed and the relevance of aircraft turbofan results to quieting other turbomachinery installations is addressed.

Groeneweg, J. F.; Rice, E. J.

1983-01-01

298

Understanding the Role of the Saharan Heat Low in Modifying Atmospheric Dust Distributions - Observations From Two Research Aircraft Flying Simultaneously Over Western Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The near-surface low pressure system that develops over western Africa in Boreal summer (know as the Saharan Heat Low) is thought to have a significant influence on regional and global climate due to its links with the Monsoon, the Northern Atlantic and the Mediterranean climate system. The SHL is associated with the deepest atmospheric boundary layer on the planet and is co-located with the highest dust loadings in the world. The processes that link the heat low and dust distribution are only poorly understood. Improving the representation of the heat low and the processes that control the emission and atmospheric distribution of dust in climate and NWP models is crucial if we are to reduce known systematic errors in climate predictions and weather forecasts. In collaboration with European partners, the UK-based consortium project "Fennec - The Saharan Climate System" aims at improving our understanding of this complex climate system by integrating for the first time coordinated ground and aircraft observations from the central Sahara, newly developed satellite products, and the application of regional and global models. On 22 June 2011, two research aircraft operating out of Fuerteventura (Spain) surveyed the Saharan Heat Low centred over Mauritania-Mali border. The aircraft flew simultaneously in the morning and in the afternoon on two different tracks thereby sampling each track four times on that day. Both aircraft were equipped with a downward looking LIDAR for aerosol detection. In total, 51 sondes were dropped during the flights making this the most comprehensive dataset to study the spatio-temporal diurnal evolution of the heat low including the interactions between the atmospheric boundary layer and dust distributions. Combining LIDAR observations, satellite imagery and back-trajectory modelling we show that an aged dust layer was present in the heat low region resulting from previous day's dust activity associated with a south-moving density current from the Atlas mountains and westward-moving Haboob fronts originating along the Algeria-Mali border. We show how the dust is distributed within the atmosphere and how it is modified during the course of the day by various processes including the development of the atmospheric boundary layer and associated dry convection as well as the inflow of moisture-rich monsoon air from the south.

Engelstaedter, S.; Washington, R.; Allen, C.; Flamant, C.; Chaboureau, J.-P.; Kocha, C.; Lavaysse, C.

2012-04-01

299

Unmanned Aircraft Systems at NASA Dryden - Duration: 3:41.  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA Dryden has a heritage of developmental and operational experience with unmanned aircraft systems. Work on Boeing's sub-scale X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft, X-48 Blended Wing ...

300

Recommendations for ground effects research for V/STOL and STOL aircraft and associated equipment for large scale testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The current understanding of the effects of ground proximity on V/STOL and STOL aircraft is reviewd. Areas covered include (1) single jet suckdown in hover, (2) fountain effects on multijet configurations, (3) STOL ground effects including the effect of the ground vortex flow field, (4) downwash at the tail, and (5) hot gas ingestion in both hover and STOL operation. The equipment needed for large scale testing to extend the state of the art is reviewed and developments in three areas are recommended as follows: (1) improve methods for simulating the engine exhaust and inlet flows; (2) develop a model support system that can simulate realistic rates of climb and descent as well as steady height operation; and (3) develop a blowing BLC ground board as an alternative to a moving belt ground board to properly simulate the flow on the ground.

Kuhn, Richard E.

1986-01-01

301

Advanced structures technology and aircraft safety  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA research and development on advanced aeronautical structures technology related to flight safety is reviewed. The effort is categorized as research in the technology base and projects sponsored by the Aircraft Energy Efficiency (ACEE) Project Office. Base technology research includes mechanics of composite structures, crash dynamics, and landing dynamics. The ACEE projects involve development and fabrication of selected composite structural components for existing commercial transport aircraft. Technology emanating from this research is intended to result in airframe structures with improved efficiency and safety.

Mccomb, H. G., Jr.

1983-01-01

302

The use of the National Research Council of Canada's Falcon 20 research aircraft as a terrestrial analogue space environment (TASE) for space surgery research: Challenges and suggested solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emergency surgery will be needed to prevent death if humans are used to explore beyond low earth's orbit. Laparoscopic surgery (LS) is envisioned as a less invasive option for space, but will induce further stresses and complicate logistical requirements. Thus, further study into the technology and physiology of LS in weightlessness is required. We recently utilized the National Research Council

A. W. Kirkpatrick; M. A. Keaney; K. Bentz; M. Groleau; M. Tyssen; J. Keyte; C. G. Ball; M. R. Campbell; S. M. Grenon; P. McBeth; T. J. Broderick

2010-01-01

303

Aircraft Electric Secondary Power  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Technologies resulted to aircraft power systems and aircraft in which all secondary power is supplied electrically are discussed. A high-voltage dc power generating system for fighter aircraft, permanent magnet motors and generators for aircraft, lightweight transformers, and the installation of electric generators on turbine engines are among the topics discussed.

1983-01-01

304

TIRE MODELS IN AIRCRAFT LANDING GEAR SIMULATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report discusses the development of a simulation model of an aircraft landing gear describing its typical non-linear behaviour. The development of the design tool -which correlates the actual design parameters with the performance of the gear- is a part of the research project that investigates the estimation of the nonlinear dynamical system, which an aircraft landing gear is. This

M. T. P. van Slagmaat

1992-01-01

305

Eclipse program QF-106 aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This photo shows two QF-106 aircraft that were used for the Eclipse project, both parked at the Mojave Airport in Mojave, California. In 1997 and 1998, the Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards, California, supported and hosted a Kelly Space & Technology, Inc. project called Eclipse, which sought to demonstrate the feasibility of a reusable tow-launch vehicle concept. The project goal was to successfully tow, inflight, a modified QF-106 delta-wing aircraft with an Air Force C-141A transport aircraft. This would demonstrate the possibility of towing and launching an actual launch vehicle from behind a tow plane. Dryden was the responsible test organization and had flight safety responsibility for the Eclipse project. Dryden provided engineering, instrumentation, simulation, modification, maintenance, range support, and research pilots for the test program. The Air Force Flight Test Center (AFFTC), Edwards, California, supplied the C-141A transport aircraft and crew and configured the aircraft as needed for the tests. The AFFTC also provided the concept and detail design and analysis as well as hardware for the tow system and QF-106 modifications. Dryden performed the modifications to convert the QF-106 drone into the piloted EXD-01 (Eclipse eXperimental Demonstrator -01) experimental aircraft. Kelly Space & Technology hoped to use the results gleaned from the tow test in developing a series of low-cost, reusable launch vehicles. These tests demonstrated the validity of towing a delta-wing aircraft having high wing loading, validated the tow simulation model, and demonstrated various operational procedures, such as ground processing of in-flight maneuvers and emergency abort scenarios.

1996-01-01

306

X-29 aircraft takeoff  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two X-29 aircraft, featuring one of the most unusual designs in aviation history, were flown at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif., as technology demonstrators to investigate a host of advanced concepts and technologies. This movie clip runs 26 seconds and begins with a rear view of the X-29 in full afterburner at brake release, then a chase plane shot as it rotates off the runway beginning a rapid climb and finally an air-to-air view of the tail as the chase plane with the camera moves from right to left.

1989-01-01

307

MAX-DOAS observations from ground, ship, and research aircraft: maximizing signal-to-noise to measure 'weak' absorbers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multi AXis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) instruments, as solar straylight satellites, require an accurate characterization and elimination of Fraunhofer lines from solar straylight spectra to measure the atmospheric column abundance of reactive gases that destroy toxic and heat trapping ozone and form climate cooling aerosols, like glyoxal (CHOCHO), iodine oxide (IO), or bromine oxide (BrO). The currently achievable noise levels with state-of-the-art DOAS instruments are limited to ?'DL ~ 10-4 (noise equivalent differential optical density, ?') further noise reductions are typically not straightforward, and the reason for this barrier is not well understood. Here we demonstrate that the nonlinearity of state-of-the-art CCD detectors poses a limitation to accurately characterize Fraunhofer lines; the incomplete elimination of Fraunhofer lines is found to cause residual structures of ?' ~ 10-4, and only partially accounted by fitting of an "offset" spectrum. We have developed a novel software tool, the CU Data Acquisition Code that overcomes this barrier by actively controlling the CCD saturation level, and demonstrates that ?'DL on the order of 10-5 are possible without apparent limitations from the presence of Fraunhofer lines. The software also implements active control of the elevation angle (angle with respect to the horizon) by means of a Motion Compensation System for use with mobile MAX-DOAS deployments from ships and aircraft. Finally, a novel approach to convert slant column densities into line-of-sight averaged concentrations is discussed.

Volkamer, Rainer; Coburn, Sean; Dix, Barbara; Sinreich, Roman

2009-08-01

308

Multidisciplinary Techniques and Novel Aircraft Control Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Aircraft Morphing Program at NASA Langley Research Center explores opportunities to improve airframe designs with smart technologies. Two elements of this basic research program are multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) and advanced flow control. This paper describes examples where MDO techniques such as sensitivity analysis, automatic differentiation, and genetic algorithms contribute to the design of novel control systems. In the test case, the design and use of distributed shapechange devices to provide low-rate maneuvering capability for a tailless aircraft is considered. The ability of MDO to add value to control system development is illustrated using results from several years of research funded by the Aircraft Morphing Program.

Padula, Sharon L.; Rogers, James L.; Raney, David L.

2000-01-01

309

Innovative Materials for Aircraft Morphing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reported herein is an overview of the research being conducted within the Materials Division at NASA Langley Research Center on the development of smart material technologies for advanced airframe systems. The research is a part of the Aircraft Morphing Program which is a new six-year research program to develop smart components for self-adaptive airframe systems. The fundamental areas of materials research within the program are computational materials; advanced piezoelectric materials; advanced fiber optic sensing techniques; and fabrication of integrated composite structures. This paper presents a portion of the ongoing research in each of these areas of materials research.

Simpson, J. O.; Wise, S. A.; Bryant, R. G.; Cano, R. J.; Gates, T. S.; Hinkley, J. A.; Rogowski, R. S.; Whitley, K. S.

1997-01-01

310

Aerodynamic Performance Studies for Supersonic Cruise Aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Technical progress made in each of the disciplinary research areas affecting the design of supersonic cruise aircraft is discussed. The NASA Supersonic Cruise Aircraft Research program has supported an expanded research program in aerodynamics including an ever growing experimental data base, methodology development across the Mach number range, and sonic boom. Progress in the aerodynamics area could facilitate the choice of the highly swept subsonic leading edge, arrow wing, known for superior supersonic cruise efficiency.

Mascitti, V. R.

1976-01-01

311

Hypersonic transport aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A hypersonic transport aircraft design project was selected as a result of interactions with NASA Lewis Research Center personnel and fits the Presidential concept of the Orient Express. The Graduate Teaching Assistant (GTA) and an undergraduate student worked at the NASA Lewis Research Center during the 1986 summer conducting a literature survey, and relevant literature and useful software were collected. The computer software was implemented in the Computer Aided Design Laboratory of the Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department. In addition to the lectures by the three instructors, a series of guest lectures was conducted. The first of these lectures 'Anywhere in the World in Two Hours' was delivered by R. Luidens of NASA Lewis Center. In addition, videotaped copies of relevant seminars obtained from NASA Lewis were also featured. The first assignment was to individually research and develop the mission requirements and to discuss the findings with the class. The class in consultation with the instructors then developed a set of unified mission requirements. Then the class was divided into three design groups (1) Aerodynamics Group, (2) Propulsion Group, and (3) Structures and Thermal Analyses Group. The groups worked on their respective design areas and interacted with each other to finally come up with an integrated conceptual design. The three faculty members and the GTA acted as the resource persons for the three groups and aided in the integration of the individual group designs into the final design of a hypersonic aircraft.

1987-01-01

312

Maintenance free nickel-cadmium aircraft battery development program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extensive research has been conducted towards the development of highly reliable, long life, maintenance free nickel-cadmium batteries for advanced aircraft. Product designs, designated aircraft maintenance free battery (AMFB), have been developed for specific aircraft applications. The AMFB reduces life cycle costs by eliminating scheduled maintenance required by conventional Ni-Cd batteries. This paper discusses AMFB design evolution, technology validation tests, and

B. McRae; D. Nary

1999-01-01

313

Experimental determination of visibility modeling parameters for aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is presently engaged in research to quantify the visibility of aircraft under two important scenarios: aircraft observed directly by human operators in air traffic control towers (ATCT's), and aircraft observed by human operators through unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) sensors viewed through ground-based display systems. Previously, an ATCT visibility analysis software tool (FAA Vis) was developed

Evelyn J. Boettcher; Tana Maurer; Steven R. Murrill; Brian Miller

2010-01-01

314

An Overview of the NASA Spring/Summer 2008 Arctic Campaign - ARCTAS (Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

ARCTAS (Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites) is a major NASA led airborne field campaign being performed in the spring and summer of 2008 at high latitudes (http://cloud1.arc.nasa.gov/arctas/). ARCTAS is a part of the International Polar Year program and its activities are closely coordinated with multiple U. S. (NOAA, DOE), Canadian, and European partners. Observational data from an ensemble of aircraft, surface, and satellite sensors are closely integrated with models of atmospheric chemistry and transport in this experiment. Principal NASA airborne platforms include a DC-8 for detailed atmospheric composition studies, a P-3 that focuses on aerosols and radiation, and a B-200 that is dedicated to remote sensing of aerosols. Satellite validation is a central activity in all these platforms and is mainly focused on CALIPSO, Aura, and Aqua satellites. Major ARCTAS themes are: (1) Long-range transport of pollution to the Arctic including arctic haze, tropospheric ozone, and persistent pollutants such as mercury; (2) Boreal forest fires and their implications for atmospheric composition and climate; (3) Aerosol radiative forcing from arctic haze, boreal fires, surface-deposited black carbon, and other perturbations; and (4) Chemical processes with focus on ozone, aerosols, mercury, and halogens. The spring deployment (April) is presently underway and is targeting plumes of anthropogenic and biomass burning pollution and dust from Asia and North America, arctic haze, stratosphere-troposphere exchange, and ozone photochemistry involving HOx and halogen radicals. The summer deployment (July) will target boreal forest fires and summertime photochemistry. The ARCTAS mission is providing a critical link to enhance the value of NASA satellite observations for Earth science. In this talk we will discuss the implementation of this campaign and some preliminary results.

Jacob, Daniel J.; Clarke, Antony; Crawford, James H.; Dibbs, Jack; Ferrare, Richard A.; Hostetler, Chris A.; Maring, Hal; Russell, Philip B.; Singh, Hanwant B.

2008-01-01

315

NASA progress in aircraft noise prediction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Langley Research Center efforts to develop a methodology for predicting the effective perceived noise level (EPNL) produced by jet-powered CTOL aircraft to an accuracy of + or - 1.5 dB are summarized with emphasis on the aircraft noise prediction program (ANOPP) which contains a complete set of prediction methods for CTOL aircraft including propulsion system noise sources, aerodynamic or airframe noise sources, forward speed effects, a layered atmospheric model with molecular absorption, ground impedance effects including excess ground attenuation, and a received noise contouring capability. The present state of ANOPP is described and its accuracy and applicability to the preliminary aircraft design process is assessed. Areas are indicated where further theoretical and experimental research on noise prediction are needed. Topics covered include the elements of the noise prediction problem which are incorporated in ANOPP, results of comparisons of ANOPP calculations with measured noise levels, and progress toward treating noise as a design constraint in aircraft system studies.

Raney, J. P.; Padula, S. L.; Zorumski, W. E.

1981-01-01

316

Commercial aircraft fuel efficiency potential through 2010  

SciTech Connect

Aircraft are second only to motor vehicles in the use of motor fuels, and air travel is growing twice as fast. Since 1970 air travel has more than tripled, but the growth of fuel use has been restrained by a near doubling of efficiency, from 26.2 seat miles per gallon (SMPG) in 1970 to about 49 SMPG in 1989. This paper explores the potential for future efficiency improvements via the replacement of existing aircraft with 1990's generation'' and post 2000'' aircraft incorporating advances in engine and airframe technology. Today, new commercial passenger aircraft deliver 50--70 SMPG. New aircraft types scheduled for delivery in the early 1990's are expected to achieve 65--80 SMPG. Industry and government researchers have identified technologies capable of boosting aircraft efficiencies to the 100--150 SMPG range. Under current industry plans, which do not include a post-2000 generation of new aircraft, the total aircraft fleet should reach the vicinity of 65 SMPG by 2010. A new generation of 100--150 SMPG aircraft introduced in 2005 could raise the fleet average efficiency to 75--80 SMPG in 2010. In any case, fuel use will likely continue to grow at from 1--2%/yr. through 2010. 20 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Greene, D.L.

1990-01-01

317

Alternate Fuels for Use in Commercial Aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The engine and aircraft Research and Development (R&D) communities have been investigating alternative fueling in near-term, midterm, and far-term aircraft. A drop in jet fuel replacement, consisting of a kerosene (Jet-A) and synthetic fuel blend, will be possible for use in existing and near-term aircraft. Future midterm aircraft may use a biojet and synthetic fuel blend in ultra-efficient airplane designs. Future far-term engines and aircraft in 50-plus years may be specifically designed to use a low- or zero-carbon fuel. Synthetic jet fuels from coal, natural gas, or other hydrocarbon feedstocks are very similar in performance to conventional jet fuel, yet the additional CO2 produced during the manufacturing needs to be permanently sequestered. Biojet fuels need to be developed specifically for jet aircraft without displacing food production. Envisioned as midterm aircraft fuel, if the performance and cost liabilities can be overcome, biofuel blends with synthetic jet or Jet-A fuels have near-term potential in terms of global climatic concerns. Long-term solutions address dramatic emissions reductions through use of alternate aircraft fuels such as liquid hydrogen or liquid methane. Either of these new aircraft fuels will require an enormous change in infrastructure and thus engine and airplane design. Life-cycle environmental questions need to be addressed.

Daggett, David L.; Hendricks, Robert C.; Walther, Rainer; Corporan, Edwin

2008-01-01

318

Promising Electric Aircraft Drive Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview of electric aircraft propulsion technology performance thresholds for key power system components is presented. A weight comparison of electric drive systems with equivalent total delivered energy is made to help identify component performance requirements, and promising research and development opportunities.

Dudley, Michael R.

2010-01-01

319

Propulsion controlled aircraft computer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A low-cost, easily retrofit Propulsion Controlled Aircraft (PCA) system for use on a wide range of commercial and military aircraft consists of an propulsion controlled aircraft computer that reads in aircraft data including aircraft state, pilot commands and other related data, calculates aircraft throttle position for a given maneuver commanded by the pilot, and then displays both current and calculated throttle position on a cockpit display to show the pilot where to move throttles to achieve the commanded maneuver, or is automatically sent digitally to command the engines directly.

Cogan, Bruce R. (Inventor)

2010-01-01

320

Making the Case for New Research to Support the Integration of Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems into the National Airspace System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the current state of sUAS regulation, their technical capabilities and the latest technologies that will allow for sUAS NAS integration. The research that is needed to demonstrate sUAS NAS integration capability is identified, and recommendations for conducting this necessary research are suggested.

McAdaragh, Raymon M.; Comstock, James R., Jr.; Ghatas, Rania W.; Burdette, Daniel W.; Trujillo, Anna C.

2014-01-01

321

Altus aircraft on runway  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The remotely piloted Altus aircraft flew several developmental test flights from Rogers Dry Lake adjacent to NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif., in 1996. The Altus--the word is Latin for 'high'--is a variant of the Predator surveillance drone built by General Atomics/Aeronautical Systems, Inc. It is designed for high-altitude, long-duration scientific sampling missions, and is powered by a turbocharged four-cylinder piston engine. The first Altus was developed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology program, while a second Altus was built for a Naval Postgraduate School/Department of Energy program. A pilot in a control station on the ground flew the craft by radio signals, using visual cues from a video camera in the nose of the Altus and information from the craft's air data system. Equipped with a single-stage turbocharger during the 1996 test flights, the first Altus reached altitudes in the 37,000-foot range, while the similarly-equipped second Altus reached 43,500 feet during developmental flights at Dryden in the summer of 1997. The NASA Altus also set an endurance record of more than 26 hours while flying a science mission in late 1996 and still had an estimated 10 hours of fuel remaining when it landed. Now equipped with a two-stage turbocharger, the NASA Altus maintained an altitude of 55,000 feet for four hours during flight tests in 1999.

1996-01-01

322

Dynamic properties of aircraft tires  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A research program has investigated the use of the von Schlippe string-type tire model for predicting the dynamic behavior of aircraft tires. The transfer-function method was used for theory evaluation. A more flexible two-constant modification to the string theory tire model is presented. Experiments were conducted on four types of scale model aircraft tires. Two types were of conventional bias construction, one type was an isotropic toroid, and one type was of unbelted radial construction. The conventional string theory and model gave predictions that were in good agreement with experimental data for bias constructed tires. The two-constant modification to string theory provided better agreement between predictions and experiment for the unconventional tires. The results indicate that the string theory tire model using static and slow-rolling tire properties predicts dynamic aircraft tire properties that have the same trends as the measured dynamic properties and, in most cases, provides good quantitative agreement.

Clark, S. K.; Dodge, R. N.; Nybakken, G. H.

1974-01-01

323

Steering Aircraft Clear of Choppy Air  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

AeroTech Research (U.S.A.), Inc., a leader in turbulence-detection and warning systems, has been involved with NASA Aviation Safety research since 1998. AeroTech served as a contractor for the TPAWS government/industry development project, and was funded by NASA to develop the E-Turb Mode Radar algorithms and the TAPS software. (Other contributors to this project include the National Center for Atmospheric Research, the FAA, North Carolina State University, and the Research Triangle Institute.) The radar algorithms combine an aircraft's turbulenceresponse characteristics with radar measurements to determine the predicted turbulence loads the aircraft will experience, and present this information to the pilot. The TAPS software monitors and processes onboard aircraft sensor data; generates automatic reports when an aircraft encounters turbulence and a set turbulence threshold is exceeded; and then displays the reports and underlying information to ground personnel to improve situational awareness of the location and the severity of the turbulence encounter.

2006-01-01

324

Turboprop aircraft against terrorism: a SWOT analysis of turboprop aircraft in CAS operations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Today, the threat perception is changing. Not only for countries but also for defence organisations like NATO, new threat perception is pointing terrorism. Many countries' air forces become responsible of fighting against terorism or Counter-Insurgency (COIN) Operations. Different from conventional warfare, alternative weapon or weapon systems are required for such operatioins. In counter-terrorism operations modern fighter jets are used as well as helicopters, subsonic jets, Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS), turboprop aircraft, baloons and similar platforms. Succes and efficiency of the use of these platforms can be determined by evaluating the conditions, the threats and the area together. Obviously, each platform has advantages and disadvantages for different cases. In this research, examples of turboprop aircraft usage against terrorism and with a more general approach, turboprop aircraft for Close Air Support (CAS) missions from all around the world are reviewed. In this effort, a closer look is taken at the countries using turboprop aircraft in CAS missions while observing the fields these aircraft are used in, type of operations, specifications of the aircraft, cost and the maintenance factors. Thus, an idea about the convenience of using these aircraft in such operations can be obtained. A SWOT analysis of turboprop aircraft in CAS operations is performed. This study shows that turboprop aircraft are suitable to be used in counter-terrorism and COIN operations in low threat environment and is cost benefical compared to jets.

Yavuz, Murat; Akkas, Ali; Aslan, Yavuz

2012-06-01

325

NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 62: The Influence of Knowledge Diffusion on Aeronautics Innovation: The Research, Development, and Production of Large Commercial Aircraft in France, Germany, and the United Kingdom  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper focuses on how European public policies-individually and collectively - influence the diffusion of knowledge and technology. It begins with an overview of the roles played historically and currently by European governments in the Research, Development and Production (RD&P) of Large Commercial Aircraft (LCA). The analytical framework brings together literature from global political economy, comparative politics, business management, and science and technology policy studies. It distinguishes between the production of knowledge, on the one hand, and the dissemination of knowledge, on the other. France, Germany, and the United Kingdom serve as the analytical cases. The paper concludes with a call for additional research in this area, some tentative lessons learned, and a discussion of the consequences of national strategies and policies for the diffusion of knowledge and technology in an era of globalizaton.

Golich, Vicki L.; Pinelli, Thomas E.

1997-01-01

326

NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 62: The Influence of Knowledge Diffusion on Aeronautics Innovation: The Research, Development, and Production of Large Commercial Aircraft in France, Germany, and the United Kingdom  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper focuses on how European public policies-individually and collectively - influence the diffusion of knowledge and technology. It begins with an overview of the roles played historically and currently by European governments in the research, development and production (RD&P) of large commercial aircraft (LCA). The analytical framework brings together literature from global political economy, comparative politics, business management, and science and technology policy studies. It distinguishes between the production of knowledge, on the one hand, and the dissemination of knowledge, on the other. France, Germany, and the United Kingdom serve as the analytical cases. The paper concludes with a call for additional research in this area, some tentative lessons learned, and a discussion of the consequences of national strategies and policies for the diffusion of knowledge and technology in an era of globalization.

Pinelli, Thomas E.; Golich, Vicki L.

1997-01-01

327

Aircraft detection based on probability model of structural elements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detecting aircrafts is important in the field of remote sensing. In past decades, researchers used various approaches to detect aircrafts based on classifiers for overall aircrafts. However, with the development of high-resolution images, the internal structures of aircrafts should also be taken into consideration now. To address this issue, a novel aircrafts detection method for satellite images based on probabilistic topic model is presented. We model aircrafts as the connected structural elements rather than features. The proposed method contains two major steps: 1) Use Cascade-Adaboost classier to identify the structural elements of aircraft firstly. 2) Connect these structural elements to aircrafts, where the relationships between elements are estimated by hierarchical topic model. The model places strict spatial constraints on structural elements which can identify differences between similar features. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach.

Chen, Long; Jiang, Zhiguo

2014-11-01

328

Toward scramjet aircraft. [progress in engine development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The possibility for civil, military, and remotely-piloted aviation above Mach 5 is discussed with reference to the scramjet. Actively cooled aircraft structures of low weight are described, together with jet nozzle design and combustion parameters. The scramjet is seen as operating alone or in tandem with ramjet propulsion, which would power an aircraft up to scramjet speeds. Attention is given to the specific impulse of the scramjet engine, with hydrogen as the primary fuel. Applications include: advanced reconnaissance and interceptor aircraft, strategic cruise (both aircraft and missiles), highly-maneuverable interceptor missiles, transports, aircraft-type launch vehicles, first stages for Space Shuttle launching craft, and single-stage-to-orbit vehicles. Research has focused on increasing the propulsion power of the scramjet engine, while reducing drag on the accompanying airframe.

Jones, R. A.; Huber, P. W.

1978-01-01

329

Aircraft Lightning Electromagnetic Environment Measurement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper outlines a NASA project plan for demonstrating a prototype lightning strike measurement system that is suitable for installation onto research aircraft that already operate in thunderstorms. This work builds upon past data from the NASA F106, FAA CV-580, and Transall C-180 flight projects, SAE ARP5412, and the European ILDAS Program. The primary focus is to capture airframe current waveforms during attachment, but may also consider pre and post-attachment current, electric field, and radiated field phenomena. New sensor technologies are being developed for this system, including a fiber-optic Faraday polarization sensor that measures lightning current waveforms from DC to over several Megahertz, and has dynamic range covering hundreds-of-volts to tens-of-thousands-of-volts. A study of the electromagnetic emission spectrum of lightning (including radio wave, microwave, optical, X-Rays and Gamma-Rays), and a compilation of aircraft transfer-function data (including composite aircraft) are included, to aid in the development of other new lightning environment sensors, their placement on-board research aircraft, and triggering of the onboard instrumentation system. The instrumentation system will leverage recent advances in high-speed, high dynamic range, deep memory data acquisition equipment, and fiber-optic interconnect.

Ely, Jay J.; Nguyen, Truong X.; Szatkowski, George N.

2011-01-01

330

Combining active and passive remote sensing from research aircraft with atmospheric models to evaluate NOx emission fluxes and O3 formation in the Los Angeles Megacity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ozone (O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) are two important components of air pollution. We have measured vertical column amounts of NO2, and vertical profiles of O3 and wind speed by means of measurements of solar stray light by CU Airborne MAX-DOAS, and active remote sensing using the NOAA TOPAZ lidar, and the University of Leeds Doppler lidar aboard the NOAA Twin Otter research aircraft. A total of 52 flights (up to 4 hours each) were carried out between May 19 and July 19 2010 during the CalNex and CARES field campaigns. These flights cover most of California. The boundary layer height was measured by TOPAZ lidar, and trace gas concentrations of NO2 and O3 were integrated over boundary layer height. These column integrated quantities are then combined with direct wind speed measurements to quantify directly the pollutant flux across the boundary, as defined by the flight track. By tracking the pollution fluxes during transects that are flown upwind and in various distances downwind of a NOx emission source, the NOx emission rate, and the ozone formation rate are quantified. These pollutant fluxes are calculated here for the first time exclusively based on measurements (i.e., without need to infer wind speed from a model). These fluxes provide constraints to quantify localized NOx emissions, and are being compared with WRF-Chem model simulations.

Baidar, Sunil; Oetjen, Hilke; Senff, Christoph; Alvarez, Raul, II; Hardesty, Michael; Langford, Andrew; Kim, Si-Wan; Trainer, Michael; Volkamer, Rainer

2013-04-01

331

Tail contribution to the directional aerodynamic characteristics of a 1/6-scale model of the rotor systems research aircraft with a tail rotor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results are presented of a wind tunnel investigation to determine the tail contribution to the directional aerodynamic characteristics of a 1/6-scale model of the rotor systems research aircraft (RSRA) with a tail rotor. No main rotor was used during the investigation. Data were obtained with and without the tail rotor over a range of sideslip angle and over a range of rotor collective pitch angle. The model with the tail rotor was tested at several advance ratios with and without thrust from the auxiliary thrust engines on the RSRA fuselage. Increasing the space between the tail-rotor hub and the vertical tail reduced the tail-rotor torque required at moderate to high rotor thrust. Increasing the exit dynamic pressure of the auxiliary thrust engines decreases the tail contribution to the static directional stability. The tail-rotor thrust and its interference provide a positive increment to the static directional stability. The tail contribution increases with forward speed. The adverse yawing moment of the airframe would strongly affect the thrust required of the tail rotor when the helicopter is hovering in a crosswind.

Mineck, R. E.

1977-01-01

332

Effect of rotor wake on aerodynamic characteristics of a 1/6 scale model of the rotor systems research aircraft. [in the Langley V/STOL tunnel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tests were conducted in the Langley V/STOL tunnel to determine the effect of the main-rotor wake on the aerodynamic characteristics of the rotor systems research aircraft. A 1/6-scale model with a 4-blade articulated rotor was used to determine the effect of the rotor wake for the compound configuration. Data were obtained over a range of angles of attack, angles of sideslip, auxiliary engine thrusts, rotor collective pitch angles, and rotor tip-path plane angles for several main-rotor advance ratios. Separate results are presented for the forces and moments on the airframe, the wing, and the tail. An analysis of the test data indicates significant changes in the aerodynamic characteristics. The rotor wake increases the longitudinal static stability, the effective dihedral, and the lateral static stability of the airframe. The rotor induces a downwash on the wing. This downwash decreases the wing lift and increases the drag. The asymmetrical rotor wake induces a differential lift across the wing and a subsequent rolling moment. These rotor induced effects on the wing become smaller with increasing forward speed.

Mineck, R. E.

1977-01-01

333

Crafting Flight: Aircraft Pioneers and the Contributions of the Men and Women of NASA Langley Research Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

While this is a self-contained history of NASA Langley Research Center's contributions to flight, many other organizations around the country played a vital role in the work described in this book.When you pass through the front gates of NASA Langley Research Center you are entering an extraordinary place. You could easily miss that fact, however. A few years cross-state bicycle tour passed through the Center. As interesting as looping around Center was, the riders observed that nothing about the vaguely industrial site fit the conventional stereotypes of what high tech looks like. NASA Langley does not fit many stereotypes. It takes a close examination to discover the many ways it has contributed to development of flight. As part of the national celebrations commemorating the 100th anniversary of the Wright brothers first flight, James Schultz, an experienced journalist with a gift for translating the language of engineers and scientists into prose that nonspecialists can comprehend, has revised and expanded Winds of Change , his wonderful guide to the Center. This revised book, Crafting Flight , invites you inside. You will read about one of the Nation s oldest research and development facilities, a place of imagination and ingenuity.

Schultz, James

2003-01-01

334

Review of factors affecting aircraft wet runway performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Problems associated with aircraft operations on wet runways are discussed and major factors which influence tire/runway braking and cornering traction capability are identified including runway characteristics, tire hydroplaning, brake system anomalies, and pilot inputs. Research results from investigations conducted at the Langley Aircraft Landing Loads and Traction Facility and from tests with instrumented ground vehicles and aircraft are summarized to indicate the effects of different aircraft, tire, and runway parameters. Several promising means are described for improving tire/runway water drainage capability, brake system efficiency, and pilot training to help optimize aircraft traction performance on wet runways.

Yager, T. J.

1983-01-01

335

Future aircraft networks and schedules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Because of the importance of air transportation scheduling, the emergence of small aircraft and the vision of future fuel-efficient aircraft, this thesis has focused on the study of aircraft scheduling and network design involving multiple types of aircraft and flight services. It develops models and solution algorithms for the schedule design problem and analyzes the computational results. First, based on the current development of small aircraft and on-demand flight services, this thesis expands a business model for integrating on-demand flight services with the traditional scheduled flight services. This thesis proposes a three-step approach to the design of aircraft schedules and networks from scratch under the model. In the first step, both a frequency assignment model for scheduled flights that incorporates a passenger path choice model and a frequency assignment model for on-demand flights that incorporates a passenger mode choice model are created. In the second step, a rough fleet assignment model that determines a set of flight legs, each of which is assigned an aircraft type and a rough departure time is constructed. In the third step, a timetable model that determines an exact departure time for each flight leg is developed. Based on the models proposed in the three steps, this thesis creates schedule design instances that involve almost all the major airports and markets in the United States. The instances of the frequency assignment model created in this thesis are large-scale non-convex mixed-integer programming problems, and this dissertation develops an overall network structure and proposes iterative algorithms for solving these instances. The instances of both the rough fleet assignment model and the timetable model created in this thesis are large-scale mixed-integer programming problems, and this dissertation develops subproblem schemes for solving these instances. Based on these solution algorithms, this dissertation also presents computational results of these large-scale instances. To validate the models and solution algorithms developed, this thesis also compares the daily flight schedules that it designs with the schedules of the existing airlines. Furthermore, it creates instances that represent different economic and fuel-prices conditions and derives schedules under these different conditions. In addition, it discusses the implication of using new aircraft in the future flight schedules. Finally, future research in three areas---model, computational method, and simulation for validation---is proposed.

Shu, Yan

2011-07-01

336

Aircraft control in wake vortex wind shear  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the past, there have been a number of fatal incidents attributable to wake vortex encounters, involving both general aviation and commercial aircraft. In fact, the wake vortex hazard is considered to be the single dominant safety issue determining the aircraft spacing requirements at airports. As the amount of air traffic increases, the number of dangerous encounters is likely only to increase. It is therefore imperative that a means be found to reduce the danger. That is the purpose of this research: to use nonlinear inverse dynamic (NID) control methods in the design of an aircraft control system which can improve the safety margin in a wake vortex encounter.

Wold, Gregory R.

1995-01-01

337

Systems integration studies for supersonic cruise aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Technical progress in each of the disciplinary research areas affecting the design of supersonic cruise aircraft is discussed. The NASA AST/SCAR Program supported the integration of these technical advances into supersonic cruise aircraft configuration concepts. While the baseline concepts reflect differing design philosophy, all reflect a level of economic performance considerably above the current foreign aircraft as well as the former U.S. SST. Range-payload characteristics of the study configurating show significant improvement, while meeting environmental goals such as takeoff and landing noise and upper atmospheric pollution.

Mascitti, V. R.

1975-01-01

338

Aspects of aging aircraft - A transatlantic view  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses, from a regulatory viewpoint, some of the key technical matters in the aging aircraft issue. Attention is focused primarily on research topics of interest, for an overview of the CAA approach to aging aircraft. In general, the reader is referred to Williams (1990) and James (1990). The topics covered here are: experience with proof pressure testing; inspection reliability in relation to the task; potential effects of corrosion on fatigue crack growth and toughness; definition of corrosion inhibiting fluids; and implementation management of aging aircraft programs.

Bristow, John W.

339

Conceptual aircraft dynamics from inverse aircraft modeling  

E-print Network

This thesis presents a method of construe' ting a nonlinear dynamics model of a theoretical aircraft from the nonlinear batch simulation of an existing aircrew This method provides control law designers with a method of fabricating nonlinear models...

Ziegler, Gregory E

1999-01-01

340

Laser Powered Aircraft Takes Flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A team of NASA researchers from Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and Dryden Flight Research center have proven that beamed light can be used to power an aircraft, a first-in-the-world accomplishment to the best of their knowledge. Using an experimental custom built radio-controlled model aircraft, the team has demonstrated a system that beams enough light energy from the ground to power the propeller of an aircraft and sustain it in flight. Special photovoltaic arrays on the plane, similar to solar cells, receive the light energy and convert it to electric current to drive the propeller motor. In a series of indoor flights this week at MSFC, a lightweight custom built laser beam was aimed at the airplane `s solar panels. The laser tracks the plane, maintaining power on its cells until the end of the flight when the laser is turned off and the airplane glides to a landing. The laser source demonstration represents the capability to beam more power to a plane so that it can reach higher altitudes and have a greater flight range without having to carry fuel or batteries, enabling an indefinite flight time. The demonstration was a collaborative effort between the Dryden Center at Edward's, California, where the aircraft was designed and built, and MSFC, where integration and testing of the laser and photovoltaic cells was done. Laser power beaming is a promising technology for consideration in new aircraft design and operation, and supports NASA's goals in the development of revolutionary aerospace technologies. Photographed with their invention are (from left to right): David Bushman and Tony Frackowiak, both of Dryden; and MSFC's Robert Burdine.

2003-01-01

341

Daedalus Project's Light Eagle - Human powered aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Michelob Light Eagle is seen here in flight over Rogers Dry Lake at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The Light Eagle and Daedalus human powered aircraft were testbeds for flight research conducted at Dryden between January 1987 and March 1988. These unique aircraft were designed and constructed by a group of students, professors, and alumni of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology within the context of the Daedalus project. The construction of the Light Eagle and Daedalus aircraft was funded primarily by the Anheuser Busch and United Technologies Corporations, respectively, with additional support from the Smithsonian Air and Space Museum, MIT, and a number of other sponsors. To celebrate the Greek myth of Daedalus, the man who constructed wings of wax and feathers to escape King Minos, the Daedalus project began with the goal of designing, building and testing a human-powered aircraft that could fly the mythical distance, 115 km. To achieve this goal, three aircraft were constructed. The Light Eagle was the prototype aircraft, weighing 92 pounds. On January 22, 1987, it set a closed course distance record of 59 km, which still stands. Also in January of 1987, the Light Eagle was powered by Lois McCallin to set the straight distance, the distance around a closed circuit, and the duration world records for the female division in human powered vehicles. Following this success, two more aircraft were built, the Daedalus 87 and Daedalus 88. Each aircraft weighed approximately 69 pounds. The Daedalus 88 aircraft was the ship that flew the 199 km from the Iraklion Air Force Base on Crete in the Mediterranean Sea, to the island of Santorini in 3 hours, 54 minutes. In the process, the aircraft set new records in distance and endurance for a human powered aircraft. The specific areas of flight research conducted at Dryden included characterizing the rigid body and flexible dynamics of the Light Eagle, investigating sensors for an autopilot that could be used on high altitude or human powered aircraft, and determining the power required to fly the Daedalus aircraft. The research flights began in late December 1987 with a shake-down of the Light Eagle instrumentation and data transfer links. The first flight of the Daedalus 87 also occurred during this time. On February 7, 1988, the Daedalus 87 aircraft crashed on Rogers Dry Lakebed. The Daedalus 88, which later set the world record, was then shipped from MIT to replace the 87's research flights, and for general checkout procedures. Due to the accident, flight testing was extended four weeks and thus ended in mid-March 1988 after having achieved the major goals of the program; exploring the dynamics of low Reynolds number aircraft, and investigating the aeroelastic behavior of lightweight aircraft. The information obtained from this program had direct applications to the later design of many high-altitude, long endurance aircraft.

1987-01-01

342

Flight Controller Software Protects Lightweight Flexible Aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lightweight flexible aircraft may be the future of aviation, but a major problem is their susceptibility to flutter-uncontrollable vibrations that can destroy wings. Armstrong Flight Research Center awarded SBIR funding to Minneapolis, Minnesota-based MUSYN Inc. to develop software that helps program flight controllers to suppress flutter. The technology is now available for aircraft manufacturers and other industries that use equipment with automated controls.

2015-01-01

343

Price Determination of General Aviation, Helicopter, and Transport Aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA must assess its aeronautical research program with economic as well as performance measures. It thus is interested in what price a new technology aircraft would carry to make it attractive to the buyer. But what price a given airplane or helicopter will carry is largely a reflection of the manufacturer's assessment of the competitive market into which the new aircraft will be introduced. The manufacturer must weigh any new aerodynamic or system technology innovation he would add to an aircraft by the impact of this innovation upon the aircraft's economic attractiveness and price. The intent of this paper is to give price standards against which new technologies and the NASA's research program can be assessed. Using reported prices for general aviation, helicopter, and transport aircraft, price estimating relations in terms of engine and airframe characteristics have been developed. The relations are given in terms of the aircraft type, its manufactured empty weight, engine weight, horsepower or thrust. Factors for the effects of inflation are included to aid in making predictions of future aircraft prices. There are discussions of aircraft price in terms of number of passenger seats, airplane size and research and development costs related to an aircraft model, and indirectly as to how new technologies, aircraft complexity and inflation have affected these.

Anderson, Joseph L.

1978-01-01

344

Hypersonic aircraft design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A hypersonic aircraft is designed which uses scramjets to accelerate from Mach 6 to Mach 10 and sustain that speed for two minutes. Different propulsion systems were considered and it was decided that the aircraft would use one full scale turbofan-ramjet. Two solid rocket boosters were added to save fuel and help the aircraft pass through the transonic region. After considering aerodynamics, aircraft design, stability and control, cooling systems, mission profile, and landing systems, a conventional aircraft configuration was chosen over that of a waverider. The conventional design was chosen due to its landing characteristics and the relative expense compared to the waverider. Fuel requirements and the integration of the engine systems and their inlets are also taken into consideration in the final design. A hypersonic aircraft was designed which uses scramjets to accelerate from Mach 6 to Mach 10 and sustain that speed for two minutes. Different propulsion systems were considered and a full scale turbofan-ramjet was chosen. Two solid rocket boosters were added to save fuel and help the aircraft pass through the transonic reqion. After the aerodynamics, aircraft design, stability and control, cooling systems, mission profile, landing systems, and their physical interactions were considered, a conventional aircraft configuration was chosen over that of a waverider. The conventional design was chosen due to its landing characteristics and the relative expense compared to the waverider. Fuel requirements and the integration of the engine systems and their inlets were also considered in the designing process.

Alkamhawi, Hani; Greiner, Tom; Fuerst, Gerry; Luich, Shawn; Stonebraker, Bob; Wray, Todd

1990-01-01

345

Nondestructive inspection of bonded composite doublers for aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the major thrusts established under the FAA's National Aging Aircraft Research Program is to foster new technologies associated with civil aircraft maintenance. Recent DOD and other government developments in the use of bonded composite doublers on metal structures has supported the need for research and validation of such doubler applications on US certificated airplanes. Composite doubler technology is

Dennis Roach; David Moore; Phil Walkington

1996-01-01

346

Nondestructive testing technology integration for commercial aircraft operators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A number of NDT technology transfer programs now exist within the aviation industry. The Aging Aircraft Research Program was initiated to enhance airline inspection capability. This paper addresses NFT technology integration for commercial aircraft operators, and critical issues such as research subject identification and project management.

Register, Jeff

1995-07-01

347

Innovations in Aircraft Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Boeing 777 carries with it basic and applied research, technology, and aerodynamic knowledge honed at several NASA field centers. Several Langley Research Center innovations instrumental to the development of the aircraft include knowledge of how to reduce engine and other noise for passengers and terminal residents, increased use of lightweight aerospace composite structures for increased fuel efficiency and range, and wind tunnel tests confirming the structural integrity of 777 wing-airframe integration. Test results from Marshall Space Flight Center aimed at improving the performance of the Space Shuttle engines led to improvements in the airplane's new, more efficient jet engines. Finally, fostered by Ames Research Center, the Boeing 777 blankets that protect areas of the plane from high temperatures and fire have a lineage to Advanced Flexible Reusable Surface Insulation used on certain areas of the Space Shuttle. According to Boeing Company estimates, the 777 has captured three-quarters of new orders for airplanes in its class since the program was launched.

1997-01-01

348

Modeling Programs Increase Aircraft Design Safety  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flutter may sound like a benign word when associated with a flag in a breeze, a butterfly, or seaweed in an ocean current. When used in the context of aerodynamics, however, it describes a highly dangerous, potentially deadly condition. Consider the case of the Lockheed L-188 Electra Turboprop, an airliner that first took to the skies in 1957. Two years later, an Electra plummeted to the ground en route from Houston to Dallas. Within another year, a second Electra crashed. In both cases, all crew and passengers died. Lockheed engineers were at a loss as to why the planes wings were tearing off in midair. For an answer, the company turned to NASA s Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT) at Langley Research Center. At the time, the newly renovated wind tunnel offered engineers the capability of testing aeroelastic qualities in aircraft flying at transonic speeds near or just below the speed of sound. (Aeroelasticity is the interaction between aerodynamic forces and the structural dynamics of an aircraft or other structure.) Through round-the-clock testing in the TDT, NASA and industry researchers discovered the cause: flutter. Flutter occurs when aerodynamic forces acting on a wing cause it to vibrate. As the aircraft moves faster, certain conditions can cause that vibration to multiply and feed off itself, building to greater amplitudes until the flutter causes severe damage or even the destruction of the aircraft. Flutter can impact other structures as well. Famous film footage of the Tacoma Narrows Bridge in Washington in 1940 shows the main span of the bridge collapsing after strong winds generated powerful flutter forces. In the Electra s case, faulty engine mounts allowed a type of flutter known as whirl flutter, generated by the spinning propellers, to transfer to the wings, causing them to vibrate violently enough to tear off. Thanks to the NASA testing, Lockheed was able to correct the Electra s design flaws that led to the flutter conditions and return the aircraft to safe flight. Today, all aircraft must have a flutter boundary 15 percent beyond the aircraft s expected maximum speed to ensure that flutter conditions are not encountered in flight. NASA continues to support research in new aircraft designs to improve knowledge of aeroelasticity and flutter. Through platforms such as Dryden Flight Research Center s Active Aeroelastic Wing (AAW) research aircraft, the Agency researches methods for in-flight validation of predictions and for controlling and taking advantage of aeroelastic conditions to enhance aircraft performance.

2012-01-01

349

Probing Aircraft Flight Test Hazard Mitigation for the Alternative Fuel Effects on Contrails and Cruise Emissions (ACCESS) Research Team . Volume 2; Appendices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Alternative Fuel Effects on Contrails and Cruise Emissions (ACCESS) Project Integration Manager requested in July 2012 that the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) form a team to independently assess aircraft structural failure hazards associated with the ACCESS experiment and to identify potential flight test hazard mitigations to ensure flight safety. The ACCESS Project Integration Manager subsequently requested that the assessment scope be focused predominantly on structural failure risks to the aircraft empennage (horizontal and vertical tail). This report contains the Appendices to Volume I.

Kelly, Michael J.

2013-01-01

350

Human Factors In Aircraft Automation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report presents survey of state of art in human factors in automation of aircraft operation. Presents examination of aircraft automation and effects on flight crews in relation to human error and aircraft accidents.

Billings, Charles

1995-01-01

351

General Aviation Aircraft Reliability Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This reliability study was performed in order to provide the aviation community with an estimate of Complex General Aviation (GA) Aircraft System reliability. To successfully improve the safety and reliability for the next generation of GA aircraft, a study of current GA aircraft attributes was prudent. This was accomplished by benchmarking the reliability of operational Complex GA Aircraft Systems. Specifically, Complex GA Aircraft System reliability was estimated using data obtained from the logbooks of a random sample of the Complex GA Aircraft population.

Pettit, Duane; Turnbull, Andrew; Roelant, Henk A. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

352

Aircraft Optimization for Minimum Environmental Impact  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this research is to investigate the tradeoff between operating cost and environmental acceptability of commercial aircraft. This involves optimizing the aircraft design and mission to minimize operating cost while constraining exterior noise and emissions. Growth in air traffic and airport neighboring communities has resulted in increased pressure to severely penalize airlines that do not meet strict local noise and emissions requirements. As a result, environmental concerns have become potent driving forces in commercial aviation. Traditionally, aircraft have been first designed to meet performance and cost goals, and adjusted to satisfy the environmental requirements at given airports. The focus of the present study is to determine the feasibility of including noise and emissions constraints in the early design of the aircraft and mission. This paper introduces the design tool and results from a case study involving a 250-passenger airliner.

Antoine, Nicolas; Kroo, Ilan M.

2001-01-01

353

Unmanned reconnaissance aircraft, Predator B in flight.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Predator B unmanned reconnaissance aircraft, shown here, under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. ALTAIR/PREDATOR B -- General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc., is developing the Altair version of its Predator B unmanned reconnaissance aircraft, shown here, under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. NASA plans to use the Altair as a technology demonstrator testbed aircraft to validate a variety of command and control technologies for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV), as well as demonstrate the capability to perform a variety of Earth science missions. The Altair is designed to carry an 700-lb. payload of scientific instruments and imaging equipment for as long as 32 hours at up to 52,000 feet altitude. Ten-foot extensions have been added to each wing, giving the Altair an overall wingspan of 84 feet with an aspect ratio of 23. It is powered by a 700-hp. rear-mounted TPE-331-10 turboprop engine, driving a three-blade propeller. Altair is scheduled to begin flight tests in the fourth quarter of 2002, and be acquired by NASA following successful completion of those basic airworthiness tests in early 2003 for evaluation of over-the-horizon control, detect, see and avoid and other technologies required to allow UAVs to operate safely with other aircraft in the national airspace.

2001-01-01

354

Lightning protection for aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reference book summarizes current knowledge concerning potential lightning effects on aircraft and means available to designers and operators to protect against effects. Book is available because of increasing use of nonmetallic materials in aircraft structural components and use of electronic equipment for control of critical flight operations and navigation.

Fisher, F. A.; Plumer, J. A.

1980-01-01

355

Lightning protection of aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The current knowledge concerning potential lightning effects on aircraft and the means that are available to designers and operators to protect against these effects are summarized. The increased use of nonmetallic materials in the structure of aircraft and the constant trend toward using electronic equipment to handle flight-critical control and navigation functions have served as impetus for this study.

Fisher, F. A.; Plumer, J. A.

1977-01-01

356

Solar powered aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cruciform wing structure for a solar powered aircraft is disclosed. Solar cells are mounted on horizontal wing surfaces. Wing surfaces with spanwise axis perpendicular to surfaces maintain these surfaces normal to the sun's rays by allowing aircraft to be flown in a controlled pattern at a large bank angle. The solar airplane may be of conventional design with respect

1983-01-01

357

Commercial aircraft wake vortices  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the problem of wake vortices shed by commercial aircraft. It presents a consolidated European view on the current status of knowledge of the nature and characteristics of aircraft wakes and of technical and operational procedures of minimizing and predicting the vortex strength and avoiding wake encounters. Methodological aspects of data evaluation and interpretation, like the description of

Thomas Gerza; Frank Holz

358

Civil aircraft accident investigation.  

PubMed

This talk reviews some historic aircraft accidents and some more recent. It reflects on the division of accident causes, considering mechanical failures and aircrew failures, and on aircrew training. Investigation results may lead to improved aircraft design, and to appropriate crew training. PMID:24057309

Haines, Daniel

2013-01-01

359

B-52 Launch Aircraft in Flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's venerable B-52 mothership is seen here photographed from a KC-135 Tanker aircraft. The X-43 adapter is visible attached to the right wing. The B-52, used for launching experimental aircraft and for other flight research projects, has been a familiar sight in the skies over Edwards for more than 40 years and is also both the oldest B-52 still flying and the aircraft with the lowest flight time of any B-52. NASA B-52, Tail Number 008, is an air launch carrier aircraft, 'mothership,' as well as a research aircraft platform that has been used on a variety of research projects. The aircraft, a 'B' model built in 1952 and first flown on June 11, 1955, is the oldest B-52 in flying status and has been used on some of the most significant research projects in aerospace history. Some of the significant projects supported by B-52 008 include the X-15, the lifting bodies, HiMAT (highly maneuverable aircraft technology), Pegasus, validation of parachute systems developed for the space shuttle program (solid-rocket-booster recovery system and the orbiter drag chute system), and the X-38. The B-52 served as the launch vehicle on 106 X-15 flights and flew a total of 159 captive-carry and launch missions in support of that program from June 1959 to October 1968. Information gained from the highly successful X-15 program contributed to the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo human spaceflight programs as well as space shuttle development. Between 1966 and 1975, the B-52 served as the launch aircraft for 127 of the 144 wingless lifting body flights. In the 1970s and 1980s, the B-52 was the launch aircraft for several aircraft at what is now the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, to study spin-stall, high-angle-of attack, and maneuvering characteristics. These included the 3/8-scale F-15/spin research vehicle (SRV), the HiMAT (Highly Maneuverable Aircraft Technology) research vehicle, and the DAST (drones for aerodynamic and structural testing). The aircraft supported the development of parachute recovery systems used to recover the space shuttle solid rocket booster casings. It also supported eight orbiter (space shuttle) drag chute tests in 1990. In addition, the B-52 served as the air launch platform for the first six Pegasus space boosters. During its many years of service, the B-52 has undergone several modifications. The first major modification was made by North American Aviation (now part of Boeing) in support of the X-15 program. This involved creating a launch-panel-operator station for monitoring the status of the test vehicle being carried, cutting a large notch in the right inboard wing flap to accommodate the vertical tail of the X-15 aircraft, and installing a wing pylon that enables the B-52 to carry research vehicles and test articles to be air-launched/dropped. Located on the right wing, between the inboard engine pylon and the fuselage, this wing pylon was subjected to extensive testing prior to its use. For each test vehicle the B-52 carried, minor changes were made to the launch-panel operator's station. Built originally by the Boeing Company, the NASA B-52 is powered by eight Pratt & Whitney J57-19 turbojet engines, each of which produce 12,000 pounds of thrust. The aircraft's normal launch speed has been Mach 0.8 (about 530 miles per hour) and its normal drop altitude has been 40,000 to 45,000 feet. It is 156 feet long and has a wing span of 185 feet.

2001-01-01

360

Fluidic Emergency Thruster for Aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design, development, fabrication and test evaluation of two prototype fluidic emergency thrusters (FET) for aircraft stabilization are discussed. The fluidic control units were designed to provide, between two diametrically opposed nozzles, a thrust differential proportional to an input voltage signal. The emergency roll control requirements of the X-14 VTOL research aircraft were defined as typical design goals. Two control units, one on each wing tip, are intended to provide a maximum thrust of 224 pounds per unit. The units are designed to operate with 2500 psig, 2000 F gas from a solid propellant gas generator. The emergency system including the gas generator was designed to add less than 11 pounds per wing tip. The operating time under emergency conditions was specified as five seconds. The fluidic emergency thruster is similar in concept to a JATO system but has the added feature of controllable thrust.

Honda, T. S.

1972-01-01

361

CID Aircraft slap-down  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this photograph the B-720 is seen during the moments of initial impact. The left wing is digging into the lakebed while the aircraft continues sliding towards wing openers. In 1984 NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) teamed-up in a unique flight experiment called the Controlled Impact Demonstration (CID). The test involved crashing a Boeing 720 aircraft with four JT3C-7 engines burning a mixture of standard fuel with an additive, Anti-misting Kerosene (AMK), designed to supress fire. In a typical aircraft crash, fuel spilled from ruptured fuel tanks forms a fine mist that can be ignited by a number of sources at the crash site. In 1984 the NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility (after 1994 a full-fledged Center again) and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) teamed-up in a unique flight experiment called the Controlled Impact Demonstration (CID), to test crash a Boeing 720 aircraft using standard fuel with an additive designed to supress fire. The additive, FM-9, a high-molecular-weight long-chain polymer, when blended with Jet-A fuel had demonstrated the capability to inhibit ignition and flame propagation of the released fuel in simulated crash tests. This anti-misting kerosene (AMK) cannot be introduced directly into a gas turbine engine due to several possible problems such as clogging of filters. The AMK must be restored to almost Jet-A before being introduced into the engine for burning. This restoration is called 'degradation' and was accomplished on the B-720 using a device called a 'degrader.' Each of the four Pratt & Whitney JT3C-7 engines had a 'degrader' built and installed by General Electric (GE) to break down and return the AMK to near Jet-A quality. In addition to the AMK research the NASA Langley Research Center was involved in a structural loads measurement experiment, which included having instrumented dummies filling the seats in the passenger compartment. Before the final flight on December 1, 1984, more than four years of effort passed trying to set-up final impact conditions considered survivable by the FAA. During those years while 14 flights with crews were flown the following major efforts were underway: NASA Dryden developed the remote piloting techniques necessary for the B-720 to fly as a drone aircraft; General Electric installed and tested four degraders (one on each engine); and the FAA refined AMK (blending, testing, and fueling a full-size aircraft). The 15 flights had 15 takeoffs, 14 landings and a larger number of approaches to about 150 feet above the prepared crash site under remote control. These flight were used to introduce AMK one step at a time into some of the fuel tanks and engines while monitoring the performance of the engines. On the final flight (No. 15) with no crew, all fuel tanks were filled with a total of 76,000 pounds of AMK and the remotely-piloted aircraft landed on Rogers Dry Lakebed in an area prepared with posts to test the effectiveness of the AMK in a controlled impact. The CID, which some wags called the Crash in the Desert, was spectacular with a large fireball enveloping and burning the B-720 aircraft. From the standpoint of AMK the test was a major set-back, but for NASA Langley, the data collected on crashworthiness was deemed successful and just as important.

1984-01-01

362

Health monitoring aircraft  

SciTech Connect

A description is given of the health monitoring aircraft concept, which will incorporate innovative sensors, AI, and advanced analytical techniques to provivide real-time and continual aircraft health assessment. According to this concept, all flight-critical structures will be evaluated for integrity as part of the automated preflight checklist. The pilot will be given a visual display of the health of all systems prior to takeoff. Any in-flight change in the health of the aircraft wil be displayed along with recommended action. In order to achieve these capabilities, state-of-the-art structural integrity computer programs, together with AI/neutral network decision-making software, will be incorporated as part of the aircraft computing capability. The life history of the aircraft will be continually and automaticaly updated so that acccurate structural integrity assessments can be made.

Gerardi, T.G. (USAF, Wright Research and Development Center, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH (USA))

1990-07-01

363

Why aircraft disinsection?  

PubMed Central

A serious problem is posed by the inadvertent transport of live mosquitoes aboard aircraft arriving from tropical countries where vector-borne diseases are endemic. Surveys at international airports have found many instances of live insects, particularly mosquitoes, aboard aircraft arriving from countries where malaria and arboviruses are endemic. In some instances mosquito species have been established in countries in which they have not previously been reported. A serious consequence of the transport of infected mosquitoes aboard aircraft has been the numerous cases of "airport malaria" reported from Europe, North America and elsewhere. There is an important on-going need for the disinsection of aircraft coming from airports in tropical disease endemic areas into nonendemic areas. The methods and materials available for use in aircraft disinsection and the WHO recommendations for their use are described. PMID:10994283

Gratz, N. G.; Steffen, R.; Cocksedge, W.

2000-01-01

364

14 CFR 43.7 - Persons authorized to approve aircraft, airframes, aircraft engines, propellers, appliances, or...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...aircraft, airframes, aircraft engines, propellers, appliances, or component parts for...aircraft, airframes, aircraft engines, propellers, appliances, or component parts for...aircraft, airframe, aircraft engine, propeller, appliance, or component part...

2010-01-01

365

14 CFR 21.6 - Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers. 21.6 Section 21.6 Aeronautics...new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers. (a) Except as specified in...a new aircraft, aircraft engine, or propeller based on a type certificate unless...

2010-01-01

366

Recent progress towards predicting aircraft ground handling performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Capability implemented in simulating aircraft ground handling performance is reviewed and areas for further expansion and improvement are identified. Problems associated with providing necessary simulator input data for adequate modeling of aircraft tire/runway friction behavior are discussed and efforts to improve tire/runway friction definition, and simulator fidelity are described. Aircraft braking performance data obtained on several wet runway surfaces are compared to ground vehicle friction measurements. Research to improve methods of predicting tire friction performance are discussed.

Yager, T. J.; White, E. J.

1981-01-01

367

Lightweight materials for aircraft applications  

SciTech Connect

Reducing structural weight is one of the major ways to improve aircraft performance. Lighter and/or stronger materials allow greater range and speed and may also contribute to reducing operational costs. The article reviews some recent developments in lightweight materials for airframe components (aluminum alloys, composites, and hybrid materials) and engine components (titanium aluminides and titanium-based composites). Emphasis is placed on microstructural characterization and the relationship between the microstructure and mechanical properties of specific materials systems being investigated at the National Research Council`s Institute for Aerospace Research.

Immarigeon, J.P.; Holt, R.T.; Koul, A.K.; Zhao, L.; Wallace, W. [NRC Inst. for Aerospace Research, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)] [NRC Inst. for Aerospace Research, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Beddoes, J.C. [Carleton Univ., Ottawa, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering] [Carleton Univ., Ottawa, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

1995-07-01

368

Neural Networks in Nonlinear Aircraft Control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent research indicates that artificial neural networks offer interesting learning or adaptive capabilities. The current research focuses on the potential for application of neural networks in a nonlinear aircraft control law. The current work has been to determine which networks are suitable for such an application and how they will fit into a nonlinear control law.

Linse, Dennis J.

1990-01-01

369

Assessing the Impact of Aircraft Emissions on the Stratosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For the past decade, the NASA Atmospheric Effects of Aviation Project (AEAP) has been the U.S. focal point for research on aircraft effects. In conjunction with U.S. basic research programs, AEAP and concurrent European research programs have driven remarkable progress reports released in 1999 [IPCC, 1999; Kawa et al., 1999]. The former report primarily focuses on aircraft effects in the upper troposphere, with some discussion on stratospheric impacts. The latter report focuses entirely on the stratosphere. The current status of research regarding aviation effects on stratospheric ozone and climate, as embodied by the findings of these reports, is reviewed. The following topics are addressed: Aircraft Emissions, Pollution Transport, Atmospheric Chemistry, Polar Processes, Climate Impacts of Supersonic Aircraft, Subsonic Aircraft Effect on the Stratosphere, Calculations of the Supersonic Impact on Ozone and Sensitivity to Input Conditions.

Kawa, S. R.; Anderson, D. E.

1999-01-01

370

Tropospheric sampling with aircraft  

SciTech Connect

Aircraft constitute a unique environment which places stringent requirements on the instruments used to measure the concentrations of atmospheric trace gases and aerosols. Some of these requirements such as minimization of size, weight, and power consumption are general; others are specific to individual techniques. This review presents the basic principles and considerations governing the deployment of trace gas and aerosol instrumentation on an aircraft. An overview of common instruments illustrates these points and provides guidelines for designing and using instruments on aircraft-based measurement programs.

Daum, P.H.; Springston, S.R.

1991-03-01

371

Aircraft compass characteristics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A description of the test methods used at the National Bureau of Standards for determining the characteristics of aircraft compasses is given. The methods described are particularly applicable to compasses in which mineral oil is used as the damping liquid. Data on the viscosity and density of certain mineral oils used in United States Navy aircraft compasses are presented. Characteristics of Navy aircraft compasses IV to IX and some other compasses are shown for the range of temperatures experienced in flight. Results of flight tests are presented. These results indicate that the characteristic most desired in a steering compass is a short period and, in a check compass, a low overswing.

Peterson, John B; Smith, Clyde W

1937-01-01

372

Lightning hazards to aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lightning hazards and, more generally, aircraft static electricity are discussed by a representative for the Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory. An overview of these atmospheric electricity hazards to aircraft and their systems is presented with emphasis on electrical and electronic subsystems. The discussion includes reviewing some of the characteristics of lightning and static electrification, trends in weather and lightning-related mishaps, some specific threat mechanisms and susceptible aircraft subsystems and some of the present technology gaps. A roadmap (flow chart) is presented to show the direction needed to address these problems.

Corn, P. B.

1978-01-01

373

NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 59: Japanese Technological Innovation. Implications for Large Commercial Aircraft and Knowledge Diffusion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper explores three factors-public policy, the Japanese (national) innovation system, and knowledge-that influence technological innovation in Japan. To establish a context for the paper, we examine Japanese culture and the U.S. and Japanese patent systems in the background section. A brief history of the Japanese aircraft industry as a source of knowledge and technology for other industries is presented. Japanese and U.S. alliances and linkages in three sectors-biotechnology, semiconductors, and large commercial aircraft (LCA)-and the importation, absorption, and diffusion of knowledge and technology are examined next. The paper closes with implications for diffusing knowledge and technology, U.S. public policy, and LCA.

Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kotler, Mindy L.

1997-01-01

374

Parabolic aircraft solidification experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A number of solidification experiments have been utilized throughout the Materials Processing in Space Program to provide an experimental environment which minimizes variables in solidification experiments. Two techniques of interest are directional solidification and isothermal casting. Because of the wide-spread use of these experimental techniques in space-based research, several MSAD experiments have been manifested for space flight. In addition to the microstructural analysis for interpretation of the experimental results from previous work with parabolic flights, it has become apparent that a better understanding of the phenomena occurring during solidification can be better understood if direct visualization of the solidification interface were possible. Our university has performed in several experimental studies such as this in recent years. The most recent was in visualizing the effect of convective flow phenomena on the KC-135 and prior to that were several successive contracts to perform directional solidification and isothermal casting experiments on the KC-135. Included in this work was the modification and utilization of the Convective Flow Analyzer (CFA), the Aircraft Isothermal Casting Furnace (ICF), and the Three-Zone Directional Solidification Furnace. These studies have contributed heavily to the mission of the Microgravity Science and Applications' Materials Science Program.

Workman, Gary L. (Principal Investigator); Smith, Guy A.; OBrien, Susan

1996-01-01

375

System design requirements for advanced rotary-wing agricultural aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Helicopter aerial dispersal systems were studied to ascertain constraints to the system, the effects of removal of limitations (technical and FAA regulations), and subsystem improvements. Productivity indices for the aircraft and swath effects were examined. Typical missions were formulated through conversations with operators, and differing gross weight aircraft were synthesized to perform these missions. Economic analysis of missions and aircraft indicated a general correlation of small aircraft (3000 lb gross weight) suitability for small fields (25 acres), and low dispersion rates (less than 32 lb/acre), with larger aircraft (12,000 lb gross weight) being more favorable for bigger fields (200 acres) and heavier dispersal rates (100 lb/acre). Operator problems, possible aircraft and system improvements, and selected removal of operating limitations were reviewed into recommendations for future NASA research items.

Lemont, H. E.

1979-01-01

376

Framework for the Conceptual Decomposition of Unmanned Aircraft Propulsion Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Propulsion for the aircraft segment in unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) is provided not only by widely used propulsion technologies such as reciprocating piston engines and jet and prop turbine engines, but also by electric motors running off some combination of batteries, solar cells, and fuel cells. These disparate propulsion technologies pose a challenge to researchers and regulators in comparing systems,

Christopher L. Griffis; Timothy A. Wilson; Jeffrey A. Schneider; Peter S. Pierpont

2008-01-01

377

Review of subjective measures of human response to aircraft noise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of aircraft noise rating scales and indexes is reviewed up to the present time. Single event scales, multiple event indexes, and their interrelation with each other, are considered. Research requirements for further refinement and development of aircraft noise rating quantification factors are discussed.

Cawthorn, J. M.; Mayes, W. H.

1976-01-01

378

Aircraft electromagnetic compatibility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Illustrated are aircraft architecture, electromagnetic interference environments, electromagnetic compatibility protection techniques, program specifications, tasks, and verification and validation procedures. The environment of 400 Hz power, electrical transients, and radio frequency fields are portrayed and related to thresholds of avionics electronics. Five layers of protection for avionics are defined. Recognition is given to some present day electromagnetic compatibility weaknesses and issues which serve to reemphasize the importance of EMC verification of equipment and parts, and their ultimate EMC validation on the aircraft. Proven standards of grounding, bonding, shielding, wiring, and packaging are laid out to help provide a foundation for a comprehensive approach to successful future aircraft design and an understanding of cost effective EMC in an aircraft setting.

Clarke, Clifton A.; Larsen, William E.

1987-01-01

379

Solar thermal aircraft  

DOEpatents

A solar thermal powered aircraft powered by heat energy from the sun. A heat engine, such as a Stirling engine, is carried by the aircraft body for producing power for a propulsion mechanism, such as a propeller. The heat engine has a thermal battery in thermal contact with it so that heat is supplied from the thermal battery. A solar concentrator, such as reflective parabolic trough, is movably connected to an optically transparent section of the aircraft body for receiving and concentrating solar energy from within the aircraft. Concentrated solar energy is collected by a heat collection and transport conduit, and heat transported to the thermal battery. A solar tracker includes a heliostat for determining optimal alignment with the sun, and a drive motor actuating the solar concentrator into optimal alignment with the sun based on a determination by the heliostat.

Bennett, Charles L. (Livermore, CA)

2007-09-18

380

Aircraft Safety Improvement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fabrication and testing of honeycomb sandwich aircraft panels are discussed. Also described is the use of the following instruments: thermogravimetric analyzer, differential scanning calorimeter, limiting oxygen index, and infrared spectrometer.

Kao, G.

1985-01-01

381

Laminar Flow Aircraft Certification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Various topics telative to laminar flow aircraft certification are discussed. Boundary layer stability, flaps for laminar flow airfoils, computational wing design studies, manufacturing requirements, windtunnel tests, and flow visualization are among the topics covered.

Williams, Louis J. (compiler)

1986-01-01

382

Aircraft Engine Emissions. [conference  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A conference on a aircraft engine emissions was held to present the results of recent and current work. Such diverse areas as components, controls, energy efficient engine designs, and noise and pollution reduction are discussed.

1977-01-01

383

Eclipse program C-141A aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This photograph shows the Air Force C-141A that was used in the Eclipse project as a tow vehicle. The project used a QF-106 interceptor aircraft to simulate a future orbiter, which would be towed to a high altitude and released to fire its own engines and carry a payload into space. In 1997 and 1998, the Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards, California, supported and hosted a Kelly Space & Technology, Inc. project called Eclipse, which sought to demonstrate the feasibility of a reusable tow-launch vehicle concept. The project goal was to successfully tow, inflight, a modified QF-106 delta-wing aircraft with an Air Force C-141A transport aircraft. This would demonstrate the possibility of towing and launching an actual launch vehicle from behind a tow plane. Dryden was the responsible test organization and had flight safety responsibility for the Eclipse project. Dryden provided engineering, instrumentation, simulation, modification, maintenance, range support, and research pilots for the test program. The Air Force Flight Test Center (AFFTC), Edwards, California, supplied the C-141A transport aircraft and crew and configured the aircraft as needed for the tests. The AFFTC also provided the concept and detail design and analysis as well as hardware for the tow system and QF-106 modifications. Dryden performed the modifications to convert the QF-106 drone into the piloted EXD-01 (Eclipse eXperimental Demonstrator-01) experimental aircraft. Kelly Space & Technology hoped to use the results gleaned from the tow test in developing a series of low-cost, reusable launch vehicles. These tests demonstrated the validity of towing a delta-wing aircraft having high wing loading, validated the tow simulation model, and demonstrated various operational procedures, such as ground processing of in-flight maneuvers and emergency abort scenarios.

1997-01-01

384

Alternative jet aircraft fuels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Potential changes in jet aircraft fuel specifications due to shifts in supply and quality of refinery feedstocks are discussed with emphasis on the effects these changes would have on the performance and durability of aircraft engines and fuel systems. Combustion characteristics, fuel thermal stability, and fuel pumpability at low temperature are among the factors considered. Combustor and fuel system technology needs for broad specification fuels are reviewed including prevention of fuel system fouling and fuel system technology for fuels with higher freezing points.

Grobman, J.

1979-01-01

385

Aircraft Sensors Signal Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper deals with possibilities and methods of processing of signals from aircraft sensors. Because of a large amount of\\u000a proceeded data the subject of the paper is limited only to data processing from electrical subsystem of aircraft. Designed\\u000a data acquisition and processing avionic system is based on CANaerospace communication network. Primary function of the system\\u000a is to collect all

J. Bajer; R. Byst?ický; R. Jalovecký; P. Jan?

386

Assessment of Alternative Aircraft Fuels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this symposium is to provide representatives from industry, government, and academia concerned with the availability and quality of future aviation turbine fuels with recent technical results and a status review of DOD and NASA sponsored fuels research projects. The symposium has included presentations on the potential crude sources, refining methods, and characteristics of future fuels; the effects of changing fuel characteristics on the performance and durability of jet aircraft components and systems; and the prospects for evolving suitable technology to produce and use future fuels.

1984-01-01

387

Operational Concepts for Uninhabited Tactical Aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes experiences with five remotely piloted flight research vehicle projects in the developmental flight test phase. These projects include the Pathfinder, Perseus B, Altus, and X-36 aircraft and the Highly Maneuverable Aircraft Technology (HiMAT). Each of these flight projects was flown at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. With the exception of the HiMAT, these projects are a part of the Flight Research Base Research and Technology (R&T) Program of the NASA Aeronautics and Space Transportation Technology Enterprise. Particularly with respect to operational interfaces between the ground-based pilot or operator, this paper draws from those experiences, then provides some rationale for extending the lessons learned during developmental flight research to the possible situations involved in the developmental flights proceeding deployed uninhabited tactical aircraft (UTA) operations. Two types of UTA control approaches are considered: autonomous and remotely piloted. In each of these cases, some level of human operator or pilot control blending is recommended. Additionally, "best practices" acquired over years of piloted aircraft experience are drawn from and presented as they apply to operational UTA.

Deets, Dwain A.; Purifoy, Dana

1998-01-01

388

150 Passenger Commercial Aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It has been projected that the need for a short-range mid-sized, aircraft is increasing. The future strategy to decrease long-haul flights will increase the demand for short-haul flights. Since passengers prefer to meet their destinations quickly, airlines will increase the frequency of flights, which will reduce the passenger load on the aircraft. If a point-to-point flight is not possible, passengers will prefer only a one-stop short connecting flight to their final destination. A 150-passenger aircraft is an ideal vehicle for these situations. It is mid-sized aircraft and has a range of 3000 nautical miles. This type of aircraft would market U.S. domestic flights or inter-European flight routes. The objective of the design of the 150-passenger aircraft is to minimize fuel consumption. The configuration of the aircraft must be optimized. This aircraft must meet CO2 and NOx emissions standards with minimal acquisition price and operating costs. This report contains all the work that has been performed for the completion of the design of a 150 passenger commercial aircraft. The methodology used is the Technology Identification, Evaluation, and Selection (TIES) developed at Georgia Tech Aerospace Systems Design laboratory (ASDL). This is an eight-step conceptual design process to evaluate the probability of meeting the design constraints. This methodology also allows for the evaluation of new technologies to be implemented into the design. The TIES process begins with defining the problem with a need established and a market targeted. With the customer requirements set and the target values established, a baseline concept is created. Next, the design space is explored to determine the feasibility and viability of the baseline aircraft configuration. If the design is neither feasible nor viable, new technologies can be implemented to open up the feasible design space and allow for a plausible solution. After the new technologies are identified, they must be evaluated to determine the physical compatibility of integrating multiple technologies and then the impact on the design, both improvements and degradations, must be determined. These technologies are assessed deterministically. Again, Response Surface Equations (RSEs) are developed to allow for a full factorial evaluation of the combinations of the technologies. The best combination of technologies is selected and then the design space is again reevaluated for feasibility and viability.

Bucovsky, Adrian; Romli, Fairuz I.; Rupp, Jessica

2002-01-01

389

Method for carrier aircraft task flow safety analysis based on TPN  

Microsoft Academic Search

With tight timing, sequencing and compact, the time error of any task flow activities of carrier aircrafts may result flow fracturing, leading to unsafe task. Currently, the research in the carrier aircraft safety is mainly focused on the quality of its flight dynamics modeling and simulation, while for carrier aircraft task flow analysis, its improvement, and safety induced by the

Zhaoguang Peng; Tingdi Zhao; Jin Tian

2011-01-01

390

Ultrasonic Measurement of Aircraft Strut Hydraulic Fluid Level  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An ultrasonic method is presented for non-intrusively measuring hydraulic fluid level in aircraft struts in the field quickly and easily without modifying the strut or aircraft. The technique interrogates the strut with ultrasonic waves generated and received by a removable ultrasonic transducer hand-held on the outside of the strut in a fashion that is in the presence or absence of hydraulic fluid inside the strut. This technique was successfully demonstrated on an A-6 aircraft strut on the carriage at the Aircraft Landing Dynamics Research Facility at NASA Langley Research Center. Conventional practice upon detection of strut problem symptoms is to remove aircraft from service for extensive maintenance to determine fluid level. No practical technique like the method presented herein for locating strut hydraulic fluid level is currently known to be used.

Allison, Sidney G.

2002-01-01

391

Application of a ground based minicomputer system for real time, closed loop control of remotely piloted aircraft models used in stall/spin research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper describes a minicomputer-based, real-time closed loop remote control system at NASA Langley outdoor facility which is used to determine the stall/departure/spin characteristics of high-performance aircraft. The experiments are conducted with 15% dynamically scaled, unpowered models that are dropped from 3000 m and ground controlled. The effects of time delays and sampling rates on the stability of the control system and the selection of digital algorithms to meet frequency response and real time constraints are examined. Also described is the implementation of the modular software for the flexible programming of multi-axis control laws.

Montoya, R. J.; Jai, A. R.

1979-01-01

392

Studies of advanced transport aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Concepts for possible future airplanes are studied that include all-wing distributed-load airplanes, multi-body airplanes, a long-range laminar flow control airplane, a nuclear powered airplane designed for towing conventionally powered airplanes during long range cruise, and an aerial transportation system comprised of continuously flying liner airplanes operated in conjunction with short range feeder airplanes. Results indicate that each of these concepts has the potential for important performance and economic advantages, provided certain suggested research tasks are successfully accomplished. Indicated research areas include all-wing airplane aerodynamics, aerial rendezvous, nuclear aircraft engines, air-cushion landing systems, and laminar flow control, as well as the basic research discipline areas of aerodynamics, structures, propulsion, avionics, and computer applications.

Nagel, A. L.

1978-01-01

393

Aircraft viscous drag reduction using riblets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The last two decades have seen considerable research activity on the use of riblets for viscous drag reduction. Experimental results concerning the performance of 3M riblets on airfoils, wings and wing-body or aircraft configurations at different speed regimes are reviewed; these applications bring in additional effects like pressure gradients and three dimensionality. In addition to drag reduction, aspects of altered

P. R. Viswanath

2002-01-01

394

New materials drive high-performance aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report shows how advanced composite materials and new processing methods are enabling lighter, lower cost aircraft structures. High-temperature polymers research will focus on systems capable of 50,000 to 100,000 hours of operation in the 212-400 F temperature range. Prospective materials being evaluated include high-temperature epoxies, toughened bismaleimides, cyanates, thermoplastics, polyimides and other polymers.

Ruhmann, Douglas C.; Bates, William F., Jr.; Dexter, H. B.; June, Reid B.

1992-01-01

395

Aircraft Safety and Operating Problems. [conference  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results of NASA research in the field of aircraft safety and operating problems are discussed. Topics include: (1) terminal area operations, (2) flight dynamics and control; (3) ground operations; (4) atmospheric environment; (5) structures and materials; (6) powerplants; (7) noise; and (8) human factors engineering.

1976-01-01

396

Simulation Packages Expand Aircraft Design Options  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In 2001, NASA released a new approach to computational fluid dynamics that allows users to perform automated analysis on complex vehicle designs. In 2010, Palo Alto, California-based Desktop Aeronautics acquired a license from Ames Research Center to sell the technology. Today, the product assists organizations in the design of subsonic aircraft, space planes, spacecraft, and high speed commercial jets.

2013-01-01

397

Aircraft Piston Engine Exhaust Emission Symposium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A 2-day symposium on the reduction of exhaust emissions from aircraft piston engines was held on September 14 and 15, 1976, at the Lewis Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. Papers were presented by both government organizations and the general aviation industry on the status of government contracts, emission measurement problems, data reduction procedures, flight testing, and emission reduction techniques.

1976-01-01

398

Predicted aircraft effects on stratospheric ozone  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The possibility that the current fleet of subsonic aircraft may already have caused detectable changes in both the troposphere and stratosphere has raised concerns about the impact of such operations on stratospheric ozone and climate. Recent interest in the operation of supersonic aircraft in the lower stratosphere has heightened such concerns. Previous assessments of impacts from proposed supersonic aircraft were based mostly on one-dimensional model results although a limited number of multidimensional models were used. In the past 15 years, our understanding of the processes that control the atmospheric concentrations of trace gases has changed dramatically. This better understanding was achieved through accumulation of kinetic data and field observations as well as development of new models. It would be beneficial to start examining the impact of subsonic aircraft to identify opportunities to study and validate the mechanisms that were proposed to explain the ozone responses. The two major concerns are the potential for a decrease in the column abundance of ozone leading to an increase in ultraviolet radiation at the ground, and redistribution of ozone in the lower stratosphere and upper troposphere leading to changes in the Earth's climate. Two-dimensional models were used extensively for ozone assessment studies, with a focus on responses to chlorine perturbations. There are problems specific to the aircraft issues that are not adequately addressed by the current models. This chapter reviews the current status of the research on aircraft impact on ozone with emphasis on immediate model improvements necessary for extending our understanding. The discussion will be limited to current and projected commercial aircraft that are equipped with air-breathing engines using conventional jet fuel. The impacts are discussed in terms of the anticipated fuel use at cruise altitude.

Ko, Malcolm K. W.; Wofsy, Steve; Kley, Dieter; Zhadin, Evgeny A.; Johnson, Colin; Weisenstein, Debra; Prather, Michael J.; Wuebbles, Donald J.

1991-01-01

399

Damage tolerance for commuter aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The damage tolerance experience in the United States Air Force with military aircraft and in the commercial world with large transport category aircraft indicates that a similar success could be achieved in commuter aircraft. The damage tolerance process is described for the purpose of defining the approach that could be used for these aircraft to ensure structural integrity. Results of some of the damage tolerance assessments for this class of aircraft are examined to illustrate the benefits derived from this approach. Recommendations are given for future damage tolerance assessment of existing commuter aircraft and on the incorporation of damage tolerance capability in new designs.

Lincoln, John W.

1992-01-01

400

General-Purpose Electronic System Tests Aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Versatile digital equipment supports research, development, and maintenance. Extended aircraft interrogation and display system is general-purpose assembly of digital electronic equipment on ground for testing of digital electronic systems on advanced aircraft. Many advanced features, including multiple 16-bit microprocessors, pipeline data-flow architecture, advanced operating system, and resident software-development tools. Basic collection of software includes program for handling many types of data and for displays in various formats. User easily extends basic software library. Hardware and software interfaces to subsystems provided by user designed for flexibility in configuration to meet user's requirements.

Glover, Richard D.

1989-01-01

401

Measuring Wildfires From Aircraft And Satellites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aircraft and satellite systems yield wide-area views, providing total coverage of affected areas. System developed for use aboard aircraft includes digital scanner that records data in 12 channels. Transmits data to ground station for immediate use in fighting fires. Enables researchers to estimate gaseous and particulate emissions from fires. Provides information on temperatures of flame fronts and soils, intensities and rate of spread of fires, characteristics of fuels and smoke plumes, energy-release rates, and concentrations and movements of trace gases. Data relates to heating and cooling of soils, loss of nutrients, and effects on atmospheric, terrestrial, and aquatic systems.

Brass, J. A.; Arvesen, J. C.; Ambrosia, V. G.; Riggan, P. J.; Meyers, J. S.

1991-01-01

402

Identification of Aircraft Hazards  

SciTech Connect

Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 174235], Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based upon limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and upon crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a monitored geologic repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain, using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987 [DIRS 103124], Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of identified aircraft hazards based upon the criteria that apply to Category 1 and Category 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 [DIRS 176544] (Section 4). The scope of this report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the repository at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (Section 7).

K. Ashley

2006-12-08

403

Aircraft control position indicator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An aircraft control position indicator was provided that displayed the degree of deflection of the primary flight control surfaces and the manner in which the aircraft responded. The display included a vertical elevator dot/bar graph meter display for indication whether the aircraft will pitch up or down, a horizontal aileron dot/bar graph meter display for indicating whether the aircraft will roll to the left or to the right, and a horizontal dot/bar graph meter display for indicating whether the aircraft will turn left or right. The vertical and horizontal display or displays intersect to form an up/down, left/right type display. Internal electronic display driver means received signals from transducers measuring the control surface deflections and determined the position of the meter indicators on each dot/bar graph meter display. The device allows readability at a glance, easy visual perception in sunlight or shade, near-zero lag in displaying flight control position, and is not affected by gravitational or centrifugal forces.

Dennis, Dale V. (inventor)

1987-01-01

404

IDENTIFICATION OF AIRCRAFT HAZARDS  

SciTech Connect

Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in the ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2004, Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based on limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and on crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987, Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. NUREG-0800 is being used here as a reference because some of the same considerations apply. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of the identified aircraft hazards based on the criteria that apply to Category 1 and 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 (see Section 4). The scope of this technical report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the MGR at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (see Section 7).

K.L. Ashley

2005-03-23

405

Aircraft Loss of Control Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Loss of control has become the leading cause of jet fatalities worldwide. Aside from their frequency of occurrence, accidents resulting from loss of aircraft control seize the public s attention by yielding large numbers of fatalities in a single event. In response to the rising threat to aviation safety, NASA's Aviation Safety Program has conducted a study of the loss of control problem. This study gathered four types of information pertaining to loss of control accidents: (1) statistical data; (2) individual accident reports that cite loss of control as a contributing factor; (3) previous meta-analyses of loss of control accidents; and (4) inputs solicited from aircraft manufacturers, air carriers, researchers, and other industry stakeholders. Using these information resources, the study team identified causal factors that were cited in the greatest number of loss of control accidents, and which were emphasized most by industry stakeholders. For each causal factor that was linked to loss of control, the team solicited ideas about what solutions are required and future research efforts that could potentially help avoid their occurrence or mitigate their consequences when they occurred in flight.

Jacobson, Steven R.

2010-01-01

406

Integrated digital/electric aircraft concepts study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The integrated digital/electrical aircraft (IDEA) is an aircraft concept which employs all electric secondary power systems and advanced digital flight control systems. After trade analysis, preferred systems were applied to the baseline configuration. An additional configuration, the alternate IDEA, was also considered. For this concept the design ground rules were relaxed in order to quantify additional synergistic benefits. It was proposed that an IDEA configuration and technical risks associated with the IDEA systems concepts be defined and the research and development required activities to reduce these risks be identified. The selected subsystems include: power generation, power distribution, actuators, environmental control system and flight controls systems. When the aircraft was resized, block fuel was predicted to decrease by 11.3 percent, with 7.9 percent decrease in direct operating cost. The alternate IDEA shows a further 3.4 percent reduction in block fuel and 3.1 percent reduction in direct operating cost.

Cronin, M. J.; Hays, A. P.; Green, F. B.; Radovcich, N. A.; Helsley, C. W.; Rutchik, W. L.

1985-01-01

407

Inlet distortion in engines on VSTOL aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report presents the results of a research program on inlet distortion in engines on VSTOL aircraft carried out at the MIT Gas Turbine Laboratory during the period Oct. 1989 - Dec. 1993. The program focused on the development of three dimensional flow computational methodology for predicting the effects of nonuniform flow on the performance of aircraft engines in VSTOL aircraft, the development of a three dimensional instability analysis of flow in multistage axial compressors, and the preliminary applications of these newly developed methodologies for elucidating the effects of flow three dimensionality. The accomplishments of the program are brought out when the current status of predictive capabilities for three dimensional flow instabilities in compressors is assessed against that in 1989.

Tan, Choon S.; Greitzer, Edward M.

1994-01-01

408

A Software Framework for Aircraft Simulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Dryden Flight Research Center has a long history in developing simulations of experimental fixed-wing aircraft from gliders to suborbital vehicles on platforms ranging from desktop simulators to pilot-in-the-loop/aircraft-in-the-loop simulators. Regardless of the aircraft or simulator hardware, much of the software framework is common to all NASA Dryden simulators. Some of this software has withstood the test of time, but in recent years the push toward high-fidelity user-friendly simulations has resulted in some significant changes. This report presents an overview of the current NASA Dryden simulation software framework and capabilities with an emphasis on the new features that have permitted NASA to develop more capable simulations while maintaining the same staffing levels.

Curlett, Brian P.

2008-01-01

409

Automated optimization techniques for aircraft synthesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Application of numerical optimization techniques to automated conceptual aircraft design is examined. These methods are shown to be a general and efficient way to obtain quantitative information for evaluating alternative new vehicle projects. Fully automated design is compared with traditional point design methods and time and resource requirements for automated design are given. The NASA Ames Research Center aircraft synthesis program (ACSYNT) is described with special attention to calculation of the weight of a vehicle to fly a specified mission. The ACSYNT procedures for automatically obtaining sensitivity of the design (aircraft weight, performance and cost) to various vehicle, mission, and material technology parameters are presented. Examples are used to demonstrate the efficient application of these techniques.

Vanderplaats, G. N.

1976-01-01

410

Altus I aircraft on lakebed  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The remotely-piloted Altus I aircraft climbs away after takeoff from Rogers Dry Lake adjacent to NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif. The short series of test flights sponsored by the Naval Postgraduate School in early August, 1997, were designed to demonstrate the ability of the experimental craft to cruise at altitudes above 40,000 feet for sustained durations. On its final flight Aug. 15, the Altus I reached an altitude of 43,500 feet. The Altus I and its sister ship, the Altus II, are variants of the Predator surveillance drone built by General Atomics/Aeronautical Systems, Inc. They are designed for high-altitude, long-duration scientific sampling missions, and are powered by turbocharged piston engines. The Altus I incorporates a single-stage turbocharger, while the Altus II, built for NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology program, sports a two-stage turbocharger to enable the craft to fly at altitudes above 55,000 feet. The Altus II, the first of the two craft to be completed, made its first flight on May 1, 1996. With its engine augmented by a single-stage turbocharger, the Altus II reached an altitude of 37,000 ft during its first series of development flights at Dryden in Aug., 1996. In Oct. of that year, the Altus II was flown in an Atmospheric Radiation Measurement study for the Department of Energy's Sandia National Laboratory in Oklahoma. During the course of those flights, the Altus II set a single-flight endurance record for remotely-operated aircraft of more than 26 hours. The Altus I, completed in 1997, flew a series of development flights at Dryden that summer. Those test flights culminated with the craft reaching an altitude of 43,500 ft while carrying a simulated 300-lb payload, a record for an unmanned aircraft powered by a piston engine augmented with a single-stage turbocharger. The Altus II sustained an altitudeof 55,000 feet for four hours in 1999. A pilot in a control station on the ground flies the craft by radio signals, using visual cues from a video camera in the nose of the Altus and information from the craft's air data system.

1997-01-01

411

Composite aircraft structures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In late 1975, the Aircraft Energy Efficiency (ACEE) program was initiated by NASA in order to accelerate the development of selected technologies which showed promise for substantial improvements in the fuel efficiency of commercial transport aircraft. A description is presented of the status of the composite structure development programs which form one of the six sections of the ACEE program. Six aircraft components are currently being developed under NASA contract by three major transport manufacturers. The components include the upper aft rudder of the Douglas DC-10, the inboard ailerons of the Lockheed L-1011, the elevators of the Boeing 727, the vertical stabilizers for the Lockheed L-1011 and Douglas DC-10, and the horizontal stabilizers of the Boeing 737. It is found that the composite components show a high potential for achieving cost comparability with the metal parts they are designed to replace.

Vosteen, L. F.

1980-01-01

412

Using an A-10 Aircraft for Airborne measurements of TGFs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Plans are underway to convert an A-10 combat attack aircraft into a research aircraft for thunderstorm research. This aircraft would be configured and instrumented for flights into large, convective thunderstorms. It would have the capabilities of higher altitude performance and protection for thunderstorm conditions that exceed those of aircraft now in use for this research. One area of investigation for this aircraft would be terrestrial gamma ]ray flashes (TGFs), building on the pioneering observations made by the Airborne Detector for Energetic Lightning Emissions (ADELE) project several years ago. A new and important component of the planned investigations are the continuous, detailed correlations of TGFs with the electric fields near the aircraft, as well as detailed measurements of nearby lightning discharges. Together, the x-and gamma-radiation environments, the electric field measurements, and the lightning observations (all measured on microsecond timescales) should provide new insights into this TGF production mechanism. The A -10 aircraft is currently being modified for thunderstorm research. It is anticipated that the initial test flights for this role will begin next year.

Fishman, Gerald J.; Christian, Hugh, J.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Grove, J. Eric; Chektman, Alexandre; Jonsson, Haflidi; Detwiler, Andrew G.

2012-01-01

413

Using an A-10 Aircraft for Airborne Measurements of TGFs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Work is underway to modify an A-10 combat attack aircraft to become a research aircraft for thunderstorm research. This aircraft would be configured and instrumented for flights into large, convective thunderstorms. It would have the capabilities of higher altitude performance and protection for thunderstorm conditions that exceed those of aircraft now in use for this research. One area of investigation for this aircraft will be terrestrial gamma-ray flashes (TGFs), building on the pioneering observations made by the Airborne Detector for Energetic Lightning Emissions (ADELE) project several years ago. A new and important component of the planned investigations are the continuous, detailed correlations of TGFs with the electric fields near the aircraft, as well as detailed measurements of nearby lightning discharges. Together, the x- and gamma-radiation environments, the electric field measurements, and the lightning observations (all measured on microsecond timescales) should provide new insights into the TGF production mechanism. The A-10 aircraft is currently being modified for thunderstorm research. It is anticipated that the initial test flights for this role will begin next year.

Fishman, G. J.; Christian, H. J.; Blakeslee, R. J.; Grove, J.; Chekhtman, A.; Jonsson, H.; Detwiler, A. G.

2012-12-01

414

Eclipse program C-141A aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This photograph shows the Air Force C-141A that was used in the Eclipse project as a tow vehicle. In 1997 and 1998, the Dryden Flight Resea