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1

Wind Tunnel Study of Oblique Wing Missile Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an effort to increase the range of missiles and guided bombs, the oblique wing configuration is of interest. An oblique wing is a wing that has one side swept forward and the other side swept aft. This experiment al study focused on the low speed performance of a missile model with an oblique wing that pivot ed about a

Matthew J. Dillsaver; Milton E. Franke

2008-01-01

2

Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Final Report summarizes the work accomplished by the Boeing Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research (SUGAR) team in Phase 1, which includes the time period of October 2008 through March 2010. The team consisted of Boeing Research and Technology, Boein...

C. K. Droney M. K. Bradley

2011-01-01

3

NASA Langley Research Center's Unmanned Aerial System Surrogate Research Aircraft.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Research is needed to determine what procedures, aircraft sensors and other systems will be required to allow Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) to safely operate with manned aircraft in the National Airspace System (NAS). The NASA Langley Research Center has ...

A. Jessup C. Joyce C. T. Howell F. Jones H. Verstynen J. Mielnik P. Sugden

2010-01-01

4

C-20A Environmental Science Research Aircraft  

NASA Website

NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center operates a C-20A, a military version of the Gulfstream III business jet, as an environmental science research aircraft for a variety of geophysical research missions.

5

Computational fire modeling for aircraft fire research  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes work performed by Sandia National Laboratories for the Federal Aviation Administration. The technical issues involved in fire modeling for aircraft fire research are identified, as well as computational fire tools for addressing those issues, and the research which is needed to advance those tools in order to address long-range needs. Fire field models are briefly reviewed, and the VULCAN model is selected for further evaluation. Calculations are performed with VULCAN to demonstrate its applicability to aircraft fire problems, and also to gain insight into the complex problem of fires involving aircraft. Simulations are conducted to investigate the influence of fire on an aircraft in a cross-wind. The interaction of the fuselage, wind, fire, and ground plane is investigated. Calculations are also performed utilizing a large eddy simulation (LES) capability to describe the large- scale turbulence instead of the more common k-{epsilon} turbulence model. Additional simulations are performed to investigate the static pressure and velocity distributions around a fuselage in a cross-wind, with and without fire. The results of these simulations provide qualitative insight into the complex interaction of a fuselage, fire, wind, and ground plane. Reasonable quantitative agreement is obtained in the few cases for which data or other modeling results exist Finally, VULCAN is used to quantify the impact of simplifying assumptions inherent in a risk assessment compatible fire model developed for open pool fire environments. The assumptions are seen to be of minor importance for the particular problem analyzed. This work demonstrates the utility of using a fire field model for assessing the limitations of simplified fire models. In conclusion, the application of computational fire modeling tools herein provides both qualitative and quantitative insights into the complex problem of aircraft in fires.

Nicolette, V.F.

1996-11-01

6

Aircraft icing research flights in embedded convection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Results from in-cloud measurements with an instrumented aircraft from an icing research campaign in Southern Germany in March\\u000a 1997 are presented. Measurements with conventional optical cloud probes and of the ice accretion on a cylinder exposed to\\u000a the flow show the existence of supercooled large drops (SLD) in the size range up to 300?µm simultaneously with severe icing\\u000a with ice-accretion

T. Hauf; F. Schröder

2006-01-01

7

The NASA Langley Research Center's Unmanned Aerial System Surrogate research aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research is needed to determine what procedures, aircraft sensors and other systems will be required to allow Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) to safely operate with manned aircraft in the National Airspace System (NAS). The NASA Langley Research Center has transformed a Cirrus Design SR22 general aviation (GA) aircraft into a UAS Surrogate research aircraft to serve as a platform for

Charles T. Howell; Artie Jessup; Frank Jones; C. Joyce; P. Sugden; H. Verstynen; J. Mielnik

2010-01-01

8

HAI: A new TDLAS hygrometer for the HALO research aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water vapor is the most important greenhouse gas in the Earth's atmosphere and a key component for several physical and chemical processes. Therefore it is a key parameter to be measured during most research campaigns. The Hygrometer for Atmospheric Investigations (HAI) is especially designed for operations on the research aircraft HALO (High Altitude and LOng range research aircraft). HAI permits

Tim Klostermann; Armin Afchine; Jochen Barthel; Matthias Höh; Steven Wagner; Oliver Witzel; Harald Saathoff; Cornelius Schiller; Volker Ebert

2010-01-01

9

NASA Dryden Fact Sheets - F/A-18 Systems Research Aircraft  

NASA Website

F/A-18 Systems Research Aircraft Project Update The NASA Dryden Flight Research Center is using an F/A-18 Hornet fighter aircraft as its Systems Research Aircraft (SRA). The aircraft is on loan from the U.S.

10

NASA Dryden Fact Sheets - X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft  

NASA Website

X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft Project Summary The NASA/Boeing X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft successfully completed a 31-flight research program at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif., in November 1997.

11

Aircraft  

SciTech Connect

This disclosure provides a solar rechargeable aircraft that is inexpensive to produce, is steerable, and can remain airborne almost indefinitely. The preferred aircraft is a span-loaded flying wing, having no fuselage or rudder. Travelling at relatively slow speeds, and having a two-hundred foot wingspan that mounts photovoltaic cells on most all of the wing's top surface, the aircraft uses only differential thrust of its eight propellers to turn. Each of five sections of the wing has one or more engines and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other sections, to avoid loading them. Five two-sided photovoltaic arrays, in all, are mounted on the wing, and receive photovoltaic energy both incident on top of the wing, and which is incident also from below, through a bottom, transparent surface. The aircraft is capable of a top speed of about ninety miles per hour, which enables the aircraft to attain and can continuously maintain altitudes of up to sixty-five thousand feet. Regenerative fuel cells in the wing store excess electricity for use at night, such that the aircraft can sustain its elevation indefinitely. A main spar of the wing doubles as a pressure vessel that houses hydrogen and oxygen gasses for use in the regenerative fuel cell. The aircraft has a wide variety of applications, which include weather monitoring and atmospheric testing, communications, surveillance, and other applications as well.

Hibbs, Bart D. (1732 N. Grand Oaks, Altadena, CA 91001); Lissaman, Peter B. S. (3276 Rubio Canyon Rd., Altadena, CA 91001); Morgan, Walter R. (3217 Amarillo Ave., Simi Valley, CA 93063); Radkey, Robert L. (70 Eddystone Ct., Redwood City, CA 94065)

1998-01-01

12

Aircraft.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The aircraft is a large ship designed for passenger or cargo transportation. The structure includes a long cigar-shaped fuselage, a delta-shaped supportingcontrol structure aft of the flight cabin, delta-shaped wing structure and tail structure. Four engi...

A. E. Anderson W. L. Cook J. C. Daugherty J. L. Jones D. G. Koenig

1965-01-01

13

Review of Research and Development in Crashworthiness of General Aviation Aircraft: Seats, Restraints and Floor Structures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A literature search has been conducted to determine the status of knowledge of the crashworthiness aspects of general aviation aircraft. Research and development work relating to seats, restraints, and floor structures of general aviation aircraft has bee...

P. Huculak

1990-01-01

14

Engineering and Technical Configuration Aspects of HIAPER, the new NSF\\/NCAR Research Aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

The High-performance Instrumented Airborne Platform for Environmental Research, or HIAPER, is the new research aircraft presently being developed at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) to serve the environmental research needs of the National Science Foundation (NSF) for the next several decades. The basic aircraft -- a Gulfstream V (G-V) business jet -- has been completed and will shortly

R. Friesen; K. Laursen

2002-01-01

15

Research on hypersonic aircraft using pre-cooled turbojet engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Systems analysis of a Mach 5 class hypersonic aircraft is performed. The aircraft can fly across the Pacific Ocean in two hours. A multidisciplinary optimization program for aerodynamics, structure, propulsion, and trajectory is used in the analysis. The result of each element model is improved using higher accuracy analysis tools. The aerodynamic performance of the hypersonic aircraft is examined through

Hideyuki Taguchi; Hiroaki Kobayashi; Takayuki Kojima; Atsushi Ueno; Shunsuke Imamura; Motoyuki Hongoh

16

Canadian low-gravity research using parabolic aircraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An active experimental program being implemented by Canada in microgravity, which relies heavily on the use of parabolic aircraft, is discussed. The advantages of zero-gravity aircraft include low cost and quick turnaround. These aircraft have demonstrated their value for prototyping experimental hardware developments planned for flight at other facilities, such as sounding rockets and Shuttle-based carriers which are supported by the Canadian Space Agency.

Campbell, Glen S.; Vezina, L.; Aitken, J. F.

1992-12-01

17

COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT (CR&D) Delivery Order 0034: Aircraft Coatings Modeling and Simulation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research in support of the Air Force Research Laboratory Materials and Manufacturing Directorate was conducted at Wright- Patterson AFB, Ohio from 4 May 2005 through 1 February 2008. This task worked to develop and validate models for aircraft protec...

T. Dirama

2008-01-01

18

Engineering and Technical Configuration Aspects of HIAPER, the new NSF/NCAR Research Aircraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The High-performance Instrumented Airborne Platform for Environmental Research, or HIAPER, is the new research aircraft presently being developed at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) to serve the environmental research needs of the National Science Foundation (NSF) for the next several decades. The basic aircraft -- a Gulfstream V (G-V) business jet -- has been completed and will shortly undergo extensive modification to prepare it for future deployments in support of a variety of geosciences research missions. This presentation will focus on the many design and engineering considerations that have been made and are yet to come in converting a "green" business jet into a versatile research aircraft to serve the environmental research community. The project teams composed of engineers and scientists from NCAR and the scientific community at large are faced with trade offs involving costs of modifications, airframe structural integrity, aircraft performance (e.g. weight, drag), cabin environment, locations of inlet and sampling ports and FAA certification requirements. Many of the specific engineering specifications and modifications that have been made to date will be presented by way of engineering drawings, graphical depictions and actual photographs of the aircraft structure. Additionally, projected performance data of the modified-for-research aircraft will be presented along with some of the analyses performed to arrive at critical decisions (e.g. CFD airflow analysis). Finally, some of the details of the aircraft "infrastructure" such as signal and power wiring, generic cabin layout and data acquisition will be discussed.

Friesen, R.; Laursen, K.

2002-12-01

19

Impact Dynamics Research Facility for Full-Scale Aircraft Crash Testing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An impact dynamics research facility (IDRF) was developed to crash test full-scale general aviation aircraft under free-flight test conditions. The aircraft are crashed into the impact surface as free bodies; a pendulum swing method is used to obtain desi...

V. L. J. Vaughan E. Alfaro-bou

1976-01-01

20

Research on Simulation Method of Flight Safety for Civil Aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Flight safety evaluation technique will significantly guide the new-style aircraft preliminary design. Based on the principle\\u000a of Human-machine System Engineering, the dynamic characteristic and modeling method of both pilot and aircraft are investigated.\\u000a Pilot decision-making and Aircraft Failure model are proposed, and then a low-cost, convenient software evaluation system\\u000a for flight safety simulation is developed based on the object-oriented technique.

Wei Zhang; Hehe Yi; Zhi Ma

21

The research of optical windows used in aircraft sensor systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The optical windows used in aircrafts protect their imaging sensors from environmental effects. Considering the imaging performance, flat surfaces are traditionally used in the design of optical windows. For aircrafts operating at high speeds, the optical windows should be relatively aerodynamic, but a flat optical window may introduce unacceptably high drag to the airframes. The linear scanning infrared sensors used in aircrafts with, respectively, a flat window, a spherical window and a toric window in front of the aircraft sensors are designed and compared. Simulation results show that the optical design using a toric surface has the integrated advantages of field of regard, aerodynamic drag, narcissus effect, and imaging performance, so the optical window with a toric surface is demonstrated to be suited for this application.

Zhou, Feng; Li, Yan; Tang, Tian-Jin

2012-06-01

22

Cost and Schedule Management on the Quiet Short-Haul Research Aircraft Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Quiet Short-Haul Research Aircraft (QSRA) Project, one of the largest aeronautical programs undertaken by NASA to date, achieved a significant cost underrun. This is attributed to numerous factors, not the least of which were the contractual arrangeme...

D. E. Wilcox P. Patterakis

1979-01-01

23

Supersonic Cruise Aircraft Research (SCAR) Program Bibliography, July 1972 - June 1976.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This bibliography documents 292 publications of the Supersonic Cruise Aircraft Research (SCAR) program published during the first four years of effort. The reports are arranged according to SCAR discipline: system studies, propulsion, stratospheric emissi...

S. Hoffman

1976-01-01

24

Research and Development Needs of Vertical Attitude Takeoff and Landing (VATOL) Aircraft.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Previous studies have shown the vertical attitude takeoff and landing (VATOL) concept to have the least penalty for achieving vertical takeoff and landing capability. In this study, features are examined that should be included in a research aircraft to e...

R. E. Kuhn

1979-01-01

25

Unmanned Aircraft Flights and Research at the United States Air Force Academy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The United States Air Force Academy is actively involved in unmanned aircraft research across numerous departments involving\\u000a many projects, aircraft, government agencies, and experimental programs. The importance of these research projects to the\\u000a Academy, the faculty, the cadets, the Air Force, and to the defense of the nation cannot be understated. In an effort to be\\u000a proactive in cooperating with

Dean E. Bushey

26

Unmanned Aircraft Flights and Research at the United States Air Force Academy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The United States Air Force Academy is actively involved in unmanned aircraft research across numerous departments involving\\u000a many projects, aircraft, government agencies, and experimental programs. The importance of these research projects to the\\u000a Academy, the faculty, the cadets, the Air Force, and to the defense of the nation cannot be understated. In an effort to be\\u000a proactive in cooperating with

Dean E. Bushey

2009-01-01

27

Aircraft noise effects on sleep: mechanisms, mitigation and research needs.  

PubMed

There is an ample number of laboratory and field studies which provide sufficient evidence that aircraft noise disturbs sleep and, depending on traffic volume and noise levels, may impair behavior and well-being during the day. Although clinical sleep disorders have been shown to be associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases, only little is known about the long-term effects of aircraft noise disturbed sleep on health. National and international laws and guidelines try to limit aircraft noise exposure facilitating active and passive noise control to prevent relevant sleep disturbances and its consequences. Adopting the harmonized indicator of the European Union Directive 2002/49/EC, the WHO Night Noise Guideline for Europe (NNG) defines four Lnight , outside ranges associated with different risk levels of sleep disturbance and other health effects ( < 30, 30-40, 40-55, and> 55 dBA). Although traffic patterns differing in number and noise levels of events that lead to varying degrees of sleep disturbance may result in the same Lnight , simulations of nights with up to 200 aircraft noise events per night nicely corroborate expert opinion guidelines formulated in WHO's NNG. In the future, large scale field studies on the effects of nocturnal (aircraft) noise on sleep are needed. They should involve representative samples of the population including vulnerable groups like children and chronically ill subjects. Optimally, these studies are prospective in nature and examine the long-term consequences of noise-induced sleep disturbances. Furthermore, epidemiological case-control studies on the association of nocturnal (aircraft) noise exposure and cardiovascular disease are needed. Despite the existing gaps in knowledge on long-term health effects, sufficient data are available for defining limit values, guidelines and protection concepts, which should be updated with the availability of new data. PMID:20472955

Basner, Mathias; Griefahn, Barbara; Berg, Martin van den

28

Aircraft Wake Vortices: From Fundamental Research to Operational Application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aircraft trailing vortices constitute both a kaleidoscope of instructive fluid dynamics phenomena and a challenge for the sustained development of the safety and capacity of the air-transportation system. This section gives an overview of the wake vortex issue commencing at its historical roots, proceeding with a sketch of the nature and characteristics of wake vortices resulting from field measurement and numerical simulation, and concluding with a depiction of the design and performance of wake vortex simulation systems established for the prediction of dynamic aircraft separations in different flight phases and for sensitivity and risk analysis.

Holzäpfel, Frank; Gerz, Thomas

29

Research of programming about the level flight of aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to carries on the plan and the control to aircraft level flight, the attitude and the route has been analyzed. First obtain that the factors control the level attitude are the roll angle and the yaw angle, and infers the computation algorithm of attitude; then obtain that the factors control the level route are the route position and

Li Jiang; Guo Lihong

2010-01-01

30

Further Encounters with Clear Air Turbulence In Research Aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of aircraft penetrations into clear air turbulence zones within upper level fronts is presented. Heat and momentum diffusivities am estimated with a view toward obtaining more realistic parameterizations for numerical models. Two passes through severe turbulence are discussed in detail.

P. J. Kennedy; M. A. Shapiro

1980-01-01

31

Research of algorithms for aircraft ground deicing operation scheduling model  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multi-agent based aircraft ground deicing operation scheduling model is proposed for hinge airports. For the solution of de-icing delay, A decision-making (HPFS&DM) algorithm and negotiate-making (ND) algorithm for the distribution of multi deicing bays are provided. Based on the multi-agent software development framework JADE, the domestic departures data of Beijing Capital International Airport is used to verify the validity

Xing Zhiwei; Li Yi

2010-01-01

32

The Project CAATER (Co-ordinated Access to Aircraft for Transnational Environmental Research)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Four European Research Aircraft (DLR, Germany; MRF, U.K.; Meteo France and INSU, France), well established in the field of airborne environmental research, have been made available for trans-national access to European scientists within the fifth Framework program of the European Commission (\\underline {I}mprovement of the \\underline {H}uman \\underline {P}otential-\\underline {A}ccess to \\underline {R}esearch \\underline {I}nfrastructures-IHP-ARI). Scientists without similar or suitable facilities in their home countries, or those interested but inexperienced in meteorological, chemical or remote sensing data from aircraft measurements could ask for aircraft access. Once selected through a peer review process by an Allocation Committee of international experts, they get the opportunity to perform an experiment onboard one of the four aircraft. A facilitator at each infrastructure attends to the CAATER users throughout the whole project. The scientists are instructed in all terms related to an aircraft campaign spanning from the planning of flight patterns through the preparation of instrument integration, subsequent test- / familiarization flights, to the research flights themselves and to subsequent data processing , data analysis and publication of results. They get a deep insight into the flight facilities operating the aircraft and into the correspondent infrastructure of those large scale European research establishments. During this access the CAATER users are integrated into various scientific groups well experienced in airborne research. CAATER is the successor program to a similar one established in the 4th framework program of EC "Training and Mobility of Researchers" under the acronym STAAARTE (\\underline {S}cientific \\underline {T}raining and \\underline {A}ccess to \\underline {A}ircraft for \\underline {A}tmospheric \\underline {R}esearch \\underline {T}hroughout \\underline {E}urope). Since then, training and access for many young European scientists from many European countries has significantly contributed to the EC objectives of increasing research over a wider European area . Due to the success of STAAARTE and CAATER it is planned to apply for a continuation of these access activities within the sixth framework program of the EC. The access program should be then integrated into the existing and still expanding network of European research aircraft operators in order to complement each other and enlarge the choice for European scientists looking for access to these rare and unique infrastructure installations.

Krautstrunk, M.

2003-04-01

33

Soviet aerospace industry - Propulsion research center focuses on developing fuel-efficient aircraft  

SciTech Connect

The USSR's research and design resources for aircraft propulsion development are concentrated in Moscow's Central Institute for Aviation Motors; design bureaus concerned with specific design tasks have limited research staffs, and are accordingly dependent on this institute for fundamental studies and test support. Full-scale test rigs are located at a facility outside Moscow; aircraft engines of all sizes can be run there at simulated flight speeds. The state-of-the-art turbofan engine that has been developed by this system is the Soloviev D-90, a 35,000-lb thrust class engine powering the Tu-204 and Il-96-300 transport aircraft currently undergoing testing; a specific fuel consumption level of 0.58 at Mach 0.8/36,000 ft altitude has been achieved.

Not Available

1989-06-01

34

Interior and Exterior Fuselage Noise Measured on NASA's C-8A Augmentor Wing Jet-STOL Research Aircraft.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Interior and exterior fuselage noise levels were measured on NASA's C-8A Augmentor Wing Jet-STOL Research Aircraft in order to provide design information for the Quiet Short-Haul Research Aircraft (QSRA), which will use a modified C-8A fuselage. The noise...

M. D. Shovlin

1977-01-01

35

Light Transport and General Aviation Aircraft Icing Research Requirements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A short term and a long term icing research and technology program plan was drafted for NASA LeRC based on 33 separate research items. The specific items listed resulted from a comprehensive literature search, organized and assisted by a computer manageme...

R. K. Breeze G. M. Clark

1981-01-01

36

Research on aircraft trailing vortex detection based on laser's multiplex information echo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Airfoil trailing vortex is an important reason for the crash, and vortex detection is the basic premise for the civil aeronautics boards to make the flight measures and protect civil aviation's security. So a new method of aircraft trailing vortex detection based on laser's multiplex information echo has been proposed in this paper. According to the classical aerodynamics theories, the formation mechanism of the trailing vortex from the airfoil wingtip has been analyzed, and the vortex model of Boeing 737 in the taking-off phase has also been established on the FLUENT software platform. Combining with the unique morphological structure characteristics of trailing vortex, we have discussed the vortex's possible impact on the frequency, amplitude and phase information of laser echo, and expounded the principle of detecting vortex based on fusing this information variation of laser echo. In order to prove the feasibility of this detecting technique, the field experiment of detecting the vortex of civil Boeing 737 by laser has been carried on. The experimental result has shown that the aircraft vortex could be found really in the laser scanning area, and its diffusion characteristic has been very similar to the previous simulation result. Therefore, this vortex detection means based on laser's multiplex information echo was proved to be practicable relatively in this paper. It will provide the detection and identification of aircraft's trailing vortex a new way, and have massive research value and extensive application prospect as well.

Zhao, Nan-Xiang; Wu, Yong-Hua; Hu, Yi-Hua; Lei, Wu-Hu

2010-05-01

37

PTR-MS Measurements From the BAe-146 Research Aircraft During the ICARTT Campaign  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometer (PTR-MS) has been adapted for use on the new UK Research Aircraft (BAe Systems 146, FAAM) and took part in the multi-national ICARTT (International Consortium for Atmospheric Research on Transport and Transformation) experiment in the summer of 2004, with the aim of studying chemical processing as pollution is transported away from source regions. The PTR-MS method is based on proton transfer reactions of H3O+ ions with volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and is capable of monitoring VOCs in near real time with detection limits of a few tens of pptv. Flying out of Horta airport (Faial Island, Azores), the aircraft frequently intercepted plumes of pollution emanating from the North American continent, some of which were heavily impacted by the Alaskan forest fires. Compounds measured include methanol, acetonitrile, acetaldehyde, acetone, benzene and toluene. Data will be presented to include vertical profiles and comparisons with CO, O3 and other tracers. The in situ PTR-MS measurements will also be compared with VOC/OVOC data from bottle samples which were collected during flight and analysed using gas chromatography.

Hulse, A.; Oram, D. E.; Reeves, C. E.; Penkett, S. A.; Lewis, A. C.; Hopkins, J. R.; Watson, N. M.; Methven, J.; Purvis, R.

2005-12-01

38

Application of Piloted Simulation to High-Angle-of-Attack Flight-Dynamics Research for Fighter Aircraft.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper reviews the use of piloted simulation at Langley Research Center as part of the NASA High-Angle-of-Attack Technology Program (HATP), which was created to provide concepts and methods for the design of advanced fighter aircraft. A major research...

M. E. Ogburn J. V. Foster K. D. Hoffler

2005-01-01

39

An overview on the TACTS mission using the new German research aircraft HALO in summer 2012  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The TACTS (Transport and Composition in the UTLS) mission is the first large atmospheric mission of the new German research aircraft HALO. TACTS aims at improving our understanding of the transport processes which determine the chemical composition in the UTLS with a special emphasis on the transition from summer to fall. The mission was flown in August and September 2012 with a fully equipped aircraft carrying 13 different instruments measuring a wide range of chemical tracers with different lifetimes and different source-sink characteristics. The payload consists of both in-situ and remote sensing instruments. In addition to TACTS the same payload was employed to measure the chemical composition during a large north-south transect as part of the ESMVal project. Data are available up to to altitudes above 15 km, potential temperatures above 400 K and covering the latitude range from 65°S to 80°N. Due to the large payload a very wide range of measurements allows for a very good characterisation of the chemical composition. All instruments performed well and close to complete data sets are available for all flights performed during both missions. We present an overview of the scientific aims of TACTS, the payload, the measurements performed and some selected first results.

Engel, Andreas; Boenisch, Harald

2013-04-01

40

Research on System-level Automatic Metrology System for Aircraft Integrated Automatic Test Equipment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to solve the problems in metrology support for aircraft integrated automatic test equipment ( IATE ), the paper proposes a set of system-level automatic metrology project. First, the paper analyzes aircraft integrated automatic test equipment test demands and hardware\\/software construction, works out system level metrology rules, clarifies system-level metrology parameters, range and uncertainty. Second, it puts forward a

Lee Qiongwei; Fei Xiaojun

2007-01-01

41

A History of Full-Scale Aircraft and Rotorcraft Crash Testing and Simulation at NASA Langley Research Center  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarizes 2-1\\/2 decades of full-scale aircraft and rotorcraft crash testing performed at the Impact Dynamics Research Facility (IDRF) located at NASA Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia. The IDRF is a 240-ft.-high steel gantry that was built originally as a lunar landing simulator facility in the early 1960's. It was converted into a full-scale crash test facility for

Karen E. Jackson; Richard L. Boitnott; Edwin L. Fasanella; Lisa E. Jones; Karen H. Lyle

42

V/STOL Tilt Rotor Study. Volume 5: A Mathematical Model for Real Time Flight Simulation of the Bell Model 301 Tilt Rotor Research Aircraft.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A mathematical model for real-time flight simulation of a tilt rotor research aircraft was developed. The mathematical model was used to support the aircraft design, pilot training, and proof-of-concept aspects of the development program. The structure of...

P. B. Harendra M. J. Joglekar T. M. Gaffey R. L. Marr

1973-01-01

43

The use of the National Research Council of Canada's Falcon 20 research aircraft as a terrestrial analogue space environment (TASE) for space surgery research: Challenges and suggested solutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emergency surgery will be needed to prevent death if humans are used to explore beyond low earth's orbit. Laparoscopic surgery (LS) is envisioned as a less invasive option for space, but will induce further stresses and complicate logistical requirements. Thus, further study into the technology and physiology of LS in weightlessness is required. We recently utilized the National Research Council of Canada's Flight Research Laboratory's Falcon 20 aircraft as a terrestrial analogue space environment (TASE) for space surgery research. The Falcon 20 had never been used for this purpose nor had the involved teams collaborated previously. There were many process challenges including the lack of antecedent surgical studies on this aircraft, a requirement for multiple disciplines who were unfamiliar and geographically distant from each other, flight performance limitations with the Falcon 20, complex animal care requirements, requirements for prototypical in-flight life-support surgical suites, financial limitations, and a need to use non-flight hardened technologies. Stepwise suggested solutions to these challenges are outlined as guidelines for future investigators intending similar research. Overall, the Falcon 20 TASE, backed by the flight resources, especially the design and fabrication capabilities of the NRC-FRL, provide investigators with a versatile and responsive opportunity to pursue research into advanced medical techniques that will be needed to save lives during space exploration.

Kirkpatrick, A. W.; Keaney, M. A.; Bentz, K.; Groleau, M.; Tyssen, M.; Keyte, J.; Ball, C. G.; Campbell, M. R.; Grenon, S. M.; McBeth, P.; Broderick, T. J.

2010-03-01

44

Using Hyperspectral Aircraft Remote Sensing to Support Ecosystems Services Research in New England Lakes and Ponds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Northeastern lakes and ponds provide important ecosystem services to New England residents and visitors. These include the provisioning of abundant, clean water for consumption, agriculture, and industry as well as cultural services (recreation, aesthetics, and wilderness experiences) which enhance local economies and quality of life. Less understood, but equally important, are the roles that these lakes play in protecting all life through supportive services such as nutrient cycling. Nitrogen and phosphorus have a direct impact on the condition of fresh water lakes. Excesses of these nutrients can lead to eutrophication, toxic cyanobacteria blooms, decreased biodiversity, and loss of ecosystem function leading to a reduction in the availability and delivery of ecosystem services. In this study, we examined how variations in lake nutrient concentrations and phytoplankton pigment concentrations correlated with changes in the potential to provide cultural ecosystem services. Using a NASA Cessna 206 aircraft, hyperspectral data were collected during late summer 2009 from 55 lakes in New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island over a 2 day period. From the spectral data, algorithms were created which estimated concentrations of chlorophyll a, phycocyanin, and colored dissolved organic matter. The remotely sensed estimates were supplemented by in situ chlorophyll a, total nitrogen, total phosphorus and lake color data from 43 lakes sampled by field crews from the New England states. The purpose of this research is to understand how variations in lake nutrient concentrations and phytoplankton pigment concentrations correlate with changes in availability of cultural ecosystem services in the surveyed lakes. This dataset will be combined with information from the EPA National Lake Survey (2007), the EPA New England Lakes and Ponds Survey (2008) and the USGS SPARROW model to explore the association between lake condition and the provisioning of ecosystem services on a regional scale. Under the EPA Ecological Services Research Program (ESRP), this information will provide managers and researchers with a better understanding of links between management decisions affecting nutrient fluxes and impacts on selected ecosystem services.

Keith, D. J.; Milstead, B.; Walker, H.; Worthy, D.; Szykman, J.; Wusk, M.; Kagey, L.; Howell, C.; Snook, H.; Drueke, C.

2010-12-01

45

Aircraft Research and Technology for Antimisting Kerosene Conference, February 18-19, 1981.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Antimisting Fuel Engineering and Development Program, Wing Spillage Test, Flammability Comparison Test Apparatus, Large-Scale Aircraft Crash Test of Antimisting Fuel, The Use of Antimisting Kerosene in Turbofan Jet Engines, The Development of IC...

1981-01-01

46

Flight Test Experience with an Electromechanical Actuator on the F-18 Systems Research Aircraft.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Development of reliable power-by-wire actuation systems for both aeronautical and space applications has been sought recently to eliminate hydraulic systems from aircraft and spacecraft and thus improve safety, efficiency, reliability, and maintainability...

S. C. Jensen G. D. Jenney B. Raymond D. Dawson

2000-01-01

47

Flight Test Experience With an Electromechanical Actuator on the F-18 Systems Research Aircraft.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Development of reliable power-by-wire actuation systems for both aeronautical and space applications has been sought recently to eliminate hydraulic systems from aircraft and spacecraft and thus improve safety, efficiency, reliability, and maintainability...

S. C. Jensen G. D. Jenney B. Raymond D. Dawson

2000-01-01

48

The Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS) mission: design, execution, and first results  

Microsoft Academic Search

The NASA Arctic Research of the Composi- tion of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARC- TAS) mission was conducted in two 3-week deployments based in Alaska (April 2008) and western Canada (June-July 2008). Its goal was to better understand the factors driving current changes in Arctic atmospheric composition and cli- mate, including (1) influx of mid-latitude pollution, (2) bo-

D. J. Jacob; J. H. Crawford; H. Maring; A. D. Clarke; J. E. Dibb; L. K. Emmons; R. A. Ferrare; C. A. Hostetler; P. B. Russell; H. B. Singh; A. M. Thompson; G. E. Shaw; E. McCauley; J. R. Pederson; J. A. Fisher

2010-01-01

49

STOVL (Short Takeoff and Vertical Landing) Aircraft Simulation for Integrated Flight and Propulsion Control Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The United States is in the initial stages of committing to a national program to develop a supersonic short takeoff and vertical landing (STOVL) aircraft. The goal of the propulsion community in this effort is to have the enabling propulsion technologies...

J. R. Mihaloew C. K. Drummond

1989-01-01

50

Aircraft Handling Qualities Research and Criteria Development for Nonstationary/Nonlinear Situations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this paper the pilot-aircraft' loop in the nonstationary/nonlinear control tasks is considered. The method of creating an adaptive pilot model is suggested on the basis of assuming the existence of the internal describing model of the control object (I...

I. I. Fedotov

1994-01-01

51

Research and Application of ATML for Aircraft Electric Power Diagnosis and Prognostic System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The technology of integrated health management (IHVM) is an important approach to improve the security, reliability and maintainability of airplanes and spacecrafts, and to reduce their cost significantly. Taken aircraft electric power system into consideration, it is one of the important equipment that provides electric energy for all electro-equipments in airplane. Its working state is a crucial to ensure airplane

Zhang Li; Yuan Haiwen; Yuan Haibin; Lv Hong

2007-01-01

52

Expediting Aircraft Recovery at Airports. Airport Cooperative Research Program. (ACRP ) 38. A Synthesis of Airport Practice.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

All airports, by their very nature, may experience an aircraft excursion from a runway or taxiway. Whether the excursion occurs during takeoff or landing, is categorized as a veer-off or overrun, is intentional or unintentional, such an event typically re...

C. D. Prather

2012-01-01

53

The All-Electric Aircraft: A Systems View and Proposed NASA Research Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is expected that all-electric aircraft, whether military or commercial, will exhibit reduced weight, acquisition cost and fuel consumption, an expanded flight envelope and improved survivability and reliability, simpler maintenance, and reduced support equipment. Also noteworthy are dramatic improvements in mission adaptability, based on the degree to which control system performance relies on easily exchanged software. Flight-critical secondary power and

Cary Spitzer

1984-01-01

54

V/STOL Tilt Rotor Research Aircraft. Volume 3: Ship 2 Instrumentation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Information covering sensor cables, sensor installation, and sensor calibration for the XV-15 aircraft number 2 is included. For each junction box (J-box) designation there is a schematic of the J-box disconnect harness, instrumentation worksheets which s...

1978-01-01

55

V/STOL Tilt Rotor Research Aircraft. Volume 2: Ship 1 Instrumentation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Information covering sensor cables, sensor installation, and sensor calibration for the XV-15 aircraft number 1 is included. For each junction box (J-box) designation there is a schematic of the J-box disconnect harness instrumentation worksheets which sh...

1978-01-01

56

The SR71 Test Bed Aircraft: A Facility for High-Speed Flight Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The SR-71 test bed aircraft is shown to be a unique platform to flight-test large experiments tosupersonic Mach numbers. The test bed hardware mounted on the SR-71 upper fuselage is described.This test bed hardware is composed of a fairing structure called the "canoe" and a large "reflection plane"flat plate for mounting experiments. Total experiment weights, including the canoe and reflection

Stephen Corda; Timothy R. Moes; Masashi Mizukami; Neal E. Hass; Daniel Jones; Richard C. Monaghan; Ronald J. Ray; Michele L. Jarvis; Nathan Palumbo

2000-01-01

57

Flight test experience with an electromechanical actuator on the F-18 Systems Research Aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of reliable power-by-wire actuation systems for both aeronautical and space applications has been sought to eliminate hydraulic systems from aircraft and spacecraft and thus improve safety, efficiency, reliability, and maintainability. The Electrically Powered Actuation Design (EPAD) program was a joint effort between the Air Force, Navy, and NASA to develop and fly a series of actuators validating power-by-wire actuation

S. C. Jensen; G. D. Jenney; D. Dawson

2000-01-01

58

Aero-acoustic requirements for forward-speed simulation in aircraft noise research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper evaluates the special merits and limitations of wind tunnels, linear-track vehicles, and other mobile ground-based facilities for aircraft noise testing under forward-speed conditions. Some operational acoustic wind tunnels are described along with ways to eliminate parasitic noise fields, and current restrictions on noise-model testing in conventional tunnels. Acceptable noise-model testing conditions for linear-track vehicles are given, and problems

J. Williams

1976-01-01

59

The Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS) mission: design, execution, and first results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NASA Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS) mission was conducted in two 3-week deployments based in Alaska (April 2008) and western Canada (June-July 2008). Its goal was to better understand the factors driving current changes in Arctic atmospheric composition and climate, including (1) influx of mid-latitude pollution, (2) boreal forest fires, (3) aerosol radiative forcing, and (4) chemical processes. The June-July deployment was preceded by one week of flights over California (ARCTAS-CARB) focused on (1) improving state emission inventories for greenhouse gases and aerosols, (2) providing observations to test and improve models of ozone and aerosol pollution. ARCTAS involved three aircraft: a DC-8 with a detailed chemical payload, a P-3 with an extensive aerosol and radiometric payload, and a B-200 with aerosol remote sensing instrumentation. The aircraft data augmented satellite observations of Arctic atmospheric composition, in particular from the NASA A-Train. The spring phase (ARCTAS-A) revealed pervasive Asian pollution throughout the Arctic as well as significant European pollution below 2 km. Unusually large Siberian fires in April 2008 caused high concentrations of carbonaceous aerosols and also affected ozone. Satellite observations of BrO column hotspots were found not to be related to Arctic boundary layer events but instead to tropopause depressions, suggesting the presence of elevated inorganic bromine (5-10 pptv) in the lower stratosphere. Fresh fire plumes from Canada and California sampled during the summer phase (ARCTAS-B) indicated low NOx emission factors from the fires, rapid conversion of NOx to PAN, no significant secondary aerosol production, and no significant ozone enhancements except when mixed with urban pollution.

Jacob, D. J.; Crawford, J. H.; Maring, H.; Clarke, A. D.; Dibb, J. E.; Emmons, L. K.; Ferrare, R. A.; Hostetler, C. A.; Russell, P. B.; Singh, H. B.; Thompson, A. M.; Shaw, G. E.; McCauley, E.; Pederson, J. R.; Fisher, J. A.

2010-06-01

60

Soil analyses and evaluations at the impact dynamics research facility for two full-scale aircraft crash tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aircraft structural crash behavior and occupant survivability for aircraft crashes on a soil surface was studied. The results of placement, compaction, and maintenance of two soil test beds are presented. The crators formed by the aircraft after each test are described.

R. Y. K. Cheng

1977-01-01

61

Research on compiling fatigue load spectrum of individual aircraft and analysis of fatigue life based on flight data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compiling fatigue load spectrum is the precondition and basement of fatigue life prediction, simulation experiments and fatigue strength analysis of aircraft. The method of air fleet life is used on management of homotype aircraft life for a long term, that is the process of achievement on safe life index by fatigue experiment of aircraft overall dimension on condition of standard

Yan Li; Zhao Wang; YueLiang Chen; Yong Zhang; WengSheng Sun

2012-01-01

62

CRC (Coordinating Research Council) cross-correlation aircraft-engine emission test program  

SciTech Connect

The CRC sponsored a test program to compare the performance of aircraft emission-measurement systems. The tests were conducted at the FAA's National Aviation Facilities Experimental Center, Atlantic City, N.J. This report details the results of an analysis of the secured cross-correlation emissions data taken over five weeks by seven participants. Results of the participant-to-participant variability of the gaseous pollutants are provided for CO, CO/sub 2/, THC, and NOx at low and high concentration, and low or high power. Results for smoke indicate additional development effort is required to secure repeatable smoke data among participants. The smoke analysis was also limited by the small amount of data and the high levels which are no longer typical of current engine emission control technology.

Not Available

1986-08-01

63

Innovative Materials for Aircraft Morphing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Reported herein is an overview of the research being conducted within the Materials Division at NASA Langley Research Center on the development of smart material technologies for advanced airframe systems. The research is a part of the Aircraft Morphing P...

J. O. Simpson S. A. Wise R. G. Bryant R. J. Cano T. S. Gates J. A. Hinkley R. S. Rogowski K. S. Whitley

1997-01-01

64

Aircraft Noise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aircraft industry is exposed to increasing public pressure aiming at a continuing reduction of aircraft noise levels. This is necessary to both compensate for the detrimental effect on noise of the expected increase in air traffic and improve the quality of living in residential areas around airports.

Michel, Ulf; Dobrzynski, Werner; Splettstoesser, Wolf; Delfs, Jan; Isermann, Ullrich; Obermeier, Frank

65

Aircraft Icing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Full-scale icing experiments and, therefore, certification time and cost can be significantly reduced by developing calculation methods to evaluate the aircraft and system performance for a wide range of icing conditions. This article summarizes calculation methods for icing that include ice accretion, ice system performance, and icing effects on aircraft.

Tuncer Cebeci; Fassi Kafyeke

2003-01-01

66

Alternate Fuels for use in Commercial Aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

The engine and commercial aircraft research and development communities have been investigating the practicality of using alternative fuels in near, mid, and far-term aircraft. Presently, it appears that an approach of using a \\

David L. Daggett; Robert C. Hendricks; Edwin Corporan

67

Aircraft Industry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The aircraft industry plays a critical role in today's global economy. Comprising a wide array of firms supplying various products and services to a diverse and dynamic customer base, this industry represents a compelling case study from three distinct pe...

B. Braley D. Bereda F. M. Al Garni J. Bojarski J. Spicer

2007-01-01

68

Programme of Research into the Aerodynamics, Stability and Control Characteristics of a Combat Aircraft Having a Forward Swept Wing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The aerodynamic stability and control characteristics of the forward swept wing aircraft, and likely stability augmentation requirements were studied. It is found that: (1) the theoretical aerodynamic models match the observed aerodynamic performance; (2)...

M. V. Cook F. Heydari

1985-01-01

69

Some New Research Approaches to Aircraft Spin Studies Quelques Nouveaux Axes de Recherche dans le Domaine de la Vrille.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Included are a statistical correlation between aircraft geometry and spin and recovery characteristics, the analytical elaboration of actual flight data records, and a quantitative analysis of the conventional free spin test method in vertical wind tunnel...

D. Tristrant M. Vanmansart

1980-01-01

70

Airfoil optimization for morphing aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continuous variation of the aircraft wing shape to improve aerodynamic performance over a wide range of flight conditions is one of the objectives of morphing aircraft design efforts. This is being pursued because of the development of new materials and actuation systems that might allow this shape change. The main purpose of this research is to establish appropriate problem formulations

Howoong Namgoong

2005-01-01

71

Low Speed Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Lifting-Body Hypersonic Research Aircraft Configuration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An experimental investigation of the low-speed longitudinal, lateral, and directional stability characteristics of a lifting-body hypersonic research airplane concept was conducted in a low-speed tunnel with a 12-foot (3.66-meter) octagonal test section a...

J. A. Penland

1975-01-01

72

A preliminary research into the netted radar seekers for anti-stealth aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anti-stealth capability of the radar seekers in air defence missiles is a difficult problem in the present air-defense research area. After studying in depth the anti-stealth technology used in ground radar as a reference, we present an anti-stealth technique comprising the data fusion of radar data from active radar seekers carried in two missiles. This is a feasible and

Jian Jinlei; Ren Hongbin; Gao Fuli; Dang Huaisuo

1998-01-01

73

Analyses of Aircraft Responses to Atmospheric Turbulence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The response of aircraft to stochastic atmospheric turbulence plays an important role in aircraft-design (load calculations), Flight Control System (FCS) design and flight-simulation (handling qualities research and pilot training). In order to simulate these aircraft responses, an accurate mathematical model is required. Two classical models will be discussed in this thesis, that is the Delft University of Technology (DUT) model

W. H. J. J. Van Staveren

2003-01-01

74

NASA progress in aircraft noise prediction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Langley Research Center efforts to develop a methodology for predicting the effective perceived noise level (EPNL) produced by jet-powered CTOL aircraft to an accuracy of + or - 1.5 dB are summarized with emphasis on the aircraft noise prediction program (ANOPP) which contains a complete set of prediction methods for CTOL aircraft including propulsion system noise sources, aerodynamic or airframe

J. P. Raney; S. L. Padula; W. E. Zorumski

1981-01-01

75

Aircraft disinsection.  

PubMed

Aircraft disinsection has been an international practice since the 1920s, the purpose of which is to protect public health, the environment, agriculture, and livestock by the eradication of disease vectors. Although most nations of the world have discontinued this practice, about 20 continue with this requirement. Aircraft disinsection is sanctioned by international law with the World Health Organization (WHO) publishing general procedural guidelines in the International Health Regulations (IHR). There are currently four acceptable procedures: blocks away, top of descent, on arrival, and residual. A 2% pyrethrum solution, a naturally occurring substance found in the chrysanthemum flower, or several synthetic pyrethroids, are the recommended agents because they are extremely effective insecticides which pose minimal health risks. Although the use of insecticides for aircraft disinsection is controversial, national policies compelling this requirement must be respected. This paper will explore the background of aircraft disinsection, the procedures, the types of agents, and the toxicity. If aircraft disinsection is regulatory policy, it should be done in accordance with WHO procedures. Residual application is probably the most efficacious method. The use of air curtains or plastic strips should be explored as an alternative to the use of chemicals. PMID:16856359

Rayman, Russell B

2006-07-01

76

Aircraft Electrical Generators.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: General Information on Aircraft Electrical Machines General Information on Aircraft Generators Alternating-Current Aircraft Generators Permanent-Magnet Generators Induction Generators Direct-Current Aircraft Generators Parallel Operation of Airc...

A. I. Bertinov

1964-01-01

77

Aircraft Lightning Electromagnetic Environment Measurement.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper outlines a NASA project plan for demonstrating a prototype lightning strike measurement system that is suitable for installation onto research aircraft that already operate in thunderstorms. This work builds upon past data from the NASA F106, F...

G. N. Szatkowski J. J. Ely T. X. Nguyen

2011-01-01

78

Aircraft icing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the background to and the current status of analyses developed to address the problem of icing on aircraft. Methods for water droplet trajectory calculation, ice accretion prediction, aerodynamic performance degradation and an overview of ice protection system modelling are presented. The paper addresses the issues involved in the development of icing analyses including problem formulation and assumptions,

R. W. Gent; N. P. Dart; J. T. Cansdale

2000-01-01

79

Aircraft measurements of pollutants and meteorological parameters during the sulfate regional experiment (SURE) program: Research Triangle Institute, Inc  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the Sulfate Regional Experiment (SURE) was to obtain air quality and meteorological data for development and verification of models describing the nature and dispersion of atmospheric sulfur compounds emitted from industrial sources such as power plants. Airborne data from several instrumented aircraft were acquired to support ground-based data from a network of monitoring stations and to provide additional information about transport phenomena not available from ground station data alone. A twin-engine aircraft was equipped with instrumentation for monitoring SO/sub 2/, O/sub 3/, NO, NO/sub x/, b/sub scat/, condensation nuclei, temperature, dew point, and turbulence. This aircraft was operated for approximately 40 hours of ambient air quality data-sampling during each of six two-week intensive monitoring periods spread over a one and one-half year period. Flights performed usually consisted of three spiral flights from near ground level to 3060 meters (10,000 feet). In addition, cross-country flights were conducted during later intensives under episode conditions. Data from all flights were processed by computer, and stored on magnetic tape. The flights performed during this program, the aircraft instrumentation system used and conclusions reached during preliminary analysis of the data are described. SO/sub 2/ and SO/sub 4//sup =/ were mostly confined between the surface and the top of the mixed layer and their measured concentrations correlated with those measured at nearby ground-level monitoring stations. Ozone was not confined to the mixed layer with 0/sub 3/ concentrations generally increasing above the mixed layer. Cross-country profiles of SO/sub 4//sup =/ showed marked variability over distances of less than 300km even though the gases (SO/sub 2/ and NO/NO/sub x/) were relatively uniformly distributed over these distances.

Tommerdahl, J.B.; White, J.H.; Strong, R.B.; Sickles, J.E.; Saeger, M.L.; Worth, J.J.B.

1981-04-01

80

Influencing Aircraft Wing Vortices  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Results presented here were obtained within a project which was part of the Collaborative Research Centre SFB 401 “Flow Modulation\\u000a and Fluid-Structure Interaction at Airplane Wings” funding from the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG). The goal of this\\u000a project was to gain better understanding of aircraft wake vortices in order to investigate possibilities to mitigate the hazard\\u000a posed by these to following

R. Hörnschemeyer; G. Neuwerth; R. Henke

81

Nocturnal aircraft noise effects.  

PubMed

Noise protection associated with the construction and extension of airports in the Federal Republic of Germany has been regulated by the law for protection against aircraft noise since 1971. This legislation is due for revision because of different aspects. One aspect is the growth of air traffic which has led many airports to the limits of their capacity and in search of new ways of adaptation to the increasing demand for flight services. Another aspect is the increasing concern of the population about noise effects which has to be addressed by better protection against the effects of aircraft noise. The framework conditions of policy in terms of society as a whole, its health and economic environment need to be put into effect by political action. Science can contribute to this goal by performing noise effects research and by providing recommendations to the political body. However, it remains controversial, what measures are necessary or adequate to assure effective protection of the population against aircraft noise. This is particularly true for the protection of rest and sleep at night. The problem of finding a common basis for adequate recommendations is associated with (1) the low number of primary studies, which also exhibited highly variable results and assessments, (2) the handling of acoustic or psycho-acoustic dimensions for quantifying psychological or physiological reactions, and (3) the conception of how far preventive measures have to go to prove effective. With this in mind, the DLR Institute for Aerospace Medicine is conducting a large-scale, multi-stage study for investigating the acute effects of nocturnal aircraft noise on human sleep. This enterprise is implemented in the framework of the HGF/DLR project "Quiet Air Traffic" for developing sustainable assessment criteria for human-specific effects of aircraft noise at night. PMID:15070533

Basner, M; Samel, A

82

Investigation of Fighter Aircraft Agility.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report attempts to unify in a single document the results of a series of studies on fighter aircraft agility funded by the NASA Ames Research Center, Dryden Flight Research Facility and conducted at the University of Kansas Flight Research Laboratory...

J. Valasek D. R. Downing

1993-01-01

83

Educating with Aircraft Models  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Described is utilization of aircraft models, model aircraft clubs, and model aircraft magazines to promote student interest in aerospace education. The addresses for clubs and magazines are included. (SL)|

Steele, Hobie

1976-01-01

84

Forecasting Aircraft Condensation Trails.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Aircraft condensation trails (contrails) are caused by aircraft aerodynamics or engine exhaust in the proper atmospheric conditions. Engine-exhaust trails are the most common and are discussed in this report. Jet aircraft contrail-formation graphs facilit...

1981-01-01

85

Atomic Aircraft Engines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The advantages and disadvantages found in nuclear aircraft engines are discussed. The advantages of atomic aircraft engines over conventional are multifold. Some are of extreme importance to further growth in aircraft developments. Nuclear power plants of...

N. Vasiljevic

1966-01-01

86

The Research about the Derivation and the Applicability of the Aircraft Four Control Variables Point Mass Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new point mass model of the air vehicle has been developed in our laboratory. This model employs angle-of-attack, side slip angle, bank angle and thrust, as four control variables. The existent three control variables point mass model cannot introduce the winds and active side slip angle control, while this new model can introduce them. This paper explains about the model at first. The model is applied to the YF-16 aircraft and simulations are conducted for two maneuvers as typical examples, which show the effectiveness and the preciseness of this model.

Imado, Fumiaki; Heike, Yuki; Kinoshita, Takuya

87

Rescue Equipment, Aircraft Crash.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Procedures are identified for evaluation of aircraft borne aircraft crash rescue equipment under simulated tactical conditions. Helicopter mounted rescue hoists and accessories are also included. (Author)

1971-01-01

88

Project report: Aircraft  

SciTech Connect

Analyses of scenarios of past and possible future emissions are an important aspect of assessing the potential environmental effects from aircraft, including the proposed high speed civil transport (HSCT). The development of a detailed three-dimensional database that accurately represents the integration of all aircraft emissions along realistic flight paths for such scenarios requires complex computational modeling capabilities. Such a detailed data set is required for the scenarios evaluated in this interim assessment. Within the NASA High-Speed Research Program, the Emissions Scenarios Committee provides a forum for identifying the required scenarios and evaluating the resulting database being developed with the advanced emissions modeling capabilities at the Boeing Company and McDonnell Douglas Corporation.

Wuebbles, D.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Baughcum, S. [Boeing Co., Seattle, WA (United States). Commercial Airplane Group; Metwally, M. [McDonnell Douglas Corp., Long Beach, CA (United States); Seals, R. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Hampton, VA (United States). Atmospheric Science Div.

1994-04-01

89

World commercial aircraft accidents  

SciTech Connect

This report is a compilation of all accidents world-wide involving aircraft in commercial service which resulted in the loss of the airframe or one or more fatality, or both. This information has been gathered in order to present a complete inventory of commercial aircraft accidents. Events involving military action, sabotage, terrorist bombings, hijackings, suicides, and industrial ground accidents are included within this list. Included are: accidents involving world commercial jet aircraft, world commercial turboprop aircraft, world commercial pistonprop aircraft with four or more engines and world commercial pistonprop aircraft with two or three engines from 1946 to 1992. Each accident is presented with information in the following categories: date of the accident, airline and its flight numbers, type of flight, type of aircraft, aircraft registration number, construction number/manufacturers serial number, aircraft damage, accident flight phase, accident location, number of fatalities, number of occupants, cause, remarks, or description (brief) of the accident, and finally references used. The sixth chapter presents a summary of the world commercial aircraft accidents by major aircraft class (e.g. jet, turboprop, and pistonprop) and by flight phase. The seventh chapter presents several special studies including a list of world commercial aircraft accidents for all aircraft types with 100 or more fatalities in order of decreasing number of fatalities, a list of collision accidents involving commercial aircrafts, and a list of world commercial aircraft accidents for all aircraft types involving military action, sabotage, terrorist bombings, and hijackings.

Kimura, C.Y.

1993-01-01

90

More Electric Aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

The More Electric Aircraft (MEA) concept is based on utilizing electric power to drive aircraft subsystems. With advancing electric power technology it will be feasible to use high power density electrical power components to drive the majority of aircraft subsystems. Each of the power transfer disciplines on an aircraft requires specialized Aerospace Ground Equipment\\/Ground Support Equipment (AGE\\/GSE), personnel, and deployment

R. E. J. Quigley

1993-01-01

91

Vertical tail buffeting of fighter aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vertical tail buffeting at high angles of attack is a phenomenon associated with the impact of vortical flows generated by the aircraft on the fins. This poses a serious problem for both single- and twin-tail fighter aircraft from the point of view of combat maneuverability and structural integrity. The research activities to understand the flow physics with an aim to

B. H. K. Lee

2000-01-01

92

MAX-DOAS observations from ground, ship, and research aircraft: maximizing signal-to-noise to measure 'weak' absorbers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multi AXis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) instruments, as solar straylight satellites, require an accurate characterization and elimination of Fraunhofer lines from solar straylight spectra to measure the atmospheric column abundance of reactive gases that destroy toxic and heat trapping ozone and form climate cooling aerosols, like glyoxal (CHOCHO), iodine oxide (IO), or bromine oxide (BrO). The currently achievable noise levels with state-of-the-art DOAS instruments are limited to ?'DL ~ 10-4 (noise equivalent differential optical density, ?') further noise reductions are typically not straightforward, and the reason for this barrier is not well understood. Here we demonstrate that the nonlinearity of state-of-the-art CCD detectors poses a limitation to accurately characterize Fraunhofer lines; the incomplete elimination of Fraunhofer lines is found to cause residual structures of ?' ~ 10-4, and only partially accounted by fitting of an "offset" spectrum. We have developed a novel software tool, the CU Data Acquisition Code that overcomes this barrier by actively controlling the CCD saturation level, and demonstrates that ?'DL on the order of 10-5 are possible without apparent limitations from the presence of Fraunhofer lines. The software also implements active control of the elevation angle (angle with respect to the horizon) by means of a Motion Compensation System for use with mobile MAX-DOAS deployments from ships and aircraft. Finally, a novel approach to convert slant column densities into line-of-sight averaged concentrations is discussed.

Volkamer, Rainer; Coburn, Sean; Dix, Barbara; Sinreich, Roman

2009-08-01

93

Neural Network Based Estimator for a Maneuvering Aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dynamically unstable aircraft and their supermaneuverability produce enormous complexities and tight constraints that existing control strategies cannot handle. Neural networks have emerged as a powerful means to deal with complex non-linear systems such as aircraft parameter identification during complex maneuvers. This paper addresses preliminary research conducted to train a neural network to predict aircraft aerodynamic coefficients, both singularly and simultaneously,

S. Feteih; G. Breckenridge

1993-01-01

94

Experimental determination of visibility modeling parameters for aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is presently engaged in research to quantify the visibility of aircraft under two important scenarios: aircraft observed directly by human operators in air traffic control towers (ATCT's), and aircraft observed by human operators through unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) sensors viewed through ground-based display systems. Previously, an ATCT visibility analysis software tool (FAA Vis) was developed

Evelyn J. Boettcher; Tana Maurer; Steven R. Murrill; Brian Miller

2010-01-01

95

EMISSIONLESS AIRCRAFT: REQUIREMENTS AND CHALLENGES  

Microsoft Academic Search

NASA's Office of Aerospace Technology (OAT) goals for aeronautics include protecting the local environmental quality and the global climate by reducing aircraft noise and emissions . In support of these objectives, the NASA Glenn Research Center has developed an Aeropropulsion Vision, which ultimately results in an emissionless, silent aeropropulsion system. This cleaner, quieter system is envisioned to rely on fuel

Timothy J. Wickenheiser; Arun K. Sehra; Gary T. Seng; Joshua E. Freeh; Jeffery J. Berton

96

Beamforming for aircraft noise measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phased array beamforming for aircraft noise source location has a long history, including early work on jet noise, wind tunnel measurements, and flyover testing. In the last 10 years, advancements in sparse 2-D and 3-D arrays, wind tunnel test techniques, and computer power have made phased array measurements almost common. Large aerospace companies and national research institutes have an advantage

Robert P. Dougherty

2003-01-01

97

Airfoil optimization for morphing aircraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Continuous variation of the aircraft wing shape to improve aerodynamic performance over a wide range of flight conditions is one of the objectives of morphing aircraft design efforts. This is being pursued because of the development of new materials and actuation systems that might allow this shape change. The main purpose of this research is to establish appropriate problem formulations and optimization strategies to design an airfoil for morphing aircraft that include the energy required for shape change. A morphing aircraft can deform its wing shape, so the aircraft wing has different optimum shapes as the flight condition changes. The actuation energy needed for moving the airfoil surface is modeled and used as another design objective. Several multi-objective approaches are applied to a low-speed, incompressible flow problem and to a problem involving low-speed and transonic flow. The resulting solutions provide the best tradeoff between low drag, high energy and higher drag, low energy sets of airfoil shapes. From this range of solutions, design decisions can be made about how much energy is needed to achieve a desired aerodynamic performance. Additionally, an approach to model aerodynamic work, which would be more realistic and may allow using pressure on the airfoil to assist a morphing shape change, was formulated and used as part of the energy objective. These results suggest that it may be possible to design a morphing airfoil that exploits the airflow to reduce actuator energy.

Namgoong, Howoong

98

Turboprop aircraft against terrorism: a SWOT analysis of turboprop aircraft in CAS operations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Today, the threat perception is changing. Not only for countries but also for defence organisations like NATO, new threat perception is pointing terrorism. Many countries' air forces become responsible of fighting against terorism or Counter-Insurgency (COIN) Operations. Different from conventional warfare, alternative weapon or weapon systems are required for such operatioins. In counter-terrorism operations modern fighter jets are used as well as helicopters, subsonic jets, Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS), turboprop aircraft, baloons and similar platforms. Succes and efficiency of the use of these platforms can be determined by evaluating the conditions, the threats and the area together. Obviously, each platform has advantages and disadvantages for different cases. In this research, examples of turboprop aircraft usage against terrorism and with a more general approach, turboprop aircraft for Close Air Support (CAS) missions from all around the world are reviewed. In this effort, a closer look is taken at the countries using turboprop aircraft in CAS missions while observing the fields these aircraft are used in, type of operations, specifications of the aircraft, cost and the maintenance factors. Thus, an idea about the convenience of using these aircraft in such operations can be obtained. A SWOT analysis of turboprop aircraft in CAS operations is performed. This study shows that turboprop aircraft are suitable to be used in counter-terrorism and COIN operations in low threat environment and is cost benefical compared to jets.

Yavuz, Murat; Akkas, Ali; Aslan, Yavuz

2012-05-01

99

Aircraft Depainting Technology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Chemical paint strippers historically used for aircraft contained toxic and hazardous components; aircraft depainting operations are a major source of hazardous waste generation in DOD. Federal and state agencies have begun to restrict using these hazardo...

J. Kozol D. Conrad S. Hartle G. Neumeister S. Spadafora

1999-01-01

100

Aircraft landing using GPS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The advent of the Global Positioning System (GPS) is revolutionizing the field of navigation. Commercial aviation has been particularly influenced by this worldwide navigation system. From ground vehicle guidance to aircraft landing applications, GPS has the potential to impact many areas of aviation. GPS is already being used for non-precision approach guidance; current research focuses on its application to more critical regimes of flight. To this end, the following contributions were made: (1) Development of algorithms and a flexible software architecture capable of providing real-time position solutions accurate to the centimeter level with high integrity. This architecture was used to demonstrate 110 automatic landings of a Boeing 737. (2) Assessment of the navigation performance provided by two GPS-based landing systems developed at Stanford, the Integrity Beacon Landing System, and the Wide Area Augmentation System. (3) Preliminary evaluation of proposed enhancements to traditional techniques for GPS positioning, specifically, dual antenna positioning and pseudolite augmentation. (4) Introduction of a new concept for positioning using airport pseudolites. The results of this research are promising, showing that GPS-based systems can potentially meet even the stringent requirements of a Category III (zero visibility) landing system. Although technical and logistical hurdles still exist, it is likely that GPS will soon provide aircraft guidance in all phases of flight, including automatic landing, roll-out, and taxi.

Lawrence, David Gary

101

Adaptive Flight Control for Aircraft Safety Enhancements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This poster presents the current adaptive control research being conducted at NASA ARC and LaRC in support of the Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control (IRAC) project. The technique 'Approximate Stability Margin Analysis of Hybrid Direct-Indirect Adaptive...

I. M. Gregory N. T. Nguyen S. M. Joshi

2008-01-01

102

Hypersonic Reconnaissance Aircraft.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A conceptual design of a hypersonic reconnaissance aircraft for the U.S. Navy is discussed. After eighteen weeks of work, a waverider design powered by two augmented turbofans was chosen. The aircraft was designed to be based on an aircraft carrier and to...

T. Bulk D. Chiarini K. Hill B. Kunszt C. Odgen

1992-01-01

103

Unmanned aircraft systems  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Unmanned platforms have become increasingly more common in recent years for acquiring remotely sensed data. These aircraft are referred to as Unmanned Airborne Vehicles (UAV), Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA), Remotely Piloted Vehicles (RPV), or Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS), the official term used...

104

AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate data is important in the aviation planning process. In this project we consider systems for measuring aircraft activity at airports. This would include determining the type of aircraft such as jet, helicopter, single engine, and multiengine propeller. Some of the issues involved in deploying technologies for monitoring aircraft operations are cost, reliability, and accuracy. In addition, the system must

Charles Harlow; Weihong Zhu

2001-01-01

105

Jet Noise Reduction for Military Reconnaissance/Surveillance Aircraft. Phase II. Analysis and Design of a Quiet Research Test Vehicle.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents the results of the analysis and design of a static ground test version of a Quiet Research Test Vehicle (QRTV) utilizing flightworthy propulsion system components. Also included is a discussion of the fabrication of a sufficient numbe...

R. F. Speth M. V. Barsottelli R. L. Ashby W. N. Meholik G. E. Snyder

1974-01-01

106

Combining active and passive remote sensing from research aircraft with atmospheric models to evaluate NOx emission fluxes and O3 formation in the Los Angeles Megacity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ozone (O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) are two important components of air pollution. We have measured vertical column amounts of NO2, and vertical profiles of O3 and wind speed by means of measurements of solar stray light by CU Airborne MAX-DOAS, and active remote sensing using the NOAA TOPAZ lidar, and the University of Leeds Doppler lidar aboard the NOAA Twin Otter research aircraft. A total of 52 flights (up to 4 hours each) were carried out between May 19 and July 19 2010 during the CalNex and CARES field campaigns. These flights cover most of California. The boundary layer height was measured by TOPAZ lidar, and trace gas concentrations of NO2 and O3 were integrated over boundary layer height. These column integrated quantities are then combined with direct wind speed measurements to quantify directly the pollutant flux across the boundary, as defined by the flight track. By tracking the pollution fluxes during transects that are flown upwind and in various distances downwind of a NOx emission source, the NOx emission rate, and the ozone formation rate are quantified. These pollutant fluxes are calculated here for the first time exclusively based on measurements (i.e., without need to infer wind speed from a model). These fluxes provide constraints to quantify localized NOx emissions, and are being compared with WRF-Chem model simulations.

Baidar, Sunil; Oetjen, Hilke; Senff, Christoph; Alvarez, Raul, II; Hardesty, Michael; Langford, Andrew; Kim, Si-Wan; Trainer, Michael; Volkamer, Rainer

2013-04-01

107

Discussion of Approaches to Estimate the Aircraft Stopping Distances Under Standard Operating Procedures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Federal Aviation Administration is currently engaged in research of aircraft operational landing performance, aiming to increase the safety and efficiency of aircraft operations in terminal areas. One of the primary research objectives was to identify...

A. Cheng

2007-01-01

108

Statistical Loads Data for Cessna 172 Aircraft Using the Aircraft Cumulative Fatigue System (ACFS).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this research and development program was to manufacture a small, lightweight, low-cost recorder for loads usage monitoring of general aviation and commuter type aircraft to support the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Operation Loads ...

J. A. Cicero F. L. Feiter J. Mohammadi

2001-01-01

109

Fuel for future transport aircraft  

SciTech Connect

On an analytical basis, liquid hydrogen has been shown to be a very attractive fuel for transport aircraft. An experimental research and development program is needed to advance theory to practice so LH/sub 2/ can be considered a viable alternative to synthetic kerosine as a replacement for conventional, petroleum-base Jet A. A comprehensive RandD program has been formulated for implementation on an international basis. 6 refs.

Brewer, G.D.

1981-08-01

110

Adaptive structures for fixed and rotary wing aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since more than 10 years EADS Innovation Works, which is the corporate research centre of EADS (European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company), is investigating smart materials and adaptive structures for aircraft in cooperation with EADS business units. Focus of research efforts are adaptive systems for shape control, noise reduction and vibration control of both fixed and rotary wing aircraft as

Willi Martin; Peter Jänker; Markus Siemetzki; Thomas Lorkowski; Boris Grohmann; Rudolf Maier; Christoph Maucher; Valentin Klöppel; Bernhard Enenkl; Dieter Roth; Heinz Hansen

2007-01-01

111

14 CFR 21.6 - Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers. 21.6 Section 21.6 Aeronautics...new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers. (a) Except as specified in...a new aircraft, aircraft engine, or propeller based on a type certificate unless...

2013-01-01

112

14 CFR 43.7 - Persons authorized to approve aircraft, airframes, aircraft engines, propellers, appliances, or...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...aircraft, airframes, aircraft engines, propellers, appliances, or component parts for...aircraft, airframes, aircraft engines, propellers, appliances, or component parts for...aircraft, airframe, aircraft engine, propeller, appliance, or component part...

2013-01-01

113

Civil aircraft accident investigation.  

PubMed

This talk reviews some historic aircraft accidents and some more recent. It reflects on the division of accident causes, considering mechanical failures and aircrew failures, and on aircrew training. Investigation results may lead to improved aircraft design, and to appropriate crew training. PMID:24057309

Haines, Daniel

2013-01-01

114

Adapter for Towing Aircraft.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Disclosed is an adapter for existing tow bars or spotting dollies to two aircraft having non-conventional landing gear. The adapter has a vertical member which is dimensioned to fit into a socket mounted in the bottom of the aircraft in the vicinity of th...

H. H. Perry

1983-01-01

115

Aircraft EMP Isolation Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents the results of a preliminary study into methods for electrically isolating the E-4B, the EC-135, and the EC-130 aircraft during EMP tests where the aircraft under test is directly driven by a high-voltage pulser.

A. Finci H. Price P. Chao S. Mercer T. Naff

1980-01-01

116

Aging Aircraft Structures Database.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes the work performed by the Boeing Company to develop an aging aircraft structures database to be used to aid in the verification of structural integrity analysis of aircraft structures. Sample data were collected for the C-30 EC-135,...

R. Perez

1998-01-01

117

Aircraft EMP isolation study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents the results of a preliminary study into methods for electrically isolating the E-4B, the EC-135, and the EC-130 aircraft during EMP tests where the aircraft under test is directly driven by a high-voltage pulser.

A. Finci; H. Price; P. Chao; S. Mercer; T. Naff

1980-01-01

118

Hypersonic Aircraft Design.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A hypersonic aircraft is designed which uses scramjets to accelerate from Mach 6 to Mach 10 and sustain that speed for two minutes. Different propulsion systems were considered and it was decided that the aircraft would use one full scale turbofan-ramjet....

H. Alkamhawi T. Greiner G. Fuerst S. Luich B. Stonebraker

1990-01-01

119

Manual Switches for Aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the design and application of electrical control equipment the problem of obtaining complete field data and requirements is always present in some degree. The problem is acute in branches of the electrical industry supplying aircraft control. Three factors contribute to the difficulty: 1. The tremendous engineering effort centered in the aircraft industry causes rapid technical changes that soon make

R. A. Millermaster

1943-01-01

120

Recommendations for Ground Effects Research for V/STOL (Vertical and Short Takeoff and Landing) and STOL Aircraft and Associated Equipment for Large Scale Testing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The current understanding of the effects of ground proximity on V/STOL and STOL aircraft is reviewd. Areas covered include (1) single jet suckdown in hover, (2) fountain effects on multijet configurations, (3) STOL ground effects including the effect of t...

R. E. Kuhn

1986-01-01

121

Using virtual reality technology for aircraft visual inspection training: presence and comparison studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aircraft maintenance industry is a complex system consisting of several interrelated human and machine components. Recognizing this, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has pursued human factors related research. In the maintenance arena the research has focused on the aircraft inspection process and the aircraft inspector. Training has been identified as the primary intervention strategy to improve the quality and

Jeenal Vora; Santosh Nair; Anand K. Gramopadhye; Andrew T. Duchowski; Brian J. Melloy; Barbara Kanki

2002-01-01

122

Pulse Doppler signature of a rotary-wing aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

A measurement research program was conducted to investigate rotary-wing aircraft Doppler radar signature phenomenology. Results of the data analysis program are presented with regard to classification and identification of a rotary-wing aircraft based on its Doppler radar signature. Using the return from a Doppler radar and appropriate frequency-domain signal-processing techniques, a rotary-wing aircraft's design, such as main rotor configuration (single,

B. D. Bullard; P. C. Dowdy

1991-01-01

123

Analysis of Retaining or Replacing Air Force Command and Control Aircraft.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This MBA Project's objective was to analyze information available to determine if the Air Force should retain or replace its command and control aircraft. To accomplish the objective, research pertaining to the Air Force's aircraft and requirements was co...

H. R. Lynch I. J. Austin

2007-01-01

124

Predicting Visibility of Aircraft  

PubMed Central

Visual detection of aircraft by human observers is an important element of aviation safety. To assess and ensure safety, it would be useful to be able to be able to predict the visibility, to a human observer, of an aircraft of specified size, shape, distance, and coloration. Examples include assuring safe separation among aircraft and between aircraft and unmanned vehicles, design of airport control towers, and efforts to enhance or suppress the visibility of military and rescue vehicles. We have recently developed a simple metric of pattern visibility, the Spatial Standard Observer (SSO). In this report we examine whether the SSO can predict visibility of simulated aircraft images. We constructed a set of aircraft images from three-dimensional computer graphic models, and measured the luminance contrast threshold for each image from three human observers. The data were well predicted by the SSO. Finally, we show how to use the SSO to predict visibility range for aircraft of arbitrary size, shape, distance, and coloration.

Watson, Andrew; Ramirez, Cesar V.; Salud, Ellen

2009-01-01

125

Tropospheric sampling with aircraft  

SciTech Connect

Aircraft constitute a unique environment which places stringent requirements on the instruments used to measure the concentrations of atmospheric trace gases and aerosols. Some of these requirements such as minimization of size, weight, and power consumption are general; others are specific to individual techniques. This review presents the basic principles and considerations governing the deployment of trace gas and aerosol instrumentation on an aircraft. An overview of common instruments illustrates these points and provides guidelines for designing and using instruments on aircraft-based measurement programs.

Daum, P.H.; Springston, S.R.

1991-03-01

126

Waterborne Polyurethane Binder Resins for Compliant Aircraft Coatings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR), Phase I research project investigated the feasibility of producing a one-component, water-borne, low volatile organic compounds (VOC) coating for the protection of naval aircraft and ground support equipment...

F. L. Koehan R. M. Stewart W. M. Gomes

1992-01-01

127

Unmanned Aircraft Systems Integration in the National Airspace System  

NASA Website

NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center is supporting NASA's Unmanned Aircraft Systems Integration in the National Airspace System aeronautics initiative. Also known as UAS in the NAS, this research project is designed to address operational ...

128

Army Aircraft Armament.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The background document provides general testing information relative to the planning and conduct of army aircraft armament engineering evaluation. This information supplements and is applied in common to test procedures which deal with the evaluation of ...

1970-01-01

129

Tractor, Wheeled, Aircraft, Towing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Army service test procedure describes test methods and techniques for evaluating the performance and characteristics of aircraft towing tractors (wheeled type), and for determining their suitability for service use by the U.S. Army. (Author)

1970-01-01

130

Tractor Wheeled, Aircraft, Towing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Engineering Test Procedure describes test methods and techniques for evaluating the technical performance and characteristics of Aircraft Towing Tractors (Wheeled Type) and for determining the suitability of the test item to be subjected to service t...

1969-01-01

131

Aircraft Cable Parameter Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes experimental and analytical results obtained from a study of the transmission line properties of multiconductor cables commonly found on aircraft. A method for the complete characterization of multiconductor transmission lines in inh...

H. M. Fowles L. D. Scott A. K. Agrawal K. M. Lee

1977-01-01

132

Solar thermal aircraft  

DOEpatents

A solar thermal powered aircraft powered by heat energy from the sun. A heat engine, such as a Stirling engine, is carried by the aircraft body for producing power for a propulsion mechanism, such as a propeller. The heat engine has a thermal battery in thermal contact with it so that heat is supplied from the thermal battery. A solar concentrator, such as reflective parabolic trough, is movably connected to an optically transparent section of the aircraft body for receiving and concentrating solar energy from within the aircraft. Concentrated solar energy is collected by a heat collection and transport conduit, and heat transported to the thermal battery. A solar tracker includes a heliostat for determining optimal alignment with the sun, and a drive motor actuating the solar concentrator into optimal alignment with the sun based on a determination by the heliostat.

Bennett, Charles L. (Livermore, CA)

2007-09-18

133

Alternative Aircraft Fuels.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The efficient utulization of fossil fuels by future jet aircraft may necessitate the broadening of current aviation turbine fuel specifications. The most significant changes in specifications would be an increased aromatics content and a higher final boil...

J. P. Longwell J. Grobman

1977-01-01

134

An Analysis of Ball Lightning-Aircraft Incidents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lightning is a rare but regular phenomenon for air traffic. Research and design have created aircraft that withstand average lightning strikes. Ball lightning (BL), a metastable, rare lightning type, is also observed from (and within) aircraft. Science and the media focused on individual BL incidents and did not analyze general patterns. Lacking established incident reporting channels, most BL observations are

R. K. Doe; A. G. Keul; V. Bychkov

2009-01-01

135

Wearable Computing for Aircraft Maintenance: Simplifying the User Interface  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present results from the realization of a wearable computing system with the goal to shorten the maintenance process in the aircraft industry. The project combines knowledge manage- ment with wearable computing to enable instant access to an electronic logbook, aircraft manuals, and experience knowledge. This research is part of an ongoing project which is carried out

Tom Nicolai; Thomas Sindt; Hendrik Witt; Jorn Reimerdes; Holger Kenn

2006-01-01

136

B-52 Heavy-lift Airborne Launch Aircraft  

NASA Website

B-52 Heavy-lift Airborne Launch Aircraft Dryden's highly-modified NB-52B is used primarily as an air launch platform, although it has also been used as a research aircraft for a variety of projects. The oldest B-52 flying, it has been integral to ...

137

Aerodynamic Characteristics of Fan-Jet STOL Aircraft.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Research on Fan-Jet STOL aircraft was initiated by NAL in 1975 as a wind-tunnel-based program aimed at the design study of experimental STOL aircraft. Aerodynamic characteristics of the Augmentor Wing type model and the Upper Surface Blowing type models a...

N. Inumaru H. Takahashi K. Hirosue N. Toda N. Kuwano

1983-01-01

138

Incorporating Advanced Aircraft Technologies into an Aeronautical Engineering Technology Curriculum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers in the Aeronautical Engineering Technology program at Purdue University are exploring innovative ways to introduce and integrate aircraft maintenance data from their advanced training fleet of networked aircraft into an undergraduate Aviation curriculum. This report describes a work in progress toward that goal. This initiative will better prepare students for an industry where synthetic process visualization, drag and drop

Timothy D. Ropp; Jay B. Hedden; Philip J. Mick; J. Michael Davis; Austin S. Wesley Jr

2012-01-01

139

Progress towards the remote sensing of aircraft icing hazards  

Microsoft Academic Search

NASA has teamed with the FAA, DoD, industry, and academia for research into the remote detection and measurement of atmospheric conditions leading to aircraft icing hazards. The ultimate goal of this effort is to provide pilots, controllers, and dispatchers sufficient information to allow aircraft to avoid or minimize their exposure to the hazards of in-flight icing. Since the hazard of

Andrew Reehorst; David Brinker; Marcia Politovich; David Serke; Charles Ryerson; Andrew Pazmany; Frederick Solheim

2008-01-01

140

Progress towards the remote sensing of aircraft icing hazards  

Microsoft Academic Search

NASA has teamed with the FAA, DoD, industry, and academia for research into the remote detection and measurement of atmospheric conditions leading to aircraft icing hazards. The ultimate goal of this effort is to provide pilots, controllers, and dispatchers sufficient information to allow aircraft to avoid or minimize their exposure to the hazards of in-flight icing. Since the hazard of

Andrew Reehorst; David Brinker; Marcia Politovich; David Serke; Charles Ryerson; Andrew Pazmany; Fredrick Solheim

2009-01-01

141

Characterizations of Aircraft Icing Environments that Include Supercooled Large Drops  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements of aircraft icing environments that include supercooled large drops (SLD) greater than 50 mm in diameter have been made during 38 research flights. These flights were conducted during the First and Third Canadian Freezing Drizzle Experiments. A primary objective of each project was the collection of in situ microphysics data in order to characterize aircraft icing environments associated with

Stewart G. Cober; George A. Isaac; J. Walter Strapp

2001-01-01

142

The atmospheric effects of stratospheric aircraft: A first program report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies have indicated that, with sufficient technology development, high speed civil transport aircraft could be economically competitive with long haul subsonic aircraft. However, uncertainty about atmospheric pollution, along with community noise and sonic boom, continues to be a major concern; and this is addressed in the planned 6 yr HSRP begun in 1990. Building on NASA's research in atmospheric science

M. J. Prather; H. L. Wesoky; R. C. Miake-lye; A. R. Douglass; R. P. Turco; D. J. Wuebbles; M. K. W. Ko; A. L. Schmeltekopf

1992-01-01

143

Experimental study on mechanical properties of aircraft honeycomb sandwich structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mechanical behaviour of sandwich panels under different conditions have been exprimentally studied in this research to increase the knowledge of aircraft sandwich panel structures and facilitate design criteria for aircraft structures. Tests were concentrated on the honeycomb sandwich structures under different loads including flexural, insert shear, flat wise tension and compression loads. Furthermore, effect of core density and face material

A. A. Zakeri; H. Talebi Mazraehshahi

2010-01-01

144

Biodegradation of Aircraft Deicing Fluid Components in Soil.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Aircraft de-icing fluids (ADFs) are used worldwide to ensure safe aircraft operations. This research effort was conducted to analyze the biodegradation effects of two chemical components of ADFs, propylene glycol (PG) and tolyltriazole (TTA), in a high-cl...

B. W. Burke

1999-01-01

145

A branch-and-price approach for operational aircraft maintenance routing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, considerable effort in the field of operations research has been paid to optimizing airline operations, including the logistics of an airline’s fleet of aircraft. We focus on the problem of aircraft routing, which involves generating and selecting a particular route for each aircraft of a sub-fleet that is already assigned to a set of feasible sequences of

Abdulkadir Sarac; Rajan Batta; Christopher M. Rump

2006-01-01

146

Multidisciplinary aircraft design and evaluation software integrating CAD, analysis, database, and optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of an overall strategy to design the aircraft using analysis codes is presented. The procedure is automated through the integrated software MADE (multidisciplinary aircraft design and evaluation) developed in this research that enables the determination of an optimum set of aircraft configurations. The core ingredients of MADE are (i) analysis codes, which utilizes initial sizing, aerodynamics, mass, stability

H. Y. Hwang; K. J. Jung; I. M. Kang; M. S. Kim; S. I. Park; J. H. Kim

2006-01-01

147

Aircraft Configuration Study for Experimental 2-Place Aircraft and RPVs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A performance comparison and tradeoff study was conducted between eight unique aircraft configurations for high performance light aircraft and remotely piloted vehicles. These configurations included conventional tractor, conventional pusher, canard, tand...

G. D. Black

1990-01-01

148

IDENTIFICATION OF AIRCRAFT HAZARDS  

SciTech Connect

Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in the ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2004, Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based on limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and on crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987, Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. NUREG-0800 is being used here as a reference because some of the same considerations apply. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of the identified aircraft hazards based on the criteria that apply to Category 1 and 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 (see Section 4). The scope of this technical report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the MGR at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (see Section 7).

K.L. Ashley

2005-03-23

149

Identification of Aircraft Hazards  

SciTech Connect

Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 174235], Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based upon limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and upon crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a monitored geologic repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain, using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987 [DIRS 103124], Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of identified aircraft hazards based upon the criteria that apply to Category 1 and Category 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 [DIRS 176544] (Section 4). The scope of this report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the repository at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (Section 7).

K. Ashley

2006-12-08

150

Aircraft noise synthesis system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A second-generation Aircraft Noise Synthesis System has been developed to provide test stimuli for studies of community annoyance to aircraft flyover noise. The computer-based system generates realistic, time-varying, audio simulations of aircraft flyover noise at a specified observer location on the ground. The synthesis takes into account the time-varying aircraft position relative to the observer; specified reference spectra consisting of broadband, narrowband, and pure-tone components; directivity patterns; Doppler shift; atmospheric effects; and ground effects. These parameters can be specified and controlled in such a way as to generate stimuli in which certain noise characteristics, such as duration or tonal content, are independently varied, while the remaining characteristics, such as broadband content, are held constant. The system can also generate simulations of the predicted noise characteristics of future aircraft. A description of the synthesis system and a discussion of the algorithms and methods used to generate the simulations are provided. An appendix describing the input data and providing user instructions is also included.

McCurdy, David A.; Grandle, Robert E.

1987-02-01

151

Target-Carrier Aircraft Protective System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The safety system prevents the target-carrier aircraft from being fired upon by the attacking aircraft during aerial target practice. The attacking aircraft receives an arming signal from the target-carrier aircraft and this signal is interrupted whenever...

F. H. Prestwood

1965-01-01

152

Simulation model for aircraft line maintenance planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports results of research that developed a computerized simulation model for the aircraft line maintenance department in Continental Airlines. The original AUTOMOD model that was created duplicated the maintenance operations at Continental's major maintenance station at Newark. Modeling the day-to-day maintenance activities lead to the development of enhanced staffing models and a better understanding of resource requirements on

P. Gupta; M. Bazargan; R. N. McGrath

2003-01-01

153

NNICE - a neural network aircraft icing algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although much is known about the meteorological conditions for significant aircraft icing, research studies to date have only been successful identifying conditions for general icing, i.e. clouds in the temperature range from 0°C to about ?20°C. The aerodynamics of ice accumulation suggest three meteorological factors, cloud liquid water, droplet size, and air temperature. Only the latter is known or forecast

Donald W. Mccann

2005-01-01

154

Continuous Measurement of Aircraft Wing Icing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Ice formation on the wings of aircraft is a problem that has plagued air travel since its inception. Several recent incidents have been attributed to ice formation on the lifting surfaces of wings. This paper describes a SBIR Phase 1 research effort on th...

S. S. C. Yao

1994-01-01

155

Aircraft viscous drag reduction using riblets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The last two decades have seen considerable research activity on the use of riblets for viscous drag reduction. Experimental results concerning the performance of 3M riblets on airfoils, wings and wing-body or aircraft configurations at different speed regimes are reviewed; these applications bring in additional effects like pressure gradients and three dimensionality. In addition to drag reduction, aspects of altered

P. R. Viswanath

2002-01-01

156

Measuring Aircraft Carrier Flexure in Support of Autonomous Aircraft Landings  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper quantifies the experimental measurements of aircraft carrier flexure (deformation) at sea in support of the United States Department of Defense sea-based Joint Precision Approach and Landing System (JPALS) that aims to deliver automatic landing capabilities to inbound aircraft aboard aircraft carriers. The methodology for measuring ship flexure using the Global Positioning System (GPS) and inertial sensors is described.

Mark. G. Petovello; Kyle O'Keefe; M. Elizabeth Cannon

2009-01-01

157

Optical Communications for Transport Aircraft.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Optical communications for transport aircraft are discussed. The problem involves: increasing demand for radio-frequency bands from an enlarging pool of users (aircraft, ground and sea vehicles, fleet operators, traffic control centers, and commercial rad...

R. Stengel

1994-01-01

158

Optical communications for transport aircraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical communications for transport aircraft are discussed. The problem involves: increasing demand for radio-frequency bands from an enlarging pool of users (aircraft, ground and sea vehicles, fleet operators, traffic control centers, and commercial radio and television); desirability of providing high-bandwidth dedicated communications to and from every aircraft in the National Airspace System; need to support communications, navigation, and surveillance for a growing number of aircraft; and improved meteorological observations by use of probe aircraft. The solution involves: optical signal transmission support very high data rates; optical transmission of signals between aircraft, orbiting satellites, and ground stations, where unobstructed line-of-sight is available; conventional radio transmissions of signals between aircraft and ground stations, where optical line-of-sight is unavailable; and radio priority given to aircraft in weather.

Stengel, Robert

1994-02-01

159

Solar powered aircraft  

SciTech Connect

A cruciform wing structure for a solar powered aircraft is disclosed. Solar cells are mounted on horizontal wing surfaces. Wing surfaces with spanwise axis perpendicular to surfaces maintain these surfaces normal to the sun's rays by allowing aircraft to be flown in a controlled pattern at a large bank angle. The solar airplane may be of conventional design with respect to fuselage, propeller and tail, or may be constructed around a core and driven by propeller mechanisms attached near the tips of the airfoils.

Phillips, W.H.

1983-11-15

160

Project CHLOE: High Altitude Defense Against Anti-Aircraft Missiles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

NRL is conducting research to mitigate the threat posed by Man- Portable Air Defense Systems (MANPADS) to civilian aviation. Since the 1970s, the International Civil Aviation Organization has documented at least 42 civilian aircraft attacked with these sy...

B. A. Nichols K. A. Sarkady R. M. Mabe

2009-01-01

161

NASA Awards Aircraft Maintenance Pact to Computer Sciences Corp  

NASA Website

NASA has awarded a follow-on contract to Computer Sciences Corp.'s Applied Technology Group of Fort Worth, Texas, to support the agency's aircraft used for astronaut training, flight research and mission and program support.

162

Improving the Efficiency of Engines for Large Nonfighter Aircraft.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Air Force tasked the National Research Council with examining and assessing options for improving the engine efficiency of all large nonfighter aircraft in the force. Engine efficiency improvements can result in either better performance or decreased ...

2007-01-01

163

NASA Dryden Fact Sheet - Highly Maneuverable Aircraft Technology  

NASA Website

Two remotely piloted, experimental Highly Maneuverable Aircraft Technology (HiMAT) vehicles were used at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards, Calif., to develop high-performance fighter technologies.

164

Millimeter Wave Radiometric Detection of Ice on Aircraft.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Research was undertaken to determine the feasibility of using remote sensing to discover ice build-up on the wings of aircraft. The study methodology assessed the application of millimeter wave radiometry to this problem. The molecular absorption mechanis...

D. J. Kozakoff T. P. Morton

1983-01-01

165

Lightning Protection Measures for Aircraft Fuel Systems. Phase 2.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Research was conducted to develop technology leading to methods of overcoming aircraft lightning strike hazards and to investigate the potential hazards introduced by these methods. The program included experimental and analytical investigations of (a) fl...

C. C. Bolta G. M. Griner M. Markels M. W. Tobriner R. Friedman

1964-01-01

166

Survival analysis of aging aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study pushes systems engineering of aging aircraft beyond the boundaries of empirical and deterministic modeling by making a sharp break with the traditional laboratory-derived corrosion prediction algorithms that have shrouded real-world failures of aircraft structure. At the heart of this problem is the aeronautical industry's inability to be forthcoming in an accurate model that predicts corrosion failures in aircraft

Samuel Benavides

2010-01-01

167

Infrared flow visualization of V/STOL aircraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During low altitude operations of vertical/short takeoff and landing (V/STOVL) aircraft complex aeropropulsive flowfields are produced by the strong interactions between the engine exhaust jet or propeller wash and the runway and aircraft surfaces. Measurement of these unsteady 3 dimensional flowfields has not proven practical with conventional measurement techniques. It has been demonstrated that modern infrared imaging systems provide a practical means of obtaining flow visualization images of these complex aeropropulsive flowfields. Infrared images obtained with a dual wavelength scanning system are presented which provide detailed information on the flowfields about the NASA Ames XV-15 tiltrotor aircraft, the E-7 STOVL research model and the NASA Ames YAV-8B Harrier aircraft. It was found that the use of a dual wavelength infrared system provides valuable information about both the engine exhaust flowfield and the resulting heating of aircraft and runway surfaces.

Birckelbaw, Larry D.; Nelson, Edward L.

1992-08-01

168

Cooperation in Aircraft Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe how aircraft are designed in a large organization. We discuss the interactions among the different specialist departments during the design process, and the models used by each department. We observe that the main design choices are refinement operations on the design. The overall structure of the organized design process is one of coordinated refinement of models. We describe

Alan H. Bond; Richard J. Ricci

1989-01-01

169

Scaling in model aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aerodynamic principles of flight are described from the point of view of the way they scale from the largest full-size aircraft to the smallest flying models. Particular attention is paid to the difficulties encountered by small, slow flying machines.

Chris Waltham

1997-01-01

170

Aircraft turbofan noise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Turbofan noise generation and suppression in aircraft engines are reviewed. The chain of physical processes which connect unsteady flow interactions with fan blades to far field noise is addressed. Mechanism identification and description, duct propagation, radiation and acoustic suppression are discussed. The experimental technique of fan inflow static tests are discussed. Rotor blade surface pressure and wake velocity measurements aid

J. F. Groeneweg; E. J. Rice

1983-01-01

171

Active Aeroelastic Aircraft Structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aeroelasticity results in problems such as structural divergence, aileron reversal, and flutter stability due to insufficient\\u000a torsional stiffness of the wings and “aeroelastic weight penalty” became a widely used expression by engineers in aircraft\\u000a design. Aeroelastic solutions generally involve increasing the structure stiffness or mass balance (passive solutions), which\\u000a typically involve increase of weight and cost while decreasing performance. In

A. Suleman; P. A. Moniz

172

32 CFR 855.6 - Aircraft exempt from the requirement for a civil aircraft landing permit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aircraft exempt from the requirement for a civil aircraft landing permit. 855.6 Section 855...Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES...

2013-07-01

173

Aircraft exhaust particle measurement with multiple ground-based lidar systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently NASA Langley Research Center's (LaRC) Aerosol Research Branch conducted an aircraft exhaust particle experiment involving tow ground based lidar systems and NASA's B737-100, T39 and OV10 aircraft. The experiment took place at LaRC in February and March of 1996. During flight, exhaust particles exiting the two wing-mounted engines of the B737 become quickly entrained into the aircraft's wingtip vortices.

Robert J. Decoursey; Lamont R. Poole; Chris A. Hostetler; Geoffrey S. Kent; Gary Hansen

1997-01-01

174

Shock suppression supersonic aircraft  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The invention is a supersonic aircraft. In detail, the aircraft is in the form of a flying wing having a generally flat upper surface, a generally cosine shaped lower surface and a swept back leading edge. A propulsion system is mounted in the aircraft for providing forward thrust and is adapted to provide a source of pressurized air. A plenum is mounted under and behind the leading edge of the flying wing in a spaced relationship thereto, the plenum having a swept back leading edge and a length substantially equal to the length of the flying wing and a trailing edge in the form of an exhaust nozzle; the exhaust nozzle extending substantially over the entire length of the plenum. A duct system is coupled between the at least one engine and the plenum such that pressurized air from the engine can be provided to the plenum for ejection out the nozzle in the form of a sheet of pressurized air under the wing.

1999-08-10

175

Aircraft fires, smoke toxicity, and survival.  

PubMed

In-flight fires in modern aircraft are rare, but post-crash fires do occur. Cabin occupants frequently survive initial forces of such crashes but are incapacitated from smoke inhalation. According to an international study, there were 95 fire-related civil passenger aircraft accidents worldwide over a 26-yr period, claiming approximately 2400 lives. Between 1985 and 1991, about 16% (32 accidents) of all U.S. transport aircraft accidents involved fire and 22% (140 fatalities) of the deaths in these accidents resulted from fire/smoke toxicity. Our laboratory analyses of postmortem blood samples (1967-93) indicate that 360 individuals in 134 fatal fire-related civil aircraft (air carrier and general aviation) accidents had carboxyhemoglobin saturation levels (> or = 20%), with or without blood cyanide, high enough to impair performance. Combustion toxicology is now moving from a descriptive to a mechanistic phase. Methods for gas analyses have been developed and combustion/animal-exposure assemblies have been constructed. Material/fire-retardant toxicity and interactions between smoke gases are being studied. Relationships between gas exposure concentrations, blood levels, and incapacitation onset are being established in animal models. Continuing basic research in smoke toxicity will be necessary to understand its complexities, and thus enhance aviation safety and fire survival chances. PMID:8775410

Chaturvedi, A K; Sanders, D C

1996-03-01

176

Automation tools for flexible aircraft maintenance.  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the accomplishments of the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project 26546 at Sandia, during the period FY01 through FY03. The project team visited four DoD depots that support extensive aircraft maintenance in order to understand critical needs for automation, and to identify maintenance processes for potential automation or integration opportunities. From the visits, the team identified technology needs and application issues, as well as non-technical drivers that influence the application of automation in depot maintenance of aircraft. Software tools for automation facility design analysis were developed, improved, extended, and integrated to encompass greater breadth for eventual application as a generalized design tool. The design tools for automated path planning and path generation have been enhanced to incorporate those complex robot systems with redundant joint configurations, which are likely candidate designs for a complex aircraft maintenance facility. A prototype force-controlled actively compliant end-effector was designed and developed based on a parallel kinematic mechanism design. This device was developed for demonstration of surface finishing, one of many in-contact operations performed during aircraft maintenance. This end-effector tool was positioned along the workpiece by a robot manipulator, programmed for operation by the automated planning tools integrated for this project. Together, the hardware and software tools demonstrate many of the technologies required for flexible automation in a maintenance facility.

Prentice, William J.; Drotning, William D.; Watterberg, Peter A.; Loucks, Clifford S.; Kozlowski, David M.

2003-11-01

177

Aircraft and background noise annoyance effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To investigate annoyance of multiple noise sources, two experiments were conducted. The first experiment, which used 48 subjects, was designed to establish annoyance-noise level functions for three community noise sources presented individually: jet aircraft flyovers, air conditioner, and traffic. The second experiment, which used 216 subjects, investigated the effects of background noise on aircraft annoyance as a function of noise level and spectrum shape; and the differences between overall, aircraft, and background noise annoyance. In both experiments, rated annoyance was the dependent measure. Results indicate that the slope of the linear relationship between annoyance and noise level for traffic is significantly different from that of flyover and air conditioner noise and that further research was justified to determine the influence of the two background noises on overall, aircraft, and background noise annoyance (e.g., experiment two). In experiment two, total noise exposure, signal-to-noise ratio, and background source type were found to have effects on all three types of annoyance. Thus, both signal-to-noise ratio, and the background source must be considered when trying to determine community response to combined noise sources.

Willshire, K. F.

1984-01-01

178

Adaptive structures for fixed and rotary wing aircraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since more than 10 years EADS Innovation Works, which is the corporate research centre of EADS (European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company), is investigating smart materials and adaptive structures for aircraft in cooperation with EADS business units. Focus of research efforts are adaptive systems for shape control, noise reduction and vibration control of both fixed and rotary wing aircraft as well as for lift optimisation of fixed wing aircraft. Two outstanding adaptive systems which have been pushed ahead in cooperation with Airbus Germany and Eurocopter Germany are adaptive servo flaps for helicopter rotor blades and innovative high lift devices for fixed wing aircraft which both were tested in flight for the first time representing world premieres. In this paper various examples of adaptive systems are presented which were developed and realized by EADS in recent years.

Martin, Willi; Jänker, Peter; Siemetzki, Markus; Lorkowski, Thomas; Grohmann, Boris; Maier, Rudolf; Maucher, Christoph; Klöppel, Valentin; Enenkl, Bernhard; Roth, Dieter; Hansen, Heinz

2007-10-01

179

A new direction in energy conversion - The all-electric aircraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reviews recent studies of all-electric aircraft that use electric-only secondary power and flight critical fly-by-wire flight controls, and brings to the attention of the power system designer the intrinsic advantages of such aircraft. The all-electric aircraft is made possible by the development of rare earth magnet materials and fault tolerant systems technologies. Recent studies have shown all-electric aircraft to be more efficient than conventional designs and offer substantial operating costs reductions. Compared to present aircraft, an all-electric transport can save at least 10 percent in fuel burn. The cornerstone of an all-electric aircraft is the electric secondary power system. This paper reviews the major features of flight critical electric secondary power systems. Research required to lay the foundation for an all-electric aircraft is briefly discussed.

Spitzer, C. R.

1985-12-01

180

Infrared radiation powered lightweight aircraft  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a high altitude, ultralight aircraft requiring no fuel. It comprises: an aircraft having wings with broad area lower wing surfaces and a fuselage; a low speed propeller mounted on the aircraft; electric motor means mounted on the aircraft and coupled to drive the propeller; long wavelength infrared (LWIR) responsive cell means for receiving infrared energy radiated from the earth and for supplying electricity to power the motor means. The LWIR cell means being mounted on the lower surfaces of the wings and the fuselage; and the LWIR being substantially the only source of input power for the aircraft to provide a continuous source of power both during the day and at night; whereby the aircraft may have a life at elevated altitudes of several years.

Long, D.E.

1990-03-13

181

Fly-by-light aircraft closed loop test program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Fly-by-Light Aircraft Closed-Loop Test (FACT) program is a flight test program sponsored by NASA-Lewis Research Center. The objectives of the FACT program are to demonstrate optical closed-loop control of flight critical and non-flight critical control surfaces and to demonstrate installation and maintenance aspects of fiber optics for application to commercial aircraft. This paper summarizes the FACT program optical maintenance,

Don J. Halski; Bradley L. Kessler; Robert E. Mattes; Michael F. Wanamaker; Robert J. Baumbick

1995-01-01

182

Aircraft integration solution for a COTS standoff chemical sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A small business innovation research Phase II program is being conducted for the US Naval Air Warfare Center - Aircraft Division at Patuxent River, Maryland. The goal is to develop a chemical agent standoff and point detection systems (CASOPDS). The CASOPDS is comprised of standoff and point detection subsystems contained in a stand-alone transit case which can be transported to, carried on-board, and readily installed in the V-22 Osprey aircraft in the event of a CW threat.

Gruber, Thomas C.; Grim, Larry B.; Berends, John C.; Pugh, Monty; Thorpe, Roland

1999-01-01

183

Highly Integrated Digital Electronic Control: Digital Flight Control, Aircraft Model Identification, and Adaptive Engine Control.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The highly integrated digital electronic control (HIDEC) program at NASA Ames Research Center, Dryden Flight Research Facility is a multiphase flight research program to quantify the benefits of promising integrated control systems. McDonnell Aircraft Com...

J. L. Baer-riedhart R. J. Landy

1987-01-01

184

The ARCTAS aircraft mission: design and execution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The NASA Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS) mission was conducted in two 3-week deployments based in Alaska (April 2008) and western Canada (June-July 2008). The goal of ARCTAS was to better understand the factors driving current changes in Arctic atmospheric composition and climate, including (1) transport of mid-latitude pollution, (2) boreal forest

D. J. Jacob; J. H. Crawford; H. Maring; A. D. Clarke; J. E. Dibb; R. A. Ferrare; C. A. Hostetler; P. B. Russell; H. B. Singh; A. M. Thompson; G. E. Shaw; E. McCauley; J. R. Pederson; J. A. Fisher

2009-01-01

185

Aircraft Dynamics And Payload Interaction – SOFIA Telescope  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is now in operation out of NASA Dryden Flight Research Center\\u000a and is providing astronomical science observations not possible from other Earth- and spaceborne observatories. A 2.7 meter\\u000a telescope which weighs 34,000 pounds has been installed in the aft fuselage of a Boeing 747SP aircraft. This required significant\\u000a structural changes to the airframe.

Ralph Brillhart; Kevin Napolitano; Tracy Duvall

186

14 CFR 252.13 - Small aircraft.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS SMOKING ABOARD AIRCRAFT § 252.13 Small aircraft. Air carriers shall prohibit smoking on aircraft designed to have a passenger capacity of 30 or fewer seats....

2013-01-01

187

14 CFR 135.125 - Aircraft security.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Aircraft security. 135.125 ...TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION...GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Operations § 135.125 Aircraft security....

2013-01-01

188

14 CFR 137.31 - Aircraft requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Aircraft requirements. 137.31...TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION...OPERATIONS AGRICULTURAL AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS Operating Rules § 137.31 Aircraft requirements. No...

2013-01-01

189

14 CFR 135.25 - Aircraft requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Aircraft requirements. 135.25...TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION...GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT General § 135.25 Aircraft requirements. (a)...

2013-01-01

190

Ejection Device for Aircraft Crash Dye Marker.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The buoyant marker is mounted on an aircraft. When activated the marker indicates the point at which an aircraft sank into water. An explosive is used to release a gas which drives the marker buoy from the aircraft.

J. Mellon J. Harding W. J. Zarkowski

1964-01-01

191

14 CFR 21.182 - Aircraft identification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Certificates § 21.182 Aircraft identification. (a...subpart must show that his aircraft is identified as prescribed...flight permit. (2) An experimental certificate for an aircraft not issued for the...

2013-01-01

192

Control of a swept wing tailless aircraft through wing morphing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inspired by flight in nature, work done by Lippisch, the Hortens, and Northrop offered insight to achieving the efficiency of bird flight with swept-wing tailless aircraft. Tailless designs must incorporate aerodynamic compromises for control, which have inhibited potential advantages. A morphing mechanism, capable of changing the twist of wing and that can also provide pitch, roll and yaw control for a tailless swept wing aircraft is the first step to a series of morphing techniques, which will lead to more fluid, bird-like flight. This research focuses on investigating the design of a morphing wing to improve the flight characteristics of swept wing Horten type tailless aircraft. Free flight demonstrators, wind tunnel flow visualization, wind-tunnel force and moment data along with CFD studies have been used to evaluate the stability, control and efficiency of a morphing swept wing tailless aircraft. A wing morphing mechanism for the control of a swept wing tailless aircraft has been developed. This new control technique was experimentally and numerically compared to an existing elevon equipped tailless aircraft and has shown the potential for significant improvement in efficiency. The feasibility of this mechanism was also validated through flight testing of a flight weight version. In the process of comparing the Horten type elevon equipped aircraft and the morphing model, formal wind tunnel verification of wingtip induced thrust, found in Horten (Bell Shaped Lift distribution) type swept wing tailless aircraft was documented. A more complete physical understanding of the highly complex flow generated in the control region of the morphing tailless aircraft has been developed. CFD models indicate the possibility of the presence of a Leading Edge Vortex (LEV) on the control section morphing wing when the tip is twisted between +3.5 degrees and +7 degrees. The presence of this LEV causes a reduction of drag while lift is increased. Similar LEVs have been documented in use by birds and insects.

Guiler, Richard W.

193

Air traffic control resource management strategies and the small aircraft transportation system: A system dynamics perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is leading a research effort to develop a Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) that will expand air transportation capabilities to hundreds of underutilized airports in the United States. Most of the research effort addresses the technological development of the small aircraft as well as the systems to manage airspace usage and surface activities

James J. Galvin Jr.; C. Patrick Koelling; Kimberly P. Ellis; Brian M. Kleiner; Steven E. Markham; Antonio A. Trani

2002-01-01

194

High Efficiency High Speed PM Motors for the More Electric Aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

More electric aircraft has been a subject of increasing discussions and research for more than ten years now, both in Europe and in North America. These efforts follow the growing realisation of the benefits that are likely to emerge from the future growth of the more electric aircraft technology. This is clearly evident from the sizes and numbers of research

ROY PERRYMAM

2006-01-01

195

Inflight characterization of aircraft icing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis advances the development of the Ice Management System (IMS), which has been previously proposed as an additional layer of safety against aircraft icing accidents, by presenting and validating a conceptual design for the icing characterization function of the IMS. This icing characterization function seeks to provide a near real-time estimate of the degradation of the aircraft flight dynamics

James William Melody

2004-01-01

196

Robotic assistants for aircraft inspectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aircraft flight pressurization\\/depressurization cycling causes the skin to inflate and deflate, stressing it around the rivets that fasten it to the airframe. The resulting strain, exacerbated by corrosion, drives the growth of initially microscopic cracks. To avoid catastrophe, aircraft are inspected periodically for cracks and corrosion. The inspection technology employed is ?90 percent naked-eye vision. We have developed and demonstrated

Mel Siegel; Priyan Gunatilake; Gregg Podnar

1998-01-01

197

Aircraft wiring program status report  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC) Aircraft Division status report, the general and wire and cable component activities, the systems engineering activities, the aircraft wiring lead maintenance activities, the NAVAIR\\/NASA interface activities, and the Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) Commission recommendations are presented.

Rex Beach

1995-01-01

198

Evaluation of Aircraft Brake Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

A test program was carried out to evaluate several new high-temperature friction materials for use in aircraft disk brakes. A specially built test apparatus utilizing a disk brake and wheel half from a small jet aircraft was used. The apparatus enabled control of brake pressure, velocity and braking time. Tests were run under both constant and variables velocity conditions and

T. L. Ho; F. E. Kennedy; M. B. Peterson

1979-01-01

199

Do supersonic aircraft avoid contrails?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of a potential future fleet of supersonic aircraft on contrail coverage and contrail radiative forcing is investigated by means of simulations with the general circulation model ECHAM4.L39(DLR) including a contrail parameterization. The model simulations consider air traffic inventories of a subsonic fleet and of a combined fleet of sub- and supersonic aircraft for the years 2025 and 2050,

A. Stenke; V. Grewe; S. Pechtl

2007-01-01

200

Higher voltage aircraft power systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern aircraft designs are focused on minimising the use of engine bleed air, eliminating gearboxes, and reducing the reliance on hydraulic systems. Instead, many of these mechanical systems will be replaced with electrical versions. The increasing amounts of electrical power that will be shipped through an aircraft means that it is increasingly difficult to rely on low voltage power systems

Ian Cotton; Andrew Nelms

2008-01-01

201

Aircraft wiring program status report  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC) Aircraft Division status report, the general and wire and cable component activities, the systems engineering activities, the aircraft wiring lead maintenance activities, the NAVAIR/NASA interface activities, and the Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) Commission recommendations are presented.

Beach, Rex

1995-11-01

202

TOGA COARE aircraft mission summary images: An electronic atlas  

SciTech Connect

An electronic atlas of research aircraft missions in TOGA COARE (Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment) has been prepared and is available on the Internet via WorldWide Web browsers such as Mosaic. These maps are in the form of time sequences of color imagery assembled using the NCAR Zebra software. Initial versions of these maps were prepared in the field at the TOGA COARE Honiara Operations Center to aid in the evaluation of each aircraft mission immediately after it was flown. The maps prepared in the field have been updated, corrected, and remapped at standard scales and with common color schemes. They show the meteorological setting of sampling by all seven aircraft participating in TOGA COARE - the two NOAA WP-3D aircraft, the NCAR Electra, the FIAMS C-340, the UK C-130, and the NASA DC-8 and ER-2 - by overlaying flight tracks, GMS satellite infrared data, and NOAA WP-3D airborne radar images. The map sequences are combined with text of scientists` notes and other background information on the research flights to form a summary of each aircraft mission. The resulting aircraft mission summaries are intended as a road map to the COARE aircraft dataset. They indicate where and when data were collected and the meteorological context for those data. As an electronic document, the atlas of aircraft mission summaries is available on demand, and it is dynamic: as further information becomes available, the mission summaries will continue to be added to and updated as appropriate, and new release will be issued periodically. 9 refs., 9 figs.

Yuter, S.E.; Houze, R.A. Jr.; Brodzik, S.R. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)] [and others

1995-03-01

203

UNCONVENTIONAL CONFIGURATIONS FOR EFFICIENT SUPERSONIC FLIGHT  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Summary Alternative configurations for more efficient supersonic aircraft are suggested by consideration of the sources of drag at high speeds. Results of studies described in this paper indicate that supersonic aircraft with much higher efficiencies than previously achieved are possible with reduced Mach number. The paper focuses on two promising candidate solutions: oblique wings and configurations with supersonic laminar

I. Kroo

204

41 CFR 102-33.240 - What must we consider before disposing of aircraft and aircraft parts?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false What must we consider before disposing of aircraft and aircraft parts? 102-33.240 Section 102-33.240...PERSONAL PROPERTY 33-MANAGEMENT OF GOVERNMENT AIRCRAFT Disposing of Government Aircraft and Aircraft...

2013-01-01

205

Amphibious discoidal aircraft  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

An aircraft comprising a discoidal fuselage having a planar upper surface and containing at least one vertical duct extending longitudinally therethrough, an impeller located within the duct for producing an upward flow of gas, and a gas flow director movably mounted with respect to said duct. The vertical duct is central to the fuselage. The impeller is a vertical turbojet engine. The gas director comprises a central conical member, an upper annular flow control member, and a plurality of radially spaced apart vent controls. The vent controls are hydraulic cylinders. A hatch is mounted about the bottom opening of said duct. The hatch is movable such that one position seals the duct from the entry of liquids. An air passageway extends into and communicates with the duct.

del Castillo; Gilbert (Houston, TX)

1987-06-23

206

Safety factors in civil aircraft design requirements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many factors influence the safety of modern civil aircraft. Some are related to design, others to the maintenance and operation of the aircraft. The factors and approaches employed vary with the type of aircraft. Those related to structural design relevant to large transport aircraft and to helicopters will be addressed in this paper.The means by which current and developing airworthiness

John W. Bristow; P. E. Irving

2007-01-01

207

The impact of aircraft noise control technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reductions made in aircraft noise since the first generation jet aircraft are reviewed. The critical facts presently underpinning the airport noise situation are listed. The technologies which are responsible for the reduction in aircraft noise are reviewed and illustrated. Progress in noise control around airports is considered and future prospects concerning aircraft noise are discussed.

Smith, M. J. T.

1991-05-01

208

Aircraft Mechanics Series. Duty Task List.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This task list is intended for use in planning and/or evaluating a competency-based course in aircraft mechanics. The guide outlines the tasks entailed in 24 different duties typically required of employees in the following occupations: airframe mechanic, power plant mechanic, aircraft mechanic, aircraft sheet metal worker, aircraft electrician,…

Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

209

Real-time aircraft turnaround operations manager  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aircraft turnaround operations are the activities conducted to prepare an inbound aircraft at an airport for a following outbound flight that is scheduled for the same aircraft. The activities of aircraft turnaround operations include both the inbound and outbound exchanges of passengers, crew, catering services, cargo and baggage handling. Hence, appears the importance of following up on all activities done

M. Abd Allah Makhloof; M. Elsayed Waheed; Usama A. El-Raouf Badawi

2012-01-01

210

Aircraft Parts (Brazil). Aircraft and Parts, August 1991.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Because of Brazil's vast size, air transportation is an essential link in the country's infrastructure. Combining this dependence on air transport with an ongoing national policy to establish a modern market economy, U.S. commercial aircraft and parts man...

1991-01-01

211

Dichlorvos vapour disinsection of aircraft  

PubMed Central

The authors describe the testing of an automatic aircraft disinsection system permanently installed on a commercial DC-6B passenger aircraft. An air-compressor forces ambient cabin air, partially saturated with dichlorvos vapour at a set concentration, through the cabin, cockpit and baggage compartments of the aircraft for 30 minutes. Insecticide concentrations and insect mortality were observed in post-overhaul check flights, and insect mortality and passenger reactions were observed on scheduled flights between Miami, Florida, and Nassau, Bahamas. The results showed satisfactory biological efficiency. The passengers were unaware of the disinsection process and showed no signs of discomfort. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3

Jensen, Jens A.; Flury, Vincent P.; Schoof, Herbert F.

1965-01-01

212

Community Noise Exposure Resulting from Aircraft Operations: Application Guide for Predictive Procedure.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is one of a series describing the research program undertaken by the Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory to develop procedures for predicting the community noise exposure resulting from aircraft operations. It discusses the applications of t...

D. E. Bishop

1974-01-01

213

Supersonic and Subsonic Aircraft Noise Effects on Animals: A Literature Survey.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We searched the literature concerning the effects of supersonic and subsonic aircraft noise on animals. Our search revealed many review papers of prior research accomplished, but few actual research papers. Out of all the reviews, Dufour's work is the mos...

R. C. Kull A. D. Fisher

1986-01-01

214

Measuring subjective response to aircraft noise: the effects of survey context.  

PubMed

In applied research, noise annoyance is often used as indicator of subjective reaction to aircraft noise in residential areas. The present study aims to show that the meaning which respondents attach to the concept of aircraft noise annoyance is partly a function of survey context. To this purpose a survey is conducted among residents living near Schiphol Airport, the largest airport in the Netherlands. In line with the formulated hypotheses it is shown that different sets of preceding questionnaire items influence the response distribution of aircraft noise annoyance as well as the correlational patterns between aircraft noise annoyance and other relevant scales. PMID:23297898

Kroesen, Maarten; Molin, Eric J E; van Wee, Bert

2013-01-01

215

American Academy of Pediatrics. Restraint use on aircraft. Committee on Injury and Poison Prevention.  

PubMed

Occupant protection policies for children younger than 2 years on aircraft are inconsistent with all other national policies on safe transportation. Children younger than 2 years are not required to be restrained or secured on aircraft during takeoff, landing, and conditions of turbulence. They are permitted to be held on the lap of an adult. Preventable injuries and deaths have occurred in children younger than 2 years who were unrestrained in aircraft during survivable crashes and conditions of turbulence. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends a mandatory federal requirement for restraint use for children on aircraft. The Academy further recommends that parents ensure that a seat is available for all children during aircraft transport and follow current recommendations for restraint use for all children. Physicians play a significant role in counseling families, advocating for public policy mandates, and encouraging technologic research that will improve protection of children in aircraft. PMID:11694707

2001-11-01

216

Structural acoustic modeling of aircraft fuselage structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent studies at NASA Langley Research Center have examined the development and validation of finite element and boundary element modeling techniques for the prediction of structural acoustic response of aircraft fuselage structures. The goal of this work is to provide increased confidence in the modeling techniques so that interior noise criteria can be incorporated early in the design process. These efforts have focused on the development and validation of high-fidelity physics-based numerical models for structural acoustic predictions into the kilohertz region. Finite element models were developed based on the geometric and material properties of the aircraft fuselage structures. Experimental modal analysis and point force frequency response functions were used to validate and refine the finite element models. Once validated, the finite element predictions of the velocity response were used as boundary condition input for boundary element predictions of the radiated sound power. Experiments in the Structural Acoustic Loads and transmission (SALT) Facility at NASA Langley were used to validate the acoustic predictions. Numerical and experimental results will be presented for conventional aluminum rib and stringer-stiffened aircraft structures, a honey comb composite sidewall panel, and damped acrylic windows. Numerical predictions were in good agreement with the experimental data.

Buehrle, Ralph; Klos, Jacob; Robinson, Jay; Grosveld, Ferdinand

2002-11-01

217

Altair Unmanned Aircraft System Achieves Demonstration Goals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the early morning of 15 November 2005, the unmanned Altair aircraft returned to Gray Butte Airfield, north of Los Angeles, Calif., after completing an 18.4-hour mission over the eastern Pacific Ocean. The flight was the last in a series undertaken by the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) in its Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Demonstration Project. The successful flight series has helped start the era of unmanned flights in service of environmental goals. Altair cruised at altitudes in the lower stratosphere (13 kilometers; ~43,000 feet), collecting atmospheric data with a 140-kilogram payload of both remote and in situ instruments. NOAA has recognized that UAS technology will improve its ability to meet scientific and operational objectives in the coming years. Operating sensor payloads on a UAS fleet could play a crucial role in the detection and attribution of climate change, improvement of weather predictions, management of water resources, monitoring and evaluation of ecosystems and sanctuaries, and atmospheric and oceanic research. UAS platforms have the potential to carry instrument payloads to remote locations in a manner that could not otherwise be achieved with conventionally piloted aircraft.

Fahey, David W.; Churnside, James H.; Elkins, James W.; Gasiewski, Albin J.; Rosenlof, Karen H.; Summers, Sara; Aslaksen, Michael; Jacobs, Todd A.; Sellars, Jon D.; Jennison, Christopher D.; Freudinger, Lawrence C.; Cooper, Michael

2006-05-01

218

Developments in Aircraft Structural Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An overview of recent and ongoing development in aircraft structural materials is given. In view of current and predicted usage the most important developments concern aluminum alloys and advanced composites. Developments in titanum alloys, high strength ...

R. J. H. Wanhill W. Vanderhoeven W. G. J. T. Hart

1979-01-01

219

Fluidic Emergency Thruster for Aircraft.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The design, development, fabrication and test evaluation of two prototype fluidic emergency thrusters (FET) for aircraft stabilization are discussed. The fluidic control units were designed to provide, between two diametrically opposed nozzles, a thrust d...

T. S. Honda

1972-01-01

220

Ground Aircraft Deicing Technology Review.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report provides a review and update of operational, procedural, and system information regarding on-ground deicing of aircraft prior to flight. It reflects current practices of the different segments of aviation with the preponderance of information ...

D. Mayer J. Michitsch R. Yu

1986-01-01

221

Aircraft Noise Study in Norway.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An extensive study of aircraft noise is currently being conducted in Oslo, Norway. The traffic at Oslo Airport Fornebu that includes both national and international flights, totals approximately 350 movements per day: 250 of these are regular scheduled fl...

T. T. Gjestland K. H. Liasjo H. E. Bohn

1990-01-01

222

Fire Resistant Aircraft Hydraulic System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document reports a study to select a nonflammable hydraulic fluid for possible use in future military aircraft in which the Halocarbon Products Corporation AO-8 chlorotrifluoroethylene (CTFE) fluid was selected as the most promising fluid which meets...

E. T. Raymond D. W. Huling R. L. Shick E. C. Wagner W. E. Willard

1982-01-01

223

Beamforming for aircraft noise measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phased array beamforming for aircraft noise source location has a long history, including early work on jet noise, wind tunnel measurements, and flyover testing. In the last 10 years, advancements in sparse 2-D and 3-D arrays, wind tunnel test techniques, and computer power have made phased array measurements almost common. Large aerospace companies and national research institutes have an advantage in access to major facilities and hundreds of measurement microphones, but universities and even consulting companies can perform tests with electret microphones and PC data acquisition systems. The type of testing remains a blend of science and art. A complex noise source is approximated by a mathematical model, and the microphones are deployed to evaluate the parameters of the model. For example, the simplest, but often the best, approach is to assume a distribution of mutually incoherent monopoles. This leads to an imaging process analogous to photography. Other models include coherent distributions of multipoles or duct modes. It is sometimes important to simulate the results that would have been obtained from single microphone measurements of part of the airplane in an ideal environment, had such measurements been feasible.

Dougherty, Robert P.

2003-10-01

224

Optimization of the UMTS Network Radio Coverage On-board an Aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a world where mobile connectivity has become a need, aircraft passengers still have limited access to communication services during the flight. Both industries and research communities have tried to solve this problem by applying a number of wireless access technologies within the cabin. However, these services are not currently available in commercial aircrafts, where the users have to spend

C. J. Debono; R. A. Farrugia

2008-01-01

225

The computer analysis of the prediction of aircraft electrical power supply system reliability  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the fast development of aviation technique, the requirements of the aircraft electrical power supply system reliability become much higher. In view of this, the reliability prediction method of simple systems can not meet the need of the research on modern aircraft electrical power supply systems. Therefore, the reliability prediction of complex systems by computers is significant. In this paper

Xinhua Mu; Yangguang Yan; Jibing Pen

1993-01-01

226

Advanced aircraft service life monitoring method via flight-by-flight load spectra  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research is an effort to understand current method and to propose an advanced method for Damage Tolerance Analysis (DTA) for the purpose of monitoring the aircraft service life. As one of tasks in the DTA, the current indirect Individual Aircraft Tracking (IAT) method for the F-16C\\/D Block 32 does not properly represent changes in flight usage severity affecting structural

Hongchul Lee

2009-01-01

227

FLIGHT DYNAMICS AND CONTROL OF AN AIRCRAFT WITH SEGMENTED CONTROL SURFACES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flight researchers are increasingly turning towards small, unmanned aircraft for achieving mission objectives. These aircraft are simple to operate and offer numerous advantages over larger manned vehicles. In addition to being light, inexpensive, and readily available, they are also more versatile in that they can be used for flight experiments that are either too risky or uncertain for a manned

Mujahid Abdulrahim

228

Nonlinear observer and controller design with actuator failure for one hypersonic aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

To solve the part of actuator failure problem, the hypersonic aircraft nonlinear observer and controller are designed synthetically. We develop the research model based on a SISO output feedback nonlinear unobserved minimum phase system under the condition of single channel actuator failure of the hypersonic aircraft, adopt K - filter to reconstruct state vectors, design the adaptive control law to

Chen Jie; Wu Jinhua; Song Zhaoqing

2010-01-01

229

Aircraft condensation hygrometer and some results of measuring humidity in the zone of the equatorial tropopause  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aircraft condensation hygrometer (ACH), previously used to measure humidity in the troposphere, has been significantly upgraded to be employed in operations in the upper troposphere and stratosphere on board the Russian research aircraft M-55 “Geophysika”. The use of a highly sensitive photodetector to observe the mirror fogging up has made it possible to extend the range of the frost-point

M. Yu Mezrin; E. V Starokoltsev

2001-01-01

230

A wide speed range permanent magnet generator for future embedded aircraft generation systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents recent research into the use of an embedded generation system as an alternative to the emergency ram air turbine on aircraft. The proposal being to utilise the windmill effect of the low pressure turbine of the main aircraft engine for emergency power generation. A novel topology of a high specific output AC permanent magnet generator is described

P. H. Mellor; S. G. Burrow; T. Sawata; M. Holme

2003-01-01

231

US Forest Service and National Park Service Wilderness Aircraft Overflight Study: Sociological background and study plans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The background and sociological aspects of the combined U.S. Forest Service and National Park Service Wilderness Aircraft Overflight Study (WACOS) are presented. The WACOS broaches a new area of research by combining aspects of outdoor recreation sociology and aircraft noise response studies. The tasks faced create new challenges and require innovative solutions. Background information on the WACOS is presented with

Robin T. Harrison; Lawrence Hartmann

1990-01-01

232

Electrical power distribution system based on 1553B bus for advanced aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel aeronautical electrical power distribution system based on 1553B bus is proposed in this paper with the analysis of aircraft electrical power distribution system structure. First, several control schemes such as CCS (centralized control system) are researched and the benefit of DCS (distributed control system) configuration is analyzed. Then according to the control flow of aircraft electrical power distribution

Fu Dafeng; Xing Yan; Yang Shanshui; Yan Yangguang

2005-01-01

233

Aircraft hydraulic systems. Third edition  

SciTech Connect

The first nine chapters concern hydraulic components including: tubing, hoses, fittings, seals, pumps, valves, cylinders, and motors. General hydraulic system considerations are included in chapters five and nine, while pneumatic systems are covered in chapter ten. Chapters eleven through fifteen are devoted to aircraft-specific systems such as: landing gear, flight controls, brakes, etc. The material is rounded out with excerpts from the Canadair Challenger 601 training guide to illustrate the use of hydraulic systems in a specific aircraft application.

Neese, W.A.

1991-12-31

234

75 FR 32315 - Airworthiness Directives; Various Aircraft Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engines  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...series engine installed in various aircraft does not have an engine type certificate...instead, the engine is part of the aircraft type design. You may obtain further information...Relevant Service Information Rotax Aircraft Engines has issued Service...

2010-06-08

235

75 FR 50865 - Airworthiness Directives; Various Aircraft Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engines  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...installed in various aircraft does not have an engine...engine is part of the aircraft type design. Comments We gave the...approved by the State of Design Authority (or their...20, 2007; and Rotax Aircraft Engines Service...

2010-08-18

236

Experimental determination of visibility modeling parameters for aircraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is presently engaged in research to quantify the visibility of aircraft under two important scenarios: aircraft observed directly by human operators in air traffic control towers (ATCT's), and aircraft observed by human operators through unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) sensors viewed through ground-based display systems. Previously, an ATCT visibility analysis software tool (FAA Vis) was developed by the U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL) in collaboration with the U.S. Army's Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate (NVESD) and the FAA. This tool predicts the probability of detection, recognition, and identification of various aircraft by human observers as a function of range and ATCT height. More recently, a baseline version of a UAV See-And- Avoid visibility analysis software tool was also developed by ARL, again in collaboration with NVESD and the FAA. Important to the calibration of these tools is the empirical determination of target discrimination difficulty criteria. Consequently, a set of human perception experiments were designed and conducted to empirically determine the target recognition and identification discrimination difficulty criteria for a representative set of aircraft. This paper will report on the results and analyses of those experiments.

Boettcher, Evelyn J.; Maurer, Tana; Murrill, Steven R.; Miller, Brian

2010-04-01

237

Effect of aircraft on ultraviolet radiation reaching the ground  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Changes in ozone levels for a range of scenarios, including those for present and projected future aircraft emissions and for present and future halogen loadings, are calculated using the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization two-dimensional chemical transport model. These changes are applied to measured ozone columns and vertical profiles based on measurements to produce vertical profiles of ozone for each scenario considered, which are traceable to measurements. A radiative transfer model is then used to investigate changes in biologically active radiation reaching the surface of the Earth resulting from current and future fleets of aircraft and those resulting from changing levels of halogen compounds in the atmosphere. It is shown that equal changes in ozone column for these scenarios do not produce equal changes in biologically weighted fluxes reaching the ground. This is because aircraft affect ozone mainly in the upper troposphere, whereas the effects of halogens are greatest in the middle and lower stratosphere. The magnitude of the ratio of the biologically weighted flux change to the ozone column change is greater for the case of the aircraft, due to the larger contribution to multiple scattering in the troposphere. For the same reason, projected fleets of supersonic aircraft are shown to have a smaller effect on UV radiation for a given change in ozone column than subsonic aircraft. While aerosols reduce the UV radiation reaching the ground for all scenarios investigated, they have minimal impact on the ratios of UV changes to ozone column changes because the bulk of the aerosol loading is below the altitudes where ozone changes due to aircraft or halogens occur.

Plumb, I. C.; Ryan, K. R.

1998-12-01

238

Progress towards the remote sensing of aircraft icing hazards  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA has teamed with the FAA, DoD, industry, and academia for research into the remote detection and measurement of atmospheric conditions leading to aircraft icing hazards. The ultimate goal of this effort is to provide pilots, controllers, and dispatchers sufficient information to allow aircraft to avoid or minimize their exposure to the hazards of in-flight icing. Since the hazard of in-flight icing is the outcome of aircraft flight through clouds containing supercooled liquid water and strongly influenced by the aircraft's speed and configuration and by the length of exposure, the hazard can't be directly detected, but must be inferred based upon the measurement of conducive atmospheric conditions. Therefore, icing hazard detection is accomplished through the detection and measurement of liquid water in regions of measured sub-freezing air temperatures. The icing environment is currently remotely measured from the ground with a system fusing radar, lidar, and multi-frequency microwave radiometer sensors. Based upon expected ice accretion severity for the measured environment, a resultant aircraft hazard is then calculated. Because of the power, size, weight, and view angle constraints of airborne platforms, the current ground-based solution is not applicable for flight. Two current airborne concepts are the use of either multi-frequency radiometers or multi-frequency radar. Both ground-based and airborne solutions are required for the future since ground-based systems can provide hazard detection for all aircraft in airport terminal regions while airborne systems will be needed to provide equipped aircraft with flight path coverage between terminal regions.

Reehorst, Andrew; Brinker, David; Politovich, Marcia; Serke, David; Ryerson, Charles; Pazmany, Andrew; Solheim, Frederick

2008-08-01

239

Chemical hazards in aeromedical aircraft.  

PubMed

Several potentially hazardous chemicals are required to make modern military aircraft fly. With each airevac mission, the possibility exists for structural failure of a fluid system, resulting in contamination to flight/medical crews, patients, and passengers. Aeromedical Evacuation Crewmembers (AECMs) need to be aware of the hazardous chemicals used in aircraft and areas where there is an increased risk to those in and around the aircraft. This study identified potential areas for chemical leakage, such as refuel receptacles, hydraulic reservoirs, hydraulic motors, doors, ramps, engines, and more. Further, it identified the basic first aid procedures to perform on people contaminated with jet fuel, hydraulic fluid, engine oil, fire extinguisher agents, LOX and other fluids. First aid procedures are basic and can be performed with supplies and equipment on a routine aeromedical evacuation mission, AECMs trained in a basic awareness of hazardous aircraft chemicals will result in crews better prepared to cope with the unique risks of transporting patients in a complicated military aircraft. PMID:2923600

Tupper, C R

1989-01-01

240

19 CFR 122.132 - Sealing of aircraft liquor kits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Sealing of aircraft liquor kits. 122.132 Section 122.132 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Liquor Kits § 122.132 Sealing of aircraft liquor kits. (a) Sealing required. Aircraft...

2013-04-01

241

19 CFR 122.132 - Sealing of aircraft liquor kits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Sealing of aircraft liquor kits. 122.132 Section 122.132 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Liquor Kits § 122.132 Sealing of aircraft liquor kits. (a) Sealing required. Aircraft...

2010-04-01

242

19 CFR 122.132 - Sealing of aircraft liquor kits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 false Sealing of aircraft liquor kits. 122.132 Section 122.132 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Liquor Kits § 122.132 Sealing of aircraft liquor kits. (a) Sealing required. Aircraft...

2009-04-01

243

14 CFR 47.51 - Triennial aircraft registration report.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Triennial aircraft registration report. 47.51 Section 47.51...AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRCRAFT REGISTRATION Certificates of Aircraft...

2010-01-01

244

14 CFR 47.61 - Dealer's Aircraft Registration Certificates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Dealer's Aircraft Registration Certificates. 47.61 Section 47...AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRCRAFT REGISTRATION Dealers' Aircraft Registration...

2013-01-01

245

14 CFR 47.33 - Aircraft not previously registered anywhere.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aircraft not previously registered anywhere. 47.33 Section...AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRCRAFT REGISTRATION Certificates of Aircraft...

2013-01-01

246

14 CFR 47.51 - Triennial aircraft registration report.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Triennial aircraft registration report. 47.51 Section 47.51...AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRCRAFT REGISTRATION Certificates of Aircraft...

2009-01-01

247

14 CFR 135.145 - Aircraft proving and validation tests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aircraft proving and validation tests. 135.145 Section...OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Aircraft and Equipment § 135.145 Aircraft proving...

2013-01-01

248

ROTARY WING AIRCRAFT WATER IMPACT TEST AND ANALYSES CORRELATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Naval Air Warfare Center, Aircraft Division (NAWCAD) in cooperation with the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is sponsoring a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Phase II program to investigate water impact dynamics relevant to DOD, DOT and industry. One of the primary objectives of the program is to develop analytical tools that can be used to facilitate the process of

Gil Wittlin; Mike Schultz; Michael R. Smith; Bell Helicopter

2000-01-01

249

NASA's Role in Aeronautics: A Workshop. Volume III - Transport Aircraft.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The central task of a 1980 workshop on the role of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in aeronautics was to examine the relationship of NASA's research capabilities to the state of U.S. aviation and to make recommendations about NASA's future role in aeronautics. The specific task of the Panel on Transport Aircraft was to…

National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Assembly of Engineering.

250

SOUND FROM A LIGHT AIRCRAFT FOR UNDERWATER ACOUSTICS APPLICATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A research programme is being conducted off the coast, north of La Jolla, southern California, USA, in which a single-engine, propeller-driven light aircraft acts as the source of sound in underwater acoustics experiments. Receivers are located in the atmosphere (a microphone about 1 m above the sea surface), in the 15 m deep water column (a vertical array of eight

Michael J. Buckingham; Eric M. Giddens; Fernando Simonet; Thomas R. Hahn

2002-01-01

251

Fuel Savings through Aircraft Modification: A Cost Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 2008 National Defense Authorization Act requires the Secretary of the Air Force to task a federally funded research and development center to conduct an engineering analysis on modifying KC-135R and KC-10 tanker aircraft with winglets and submit a rep...

R. P. Matherne

2009-01-01

252

Passive Gust Alleviation for a Flying Wing Aircraft.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This final report presents the work and results of a research project Passive Gust Alleviation for a Flying Wing Aircraft funded by EOARD/US AFRL (Contract FA8655-11-1-8073) from 26 Aug. 2011 to 24 Nov. 2012. In the project, an investigation was made into...

O. Sensburg S. Guo

2013-01-01

253

High Speed Hydraulic Starter Motor for Aircraft Auxiliary Power Unit.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this research program was to develop a vane type hydraulic starter motor for aircraft, high-speed, auxiliary power units. The goals were to achieve a starter cutoff speed of 50,000 RPM and an inlet pressure capability of 8000 PSIG maximum u...

H. T. Johnson N. F. Pedersen

1976-01-01

254

XV-15 Tiltrotor Aircraft: 1999 Acoustic Testing-Test Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes noise testing of the XV-15 tiltrotor aircraft conducted by NASA Langley Research Center (NASA LaRC) and Bell Helicopter Textron Incorporated (Bell) during October 1999 at Bells test site near Waxahachie, Texas. The test was the third...

B. D. Edwards D. A. Conner

2003-01-01

255

Safety management systems and safety culture in aircraft maintenance organisations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A self-regulatory model was proposed to examine how different organisations manage safety, with particular emphasis on the human and organisational aspects. The relationships of different aspects of safety culture and safety management systems were explored through the deployment of different research measures and methods. Studies of four aircraft maintenance organisations included analysis of documentation and qualitative interviews, surveys of safety

N McDonald; S Corrigan; C Daly; S Cromie

2000-01-01

256

The effect of interior aircraft noise on pilot performance.  

PubMed

This study examined the effect of the interior sounds of an aircraft cockpit on ratings of affect and expected performance decrement. While exposed to 12 interior aircraft sounds, of which half were modified to correspond to what is experienced with an active noise reduction (ANR) headset, 23 participants rated their affective reactions and how they believed their performance on various tasks would be affected. The results suggest that implementation of ANR-technique has a positive effect on ratings of expected performance. In addition, affective reactions to the noise are related to ratings of expected performance. The implications of these findings for both research and pilot performance are discussed. PMID:24032324

Lindvall, Johan; Västfjall, Daniel

2013-04-01

257

Soft Walls: Preventing the Use of Commercial Aircraft as Weapons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the hopes of preventing another terrorist attack like the ones of September 11, researchers at the University of California at Berkeley are developing an intelligent autopilot system for commercial aircraft. The system, dubbed Soft Walls, would activate whenever an aircraft approaches a designated no-fly zone. Using global positioning system technology, the autopilot would guide the plane around or away from restricted airspace. A few technical papers describing the Soft Walls concept and proposed implementation are available on its home page. For a more general overview of the project, several presentations and links to media coverage of Soft Walls are also provided.

258

A manpower scheduling heuristic for aircraft maintenance application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research studies a manpower scheduling for aircraft maintenance, focusing on in-flight food loading operation. A group of loading teams with flexible shifts is required to deliver and upload packaged meals from the ground kitchen to aircrafts in multiple trips. All aircrafts must be served within predefined time windows. The scheduling process takes into account of various constraints such as meal break allocation, multi-trip traveling and food exposure time limit. Considering the aircrafts movement and predefined maximum working hours for each loading team, the main objective of this study is to form an efficient roster by assigning a minimum number of loading teams to the aircrafts. We proposed an insertion based heuristic to generate the solutions in a short period of time for large instances. This proposed algorithm is implemented in various stages for constructing trips due to the presence of numerous constraints. The robustness and efficiency of the algorithm is demonstrated in computational results. The results show that the insertion heuristic more efficiently outperforms the company's current practice.

Sze, San-Nah; Sze, Jeeu-Fong; Chiew, Kang-Leng

2012-09-01

259

NASA's Research in Aircraft Vulnerability Mitigation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Since its inception in 1958, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA) role in civil aeronautics has been to develop high-risk, high-payoff technologies to meet critical national aviation challenges. Following the events of Sept. 11, 2001...

C. L. Allen

2005-01-01

260

Meteorological Quantities Measured by a Small Robotic Aircraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A robotic aircraft (Aerosonde) is proving its capabilities to make useful measurements in a range of conditions. Aerosonde is a small aircraft (15kg, 3m wingspan), developed for meteorological reconnaissance but is also adaptable for a range of compact payloads. This paper focuses on the meteorological parameters which are available from the Aerosonde sensors. As with any new monitoring platform, the quality of observations must be assessed. Programs to make intercomparisons with radiosonde ascents are an active component of this research program and as larger datasets become available, an accurate assessment of the performance of the Aerosonde platform can be made. The Aerosonde meteorological package consists of a combination of established technology for measurement of pressure temperature and humidity (Vaisala RS90), and GPS navigation, meaning that the aircraft can provide a range of meteorological information over remote regions. This paper shows some of the results of intercomparison experiments and examines the likely accuracy of some of the computed meteorological parameters.

Soddell, J.; McGuffie, K.

2001-12-01

261

Dynamics of Cables Towed from Aircraft.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes a 'lumped mass' computer simulation of a trailing wire system towed by an orbiting aircraft. The USAF U-10 aircraft flight conditions were used as applied to three flightpaths: constant altitude circular, constant altitude elliptical,...

J. G. R. Hansen S. A. Crist

1972-01-01

262

Emerging NDE Technology for aging aircraft.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper presents an overview of several emerging nondestructive evaluation technologies that are being employed or considered for use to inspect commercial transport, commuter aircraft and military aircraft. An overview of the Federal Aviation Administ...

D. G. Moore R. L. Perry

1998-01-01

263

Airframe Certification Methods for Unmanned Aircraft.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The application of conventional structural certification methods to unmanned aircraft can lead to unacceptably long development times and costs that are out of line with the development costs for the airframe. The aircraft development community needs a di...

C. R. Saff

2006-01-01

264

Leases and Demonstrations of DOD Aircraft.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Instruction establishes the Department of Defense policy and procedures for the leasing of DoD aircraft by the Military Departments to manufacturers for sales demonstrations, and the demonstration of DoD aircraft to foreign governments.

G. Sevier

1976-01-01

265

47 CFR 32.6113 - Aircraft expense.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Accounts § 32.6113 Aircraft expense. (a) This account shall include such costs as aircraft fuel, flight crews, mechanics and ground crews, licenses and inspection fees, washing, repainting, and minor accessories. (b) Credits...

2011-10-01

266

47 CFR 32.6113 - Aircraft expense.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Accounts § 32.6113 Aircraft expense. (a) This account shall include such costs as aircraft fuel, flight crews, mechanics and ground crews, licenses and inspection fees, washing, repainting, and minor accessories. (b) Credits...

2012-10-01

267

Photographic Measurements of USAF Aircraft Plume Rise.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report includes data and results which were obtained during plume rise experimentation. Aircraft plumes were photographed using the smoke-producing F-102 drones, and Thunderbird T-38 aircraft. The second set of experiments indicated that, under low w...

P. D. Music J. S. Hunt D. F. Naugle

1977-01-01

268

Improved Methodology For Advanced Aircraft Design.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A set of related topics address aircraft that are significantly different from traditional aircraft. All of the effort relied upon multidisciplinary analysis tools, including finite element modeling, computational aerodynamic prediction, and aeroelastic a...

W. A. Crossley

2004-01-01

269

14 CFR 34.6 - Aircraft safety.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT FUEL VENTING AND EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE ENGINE POWERED AIRPLANES General Provisions § 34.6 Aircraft safety. (a) The provisions of this part will...

2013-01-01

270

Crashworthiness Analysis of Commuter Aircraft Seats.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During the past several years, the Federal Aviation Regulations (FAR) have been significantly modified with respect to seat/restraint system strength, attachment of seats to the aircraft structure, and the means by which they are to be evaluated. Aircraft...

D. H. Laananen

1993-01-01

271

Modelling UHF Antenna Coupling on Aircraft.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Antenna coupling is of particular interest on aircraft where the structure interacts with the antenna arrays. These arrays may be extremely complex as new electronic countermeasures and signal intelligence systems are added to aircraft. The thesis attempt...

R. E. Koehler

1975-01-01

272

Lightning Effects on General Aviation Aircraft.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To determine the actual lightning vulnerability of typical light aircraft systems and components, and demonstrate the required vulnerability assessment techniques, analyses and laboratory tests were performed on several typical light aircraft and some of ...

J. A. Plumer

1973-01-01

273

Schedule B-43 Aircraft Inventory, 2008.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The inventory lists, in tabular form: Year aircraft was placed in service; serial number; tail number; aircraft status; operating status; number of seats; maker; model; capacity in pounds; and acquisition date.

2008-01-01

274

Aircraft Tire/Pavement Pressure Distribution.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents tire/pavement pressure distributions calculated for seven different aircraft tires. The tires are main gear equipment on a variety of Air Force aircraft. The calculations were made with a finite element tire model developed previously...

J. T. Tielking

1989-01-01

275

50 CFR 27.34 - Aircraft.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Violations: With Vehicles § 27.34 Aircraft. The unauthorized operation of aircraft, including sail planes, and hang gliders, at altitudes resulting in harassment of wildlife, or the unauthorized landing or take-off on a national...

2009-10-01

276

50 CFR 27.34 - Aircraft.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Violations: With Vehicles § 27.34 Aircraft. The unauthorized operation of aircraft, including sail planes, and hang gliders, at altitudes resulting in harassment of wildlife, or the unauthorized landing or take-off on a national...

2010-10-01

277

Cabin cruising altitudes for regular transport aircraft.  

PubMed

The adverse physiological effects of flight, caused by ascent to altitude and its associated reduction in barometric pressure, have been known since the first manned balloon flights in the 19th century. It soon became apparent that the way to protect the occupant of an aircraft from the effects of ascent to altitude was to enclose either the individual, or the cabin, in a sealed or pressurized environment. Of primary concern in commercial airline transport operations is the selection of a suitable cabin pressurization schedule that assures adequate oxygen partial pressures for all intended occupants. For the past several decades, 8000 ft has been accepted as the maximum operational cabin pressure altitude in the airline industry. More recent research findings on the physiological and psycho-physiological effects of mild hypoxia have provided cause for renewed discussion of the "acceptability" of a maximum cabin cruise altitude of 8000 ft; however, we did not find sufficient scientific data to recommend a change in the cabin altitude of transport category aircraft. The Aerospace Medical Association (AsMA) should support further research to evaluate the safety, performance and comfort of occupants at altitudes between 5000 and 10,000 ft. PMID:18457303

2008-04-01

278

Multi-aircraft dynamics, navigation and operation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Air traffic control stands on the brink of a revolution. Fifty years from now, we will look back and marvel that we ever flew by radio beacons and radar alone, much as we now marvel that early aviation pioneers flew by chronometer and compass alone. The microprocessor, satellite navigation systems, and air-to-air data links are the technical keys to this revolution. Many airports are near or at capacity now for at least portions of the day, making it clear that major increases in airport capacity will be required in order to support the projected growth in air traffic. This can be accomplished by adding airports, adding runways at existing airports, or increasing the capacity of the existing runways. Technology that allows use of ultra closely spaced (750 ft to 2500 ft) parallel approaches would greatly reduce the environmental impact of airport capacity increases. This research tackles the problem of multi aircraft dynamics, navigation, and operation, specifically in the terminal area, and presents new findings on how ultra closely spaced parallel approaches may be accomplished. The underlying approach considers how multiple aircraft are flown in visual conditions, where spacing criteria is much less stringent, and then uses this data to study the critical parameters for collision avoidance during an ultra closely spaced parallel approach. Also included is experimental and analytical investigations on advanced guidance systems that are critical components of precision approaches. Together, these investigations form a novel approach to the design and analysis of parallel approaches for runways spaced less than 2500 ft apart. This research has concluded that it is technically feasible to reduce the required runway spacing during simultaneous instrument approaches to less than the current minimum of 3400 ft with the use of advanced navigation systems while maintaining the currently accepted levels of safety. On a smooth day with both pilots flying a tunnel-in-the-sky display and being guided by a Category I LAAS, it is technically feasible to reduce the runway spacing to 1100 ft. If a Category I LAAS and an "intelligent auto-pilot" that executes both the approach and emergency escape maneuver are used, the technically achievable required runway spacing is reduced to 750 ft. Both statements presume full aircraft state information, including position, velocity, and attitude, is being reliably passed between aircraft at a rate equal to or greater than one Hz.

Houck, Sharon Wester

279

Aircraft aerodynamic noise during approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of approach velocity, nose and flap inclination, and undercarriage position on aircraft noise was studied. The A 300 B and SN 601 aircraft made two approach passes over a chain of noise recorders. The sound fields and noise spectra show that increasing the speed and flap angle or lowering the undercarriage produces a general increase in noise level such that the directivity of the aerodynamic noise source is hardly changed. All noise spectra increase. Pure frequencies (400 to 500 Hz) accompany flap deployment for the SN 601.

Parant, J. L.

280

Modeling aircraft noise induced sleep disturbance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the primary impacts of aircraft noise on a community is its disruption of sleep. Aircraft noise increases the time to fall asleep, the number of awakenings, and decreases the amount of rapid eye movement and slow wave sleep. Understanding these changes in sleep may be important as they could increase the risk for developing next-day effects such as sleepiness and reduced performance and long-term health effects such as cardiovascular disease. There are models that have been developed to predict the effect of aircraft noise on sleep. However, most of these models only predict the percentage of the population that is awakened. Markov and nonlinear dynamic models have been developed to predict an individual's sleep structure during the night. However, both of these models have limitations. The Markov model only accounts for whether an aircraft event occurred not the noise level or other sound characteristics of the event that may affect the degree of disturbance. The nonlinear dynamic models were developed to describe normal sleep regulation and do not have a noise effects component. In addition, the nonlinear dynamic models have slow dynamics which make it difficult to predict short duration awakenings which occur both spontaneously and as a result of nighttime noise exposure. The purpose of this research was to examine these sleep structure models to determine how they could be altered to predict the effect of aircraft noise on sleep. Different approaches for adding a noise level dependence to the Markov Model was explored and the modified model was validated by comparing predictions to behavioral awakening data. In order to determine how to add faster dynamics to the nonlinear dynamic sleep models it was necessary to have a more detailed sleep stage classification than was available from visual scoring of sleep data. An automatic sleep stage classification algorithm was developed which extracts different features of polysomnography data including the occurrence of rapid eye movements, sleep spindles, and slow wave sleep. Using these features an approach for classifying sleep stages every one second during the night was developed. From observation of the results of the sleep stage classification, it was determined how to add faster dynamics to the nonlinear dynamic model. Slow and fast REM activity are modeled separately and the activity in the gamma frequency band of the EEG signal is used to model both spontaneous and noise-induced awakenings. The nonlinear model predicts changes in sleep structure similar to those found by other researchers and reported in the sleep literature and similar to those found in obtained survey data. To compare sleep disturbance model predictions, flight operations data from US airports were obtained and sleep disturbance in communities was predicted for different operations scenarios using the modified Markov model, the nonlinear dynamic model, and other aircraft noise awakening models. Similarities and differences in model predictions were evaluated in order to determine if the use of the developed sleep structure model leads to improved predictions of the impact of nighttime noise on communities.

McGuire, Sarah M.

281

Method and apparatus for monitoring aircraft components  

DOEpatents

Operability of aircraft mechanical components is monitored by analyzing the voltage output of an electrical generator of the aircraft. Alternative generators, for a turbine-driven rotor aircraft, include the gas producer turbine tachometer generator, the power turbine tachometer generator, and the aircraft systems power producing starter/generator. Changes in the peak amplitudes of the fundamental frequency and its harmonics are correlated to changes in condition of the mechanical components.

Dickens, Larry M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Haynes, Howard D. (Knoxville, TN); Ayers, Curtis W. (Clinton, TN)

1996-01-01

282

Multidisciplinary design optimization of low-noise transport aircraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this research is to examine how to design low-noise transport aircraft using Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MDO). The subject is approached by designing for low-noise both implicitly and explicitly. The explicit design approach involves optimizing an aircraft while explicitly constraining the noise level. An MDO framework capable of optimizing both a cantilever wing and a Strut-Braced-Wing (SBW) aircraft was developed. The objective is to design aircraft for low-airframe-noise at the approach conditions and quantify the change in weight and performance with respect to a traditionally designed aircraft. The results show that reducing airframe noise by reducing approach speed alone, will not provide significant noise reduction without a large performance and weight penalty. Therefore, more dramatic changes to the aircraft design are needed to achieve a significant airframe noise reduction. Another study showed that the trailing-edge flap can be eliminated, as well as all the noise associated with that device, without incurring a significant weight and performance penalty. Lastly, an airframe noise analysis showed that a SBW aircraft with short fuselage-mounted landing gear could have a similar or potentially a lower airframe noise level than a comparable cantilever wing aircraft. The implicit design approach involves selecting a configuration that supports a low-noise operation, and optimizing for performance. In this study a Blended-Wing-Body (BWB) transport aircraft, with a conventional and a distributed propulsion system, was optimized for minimum take-off gross weight. The effects of distributed propulsion were studied using an MDO framework previously developed at Virginia Tech. The results show that more than two thirds of the theoretical savings of distributed propulsion are required for the BWB designs with a distributed propulsion system to have comparable gross weight as those with a conventional propulsion system. Therefore, although a significant weight penalty is associated with the distributed propulsion system presented in this study, other characteristics need to be considered when evaluating the overall effects. Potential benefits of distributed propulsion are, for example, reduced propulsion system noise, improved safety due to engine redundancy, a less critical engine-out condition, gust load/flutter alleviation, and increased affordability due to smaller, easily-interchangeable engines.

Leifsson, Leifur Thor

283

Proceedings of the International Workshop on inspection and evaluation of aging aircraft  

SciTech Connect

Economics is the key issue in a discussion on the inspection of aging aircraft. The airline industry has taken heavy losses resulting in layoffs and bankruptcies in recent years. Improving air service to customers is the ultimate reason for conducting research on the effects of aging on aircraft, but cost must be taken into account for the effective implementation of inspection programs. These papers present state of the art research to predict, detect, define, and correct the effects of age and usage on the metals and materials used in construction of aircraft and powerplants. Individual papers are abstracted separately.

Not Available

1993-07-01

284

Proceedings of the International Workshop on inspection and evaluation of aging aircraft  

SciTech Connect

Economics is the key issue in a discussion on the inspection of aging aircraft. The airline industry has taken heavy losses resulting in layoffs and bankruptcies in recent years. Improving air service to customers is the ultimate reason for conducting research on the effects of aging on aircraft, but cost must be taken into account for the effective implementation of inspection programs. These papers present state of the art research to predict, detect, define, and correct the effects of age and usage on the metals and materials used in construction of aircraft and powerplants. Individual papers are abstracted separately.

Not Available

1993-01-01

285

The ARCTAS aircraft mission: design and execution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an overview of the NASA Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS) mission, conducted in two 3-week deployments based in Alaska (April 2008) and western Canada (June-July 2008). The goal of ARCTAS was to better understand the factors driving current changes in Arctic atmospheric composition and climate, including (1) transport of mid-latitude pollution, (2) boreal forest fires, (3) aerosol radiative forcing, and (4) chemical processes. ARCTAS involved three aircraft: a DC-8 with detailed chemical payload, a P-3 with extensive aerosol payload, and a B-200 with aerosol remote sensing instrumentation. The aircraft augmented satellite observations of Arctic atmospheric composition, in particular from the NASA A-Train, by (1) validating the data, (2) improving constraints on retrievals, (3) making correlated observations, and (4) characterizing chemical and aerosol processes. The April flights (ARCTAS-A) sampled pollution plumes from all three mid-latitude continents, fire plumes from Siberia and Southeast Asia, and halogen radical events. The June-July flights (ARCTAS-B) focused on boreal forest fire influences and sampled fresh fire plumes from northern Saskatchewan as well as older fire plumes from Canada, Siberia, and California. The June-July deployment was preceded by one week of flights over California sponsored by the California Air Resources Board (ARCTAS-CARB). The ARCTAS-CARB goals were to (1) improve state emission inventories for greenhouse gases and aerosols, (2) provide observations to test and improve models of ozone and aerosol pollution. Extensive sampling across southern California and the Central Valley characterized emissions from urban centers, offshore shipping lanes, agricultural crops, feedlots, industrial sources, and wildfires.

Jacob, D. J.; Crawford, J. H.; Maring, H. B.; Clarke, A. D.; Dibb, J. E.; Ferrare, R. A.; Hostetler, C. A.; Russell, P. B.; Singh, H. B.; Thompson, A. M.; Shaw, G. E.; McCauley, E.; Pederson, J. R.; Fisher, J. A.

2009-12-01

286

The ARCTAS aircraft mission: design and execution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NASA Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS) mission was conducted in two 3-week deployments based in Alaska (April 2008) and western Canada (June-July 2008). The goal of ARCTAS was to better understand the factors driving current changes in Arctic atmospheric composition and climate, including (1) transport of mid-latitude pollution, (2) boreal forest fires, (3) aerosol radiative forcing, and (4) chemical processes. ARCTAS involved three aircraft: a DC-8 with detailed chemical payload, a P-3 with extensive aerosol payload, and a B-200 with aerosol remote sensing instrumentation. The aircraft augmented satellite observations of Arctic atmospheric composition, in particular from the NASA A-Train, by (1) validating the data, (2) improving constraints on retrievals, (3) making correlated observations, and (4) characterizing chemical and aerosol processes. The April flights (ARCTAS-A) sampled pollution plumes from all three mid-latitude continents, fire plumes from Siberia and Southeast Asia, and halogen radical events. The June-July flights (ARCTAS-B) focused on boreal forest fire influences and sampled fresh fire plumes from northern Saskatchewan as well as older fire plumes from Canada, Siberia, and California. The June-July deployment was preceded by one week of flights over California sponsored by the California Air Resources Board (ARCTAS-CARB). The ARCTAS-CARB goals were to (1) improve state emission inventories for greenhouse gases and aerosols, (2) provide observations to test and improve models of ozone and aerosol pollution. Extensive sampling across southern California and the Central Valley characterized emissions from urban centers, offshore shipping lanes, agricultural crops, feedlots, industrial sources, and wildfires.

Jacob, D. J.; Crawford, J. H.; Maring, H.; Clarke, A. D.; Dibb, J. E.; Ferrare, R. A.; Hostetler, C. A.; Russell, P. B.; Singh, H. B.; Thompson, A. M.; Shaw, G. E.; McCauley, E.; Pederson, J. R.; Fisher, J. A.

2009-08-01

287

New Nondestructive Techniques for the Detection and Quantification of Corrosion in Aircraft Structures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An overview is presented of several techniques under development at NASA Langley Research Center for detection and quantification of corrosion in aircraft structures. The techniques have been developed as part of the NASA Airframe Structural Integrity Pro...

W. P. Winfree K. E. Cramer P. H. Johnston M. Namkung

1995-01-01

288

Overview of the Crash Dynamics Failure Behavior of Metal and Composite Aircraft Structures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An overview of failure behavior results is presented from some of the crash dynamics research conducted with concepts of aircraft elements and substructure not necessarily designed or optimized for energy absorption or crash loading considerations. Experi...

H. D. Carden R. L. Boitnott E. L. Fasanella L. E. Jones

1991-01-01

289

Integration, Testing, and Validation of a Small Hybrid-Electric Remotely-Piloted Aircraft.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Parallel hybrid-electric technology offers a wide variety of new mission capabilities including low-observable loiter operations and increased fuel efficiency for small remotely-piloted aircraft. This research focused on the integration, validation, and t...

J. K. Ausserer

2012-01-01

290

Environmental Degradation and Fatigue in Aircraft Structures: The Relationship Between Environmental Duty and Component Life.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A University Research Initiative, the objective of which was to develop a methodology for the detection, evaluation, and quantification of the effect of environmental degradation on the life of aircraft components. The program combined laboratory based me...

L. W. Hobbs R. C. Lanza R. G. Ballinger R. M. Latanision

1997-01-01

291

US Forest Service and National Park Service Wilderness Aircraft Overflight Study: Sociological Background and Study Plans.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The background and sociological aspects of the combined U.S. Forest Service and National Park Service Wilderness Aircraft Overflight Study (WACOS) are presented. The WACOS broaches a new area of research by combining aspects of outdoor recreation sociolog...

R. T. Harrison L. Hartmann

1990-01-01

292

Performance and Environmental Assessment of an Advanced Aircraft with Open Rotor Propulsion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Application of high speed, advanced turboprops, or propfans, to transonic transport aircraft received significant attention during the 1970s and 1980s when fuel efficiency was the driving focus of aeronautical research. Unfortunately, after fuel prices de...

E. S. Hendricks J. J. Berton M. D. Guynn M. T. Tong W. J. Haller

2012-01-01

293

Cognitive failure analysis for aircraft accident investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present studies were undertaken to investigate the applicability of an information processing approach to human failure in the aircraft cockpit. Using data obtained from official aircraft accident investigation reports, a database of accidents and incidents involving New Zealand civil aircraft between 1982 and 1991 was compiled. In the first study, reports were coded into one of three error stages

DAVID OHARE; MARK WIGGINS; RICHARD BATT; DIANNE MORRISON

1994-01-01

294

COMBAT AIRCRAFT AGILITY METRICS - A REVIEW  

Microsoft Academic Search

With changing combat environments, traditional measures of merit for fighter aircraft per- formance have largely proved insufficient to analyze combat capability. Combat experience has shown that the upper hand lies with an aircraft that has superior maneuverability across a large part of the flight regime. Agility metrics have come to provide a tool that would be capable of evaluating aircraft

Aditya A. Paranjape; N. Ananthkrishnan

295

Aircraft Landing Gear Dynamics: Simulation and Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The landing gear is an inevitable system for the aircraft. It absorbs the energy of the landing impact and carries the aircraft weight at all ground operations, including take off, taxiing, and towing. Numerical simulation has become an invaluable tool for the assessment of landing gear dynamics as well as of aircraft\\/landing gear interaction. This paper gives an overview of

W. KRÜGER; I. BESSELINK; D. COWLING; D. B. DOAN; W. KORTÜM; W. KRABACHER

1997-01-01

296

Robotic sensors for aircraft paint stripping  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aircraft of all types need to have paint routinely removed from their outer surfaces. Any method needs to be controlled to remove all the paint and not damage the surface of the aircraft. Human operators get bored with the monotonous task of stripping paint from an aircraft and thus do not control the process very well. This type of tedious

Richard J. Weniger

1990-01-01

297

14 CFR 21.127 - Tests: aircraft.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Tests: aircraft. 21.127 Section 21.127 Aeronautics...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS...Type Certificate § 21.127 Tests: aircraft. (a) Each person...

2013-01-01

298

Electromagnetic backscattering from aircraft propeller blades  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper gives a theoretical solution to the problem of determining the electromagnetic backscattering and Doppler spectrum of an aircraft propeller as presented to a radar operating in the 8-12 GHz band. At this band for all practical aircraft propeller the electromagnetic backscattering regime is in the optical region. The solution proceeds by modeling the aircraft propeller as a set

S. Y. Yang; S. M. Yeh; S. S. Bor; S. R. Huang; C. C. Hwang

1997-01-01

299

Annoyance caused by aircraft en route noise  

Microsoft Academic Search

A laboratory experiment was conducted to quantify the annoyance response of people on the ground to enroute noise generated by aircraft at cruise conditions. The en route noises were ground level recordings of eight advanced turboprop aircraft flyovers and six conventional turbofan flyovers. The eight advanced turboprop enroute noises represented the NASA Propfan Test Assessment aircraft operating at different combinations

David A. McCurdy

1992-01-01

300

Polar stratospheric clouds observed during the Airborne Polar Experiment–Geophysica Aircraft in Antarctica (APE-GAIA) campaign  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, observations of polar stratospheric clouds (PSC) carried out during one flight of the stratospheric research aircraft Geophysica deployed in the Airborne Polar Experiment–Geophysica Aircraft in Antarctica (APE-GAIA) campaign in September–October 1999 are presented. An analysis of data from the two lidars and a backscatter sonde on board the Geophysica aircraft is presented, coupled with temperature measurements. The

Francesco Cairo; Alberto Adriani; Maurizio Viterbini; Guido Di Donfrancesco; Valentin Mitev; Renaud Matthey; Maurizio Bastiano; Gianluca Redaelli; Rossana Dragani; Rossella Ferretti; Vincenzo Rizi; Tiziana Paolucci; Livio Bernardini; Marco Cacciani; Giandomenico Pace; Giorgio Fiocco

2004-01-01

301

Research and Development of Aircraft Control Actuation Systems. The Development of a Flight Control System Simulator, Research on a Control Surface Flutter Suppression Technique and High Temperature Testing of Mil-H-83282.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents the results of the following three research and development activities: the design, fabrication and test of a multi-channel flight control system hybrid simulator; the analysis and application of a flutter damping technique for hydrau...

G. D. Jenney

1975-01-01

302

HASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 62. The Influence of Knowledge Diffusion on Aeronautics Innovation: The Research, Development, and Production of Large Commercial Aircraft in France, Germany, and the United Kingdom.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper focuses on how European public policies-individually and collectively-influence the diffusion of knowledge and technology. It begins with an overview of the roles played historically and currently by European governments in the research, develo...

V. L. Golich T. E. Pinelli

1997-01-01

303

Adaptive structural systems and compliant skin technology of morphing aircraft structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Morphing aircraft design - the design of aircraft capable of macroscale shape change for drastic in-flight performance variation - is an extremely broad and underdefined field. Two primary means of developing new concepts in morphing exist at Cornell University: design of broad test platforms with generalized motions that can provide future insight into targeted ideas, and specifically adapted aircraft and shape change mechanisms attempting to accomplish a particular task, or hybridize two existing aircraft platforms. Working with both schools of thought, Cornell research has developed a number of useful concepts that are currently under independent analysis and experimentation, including three devices capable of drastically modifying wing structure on a testbed aircraft. Additional concerns that have arisen include the desire to implement ornithological concepts such as perching and wingtip control, as well as the necessity for a compliant aerodynamic skin for producing flight-worthy structural mechanisms.

Manzo, Justin; Garcia, Ephrahim; Wickenheiser, Adam M.; Horner, Garnett C.

2004-07-01

304

Dehydrated Soups for USAF Aircraft.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Laboratory tests were conducted on dehydrated soups for the development of soups for use aboard aircraft operating above 15,240 meters (50,000 feet). These tests involved storage studies on seven different commercially available soups after repacking in f...

H. Gorfien A. R. Rahman E. M. Powers D. E. Westcott

1974-01-01

305

Visualization for multiparameter aircraft designs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe an aircraft design problem in high dimen- sional space, with D typically being 10 to 30. In some respects this is a classic optimization problem, where the goal is to find the point that minimizes an objective function while satisfying a set of constraints. However, evaluating an individual point is expensive, and the high dimensionality makes many approaches

Clifford A. Shaffer; Duane L. Knill; Layne T. Watson

1998-01-01

306

Computational Aerodynamics for Aircraft Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article outlines some of the principal issues in the development of numerical methods for the prediction of flows over aircraft and their use in the design process. These include the choice of an appropriate mathematical model, the design of shock-capturing algorithms, the treatment of complex geometric configurations, and shape modifications to optimize the aerodynamic performance.

Antony Jameson

1989-01-01

307

Submersible Aircraft Concept Design Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The submersible aircraft study combines the speed and range of an airborne platform with the stealth of an underwater vehicle by developing a vessel that can both fly and submerge. The study explores the feasibility of a design capable of insertion and ex...

J. Eastgate R. Goddard

2010-01-01

308

Development of Aircraft Brake Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The requirements of brake materials were outlined and a survey made to select materials to meet the needs of high temperature brakes. A number of metals and ceramic materials were selected and evaluated in sliding tests which simulated aircraft braking. N...

T. L. Ho M. B. Peterson

1974-01-01

309

Lightning Stroke Damage to Aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes a series of tests made in the period 1938 to 1942 to determine in the laboratory the effects of lightning strokes on the safe operation of aircraft. Due to wartime restrictions, publication was deferred. Investigated were: the burning of holes in the metal skin of planes and other metallic parts of planes; damage to airplane fuel tanks;

J. H. Hagenguth

1949-01-01

310

System design and aircraft integration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Integrated Helmet Audio/Visual System (IHAVS) suite is composed of the GEC Helmet Mounted Display (HMD), Armstrong Labs 3-D Audio system, Polhemus Head Tracker (HT) and SMiths Interactive Voice Module (IVM). The LORAL NITE Hawk Targeting Self Cooled IR pod (TFLIR) was added, supplementing the IHAVS for off-boresight target management. The lightweight HMD generates a high resolution visor projected display. Symbology displayed within the binocular and fully overlapped 40 degree field of view presents aircraft moding, navigation, weapon delivery, and threat data to the pilot. The 3-D Audio system generates four audio cues localized to within 10 degrees of the commanded position. THe specialized headset localizes TFLIR position and threat audio cues. The HT system provides helmet position to the aircraft, the HMD and 3-D Audio system. Twelve IVM digital voice output reports aircraft status. The T/AV-8B aircraft and avionics architecture are discussed laying the foundation for the described integration of the IHAVS suite. Integrated together, these systems provide the pilot with greatly increased field of regard for target recognition, designation and attack. Tightly coupled to the IHAVS suite, the TFLIR allows off-boresight target management and the field of regard is well matched and complements the IHAVS.

Flint, John R.

1996-06-01

311

The cleveland aircraft fire tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

On June 30 and July 1, 1966, tests were conducted to evaluate high expansion foam’s ability to extend the time for which an\\u000a aircraft passenger cabin environment would remain survivable during a post-crash five. While some results tend to confirm\\u000a those of similar tests, others may shed new light on the problem.

James J. Brenneman; Captain Donald A. Heine

1968-01-01

312

CFD for hypersonic airbreathing aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

A general discussion is given on the use of advanced computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in analyzing the hypersonic flow field around an airbreathing aircraft. Unique features of the hypersonic flow physics are presented and an assessment is given of the current algorithms in terms of their capability to model hypersonic flows. Several examples of advanced CFD applications are then presented.

Ajay Kumar

1989-01-01

313

Aircraft Icing Handbook (1993 Update).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The first update of the Aircraft Icing Handbook does not change the organization of the handbook into volumes and chapters as delineated on page vii. However, new sections have been added to Chapter III - Ice Protection Methods. Section 1.0 no longer cont...

1993-01-01

314

Disturbance Caused by Aircraft Noise.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Noise pollution caused by the presence of airfields adjacent to residential areas is studied. Noise effects on the sleep of residents near airports and the degree of the residents noise tolerance are evaluated. What aircraft noises are annoying and to wha...

R. Josse

1980-01-01

315

NASA Now Minute: Model Aircraft  

NASA Video Gallery

In this episode of NASA Now, Sam James discusses why NASA engineers build model aircraft as well as the materials and steps involved in the building process. NASA Now Minutes are excerpts from a weekly current events program available for classroom use at the NASA Explorer Schools Virtual Campus located at: › http://explorerschools.nasa.gov.

Heather Deiss

2012-05-29

316

Aircraft Mechanics: Scope and Sequence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This scope and sequence guide, developed for an aircraft mechanics vocational education program, represents an initial step in the development of a systemwide articulated curriculum sequence for all vocational programs within the Metropolitan Nashville Public School System. It was developed as a result of needs expressed by teachers, parents, and…

Nashville - Davidson County Metropolitan Public Schools, TN.

317

Survey of contemporary aircraft flight dynamics models for use in airspace simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of the development of any computer simulation of procedures, equipment, or airspace, an appropriate model of aircraft must be selected. Due to the complexity and aviation safety-critical nature of these development efforts, a detailed survey of the current state-of-the-art in aircraft flight dynamic models is desired. Options include basic 3-D performance envelopes of various aircraft (e.g., acceleration, deceleration, turn rate, and climb rate), high-fidelity models (e.g., proprietary aircraft manufacturer models), commercial-off-the-shelf models (e.g., Laminar Research's X-Plane and Microsoft's Flight Simulator), Government models (e.g., NASA or FAA), and originally developed six degree-of-freedom mathematical models. Here, the simple kinematics model (using basic kinematic relationships without considering the impact of aerodynamics), the small perturbation theory model (which uses only the known, non-dimensional aerodynamic properties of the aircraft), the total forces and moments method (which solves the complete set of nonlinear differential equations and requiring large tables describing aircraft parameters in different flight regimes), and blade element theory (which makes use of the aircraft's physical structure to calculate the aerodynamic forces and moments on thin strips of the aircraft) are reviewed.

McGovern, Seamus M.; Cohen, Seth B.

2007-05-01

318

A review of in-flight detection and identification of aircraft icing and reconfigurable control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent improvements and research on aviation have focused on the subject of aircraft safe flight even in the severe weather conditions. As one type of such weather conditions, aircraft icing considerably has negative effects on the aircraft flight performance. The risks of the iced aerodynamic surfaces of the flying aircraft have been known since the beginning of the first flights. Until recent years, as a solution for this event, the icing conditions ahead flight route are estimated from radars or other environmental sensors, hence flight paths are changed, or, if it exists, anti-icing/de-icing systems are used.This work aims at the detection and identification of airframe icing based on statistical properties of aircraft dynamics and reconfigurable control protecting aircraft from hazardous icing conditions.In this review paper, aircraft icing identification based on neural network (NN), batch least-squares algorithm, Kalman filtering (KF), combined NN/KF, and H? parameter identification techniques are investigated, and compared with each other. Following icing identification, reconfigurable control is applied for protecting the aircraft from hazardous icing conditions.

Caliskan, Fikret; Hajiyev, Chingiz

2013-07-01

319

Survival analysis of aging aircraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study pushes systems engineering of aging aircraft beyond the boundaries of empirical and deterministic modeling by making a sharp break with the traditional laboratory-derived corrosion prediction algorithms that have shrouded real-world failures of aircraft structure. At the heart of this problem is the aeronautical industry's inability to be forthcoming in an accurate model that predicts corrosion failures in aircraft in spite of advances in corrosion algorithms or improvements in simulation and modeling. The struggle to develop accurate corrosion probabilistic models stems from a multitude of real-world interacting variables that synergistically influence corrosion in convoluted and complex ways. This dissertation, in essence, offers a statistical framework for the analysis of structural airframe corrosion failure by utilizing real-world data while considering the effects of interacting corrosion variables. This study injects realism into corrosion failures of aging aircraft systems by accomplishing four major goals related to the conceptual and methodological framework of corrosion modeling. First, this work connects corrosion modeling from the traditional, laboratory derived algorithms to corrosion failures in actual operating aircraft. This work augments physics-based modeling by examining the many confounding and interacting variables, such as environmental, geographical and operational, that impact failure of airframe structure. Examined through the lens of censored failure data from aircraft flying in a maritime environment, this study enhances the understanding between the triad of the theoretical, laboratory and real-world corrosion. Secondly, this study explores the importation and successful application of an advanced biomedical statistical tool---survival analysis---to model censored corrosion failure data. This well-grounded statistical methodology is inverted from a methodology that analyzes survival to one that examines failures. Third, this work demonstrates the development of a probabilistic corrosion failure model using survival analysis methods and techniques. Using a parsimonious approach, the coefficients of a Cox proportional hazards model were derived from a set of environmental, geographical and operational predictor variables. To determine if the variables satisfied the proportional hazard assumption, numerous statistical tests were performed---such as the equivalence tests of the log rank, Wilcoxon, Peto-Peto and Fleming-Harrington---and graphical plots generated such as observed-versus-expected plots and log(-log) survival curves. Finally, in a paradigm enhancement to current design methodologies, this dissertation place sets survival analysis modeling in the context of an emerging holistic structural integrity philosophy. While traditional aircraft design and life prediction methodologies consider only the cyclic fatigue domain without consideration to the environmental or unique operating spectrum that aircraft may fly in, a holistic approach considers the cradle-to-grave driving forces in the life of a component, such as corrosion assisted crack nucleation in a material. This dissertation, which uses real-world failure data obtained from structural aircraft components, is poised to narrow the cradle-to-grave loop and provide holistic feedback in the understanding of aircraft structural system failures.

Benavides, Samuel

320

Effects of atmospheric turbulence on large-span aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is extensive interest in High Altitude Long Endurance (HALE) unmanned air vehicles (UAV), used for atmospheric research, as pseudo-satellite systems, and for military C3I. Typical of this class is the Helios, a solar powered UAV of 245 ft wingspan designed and built by AeroVironment, Inc. as part of the Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project funded by

Leonard William Brownlow III

2000-01-01

321

Summary of Fluidic Thrust Vectoring Research Conducted at NASA Langley Research Center.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Interest in low-observable aircraft and in lowering an aircraft's exhaust system weight sparked decades of research for fixed geometry exhaust nozzles. The desire for such integrated exhaust nozzles was the catalyst for new fluidic control techniques; inc...

K. A. Deere

2003-01-01

322

Improved NDI techniques for aircraft inspections  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Through the use of an 'integrated product team' approach and new inspection techniques incorporating the latest in imaging capabilities and automation, the costs of some man- power intensive tasks can now be drastically reduced. Also, through the use of advanced eddy current techniques, the detectable size of cracks under flush-head fasteners can be reduced while maintaining a reliable inspection. Early in this decade, the FAA Technical Center and NASA LaRC formulated an aging aircraft research plan. The unique aspect about the research is that it is driven by the aircraft manufacturers and airlines in order to center only on those areas in which help is needed and to keep it focused. Once developed, the manufacturer works with the FAA Validation Center at Sandia National Labs., the airline, and the researcher to transfer technology to the field. This article describes the evaluation and results obtained using eddy current technology to determine the minimum detectable crack size under installed flush-head fasteners. Secondly, it describes the integrated efforts of engineers at McDonnell Douglas Aerospace and Northwest Airlines in the successful application of MAUS eddy current C-scanning of the DC-10 circumferential and axial crown splices. The eddy current C-scanning greatly reduced the man-hour effort required for the existing radiographic inspection. Thirdly, it describes the use of a novel ultrasonic technique coupled to a scanner and graphics for the detection and quantification of corrosion thinning and stress corrosion cracking of the DC-9 lower wing tee cap. This successful effort resulted from a rather large integrated task team. It also results in a vast man-hour savings over the existing internal visual inspection.

Hagemaier, Donald J.; Wilson, Dwight

1996-11-01

323

Advanced aircraft service life monitoring method via flight-by-flight load spectra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research is an effort to understand current method and to propose an advanced method for Damage Tolerance Analysis (DTA) for the purpose of monitoring the aircraft service life. As one of tasks in the DTA, the current indirect Individual Aircraft Tracking (IAT) method for the F-16C/D Block 32 does not properly represent changes in flight usage severity affecting structural fatigue life. Therefore, an advanced aircraft service life monitoring method based on flight-by-flight load spectra is proposed and recommended for IAT program to track consumed fatigue life as an alternative to the current method which is based on the crack severity index (CSI) value. Damage Tolerance is one of aircraft design philosophies to ensure that aging aircrafts satisfy structural reliability in terms of fatigue failures throughout their service periods. IAT program, one of the most important tasks of DTA, is able to track potential structural crack growth at critical areas in the major airframe structural components of individual aircraft. The F-16C/D aircraft is equipped with a flight data recorder to monitor flight usage and provide the data to support structural load analysis. However, limited memory of flight data recorder allows user to monitor individual aircraft fatigue usage in terms of only the vertical inertia (NzW) data for calculating Crack Severity Index (CSI) value which defines the relative maneuver severity. Current IAT method for the F-16C/D Block 32 based on CSI value calculated from NzW is shown to be not accurate enough to monitor individual aircraft fatigue usage due to several problems. The proposed advanced aircraft service life monitoring method based on flight-by-flight load spectra is recommended as an improved method for the F-16C/D Block 32 aircraft. Flight-by-flight load spectra was generated from downloaded Crash Survival Flight Data Recorder (CSFDR) data by calculating loads for each time hack in selected flight data utilizing loads equations. From the comparison of interpolated fatigue life using CSI value and fatigue test results, it is obvious that proposed advanced IAT method via flight-by-flight load spectra is more reliable and accurate than current IAT method. Therefore, the advanced aircraft service life monitoring method based on flight-by-flight load spectra not only monitors the individual aircraft consumed fatigue life for inspection but also ensures the structural reliability of aging aircrafts throughout their service periods.

Lee, Hongchul

324

CLOSED-LOOP SYSTEM IDENTIFICATION EXPERIENCE FOR FLIGHT CONTROL LAW AND FLYING QUALITIES EVALUATION OF A HIGH PERFORMANCE FIGHTER AIRCRAFT  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY This paper highlights some of the results and issues associated with estimating models to evaluate control law design methods and design criteria for advanced high performance aircraft. Experimental fighter aircraft such as the NASA High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) have the capability to maneuver at very high angles of attack where nonlinear aerodynamics often predominate. HARV is an experimental

Patrick C. Murphy

325

Modelling of Bird Strike on an Aircraft Wing Leading Edge Made from Fibre Metal Laminates – Part 1: Material Modelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fibre Metal Laminates with layers of aluminium alloy and high strength glass fibre composite have been reported to possess excellent impact properties and be suitable for aircraft parts likely to be subjected to impacts from objects such as runway debris or birds. In a collaborative research project, aircraft wing leading edge structures with a glass-based FML skin have been designed,

M. A. McCarthy; J. R. Xiao; N. Petrinic; A. Kamoulakos; V. Melito

2004-01-01

326

A wide-speed-range hybrid variable-reluctance\\/permanent-magnet generator for future embedded aircraft generation systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents recent research into the use of an embedded generation system as an alternative to the emergency ram air turbine on aircraft, the proposal being to utilize the windmill effect of the low-pressure turbine of the main aircraft engine for emergency power generation. A novel topology of a high specific output ac permanent-magnet generator is described that has

Phil H. Mellor; Stephen G. Burrow; Tadashi Sawata; Marc Holme

2005-01-01

327

Acoustics technologies for STOVL aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

State-of-the-art acoustic fatigue technologies that are relevant to supersonic Short Takeoff\\/Vertical Landing (STOVL) aircraft are investigated. Data and methods assessments of acoustic fatigue technologies for acoustic load predictions and stress response predictions are evaluated. Subsonic and supersonic jet noise generation mechanisms, axisymmetric and two-dimensional nozzles, and noise suppression methods are discussed. STOVL far field noise during hover, near field noise,

David S. Groen

1988-01-01

328

Aircraft Joints and Corrosion Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Corrosion damage in aircraft structure, if undetected and\\/or left untreated, can undermine safety. Currently corrosion prevention\\u000a and management in many civil and military fleets still relies strongly on the use of traditional ‘find and fix’ maintenance\\u000a practices, although this has been refined by the increasing use of Corrosion Prevention and Control Plans (CPCP) which provide\\u000a a framework for targeted inspections

Ung Hing Tiong; Graham Clark

329

EXPERIMENTAL DETERMINATION OF UNMANNED AIRCRAFT  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the methodology used in the experimental determination of the inertial properties of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). This UAV is a prototype aircraft made of ply wood, balsa wood and aluminum, with a wingspan of 2,5m. A compound-pendulum is used to determine moments of inertia about transversal, longitudinal and vertical axes. The vertical location of the center

330

Digital HUDs for tactical aircraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For over four decades the Head Up Display (HUD) has been a critical instrument in tactical aircraft, as well as in an increasing number of commercial air transports. HUDs provide a unique means to present vital information to the pilot, precisely overlaid on the real world, without the need to look down or refocus onto the instrument panel displays. HUD imaging technology, using high brightness CRTs, has remained largely unchanged during this period, despite dramatic advances in display technology across the remainder of the avionics spectrum. As reliability improvements have reduced life cycle costs for other avionics systems, the relative cost of ownership for CRT-based HUDs has become increasingly unacceptable. Further, as special-purpose CRTs have steadily been replaced by digital display alternatives the number of potential sources has dwindled, raising growing parts obsolescence issues. These issues can be resolved by replacing the CRT and its associated electronics with a solid-state digital image engine. Such "digital" HUDs (DHUDs) have been certified for use in a number of commercial air transports, and are gaining wide acceptance in the user community. The operational and environmental requirements for DHUDs for tactical aircraft are more demanding than for transports, however the core technologies are in place to meet these needs. The stage is set to achieve excellent performance, dramatic life cycle cost reductions and low cost, for both legacy and new tactical aircraft. This paper describes digital HUD development efforts to date and summarizes key performance parameters and design issues.

Kalmanash, Michael H.

2006-06-01

331

Recent Experiences with Operating Unmanned Aircraft in Arctic Conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The University of Alaska Geophysical Institute has been identifying technical issues with operating small-unmanned aircraft in the harsh conditions of flying in the Arctic. Here we first describe the Institute's recent and ongoing scientific activity that involve unmanned aircraft in the Arctic and correlate these technical challenges to conducting safe operations. Of specific interest is building survivable observation platforms for low altitude remote sensing within the Marginal Ice Zone (MIZ) that fly from either shore or an Arctic capable research vessel. Unmanned aircraft based sensors can assist with obtaining ground truth knowledge of sea ice conditions and characteristics within the MIZ. The Institute's high-resolution imagery capability coupled to its airborne synthetic aperture radar can capture the floe size distribution, show what percent of ice in the MIZ complex is multi-year ice, and capture the effects of wind on the ice edge in real time. The Institute's experiments have also demonstrated a cost-effective, safe means of surveying marine mammals in such conditions. This presentation addresses ongoing work with Steller sea lion survey and past work with ice seal populations that have afforded wonderful opportunities to identify the technology limitations that exist today that prevent further unmanned aircraft exploitation.

Walker, G.

2011-12-01

332

Future aircraft and potential effects on stratospheric ozone and climate  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study is to extend the recent research examining the global environmental effects from potential fleets of subsonic and supersonic commercial aircraft. Initial studies with LLNL models of global atmospheric chemical, radiative, and transport processes have indicated that substantial decreases in stratospheric ozone concentrations could result from emissions of NO{sub x} from aircraft flying in the stratosphere, depending on fleet size and magnitude of the engine emissions. These studies used homogeneous chemical reaction rates (e.g. gas-phase chemistry). Recent evidence indicates that reactions on particles in the stratosphere may be important. Heterogeneous chemical reactions, for instance, N{sub 2}O{sub 5}and ClONO{sub 2} on background sulfuric acid aerosols, convert NO{sub x}(NO and NO{sub 2}) molecules to HNO{sub 3}. This decreases the odd oxygen loss from the NO{sub x} catalytic cycle and increases the odd oxygen loss from the Cl{sub x} catalytic cycle. By including these heterogeneous reactions in the LLNL model, the relative partitioning of odd oxygen loss between these two families changes, with the result that emissions of NO{sub x} from proposed aircraft fleets flying in the stratosphere now increase zone. Having these heterogeneous processes present also increases ozone concentration in the troposphere relative to gas-phase only chemistry calculations for emissions of NO{sub x} from subsonic aircraft. 26 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

Kinnison, D.E.; Wuebbles, D.J.

1991-10-01

333

New nondestructive techniques for the detection and quantification of corrosion in aircraft structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An overview is presented of several techniques under development at NASA Langley Research Center for detection and quantification of corrosion in aircraft structures. The techniques have been developed as part of the NASA Airframe Structural Integrity Program. The techniques focus on the detection of subsurface corrosion in thin laminated structures. Results are presented on specimens with both manufactured defects, for calibration of the techniques, and on specimens removed from aircraft.

Winfree, W. P.; Cramer, K. E.; Johnston, P. H.; Namkung, M.

1995-01-01

334

The applicability of human-centred automation guidelines in the fighter aircraft domain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motivation -- To guide the development of human-centred automation within the fighter aircraft domain. Research approach -- Identified human-centred automation guidelines have been analysed in relation to existing fighter aircraft automated functions together with system developers at Saab Aeronautics. Findings\\/Design -- The results show that the human-centred automation guidelines have been considered during the development process. From these results, implications

Tove Helldin; Göran Falkman; Jens Alfredson; Johan Holmberg

2011-01-01

335

Flexible twist for pitch control in a high altitude long endurance aircraft with nonlinear response  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information dominance is the key motivator for employing high-altitude long-endurance (HALE) aircraft to provide continuous coverage in the theaters of operation. A joined-wing configuration of such a craft gives the advantage of a platform for higher resolution sensors. Design challenges emerge with structural flexibility that arise from a long-endurance aircraft design. The goal of this research was to demonstrate that

Vanessa L. Bond

2008-01-01

336

A composite model of aircraft noise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present method for reducing the amount of computation needed to determine the aircraft noise levels affecting communities, it is assumed that each aircraft can be assigned to one of several known flight paths. The invoked concept of 'energy addition' raises the possibility, for the purposes of simulation, of replacing a number of aircraft moving along a specified trajectory with a single 'equivalent source' that delivers the same weighted average power distribution to points on the ground.

Melton, R. G.

1985-05-01

337

New aircraft technologies - Challenges for dependability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advances being planned in the commercial aircraft business, which include those in the areas of E-ETOPS, HSCT, fly-by-wire, and fly-by-light pose the question of their dependability. The paper defines the concept of dependability as it refers to aircraft equipment, the characteristics which a dependable aircraft equipment should possess, the use of the Dependable Computing techniques during the design and development

Tilak C. Sharma

1992-01-01

338

Attitude estimation and stabilization of a quadrotor aircraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the past few years, researchers have shown great interest in quadrotor aircraft as a platform for UAV research due to simplicity of construction as well as maintenance, ability to hover in small indoor locations or hazardous environments, vertical take-off and landing capability, etc. Attitude stabilization of a quadrotor requires accurate information about current orientation of the vehicle. With the emergence of Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) sensors, a relatively cost-effective way for attitude estimation consists of using gyroscope, accelerometer and magnetometer devices strapped down on vehicle's center of mass. A number of previous works deal with fusing angular velocity with measurements of accelerometer and magnetometer to construct an estimation of aircraft orientation.

Ghashghaee, Fereshteh

339

19 CFR 10.183 - Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines...OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. General... Civil Aircraft § 10.183 Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft...

2009-04-01

340

19 CFR 10.183 - Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines...OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. General... Civil Aircraft § 10.183 Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft...

2010-04-01

341

New aircraft technologies - Challenges for dependability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advances being planned in the commercial aircraft business, which include those in the areas of E-ETOPS, HSCT, fly-by-wire, and fly-by-light pose the question of their dependability. The paper defines the concept of dependability as it refers to aircraft equipment, the characteristics which a dependable aircraft equipment should possess, the use of the Dependable Computing techniques during the design and development of new equipment, and the new technology application to the current 777 program. Consideration is also given to the certification requirements for transport aircraft systems in terms of reliability, integrity, and availability.

Sharma, Tilak C.

342

Pulsed thermography: philosophy, qualitative & quantitative analysis on aircraft materials & applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal non-destructive testing (NDT) is commonly used for assessing aircraft structures. This research work evaluates the potential of pulsed thermography (PT) for certain applications. In particular, real time monitoring was obtained using PT. In some cases, thermal modelling as well as other non-destructive testing and evaluation techniques (i.e. acoustography, ultrasonic wheel array) were also used with the intention of providing

N. P. Avdelidis; D. P. Almond; Z. P. Marioli-Riga; A. Dobbinson; B. C. Hawtin

2006-01-01

343

PS-PVD Process for Coating Aircraft Engine Components  

NASA Video Gallery

This short video shows a process that NASA's Glenn Research Center is developing that can deposit very thin and smooth layers of coating on ceramic matrix composite materials for use as aircraft engine turbine components. The process, called "Plasma Spray-Physical Vapor Deposition," or PS-PVD, can apply coatings that withstand up to 2700 degrees Fahrenheit, improving engine thermal efficiency and reducing fuel burn. › Watch 'Intro to PS-PVD Process'

Christopher O

2013-03-06

344

Numerical determination of dynamic derivatives for transport aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The represented investigations are concerned with simulations of unsteady aircraft aerodynamics and thus belongs to the research\\u000a field of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) for aerospace applications. The calculations are based on the surface singularity\\u000a panel method VSAERO for simulation of quasi-steady motions and on the solution of the Time-dependent Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes\\u000a (TRANS) equations using the finite volume parallel solution algorithm

A.-R. Hiibner

345

Autonomous aircraft operations using RTCA guidelines for airborne conflict management  

Microsoft Academic Search

A human-in-the-loop experiment was performed at the NASA Langley Research Center to study the feasibility of DAG-TM autonomous aircraft operations in highly constrained airspace. The airspace was constrained by a pair of special-use airspace (SUA) regions on either side of the pilot's planned route. Traffic flow management (TFM) constraints were imposed as a required time of arrival and crossing altitude

Karthik Krishnamurthy; David J. Wing; B. E. Barmore; Richard Barhydt; Michael T. Palmer; Edward J. Johnson; Mark G. Ballin; T. M. Eischeid

2003-01-01

346

Ultrafine aerosol particles in aircraft plumes: In situ observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements of ultrafine particles in the near field of the DLR research aircraft ATTAS using low (0.02 g\\/kg fuel) and high (2.7 g\\/kg) fuel sulfur contents (FSCs) are presented. Soot emissions of ~1015\\/kg show no significant dependence on FSC. Strong evidence is found that ~1\\/3 of the soot particles must be involved in ice nucleation in contrails, in addition to

F. P. Schröder; B. Kärcher; A. Petzold; R. Baumann; R. Busen; C. Hoell; U. Schumann

1998-01-01

347

AIRTV: Broadband Direct to Aircraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Airlines have been continuously upgrading their wide-body, long-haul aircraft with IFE (in-flight entertainment) systems that can support from 12 to 24 channels of video entertainment as well as provide the infrastructure to enable in-seat delivery of email and internet services. This is a direct consequence of increased passenger demands for improved in-flight services along with the expectations that broadband delivery systems capable of providing live entertainment (news, sports, financial information, etc.) and high speed data delivery will soon be available. The recent events of Sept. 11 have slowed the airline's upgrade of their IFE systems, but have also highlighted the compelling need for broadband aeronautical delivery systems to include operational and safety information. Despite the impact of these events, it is estimated that by 2005 more than 3000 long haul aircraft (servicing approximately 1 billion passengers annually) will be fully equipped with modern IFE systems. Current aircraft data delivery systems, which use either Inmarsat or NATS, are lacking in bandwidth and consequently are unsuitable to satisfy passenger demands for broadband email/internet services or the airlines' burgeoning data requirements. Present live video delivery services are limited to regional coverage and are not readily expandable to global or multiregional service. Faced with a compelling market demand for high data transport to aircraft, AirTV has been developing a broadband delivery system that will meet both passengers' and airlines' needs. AirTV is a global content delivery system designed to provide a range of video programming and data services to commercial airlines. When AirTV is operational in 2004, it will provide a broadband connection directly to the aircraft, delivering live video entertainment, internet/email service and essential operational and safety data. The system has been designed to provide seamless global service to all airline routes except for those over the poles. The system consists of a constellation of 4 geostationary satellites covering the earth and delivering its signals to the aircraft at S band (2.52 -2.67 GHz). The S-band spectrum is ideal for this application since it is allocated on a primary basis by the ITU for global broadcast service. The AirTV service is expected to begin in 2004 and should be unencumbered by adjacent satellite interference due to near completion of the ITU coordination process. Each satellite will deliver four 20 Mbps QPSK data streams consisting of multiplexed compressed digital video channels and IP data over the full global beam coverage. The 80 Mbps capacity of each satellite will provide approximately 60 video channels while still allocating 40 Mbits to data services. The combined constellation capacity of 320 Mbits will significantly exceed the capacity of any similar existing or currently planned global satellite system. In addition, the simplicity of the 4-satellite approach is the most cost effective means to deliver high bandwidth globally. Return links, which are required for internet service, will be provided through the existing Inmarsat Aero-H system already onboard virtually all long haul aircraft and will provide return data rates from the aircraft as high as 432 kbps. integrated receiver/decoder (IRD) assembly. The phased array antenna, a key technology element, is being developed by AirTV's strategic partner, CMC Electronics. This antenna is a scaled version of CMC's Inmarsat Aero H antenna and is capable of scanning to 5 degrees above the horizon. Wide angle scanning up to 85 degrees from zenith is necessary for aircraft traversing the northernmost latitudes on transoceanic routes. AirTV has designed both the satellite coverage and aircraft antenna performance to ensure that high signal quality is maintained along all non-polar airline routes. AirTV will be the future of aeronautical broadband delivery. It has been designed specifically for global services and uses the ideal spectrum for this application. It will revolutionize the delivery of content t

Sorbello, R.; Stone, R.; Bennett, S. B.; Bertenyi, E.

2002-01-01

348

14 CFR 252.11 - Aircraft on the ground.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS SMOKING ABOARD AIRCRAFT § 252.11 Aircraft... (a) Air carriers shall prohibit smoking whenever the aircraft is on the ground. (b) With respect to the restrictions on smoking described in § 252.5, foreign air...

2013-01-01

349

14 CFR 137.71 - Records: Commercial agricultural aircraft operator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Records: Commercial agricultural aircraft operator. 137.71 Section...TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION...AND OPERATIONS AGRICULTURAL AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS Records and Reports...Records: Commercial agricultural aircraft operator. (a) Each...

2013-01-01

350

14 CFR 121.163 - Aircraft proving tests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Aircraft proving tests. 121.163...TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION...AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Aircraft Requirements § 121.163 Aircraft proving tests. (a)...

2013-01-01

351

14 CFR 135.419 - Approved aircraft inspection program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 false Approved aircraft inspection program. 135...TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION...GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Maintenance, Preventive...Alterations § 135.419 Approved aircraft inspection program....

2009-01-01

352

14 CFR 121.463 - Aircraft dispatcher qualifications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Aircraft dispatcher qualifications...TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION...AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Aircraft Dispatcher Qualifications and...Operations § 121.463 Aircraft dispatcher...

2013-01-01

353

78 FR 57104 - Airworthiness Directives; Diamond Aircraft Industries Airplanes  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Diamond Aircraft Industries Airplanes AGENCY...new airworthiness directive (AD) for Diamond Aircraft Industries Model DA 40 and DA...identified in this proposed AD, contact Diamond Aircraft Industries GmbH, N.A....

2013-09-17

354

22 CFR 121.3 - Aircraft and related articles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Aircraft and related articles. 121.3 Section 121.3 Foreign Relations...UNITED STATES MUNITIONS LIST Enumeration of Articles § 121.3 Aircraft and related articles. In Category VIII, aircraft...

2013-04-01

355

Electromagnetic Reverberation Characteristics of a Large Transport Aircraft.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A demonstration test to investigate the reverberation characteristics of the avionics bay and cockpit of a typical commercial aircraft was conducted on a decommissioned Boeing 707-720B aircraft. The aircraft, located at the Aerospace Maintenance and Regen...

M. O. Hatfield G. J. Freyer D. M. Johnson C. L. Farthing

1994-01-01

356

Evaluation of Contrail Reduction Strategies Based on Aircraft Flight Distances.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper evaluates a set of contrail reduction strategies based on the flight range of aircraft as contrail reduction strategies have different impacts on aircraft depending on how they plan to fly. In general, aircraft with longer flight distances crui...

B. Sridhar H. K. Ng J. Li N. Y. Chen

2012-01-01

357

27 CFR 31.91 - Passenger trains, aircraft, and vessels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 false Passenger trains, aircraft, and vessels...Multiple Locations § 31.91 Passenger trains, aircraft, and vessels...that business throughout the passenger carrying train, aircraft, boat, or...

2013-04-01

358

32 CFR 855.15 - Detaining an aircraft.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Detaining an aircraft. 855.15 Section 855.15 National Defense...Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS...

2013-07-01

359

14 CFR 121.153 - Aircraft requirements: General.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aircraft requirements: General. 121.153 Section...DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Aircraft Requirements § 121.153 Aircraft requirements: General. (a) Except...

2013-01-01

360

14 CFR 135.419 - Approved aircraft inspection program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Approved aircraft inspection program. 135.419 Section...RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Maintenance, Preventive Maintenance, and Alterations § 135.419 Approved aircraft inspection program. (a)...

2013-01-01

361

10 CFR 50.150 - Aircraft impact assessment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Aircraft impact assessment. 50.150 Section...Approvals § 50.150 Aircraft impact assessment. (a) Assessment...maintained. (2) Aircraft impact characteristics .1 The assessment must be based...

2010-01-01

362

National Park Service Aircraft Overflight Study. Recommended Work Plan. Detailed Sampling, Data Collection and Analysis Plan for: Air Tour Passenger Survey, NPS Manager Survey, General Population Survey.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes the recommended procedures to be used in conducting part of the research for the NPS Aircraft Overflight Study. The NPS Aircraft Overflight Study is based upon the directives for research contained in Public Law 100-91. Five surveys w...

R. M. Baumgartner C. McDonald R. Iachan N. P. Miller

1992-01-01

363

Acoustics technologies for STOVL aircraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

State-of-the-art acoustic fatigue technologies that are relevant to supersonic Short Takeoff/Vertical Landing (STOVL) aircraft are investigated. Data and methods assessments of acoustic fatigue technologies for acoustic load predictions and stress response predictions are evaluated. Subsonic and supersonic jet noise generation mechanisms, axisymmetric and two-dimensional nozzles, and noise suppression methods are discussed. STOVL far field noise during hover, near field noise, and internal cockpit noise levels are predicted. Stress response prediction methods for acoustic, thermal, and maneuvering loads are addressed and the need for structural analysis methods with all three types of loads applied simultaneously is assessed.

Groen, David S.

1988-04-01

364

An Analysis of Ball Lightning-Aircraft Incidents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lightning is a rare but regular phenomenon for air traffic. Research and design have created aircraft that withstand average lightning strikes. Ball lightning (BL), a metastable, rare lightning type, is also observed from (and within) aircraft. Science and the media focused on individual BL incidents and did not analyze general patterns. Lacking established incident reporting channels, most BL observations are still passed on as “aviation lore”. To overcome this unsatisfactory condition, the authors collected and analyzed an international data bank of 87 BL-aircraft case histories from 1938 to 2007. 37 Russian military and civil BL reports were provided by the third author. Of the whole sample, 36 (41%) cases occurred over Russia/RF/SU, 24 (28%) over USA/Canada, 23 (26%) over Europe, and 4 (5%) over Asia/Pacific. Various types of military (US: C-54/141, B-52, KC-97/135 Stratotankers, C130, P-3 Orion, RF/SU: PO-2, IL, SU, TU, MIG; Nimrod, Saab-105) and civilian aircraft (US: DC-3/6, Metroliner, B-727/737/757/777, RF/SU: AN, TU; VC-10, Fokker F-28, CRJ-200), as well as general aviation (C-172, Falcon-20), were involved. BL reports show a flat annual April to August maximum. At BL impact, 15 aircraft were climbing, 7 descending; most were at cruising altitude. 42 (48%) reported BL outside the aircraft, 37 (43%) inside, 7 (8%) both in-and outside. No damage was reported in 34 (39%) cases, 39 objects (45%) caused minor damage, 11 major damage (13%), 3 even resulted in military aircraft losses. 3 objects caused minor, 1 major crew injury. 23 damage cases were associated with BL inside the fuselage; all 4 crew injury cases were of that BL type. Mean size is described as 25 cm, sometimes over 1 m, color 30% in the yellow-red, 10% in the blue-green spectral region, 8% white, duration around 10 seconds, sometimes over 1 minute. 33 (38%) incidents ended with an explosion of the object. Thunderstorm conditions were reported by 25 (29%) of the observers, 9 (10%) said there was no thunderstorm. Results on lightning-aircraft interaction (Rakov & Uman, 2003) are compared with BL reports (e.g. flight level - BL maxima at 1000 and 3000 m). BL is seen as an atmospheric electrical phenomenon, in some cases after an initial cloud-aircraft lightning flash, in other cases originating without a lightning flash. Because of this, aircraft BL is also of interest for BL theories. Approximately 50% occur inside the airframe, some causing minor damage, potentially threatening to crew and passengers. Structural damage highlighted by mass media is extremely rare. Although BL constitutes no major air traffic risk, the authors suggest routine BL incident/accident reporting and BL damage/injury investigation. Aircrews should be briefed about possible BL within the fuselage. After a BL occurrence, airline passengers should be informed and debriefed.

Doe, R. K.; Keul, A. G.; Bychkov, V.

2009-12-01

365

41 CFR 102-33.415 - When may we declassify an aircraft and remove it from our Federal aircraft inventory?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false When may we declassify an aircraft and remove it from our Federal aircraft inventory? 102-33.415 Section 102-33...PERSONAL PROPERTY 33-MANAGEMENT OF GOVERNMENT AIRCRAFT Reporting Information on Government...

2013-01-01

366

19 CFR 10.183 - Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components...REDUCED RATE, ETC. General Provisions Civil Aircraft § 10.183 Duty-free entry of civil...

2013-04-01

367

Development of Morphing Aircraft Structure Using SMP.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. Air Force needs new aircraft which provide longer flight time, less fuel consumption, better aerodynamics in order to perform Air Force missions successfully as the mission environment changes rapidly. A morphing wing aircraft is considered as a ...

S. Jee

2010-01-01

368

Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Sensor and Targeting.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Test Operations Procedure (TOP) 07-1-003 covers the span of requirements and technologies that are unique to Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UASs). The role of a UAS is significantly different than that of a manned aircraft. The nominal operating altitude...

2010-01-01

369

Advanced turboprop aircraft flyover noise annoyance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results from recent laboratory experiments in which human subjects were exposed to synthetic sounds simulating the flyover noise emitted by advanced turbofan aircraft engines are briefly summarized. The Aircraft Noise Synthesis System described by McCurdy et al. (1987) is used to simulate the noise from (1) a conventional turboprop engine, (2) a jet engine, (3) a single-rotating turbofan engine, and

David A. McCurdy

1989-01-01

370

Emerging NDE Technology for aging aircraft  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents an overview of several emerging nondestructive evaluation technologies that are being employed or considered for use to inspect commercial transport, commuter aircraft and military aircraft. An overview of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Airworthiness Assurance NDI Validation Center (AANC) is described and how AANC teams with industry, universities, and other federal entities to assess these technologies.

Moore, D.G.; Perry, R.L.

1998-03-01

371

Virtual Collaboration Environment for Aircraft Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a virtual collaboration environment for aircraft design. The presented system, abbreviated as VCEAD, provides virtual prototyping and communication features for synchronous collaboration between geographically distributed designers. Concurrent design reviews on large scale objects, such as aircraft fuselage, are possible over distance due to the technological choices of the system. These include XML, VRML and Java based solutions

Markus D. Durstewitz; Bernhard Kiefner; Reimund Kueke; Heikki Putkonen; Pertti Repo; Tuomo Tuikka

2002-01-01

372

New realities in aircraft design and manufacture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considers how Boeing Computer Services in Seattle is developing two real-time applications-one in virtual reality, the other in what the company calls augmented reality, aimed at putting more information directly in front of the engineers designing aircraft and the manufacturing workers who build them. Boeing's virtual reality project plans to import aircraft CAD data to a VR environment where engineers

D. Sims

1994-01-01

373

Robust design optimization method for aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

The robustness problem in the aircraft design optimization is discussed in reference to the undulation of aircraft performance derived from uncertainty factors. A new robust design optimization (RDO) model, the constrained condition method (CCM), is expounded perspicuously. By dint of genetic algorithm (GA) joining with Back Propagation neural networks response surface (BP-NNRS), two optimal schemes, so called RDO scheme and

Wengong Meng; Dongli Ma

2010-01-01

374

V-22 Osprey Joint Advanced Vertical Aircraft.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The V-22 Osprey Joint Advanced Vertical Aircraft (V-22) is a tilt- rotor, short-take-off-and-landing aircraft, which was developed to fulfill multi-Service operational requirements. The V-22 operates as a helicopter for takeoffs and landings and, once air...

T. F. Gimble M. L. Ugone C. M. Santoni R. L. Shaffer J. A. Hoyt

2000-01-01

375

Soft Airfield Tests with F-4 Aircraft.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Tests were conducted to investigate the interaction of soil surfaces with the landing gear of F-4E aircraft to validate computer prediction routines. Site selection and soil tests are described. In-place soil tests were conducted, and aircraft ground perf...

V. Cassino

1981-01-01

376

Aircraft towing feasibility study. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Energy costs and availability are major concerns in most parts of the world. Many ways of increasing energy supply and reducing consumption are being proposed and investigated. One that holds considerable promise is the extended towing of aircraft between airport runways and terminal gate areas with engines shut down. This study provides a preliminary assessment of the constraints on and feasibility of extended aircraft towing. Past aircraft towing experience and the state-of-the-art in towing equipment are reviewed. Safety and operational concerns associated with aircraft towing are identified, and the benefits and costs of implementing aircraft towing at 20 major US airports are analyzed. It was concluded that extended aircraft towing is technically feasible and that substantial reductions in aircraft fuel consumption and air pollutant emissions can be achieved through its implementation. It was also concluded that, although capital and operating costs associated with towing would be increased, net savings could generally be attained at these airports. Because of the lack of past experience and the necessity of proving the cost effectiveness of the towing concept, a demonstration of the feasibility of large-scale aircraft towing is necessary. The study evaluates the suitability of the 20 study airports as potential demonstration sites and makes recommendations for the first demonstration project.

Not Available

1980-09-01

377

Avion Stabilite Variable (Variable Stability Aircraft).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report gives a general description of the first French variable stability aircraft. The aircraft was designed by the 'Centre d'Essais en Vol' and the 'Societe Francaise d'Equipements pour la Navigation Aerienne'. Modifications to the airframe of the b...

G. Klopfstein

1966-01-01

378

Pulsed laser mapping system for light aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

A demonstration airborne laser mapping system for light aircraft has been tested in a Cessna 206 single-engine aircraft. Data from the test runs compare favorably with the ground truth data. Preliminary assessments indicate that vertical profiles and horizontal positions are accurate to within 2 m.

C. McDonough; G. Dryden; T. Sofia; S. Wisotsky; P. Howes

1980-01-01

379

Artificial Neural Network Modeling of Damaged Aircraft.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Aircraft design and control techniques rely on the proper modeling of the aircraft's equations of motion. Many of the variables used in these equations are aerodynamic coefficients which are obtained from scale models in wind tunnel tests. In order to mod...

C. A. Brunger

1994-01-01

380

A Wind Tunnel Captive Aircraft Testing Technique.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A captive aircraft testing technique has been developed for use in the 16-ft wind tunnels at the Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC). With the captive system, an aircraft motion study may be conducted in the wind tunnel with the tunnel acting as ...

R. W. Butler

1976-01-01

381

Aircraft monitoring of surface carbon dioxide exchange  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aircraft-mounted sensors were used to measure the exchange of carbon dioxide above a cornfield, a forest, and a lake under midday conditions. Mean absorption values of 3400, 1200, and 100 milligrams of carbon dioxide per square meter per hour, respectively, are consistent with reported ground-based observations of carbon dioxide flux. Such information, gathered by aircraft, could be used to provide

R. L. Desjardins; P. Alvo; P. H. Schuepp

1982-01-01

382

Aircraft Monitoring of Surface Carbon Dioxide Exchange  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aircraft-mounted sensors were used to measure the exchange of carbon dioxide above a cornfield, a forest, and a lake under midday conditions. Mean absorption values of 3400, 1200, and 100 milligrams of carbon dioxide per square meter per hour, respectively, are consistent with reported ground-based observations of carbon dioxide flux. Such information, gathered by aircraft, could be used to provide

R. L. Desjardins; E. J. Brach; P. Alvo; P. H. Schuepp

1982-01-01

383

Prediction of anthropometric accommodation in aircraft cockpits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Designing aircraft cockpits to accommodate the wide range of body sizes existing in the U.S. population has always been a difficult problem for Crewstation Engineers. The approach taken in the design of military aircraft has been to restrict the range of body sizes allowed into flight training, and then to develop standards and specifications to ensure that the majority of

Gregory Franklin Zehner

2000-01-01

384

Tug-TOW Arrangement for Nuclear Aircraft.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An operationally-integrated combination of aircraft is disclosed. It includes a rug airplane powered by a radiation-emitting power source, a tow aircraft adapted to carry a crew, a coupling between the airplanes to permit unpowered flight of the tow aircr...

S. Bernstein

1965-01-01

385

Vision-only aircraft flight control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Building aircraft with navigation and control systems that can complete flight tasks is complex, and often involves integrating information from multiple sensors to estimate the state of the vehicle. This paper describes a method, in which a glider can fly from a starting point to a predetermined and location (target) precisely using vision only. Using vision to control an aircraft

Christophe De Wagter; A. A. Proctor; E. N. Johnson

2003-01-01

386

Smart Icing Systems for Aircraft Icing Safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ice accretion affects the performance and control of an aircraft and in extreme situations can lead to incidents and accidents. However, changes in performance and control are difficult to sense. As a result, the icing sensors currently in use sense primarily ice accretion, not the effect of the ice. No processed aircraft performance degradation information is available to the pilot.

Michael B. Bragg; Tamer Basar; William R. Perkins; Michael S. Selig

2002-01-01

387

Assessment of NASA's Aircraft Noise Prediction Capability.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A goal of NASA s Fundamental Aeronautics Program is the improvement of aircraft noise prediction. This document provides an assessment, conducted from 2006 to 2009, on the current state of the art for aircraft noise prediction by carefully analyzing the r...

M. D. Dahl

2012-01-01

388

An aircraft noise study in Norway  

Microsoft Academic Search

An extensive study of aircraft noise is currently being conducted in Oslo, Norway. The traffic at Oslo Airport Fornebu that includes both national and international flights, totals approximately 350 movements per day: 250 of these are regular scheduled flights with intermediate and large size aircraft, the bulk being DC9 and Boeing 737. The total traffic during the summer of 1989

Truls T. Gjestland; Kare H. Liasjo; Hans Einar Bohn

1990-01-01

389

Parametric geometry representation to support aircraft design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge Based Engineering (KBE) plays an important role in automation and optimization of the aircraft design process. But the lack of real KBE tools limits the promise of Knowledge Based Engineering. To address this deficiency, we propose using the Python programming language to develop viable KBE application tools for aircraft design. Selecting geometric parameterization algorithms is fundamental to automation and

Marcos Elgueta Soulat

2012-01-01

390

Intelligent Tutor System for Visual Aircraft Recognition.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Visual aircraft recognition (VACR) is a critical skill for U.S. Army Short Range Air Defense (SHORAD) soldiers. It is the most reliable means of identifying aircraft, however VACR skills are not easy to teach or learn, and once learned they are highly deg...

L. W. Campbell

1990-01-01

391

Inerting Aircraft Fuel Systems Using Exhaust Gases.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Our purpose in this proposal was to determine the feasibility of using carbon dioxide, possibly obtained from aircraft exhaust gases as a substance to inert the fuel contained in fuel tanks aboard aircraft. To do this, we decided to look at the effects ca...

D. G. Hehemann

2002-01-01

392

Comparison of Military and Commercial Aircraft Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

When compared to the commercial sector, it takes the military almost four times longer to develop an aircraft. For example, Boeing Company developed the 767 jetliner in about four years whereas the Navy's next generation tactical aircraft, the AX, is expe...

M. S. Mutty

1993-01-01

393

Aircraft of Today. Aerospace Education I.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This textbook gives a brief idea about the modern aircraft used in defense and for commercial purposes. Aerospace technology in its present form has developed along certain basic principles of aerodynamic forces. Different parts in an airplane have different functions to balance the aircraft in air, provide a thrust, and control the general…

Savler, D. S.

394

Advanced Aircraft Secondary Power System Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the requirements, the secondary power system design, and the results of a trade study for an Advanced Aircraft Secondary Power System Design (AASPSD). AASPSD is an Air Force funded contract performed by The Boeing Company. The aircraft selected for this study was a Mach 6 vehicle. The three AASPSD configurations studied were a conventional system having hydraulic

E. J. Woods; C. S. Rubertus; I. S. Mehdi

1990-01-01

395

Amateur Built Aircraft Reference Material. OSHKOSH 97.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: AC 20-27D, Certification and Operation of Amateur-Built Aircraft; AC 21-12A, Application for U.S. Airworthiness Certificate, FAA Form 8130-6; AC 65-23A, Certification of Repairman (Experimental Aircraft Builders); Memorandum, Revised Listing of ...

1997-01-01

396

Development of an Experimental Aircraft Hygrometer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two experimental aircraft hygrometers using dry-ice heat sinks were designed and constructed, both units recorded frost points below -80C when flight tested at altitudes to 65,000 feet aboard a U-2 aircraft. A third hygrometer which requires no chemical h...

L. Koehler J. G. Ballinger

1967-01-01

397

Unmanned aircraft: the future in military aviation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. This paper discussed the emerging need for unmanned military aircraft, technical challenges for network centric operations, and levels of adaptive autonomy. It described Boeing's development of the revolutionary X-45A experimental aircraft. The X-45 Joint Unmanned Combat Air System (J-CAS) is developed for the US Air Force and Navy at Boeing.

K. A. Wise

2004-01-01

398

Aircraft landing control based on adaptive CMAC  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an intelligent control scheme that uses an adaptive cerebellar model articulation controller (CMAC) in aircraft automatic landing system. The proposed intelligent controller can act as an experienced pilot and guide the aircraft to a safe landing in severe turbulence environment. Current flight control law is adopted in the intelligent design. Lyapunov theory is applied to obtain adaptive

Teng-Chieh Yang; Jih-Gau Juang

2009-01-01

399

Standardization of Gustiness Values from Aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

A universal turbulence standardization technique is described which is based quantitatively on the atmospheric turbulence itself rather than on the effects it products on an aircraft. It provides a single turbulence intensity number which may be measured continuously in flight in a variety of ways, and, with knowledge of the aircraft type and speed, can be linearly related to the

Paul B. Maccready Jr.

1964-01-01

400

Electromagnetic aircraft launch system development considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US Navy is developing an electromagnetic aircraft launch system for its next generation of aircraft carriers. Its approach to the program is predicated on the state of the technology and expertise of the participants. A revised business model is discussed

R. R. Bushway

2001-01-01

401

Electromagnetic aircraft launch system-EMALS  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the proliferation of electromagnetic launch systems presently being designed, built, or studied, there appears to be no limit to their application. One of the intriguing applications is electromagnetically catapulting aircraft from the deck of an aircraft carrier. The US Navy had foreseen the substantial capabilities of an electromagnetic catapult in the 1940s and built a prototype. However, it was

Michael R. Doyle; Douglas J. Samuel; Thomas Conway; Robert R. Klimowski

1995-01-01

402

Helicopter and aircraft detection and classification using adaptive beamforming and tracking techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of different types of aircraft are performed and used to obtain information on target characteristics and develop an algorithm to perform classification between jet aircraft, propeller aircraft and helicopters. To obtain a larger detection range, reduce background noise and to reduce classification errors in a multi-target environment, a real time adaptive beamformer algorithm is developed for a three microphone array. The output of the beamformer is submitted to a tracking algorithm. Acoustic signals from identified tracks are submitted to the classification algorithms. The algorithm is tested on data recorded during various field trials. The objective of the research, which is part of a research program for the Dutch Army, is to detect the passage of an aircraft with one or more mechanical wave sensors, either acoustic or seismic. After detection of a target, classification of the type of aircraft is requested (for example: helicopter-jet-propeller-rpv). If possible type identification is also requested. Earlier work showed promising results for detection and classification of helicopter targets. The projects resulted in an algorithm that can detect and classify helicopters, but it was developed to reject other targets. The chosen approach is to combine new aircraft detection and beamforming algorithms with the existing algorithms.

van Koersel, Antonius C.; Beerens, S. P.

2002-08-01

403

Ultrasonic inspection technique for composite doubler/aluminum skin bond integrity for aircraft  

SciTech Connect

As part of the FAA`s National Aging Aircraft Research Program to foster new technologies for civil aircraft maintenance and repair, use of bonded composite doublers on metal aircraft structures has been advanced. Research and validation of such doubler applications on US certified commercial aircraft has begun. A specific composite application to assess the capabilities of composite doublers was chosen on a L-1011 aircraft for reinforcement of the comer of a cargo door frame where a boron-epoxy repair patch of up to 72 plies was installed. A primary inspection requirement for these doublers is the identification of disbonds between the composite laminate and the aluminum parent material. This paper describes the development of an ultrasonic pulse echo technique using a modified immersion focus transducer where a robust signal amplitude signature of the composite aluminum interface is obtained to characterize the condition of the bond. Example waveforms and C-scan images are shown to illustrate the ultrasonic response for various transducer configurations using a boron-epoxy aluminum skin calibration test sample where disbonds and delaminations were built-in. The modified focus transducer is compatible with portable ultrasonic scanning systems that utilize the weeper or dripless bubbler technologies when an ultrasonic inspection of the boron-epoxy composite doublers installed on aircraft is implemented.

Gieske, J.H.; Roach, D.P.; Walkington, P.D.

1998-02-01

404

41 CFR 102-33.110 - What are our responsibilities when acquiring aircraft parts?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... What are our responsibilities when acquiring aircraft parts? 102-33.110 Section 102-33...PERSONAL PROPERTY 33-MANAGEMENT OF GOVERNMENT AIRCRAFT Acquiring Government Aircraft and Aircraft Parts Acquiring Aircraft...

2013-01-01

405

41 CFR 102-33.315 - What are the procedures for mutilating unsalvageable aircraft parts?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...are the procedures for mutilating unsalvageable aircraft parts? 102-33.315 Section 102-33...PERSONAL PROPERTY 33-MANAGEMENT OF GOVERNMENT AIRCRAFT Disposing of Government Aircraft and Aircraft Parts Disposing of Aircraft...

2013-01-01

406

41 CFR 102-33.225 - How must we manage aircraft parts?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false How must we manage aircraft parts? 102-33.225 Section 102-33...PERSONAL PROPERTY 33-MANAGEMENT OF GOVERNMENT AIRCRAFT Managing Government Aircraft and Aircraft Parts Managing Aircraft Parts...

2013-01-01

407

41 CFR 102-33.310 - May we report as excess, or replace, unsalvageable aircraft parts?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...report as excess, or replace, unsalvageable aircraft parts? 102-33.310 Section 102-33...PERSONAL PROPERTY 33-MANAGEMENT OF GOVERNMENT AIRCRAFT Disposing of Government Aircraft and Aircraft Parts Disposing of Aircraft...

2013-01-01

408

Unmanned aircraft systems as wingmen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper introduces a concept towards integrating manned and Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UASs) into a highly functional team though the design and implementation of 3-D distributed formation/flight control algorithms with the goal to act as wingmen for a manned aircraft. This method is designed to minimize user input for team control, dynamically modify formations as required, utilize standard operating formations to reduce pilot resistance to integration, and support splinter groups for surveillance and/or as safeguards between potential threats and manned vehicles. The proposed work coordinates UAS members by utilizing artificial potential functions whose values are based on the state of the unmanned and manned assets including the desired formation, obstacles, task assignments, and perceived intentions. The overall unmanned team geometry is controlled using weighted potential fields. Individual UAS utilize fuzzy logic controllers for stability and navigation as well as a fuzzy reasoning engine for flight path intention prediction. Approaches are demonstrated in simulation using the commercial simulator X-Plane and controllers designed in Matlab/Simulink. Experiments include trail and right echelon formations as well as splinter group surveillance.

Garcia, Richard; Barnes, Laura; Fields, Maryanne

2010-04-01

409

Robotic sensors for aircraft paint stripping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aircraft of all types need to have paint routinely removed from their outer surfaces. Any method needs to be controlled to remove all the paint and not damage the surface of the aircraft. Human operators get bored with the monotonous task of stripping paint from an aircraft and thus do not control the process very well. This type of tedious operation tends itself to robotics. A robot that strips paint from aircraft needs to have feedback as to the state of the stripping process, its location in respect to the aircraft, and the availability of stripping material. This paper describes the sensors used on the paint stripping robot being developed for the United States Air Force's Manufacturing Technology Program. Particular attention is given to the paint sensor which is the feedback element for determining the state of the stripping process.

Weniger, Richard J.

1990-10-01

410

Aircraft automation: the problem of the pilot interface.  

PubMed

Aircraft operations, particularly in the IFR environment, are rapidly becoming very complex. Studies have shown that this complexity can frequently lead to accidents and incidents. Results of studies performed at NASA and elsewhere are presented to show that one of the major themes evident in both the accidents and incidents and in the research performed to solve the problems associated with them is that of human error. Examples of various incidents and blunders, recorded in several studies, illustrate and emphasize the hypothesis: "As systems become more and more automated and complex, the more they become prone to human error. The problem can be eliminated or reduced only if good human factor principles are incorporated in the implementation of the systems, to guarantee a good man/machine interface". Aircraft systems technology, however, (e.g.: electronics, avionics, automation) is evolving and developing at a very high rate. Examples of research are presented showing where this emerging technology has been employed to reduce the complexity and enhance the safety and utility of the aircraft operations. PMID:3985891

Bergeron, H P; Hinton, D A

1985-02-01

411

Characterization of aircraft noise during thrust reverser engagement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Airport noise impact on communities has been an area of considerable study. However, it has been determined that thrust reverser engagement is an area requiring further research. This paper presents findings on thrust reverser from a noise study done at Washington-Dulles International Airport (IAD) in October of 2004. Previous studies have found that high levels of acoustic energy in commercial aircraft during takeoff are contained below 300 Hz [Sharp, Ben H., Guovich, Yuri A., and Albee, William, W., ``Status of Low-Frequency Aircraft Noise Research and Mitigation,'' Wyle Report WR 01-21, San Francisco, September 2001]. Preliminary analysis of thrust reverser signatures indicates similar findings. A categorization of aircraft noise during thrust reverser engagement is given and looks at factors that may affect the noise characteristics. Some of these factors include: plane type, engine type, and thrust ratings. In addition, a brief analysis of frequency weightings of the Equivalent Sound Level (Leq) and Sound Exposure Level (SEL) metrics, and their application to thrust reverser noise is discussed. [Work supported by the Federal Aviation Administration.

Gutierrez, Remy M.; Atchley, Anthony A.; Hodgdon, Kathleen K.

2005-09-01

412

Flammability Assessment of Lithium-Ion and Lithium-Ion Polymer Battery Cells Designed for Aircraft Power Usage.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Tests were performed at the Federal Aviation Administration William J. Hughes Technical Center by the Fire Safety Team of the Airport and Aircraft Research and Development Division to examine the fire safety hazards that cylindrical- and polymer-type lith...

S. M. Summer

2010-01-01

413

NOISECHECK procedures for measuring noise exposure from aircraft operations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NOISECHECK is a measurement program used (1) when an engineer is uncertain about a Sound Exposure Level (SEL) resulting from a particular type of operation or (2) to check noise contours determined by NOISEMAP - an Air Force computer program. The file of aircraft noise data used by NOISEMAP is called NOISEFILE. The NOISECHECK measurement program uses portable noise monitors that measure Day-Night Sound Levels (DNLs) over one or more days as well as individual Sound Exposure Levels (SELs). The measured DNLs are then compared with the DNLs calculated by NOISEMAP, or they contribute SEL data for comparison with NOISEFILE. This report delineates the field test data acquisition and analysis procedures used to conduct NOISECHECK type measurement studies. A companion report, AMRL-TR-78-125, Development of NOISECHECK Technology for Measuring Aircraft Noise Exposure, describes the instrumentation development and subsequent field test conducted at Barksdale AFB as part of this research effort.

Bishop, D. E.; Harris, A. S.; Mahoney, J.; Rentz, P. E.

1980-11-01

414

A process for the quantification of aircraft noise and emissions interdependencies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main purpose of this dissertation is to develop a process to improve actual policy-making procedures in terms of aviation environmental effects. This research work expands current practices with physics based publicly available models. The current method uses solely information provided by industry members, and this information is usually proprietary, and not physically intuitive. The process herein proposed provides information regarding the interdependencies between the environmental effects of aircraft. These interdependencies are also tied to the actual physical parameters of the aircraft and the engine, making it more intuitive for decision-makers to understand the impacts to the vehicle due to different policy scenarios. These scenarios involve the use of fleet analysis tools in which the existing aircraft are used to predict the environmental effects of imposing new stringency levels. The aircraft used are reduced to a series of coefficients that represent their performance, in terms of flight characteristics, fuel burn, noise, and emissions. These coefficients are then utilized to model flight operations and calculate what the environmental impacts of those aircraft are. If a particular aircraft does not meet the stringency to be analyzed, a technology response is applied to it, in order to meet that stringency. Depending on the level of reduction needed, this technology response can have an effect on the fuel burn characteristic of the aircraft. Another important point of the current stringency analysis process is that it does not take into account both noise and emissions concurrently, but instead, it considers them separately, one at a time. This assumes that the interdependencies between the two do not exists, which is not realistic. The latest stringency process delineated in 2004 imposed a 2% fuel burn penalty for any required improvements on NOx, no matter the type of aircraft or engine, assuming that no company had the ability to produce a vehicle with similar characteristics. This left all the performance characteristics of the aircraft untouched, except for the fuel burn, including the noise performance. The proposed alternative is to create a fleet of replacement aircraft to the current fleet that does not meet stringency. These replacement aircraft represent the achievable physical limits for state of the art systems. In this research work, the interdependencies between NOx, noise, and fuel burn are not neglected, and it is in fact necessary to take all three into account, simultaneously, to capture the physical limits that can be attained during a stringency analysis. In addition, the replacement aircraft show the linkage between environmental effects and fundamental aircraft and engine characteristics, something that has been neglected in previous policy making procedures. Another aspect that has been ignored is the creation of the coefficients used for the fleet analyses. In current literature, a defined process for the creation of those coefficients does not exist, but this research work develops a process to do so and demonstrates that the characteristics of the aircraft can be propagated to the coefficients and to the fleet analysis tools. The implementation of the process proposed shows that, first, the environmental metrics can be linked to the physical attributes of the aircraft using non-proprietary, physics based tools, second, those interdependencies can be propagated to fleet level tools, and third, this propagation provides an improvement in the policy making process, by showing what needs to change in an aircraft to meet different stringency levels.

de Luis, Jorge

415

Large Field Photogrammetry Techniques in Aircraft and Spacecraft Impact Testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The Landing and Impact Research Facility (LandIR) at NASA Langley Research Center is a 240 ft. high A-frame structure which\\u000a is used for full-scale crash testing of aircraft and rotorcraft vehicles. Because the LandIR provides a unique capability\\u000a to introduce impact velocities in the forward and vertical directions, it is also serving as the facility for landing tests\\u000a on full-scale

Justin D. Littell

416

Aircraft Integration and Flight Testing of 4STAR  

SciTech Connect

Under funding from the U.S. Dept. of Energy, in conjunction with a funded NASA 2008 ROSES proposal, with internal support from Battelle Pacific Northwest Division (PNWD), and in collaboration with NASA Ames Research Center, we successfully integrated the Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research (4STAR-Air) instrument for flight operation aboard Battelle’s G-1 aircraft and conducted a series of airborne and ground-based intensive measurement campaigns (hereafter referred to as “intensives”) for the purpose of maturing the initial 4STAR-Ground prototype to a flight-ready science-ready configuration.

Flynn, CJ; Kassianov, E; Russell, P; Redemann, J; Dunagan, S; Holben, B

2012-10-12

417

14 CFR 21.21 - Issue of type certificate: normal, utility, acrobatic, commuter, and transport category aircraft...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...classes of aircraft; aircraft engines; propellers. 21.21 Section 21.21 Aeronautics...classes of aircraft; aircraft engines; propellers. An applicant is entitled to a...aircraft, or an aircraft engine or propeller, ifâ (a) The product...

2013-01-01

418

Combat aircraft noise: The operator's perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Combat aircraft are not subject to the same noise reduction regulations as civil aircraft. Additionally, combat aircraft are operated closer to their performance limits and at high power settings for extended periods. There is general pressure to reduce noise of all kinds, but particularly noise from low flying aircraft. Although there is little that can be done to quiet in-service engines, operational palliatives, such as noise abatement procedures and restrictions on low flying, have been introduced. Moreover, there has been a concerted education and public relations campaign, and numerous airspace management changes have been introduced to reduce the impact of low flying on the population. These subjects were considered during a Pilot Study into aircraft noise under the auspices of the NATO Committee on the Challenges of Modern Society; the findings of the Study are discussed, giving both the international viewpoint and the UK perspective in particular. Some options for the reduction of low flying are also considered, but so long as military aircraft need to fly low to evade enemy air defences, low flying will remain a principal tactic of NATO air forces, and peacetime training will remain an essential military requirement. Thus, noise from low flying combat aircraft will remain a sensitive issue, and ways of reducing it will continue to be of importance for many years to come.

Bogg, R.

1992-04-01

419

Aircraft measurements of wave cloud  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, aircraft measurements are presented of liquid phase (ice-free) wave clouds made at temperatures greater than -5 °C that formed over Scotland, UK. The horizontal variations of the vertical velocity across wave clouds display a distinct pattern. The maximum updraughts occur at the upshear flanks of the clouds and the strong downdraughts at the downshear flanks. The cloud droplet concentrations were a couple of hundreds per cubic centimetres, and the drops generally had a mean diameter between 15-45 ?m. A small proportion of the drops were drizzle. A new definition of a mountain-wave cloud is given, based on the measurements presented here and previous studies. The results in this paper provide a case for future numerical simulation of wave cloud and the interaction between wave and clouds.

Cui, Z.; Blyth, A. M.; Bower, K. N.; Crosier, J.; Choularton, T.

2012-05-01

420

Aircraft measurements of wave clouds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, aircraft measurements are presented of liquid phase (ice-free) wave clouds made at temperatures greater than -5°C that formed over Scotland, UK. The horizontal variations of the vertical velocity across wave clouds display a distinct pattern. The maximum updraughts occur at the upshear flanks of the clouds and the strong downdraughts at the downshear flanks. The cloud droplet concentrations were a couple of hundreds per cubic centimetres, and the drops generally had a mean diameter between 15-45 ?m. A small proportion of the drops were drizzle. The measurements presented here and in previous recent studies suggest a different interaction of dynamics and microphysics in wave clouds from the accepted model. The results in this paper provide a case for future numerical simulation of wave cloud and the interaction between wave and cloud.

Cui, Z.; Blyth, A. M.; Bower, K. N.; Crosier, J.; Choularton, T.

2012-10-01

421

Supersonic and subsonic aircraft noise effects on animals: A literature survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We searched the literature concerning the effects of supersonic and subsonic aircraft noise on animals. Our search revealed many review papers of prior research accomplished, but few actual research papers. Out of all the reviews, Dufour's work is the most comprehensive. Many of the papers are anecdotal in nature and add little to our scientific knowledge - strictly circumstantial evidence. The literature reveals few effects on animals due to sonic booms. The effects of subsonic noise, however, needs much more investigation. One of the biggest problems with the research in this area is the lack of controls, lack of standardized ways of recording data and evaluating behaviors, and the number of variables involved. Specific recommendations to fill some of the technological gaps include a sonic boom study on a ground-nesting shorebird, effects of subsonic aircraft noise on endangered species, long term physiological effects causing immunosuppression, and noise versus visual aircraft stimuli effects.

Kull, Robert C., Jr.; Fisher, Alan D.

1986-12-01

422

The NASA SIERRA UAV: A new unmanned aircraft for earth science investigations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Science Instrumentation Evaluation Remote Research Aircraft (SIERRA) Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) makes use of a medium class, medium duration system designed by the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) to test new instruments and support NASA airborne science experiments. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Airborne Science Program (ASP), within the Science Missions Directorate, directed the NASA Ames Research Center to test a prototype to evaluate the utility to earth science experiments. This paper describes the aircraft system architecture, capabilities, and provides an overview of existing payloads and mission concepts that support earth science investigations in the areas of carbon cycling, boundary layer studies, and air/sea interaction in support of NASA satellite missions.

Fladeland, M. M.; Berthold, R.; Monforton, L.; Kolyer, R.; Lobitz, B.; Sumich, M.

2008-12-01

423

Siberian Biomass Burning Plumes Across the Pacific: Aircraft Observations in the Pacific Northwest  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the summer of 2003, we employed a small research aircraft to collect vertical profiles of O3, CO, and total aerosol scattering in the 0 to 6 km column along the northwestern coastline of Washington State. Surface observations were also made and are discussed in the presentation by Jaffe et al. We conducted nine research flights between May 27 and

I. Bertschi; D. Jaffe

2003-01-01

424

New fire\\/smoke detection and fire extinguishing systems for aircraft applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper gives an overview on the European Commission funded FIREDETEX Research Project. The project focuses on two aspects of aircraft fire protection: fire detection and fire suppression. New physical and chemical ways of detecting fire at an early stage will be investigated including detection in non-protected areas such as electronic bays. In the frame of halon replacement research the

Konstantin Michael Kallergis

2001-01-01

425

Applying eye tracking as an alternative approach for activation of controls and functions in aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently, controls in commercial aircraft flight decks are generally activated manually using a multitude of rotary knobs, levers, push-buttons, keyboards, etc. The complexity of modern flight decks and attempts in peak workload reduction drives research on alternative control technologies. Considerable research has been conducted by many agencies for the military regarding gaze tracking systems, speech recognizers, touch screens, gesture recognizers,

Sohel Merchant; Thomas Schnell

2000-01-01

426

The 1999 Leonid Multi-Instrument Aircraft Campaign - An Early Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two B707-type research aircraft of the 452nd Flight Test Squadron at Edwards Air Force Base were deployed to study the Leonid meteor storm of 1999 over the Mediterranean Sea on Nov. 18. The mission was sponsored by various science programs of NASA, and offered an international team of 35 researchers observing conditions free of clouds and low altitude extinction at

Peter Jenniskens; Steven J. Butow; Mark Fonda

1998-01-01

427

Collision avoidance for aircraft in abort landing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the collision avoidance between two aircraft flying in the same vertical plane: a host aircraft on a glide path and an intruder aircraft on a horizontal trajectory below that of the host aircraft and heading in the opposite direction. Assuming that the intruder aircraft is uncooperative, the host aircraft executes an optimal abort landing maneuver: it applies maximum thrust setting and maximum angle of attack lifting the flight path over the original path, thereby increasing the timewise minimum distance between the two aircraft and, in this way, avoiding the potential collision. In the presence of weak constraints on the aircraft and/or the environment, the angle of attack must be brought to the maximum value and kept there until the maximin point is reached. On the other hand, in the presence of strong constraints on the aircraft and the environment, desaturation of the angle of attack might have to take place before the maximin point is reached. This thesis includes four parts. In the first part, after an introduction and review of the available literature, we reformulate and solve the one-subarc Chebyshev maximin problem as a two-subarc Bolza-Pontryagin problem in which the avoidance and the recovery maneuvers are treated simultaneously. In the second part, we develop a guidance scheme (gamma guidance) capable of approximating the optimal trajectory in real time. In the third part, we present the algorithms employed to solve the one-subarc and two-subarc problems. In the fourth part, we decompose the two-subarc Bolza-Pontryagin problem into two one-subarc problems: the avoidance problem and the recovery problem, to be solved in sequence; remarkably, for problems where the ratio of total maneuver time to avoidance time is sufficiently large (?5), this simplified procedure predicts accurately the location of the maximin point as well as the maximin distance.

Mathwig, Jarret

428

World commercial aircraft accidents. Second edition, 1946--1992  

SciTech Connect

This report is a compilation of all accidents world-wide involving aircraft in commercial service which resulted in the loss of the airframe or one or more fatality, or both. This information has been gathered in order to present a complete inventory of commercial aircraft accidents. Events involving military action, sabotage, terrorist bombings, hijackings, suicides, and industrial ground accidents are included within this list. Included are: accidents involving world commercial jet aircraft, world commercial turboprop aircraft, world commercial pistonprop aircraft with four or more engines and world commercial pistonprop aircraft with two or three engines from 1946 to 1992. Each accident is presented with information in the following categories: date of the accident, airline and its flight numbers, type of flight, type of aircraft, aircraft registration number, construction number/manufacturers serial number, aircraft damage, accident flight phase, accident location, number of fatalities, number of occupants, cause, remarks, or description (brief) of the accident, and finally references used. The sixth chapter presents a summary of the world commercial aircraft accidents by major aircraft class (e.g. jet, turboprop, and pistonprop) and by flight phase. The seventh chapter presents several special studies including a list of world commercial aircraft accidents for all aircraft types with 100 or more fatalities in order of decreasing number of fatalities, a list of collision accidents involving commercial aircrafts, and a list of world commercial aircraft accidents for all aircraft types involving military action, sabotage, terrorist bombings, and hijackings.

Kimura, C.Y.

1993-01-01

429

Flight safety, aircraft vortex wake and airport operation capacity  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the major problems that challenge today's aeronautics is the problem of improving flight safety. A zone of increased hazard is the aerospace in the vicinity of an airport. Here, one of aircraft accidents' causes is wake turbulence generated by aircraft. The encountering of an aircraft on take-off or landing with the vortex wake of a preceding aircraft can

Victor V. Vyshinsky

2001-01-01

430

Improvements in teaching aircraft engine design  

SciTech Connect

Aircraft gas turbine analysis and design pedagogy can be enriched through the incorporation improved preliminary engine thrust and fuel consumption models, novel computer programs for both aircraft system analysis and turbomechanical design, and a new perspective for engine-cycle analysis. Four computer programs have been developed for preliminary engine design; two of these automate aircraft system analysis, while another designs multistage axial-flow compressors and the last designs multistage axial-flow turbines. Student confusion with 'design-point' and 'off-design' concepts is by these means reduced. 6 refs.

Mattingly, J.D.; Heiser, W.H. (Seattle, University, WA (United States) Tennessee, University, Tullahoma (United States))

1992-07-01

431

Crack detection on HU-25 Guardian aircraft  

SciTech Connect

An ultrasonic inspection method was developed at FAA`s Airworthiness Assurance NDI Validation Center (AANC) to easily and rapidly detect hidden fatigue cracks in the copilot vertical windshield post on USCG (Coast Guard) HU-25 `Guardian` aircraft. The inspection procedure locates hidden cracks as small as 3.2 mm emanating from internal fastener holes and determines their length. A test procedure was developed and a baseline assessment of the USCG fleet conducted. Inspection results on 41 aircraft revealed good correlation with results made during subsequent structural disassembly and visual inspection of selected aircraft.

Moore, D.G.; Jones, C.R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mihelic, J.E.; Dassler, E.; Walizer, J. [Coast Guard, Elizabeth City, NC (United States). Aircraft Repair and Supply Center

1996-10-01

432

Improving the efficiency of smaller transport aircraft  

SciTech Connect

Considered apart from its propulsive system the high altitude airplane itself adapted to higher flight altitudes than those in current use. Scaling on the assumption of constant aircraft density indicates that this conclusion applies most importantly to smaller transport aircraft. Climb to 60,000 ft could save time and energy for trips as short as 500 miles. A discussion of the effect of winglets on aircraft efficiency is presented. A 10% reduction of induced drag below that of a comparable elliptic wing can be achieved either by horizontal or vertical wing tip extensions.

Jones, R.T.

1984-07-01

433

Coverage of European air traffic for the Base Aircraft Data (BADA) revision 3.0. Report for January 1997-March 1998  

SciTech Connect

The air traffic statistics from the CFMU for December 1997 and January 1998 are used to determine the coverage of European air traffic by the Base of Aircraft Data (BADA) Revision 3.0. BADA consists of a set of aircraft models used at the EEC and other European research institutes for aircraft trajectory simulation. The results show that the 67 aircraft types within BADA 3.0 cover 89.4% of the European air traffic. The addition of 1 type would bring the coverage to the target of 90%.

Bos, A.

1998-03-01

434

Regional carbon dioxide fluxes from aircraft measurements in southwest France  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2007, the CarboEurope-IP Regional Component organised the second edition of the CERES measurement campaign in the southwest of France. This was a follow-up of the initial campaign in 2005. CERES'07 consisted of two intensive observational periods (IOPs), of which one in spring and the other one in summer. During both IOPs, ground stations, tall towers, radiosondes and a number of aircrafts were used, including our own environmental research aircraft (ERA). The ERA is a small aircraft flying at low altitudes and low air speeds, equipped to measure fluxes of carbon dioxide, latent heat and sensible heat using the eddy-correlation technique. In addition, instruments are on board for measuring ground temperature, net radiation and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). Flux data obtained with the ERA during CERES'07 have been analyzed and will be presented here. In the data analysis, we present regional fluxes of carbon dioxide focussing at seasonal trends in relation to landscape elements. To achieve this, flight tracks were split into homogeneous segments based on land cover, topography and soil type. During both IOPs, weather conditions were constant. This gives us the possibility to average data in each segment across all flights, though the issue of diurnal variation in surface fluxes and radiation still remains. In short, the analysis strategy on our airborne flux data from CERES'07 will be addressed in this presentation together with its results focussing at drivers for these fluxes at landscape scale.

Vellinga, O. S.; Hutjes, R. W. A.; Elbers, J. A.

2009-04-01

435

Large-scale design of supersonic aircraft via collaborative optimization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design of supersonic aircraft requires complex analysis in multiple disciplines, posing a challenge for multidisciplinary optimization methods. In this thesis, collaborative optimization, a design architecture developed to solve large-scale multidisciplinary design problems, is applied to the design of supersonic transport concepts. Collaborative optimization, takes advantage of natural disciplinary segmentation to facilitate parallel execution of design tasks. Discipline-specific design optimization proceeds while a coordinating mechanism ensures progress toward an optimum and compatibility between disciplinary designs. Two concepts for supersonic aircraft are investigated: a conventional delta-wing design and a natural laminar flow concept that achieves improved performance by exploiting properties of supersonic flow to delay boundary layer transition. The work involves the development of aerodynamics and structural analyses, and integration within a collaborative optimization framework. Response surface estimation and reduced basis modeling were used to reduce the computational expense of the optimization and to ensure smooth analytic gradients. Both design problems converged successfully. In each problem, the system optimizer minimized aircraft take-off weight with respect to global and disciplinary design variables, subject to aeroelastic and performance constraints. In previous work, the method successfully solved simple and medium fidelity problems. The current work demonstrates collaborative optimization with large-scale designs using industry-standard analyses. The research shows that collaborative optimization is a valuable method for large-scale design, ready for real-world implementation.

Manning, Valerie Michelle

436

41 CFR 102-33.90 - What is the process for budgeting to acquire a Federal aircraft (including a Federal aircraft...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...the process for budgeting to acquire a Federal aircraft (including a Federal aircraft transferred from another executive agency...PERSONAL PROPERTY 33-MANAGEMENT OF GOVERNMENT AIRCRAFT Acquiring Government Aircraft and...

2013-01-01

437

Precise Aircraft-to-Aircraft Positioning Using a Multiple Receiver Configuration  

Microsoft Academic Search

A configuration of four IO-channel single frequency C\\/A code narrow correlator spacing receivers is used to position two aircraft with respect to each other. The platforms used are U.S. Navy P-3 Orion aircraft cruising at speeds of 300 knots. Two receivers are mounted on each aircraft, with one antenna mounted on the fuselage and the other some 20 m aft

G. Lachapelle; H. Sun; M. E. Cannon; G. Lu

1994-01-01

438

Highly accurate FTIR observations from the scanning HIS aircraft instrument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Development in the mid 80s of the High-resolution Interferometer Sounder (HIS) instrument for the high altitude NASA ER2 aircraft demonstrated the capability for advanced atmospheric temperature and water vapor sounding and set the stage for new satellite instruments that are now becoming a reality [AIRS(2002), CrIS(2006), IASI(2006), GIFTS(200?), HES(2013)]. Follow-on developments at the University of Wisconsin that employ Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) for Earth observations include the ground-based Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) and the new Scanning HIS aircraft instrument. The Scanning HIS is a smaller version of the original HIS that uses cross-track scanning to enhance spatial coverage. Scanning HIS and its close cousin, the NPOESS Airborne Sounder Testbed (NAST), are being used for satellite instrument validation and for atmospheric research. A novel detector configuration on Scanning HIS allows the incorporation of a single focal plane and cooler with three or four spectral bands that view the same spot on the ground. The calibration accuracy of the S-HIS and results from recent field campaigns are presented, including validation comparisons with the NASA EOS infrared observations (AIRS and MODIS). Aircraft comparisons of this type provide a mechanism for periodically testing the absolute calibration of spacecraft instruments with instrumentation for which the calibration can be carefully maintained on the ground. This capability is especially valuable for assuring the long-term consistency and accuracy of climate observations, including those from the NASA EOS spacecrafts (Terra, Aqua and Aura) and the new complement of NPOESS operational instruments. It is expected that aircraft flights of the S-HIS and the NAST will be used to check the long-term stability of AIRS and the NPOESS operational follow-on sounder, the Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS), over the life of the mission.

Revercomb, Henry E.; Tobin, David C.; Knuteson, Robert O.; Best, Fred A.; Smith, William L., Sr.; van Delst, Paul F. W.; LaPorte, Daniel D.; Ellington, Scott D.; Werner, Mark W.; Dedecker, Ralph G.; Garcia, Raymond K.; Ciganovich, Nick N.; Howell, Hugh B.; Olson, Erik R.; Dutcher, Steven B.; Taylor, Joseph K.

2005-01-01

439

Aircraft engine emissions estimator. Final report, January 1983-September 1985  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this effort is to revise the Aircraft Emission Estimation Techniques (ACEE) Handbook to reflect changes in the Air Force aircraft inventory that have occurred since 1975. A complete listing of current Air Force aircraft and their associated engines is included. Emission factors for most of these engines are provided, along with examples for calculating emissions from aircraft operations, and analyzing their impact. This report supersedes CEEDO-TR-78-33, Aircraft Emission Estimation Techniques (ACEE).

Seitchek, G.D.

1985-11-01

440

A feasibility study on the use of ethanol/automotive gasoline blends in general aviation aircraft  

SciTech Connect

Considering the rising cost and diminished availability of 100-octane, low-lead (100 LL) aviation gasoline, owners of aircraft certified for 100 LL may be forced to find an alternative fuel in the near future. This study proposes a blend of 200-proof anhydrous ethanol ($1.70 per gallon) and automotive gasoline ($1.15 per gallon) as a replacement for aviation gasoline ($1.90 per gallon). The research program included materials compatibility tests, Cooperative Fuel Research engine tests, static thrust tests, and a flight test to determine the feasibility of such a blend as a fuel for an unmodified aircraft engine.

Hughes, L.J.; Kimberlin, R.D.

1986-01-01

441

A CFD/CSD interaction methodology for aircraft wings  

SciTech Connect

With advanced subsonic transports and military aircraft operating in the transonic regime, it is becoming important to determine the effects of the coupling between aerodynamic loads and elastic forces. Since aeroelastic effects can significantly impact the design of these aircraft, there is a strong need in the aerospace industry to predict these interactions computationally. Such an analysis in the transonic regime requires high fidelity computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis tools, due to the nonlinear behavior of the aerodynamics in the transonic regime and also high fidelity computational structural dynamics (CSD) analysis tools. Also, there is a need to be able to use a wide variety of CFD and CSD methods to predict aeroelastic effects. Since source codes are not always available, it is necessary to couple the CFD and CSD codes without alteration of the source codes. In this study, an aeroelastic coupling procedure is developed to determine the static aeroelastic response of aircraft wings using any CFD and CSD code with little code integration. The aeroelastic coupling procedure is demonstrated on an F/A-18 Stabilator using NASTD (an in-house McDonnell Douglas CFD code) and NASTRAN. In addition, the Aeroelastic Research Wing (ARW-2) is used for demonstration of the aeroelastic coupling procedure by using ENSAERO (NASA Ames Research Center CFD code) and a finite element wing-box code. The results obtained from the present study are compared with those available from an experimental study conducted at NASA Langley Research Center and a study conducted at NASA Ames Research Center using ENSAERO and modal superposition. The results compare well with experimental data.

Bhardwaj, M.K.; Kapania, R.K. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States); Reichenbach, E. [Boeing Co., St. Louis, MO (United States); Guruswamy, G.P. [NASA, Moffett Field, CA (United States). Ames Research Center

1998-01-01

442

Aerodynamic Interference Effects on Tilting Proprotor Aircraft.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Green's function method was used to study tilting proprotor aircraft aerodynamics with particular application to the problem of the mutual interference of the wing-fuselage-tail-rotor wake configuration. While the formulation is valid for fully unstea...

P. Soohoo L. Morino R. B. Noll N. D. Ham

1977-01-01

443

Theoretical Analysis of Aircraft Electrostatic Discharge.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The general problem of aircraft electrostatic charging and one of the more efficient discharger systems presently available are discussed. Methods of discharger system design and analysis are developed and stated for this system. These methods are incorpo...

J. de la Cierva H. J. Gillis P. B. Wilson

1965-01-01

444

Digital Glass Cockpit for Commuter Aircraft.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The evolution of cockpit information systems is described and an outlook on future generation smaller and more cost and weight sensitive aircrafts is derived. Systems architecture and display formats are described. The A-310 and A-320 systems were address...

H. Kister

1989-01-01

445

Wireless Network Simulation in Aircraft Cabins.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An electromagnetic propagation prediction tool was used to predict electromagnetic field strength inside airplane cabins. A commercial software package, Wireless Insite, was used to predict power levels inside aircraft cabins and the data was compared wit...

M. Youssef L. Vahala J. H. Beggs

2004-01-01

446

Emerging nondestructive inspection methods for aging aircraft  

SciTech Connect

This report identifies and describes emerging nondestructive inspection (NDI) methods that can potentially be used to inspect commercial transport and commuter aircraft for structural damage. The nine categories of emerging NDI techniques are: acoustic emission, x-ray computed tomography, backscatter radiation, reverse geometry x-ray, advanced electromagnetics, including magnetooptic imaging and advanced eddy current techniques, coherent optics, advanced ultrasonics, advanced visual, and infrared thermography. The physical principles, generalized performance characteristics, and typical applications associated with each method are described. In addition, aircraft inspection applications are discussed along with the associated technical considerations. Finally, the status of each technique is presented, with a discussion on when it may be available for use in actual aircraft maintenance programs. It should be noted that this is a companion document to DOT/FAA/CT-91/5, Current Nondestructive Inspection Methods for Aging Aircraft.

Beattie, A.; Dahlke, L.; Gieske, J. [and others

1994-01-01

447

Military display market segment: aircraft cockpits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The military display market is analyzed in terms of one of its segments, aircraft cockpits. Parameters that require special consideration, such as luminance ranges, light emission/viewing angles, and chromaticity coordinates, are examined.

Desjardins, Daniel D.; Hopper, Darrel G.

2001-09-01

448

Design of Aircraft Electric Power Supply Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes the possible variations of aircraft electric power systems. It discusses the merits and faults of types of current, generators, equipment, conductors, drives. Numerous circuit diagrams show how to avoid catastrophy in case of failure ...

G. D. Vlasov

1969-01-01

449

Consideration of Materials for Aircraft Brakes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An exploratory investigation was conducted concerning materials and their properties for use in aircraft brakes. Primary consideration was given to the heat dissipation and the frictional behavior of materials. Used brake pads and rotors were analyzed as ...

M. B. Peterson T. Ho

1972-01-01

450

Aircraft Towing Feasibility Study. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Energy costs and availability are major concerns in most parts of the world. Many ways of increasing energy supply and reducing consumption are being proposed and investigated. One that holds considerable promise is the extended towing of aircraft between...

1980-01-01

451

Treatment of Phenolic Aircraft Paint Stripping Wastewater.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A laboratory investigation was conducted to determine the optimum economic and technological treatment process to employ for treating large volumes of phenolic aircraft and ground equipment paint stripping wastewater. Three candidate unit processes were s...

R. H. Kroop

1973-01-01

452

Theoretical Fundamentals of the Aircraft GTE Tests.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We discuss the methodology of a new scientific theory taking as an example the aircraft gas turbine engine (GTE) tests. We formulate a theory of construction principles and practical approaches to the problem.

Y. V. Kozhevnikov

1993-01-01

453

Aircraft Flight Instrumentation Integrated Data Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Requirements for aircraft integrated data systems--A survey of operational flight recording in the United Kingdom; Use of in-flight data recording for the air forces of Central Europe; Airline requirements regarding total system flexibility aids...

D. Bosman

1967-01-01

454

INVESTIGATION OF RADM PERFORMANCE USING AIRCRAFT MEASUREMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Measurements using specially instrumented aircraft were obtained during August and September, 1988 as an integral part of the ACID MODES (Model Operational and Diagnostic Evaluation Study) field study. pecialized flights, each designed to diagnose different aspects of the perform...

455

48 CFR 908.7102 - Aircraft.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 908.7102 Section 908.7102 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY COMPETITION ACQUISITION PLANNING REQUIRED SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND SERVICES Acquisition of Special Items 908.7102 Aircraft....

2011-10-01

456

48 CFR 908.7102 - Aircraft.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 908.7102 Section 908.7102 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY COMPETITION ACQUISITION PLANNING REQUIRED SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND SERVICES Acquisition of Special Items 908.7102 Aircraft....

2012-10-01

457

Foreign Technology Alert Bibliography: Aircraft Technology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document provides a systematically organised collection of abstracts from the NTIS bibliographic data base relating to fixed wing and rotary wing aircraft technology, but only describing work originating from countries outside the USA. A tailored sea...

G. Wilkinson

1982-01-01

458

Radiotracer Study of Turbine Aircraft Fuel Stability.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A radiotracer method was developed for detecting the contribution of selected components and additives to thermally induce deposits of turbine aircraft fuels. Fuels were examined before and after 52 weeks of storage at 130F. Of particular concern was the ...

C. C. Ward F. O. Cotton J. W. Goetzinger M. L. Whisman

1971-01-01

459

Study of Fretting Fatigue in Aircraft Components.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis presents theoretical computational, and experimental approaches to the problem of fretting fatigue in materials systems relevant to aircraft components. The basic contact mechanics for fretting fatigue in a sphere-plane contact geometry are re...

P. R. Birch

1998-01-01

460

Intelligent Collaborative Aging Aircraft Parts Support.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Department of Defense (DoD) depot-level maintenance activities often experience delays in obtaining consumable repair and replacement parts for aging aircraft systems and components. As part of a concerted effort to reduce these delays, the Defense Logist...

D. A. Calderwood L. P. Forsley R. L. Jordan G. D. Williams

2002-01-01

461

Lateral attenuation of aircraft flight noise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report reviews models for calculating the lateral attenuation of aircraft flight noise, in particular, the change in attenuation for different elevation angles varying from aircraft directly overhead (90 deg. elevation angle) to a zero elevation angle. Sets of noise spectrum-dependent lateral attenuation values derived from theory and from experimental flight measurements were applied to sets of different aircraft noise spectra to determine A-level differences with elevation angle. The lateral attenuation based on the experimental data showed appreciably greater attenuation, but still less attenuation than the SAE model currently incorporated in the Integrated Noise Model (INM) aircraft noise computer program. Based on the experimental curves, a new generalized transition model was developed and is recommended as a replacement for current NOISEMAP lateral transition algorithm.

Bishop, D. E.

1985-03-01

462

Advisory Circular: Corrosion Control for Aircraft.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Identification and treatment of corrosive attack on aircraft structure and engine materials is presented. Corrosion inspection frequency, corrosion identification, and corrosion treatment continues to be the responsibility of the operator and should be ac...

1991-01-01

463

Service Evaluation of Aircraft Experimental Fasteners.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An investigation was made of the degree of protection against corrosion provided to aircraft fasteners by high purity aluminum coatings versus the normal treatments - cadmium plating on steel and anodize on aluminum. Fasteners included aluminum and titani...

W. C. Herron

1967-01-01

464

Enroute Performance Assurance from User Aircraft Tracks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method of using the NAS Enroute Stage A equipment to assure enroute navigation facility alignment is described. Frequent and continued updating of the alignment is accomplished by this technique without the use of special aircraft or flights, distractio...

J. Lovell F. Perz

1973-01-01

465

Tribological Systems as Applied to Aircraft Engines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Tribological systems as applied to aircraft are reviewed. The importance of understanding the fundamental concepts involved in such systems is discussed. Basic properties of materials which can be related to adhesion, friction and wear are presented and c...

D. H. Buckley

1985-01-01

466

Crashworthy Design of Aircraft Subfloor Structural Components.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Subfloor beams and bulkheads in aircraft structures are designed to carry longitudinal and shear loads resulting from fuselage bending and torsion. In crashes however, the subfloor is highly loaded in compression and shear. Especially the intersections of...

C. Kindervater H. Georgi U. Koerber

1988-01-01

467

C-29A Aircraft Altimeter Errors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report documents the results of a study initiated to solve problems with pressure altimeter errors (differences between indicated and true altitude) aboard Air Force C-29A flight inspection aircraft. A basic review of altimetry is provided, along wit...

W. R. Schaub

1991-01-01

468

Tips for Travel and Aircraft Flight  

MedlinePLUS

Tips for Travel and Aircraft Flight Judith Casley-Smith, Ph.D. [We found the following information invaluable ... to travel, especially by air. Though Dr. Casley-Smith speaks primarily to the Australian population, these guidelines ...

469

Decentralized aircraft landing scheduling at single runway non-controlled airports  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The existing air transportation system is approaching a bottleneck because its dominant hub-and-spoke model results in a concentration of a large percentage of the air traffic at a few hub airports. Advanced technologies are greatly needed to enhance the transportation capabilities of the small airports in the U.S.A., and distribute the high volume of air traffic at the hub airports to those small airports, which are mostly non-controlled airports. Currently, two major focus areas of research are being pursued to achieve this objective. One focus concentrates on the development of tools to improve operations in the current Air Traffic Management system. A more long-term research effort focuses on the development of decentralized Air Traffic Management techniques. This dissertation takes the latter approach and seeks to analyze the degree of decentralization for scheduling aircraft landings in the dynamic operational environment at single runway non-controlled airports. Moreover, it explores the feasibility and capability of scheduling aircraft landings within uninterrupted free-flight environment in which there is no existence of Air Traffic Control (ATC). First, it addresses the approach of developing static optimization algorithms for scheduling aircraft landings and, thus, analyzes the capability of automated aircraft landing scheduling at single runway non-controlled airports. Then, it provides detailed description of the implementation of a distributed Air Traffic Management (ATM) system that achieves decentralized aircraft landing scheduling with acceptable performance whereas a solution to the distributed coordination issues is presented. Finally real-time Monte Carlo flight simulations of multi-aircraft landing scenarios are conducted to evaluate the static and dynamic performance of the aircraft landing scheduling algorithms and operation concepts introduced. Results presented in the dissertation demonstrate that decentralized aircraft landing scheduling at single runway non-controlled airports can be achieved. It is shown from the flight simulations that reasonable performance of decentralized aircraft landing scheduling is achieved with successful integration of publisher/subscriber communication scheme and aircraft landing scheduling model. The extension from the non-controlled airport application to controlled airport case is expected with suitable amendment, where the reliance on centralized air traffic management can be reduced gradually in favor of a decentralized management to provide more airspace capacity, flight flexibility, and increase operation robustness.

Ding, Yuanyuan

470

Modelling of Bird Strike on an Aircraft Wing Leading Edge Made from Fibre Metal Laminates – Part 2: Modelling of Impact with SPH Bird Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fibre Metal Laminates with layers of aluminium alloy and high strength glass fibre composite have been reported to possess excellent impact properties and be suitable for aircraft parts likely to be subjected to impacts such as runway debris or bird strikes. In a collaborative research project, aircraft wing leading edge structures with a glass-based FML skin have been designed, built,

M. A. McCarthy; J. R. Xiao; C. T. McCarthy; A. Kamoulakos; J. Ramos; J. P. Gallard; V. Melito

2004-01-01

471

Aircraft Electric Power-Supply System  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ever increasing demand for electric power in aircraft has been felt for some time. The necessity of using an electric storage battery started the practice of accompanying it with a d-c generator, first of low current and voltage capacity, later of 50-ampere 12-volt rating, and for the past few years of 200-ampere 24-volt output. In the largest four-engine aircraft,

J. E. Yarmack

1943-01-01

472

Simulation of commercial-aircraft reliability  

Microsoft Academic Search

By applying Monte Carlo simulation methods, a simulation model is established which considers factors such as the reliability and maintainability (R&M) characteristics of the aircraft, weather conditions, management, flight dispatching, number of aircraft, route structure, maintenance level, personnel skills, spare parts supply, and so forth. The analysis results can provide the decision-making basis to improve a product's R&M for manufacturers

Weimin Yang; Yuan Zhu; Qingci Tu; Yixing Sheng

1991-01-01

473

Problems with aging wiring in Naval aircraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Navy is experiencing a severe aircraft electrical wiring maintenance problem as a result of the extensive use of an aromatic polyimide insulation that is deteriorating at a rate that was unexpected when this wire was initially selected. This problem has significantly affected readiness, reliability, and safety and has greatly increased the cost of ownership of Naval aircraft. Failures in wire harnesses have exhibited arcing and burning that will propagate drastically, to the interruption of many electrical circuits from a fault initiated by the failure of deteriorating wires. There is an urgent need for a capability to schedule aircraft rewiring in an orderly manner with a logically derived determination of which aircraft have aged to the point of absolute necessity. Excessive maintenance was demonstrated to result from the accelerated aging due to the parameters of moisture, temperature, and strain that exist in the Naval Aircraft environment. Laboratory studies have demonstrated that MIL-W-81381 wire insulation when aged at high humidities followed the classical Arrhenius thermal aging relationship. In an extension of the project a multifactor formula was developed that is now capable of predicting life under varying conditions of these service parameters. An automated test system has also been developed to analyze the degree of deterioration that has occurred in wires taken from an aircraft in order to obtain an assessment of remaining life. Since it is both physically and financially impossible to replace the wiring in all the Navy's aircraft at once, this system will permit expedient scheduling so that those aircraft that are most probable to have wiring failure problems can be overhauled first.

Campbell, Frank J.

1994-09-01

474

Flight Safety Aircraft Risk: A Growing Problem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years there has been a growing awareness of the need to have appropriate criteria for protection of aircraft from debris resulting from the flight termination of a malfunctioning space booster. There have been several sequences of events that have interacted to bring us to the current risk management problem. With the advent of the US initiative to have common flight safety analysis processes and criteria, it was recognized that the traditional aircraft protection approach was inadequate. It did not consider the added public concern for catastrophic events. While the probability may have been small for downing a large commercial passenger plane, the public outrage if it happened would not be adequately measured by the individual risk to passengers nor the collective (societal risk) presented by a single airplane. Over a period of a number of years the US has developed and evolved a criterion to address catastrophic risk protection. Beginning in the same time period, it was recognized the assertion that all debris with masses greater than one gram were lethal to aircraft was unduly conservative. Over this same period initiatives have been developed to refine aircraft vulnerability models. There were, however, two significant unconservative assumptions that were made in the early years. It was presumed that significant risk to aircraft could only occur in the launch area. In addition, aircraft risk assessments, when they were made were based on debris lists designed to protect people on the ground (typically debris with an impact kinetic energy greater than 11 ft-lb). Good debris lists for aircraft protection do not yet exist. However, it has become increasingly clear that even with partial breakup lists large regions were required from which aircraft flight would be restricted using the normal exclusion approaches. We provide a review of these events and an indication of the way forward.

Haber, J. M.

2012-01-01

475

Structureborne noise control in advanced turboprop aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structureborne noise is discussed as a contributor to propeller aircraft interior noise levels that are nonresponsive to the application of a generous amount of cabin sidewall acoustic treatment. High structureborne noise levels may jeopardize passenger acceptance of the fuel-efficient high-speed propeller transport aircraft designed for cruise at Mach 0.65 to 0.85. These single-rotation tractor and counter-rotation tractor and pusher propulsion

Irvin J. Loeffler

1987-01-01

476

A Landing Radio Altimeter for Small Aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

An accurate radio altimeter with a dual-channel (quadrature) homodyne receiver is presented in this article. This new design improves the accuracy while operating in the standard 4.3 GHz radio-altimeter allocation. The new radio altimeter is intended as a landing aid for small general-aviation aircraft, experimental aircraft and UAVs and is equipped with a simple synthesized-voice human interface

M. Vidmar

2006-01-01

477

Distributed radar sensors for aircraft detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radars suitable for aircraft detection could be deployed on singlet space-based interceptor (SBI) platforms. They could operate at short ranges and still achieve useful search rates. Powers are modest and insensitive to frequency; the dominant costs are the pulsers and phased-array elements. A fundamental simplification results from mounting the radar on the life jacket rather than the SBI. Many satellites could be processed to derive aircraft trajectories sufficiently accurate for the commitment of fighters or defensive missiles.

Canavan, G. H.

1991-04-01

478

Lateral attenuation of military aircraft flight noise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results are presented of measurements on the noise propagated to the side of military aircraft during a series of controlled level flyovers. Data were acquired on attack/fighter aircraft (A-10A, F4D, F-5E, F-15, F-16, and F-18); bomber aircraft (B-52G and FB-111); cargo/tanker aircraft (C-18, C-141, KC-10A, KC-135A, and KC-135R); and special purpose aircraft (C-21 and E-3A). In addition to the normal attenuation provided by wave divergence (spherical spreading) and atmospheric absorption, noise propagated laterally to the ground from aircraft during flight is further reduced by the combination of several other frequency dependent phenomena such as ground, meteorological, forward flight, and engine/airplane installation effects. Airbase/airport noise models typically define this extra lateral attenuation for single event measures such as the Sound Exposure Level as a function of the elevation angle as viewed from a given location on the ground. Based on the results of these data, a new algorithm was developed and incorporated in the Air Force NOISEMAP model.

Speakman, Jerry D.

1989-07-01

479

41 CFR 102-33.390 - What information must we report on Government aircraft?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 33-MANAGEMENT OF GOVERNMENT AIRCRAFT Reporting Information on Government Aircraft...report the following information to GSA, Aircraft Management Policy...

2013-01-01

480

14 CFR 135.338 - Qualifications: Flight instructors (aircraft) and flight instructors (simulator).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Qualifications: Flight instructors (aircraft) and flight instructors (simulator...RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Training § 135.338 Qualifications: Flight instructors (aircraft) and flight instructors...

2013-01-01

481

14 CFR 65.104 - Repairman certificate-experimental aircraft builder-Eligibility, privileges and limitations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Repairman certificate-experimental aircraft builder-Eligibility, privileges... Repairman certificateâexperimental aircraft builderâEligibility...a repairman certificate (experimental aircraft builder), an individual...

2013-01-01

482

14 CFR 65.104 - Repairman certificate-experimental aircraft builder-Eligibility, privileges and limitations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Repairman certificate-experimental aircraft builder-Eligibility, privileges... Repairman certificateâexperimental aircraft builderâEligibility...a repairman certificate (experimental aircraft builder), an individual...

2009-01-01

483

14 CFR 65.104 - Repairman certificate-experimental aircraft builder-Eligibility, privileges and limitations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Repairman certificate-experimental aircraft builder-Eligibility, privileges... Repairman certificateâexperimental aircraft builderâEligibility...a repairman certificate (experimental aircraft builder), an individual...

2010-01-01

484

Parabolic flight experiments on physiological data acquisition and processing technologies using small jet aircraft (MU300).  

PubMed

The parabolic aircraft flight provides a short low gravity environment for approximately 20 seconds, which may not be sufficient for a research on the physiological phenomenon induced by actual weightlessness in space. However, the method is still useful to reveal essential and characteristic feature of physiological signs, and is available for testing hardware and also training of crew member during altered gravity. This paper reports the summary of parabolic flight experiments recently conducted as a NASDA program (1990-1992). The program is providing opportunities in low gravity research with small jet aircraft for researchers and agencies. The flight experiments in the life science area have been conducted mostly focused on a physiological changes and basic methodology which may be effective under the altered gravity condition. In this study, the following research team, NASDA, Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Nagoya University, Toyohashi University of Technology, Tokyo Metropolitan Hospital, Torey Research Center and JSUP were involved and coordinated for the research. PMID:11538779

Watanabe, S; Nagaoka, S; Usui, S; Miyamoto, A; Suzuki, H; Hirata, T; Yoshimoto, S; Ueno, T; Kojima, T; Yamagata, M; Ishikura, S

1994-05-01

485

Radiant Energy Power Source for Jet Aircraft. Final performance report  

SciTech Connect

This report beings with a historical overview on the origin and early beginnings of Radiant Energy Power Source for Jet Aircraft. The report reviews the work done in Phase I (Grant DE-FG01-82CE-15144) and then gives a discussion of Phase II (Grant DE-FG01-86CE-15301). Included is a reasonably detailed discussion of photovoltaic cells and the research and development needed in this area. The report closes with a historical perspective and summary related to situations historically encountered on projects of this nature. 15 refs.

Doellner, O.L.

1992-02-01

486

Flow simulation and shape optimization for aircraft design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within the framework of the German aerospace research program, the CFD project MEGADESIGN was initiated. The main goal of the project is the development of efficient numerical methods for shape design and optimization. In order to meet the requirements of industrial implementations a co-operative effort has been set up which involves the German aircraft industry, the DLR, several universities and some small enterprises specialized in numerical optimization. This paper outlines the planned activities within MEGADESIGN, the status at the beginning of the project and it presents some early results achieved in the project.

Kroll, Norbert; Gauger, Nicolas R.; Brezillon, Joel; Dwight, Richard; Fazzolari, Antonio; Vollmer, Daniel; Becker, Klaus; Barnewitz, Holger; Schulz, Volker; Hazra, Subhendu

2007-06-01

487

Fast-Time Simulation Environment for Airborne Merging and Spacing Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As part of NASA's Distributed Air/Ground Traffic Management (DAG-TM) effort, NASA Langley Research Center is developing concepts and algorithms for merging multiple aircraft arrival streams and precisely spacing aircraft over the runway threshold. An airb...

F. J. L. Bussink N. A. Doble B. E. Barmore S. Singer

2005-01-01

488

Safety of Aircraft Exposed to Electromagnetic Fields: HIRF Testing of Aircraft Using Direct Current Injection.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Even the original developers of Bulk Current Injection now make the point that the use of BCI at aircraft level will become increasingly difficult. Direct Current Injection has the potential to replace aircraft level BCI, while also solving many of the lo...

C. Leat

2007-01-01

489

78 FR 65554 - Exhaust Emission Standards for New Aircraft Turbine Engines and Identification Plate for Aircraft...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...45 [Docket No.: FAA-2012-1333; Amendment No. 34-5A] RIN 2120-AK15 Exhaust Emission Standards for New Aircraft Turbine Engines and Identification Plate for Aircraft Engines Correction In rule document 2013-24712, appearing on pages...

2013-11-01

490

Solar-Powered Aircraft: Cruciform wing allows aircraft to keep solar cells perpendicular to Sun.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This citation summarizes a one-page announcement of technology available for utilization. A proposed solar-powdered aircraft, driven by an electric motor, would have vertical and horizontal wings. This design would allow the aircraft to fly in a straight ...

1981-01-01

491

63 FR 20143 - Airworthiness Directives; All Models of The New Piper Aircraft, Inc. (Formerly Piper Aircraft...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; All Models of The New Piper Aircraft, Inc...93-10-06, which currently applies to all models of The New Piper Aircraft, Inc...triplicate to the address specified above. All communications received on or before...

1998-04-23

492

Comparison of on-board aircraft NiCad battery chargers. Report for June 1978-May 1979  

SciTech Connect

A test was conducted at the Applied Technology Laboratory at Fort Eustis, Virginia to establish the performance characteristics of several on-board aircraft NiCad battery chargers. The test assessed performance characteristics of chargers from Utah Research and Development Company, Aerospace Avionics Corp., Eldec Corp., and Chrysler Corp. These performance characteristics were also compared to the battery performance associated with a simulated aircraft bus charging source. Adjunct tests investigated battery maintenance procedures.

Dickinson, J.D.

1980-01-01

493

Systematic analysis of aircraft separation requirements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Minimum separation standards are necessary for safety in the air traffic control system. At the same time, minimum separation standards constrain the flow of air traffic and cause delays that translate to millions of dollars in fuel costs. Two necessary separation standards are defined. Then, practical methods for calculating the minimum required size of these separation standards are presented. First, the protected zone is considered. The protected zone represents a region around a given aircraft that no other aircraft should penetrate for the safety of both aircraft. It defines minimum separation requirements. Three major components of the protected zone and their interplays are identified: a vortex region, a safety buffer region, and a state-uncertainty region. A systematic procedure is devised for the analysis of the state-uncertainty region. In particular, models of trajectory controls are developed that can be used to represent different modes of pilot and/or autopilot controls, such as path feedback and non-path feedback. Composite protected zones under various conditions are estimated, and effective ways to reduce sizes of protected zones for advanced air traffic management are examined. In order to maintain minimum separation standards between two aircraft, proper avoidance maneuvers must be initiated before their relative separation reaches the minimum separation due to aircraft dynamics, controller and pilot response delays, etc. The concept of the required action threshold is presented. It is defined as the advanced time for which the conflict resolution process must begin in order to maintain minimum separation requirements. Five main segments in the process of conflict resolution are identified, discussed, and modeled: state information acquisition, comprehension and decision, communication, pilot response, and aircraft maneuver. Each of the five segments is modeled via a time constant. Time estimates for the first four segments are obtained from available literature. The aircraft maneuver time constant is evaluated through extensive simulation work, which considers the effects of the uncertainties involved in aircraft flight, different aircraft conflict geometries and the use of different control authorities in preventing the conflict. The models and simulation are then used to determine ranges in estimates for the required action threshold.

Ennis, Rachelle Lea

2005-12-01

494

Indoor air quality investigation on commercial aircraft.  

PubMed

Sixteen flights had been investigated for indoor air quality (IAQ) on Cathay Pacific aircraft from June 1996 to August 1997. In general, the air quality on Cathay Pacific aircraft was within relevant air quality standards because the average age of aircraft was less than 2 years. Carbon dioxide (CO2) levels on all flights measured were below the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) standard (30,000 ppm). The CO2 level was substantially higher during boarding and de-boarding than cruise due to low fresh air supply. Humidity on the aircraft was low, especially for long-haul flights. Minimum humidity during cruise was below the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) minimum humidity standard (20%). The average temperature was within a comfortable temperature range of 23 +/- 2 degrees C. The vertical temperature profile on aircraft was uniform and below the International Standard Organization (ISO) standard. Carbon monoxide levels were below the FAA standard (50 ppm). Trace amount of ozone detected ranged from undetectable to 90 ppb, which was below the FAA standard. Particulate level was low for most non-smoking flights, but peaks were observed during boarding and de-boarding. The average particulate level in smoking flights (138 micrograms/m3) was higher than non-smoking flights (7.6 micrograms/m3). The impact on IAQ by switching from low-mode to high-mode ventilation showed a reduction in CO2 levels, temperature, and relative humidity. PMID:10439555

Lee, S C; Poon, C S; Li, X D; Luk, F

1999-09-01

495

Behavior of Very Large Aircraft Disturbed by Wind Shear and Atmospheric Turbulence.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The behavior of very large aircraft disturbed by wind shear and atmospheric turbulence (vertical gust during the landing approach) is analyzed by means of a multiloop system. The aircraft considered were a B-747-like aircraft and two hypothetical aircraft...

W. P. Deboer

1972-01-01

496

41 CFR 102-33.50 - Under what circumstances may we acquire Government aircraft?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Under what circumstances may we acquire Government aircraft? 102-33.50 Section 102-33...REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 33-MANAGEMENT OF GOVERNMENT AIRCRAFT Acquiring Government Aircraft and Aircraft Parts Overview...

2013-01-01

497

41 CFR 102-33.45 - What is a Government aircraft?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false What is a Government aircraft? 102-33.45 Section 102-33...REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 33-MANAGEMENT OF GOVERNMENT AIRCRAFT Acquiring Government Aircraft and Aircraft Parts Overview...

2013-01-01

498

41 CFR 102-33.215 - May we use Government aircraft to carry passengers?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false May we use Government aircraft to carry passengers? 102-33...REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 33-MANAGEMENT OF GOVERNMENT AIRCRAFT Managing Government Aircraft and Aircraft Parts Accounting...

2013-01-01

499

41 CFR 102-33.60 - What methods may we use to acquire Government aircraft?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false What methods may we use to acquire Government aircraft? 102-33.60 Section 102-33...REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 33-MANAGEMENT OF GOVERNMENT AIRCRAFT Acquiring Government Aircraft and Aircraft Parts Overview...

2013-01-01

500

41 CFR 102-33.55 - Are there restrictions on acquiring Government aircraft?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Are there restrictions on acquiring Government aircraft? 102-33.55 Section 102-33...REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 33-MANAGEMENT OF GOVERNMENT AIRCRAFT Acquiring Government Aircraft and Aircraft Parts Overview...

2013-01-01