Science.gov

Sample records for obliquus persoon pilat

  1. Antioxidant small phenolic ingredients in Inonotus obliquus (persoon) Pilat (Chaga).

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Yuki; Sato, Yuzo; Konishi, Tetsuya

    2007-08-01

    Inonotus obliquus (persoon) Pilat (Chaga, in Russia, kabanoanatake in Japan) is a fungus having been used as a folk medicine in Russia and said to have many health beneficial functions such as immune modulating and anti-cancer activities. In the present study, the antioxidant activity of hot water extract (decoction) of Chaga was precisely compared with those of other medicinal fungi (Agaricus blazei Mycelia, Ganoderma lucidum and Phellinus linteus) showing Chaga had the strongest antioxidant activity among fungi examined in terms of both superoxide and hydroxyl radicals scavenging activities. Further determination of the antioxidant potential of isolated fruiting body (brown part) and Sclerotium (black part) revealed the 80% MeOH extract of fruiting body had the highest potential as high as that of Chaga decoction. Finally, seven antioxidant components were isolated and purified from the 80% MeOH extract of Chaga fruiting body, and their chemical structures were determined as small phenolics as follows: 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxy benzoic acid 2-hydroxy-1-hydroxymethyl ethyl ester (BAEE), protocatechic acid (PCA), caffeic acid (CA), 3,4-dihybenzaladehyde (DB), 2,5-dihydroxyterephtalic acid (DTA), syringic acid (SA) and 3,4-dihydroxybenzalacetone (DBL). Notably, BAEE was assigned as the new compound firstly identified from the natural source in the present study. PMID:17666849

  2. Cancer cell cytotoxicity of extracts and small phenolic compounds from Chaga [Inonotus obliquus (persoon) Pilat].

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Yuki; Nishida, Hiroshi; Matsugo, Seiichi; Konishi, Tetsuya

    2009-06-01

    Previously, we studied the antioxidant potential of Chaga mushroom [Inonotus obliquus (persoon) Pilat] extracts and isolated several small (poly)phenolic compounds as the major antioxidant components in the 80% methanol (MeOH) extract. In the present study, these isolated phenolic ingredients together with several other types of Chaga extracts were examined for cytotoxic effects against normal (IMR90) and cancer (A549, PA-1, U937, and HL-60) cell lines. Results revealed decoctions from both the fruiting body (FB) and sclerotium (ST) parts of Chaga, especially the ST part, showed considerable cytotoxicity toward tumor cells, but the cytotoxicity appeared to be stronger against normal cells than cancer cells. The 80% MeOH ST extract also showed the same trend. On the other hand, the 80% MeOH extract of FB showed significant cytotoxicity towards tumor cell lines without affecting normal cells, for example, the 50% lethal dose was 49.4 +/- 2.9 microg/mL for PA-1 cells versus 123.6 +/- 13.8 microg/mL for normal cells. The phenolic components isolated from the 80% MeOH extracts had markedly greater cancer cell toxicity than the extracts themselves. In particular, two out of seven compounds showed strong cytotoxicity towards several tumor cell lines without giving rise to significant cell toxicity toward normal cells. For example, the 50% lethal dose for 3,4-dihydroxybenzalacetone was 12.2 micromol/L in PA-1 cells but was 272.8 micromol/L in IMR90 cells. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis further revealed these phenolic ingredients have high potentiality for apoptosis induction in PA-1 cells. PMID:19627197

  3. Prevention of hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress in PC12 cells by 3,4-dihydroxybenzalacetone isolated from Chaga (Inonotus obliquus (persoon) Pilat).

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Yuki; Nishida, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Yutaka; Konishi, Tetsuya

    2009-10-15

    Chaga (Inonotus obliquus (persoon) Pilat) is a mushroom traditionally used as a folk medicine for tumors and stomach ulcers in Russia. Previously, we reported the antioxidant potential of Chaga extracts and seven isolated phenolic ingredients. In the present study, we investigated the protective effects of Chaga extracts and other isolated phenolic ingredients against H(2)O(2)-induced oxidative stress in PC12 cells. Intracellular generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) leads to oxidative stress and subsequent damage of cellular and nuclear components. Chaga extracts and the phenolic ingredients, 3,4-dihydroxybenzalacetone (DBL) and caffeic acid (CA), effectively suppressed intracellular ROS level in H(2)O(2)-treated cells. The H(2)O(2)-induced cell death was more pronounced, effectively prevented in the cells treated with DBL than in cells treated with CA. In addition, ROS activate various signal transduction pathways including the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade. Therefore, we examined the potentially beneficial effects of DBL on extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK), c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38-MAPK signaling activated by H(2)O(2) stimulation. DBL selectively inhibited the phosphorylation of p38-MAPK, without affecting JNK and ERK. PMID:19647072

  4. Pilates

    PubMed Central

    Di Lorenzo, Christine E.

    2011-01-01

    Context: The interest and popularity of Pilates is increasing worldwide. In addition to being used in fitness programs, it is being used in some rehabilitation programs. Evidence Acquisition: This review summarizes level III evidence from 1995 to 2009 obtained from PubMed (MEDLINE), CINAHL, and the Internet. Meta-analyses, systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials, and controlled trials published in peer-reviewed journals were retrieved for appraisal. The keywords searched were Pilates and core stabilization. Results: Ninety articles were identified in MEDLINE and CINAHL; 9 articles satisfied the inclusion criteria for level III evidence. Conclusion: There is a scientific basis for the effectiveness of Pilates exercise, with limited evidence to support it as a rehabilitative intervention. PMID:23016028

  5. Lily Cultivars Have Allelopathic Potential in Controlling Orobanche aegyptiaca Persoon.

    PubMed

    Chai, Min; Zhu, Xiaopei; Cui, Hongxia; Jiang, Chuangdao; Zhang, Jinzheng; Shi, Lei

    2015-01-01

    As a devastating holoparasitic weed, Orobanche aegyptiaca Persoon. (Egyptian broomrape) causes serious damage to agricultural production and threatens economic development, which has raised widespread concern. The present study was conducted to determine whether lilies have the potential to be used as 'trap crops' for controlling O. aegyptiaca Persoon. In the experiments, the ability of three popular lily cultivars (Lilium Oriental hybrids 'Sorbonne', Lilium LA (Longiflorum hybrids x Asiatic hybrids) hybrids 'Ceb Dazzle', and Lilium Longiflorum hybrids (L. formosanum x L. longiflorum) 'L. formolongo') to induce O. aegyptiaca Persoon. seed germination was assessed. Parts of the three lily cultivars, including the rhizosphere soil and underground and above-ground organs, all induced "suicidal germination" of parasitic O. aegyptiaca Persoon. seed at four growth stages. Specifically, Sorbonne and Ceb Dazzle behaved with similar allelopathy, and the bulb, scale leaf and aerial stem exhibited stronger allelopathic effects on O. aegyptiaca Pers. germination compared to other organs. Aqueous L. formolongo leaf extracts may contain more stable, effective stimulants given that they induced the highest germination rate at 76.7% even though the extracts were serially diluted. We speculate that these organs may be advantageous in further isolating and purifying economical active substances that can be substitutes for GR24. These results indicate that lilies have the potential to be used as a trap crops or can be processed into green herbicide formulations that can be applied in agriculture production to rapidly deplete the seed bank of O. aegyptiaca Persoon. parasitic weeds in soil. PMID:26565398

  6. Lily Cultivars Have Allelopathic Potential in Controlling Orobanche aegyptiaca Persoon

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Hongxia; Jiang, Chuangdao; Zhang, Jinzheng; Shi, Lei

    2015-01-01

    As a devastating holoparasitic weed, Orobanche aegyptiaca Persoon. (Egyptian broomrape) causes serious damage to agricultural production and threatens economic development, which has raised widespread concern. The present study was conducted to determine whether lilies have the potential to be used as ‘trap crops’ for controlling O. aegyptiaca Persoon. In the experiments, the ability of three popular lily cultivars (Lilium Oriental hybrids ‘Sorbonne’, Lilium LA (Longiflorum hybrids x Asiatic hybrids) hybrids ‘Ceb Dazzle’, and Lilium Longiflorum hybrids (L. formosanum x L. longiflorum) ‘L. formolongo’) to induce O. aegyptiaca Persoon. seed germination was assessed. Parts of the three lily cultivars, including the rhizosphere soil and underground and above-ground organs, all induced “suicidal germination” of parasitic O. aegyptiaca Persoon. seed at four growth stages. Specifically, Sorbonne and Ceb Dazzle behaved with similar allelopathy, and the bulb, scale leaf and aerial stem exhibited stronger allelopathic effects on O. aegyptiaca Pers. germination compared to other organs. Aqueous L. formolongo leaf extracts may contain more stable, effective stimulants given that they induced the highest germination rate at 76.7% even though the extracts were serially diluted. We speculate that these organs may be advantageous in further isolating and purifying economical active substances that can be substitutes for GR24. These results indicate that lilies have the potential to be used as a trap crops or can be processed into green herbicide formulations that can be applied in agriculture production to rapidly deplete the seed bank of O. aegyptiaca Persoon. parasitic weeds in soil. PMID:26565398

  7. Pilates, Mindfulness and Somatic Education.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, Karen; Adams, Marianne; Quin, Rebecca; Harrison, Mandy; Greeson, Jeffrey

    2013-12-01

    The Pilates Method is a form of somatic education with the potential to cultivate mindfulness - a mental quality associated with overall well-being. However, controlled studies are needed to determine whether changes in mindfulness are specific to the Pilates Method or also result from other forms of exercise. This quasi-experimental study compared Pilates Method mat classes and recreational exercise classes on measures of mindfulness and well-being at the beginning, middle and end of a 15 week semester. Total mindfulness scores increased overall for the Pilates Method group but not for the exercise control group, and these increases were directly related to end of semester ratings of self-regulatory self-efficacy, perceived stress and mood. Findings suggest that the Pilates Method specifically enhances mindfulness, and these increases are associated with other measures of wellness. The changes in mindfulness identified in this study support the role of the Pilates Method in the mental well-being of its practitioners and its potential to support dancers' overall well-being. PMID:25328542

  8. Pilates, Mindfulness and Somatic Education

    PubMed Central

    Caldwell, Karen; Quin, Rebecca; Harrison, Mandy; Greeson, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    The Pilates Method is a form of somatic education with the potential to cultivate mindfulness – a mental quality associated with overall well-being. However, controlled studies are needed to determine whether changes in mindfulness are specific to the Pilates Method or also result from other forms of exercise. This quasi-experimental study compared Pilates Method mat classes and recreational exercise classes on measures of mindfulness and well-being at the beginning, middle and end of a 15 week semester. Total mindfulness scores increased overall for the Pilates Method group but not for the exercise control group, and these increases were directly related to end of semester ratings of self-regulatory self-efficacy, perceived stress and mood. Findings suggest that the Pilates Method specifically enhances mindfulness, and these increases are associated with other measures of wellness. The changes in mindfulness identified in this study support the role of the Pilates Method in the mental well-being of its practitioners and its potential to support dancers’ overall well-being. PMID:25328542

  9. Pilates and Mindfulness: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Marianne; Caldwell, Karen; Atkins, Laurie; Quin, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    The Pilates method as Joseph Hubertus Pilates originally defined it in the early 1920s, was called "Contrology," or the art of control, based on the ideal of attaining a complete coordination of body, mind, and spirit. Joseph Pilates's early writings emphasized the value of controlling the body rather than attending to the process of body…

  10. Pilates and Physical Education: A Natural Fit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kloubec, June; Banks, Aaron L.

    2004-01-01

    In a time period characterized by the continual decline of fitness and physical activity among American youths, Pilates can provide physical educators a unique activity that will improve fitness and stimulate the cognitive domain of today's students. Because the Pilates method of exercise encourages the development of strong and flexible muscles…

  11. Pilates for pregnancy and beyond: a study.

    PubMed

    Uppal, Elaine; Manley, Julie; Schofield, Aneleigh

    2016-05-01

    This mixed methods study explores the holistic impact of pilates-based exercises for childbearing women in the ante- and postnatal period, specifically in terms of general wellbeing, preparation for and recovery from childbirth, and pregnancy-related musculoskeletal problems. The study determined participants' perceptions of the pilates intervention, such as positive or negative wellbeing effects including self confidence/esteem, body image, flexibility, comfort, preparation for labour and/or postnatal recovery. PMID:27295756

  12. Pilates

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Parents for Kids for Teens Teens Home Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q& ... methods from around the world, among them the mind-body formats of yoga and Chinese martial arts. Joseph ...

  13. Pilates for Better Sex: Changes in Sexual Functioning in Healthy Turkish Women After Pilates Exercise.

    PubMed

    Halis, Fikret; Yildirim, Pelin; Kocaaslan, Ramazan; Cecen, Kursat; Gokce, Ahmet

    2016-05-18

    Although a large number of studies report the impact of daily exercise on many aspects of women's health, none of them address the relationship between Pilates exercise and sexual function prospectively. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of Pilates exercise on sexual function in healthy young women using a validated questionnaire. In total, 34 premenopausal healthy Turkish women aged between 20 and 50 years who had regular menstrual cycles and sexual relationships were included in the study. Women were asked to complete Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) questionnaires. Questionnaires were completed before and after 12 weeks of Pilates exercise. Primary endpoints were changes in total and individual domain scores on the FSFI and BDI. After the 12-week Pilates intervention, BDI scores were decreased and all domains of the FSFI were significantly improved with mean ± SD total FSFI scores increasing from 25.9 ± 7.4 to 32.2 ± 3.6 (p <.0001). This is the first prospective study that quantifies the improvement in sexual function of healthy women after a 12-week Pilates program. Our findings suggest that Pilates may improve sexual function in healthy women. However, further studies with a larger sample size are needed in this field. PMID:25826474

  14. Chemical diversity of biologically active metabolites in the sclerotia of Inonotus obliquus and submerged culture strategies for up-regulating their production.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Weifa; Miao, Kangjie; Liu, Yubing; Zhao, Yanxia; Zhang, Meimei; Pan, Shenyuan; Dai, Yucheng

    2010-07-01

    Inonotus obliquus (Fr.) Pilat is a white rot fungus belonging to the family Hymenochaetaceae in the Basidiomycota. In nature, this fungus rarely forms a fruiting body but usually an irregular shape of sclerotial conk called 'Chaga'. Characteristically, I. obliquus produces massive melanins released to the surface of Chaga. As early as in the sixteenth century, Chaga was used as an effective folk medicine in Russia and Northern Europe to treat several human malicious tumors and other diseases in the absence of any unacceptable toxic side effects. Chemical investigations show that I. obliquus produces a diverse range of secondary metabolites including phenolic compounds, melanins, and lanostane-type triterpenoids. Among these are the active components for antioxidant, antitumoral, and antiviral activities and for improving human immunity against infection of pathogenic microbes. Geographically, however, this fungus is restricted to very cold habitats and grows very slowly, suggesting that Chaga is not a reliable source of these bioactive compounds. Attempts for culturing this fungus axenically all resulted in a reduced production of bioactive metabolites. This review examines the current progress in the discovery of chemical diversity of Chaga and their biological activities and the strategies to modulate the expression of desired pathways to diversify and up-regulate the production of bioactive metabolites by the fungus grown in submerged cultures for possible drug discovery. PMID:20532760

  15. Lanostane-type triterpenes from the fungal endophyte Scleroderma UFSMSc1 (Persoon) Fries.

    PubMed

    Morandini, Liziane M B; Neto, Alexandre T; Pedroso, Marcelo; Antoniolli, Zaida I; Burrow, Robert A; Bortoluzzi, Adailton J; Mostardeiro, Marco A; da Silva, Ubiratan F; Dalcol, Ionara I; Morel, Ademir F

    2016-02-15

    Two lanostane triterpenoids (sclerodols A and B) were isolated from the culture of the Eucalyptus grandis derived from the endophyte Scleroderma UFSM Sc1(Persoon) Fries together with three known compounds: one related triterpenoid lanosta-8,23-dien-3β,25-diol, the disaccharide α,β-trehalose, and the sugar alcohol mannitol. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of 2D NMR, HRME, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction data. The methanol crude extract and the isolated lanostane triterpenoids showed promising anticandidal activities. PMID:26826733

  16. [Melanin complex of the fungus Inonotus obliquus].

    PubMed

    Babitskaia, V G; Shcherba, V V; Ikonnikova, N V

    2000-01-01

    The fungus Inonotus obliquus (Pers.) Pil. synthesised high-molecular-weight phenolic pigments that were assigned to melanins according to their physicochemical properties. It was showed that copper ions (0.008%), pyrocatechol (1.0 mM), and tyrosine (20.0 mM) stimulated the melanogenesis. The production of melanin correlated with the synthesis of o- and p-diphenoloxidases. The fungal melanin had strong antioxidant and genoprotective effects. PMID:10994193

  17. Preparation of Chaga medicinal mushroom, Inonotus obliquus-fermented rice using solid-state fermentation and its taste quality and antioxidant property.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shin-Yi; Yeh, Chan-Chun; Liang, Chih-Hung; Mau, Jeng-Leun

    2012-01-01

    Chaga medicinal mushroom, Inonotus obliquus (Pers.:Fr.) Pilat, was inoculated into cooked embryo rice and the mycelial growth in I. obliquus-fermented embryo rice (IER) was monitored. Besides, nonvolatile taste components and antioxidant properties of fruiting bodies, mycelia, IER, and embryo rice were studied. The optimal conditions for mycelial growth were determined to be: 30°C, an inoculation rate of 1 mL/15 g, water supplementation of 60%, and no extra nitrogen source added. IER showed similar proximate composition to embryo rice but contained a substantial amount of ergothioneine (101 mg/kg dry weight). IER contained higher amounts of soluble sugars and polyols, and umami taste components, including monosodium glutamate (MSG)-like components and flavor 5'-nucleotides, than embryo rice. Besides, IER showed a second level of equivalent umami concentrations (223.73 g MSG/100 g). Fruiting bodies did not contain umami components but showed the most effective antioxidant properties. Although some of EC50 values of IER were less than those of mycelia and embryo rice, IER still showed effective antioxidant properties. Based on the results obtained, IER will be a novel functional food. PMID:23510252

  18. Clinical effectiveness of a Pilates treatment for forward head posture.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun-Myung; Lee, Chang-Hyung; O'Sullivan, David; Jung, Joo-Ha; Park, Jung-Jun

    2016-07-01

    [Purpose] This study compared the effects of pilates and an exercise program on the craniovertebral angle, cervical range of motion, pain, and muscle fatigue in subjects with a forward head posture (FHP). [Subjects and Methods] A total of 28 sedentary females (age 20 to 39 years) with FHP were randomly assigned to pilates (n=14) and combined (n=14) exercise groups. The study was a randomized, controlled, double-blind study with the two groups performing exercise 50 min/day, 3 days/week, with an intensity of 11-15 rating of perceived exertion (RPE) for ten weeks. The main outcome measures were craniovertebral angle, cervical range of motion (ROM), pain levels assessed by visual analog scale (VAS), and neck disability index (NDI). Surface electromyography was also used to measure muscle fatigue. [Results] There were significant increases in craniovertebral angle and cervical ROM in the pilates group, but none in the control group. The only significant differences in muscle activity were recorded in the sternocleidomastoid muscle in the pilates group. Both exercise programs had positive effects on pain measures, as VAS and NDI were significantly decreased. [Conclusion] The results suggest that pilates could be recommended as an appropriate exercise for treatment of FHP in sedentary individuals. PMID:27512253

  19. Clinical effectiveness of a Pilates treatment for forward head posture

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sun-Myung; Lee, Chang-Hyung; O’Sullivan, David; Jung, Joo-Ha; Park, Jung-Jun

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study compared the effects of pilates and an exercise program on the craniovertebral angle, cervical range of motion, pain, and muscle fatigue in subjects with a forward head posture (FHP). [Subjects and Methods] A total of 28 sedentary females (age 20 to 39 years) with FHP were randomly assigned to pilates (n=14) and combined (n=14) exercise groups. The study was a randomized, controlled, double-blind study with the two groups performing exercise 50 min/day, 3 days/week, with an intensity of 11–15 rating of perceived exertion (RPE) for ten weeks. The main outcome measures were craniovertebral angle, cervical range of motion (ROM), pain levels assessed by visual analog scale (VAS), and neck disability index (NDI). Surface electromyography was also used to measure muscle fatigue. [Results] There were significant increases in craniovertebral angle and cervical ROM in the pilates group, but none in the control group. The only significant differences in muscle activity were recorded in the sternocleidomastoid muscle in the pilates group. Both exercise programs had positive effects on pain measures, as VAS and NDI were significantly decreased. [Conclusion] The results suggest that pilates could be recommended as an appropriate exercise for treatment of FHP in sedentary individuals. PMID:27512253

  20. The Pilates method and cardiorespiratory adaptation to training.

    PubMed

    Tinoco-Fernández, Maria; Jiménez-Martín, Miguel; Sánchez-Caravaca, M Angeles; Fernández-Pérez, Antonio M; Ramírez-Rodrigo, Jesús; Villaverde-Gutiérrez, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Although all authors report beneficial health changes following training based on the Pilates method, no explicit analysis has been performed of its cardiorespiratory effects. The objective of this study was to evaluate possible changes in cardiorespiratory parameters with the Pilates method. A total of 45 university students aged 18-35 years (77.8% female and 22.2% male), who did not routinely practice physical exercise or sports, volunteered for the study and signed informed consent. The Pilates training was conducted over 10 weeks, with three 1-hour sessions per week. Physiological cardiorespiratory responses were assessed using a MasterScreen CPX apparatus. After the 10-week training, statistically significant improvements were observed in mean heart rate (135.4-124.2 beats/min), respiratory exchange ratio (1.1-0.9) and oxygen equivalent (30.7-27.6) values, among other spirometric parameters, in submaximal aerobic testing. These findings indicate that practice of the Pilates method has a positive influence on cardiorespiratory parameters in healthy adults who do not routinely practice physical exercise activities. PMID:27357919

  1. Effects of Pilates method in elderly people: Systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Francisco, Cristina; de Almeida Fagundes, Alessandra; Gorges, Bruna

    2015-07-01

    The Pilates method has been widely used in physical training and rehabilitation. Evidence regarding the effectiveness of this method in elderly people is limited. Six randomized controlled trials studies involving the use of the Pilates method for elderly people, published prior to December 2013, were selected from the databases PubMed, MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane, Scielo and PEDro. Three articles suggested that Pilates produced improvements in balance. Two studies evaluated the adherence to Pilates programs. One study assessed Pilates' influence on cardio-metabolic parameters and another study evaluated changes in body composition. Strong evidence was found regarding beneficial effects of Pilates over static and dynamic balance in women. Nevertheless, evidence of balance improvement in both genders, changes in body composition in woman and adherence to Pilates programs were limited. Effects on cardio-metabolic parameters due to Pilates training presented inconclusive results. Pilates may be a useful tool in rehabilitation and prevention programs but more high quality studies are necessary to establish all the effects on elderly populations. PMID:26118523

  2. Antagonist coactivation of trunk stabilizer muscles during Pilates exercises.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Denise Martineli; Morcelli, Mary Hellen; Marques, Nise Ribeiro; Hallal, Camilla Zamfolini; Gonçalves, Mauro; Laroche, Dain P; Navega, Marcelo Tavella

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the antagonist coactivation of the local and global trunk muscles during mat-based exercises of Skilled Modern Pilates. Twelve women performed five exercises and concurrently, surface EMG from internal oblique (OI), multifidus (MU), rectus abdominis (RA) and iliocostalis lumborum (IL) muscles was recorded bilaterally. The percentage of antagonist coactivation between local (OI/MU) and global muscles (RA/IL) was calculated. Individuals new to the practice of these exercises showed differences in coactivation of the trunk muscles between the exercises and these results were not similar bilaterally. Thus, in clinical practice, the therapist should be aware of factors such as compensation and undesirable rotation movements of the trunk. Moreover, the coactivation of global muscles was higher bilaterally in all exercises analyzed. This suggests that the exercises of Skilled Modern Pilates only should be performed after appropriate learning and correct execution of all principles, mainly the Centering Principle. PMID:24411147

  3. Pilates: how does it work and who needs it?

    PubMed Central

    Kloubec, June

    2011-01-01

    Summary Pilates uses a combination of approximately 50 simple, repetitive exercises to create muscular exertion. Advocates of this system of exercise claim that exercises can be adapted to provide either gentle strength training for rehabilitation or a strenuous workout vigorous enough to challenge skilled athletes. The exercises are designed to increase muscle strength and endurance, as well as flexibility and to improve posture and balance. There is cautious support for the effectiveness of Pilates in improving flexibility, abdominal and lumbo-pelvic stability and muscular activity. Stronger support cannot be given at this point in time primarily due to the limited number of studies and the lack of sound methodology in the published research. However, current research does indicate that there may be applications for this type of intervention in certain clinical populations that are worthy of continued investigation. PMID:23738249

  4. Antioxidative Properties of Crude Polysaccharides from Inonotus obliquus

    PubMed Central

    Mu, Haibo; Zhang, Amin; Zhang, Wuxia; Cui, Guoting; Wang, Shunchun; Duan, Jinyou

    2012-01-01

    The mushroom Inonotus obliquus has been widely used as a folk medicine in Russia, Poland and most of the Baltic countries. In this study, water-soluble and alkali-soluble crude polysaccharides (IOW and IOA) were isolated from I. obliquus, and the carbohydrate-rich fractions IOW-1 and IOA-1 were obtained respectively after deproteination and depigmentation. Their contents, such as neutral carbohydrate, uronic acid and protein, were measured. Their antioxidant properties against chemicals-induced reactive species (ROS) including 1,1′-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, hydroxyl radical and superoxide anion radical, as well as their protective effects on H2O2-induced PC12 cell death were investigated. Results showed that I. obliquus polysaccharides can scavenge all ROS tested above in a dose-dependent manner. IOA and its product IOA-1 could rescue PC12 cell viability from 38.6% to 79.8% and 83.0% at a concentration of 20μg/mL. Similarly, IOW and its product IOW-1 at the same dose, can also increase cell viability to 84.9% and 88.6% respectively. The antioxidative activities of water-soluble and alkali-soluble polysaccharide constituents from I. obliquus might contribute to diverse medicinal and nutritional values of this mushroom. PMID:22942760

  5. Antioxidative properties of crude polysaccharides from Inonotus obliquus.

    PubMed

    Mu, Haibo; Zhang, Amin; Zhang, Wuxia; Cui, Guoting; Wang, Shunchun; Duan, Jinyou

    2012-01-01

    The mushroom Inonotus obliquus has been widely used as a folk medicine in Russia, Poland and most of the Baltic countries. In this study, water-soluble and alkali-soluble crude polysaccharides (IOW and IOA) were isolated from I. obliquus, and the carbohydrate-rich fractions IOW-1 and IOA-1 were obtained respectively after deproteination and depigmentation. Their contents, such as neutral carbohydrate, uronic acid and protein, were measured. Their antioxidant properties against chemicals-induced reactive species (ROS) including 1,1'-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, hydroxyl radical and superoxide anion radical, as well as their protective effects on H(2)O(2)-induced PC12 cell death were investigated. Results showed that I. obliquus polysaccharides can scavenge all ROS tested above in a dose-dependent manner. IOA and its product IOA-1 could rescue PC12 cell viability from 38.6% to 79.8% and 83.0% at a concentration of 20μg/mL. Similarly, IOW and its product IOW-1 at the same dose, can also increase cell viability to 84.9% and 88.6% respectively. The antioxidative activities of water-soluble and alkali-soluble polysaccharide constituents from I. obliquus might contribute to diverse medicinal and nutritional values of this mushroom. PMID:22942760

  6. Effect of Pilates training on people with ankylosing spondylitis.

    PubMed

    Altan, L; Korkmaz, N; Dizdar, M; Yurtkuran, M

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of Pilates on pain, functional status, and quality of life in patients with ankylosing spondylitis. The study was performed as a randomized, prospective, controlled, and single-blind trial. Fifty-five participants (30 men, 25 women) who were under a regular follow-up protocol in our Rheumatology Clinic with the diagnosis of AS according to the modified New York criteria were included in the study. The participants were randomly assigned into two groups: in group I, Pilates exercise program of 1 h was given by a certified trainer to 30 participants 3 times a week for 12 weeks, and in group II, designed as the control group, 25 participants continued previous standard treatment programs. In groups, pre-(week 0) and post treatment (week 12 and week 24) evaluation was performed by one of the authors who was blind to the group allocation. Primary outcome measure was functional capacity. Evaluation was done using the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI). Exploratory outcome measures were Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Metrology Index (BASMI), Chest expansion, and ankylosing spondylitis quality of life (ASQOL) questionnaire. In group I, BASFI showed significant improvement at week 12 (P = 0.031) and week 24 (P = 0.007). In group II, this parameter was not found to have significantly changed at week 12 and week 24. Comparison of the groups showed significantly superior results for group I at week 24 (P = 0.023). We suggest Pilates exercises as an effective and safe method to improve physical capacity in AS patients. Our study is the first clinical study designed to investigate the role of Pilates method in AS treatment. We believe that further research with more participants and longer follow-up periods could help assess the therapeutic value of this popular physical exercise method in AS. PMID:21499876

  7. The effect of 12-week Pilates exercises on wellness in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Roh, Su Yeon

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the efficiency of 12-week Pilates exercises on wellness in the elderly. Before Pilates exercises training, the 88 elderly (63 females, 25 males) were given and completed a Wellness Scale. Then, the elderly participated in Pilates exercises and completed the same scale afterwards. Results of paired t-test showed that participants in 12-week Pilates exercises experienced significant improvement in physical (t=2.762, P<0.01), social (t=3.362, P<0.001), spiritual (t=2.307, P<0.05), and emotional wellness (t=2.489, P<0.05). Consequently, Pilates exercises helped improve wellness of the elderly. PMID:27162774

  8. Effect of mat pilates exercise on postural alignment and body composition of middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyo Taek; Oh, Hyun Ok; Han, Hui Seung; Jin, Kwang Youn; Roh, Hyo Lyun

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] This study attempted to examine whether Pilates is an effective exercise for improving the postural alignment and health of middle-aged women. [Subjects and Methods] The participants in this study were 36 middle-aged women (20 in the experimental group, 16 in the control group). The experimental group participated in Pilates exercise sessions three times a week for 12 weeks. Body alignment and composition measurements before and after applying the Pilates exercise program were performed with a body composition analyzer and a three-dimensional scanner. [Results] Postural alignment in the sagittal and horizontal planes was enhanced in the Pilates exercise group. Trunk alignment showed correlations with body fat and muscle mass. [Conclusion] The Pilates exercises are performed symmetrically and strengthen the deep muscles. Moreover, the results showed that muscle mass was correlated with trunk postural alignment and that the proper amount of muscle is critical in maintaining trunk postural alignment. PMID:27390396

  9. Effect of mat pilates exercise on postural alignment and body composition of middle-aged women

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyo Taek; Oh, Hyun Ok; Han, Hui Seung; Jin, Kwang Youn; Roh, Hyo Lyun

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study attempted to examine whether Pilates is an effective exercise for improving the postural alignment and health of middle-aged women. [Subjects and Methods] The participants in this study were 36 middle-aged women (20 in the experimental group, 16 in the control group). The experimental group participated in Pilates exercise sessions three times a week for 12 weeks. Body alignment and composition measurements before and after applying the Pilates exercise program were performed with a body composition analyzer and a three-dimensional scanner. [Results] Postural alignment in the sagittal and horizontal planes was enhanced in the Pilates exercise group. Trunk alignment showed correlations with body fat and muscle mass. [Conclusion] The Pilates exercises are performed symmetrically and strengthen the deep muscles. Moreover, the results showed that muscle mass was correlated with trunk postural alignment and that the proper amount of muscle is critical in maintaining trunk postural alignment. PMID:27390396

  10. The effect of 12-week Pilates exercises on wellness in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Roh, Su Yeon

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the efficiency of 12-week Pilates exercises on wellness in the elderly. Before Pilates exercises training, the 88 elderly (63 females, 25 males) were given and completed a Wellness Scale. Then, the elderly participated in Pilates exercises and completed the same scale afterwards. Results of paired t-test showed that participants in 12-week Pilates exercises experienced significant improvement in physical (t=2.762, P<0.01), social (t=3.362, P<0.001), spiritual (t=2.307, P<0.05), and emotional wellness (t=2.489, P<0.05). Consequently, Pilates exercises helped improve wellness of the elderly. PMID:27162774

  11. Herbicides interfere with antigrazer defenses in Scenedesmus obliquus.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xuexia; Sun, Yunfei; Zhang, Xingxing; Heng, Hailu; Nan, Haihong; Zhang, Lu; Huang, Yuan; Yang, Zhou

    2016-11-01

    The extensive application of herbicides has led to a serious threat of herbicide contamination to aquatic ecosystem. Herbicide exposure affects aquatic communities not only by exerting toxicity on single species but also by changing interspecific interactions. This study investigated the antigrazer defenses of the common green alga Scenedesmus obliquus against different herbicides [glyphosate, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), and atrazine] at various concentrations (0-2.0 mg L(-1)). In the presence of grazer (Daphnia)-derived cues, S. obliquus populations without herbicides formed high proportions of multicelled (e.g., four- and eight-celled) colonies. This result confirms that S. obliquus exhibits a morphological defense against grazing risk. At the low concentration range of 0.002-0.02 mg L(-1), the three herbicides exerted no influence on the growth and photosynthetic efficiency of S. obliquus, and multicelled colonies showed constant proportions. At the high concentration range of 0.20-2.0 mg L(-1), atrazine significantly inhibited the algal growth and photosynthesis whereas glyphosate or 2,4-D did not. Nonetheless, these levels of glyphosate or 2,4-D remarkably decreased the proportion of multicelled colonies, with reduced numbers of cells per particle in Daphnia filtrate-treated population. No eight-celled colony was formed after treatment with atrazine at 0.20-2.0 mg L(-1) despite the addition of Daphnia filtrate. These results suggest that herbicide exposure impairs antigrazer colonial morphs in phytoplankton although it is not sufficient to hamper algal growth. This phenomenon can increase the risk of predation by herbivores, thereby disrupting the inducible phytoplankton community. Furthermore, the predator-prey interactions between herbivores and phytoplankton can be potentially changed more seriously than previously considered. PMID:27501311

  12. Comparison of hypoglycemic activity of fermented mushroom of Inonotus obliquus rich in vanadium and wild-growing I. obliquus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yibing; Zhao, Yong; Cui, Haifeng; Cao, Chunyu; Guo, Jianyou; Liu, Sha

    2011-12-01

    The effects of vanadium-enriched and wild Inonotus obliquus were tested on hyperglycemic mice. The vanadium content of the culture medium was 0.6%, reaching a concentration of 3.0 mg/g in the cultured mushroom while in the wild variety is 1/100 of that amount. The toxicity of vanadium at the 3.0 mg/g level is negligible, but its anti-diabetic effects are significantly different to those of the wild variety (p < 0.05). Due to its high bioavailability and low toxicity, vanadium-enriched I. obliquus could be used as a means of vanadium supplementation, with expectation of obtaining higher bioavailability and lower toxicity in animals. PMID:21465283

  13. Inonotus obliquus Protects against Oxidative Stress-Induced Apoptosis and Premature Senescence

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Jong Seok; Pahk, Jung Woon; Lee, Jong Seok; Shin, Won Cheol; Lee, Shin Young; Hong, Eock Kee

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the cytoprotective effects of Inonotus obliquus against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis and premature senescence. Pretreatment with I. obliquus scavenged intracellular ROS and prevented lipid peroxidation in hydrogen peroxide-treated human fibroblasts. As a result, I. obliquus exerted protective effects against hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis and premature senescence in human fibroblasts. In addition, I. obliquus suppressed UV-induced morphologic skin changes, such as skin thickening and wrinkle formation, in hairless mice in vivo and increased collagen synthesis through inhibition of MMP-1 and MMP-9 activities in hydrogen peroxide- treated human fibroblasts. Taken together, these results demonstrate that I. obliquus can prevent the aging process by attenuating oxidative stress in a model of stress-induced premature senescence. PMID:21359681

  14. Inonotus obliquus protects against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis and premature senescence.

    PubMed

    Yun, Jong Seok; Pahk, Jung Woon; Lee, Jong Seok; Shin, Won Cheol; Lee, Shin Young; Hong, Eock Kee

    2011-05-01

    In this study, we investigated the cytoprotective effects of Inonotus obliquus against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis and premature senescence. Pretreatment with I. obliquus scavenged intracellular ROS and prevented lipid peroxidation in hydrogen peroxide-treated human fibroblasts. As a result, I. obliquus exerted protective effects against hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis and premature senescence in human fibroblasts. In addition, I. obliquus suppressed UV-induced morphologic skin changes, such as skin thickening and wrinkle formation, in hairless mice in vivo and increased collagen synthesis through inhibition of MMP-1 and MMP-9 activities in hydrogen peroxide-treated human fibroblasts. Taken together, these results demonstrate that I. obliquus can prevent the aging process by attenuating oxidative stress in a model of stress-induced premature senescence. PMID:21359681

  15. The Effectiveness of Pilates Exercise in People with Chronic Low Back Pain: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Cherie; Kolt, Gregory S.; Marshall, Paul; Hill, Bridget; Bialocerkowski, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of Pilates exercise in people with chronic low back pain (CLBP) through a systematic review of randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Data Sources A search for RCTs was undertaken using Medical Search Terms and synonyms for “Pilates” and “low back pain” within the maximal date range of 10 databases. Databases included the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature; Cochrane Library; Medline; Physiotherapy Evidence Database; ProQuest: Health and Medical Complete, Nursing and Allied Health Source, Dissertation and Theses; Scopus; Sport Discus; Web of Science. Study Selection Two independent reviewers were involved in the selection of evidence. To be included, relevant RCTs needed to be published in the English language. From 152 studies, 14 RCTs were included. Data Extraction Two independent reviewers appraised the methodological quality of RCTs using the McMaster Critical Review Form for Quantitative Studies. The author(s), year of publication, and details regarding participants, Pilates exercise, comparison treatments, and outcome measures, and findings, were then extracted. Data Synthesis The methodological quality of RCTs ranged from “poor” to “excellent”. A meta-analysis of RCTs was not undertaken due to the heterogeneity of RCTs. Pilates exercise provided statistically significant improvements in pain and functional ability compared to usual care and physical activity between 4 and 15 weeks, but not at 24 weeks. There were no consistent statistically significant differences in improvements in pain and functional ability with Pilates exercise, massage therapy, or other forms of exercise at any time period. Conclusions Pilates exercise offers greater improvements in pain and functional ability compared to usual care and physical activity in the short term. Pilates exercise offers equivalent improvements to massage therapy and other forms of exercise. Future research should explore optimal Pilates

  16. Increased antioxidant activity and changes in phenolic profile of Kalanchoe pinnata (Lamarck) Persoon (Crassulaceae) specimens grown under supplemental blue light.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Luana B S; Leal-Costa, Marcos V; Coutinho, Marcela A S; Moreira, Nattacha dos S; Lage, Celso L S; Barbi, Nancy dos S; Costa, Sônia S; Tavares, Eliana S

    2013-01-01

    Antioxidant compounds protect plants against oxidative stress caused by environmental conditions. Different light qualities, such as UV-A radiation and blue light, have shown positive effects on the production of phenols in plants. Kalanchoe pinnata (Lamarck) Persoon (Crassulaceae) is used for treating wounds and inflammations. Some of these beneficial effects are attributed to the antioxidant activity of plant components. We investigated the effects of blue light and UV-A radiation supplementation on the total phenol content, antioxidant activity and chromatographic profile of aqueous extracts from leaves of K. pinnata. Monoclonal plants were grown under white light, white plus blue light and white plus UV-A radiation. Supplemental blue light improved the antioxidant activity and changed the phenolic profile of the extracts. Analysis by HPLC of supplemental blue-light plant extracts revealed a higher proportion of the major flavonoid quercetin 3-O-α-L-arabinopyranosyl (1→2) α-L-rhamnopyranoside, as well as the presence of a wide variety of other phenolic substances. These findings may explain the higher antioxidant activity observed for this extract. Blue light is proposed as a supplemental light source in the cultivation of K. pinnata, to improve its antioxidant activity. PMID:23057576

  17. Antimutagenic effects of subfractions of Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) extract.

    PubMed

    Ham, Seung-Shi; Kim, Soo-Hyun; Moon, Sun-Young; Chung, Mi Ja; Cui, Cheng-Bi; Han, Eun-Kyung; Chung, Cha-Kwon; Choe, Myeon

    2009-01-01

    Inonotus obliquus is a mushroom commonly known as Chaga that is widely used in folk medicine in Siberia, North America, and North Europe. Here, we evaluated the antimutagenic and antioxidant capacities of subfractions of Inonotus obliquus extract. The ethyl acetate extract was separated by vacuum chromatography into three fractions, and the fraction bearing the highest antimutagenic activity was subsequently separated into four fractions by reversed phase (ODS-C18) column chromatography. The most antimutagenic fraction was then separated into two subfractions (subfractions 1 and 2) by normal phase silica gel column chromatography. Ames test analysis revealed that the subfractions were not mutagenic. At 50 μg/plate, subfractions 1 and 2 strongly inhibited the mutagenesis induced in Salmonella typhimurium strain TA100 by the directly acting mutagen MNNG (0.4 μg/plate) by 80.0% and 77.3%, respectively. They also inhibited 0.15 μg/plate 4NQO-induced mutagenesis in TA98 and TA100 by 52.6-62.0%. The mutagenesis in TA98 induced by the indirectly acting mutagens Trp-P-1 (0.15 μg/plate) and B(α)P (10 μg/plate) was reduced by 47.0-68.2% by the subfractions, while the mutagenesis in TA100 by Trp-P-1 and B(α)P was reduced by 70.5-87.2%. Subfraction 1 was more inhibitory than subfraction 2 with regard to the mutagenic effects of 4NQO, Trp-P-1, and B(α)P. Subfractions 1 and 2 also had a strong antioxidant activity against DPPH radicals and were identified by MS, 1H NMR and 13C NMR analyses as 3β-hydroxy-lanosta-8, 24-dien-21-al and inotodiol, respectively. Thus, we show that the 3beta-hydroxy-lanosta-8, 24-dien-21-al and inotodiol components of Inonotus obliquus bear antimutagenic and antioxidative activities. PMID:18992843

  18. New antioxidant polyphenols from the medicinal mushroom Inonotus obliquus.

    PubMed

    Lee, In-Kyoung; Kim, Young-Sook; Jang, Yoon-Woo; Jung, Jin-Young; Yun, Bong-Sik

    2007-12-15

    The fruiting body of Inonotus obliquus, a medicinal mushroom called chaga, has been used as a traditional medicine for cancer treatment. Although this mushroom has been known to exhibit potent antioxidant activity, the mechanisms responsible for this activity remain unknown. In our investigation for free radical scavengers from the methanolic extract of this mushroom, inonoblins A (1), B (2), and C (3) were isolated along with the known compounds, phelligridins D (4), E (5), and G (6). Their structures were established by extensive spectroscopic analyses. These compounds exhibited significant scavenging activity against the ABTS radical cation and DPPH radical, and showed moderate activity against the superoxide radical anion. PMID:17980585

  19. Pilates Method for Lung Function and Functional Capacity in Obese Adults.

    PubMed

    Niehues, Janaina Rocha; Gonzáles, Inês; Lemos, Robson Rodrigues; Haas, Patrícia

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is defined as the condition in which the body mass index (BMI) is ≥ 30 kg/m2 and is responsible for decreased quality of life and functional limitations. The harmful effects on ventilatory function include reduced lung capacity and volume; diaphragmatic muscle weakness; decreased lung compliance and stiffness; and weakness of the abdominal muscles, among others. Pilates is a method of resistance training that works with low-impact muscle exercises and is based on isometric exercises. The current article is a review of the literature that aims to investigate the hypothesis that the Pilates method, as a complementary method of training, might be beneficial to pulmonary function and functional capacity in obese adults. The intent of the review was to evaluate the use of Pilates as an innovative intervention in the respiratory dysfunctions of obese adults. In studies with other populations, it has been observed that Pilates can be effective in improving chest capacity and expansion and lung volume. That finding is due to the fact that Pilates works through the center of force, made ​​up of the abdominal muscles and gluteus muscles lumbar, which are responsible for the stabilization of the static and dynamic body that is associated with breath control. It has been observed that different Pilates exercises increase the activation and recruitment of the abdominal muscles. Those muscles are important in respiration, both in expiration and inspiration, through the facilitation of diaphragmatic action. In that way, strengthening the abdominal muscles can help improve respiratory function, leading to improvements in lung volume and capacity. The results found in the current literature review support the authors' observations that Pilates promotes the strengthening of the abdominal muscles and that improvements in diaphragmatic function may result in positive outcomes in respiratory function, thereby improving functional capacity. However, the authors did not

  20. Effect of Pilates exercises on postpartum maternal fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Ashrafinia, Farzaneh; Mirmohammadali, Mandana; Rajabi, Hamid; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan; Haghighi, Khosro Sadeghniiat; Amelvalizadeh, Mehrnoosh

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Postpartum fatigue is a pervasive phenomenon and often affects mothers immediately after delivery. The present study aimed to assess the effect Pilates home exercises had on postpartum maternal fatigue. METHODS A total of 80 women participated in our clinical trial study. The women were randomly divided into two groups – the intervention group (n = 40) and the control group (n = 40). In the intervention group, the women performed Pilates exercises five times a week (30 min per session) for eight consecutive weeks. The first session was conducted 72 hours after delivery. The control group did not receive any intervention. Each woman’s level of fatigue was evaluated at hospital discharge (as a baseline), and at four and eight weeks after delivery, using the standard Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI-20) questionnaire and repeated measures analysis. RESULTS During the eight weeks of follow-up, we found that the intervention group had lower mean MFI-20 scores than the control group with regard to general fatigue (7.80 ± 2.07 vs. 12.72 ± 1.79; p < 0.001), physical fatigue (7.12 ± 1.41 vs. 10.42 ± 2.02; p < 0.001), reduced activity (6.95 ± 1.35 vs. 11.27 ± 1.70; p < 0.001), reduced motivation (6.20 ± 1.01 vs. 9.80 ± 2.04; p < 0.001) and mental fatigue (6.85 ± 1.45 vs. 10.72 ± 1.98; p < 0.001). CONCLUSION The present study’s findings show that physical exercise can significantly reduce postpartum maternal fatigue in all subscales. PMID:25820848

  1. Effect of Pilates and taiji quan training on self-efficacy, sleep quality, mood, and physical performance of college students.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, Karen; Harrison, Mandy; Adams, Marianne; Triplett, N Travis

    2009-04-01

    Methods of exercise such as Pilates and taiji quan, which have been shown to have beneficial effects on physical and mental characteristics, have been studied more often in samples of older participants. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of a semester of either Pilates or taiji quan training on perceived self-efficacy, sleep quality and mood, as well as strength and balance in college-age individuals. Self-efficacy was found to be improved in the Pilates and taiji quan groups and there was a trend towards improvement in sleep quality. Mood was found to be improved significantly in the Pilates group while the taiji group showed a trend towards improvement. There were no changes or group differences in the strength or balance measures. Pilates and taiji quan are effective exercise modes to improve mental parameters in college-age individuals. PMID:19329051

  2. Effects of Pilates exercise programs in people with chronic low back pain: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Patti, Antonino; Bianco, Antonino; Paoli, Antonio; Messina, Giuseppe; Montalto, Maria Alessandra; Bellafiore, Marianna; Battaglia, Giuseppe; Iovane, Angelo; Palma, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The Pilates method has recently become a fast-growing popular way of exercise recommended for healthy individuals and those engaged in rehabilitation. Several published studies have examined the effects of Pilates method in people with chronic low back pain (LBP). The objective of this study is to describe and provide an extensive overview of the scientific literature comparing the effectiveness of the Pilates method on pain and disability in patients with chronic nonspecific LBP. The study is based on the data from the following sources: MEDLINE-NLM, MEDLINE-EBSCO, Scopus Elsevier, Cochrane, DOAJ, SciELO, and PLOSONE. Original articles and systematic reviews of adults with chronic nonspecific LBP that evaluated pain and/or disability were included in this study; studies in which the primary treatment was based on Pilates method exercises compared with no treatment, minimal intervention, other types of intervention, or other types of exercises. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) were adopted. The literature search included 7 electronic databases and the reference list of relevant systematic reviews and original articles to July 2014. Two independent investigators conducted the literature search and performed the synthesis as follows: Study Design; Sample (n); Disability measure; Intervention; and Main results. The searches identified a total of 128 articles. From these, 29 were considered eligible and were included in the analysis. The items were stratified as follows: Pilates method versus other kind of exercises (n = 6 trials) and Pilates method versus no treatment group or minimal intervention for short-term pain (n = 9 trials); the therapeutic effect of the Pilates method in randomized cohorts (n = 5); and analysis of reviews (n = 9). We found that there is a dearth of studies that clearly demonstrates the efficacy of a specific Pilates exercise program over another in the treatment of chronic pain. However, the

  3. Effects of Pilates Exercise Programs in People With Chronic Low Back Pain

    PubMed Central

    Patti, Antonino; Bianco, Antonino; Paoli, Antonio; Messina, Giuseppe; Montalto, Maria Alessandra; Bellafiore, Marianna; Battaglia, Giuseppe; Iovane, Angelo; Palma, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The Pilates method has recently become a fast-growing popular way of exercise recommended for healthy individuals and those engaged in rehabilitation. Several published studies have examined the effects of Pilates method in people with chronic low back pain (LBP). The objective of this study is to describe and provide an extensive overview of the scientific literature comparing the effectiveness of the Pilates method on pain and disability in patients with chronic nonspecific LBP. The study is based on the data from the following sources: MEDLINE-NLM, MEDLINE-EBSCO, Scopus Elsevier, Cochrane, DOAJ, SciELO, and PLOSONE. Original articles and systematic reviews of adults with chronic nonspecific LBP that evaluated pain and/or disability were included in this study; studies in which the primary treatment was based on Pilates method exercises compared with no treatment, minimal intervention, other types of intervention, or other types of exercises. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) were adopted. The literature search included 7 electronic databases and the reference list of relevant systematic reviews and original articles to July 2014. Two independent investigators conducted the literature search and performed the synthesis as follows: Study Design; Sample (n); Disability measure; Intervention; and Main results. The searches identified a total of 128 articles. From these, 29 were considered eligible and were included in the analysis. The items were stratified as follows: Pilates method versus other kind of exercises (n = 6 trials) and Pilates method versus no treatment group or minimal intervention for short-term pain (n = 9 trials); the therapeutic effect of the Pilates method in randomized cohorts (n = 5); and analysis of reviews (n = 9). We found that there is a dearth of studies that clearly demonstrates the efficacy of a specific Pilates exercise program over another in the treatment of chronic pain. However

  4. The effects of the Pilates method in the elderly: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Engers, Patrícia Becker; Rombaldi, Airton José; Portella, Elisa Gouvêa; da Silva, Marcelo Cozzensa

    2016-01-01

    Several studies show the benefits of including muscle strength and aerobic physical activity in the routine of elderly people. Among the various possibilities of physical activity, the Pilates method has become a popular modality in recent years, through a system of exercises enabling to work the whole body and that corrects posture and realigns the muscles, developing the body stability needed for a healthier life. The aim of this study was to review the current evidence on the effects of the practice of the Pilates method in the elderly. A systematic literature review was conducted in the following electronic databases: Pubmed, Scielo, Lilacs/Bireme, Scopus, Pedro and Isi of Knowledge, from descriptors pilates, elderly, old adults, aging. In the selection of studies the following inclusion criteria were used: original articles in English, Portuguese and Spanish languages. All selection and evaluation processes of the articles were performed by peers and the quality was verified by the Downs and Black scale. Twenty-one studies were included. The year of publication ranged from 2003 to 2014 and the size of the sample varied from 8 to 311 elderly subjects, aged at least 60 years old. The intervention period was from 4 weeks to 12 months of Pilates exercise practice. It was concluded that despite the studies pointing to physical and motor benefits of the Pilates method in the elderly, we cannot state whether or not the method is effective, in view of the poor methodological quality of the studies included in this review. PMID:27476629

  5. Effect on performance of learning a pilates skill with or without a mirror.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Jennifer A; Chalmers, Gordon R; Knutzen, Kathleen M; Martin, Leaann T

    2009-07-01

    Mirrors are often used in an instructional environment where precise movements must be learned (e.g., martial arts, Pilates, dance). The potential for mirrors in the learning environment of a Pilates class, to affect the subsequent performance of a Pilates star movement when mirrors are not present, was examined. Twenty subjects learned the Pilates star movement over seven weeks, either with (n=11) or without (n=9), mirrors present in the Pilates studio. Performance of the star without mirrors present was assessed quantitatively before and after the training, by video analysis of the degree of lateral straightness of the subject's body at the start, middle, and end of the star movement. Performance of the star movement without a mirror present improved similarly for both the group that learned with, and the group that learned without, mirrors present (p<0.05). These results indicate that the inclusion of mirrors in a learning environment, to provide immediate visual feedback during learning, does not necessarily enhance the subsequent performance of a skill when mirrors are not present. PMID:19524854

  6. Effectiveness of mat Pilates or equipment-based Pilates in patients with chronic non-specific low back pain: a protocol of a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronic low back pain is an expensive and difficult condition to treat. One of the interventions widely used by physiotherapists in the treatment of chronic non-specific low back pain is exercise therapy based upon the Pilates principles. Pilates exercises can be performed with or without specific equipment. These two types of Pilates exercises have never been compared on a high-quality randomised controlled trial. Methods/design This randomised controlled trial with a blinded assessor will evaluate eighty six patients of both genders with chronic low back pain, aged between 18 and 60 years, from one Brazilian private physiotherapy clinic. The patients will be randomly allocated into two groups: Mat Group will perform the exercises on the ground while the Equipment-based Group will perform the Pilates method exercises on the following equipment: Cadillac, Reformer, Ladder Barrel, and Step Chair. The general and specific disability of the patient, kinesiophobia, pain intensity and global perceived effect will be evaluated by a blinded assessor before randomisation and at six weeks and six months after randomisation. In addition, the expectation of the participants and their confidence with the treatment will be evaluated before randomisation and after the first treatment session, respectively. Discussion This will be the first study aiming to compare the effectiveness of Mat and Equipment-based Pilates exercises in patients with chronic non-specific low back pain. The results may help health-care professionals in clinical decision-making and could potentially reduce the treatment costs of this condition. Trial registration Brazilian Registry of Clinical Trials RBR-7tyg5j PMID:23298183

  7. Review on Chaga Medicinal Mushroom, Inonotus obliquus (Higher Basidiomycetes): Realm of Medicinal Applications and Approaches on Estimating its Resource Potential.

    PubMed

    Balandaykin, Mikhail E; Zmitrovich, Ivan V

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the realm of medicinal applications of Inonotus obliquus raw materials, sterile conks I. obliquus, based on the bibliographies of chemical studies of the fungus. The experimental part of the paper is devoted to the presentation of methods of estimating the resource potential of this fungus based on data obtained in the comfort zone of ththis species. A new form, I. obliquus f. sterilis, is formally described. PMID:25746615

  8. Progress on understanding the anticancer mechanisms of medicinal mushroom: inonotus obliquus.

    PubMed

    Song, Fu-Qiang; Liu, Ying; Kong, Xiang-Shi; Chang, Wei; Song, Ge

    2013-01-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide. Recently, the demand for more effective and safer therapeutic agents for the chemoprevention of human cancer has increased. As a white rot fungus, Inonotus obliquus is valued as an edible and medicinal resource. Chemical investigations have shown that I. obliquus produces a diverse range of secondary metabolites, including phenolic compounds, melanins, and lanostane-type triterpenoids. Among these are active components for antioxidant, antitumoral, and antiviral activities and for improving human immunity against infection of pathogenic microbes. Importantly, their anticancer activities have become a hot recently, but with relatively little knowledge of their modes of action. Some compounds extracted from I. obliquus arrest cancer cells in the G0/G1 phase and then induce cell apoptosis or differentiation, whereas some examples directly participate in the cell apoptosis pathway. In other cases, polysaccharides from I. obliquus can indirectly be involved in anticancer processes mainly via stimulating the immune system. Furthermore, the antioxidative ability of I. obliquus extracts can prevent generation of cancer cells. In this review, we highlight recent findings regarding mechanisms underlying the anticancer influence of I. obliquus, to provide a comprehensive landscape view of the actions of this mushroom in preventing cancer. PMID:23679238

  9. The effects of Pilates exercise on sleep quality in postpartum women.

    PubMed

    Ashrafinia, Farzaneh; Mirmohammadali, Mandana; Rajabi, Hamid; Kazemnejad, Anooshirvan; Sadeghniiathaghighi, Khosro; Amelvalizadeh, Mehrnoosh; Chen, Hui

    2014-04-01

    Prolonged poor sleeping quality can decrease women's ability to perform their maternal and family duties after delivery. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a Pilates training program on sleep quality in primigravida postpartum women in a randomized clinical trial. Eighty postpartum women were randomly divided into intervention and control groups (n = 40). Home-based 30-min Pilates exercises were started 72 h after the delivery and performed five times per week for consecutive 8 weeks. Sleep quality was assessed by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) prior to the intervention and 4th and 8th weeks afterwards. The intervention group showed a significant improvement in subjective sleep quality, sleep latency, daytime dysfunction and global PSQI score (P < 0.001); however, there was no difference in sleep duration, habitual sleep efficiency and sleep disturbance between the groups. In conclusion, Pilates exercises appeared to improve sleep quality in primigravida postpartum women. PMID:24725785

  10. Improvements in cognition, quality of life, and physical performance with clinical Pilates in multiple sclerosis: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Küçük, Fadime; Kara, Bilge; Poyraz, Esra Çoşkuner; İdiman, Egemen

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine the effects of clinical Pilates in multiple sclerosis patients. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty multiple sclerosis patients were enrolled in this study. The participants were divided into two groups as the clinical Pilates and control groups. Cognition (Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite), balance (Berg Balance Scale), physical performance (timed performance tests, Timed up and go test), tiredness (Modified Fatigue Impact scale), depression (Beck Depression Inventory), and quality of life (Multiple Sclerosis International Quality of Life Questionnaire) were measured before and after treatment in all participants. [Results] There were statistically significant differences in balance, timed performance, tiredness and Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite tests between before and after treatment in the clinical Pilates group. We also found significant differences in timed performance tests, the Timed up and go test and the Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite between before and after treatment in the control group. According to the difference analyses, there were significant differences in Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite and Multiple Sclerosis International Quality of Life Questionnaire scores between the two groups in favor of the clinical Pilates group. There were statistically significant clinical differences in favor of the clinical Pilates group in comparison of measurements between the groups. Clinical Pilates improved cognitive functions and quality of life compared with traditional exercise. [Conclusion] In Multiple Sclerosis treatment, clinical Pilates should be used as a holistic approach by physical therapists. PMID:27134355

  11. Improvements in cognition, quality of life, and physical performance with clinical Pilates in multiple sclerosis: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Küçük, Fadime; Kara, Bilge; Poyraz, Esra Çoşkuner; İdiman, Egemen

    2016-03-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine the effects of clinical Pilates in multiple sclerosis patients. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty multiple sclerosis patients were enrolled in this study. The participants were divided into two groups as the clinical Pilates and control groups. Cognition (Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite), balance (Berg Balance Scale), physical performance (timed performance tests, Timed up and go test), tiredness (Modified Fatigue Impact scale), depression (Beck Depression Inventory), and quality of life (Multiple Sclerosis International Quality of Life Questionnaire) were measured before and after treatment in all participants. [Results] There were statistically significant differences in balance, timed performance, tiredness and Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite tests between before and after treatment in the clinical Pilates group. We also found significant differences in timed performance tests, the Timed up and go test and the Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite between before and after treatment in the control group. According to the difference analyses, there were significant differences in Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite and Multiple Sclerosis International Quality of Life Questionnaire scores between the two groups in favor of the clinical Pilates group. There were statistically significant clinical differences in favor of the clinical Pilates group in comparison of measurements between the groups. Clinical Pilates improved cognitive functions and quality of life compared with traditional exercise. [Conclusion] In Multiple Sclerosis treatment, clinical Pilates should be used as a holistic approach by physical therapists. PMID:27134355

  12. Comparison of deep and superficial abdominal muscle activity between experienced Pilates and resistance exercise instructors and controls during stabilization exercise.

    PubMed

    Moon, Ji-Hyun; Hong, Sang-Min; Kim, Chang-Won; Shin, Yun-A

    2015-06-01

    Pilates and resistance exercises are used for lumbar stabilization training. However, it is unclear which exercise is more effective for lumbar stabilization. In our study, we aimed to compare surface muscle activity and deep muscle thickness during relaxation and spinal stabilization exercise in experienced Pilates and resistance exercise instructors. This study is a retrospective case control study set in the Exercise Prescription Laboratory and Sports Medicine Center. The participants included Pilates instructors (mean years of experience, 3.20±1.76; n=10), resistance exercise instructors (mean years of experience, 2.53±0.63; n=10), and controls (n=10). The participants performed 4 different stabilization exercises: abdominal drawing-in maneuver, bridging, roll-up, and one-leg raise. During the stabilization exercises, surface muscle activity was measured with electromyography, whereas deep muscle thickness was measured by ultrasound imaging. During the 4 stabilization exercises, the thickness of the transverse abdominis (TrA) was significantly greater in the Pilates-trained group than the other 2 other groups. The internal oblique (IO) thickness was significantly greater in the Pilates- and resistance-trained group than the control group, during the 4 exercises. However, the surface muscle activities were similar between the groups. Both Pilates and resistance exercise instructors had greater activation of deep muscles, such as the TrA and IO, than the control subjects. Pilates and resistance exercise are both effective for increasing abdominal deep muscle thickness. PMID:26171383

  13. Effects of 8-week Pilates exercise program on menopausal symptoms and lumbar strength and flexibility in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Lee, Haelim; Caguicla, Joy Matthew Cuasay; Park, Sangseo; Kwak, Dong Jick; Won, Deuk-Yeon; Park, Yunjin; Kim, Jeeyoun; Kim, Myungki

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of an 8-week Pilates exercise program on menopausal symptoms and lumbar strength and flexibility in postmenopausal women. In total, 74 postmenopausal women were recruited and randomly allocated to a Pilates exercise group (n=45) and a control group (n=29). Menopausal symptoms were measured through a questionnaire, while lumbar strength was measured through a lumbar extension machine, and lumbar flexibility was measured through sit-and-reach and trunk lift tests performed before and after the Pilates exercise program, respectively. The Pilates exercises consisted of 7-10 min for warm-up, 35-40 min for the main program modified from Pilates Academy International, and 5-7 min for the cool-down, and were performed 3 times a week for 8 weeks. The results showed a significant decrease in menopausal symptoms except urogenital symptoms. Also, the results presented a significant increase in lumbar strength and flexibility after 8 weeks of the Pilates exercise program. We concluded that an 8-week Pilates exercise program is effective in decreasing menopausal symptoms and increasing lumbar strength and flexibility. PMID:27419122

  14. Effects of 8-week Pilates exercise program on menopausal symptoms and lumbar strength and flexibility in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Haelim; Caguicla, Joy Matthew Cuasay; Park, Sangseo; Kwak, Dong Jick; Won, Deuk-Yeon; Park, Yunjin; Kim, Jeeyoun; Kim, Myungki

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of an 8-week Pilates exercise program on menopausal symptoms and lumbar strength and flexibility in postmenopausal women. In total, 74 postmenopausal women were recruited and randomly allocated to a Pilates exercise group (n=45) and a control group (n=29). Menopausal symptoms were measured through a questionnaire, while lumbar strength was measured through a lumbar extension machine, and lumbar flexibility was measured through sit-and-reach and trunk lift tests performed before and after the Pilates exercise program, respectively. The Pilates exercises consisted of 7–10 min for warm-up, 35–40 min for the main program modified from Pilates Academy International, and 5–7 min for the cool-down, and were performed 3 times a week for 8 weeks. The results showed a significant decrease in menopausal symptoms except urogenital symptoms. Also, the results presented a significant increase in lumbar strength and flexibility after 8 weeks of the Pilates exercise program. We concluded that an 8-week Pilates exercise program is effective in decreasing menopausal symptoms and increasing lumbar strength and flexibility. PMID:27419122

  15. Chemical constituents from Inonotus obliquus and their biological activities.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chao; Zhao, Cui; Pan, Hong-Hui; Kang, Jie; Yu, Xiong-Tao; Wang, Hong-Qing; Li, Bao-Ming; Xie, Yi-Zhen; Chen, Ruo-Yun

    2014-01-24

    Seven new triterpenes, inonotusol A-G (1-7), one new diterpene, inonotusic acid (8), and 22 known compounds were isolated from Inonotus obliquus. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis, including homonuclear and heteronuclear correlation NMR ((1)H-(1)H COSY, ROESY, HSQC, and HMBC) experiments. In in vitro assays, compounds 6 and 8-16 showed hepatoprotective effects against d-galactosamine-induced WB-F344 cell damage, with inhibitory effects from 34.4% to 81.2%. Compounds 7, 17, and 18 exhibited selective cytotoxicities against KB, Bel-7402, or A-549 cell lines. Compounds 16 and 17 showed inhibitory effects against protein tyrosine kinases, with IC50 values of 24.6 and 7.7 μM, respectively. PMID:24359303

  16. Antioxidant activities of five polysaccharides from Inonotus obliquus.

    PubMed

    Huang, Sheng-quan; Ding, Shaodong; Fan, Liuping

    2012-06-01

    Five polysaccharides (IOP1b, IOP2a, IOP2c, IOP3a and IOP4) were isolated and purified from Inonotus obliquus by DEAE-Sepharose fast flow and SepharoseCL-6B column chromatography. Their chemical and physical characteristics were determined and antioxidant activities were investigated on the basis of hydroxyl radical assay, superoxide radical assay and ferric-reducing antioxidant power assay. The results showed that five polysaccharides exhibited antioxidant activities, and the higher content of uronic acid and proteinous substances, the stronger antioxidant activities of polysaccharides. Besides, molecular weights of polysaccharides also influence their antioxidant activities. IOP3a and IOP4 showed higher antioxidant properties than IOP1b, IOP2a and IOP2c. PMID:22484729

  17. Triterpenoids from Inonotus obliquus and their antitumor activities.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Fenqin; Mai, Qinqin; Ma, Jianghao; Xu, Mei; Wang, Xue; Cui, Tiantian; Qiu, Feng; Han, Guang

    2015-03-01

    Three new lanostane-type triterpenes, inonotusanes A-C (1-3), and a new naturally occurring one, 3β-hydroxy-25,26,27-trinorlanosta-8,22E-dien-24-oic acid (4), together with sixteen known triterpenoids (5-20), including 13 lanostane derivatives, 2 lupanes and 1 oleanane-type triterpene were isolated from the sclerotia of Inonotus obliquus. Their structures were elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy and HRMS. Compounds 6, 8, 18 and 20 exhibited strong cytotoxicity against A549 tumor cell lines, with IC50 values of 2.34, 1.63, 8.39 and 5.39μM, respectively. Seven compounds (3, 9, 10, 12, 18-20) exhibited moderate cytotoxicity against A549, HT29, Hela or L1210 tumor cell lines. PMID:25542686

  18. Treating non-specific chronic low back pain through the Pilates Method.

    PubMed

    La Touche, Roy; Escalante, Karla; Linares, María Teresa

    2008-10-01

    The goal of this study is to review and analyze scientific articles where the Pilates Method was used as treatment for non-specific chronic low back pain (CLBP). Articles were searched using the Medline, EMBASE, PEDro, CINAHL, and SPORTDICUS databases. The criteria used for inclusion were randomized controlled trials (RCT) and clinical controlled trials (CCT) published in English where therapeutic treatment was based on the Pilates Method. The analysis was carried out by two independent reviewers using the PEDro and Jadad Scales. Two RCTs and one CCT were selected for a retrospective analysis. The results of the studies analyzed all demonstrate positive effects, such as improved general function and reduction in pain when applying the Pilates Method in treating non-specific CLBP in adults. However, further research is required to determine which specific parameters are to be applied when prescribing exercises based on the Pilates Method with patients suffering from non-specific CLBP. Finally, we believe that more studies must be carried out where the samples are more widespread so as to give a larger representation and more reliable results. PMID:19083695

  19. Living AnatoME: Teaching and Learning Musculoskeletal Anatomy through Yoga and Pilates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCulloch, Carrie; Marango, Stephanie Pieczenik; Friedman, Erica S.; Laitman, Jeffrey T.

    2010-01-01

    Living AnatoME, a program designed in 2004 by two medical students in conjunction with the Director of Anatomy, teaches musculoskeletal anatomy through yoga and Pilates. Previously offered as an adjunct to the Gross Anatomy course in 2007, Living AnatoME became an official part of the curriculum. Previous research conducted on the program…

  20. Eight-Week Traditional Mat Pilates Training-Program Effects on Adult Fitness Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Kate; Gibson, Ann L.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated responses of adult, novice practitioners (n = 9) to an 8-week traditional mat Pilates program (P) that met 1 hr/day three times/week. Classes consisted primarily of beginner and intermediate level exercises. Compared to an active control group (C; n = 13) that showed no improvements, those in P significantly (p less than 0.05)…

  1. Stimulated production of steroids in Inonotus obliquus by host factors from birch.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lian-Xia; Lu, Zhen-Ming; Geng, Yan; Zhang, Xiao-Mei; Xu, Guo-Hua; Shi, Jin-Song; Xu, Zheng-Hong

    2014-12-01

    Steroids was considered as one of the bioactive components in Inonotus obliquus, while this kind of secondary metabolites are less accumulated in cultured mycelia. In this study, effect of extracts from bark and core of host-related species, birch (Betula platyphylla Suk.), on steroid production of I. obliquus in submerged culture were evaluated. The results showed that all dosages (0.01 and 0.1 g/L) of aqueous extracts and methanol extracts from birch bark and birch core possessed significantly stimulatory effect on steroid production of I. obliquus (P < 0.05). Among the eight extracts, the aqueous extract (0.01 g/L) from birch bark gave the highest steroid production (225.5 ± 8.7 mg/L), which is 97.3% higher than that of the control group. The aqueous extract (0.01 and 0.1 g/L) from birch bark could simultaneously stimulated mycelial growth and steroid content, while the methanol extract from birch bark only elevated the steroid content. High performance liquid chromatography analysis showed that productions of betulin, ergosterol, cholesterol, lanosterol, stigmasterol, and sitosterol in I. obliquus simultaneously increased in the presence of aqueous extract and methanol extract from birch bark. The results presented herein indicate that extracts from birch bark could act as an inducer for steroid biosynthesis of I. obliquus. PMID:25027706

  2. Impact of the clinical Pilates exercises and verbal education on exercise beliefs and psychosocial factors in healthy women

    PubMed Central

    Küçük, Fadime; Livanelioglu, Ayşe

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] Exercise is one of the most important components of a healthy life. The purpose of this study was to analyze exercise beliefs and psychosocial factors in sedentary and active healthy women and observe the changes in these parameters resulting from clinical Pilates exercises and verbal education in healthy women. [Subjects and Methods] Sixty-six healthy women were included in the study. Participants were divided into clinical Pilates (n=21), verbal education (n=25), and control groups (n=20). Prior to and at the end of the study, demographic information, body mass index, waist-hip circumference, exercise beliefs, physical activity index, and psychosocial factors (Rosenberg self-esteem scale, Body Cathexis Index, SF-36 quality of life, Beck Depression Scale, visual analog scale for tiredness) of the subjects were recorded. [Results] Meaningful changes for all the parameters took place in the clinical Pilates and verbal education groups. Our analyses indicated that the changes in the clinical Pilates group were more meaningful than those in the verbal education group. When the data of the study groups were compared with those of the control group, the clinical Pilates group showed meaningful differences. [Conclusion] The result of this study indicate that both clinical Pilates and verbal education are effective in changing exercise beliefs and physical and psychosocial parameters. PMID:26696715

  3. Impact of the clinical Pilates exercises and verbal education on exercise beliefs and psychosocial factors in healthy women.

    PubMed

    Küçük, Fadime; Livanelioglu, Ayşe

    2015-11-01

    [Purpose] Exercise is one of the most important components of a healthy life. The purpose of this study was to analyze exercise beliefs and psychosocial factors in sedentary and active healthy women and observe the changes in these parameters resulting from clinical Pilates exercises and verbal education in healthy women. [Subjects and Methods] Sixty-six healthy women were included in the study. Participants were divided into clinical Pilates (n=21), verbal education (n=25), and control groups (n=20). Prior to and at the end of the study, demographic information, body mass index, waist-hip circumference, exercise beliefs, physical activity index, and psychosocial factors (Rosenberg self-esteem scale, Body Cathexis Index, SF-36 quality of life, Beck Depression Scale, visual analog scale for tiredness) of the subjects were recorded. [Results] Meaningful changes for all the parameters took place in the clinical Pilates and verbal education groups. Our analyses indicated that the changes in the clinical Pilates group were more meaningful than those in the verbal education group. When the data of the study groups were compared with those of the control group, the clinical Pilates group showed meaningful differences. [Conclusion] The result of this study indicate that both clinical Pilates and verbal education are effective in changing exercise beliefs and physical and psychosocial parameters. PMID:26696715

  4. Pilates versus general exercise effectiveness on pain and functionality in non-specific chronic low back pain subjects.

    PubMed

    Mostagi, Fernanda Queiroz Ribeiro Cerci; Dias, Josilainne Marcelino; Pereira, Ligia Maxwell; Obara, Karen; Mazuquin, Bruno Fles; Silva, Mariana Felipe; Silva, Monica Angelica Cardoso; de Campos, Renata Rosa; Barreto, Maria Simone Tavares; Nogueira, Jéssyca Fernandes; Lima, Tarcísio Brandão; Carregaro, Rodrigo Luiz; Cardoso, Jefferson Rosa

    2015-10-01

    Low back pain (LBP) is one of the most common causes of disability, and the Pilates method has been associated with improvements in symptoms. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of the Pilates method, when compared to general exercises, on pain and functionality after eight weeks (16 sessions, 2×/week) and a follow-up of three months, in subjects with non-specific chronic low back pain (NSCLBP). A randomised controlled trial composed of 22 subjects was proposed. Subjects were allocated into two groups: the Pilates group (PG) (n = 11) and the general exercise group (GEG) (n = 11). The PG protocol was based on the Pilates method and the GEG performed exercises to manage NSCLBP. There were no differences between the groups. When analysed over time, the GEG demonstrated improvements in functionality between baseline and the end of treatment (P = .02; Cohen'sd¯ = 0.34) and baseline and follow-up (P = .04; Cohen'sd¯ = 0.31). There were no differences between the Pilates and general exercises with regard to pain and functionality in NSCLBP subjects but general exercises were better than Pilates for increasing functionality and flexibility. PMID:26592221

  5. Physical and psychological benefits of once-a-week Pilates exercises in young sedentary women: A 10-week longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Tolnai, Nóra; Szabó, Zsófia; Köteles, Ferenc; Szabo, Attila

    2016-09-01

    Pilates exercises have several demonstrated physical and psychological benefits. To date, most research in this context was conducted with symptomatic or elderly people with few dependent measures. The current study examined the chronic or longitudinal effects of very low frequency, once a week, Pilates training on several physical and psychological measures, over a 10-week intervention, in young, healthy, and sedentary women. Further, the study gauged the acute effects of Pilates exercises on positive- and negative affect in 10 exercise sessions. Compared to a control group, the Pilates group exhibited significant improvements in skeletal muscle mass, flexibility, balance, core- and abdominal muscle strength, body awareness, and negative affect. This group also showed favorable changes in positive (22.5% increase) and negative affect (12.2% decrease) in nine out of ten exercise sessions. This work clearly demonstrates the acute and chronic benefits of Pilates training on both physical and psychological measures. It also reveals that even only once a week Pilates training is enough to trigger detectable benefits in young sedentary women. While this frequency is below the required levels of exercise for health, it may overcome the 'lack of time' excuse for not exercising and subsequently its tangible benefits may positively influence one's engagement in more physical activity. PMID:27195456

  6. Supercritical fluid extraction and characterization of lipids from algae Scenedesmus obliquus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, K. J.; Nakhost, Z.; Krukonis, V. J.; Karel, M.

    1987-01-01

    Lipids were extracted from a protein concentrate of green algae (Scenedesmus obliquus), using a one-step supercritical carbon dioxide extraction procedure in presence of ethanol as an entrainer, and were characterized. The compositions of neutral lipids, glycolipids, and phospholipids, separated into individual components by column, thin-layer, and gas-liquid chromatography procedures, are presented. Fatty acid composition patterns indicated that the major fatty acids were 16:0, 16:1, 16:2, 16:3, 16:4, 18:1, 18:2, and 18:3. The lipids of S. obliquus were found to contain relatively high concentrations of polyunsaturated fatty acids and essential fatty acids.

  7. Expression of type 2 diacylglycerol acyltransferse gene DGTT1 from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii enhances lipid production in Scenedesmus obliquus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun-Yen; Kao, Ai-Ling; Tsai, Zheng-Chia; Chow, Te-Jin; Chang, Hsin-Yueh; Zhao, Xin-Qing; Chen, Po-Ting; Su, Hsiang-Yen; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2016-03-01

    Microalgal strains of Scenedesmus obliquus have the great potential for the production of biofuels, CO2 fixation, and bioremediation. However, metabolic engineering of S. obliquus to improve their useful phenotypes are still not fully developed. In this study, S. obliquus strain CPC2 was genetically engineered to promote the autotrophic growth and lipid productivity. The overexpression plasmid containing the type 2 diacylglycerol acyltransferse (DGAT) gene DGTT1 from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was constructed and transformed into S. obliquus CPC2, and the positive transformants were obtained. The expression of DGTT1 gene was confirmed by reverse transcription PCR analysis. Enhanced lipid content of the transformant S. obliquus CPC2-G1 by nearly two-fold was observed. The biomass concentration of the recombinant strains was also 29% higher than that of the wild-type strain. Furthermore, the recombinant strain CPC2-G1 was successfully grown in 40 L tubular type photobioreactor and open pond system in an outdoor environment. The lipid content, biomass concentration, and biomass productivity obtained from 40 L tubular PBR were 127.8% 20.0%, and 232.6% higher than those obtained from the wild-type strain. The major aim of this work is to develop a tool to genetically engineer an isolated S. obliquus strain for the desired purpose. This is the first report that genetic engineering of S. obliquus has been successful employed to improve both the microalgal cell growth and the lipid production. PMID:26849021

  8. Grazer-induced morphological defense in Scenedesmus obliquus is affected by competition against Microcystis aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xuexia; Wang, Jun; Lu, Yichun; Chen, Qinwen; Yang, Zhou

    2015-01-01

    The green alga Scenedesmus is known for its phenotypic plasticity in response to grazing risk. However, the benefits of colony formation induced by infochemicals from zooplankton should come with costs. That is, a tradeoff in benefit-to-cost ratios is likely under complex environmental conditions. In this study, we hypothesized that the coexistence of Scenedesmus and its competitors decreases the formation of anti-grazer colonies in Scenedesmus. Results demonstrated that the presence of a competitor Microcystis aeruginosa inhibited inducible defensive colony formation of Scenedesmus obliquus, and the established defensive colonies negatively affected the competitive ability of S. obliquus. The proportion of induced defensive colonies in cultures was dependent on the relative abundance of competitors. Under low competition intensity, large amount of eight-celled colonies were formed but at the cost of decreased competitive inhibition on M. aeruginosa. By contrast, defensive colony formation of S. obliquus slacked in the presence of high competition intensity to maintain a high displacement rate (competitive ability). In conclusion, S. obliquus exhibited different responses to potential grazing pressure under different intensities of competition, i.e., Scenedesmus morphological response to grazing infochemicals was affected by competition against Microcystis. PMID:26224387

  9. Biodiesel Production by the Green Microalga Scenedesmus obliquus in a Recirculatory Aquaculture System

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, Shovon

    2012-01-01

    Biodiesel production was examined with Scenedesmus obliquus in a recirculatory aquaculture system with fish pond discharge and poultry litter to couple with waste treatment. Lipid productivity of 14,400 liter ha−1 year−1 was projected with 11 cultivation cycles per year. The fuel properties of the biodiesel produced adhered to Indian and international standards. PMID:22660702

  10. Investigation of three lignin complexes with antioxidant and immunological capacities from Inonotus obliquus.

    PubMed

    Niu, Hong; Song, Dan; Mu, Haibo; Zhang, Wuxia; Sun, Feifei; Duan, Jinyou

    2016-05-01

    Mushroom Inonotus obliquus (I. obliquus), a folk medicine, has been widely used to treat several human malicious tumors since 16th century. In this study, three homogenous biomolecules (designated IOA1, IOA2 and IOA3) were prepared from the alkali extract of I. obliquus. Their molecular weights were measured to be 6.1 × 10(4), 2.9 × 10(4) and 3.5 × 10(4) g/mol respectively and all of them were characterized as lignin-carbohydrate complexes mainly comprised lignin as well as -25% carbohydrates. Antioxidant assays indicated that all of them exhibited pronounced reductive power and strong scavenging activities on DPPH and hydroxyl radicals in vitro. Immunological tests showed that they could also significantly stimulate nitric oxide production and phagocytic activity in RAW 264.7 macrophages. These results implied that the lignin-carbohydrate complexes extracted from I. obliquus might be used as novel natural antioxidants or immunostimulants in functional foods or pharmaceutical candidates. PMID:26845476

  11. Involvements of S-nitrosylation and denitrosylation in the production of polyphenols by Inonotus obliquus.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Weifa; Liu, Yubing; Pan, Shenyuan; Yuan, Weihua; Dai, Yucheng; Wei, Jiangchun

    2011-06-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) has been evidenced to mediate biosynthesis of polyphenols in Inonotus obliquus. However, it remains unknown how NO regulates their biosynthesis. Here we show that higher cellular NO levels coincided with higher accumulation of S-nitrosothiols (SNO; the products of NO combined with a specific residue in glutathione or proteins) and polyphenols, and higher activity of denitrosylated S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR) and thioredoxin reductase (TrxR). This homeostasis was breached by GSNOR or TrxR inhibitors. Inhibiting GSNOR boosted TrxR activity, but reduced SNO formation, coinciding with an enhanced production of polyphenols. Likewise, inhibiting TrxR increased GSNOR activity and SNO production, but downregulated accumulation of polyphenols. Inhibiting GSNOR or TrxR also modified the polyphenolic profiles of I. obliquus. Suppressing GSNOR-enhanced biosynthesis of phelligridins C and H, inoscavin C and methyl inoscavin B, but reduced that of phelligridin D, methyl inoscavin A, davallialactone and methyl davallialactone, the typical polyphenols in I. obliquus. Similarly, downregulating TrxR increased production of phelligridin D, methyl inoscavin A, davallialactone, and methyl davallialactone, but shrinking that of phelligridins C and H, methyl inoscavin B and inoscavin C. Thus, in I. obliquus, the state of S-nitrosylation and denitrosylation affects not only the accumulation of polyphenols, but also their metabolic profiles. PMID:21468702

  12. Anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities of extracts and compounds from the mushroom Inonotus obliquus.

    PubMed

    Ma, Lishuai; Chen, Haixia; Dong, Peng; Lu, Xueming

    2013-08-15

    Mushroom Inonotus obliquus (I. obliquus) has been used as functional food and traditional Chinese herbs for long time. An efficient method for bioassay-guided preparative isolation was used for identifying the anti-inflammatory and anticancer constituents in I. obliquus. The petroleum ether and ethyl acetate fractions were found to have significant inhibition effects on NO production and NF-κB luciferase activity in macrophage RAW 264.7 cells and cytotoxicity against human prostatic carcinoma cell PC3 and breast carcinoma cell MDA-MB-231. Six main constituents were isolated from these two fractions and they were identified as lanosterol (1), 3β-hydroxy-8,24-dien-21-al (2), ergosterol (3), inotodiol (4), ergosterol peroxide (5) and trametenolic acid (6). Compound ergosterol, ergosterol peroxide and trametenolic acid showed anti-inflammatory activities and ergosterol peroxide and trametenolic acid showed obviously cytotoxicity on human prostatic carcinoma cell PC3 and breast carcinoma MDA-MB-231 cell. The results obtained in this work might contribute to understanding the biological activity of mushroom I. obliquus for food and drug application. PMID:23561137

  13. Acute and chronic toxic effects of bisphenol A on Chlorella pyrenoidosa and Scenedesmus obliquus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Xiong, Bang; Sun, Wen-Fang; An, Shuai; Lin, Kuang-Fei; Guo, Mei-Jin; Cui, Xin-Hong

    2014-06-01

    The acute and chronic toxic effects of Bisphenol A (BPA) on Chlorella pyrenoidosa (C. pyrenoidosa) and Scenedesmus obliquus (S. obliquus) were not well understood. The indoor experiments were carried out to observe and analyze the BPA-induced changes. Results of the observations showed that in acute tests BPA could significantly inhibit the growth of both algae, whereas chronic exposure hardly displayed similar trend. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Catalase (CAT) activities of both algae were promoted in all the treatments. Chlorophyll a synthesis of the two algae exhibited similar inhibitory trend in short-term treatments, and in chronic tests C. pyrenoidosa hardly resulted in visible influence, whereas in contrast, dose-dependent inhibitory effects of S. obliquus could be clearly observed. The experimental results indicated that the growth and Chlorophyll a syntheses of S.obliquus were more sensitive in response to BPA than that of C. pyrenoidosa, whereas for SOD andCAT activities, C. pyrenoidosa was more susceptible. This research provides a basic understanding of BPA toxicity to aquatic organisms. PMID:22887798

  14. Effect of Pilates on sleep quality and quality of life of sedentary population.

    PubMed

    Leopoldino, Amanda Aparecida Oliveira; Avelar, Núbia Carelli Pereira; Passos, Gabriela Basques; Santana, Natália Ágatta Perácio; Teixeira, Vanessa Pereira; de Lima, Vanessa Pereira; de Melo Vitorino, Débora Fernandes

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of an exercise program based on the Pilates Matwork method on sedentary volunteers who self-reported changes in their sleep quality and quality of life. This was a prospective clinical study, in which the variables (level of sleepiness and quality of life) were compared before and after applying a protocol of 12 weeks of an exercise program (2 sessions per week). The level of sleepiness showed significant improvement between before and after the intervention (p: 0.04). Quality of life improved based on all of the emotional components and the physical components (p < 0.05) with the exception of the physical domain (p: 0.09). The results of this study indicate that the sedentary population who participated in this 12 week Pilates program experienced improvements in sleep quality and quality of life. PMID:23294677

  15. Oxidative stress response of Inonotus obliquus induced by hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Weifa; Zhao, Yanxia; Zhang, Meimei; Wei, Zhiwen; Miao, Kangjie; Sun, Weiguo

    2009-12-01

    While the medicinal fungus Inonotus obliquus produces polyphenols as one of its main metabolites in natural habitats, it accumulates less polyphenols under laboratory conditions. In this study we found that the continuous addition of 1 mM H(2)O(2) at a rate of 1.6 ml/h into a submerged culture of the fungus enhanced its production of mycelia, melanins, flavonoids and hispidin analogs (HA). Simultaneous exposure of the fungus to both H(2)O(2) and arbutin resulted in reduced production of mycelia, glycosylated flavonoids (GF) and HA, and inhibition of melanogenesis. However, superoxide dismutases (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activity were enhanced following the addition of H(2)O(2) or H(2)O(2) plus arbutin. The maximum levels of SOD and CAT activities reached 355.2 U/mg protein and 39.8 U/mg protein respectively in H(2)O(2)-added medium, and 264 U/mg protein and 35.9 U/mg protein respectively in H(2)O(2) plus arbutin medium. Thus, detoxification of H(2)O(2) is conducted mainly by polyphenols under normal physiological conditions, and by both polyphenols and antioxidant enzymes under oxidative stress when melanogenesis is inhibited. Although enhanced HA production occurred after melanogenesis inactivation, total extracellular polyphenol levels were reduced. These findings suggest that enzymatic activities convert superoxide to H(2)O(2), and non-enzymatic mechanisms are largely responsible for detoxifying H(2)O(2). Enhanced production of melanins is the most important non-enzymatic response of this fungus against oxidative stress. PMID:19184774

  16. [Comparison of component from different species of Inonotus obliquus].

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiao-Fan; Piao, Zhong-Yun

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, water content, mineral element and active ingredient concentration on fifteen Inonotus obliquus which comes from all over the world were studied. In the aspect of water content, the free water content of Finnish birch was the highest, reaching 77.21%, significantly better than that of other strains. The free water content of JL04 is the lowest, only 54.6%. The bound water content of HLJ01 which from Heilongjiang is the highest, reaching 10. 74% , significant differences among other strains. The bound water content of Birch Russia was the lowest. In the aspect of mineral element, the calcium content of NBRC9788 was the high- est (3.49 mg · g(-1)), significantly better than other strains. The second was Finnish birch. The lowest was CX02. The phosphorus content of NBRC9788 was the highest (210.12 μg · g(-1)), significantly superior to other strains. The lowest was JL04. In the aspect of active ingredient concentration, the triterpenoids content of HLJ01 was highest (23.7 mg · g(-1)), significantly better than other strains. It was good strains for biological products research and development and then was Finnish birch. The betulin content of MAFF420165 and MAFF420308 was low, they were not suitable for production. The polysaccharide content of Finnish birch was the highest (9.7%), significantly better than the other strains, it is one of the most ideal and good strains to develop polysaccharide. The polysaccharide content from MAFF420308 and MAFF420256 was 1.2%, lower than other strains. We suggest that avoid using these strains in the study of polysaccharide product development. PMID:25751946

  17. Pilates vs. Balance Training in Health Community-Dwelling Seniors: a 3-arm, Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Donath, L; Roth, R; Hürlimann, C; Zahner, L; Faude, O

    2016-03-01

    The study examined effects of traditional balance vs. mat-based Pilates training on balance and trunk strength in healthy community dwellers. Forty-eight seniors were either stratified to a balance training group (BAL, n=16, 69.1 (SD 5.8) y), Pilates training group (PIL, n=17, 70.8 (6.5) y) or control group (CON, n=15, 69.2 (6.1) y). BAL performed traditional balance training, while PIL conducted mat-based Pilates-exercises (8 weeks, 2 sessions/week 66 min each). Balance performance (single limb stance and perturbed kneeling, Y-Balance test), dynamic and isometric trunk flexion and extension were assessed during pre- and post-testing. According to the magnitude-based inference approach, substantial positive effects in favor of BAL compared to CON were found for the Y-balance score (right leg, effect size (d)=0.68; left leg, d=0.56), trunk extension (d=0.68) and single leg stance (right leg, d=0.61; left leg, d=0.38). Dynamic (d=0.32) and isometric (d=0.15) trunk flexion revealed unclear effects. For the Y-balance score (right leg, d=0.48, left leg, d=0.75) and single leg stance (right leg, +d=0.61%; left leg, d=0.67), interestingly, BAL substantially exceeded PIL. PIL vs. CON revealed unclear effects for most parameters (0.05Pilates training did not cause relevant adaptations in trunk strength and balance performance, whereas balance training substantially improved balance and trunk strength. PMID:26630547

  18. The effects of pilates mat exercise on the balance ability of elderly females.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Ju; Hwangbo, Kak; Lee, Chae-Woo

    2014-02-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of Pilates exercise on a mat and balance exercise on an unstable base of support for trunk stability on the balance ability of elderly females. [Subjects and Methods] Forty elderly women aged 65 or older were equally assigned to a Pilates mat exercise (PME) group and an unstable support surface exercise (USSE) group. They conducted exercise three times per week for 12 weeks for 40 minutes each time. In order to examine balance, sway length and the speed of the center of foot pressure were measured for one minute, and in order to examine dynamic balance, the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test was conducted. [Results] After the intervention, sway length, sway speed, and TUG significantly decreased in both groups. A comparison of sway speed after the intervention between the two groups revealed that the PME group showed larger decreases than the USSE group. [Conclusion] PME and USSE elicited significant effects on the static and dynamic balance of elderly female subjects, suggesting that those exercises are effective at enhancing the balance ability of this group of subjects. However, the Pilates mat exercise is regarded as being safer than exercise on an unstable base of support. PMID:24648651

  19. Fall prevention in postmenopausal women: the role of Pilates exercise training.

    PubMed

    Hita-Contreras, F; Martínez-Amat, A; Cruz-Díaz, D; Pérez-López, F R

    2016-06-01

    Falls and fall-related injuries are a major public health concern for postmenopausal women. Fear of falling, impairments in gait and postural control, and changes in body composition have been identified as important risk factors for falling. Physical exercise is an important tool in fall prevention and management. The Pilates method is a non-impact activity that can be adapted to different physical conditions and health status and is recommended for various populations. In postmenopausal women, it has been deemed an effective way to improve some fall-related physical and psychological aspects, such as postural and dynamic balance. In addition, some physical capacities, such as flexibility, personal autonomy, mobility, and functional ability have also shown to benefit from Pilates interventions involving women in their second half of life, as well as certain psychological aspects including fear of falling, depressive status, and quality of life. Pilates exercise has shown effectively to prevent falls in postmenopausal women by improving their balance, physical and psychological functioning, and independence. Nevertheless, further studies are needed to demonstrate its validity in different clinical situations. PMID:26849849

  20. Histochemical and morphometric characteristics of the normal human vastus medialis longus and vastus medialis obliquus muscles.

    PubMed Central

    Travnik, L; Pernus, F; Erzen, I

    1995-01-01

    The histochemical and morphometric characteristics of the vastus medialis longus and vastus medialis obliquus muscles were studied and compared with data on vastus lateralis. Cross-sections of autopsied muscles from 9 healthy men, aged 18-44 y, who had died suddenly were analysed. Data were obtained on proportions, cross-sectional diameter, and on atrophy and hypertrophy factors, of type 1, 2a, 2b, and 2c fibres. The analysis showed that the anatomical differences and the different functional demands placed on vastus medialis longus and vastus medialis obliquus are also expressed in different proportions and sizes of fibre types in the two muscles. The proportion of type 1 fibres was significantly higher (P < 0.01), and the proportion of 2b fibres was significantly lower (P < 0.01) in vastus medialis longus than in vastus medialis obliquus. The diameters of type 1 and type 2a fibres were significantly smaller (P < 0.01) in vastus medialis longus than in vastus medialis obliquus, although the differences were small. Within muscles a nonrandom arrangement of fibre types existed with the deeper portions of the muscles having more type 1 fibres than the more superficial portions. The histochemical and morphometric characteristics of vastus lateralis and vastus medialis obliquus show great similarity, reflecting the common function of both muscles which is taking part in transverse knee stability. Estimates of the limits of normality of the proportion, diameter, atrophy and hypertrophy factors of type 1, 2a, 2b, and 2c fibres might be useful in obtaining information on how different physiological and pathological conditions influence the proportion and size of different fibre types.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7592003

  1. Effects of Schroth and Pilates exercises on the Cobb angle and weight distribution of patients with scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Gichul; HwangBo, Pil-Neo

    2016-03-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of Schroth and Pilates exercises on the Cobb angle and body weight distribution of patients with idiopathic scoliosis. [Subjects] Twenty-four scoliosis patients with a Cobb angle of ≥20° were divided into the Schroth exercise group (SEG, n = 12) and the Pilates exercise group (PEG, n = 12). [Methods] The SEG and PEG performed Schroth and Pilates exercises, respectively, three times a week for 12 weeks. The Cobb angle was measured in the standing position with a radiography apparatus, and weight load was measured with Gait View Pro 1.0. [Results] In the intragroup comparison, both groups showed significant changes in the Cobb angle. For weight distribution, the SEG showed significant differences in the total weight between the concave and convex sides, but the PEG did not show significant differences. Furthermore, in the intragroup comparison, the SEG showed significant differences in the changes in the Cobb angle and weight distribution compared with the PEG. [Conclusion] Both Schroth and Pilates exercises were effective in changing the Cobb angle and weight distribution of scoliosis patients; however, the intergroup comparison showed that the Schroth exercise was more effective than the Pilates exercise. PMID:27134403

  2. Influence of pilates mat and apparatus exercises on pain and balance of businesswomen with chronic low back pain.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chae-Woo; Hyun, Ju; Kim, Seong Gil

    2014-04-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of mat Pilates and apparatus Pilates on pain and static balance of businesswomen with chronic back pain. [Subjects and Methods] Participants were randomly allocated to Pilates mat exercises (PME) or Pilates apparatus exercise (PAE), and performed the appropriate Pilates exercises 3 days per week for 8 weeks. In order to measure the improvement in the participants' static balance ability as a result of the exercise, the sway length and sway velocity of the subjects were measured before and after the experiment while the subjects stood on a Balance Performance Monitor (BPM) facing the front wall for 30 seconds with their eyes open. The visual analogue scale (VAS) was used to measure the degree of pain. [Results] The VAS score, sway length, and sway velocity of both groups decreased significantly after the experiment, but the PME group showed a greater decrease than the PAE group. [Conclusion] PME showed greater improvement in pain level and balance compared with PAE in this research. Since the subjects of this study were patients with low back pain, PME is assumed to have been more suitable and effective because it uses body weight to strengthen core muscles rather than heavier apparatuses as in PAE. PMID:24764614

  3. Effects of Schroth and Pilates exercises on the Cobb angle and weight distribution of patients with scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Gichul; HwangBo, Pil-neo

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of Schroth and Pilates exercises on the Cobb angle and body weight distribution of patients with idiopathic scoliosis. [Subjects] Twenty-four scoliosis patients with a Cobb angle of ≥20° were divided into the Schroth exercise group (SEG, n = 12) and the Pilates exercise group (PEG, n = 12). [Methods] The SEG and PEG performed Schroth and Pilates exercises, respectively, three times a week for 12 weeks. The Cobb angle was measured in the standing position with a radiography apparatus, and weight load was measured with Gait View Pro 1.0. [Results] In the intragroup comparison, both groups showed significant changes in the Cobb angle. For weight distribution, the SEG showed significant differences in the total weight between the concave and convex sides, but the PEG did not show significant differences. Furthermore, in the intragroup comparison, the SEG showed significant differences in the changes in the Cobb angle and weight distribution compared with the PEG. [Conclusion] Both Schroth and Pilates exercises were effective in changing the Cobb angle and weight distribution of scoliosis patients; however, the intergroup comparison showed that the Schroth exercise was more effective than the Pilates exercise. PMID:27134403

  4. Influence of Pilates Mat and Apparatus Exercises on Pain and Balance of Businesswomen with Chronic Low Back Pain

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chae-Woo; Hyun, Ju; Kim, Seong Gil

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of mat Pilates and apparatus Pilates on pain and static balance of businesswomen with chronic back pain. [Subjects and Methods] Participants were randomly allocated to Pilates mat exercises (PME) or Pilates apparatus exercise (PAE), and performed the appropriate Pilates exercises 3 days per week for 8 weeks. In order to measure the improvement in the participants’ static balance ability as a result of the exercise, the sway length and sway velocity of the subjects were measured before and after the experiment while the subjects stood on a Balance Performance Monitor (BPM) facing the front wall for 30 seconds with their eyes open. The visual analogue scale (VAS) was used to measure the degree of pain. [Results] The VAS score, sway length, and sway velocity of both groups decreased significantly after the experiment, but the PME group showed a greater decrease than the PAE group. [Conclusion] PME showed greater improvement in pain level and balance compared with PAE in this research. Since the subjects of this study were patients with low back pain, PME is assumed to have been more suitable and effective because it uses body weight to strengthen core muscles rather than heavier apparatuses as in PAE. PMID:24764614

  5. Ethanol extract of Innotus obliquus (Chaga mushroom) induces G1 cell cycle arrest in HT-29 human colon cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyun Sook; Kim, Eun Ji

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Inonotus obliquus (I. obliquus, Chaga mushroom) has long been used as a folk medicine to treat cancer. In the present study, we examined whether or not ethanol extract of I. obliquus (EEIO) inhibits cell cycle progression in HT-29 human colon cancer cells, in addition to its mechanism of action. MATERIALS/METHODS To examine the effects of Inonotus obliquus on the cell cycle progression and the molecular mechanism in colon cancer cells, HT-29 human colon cancer cells were cultured in the presence of 2.5 - 10 µg/mL of EEIO, and analyzed the cell cycle arrest by flow cytometry and the cell cycle controlling protein expression by Western blotting. RESULTS Treatment cells with 2.5 - 10 µg/mL of EEIO reduced viable HT-29 cell numbers and DNA synthesis, increased the percentage of cells in G1 phase, decreased protein expression of CDK2, CDK4, and cyclin D1, increased expression of p21, p27, and p53, and inhibited phosphorylation of Rb and E2F1 expression. Among I. obliquus fractions, fraction 2 (fractionated by dichloromethane from EEIO) showed the same effect as EEIO treatment on cell proliferation and cell cycle-related protein levels. CONCLUSIONS These results demonstrate that fraction 2 is the major fraction that induces G1 arrest and inhibits cell proliferation, suggesting I. obliquus could be used as a natural anti-cancer ingredient in the food and/or pharmaceutical industry. PMID:25861415

  6. Does pilates exercise increase physical activity, quality of life, latency, and sleep quantity in middle-aged people?

    PubMed

    García-Soidán, J L; Giraldez, V Arufe; Cachón Zagalaz, J; Lara-Sánchez, A J

    2014-12-01

    This prospective study assessed the effects of a 12-wk. exercise program based on the Pilates method (2 one-hr. sessions per week) on 99 sedentary middle-aged volunteers (M age = 47.6 yr., SD = 0.8), using an accelerometry, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and the SF-36 questionnaire to measure changes in physical activity, quality of life, sleep latency, and quantity. The variables (quality of life, sleep latency, and quantity) were compared before and after applying the Pilates program. All of the physical and emotional components of the SF-36 questionnaire showed significant improvement, and the latency and sleep quantity also showed significant increases. The results indicate that Pilates is an accessible, interesting exercise program that can generate important changes in middle age. PMID:25456245

  7. The effect of 12 weeks Prop Pilates Exercise Program (PPEP) on body stability and pain for fruit farmers with MSDs.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye-Jin; Nam, Sang-Nam; Bae, Ung Ryel; Hwang, Ryong; Lee, Jong-Bok; Kim, Jong-Hyuck

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine possible effects of 12-week Prop Pilates Exercise Program (PPEP) for the fruit farmers (grape, tomato, apple) with musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) on body stability and pain. 131 fruit farmers with MSD were selected and asked to join a 12-week Prop Pilates Exercise Program (PPEP) from 2009 to 2012. The subjects (female=74, male=57) aged 50 to 65 years old voluntarily participated. As a result, it was found that lateral-medial and anterior-posterior of body stability significantly improved in male and female fruit farmers. It was found that pain index (VAS) after 12-week Prop Pilates Exercise Program (PPEP) showed a significant decrease. PMID:24704650

  8. Graphene oxide alleviates the ecotoxicity of copper on the freshwater microalga Scenedesmus obliquus.

    PubMed

    Hu, Changwei; Hu, Naitao; Li, Xiuling; Zhao, Yongjun

    2016-10-01

    The extensive industrial application of graphene oxide (GO), has increased its exposure risk to various aquatic organisms and its potential to affect the toxicity of other environmental pollutants. In this study, we investigated the combined toxicity of GO and copper on the freshwater microalga Scenedesmus obliquus, using the MIXTOX model. The effects of low concentration (1mg/L) exposure to GO were investigated with environmentally relevant concentrations of copper by using a 12-d subacute toxicity test, with pre- and post-GO treatment. Results showed that there were significant antagonistic effects between GO and copper on S. obliquus, and GO was found to reduce ecotoxicity of copper even at low and environmentally relevant concentrations (1mg/L). PMID:27376350

  9. Immunomodulatory Activity of the Water Extract from Medicinal Mushroom Inonotus obliquus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeon-Ran

    2005-09-01

    The immunomodulatory effect of aqueous extract of Inonotus obliquus, called as Chaga, was tested on bone marrow cells from chemically immunosuppressed mice. The Chaga water extract was daily administered for 24 days to mice that had been treated with cyclophosphamide (400 mg/kg body weight), immunosuppressive alkylating agent. The number of colony-forming unit (CFU)-granulocytes/macrophages (GM) and erythroid burst-forming unit (BFU-E), increased almost to the levels seen in non-treated control as early as 8 days after treatment. Oral administration of the extract highly increased serum levels of IL-6. Also, the level of TNF-α was elevated by the chemical treatment in control mice, whereas was maintained at the background level in the extract-treated mice, indicating that the extract might effectively suppress TNF-α related pathologic conditions. These results strongly suggest the great potential of the aqueous extract from Inonotus obliquus as immune enhancer during chemotherapy. PMID:24049493

  10. Terpenoids with alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity from the submerged culture of Inonotus obliquus.

    PubMed

    Ying, You-Min; Zhang, Lin-Yan; Zhang, Xia; Bai, Hai-Bo; Liang, Dong-E; Ma, Lie-Feng; Shan, Wei-Guang; Zhan, Zha-Jun

    2014-12-01

    Lanostane-type triterpenoids, inotolactones A and B, a drimane-type sesquiterpenoid, inotolactone C, and five known terpenoids 6β-hydroxy-trans-dihydroconfertifolin, inotodiol, 3β,22-dihydroxyanosta-7,9(11),24-triene, 3β-hydroxycinnamolide, and 17-hydroxy-ent-atisan-19-oic acid, were isolated from the submerged culture of chaga mushroom, Inonotus obliquus. Their structures were characterized by spectroscopic methods, including MS and NMR (1D and 2D) spectroscopic techniques. Inotolactones A and B, examples of lanostane-type triterpenoids bearing α,β-dimethyl, α,β-unsaturated δ-lactone side chains, exhibited more potent alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activities than the positive control acarbose. This finding might be related to the anti-hyperglycemic properties of the fungus and to its popular role as a diabetes treatment. In addition, a drimane-type sesquiterpenoid and an atisane-type diterpenoid were isolated from I. obliquus. PMID:25446238

  11. Chemical modification and antioxidant activities of polysaccharide from mushroom Inonotus obliquus.

    PubMed

    Ma, Lishuai; Chen, Haixia; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Ning; Fu, Lingling

    2012-06-20

    Chemical modification polysaccharides exerted potent biological property which was related to the physicochemical properties. In the present study, polysaccharides from Inonotus obliquus were modified by suflation, acetylation and carboxymethylation. The physicochemical and antioxidant properties of I. obliquus polysaccharide (IOPS) and its derivatives were comparatively investigated by chemical methods, gas chromatography, size exclusion chromatography, scanning electron micrograph, infrared spectra and circular dichroism spectra, and ferric reducing power assay and lipid peroxidation inhibition assay, respectively. Results showed that physicochemical and antioxidant properties of IOPS were differed each other after the chemical modification of suflation, acetylation and carboxymethylation. Among the three derivatives, acetylationed polysaccharide (Ac-IOPS) resulted in lower molecular weight distribution, lower intrinsic viscosity, a hyperbranched conformation, higher antioxidant abilities on ferric-reducing power and lipid peroxidation inhibition activity compared with the native polysaccharide IOPS. Ac-IOPS might be explored as a novel potential antioxidant for human consumption. PMID:24750732

  12. Antitumor and immunomodulatory activity of water-soluble polysaccharide from Inonotus obliquus.

    PubMed

    Fan, Liuping; Ding, Shaodong; Ai, Lianzhong; Deng, Kequan

    2012-10-01

    The medicinal mushroom Inonotus obliquus has been used as a folk remedy for a long time in Russia and East-European countries to treat gastrointestinal cancer, cardiovascular disease and diabetes. In our study, a water-soluble polysaccharide (ISP2a) was successfully purified from I. obliquus by DEAE-Sepharose CL-6B and Sepharose CL-6B column chromatography. In vivo ISP2a had not only shown antitumor activity, but also could significantly enhance the immune response of tumor-bearing mice. In addition, ISP2a significantly enhanced the lymphocyte proliferation and increased the production of TNF-α. Results of these studies demonstrated that ISP2a had a potential application as natural antitumor agent with immunomodulatory activity. PMID:22840014

  13. Chemical analysis and antioxidant activity of polysaccharides extracted from Inonotus obliquus sclerotia.

    PubMed

    Du, XiuJu; Mu, HongMei; Zhou, Shuai; Zhang, Yang; Zhu, XiaoLi

    2013-11-01

    Three water-soluble polysaccharide fractions (IOP40, IOP60 and IOP80) were isolated by using different concentrations of alcohol precipitation from Inonotus obliquus sclerotia. Their physicochemical properties, including total sugar content, protein content, monosaccharide composition and percentage were analyzed. And their in vitro antioxidant capacities were investigated in terms of reducing power assay and scavenging of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals, hydroxyl radicals, superoxide anion radicals and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). In general, three polysaccharide fractions exhibited increasing antioxidant activity with increasing concentration at the ranges of tested dosage. The orders of reducing power, DPPH-scavenging capacity, H2O2-scavenging capacity, and hydroxyl-scavenging activity were all IOP60>IOP40>IOP80. These findings demonstrated that three polysaccharide fractions extracted from I. obliquus, especially IOP60, could be employed as natural ingredients in functional food and pharmaceutical industry to alleviate the oxidative stress. PMID:24145301

  14. Immunomodulatory Activity of the Water Extract from Medicinal Mushroom Inonotus obliquus

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    The immunomodulatory effect of aqueous extract of Inonotus obliquus, called as Chaga, was tested on bone marrow cells from chemically immunosuppressed mice. The Chaga water extract was daily administered for 24 days to mice that had been treated with cyclophosphamide (400 mg/kg body weight), immunosuppressive alkylating agent. The number of colony-forming unit (CFU)-granulocytes/macrophages (GM) and erythroid burst-forming unit (BFU-E), increased almost to the levels seen in non-treated control as early as 8 days after treatment. Oral administration of the extract highly increased serum levels of IL-6. Also, the level of TNF-α was elevated by the chemical treatment in control mice, whereas was maintained at the background level in the extract-treated mice, indicating that the extract might effectively suppress TNF-α related pathologic conditions. These results strongly suggest the great potential of the aqueous extract from Inonotus obliquus as immune enhancer during chemotherapy. PMID:24049493

  15. Effects of artificial sweeteners on metal bioconcentration and toxicity on a green algae Scenedesmus obliquus.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hongwei; Deng, Yuanyuan; Fan, Yunfei; Zhang, Pengfei; Sun, Hongwen; Gan, Zhiwei; Zhu, Hongkai; Yao, Yiming

    2016-05-01

    The ecotoxicity of heavy metals depends much on their speciation, which is influenced by other co-existing substances having chelating capacity. In the present study, the toxic effects of Cd(2+) and Cu(2+) on a green algae Scenedesmus obliquus were examined in the presence of two artificial sweeteners (ASs), acesulfame (ACE) and sucralose (SUC) by comparing the cell specific growth rate μ and pulse-amplitude-modulated (PAM) parameters (maximal photosystem II photochemical efficiency Fv/Fm, actual photochemical efficiency Yield, and non-photochemical quenching NPQ) of the algae over a 96-h period. Simultaneously, the bioconcentration of the metals by the algal cells in the presence of the ASs was measured. The presence of ACE enhanced the growth of S. obliquus and promoted the bioconcentration of Cd(2+) in S. obliquus, while the impacts of SUC were not significant. Meanwhile, EC50 values of Cd(2+) on the growth of S. obliquus increased from 0.42 mg/L to 0.54 mg/L and 0.48 mg/L with the addition of 1.0 mg/L ACE and SUC, respectively. As for Cu(2+), EC50 values increased from 0.13 mg/L to 0.17 mg/L and 0.15 mg/L with the addition of 1.0 mg/L ACE and SUC, respectively. In summary, the two ASs reduced the toxicity of the metals on the algae, with ACE showing greater effect than SUC. Although not as sensitive as the cell specific growth rate, PAM parameters could disclose the mechanisms involved in metal toxicity at subcellular levels. This study provides the first evidence for the possible impact of ASs on the ecotoxicity of heavy metals. PMID:26915590

  16. Optimization of aeration for biodiesel production by Scenedesmus obliquus grown in municipal wastewater.

    PubMed

    Han, Song-Fang; Jin, Wenbiao; Tu, Renjie; Abomohra, Abd El-Fatah; Wang, Zhi-Han

    2016-07-01

    Despite the significant breakthroughs in research on microalgae as a feedstock for biodiesel, its production cost is still much higher than that of fossil diesel. One possible solution to overcome this problem is to optimize algal growth and lipid production in wastewater. The present study examines the optimization of pretreatment of municipal wastewater and aeration conditions in order to enhance the lipid productivity of Scenedesmus obliquus. Results showed that no significant differences were recorded in lipid productivity of S. obliquus grown in primary settled or sterilized municipal wastewater; however, ultrasound pretreatment of wastewater significantly decreased the lipid production. Whereas, aeration rates of 0.2 vvm significantly increased lipid content by 51 %, with respect to the non-aerated culture, which resulted in maximum lipid productivity (32.5 mg L(-1) day(-1)). Furthermore, aeration enrichment by 2 % CO2 resulted in increase of lipid productivity by 46 % over the CO2 non-enriched aerated culture. Fatty acid profile showed that optimized aeration significantly enhanced monounsaturated fatty acid production, composed mainly of C18:1, by 1.8 times over the non-aerated S. obliquus culture with insignificant changes in polyunsaturated fatty acid proportion; suggesting better biodiesel characteristics for the optimized culture. PMID:26969589

  17. Production of antioxidant and antitumor metabolites by submerged cultures of Inonotus obliquus cocultured with Phellinus punctatus.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Weifa; Zhao, Yanxia; Zheng, Xin; Liu, Yubing; Pan, Shenyuan; Dai, Yucheng; Liu, Fuming

    2011-01-01

    While Inonotus obliquus produces a diverse range of bioactive metabolites in its natural habitats, it accumulates less in its submerged cultures. We show here that coculture of I. obliquus with Phellinus punctatus resulted in less production of mycelial biomass but an increased accumulation of phenolic compounds, melanins, and lanostane-type triterpenoids. Metabolites increased in production by coculture include phelligridin C, phelligridin H, methyl inoscavin A, inoscavin C, inoscavin B, davallialactone, methyl davallialactone, foscoparianol D, 21,24-cyclopentalanosta-3β,21,25-triol-8-en, lanosta-7,9(11),23-triene-3β,22,25-triol, and inotodisaccharide and melanins. Metabolites from coculture also showed an increased potential for scavenging free radicals and inhibiting the proliferation of HeLa 229 cells. Davallialactone, methyl davallialactone, and minor phenolic components are the major contributors for scavenging DPPH and hydroxyl radical in monoculture, and phelligridin C, phelligridin H, methyl inoscavin A, inoscavin C, methyl davallialactone, foscoparianol D, and inotodisaccharide are those for scavenging the tested radicals in coculture. Lanostane-type triterpenoids indicated limited roles in scavenging free radicals. Nearly all the detected metabolites correlate positively with inhibiting proliferation of HeLa 229 cells. Thus, coculture of I. obliquus with other fungi seems to be a cost-effective strategy for upregulating biosynthesis of bioactive metabolites. PMID:20830471

  18. Effect of chemicals on production, composition and antioxidant activity of polysaccharides of Inonotus obliquus.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiangqun; Quan, Lili; Shen, Mengwei

    2015-01-01

    Polysaccharides are important secondary metabolites from the medicinal mushroom Inonotus obliquus. Various fatty acids, surfactants and organic solvents as cell membrane-reorganizing chemicals were investigated for their stimulatory effects on the growth of fungal mycelium and production of exopolysaccharides (EPS) and endopolysaccharides (IPS) by submerged fermentation of I. obliquus. After evaluation of 14 chemicals, oleic acid, Tween 80, and TritonX-100 were chosen for optimization of addition concentration and addition time. Among the three chemicals, 0.1% (v/v) Tween 80 gave maximum production of mycelial biomass, EPS, IPS1, and IPS2 with a increase of 16.6, 81.6, 37.7 and 18.1%, respectively, when supplemented at the early growth phase (24h after inoculation). These EPS, IPS1, and IPS2 had significantly (p<0.05) stronger scavenging activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals than those from the control medium. IPS1 from Tween 80-containing medium was the most effective antioxidant, with an estimated IC50 value of 0.74mg/mL. This might be attributed to that the EPS and IPS from the Tween 80-containing medium had significantly (p<0.05) higher content of sugar and glucose among the six monosaccharide compositions than those from the control. The simultaneously enhanced accumulation of bioactive EPS and IPS of cultured I. obliquus supplemented with Tween 80 was evident. PMID:25797403

  19. Characterization of two water-soluble lignin metabolites with antiproliferative activities from Inonotus obliquus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qingjie; Mu, Haibo; Zhang, Lin; Dong, Dongqi; Zhang, Wuxia; Duan, Jinyou

    2015-03-01

    The chaga mushroom, Inonotus obliquus has long been recognized as a remedy for cancer, gastritis, ulcers, and tuberculosis of the bones since the 16th century. Herein we reported the identification of two homogenous biological macromolecules, designated as IOW-S-1 and IOW-S-2 with anti-tumor activities from the hot-water extract of I. obliquus. Their molecular weights were determined to be 37.9 and 24.5kDa by high performance gel permeation chromatography (HPGPC) respectively. Chemical and spectral analysis indicated that both IOW-S-1 and IOW-S-2 were predominant in lignin, along with ∼20% carbohydrates. Examination of cytotoxicity showed that these two lignin-carbohydrate complexes induced cell death in a concentration dependent manner, while this apoptosis induction was largely cell-cycle independent. Further investigation demonstrated that IOW-S-1 or IOW-S-2 inhibited the activation of the nuclear transcription factor in cancer cells. These findings implied that soluble lignin derivatives were one of bioactive components in I. obliquus, and further provided insights into the understanding of molecular basis for diverse medicinal and nutritional values of this mushroom. PMID:25583019

  20. Effect of food wastewater on biomass production by a green microalga Scenedesmus obliquus for bioenergy generation.

    PubMed

    Ji, Min-Kyu; Yun, Hyun-Shik; Park, Sanghyun; Lee, Hongkyun; Park, Young-Tae; Bae, Sunyoung; Ham, Jungyeob; Choi, Jaeyoung

    2015-03-01

    Effect of food wastewater (FW) on the biomass, lipid and carbohydrate production by a green microalga Scenedesmus obliquus cultivated in Bold's Basal Medium (BBM) was investigated. Different dilution ratios (0.5-10%) of BBM either with FW or salt solution (NaCl) or sea water (SW) were evaluated. S. obliquus showed the highest growth (0.41 g L(-1)), lipid productivity (13.3 mg L(-1) day L(-1)), carbohydrate productivity (14.7 mg L(-1) day L(-1)) and nutrient removal (38.9 mg TN L(-1) and 12.1 mg TP L(-1)) with 1% FW after 6 days of cultivation. The FW promoted algal autoflocculation due to formation of inorganic precipitates at an alkali pH. Fatty acid methyl ester analysis revealed that the palmitic and oleic acid contents were increased up to 8% with FW. Application of FW improved the growth, lipid/carbohydrate productivity and biomass recovery efficiency of S. obliquus, which can be exploited for cost effective production of microalgae biomass. PMID:25553643

  1. Isothermal and non-isothermal torrefaction characteristics and kinetics of microalga Scenedesmus obliquus CNW-N.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Hsin; Wu, Zih-Ying; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2014-03-01

    Isothermal and non-isothermal torrefaction characteristics and kinetics of microalga Scenedesmus obliquus (S. obliquus) CNW-N are studied using thermogravimetric analysis. The pyrolysis of S. obliquus CNW-N with increasing temperature is characterized by four-stage decomposition. Depending on the torrefaction temperature, light, mild, and severe torrefaction from the weight loss and the maximum decomposition rate of the microalga can be classified. Under the same average temperature and torrefaction duration, non-isothermal torrefaction gives more severe pretreatment than the isothermal one. Increasing the heating rate of non-isothermal torrefaction also intensifies the pretreatment severity. Therefore, microalgae can be torrefied via non-isothermal torrefaction in a shorter time under the same pretreatment extent. The atomic H/C ratio in the microalga decreases with increasing torrefaction severity, whereas the atomic O/C ratio rises. The analysis suggests that the activation energy of isothermal torrefaction is 57.52×10(3)Jmol(-1), while it is between 40.14×10(3) and 88.41×10(3)Jmol(-1) for non-isothermal torrefaction. PMID:24457308

  2. Toxicity evaluation of pharmaceutical wastewaters using the alga Scenedesmus obliquus and the bacterium Vibrio fischeri.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xin; Zuo, Jiane; Tang, Xinyao; Li, Ruixia; Li, Zaixing; Zhang, Fei

    2014-02-15

    The toxicity of pharmaceutical wastewaters has recently been the focus of the public in China. This study aimed to evaluate the conventional pollution parameters and toxicities of different raw and treated pharmaceutical wastewaters to algae Scenedesmus obliquus and bacteria Vibrio fischeri. Wastewater samples were collected from 16 pharmaceutical wastewater treatment plants in China. The results of the conventional parameters analysis indicated that the total suspended solids, chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonia (NH3-N), and total phosphorus (TP) were largely removed after treatment. Pharmaceutical effluents were mainly polluted with organics and phosphorus as indicated by the average COD (388 mg/L) and TP (3.16 mg/L) concentrations. The toxicity test results indicated that the influent samples were toxic to both test species. Although the toxicities could be remarkably reduced after treatment, 10 out of the 16 effluent samples exceeded the acute toxicity discharge limit of the Chinese national standards. Spearman rank correlation coefficients indicated a significantly positive correlation between the toxicity values of S. obliquus and V. fischeri. Compared with S. obliquus, V. fischeri detected more pharmaceutical effluent samples with toxicities. Meanwhile, the toxicity indicators were significantly and positively correlated with the COD and NH3-N concentrations based on a Spearman rank correlation analysis. PMID:24374566

  3. The effects of Pilates exercise training on static and dynamic balance in chronic stroke patients: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hee Sung; Kim, You Lim; Lee, Suk Min

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of Pilates exercise on static and dynamic balance in chronic stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Nineteen individuals with unilateral chronic hemiparetic stroke (age, 64.7 ± 6.9 years; height, 161.7 ± 7.9 cm; weight, 67.0 ± 11.1 kg) were randomly allocated to either a Pilates exercise group (PG, n=10) or a control group (CG, n=9). The PG attended 24 exercise sessions conducted over an 8-week period (3 sessions/week). Center of pressure (COP) sway and COP velocity were measured one week before and after the exercise program and compared to assess training effects. [Results] Pilates exercise positively affected both static and dynamic balance in patients with chronic stroke. For static balance, COP sway and velocity in the medial-lateral (M-L) and anterior-posterior (A-P) directions were significantly decreased in the PG after training while no significant differences were found in the CG. For dynamic balance, measured during treadmill walking, the PG showed significantly reduced COP sway and velocity in the M-L and A-P directions for both the paretic and non-paretic leg. [Conclusions] The findings provide initial evidence that Pilates exercise can enhance static and dynamic balance in patients with chronic stroke. PMID:27390424

  4. The effects of Pilates exercise training on static and dynamic balance in chronic stroke patients: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Hee Sung; Kim, You Lim; Lee, Suk Min

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of Pilates exercise on static and dynamic balance in chronic stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Nineteen individuals with unilateral chronic hemiparetic stroke (age, 64.7 ± 6.9 years; height, 161.7 ± 7.9 cm; weight, 67.0 ± 11.1 kg) were randomly allocated to either a Pilates exercise group (PG, n=10) or a control group (CG, n=9). The PG attended 24 exercise sessions conducted over an 8-week period (3 sessions/week). Center of pressure (COP) sway and COP velocity were measured one week before and after the exercise program and compared to assess training effects. [Results] Pilates exercise positively affected both static and dynamic balance in patients with chronic stroke. For static balance, COP sway and velocity in the medial-lateral (M-L) and anterior-posterior (A-P) directions were significantly decreased in the PG after training while no significant differences were found in the CG. For dynamic balance, measured during treadmill walking, the PG showed significantly reduced COP sway and velocity in the M-L and A-P directions for both the paretic and non-paretic leg. [Conclusions] The findings provide initial evidence that Pilates exercise can enhance static and dynamic balance in patients with chronic stroke. PMID:27390424

  5. [Migraine and epilepsy: an attempt to analyze disorders in Pontius Pilate in the romance "Master and Margarita" by M. Bulgakov].

    PubMed

    Damulin, I V

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews the literature on the relation between migraine and epilepsy. The commonality of pathogenetic mechanisms of these diseases is emphasized. As an example, the author analyzed neurological disorders in Pontius Pilate in M. Bulgakov's romance "Master and Margarita". These disorders are traditionally considered as an attack of migraine with olfactory aura. The author suggests the epileptic character of these disorders. PMID:24874341

  6. Sympathy for Pontius Pilate. Hemicrania in M. A. Bulgakov's The Master and Margarita.

    PubMed

    Zayas, V; Mainardi, F; Maggioni, F; Zanchin, G

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the description of the migraine attack of Pontius Pilate (a character in the novel The Master and Margarita by M. A. Bulgakov). Some of its features are analysed in light of current migraine literature. It is hypothesized that, at least in part, this description is based on the personal experience of the novel's author. We studied and analysed the text of the novel, other works by Bulgakov, his biography, including his medical training and practice, and the recently published diaries of Bulgakov and his wife E. S. Bulgakova. The novel contains a comprehensive description of a migraine attack. It includes a prodrome/aura of osmophobia. Olfactory perception during or shortly before the migraine attack is altered to the point where neutral or even pleasant odours become unbearable. Bulgakov's extensive history of migraines is seen in his diary, the diary of his wife, letters and other literary works. This is one of the most detailed and extensive depictions of a migraine attack in literature, with osmophobia described with great emphasis. It is likely that Pilate's migraine is described based on the personal history of the novel's author. PMID:17212685

  7. Removal of K+, Na+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ from saline-alkaline water using the microalga Scenedesmus obliquus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Zongli; Ying, Chengqi; Lu, Jianxue; Lai, Qifang; Zhou, Kai; Wang, Hui; Chen, Ling

    2013-11-01

    The capability of Scenedesmus obliquus to remove cations (K+, Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+) from saline-alkaline water was investigated at different salinities (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25) and carbonate alkalinities (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 mmol/L). K+, Na+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ in saline-alkaline water were efficiently removed by S. obliquus. The maximum removal of the cations (29.37 mg for K+, 185.85 mg for Na+, 23.07 mg for Ca2+, 66.14 mg for Mg2+) occurred at salinity 25. The maximum removal of K+ (2.28 mg), Na+ (6.62 mg), Ca2+ (1.01 mg), and Mg2+ (0.62 mg) occurred at carbonate alkalinities of 25 mmol/L for K+, 35 mmol/L for Na+, 20 mmol/L for Ca2+, and 25 mmol/L for Mg2+, respectively. Under a salinity stress, the concentration of Na+ in S. obliquus increased significantly, while that of K+ decreased significantly. The concentrations of Ca2+ and Mg2+ decreased as well. The ratios of K+/Na+, Ca2+/Na+, and Mg2+/Na+ were significantly lower in all salinity treatments than those of the control. Under alkaline stress, the concentrations of Na+ and K+ in S. obliquus decreased significantly and the ratios of K+/Na+, Ca2+/Na+, and Mg2+/Na+ were significantly higher in all treatments than in the control. Moreover, the concentrations of Ca2+ and Mg2+ in S. obliquus at alkalinities of 5-10 mmol/L were significantly higher than those of the other treatments. The removal of Na+ by S. obliquus mainly occurs through biosorption, and Mg2+ and Ca2+ were removed through both biosorption and bioaccumulation.

  8. Anticancer activity of subfractions containing pure compounds of Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) extract in human cancer cells and in Balbc/c mice bearing Sarcoma-180 cells

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Mi Ja; Chung, Cha-Kwon; Jeong, Yoonhwa

    2010-01-01

    The Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) has been used in folk medicine to treat cancers. However, limited information exists on the underlying anticancer effects of the major component of I. obliquus in vivo. We hypothesize that the pure compounds (3β-hydroxy-lanosta-8,24-dien-21-al, inotodiol and lanosterol, respectively) separated from I. obliquus would inhibit tumor growth in Balbc/c mice bearing Sarcoma-180 cells (S-180) in vivo and growth of human carcinoma cells in vitro. To test this hypothesis, the growth inhibition of each subfraction isolated from I. obliquus on human carcinoma cell lines (lung carcinoma A-549 cells, stomach adenocarcinoma AGS cells, breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells, and cervical adenocarcinoma HeLa cells) was tested in vitro. Then, after S-180 implantation, the mice were fed a normal chow supplemented with 0, 0.1 or 0.2 mg of subfraction 1, 2 or 3 per mouse per day. All of the subfractions isolated from I. obliquus showed significant cytotoxic activity against the selected cancer cell lines in vitro. Subfraction 1 was more active than subfraction 2 and subfraction 3 against the A549, AGS and MCF-7 cancer cell lines in vitro. In in vivo results, subfraction 1 isolated from I. obliquus at concentrations of 0.1 and 0.2 mg/mouse per day significantly decreased tumor volume by 23.96% and 33.71%, respectively, as compared with the control. Subfractions 2 and 3 also significantly inhibited tumor growth in mice bearing S-180 as compared with the control mouse tumor. Subfraction 1 isolated from I. obliquus showed greater inhibition of tumor growth than subfractions 2 and 3, which agrees well with the in vitro results. The results suggest that I. obliquus and its compounds in these subfractions isolated from I. obliquus could be used as natural anticancer ingredients in the food and/or pharmaceutical industry. PMID:20607061

  9. [Antiviral activity of aqueous extracts of the birch fungus Inonotus obliquus on the human immunodeficiency virus].

    PubMed

    Shibnev, V A; Garaev, T M; Finogenova, M P; Kalnina, L B; Nosik, D N

    2015-01-01

    Fractions of aqueous and water-alcohol extracts of the birch fungus Inonotus obliquus have antiviral effect against the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Antiviral properties of low toxic extracts were manifested in the concentration of 5.0 μg/ml upon simultaneous application with the virus in the lymphoblastoid cells culture MT-4. The extract of the birch fungus can be used for development of new antiviral drugs, inhibitors of HIV-replication when used both in the form of individual drugs and as a part of complex therapy. PMID:26182655

  10. Transmission and Accumulation of Nano-TiO2 in a 2-Step Food Chain (Scenedesmus obliquus to Daphnia magna).

    PubMed

    Chen, Jinyuan; Li, Herong; Han, Xiaoqian; Wei, Xiuzhen

    2015-08-01

    The recent increase in nanomaterial usage has led to concerns surrounding its health risks and environmental impact. The food chain is an important pathway for high-trophic-level organisms absorbing and enriching nanomaterials. Our study therefore simulated nanometer titanium dioxide (nano-TiO2) transfer along a 2-step food chain, from the unicellular alga Scenedesmus obliquus to the water flea Daphnia magna. We also explored the effect of sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) on nano-TiO2 bioavailability. A suspension of 10 mg/L nano-TiO2 was optimally dispersed in aqueous solutions by 5 mg/L SDBS. After 72 h, S. obliquus growth was not significantly affected by 10 mg/L nano-TiO2, 5 mg/L SDBS and their mixed suspension. SDBS not only improved nano-TiO2 stability in water, but also increased its uptake in S. obliquus and enhanced its accumulation in D. magna. Our study suggests that nano-TiO2 is mildly toxic to S. obliquus, and can be transferred along the aquatic food chain with a biomagnification effect. PMID:26091814

  11. Photobiotreatment: influence of nitrogen and phosphorus ratio in wastewater on growth kinetics of Scenedesmus obliquus.

    PubMed

    Arbib, Z; Ruiz, J; Alvarez-Díaz, Pablo; Garrido-Pérez, C; Barragan, J; Perales, J A

    2013-01-01

    Nitrogen and phosphorus concentration in the effluent of a wastewater treatment plant can vary significantly, which could affect the growth kinetic and chemical composition of microalgae when cultivated in this medium. The aim of this work was to study the rate of growth, nutrient removal and carbon dioxide biofixation as well as biomass composition of Scenedesmus obliquus (S. obliquus) when it is cultivated in wastewater at different nitrogen and phosphorus ratio, from 1:1 to 35:1. A more homogeneous method for calculating productivities in batch reactors was proposed. The proper N:P ratio for achieving optimum batch biomass productivity ranged between 9 and 13 (263 and 322 mg L(-1) d(-1) respectively). This was also the ratio range for achieving a total N and P removal. Above and below this range (9-13) the maximum biomass concentration changed, instead of the specific growth rate.The maximum carbon dioxide biofixation rate was achieved at N:P ratio between 13 and 22 (553 and 557 mg CO2 L(-1) d(-1) respectively). Lipid and crude protein content, both depend on the aging culture, reaching the maximum lipid content (34%) at the lowest N:P (1:1) and the maximum crude protein content (34.2%) at the highest N:P (35:1). PMID:23819274

  12. Microalga, Acutodesmus obliquus KGE 30 as a potential candidate for CO2 mitigation and biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Yun, Hyun-Shik; Ji, Min-Kyu; Park, Young-Tae; Salama, El-Sayed; Choi, Jaeyoung

    2016-09-01

    In this study, the effect of flue gas CO2 on growth, lipid production, and fatty acid composition of a green microalga Acutodesmus obliquus KGE 30 was investigated. The highest growth rate (0.46 g L(-1) and μmax = 1.09 day(-1)), total inorganic carbon removal (95.9 mg L(-1)), and lipid productivity (20.1 mg L(-1) day L(-1)) was obtained at 14.1 % CO2 after 4 days of cultivation. In a semicontinuous batch reactor, the highest biomass production (1.19 g L(-1)) was achieved after 12 days with continuous injection of flue gas CO2. Compared with synthetic CO2, fatty acid methyl ester analysis showed that the amount of unsaturated fatty acid increased by 19.2 % with 14.1 % flue gas CO2. The application of flue gas CO2 improved biomass production and lipid productivity in A. obliquus. The current investigation demonstrated that the use of flue gas CO2 could reduce the cost of microalgae biomass production for better biofuel generation. PMID:27250092

  13. Extract of Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) stimulates 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation.

    PubMed

    Joo, Jeong In; Kim, Dong Hyun; Yun, Jong Won

    2010-11-01

    Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) has long been used as a folk medicine due to its numerous biological functions such as antibacterial, antiallergic, antiinflammatory and antioxidative activities. In the present study, it was found that the I. obliquus hot water extract (IOWE) activated adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Even in the absence of adipogenic stimuli by insulin, the IOWE strongly induced adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. The major constituent of IOWE was glucose-rich polysaccharides with a molecular mass of 149  kDa. IOWE enhanced the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, increasing TG (triacylglycerol) accumulation that is critical for acquisition of the adipocyte phenotype, in a dose-dependent manner. IOWE stimulated gene expression of C/EBPα (CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α) and PPARγ (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors γ) during adipocyte differentiation, and induced the expression of PPARγ target genes such as aP2 (adipocyte protein 2), LPL (lipoprotein lipase) and CD36 (fatty acid translocase). Immunoblot analysis revealed that IOWE increased the expression of adipogenic makers such as PPARγ and GLUT4 (glucose transporter 4). The luciferase reporter assay demonstrated that IOWE did not exhibit PPARγ ligand activity. Although these results require further investigation, the ability of natural mushroom product to increase PPARγ transcriptional activities may be expected to be therapeutic targets for dyslipidemia and type 2 diabetes. PMID:21031614

  14. Quantitative determination of steroids in the fruiting bodies and submerged-cultured mycelia of Inonotus obliquus.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yuan; Xu, Hongyu; Lu, Zhenming; Xu, Zhenghong

    2009-11-01

    This study describes the method of quantitative determination of betulin, ergosterol, cholesterol, lanosterol, stigmasterol and sitosterol in the fruiting bodies and submerged-cultured mycelia of Inonotus obliquus. A high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method was applied to separate these steroids. The procedure was carried out on a reversed-phase C, column, using a stepwise gradient of water-methanol as mobile phase with the following profile: 0-10 min, 10% water, 90% methanol; 10-40 min, 3% water, 97% methanol. The flow rate was 1.4 mL/min and the detection wavelength was 202 nm. The analysis was completed within 40 min. The results showed that this method has good reproducibility and satisfactory recoveries for the determination of steroids. The relative standard deviations of the peak areas were less than 2.94% (n = 5) for intraday assays. A good linear correlation was obtained in a range of 0.4-4.8 microg. The recoveries of betulin, ergosterol, cholesterol, lanosterol, stigmasterol, and sitosterol were 100.05%-100.72%, 99.31%-101.04%, 97.52%-101.63%, 96.61%-100.08%, 96.21%-100.76% and 100.04%-100.51%, respectively. This method can be applied to evaluate real samples, and it is rapid, accurate and suitable for the quantitative determination of steroids in the fruiting bodies and submerged-cultured mycelia of Inonotus obliquus. PMID:20352924

  15. Introduction to Distribution and Ecology of Sterile Conks of Inonotus obliquus

    PubMed Central

    Hur, Hyeon; Chang, Kwang-Choon; Lee, Tae-Soo; Ka, Kang-Hyeon; Jankovsky, L.

    2008-01-01

    Inonotus obliquus is a fungus that causes white heart rot on several broad-leaved species. This fungus forms typical charcoal-black, sterile conks (chaga) or cinder conks on infected stems of the birche (Betula spp). The dark brown pulp of the sterile conk is formed by a pure mycelial mass of fungus. Chaga are a folk remedy in Russia, reflecting the circumboreal distribution of I. obliquus in boreal forest ecosystems on Betula spp. and in meridional mountain forests on beech (Fagus spp.) in Russia, Scandinavia, Central Europe, and Eastern Europe. Distribution at lower latitudes in Western and Southern Europe, Northern America, Asia, Japan, and Korea is rare. Infected trees grow for many years without several symptoms of decline. The infection can penetrate through stem injuries with exterior sterile conks developing later. In the Czech Republic, cinder conk is found on birches inhabiting peat bogs and in mountain areas with a colder and more humid climate, although it is widespread in other broad leaved species over the Czech Republic. The most common hosts are B. pendula, B. pubescens, B. carpatica, and F. sylvatica. Less frequent hosts include Acer campestre, Acer pseudoplatanus, Alnus glutinosa, Alnus incana, Fraxinus excelsior, Quercus cerris, Q. petraea, Q. robur, Q. delachampii, and Ulmus sp. PMID:23997626

  16. Introduction to Distribution and Ecology of Sterile Conks of Inonotus obliquus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Min-Woong; Hur, Hyeon; Chang, Kwang-Choon; Lee, Tae-Soo; Ka, Kang-Hyeon; Jankovsky, L

    2008-12-01

    Inonotus obliquus is a fungus that causes white heart rot on several broad-leaved species. This fungus forms typical charcoal-black, sterile conks (chaga) or cinder conks on infected stems of the birche (Betula spp). The dark brown pulp of the sterile conk is formed by a pure mycelial mass of fungus. Chaga are a folk remedy in Russia, reflecting the circumboreal distribution of I. obliquus in boreal forest ecosystems on Betula spp. and in meridional mountain forests on beech (Fagus spp.) in Russia, Scandinavia, Central Europe, and Eastern Europe. Distribution at lower latitudes in Western and Southern Europe, Northern America, Asia, Japan, and Korea is rare. Infected trees grow for many years without several symptoms of decline. The infection can penetrate through stem injuries with exterior sterile conks developing later. In the Czech Republic, cinder conk is found on birches inhabiting peat bogs and in mountain areas with a colder and more humid climate, although it is widespread in other broad leaved species over the Czech Republic. The most common hosts are B. pendula, B. pubescens, B. carpatica, and F. sylvatica. Less frequent hosts include Acer campestre, Acer pseudoplatanus, Alnus glutinosa, Alnus incana, Fraxinus excelsior, Quercus cerris, Q. petraea, Q. robur, Q. delachampii, and Ulmus sp. PMID:23997626

  17. A Comparison of 12 Weeks of Pilates and Aquatic Training on the Dynamic Balance of Women with Mulitple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Marandi, Sayyed Mohammad; Nejad, Vahid Shayegan; Shanazari, Zohreh; Zolaktaf, Vahid

    2013-01-01

    Background: Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a disabling chronic disease of the nervous system in which the myelin system of the central nervous system is deteriorated. The objective of this study is to understand the effect of Pilates exercises and aquatic training for a 12 week period on the dynamic balance of MS patients. Methods: The research method is semi-experimental. As a result, among the female patients visiting the MS clinic of Kashani hospital in Esfahan, 57 patients with disease intensity levels between 0 and 4.5 were taken as samples. The average length of the disease was 8 ± 2 years, 20;40 years old, and they were randomly divided into three groups of Pilates exercise group, aquatic training group, and the control group. The exercise schedule for the experiment groups consisted of 12 weeks, three sessions per week, and 1 hour for each session. The dynamic balance of the patients, before and after the exercises was measured by Six Spot Step Test. Results: The adjusted mean differences of Timed Up and Go Test (TUGT) scores of the experimental groups are significantly different (P<0.05). Therefore, it can be said that Pilates exercise interventions and aquatic training can significantly increase the dynamic balance of the examinees in the post-experiment stage. Conclusions: Performing the Pilate exercises and aquatic training increases dynamic balance of the MS patients. Considering the role of dynamic balance on physical fitness and enabling the person in doing is daily chores and routines, and its direct effect on the quality of life, it leads the specialists in applying these exercises as a supplementary treatment along with the medicinal treatments for MS patients. PMID:23717760

  18. Pain Perception and Stabilometric Parameters in People With Chronic Low Back Pain After a Pilates Exercise Program

    PubMed Central

    Patti, Antonino; Bianco, Antonino; Paoli, Antonio; Messina, Giuseppe; Montalto, Maria Alessandra; Bellafiore, Marianna; Battaglia, Giuseppe; Iovane, Angelo; Palma, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Various exercise interventions, such as Pilates exercises and traditional physical therapy methods, are employed to decrease low back pain (LBP). Nonspecific low back pain (NSLBP) is distinct from LBP, however, as the distribution of pain is restricted to the region between the costal margin and the inferior gluteal. The aim of our randomized controlled trial was to evaluate the effects of a program of Pilates exercises on pain perception and stabilometric parameters in patients with NSLBP. Thirty-eight participants were randomly allocated, using a 1:1 scheme, to either the experimental group (EG) or control group (CG). The EG completed a 14-week program of Pilates exercises, performed thrice per week under the supervision of an exercise specialist, while the CG was managed with a social program only. Measures of posturography and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) for pain perception were obtained at baseline (T0) and after the 14 weeks of intervention (T1). Posturography measures improved for patients in the EG, with both eyes open and eyes closed (P < 0.05). There were no statistical differences in posturography in the CG. ODI decreased significantly in both groups over the 14 weeks of the study protocol: EG, T0, 13.7 ± 5.0 compared with T1, 6.5 ± 4.0 (P < 0.001); and CG, T0, 10.7 ± 7.8 compared with T1, 8.4 ± 7.8 (P < 0.01). A greater extent of reduction in pain was achieved in the EG. The Pilates exercise program yielded improvements in pain and posturography outcomes. Our study also confirms the applicability of posturography in evaluating postural instability in patients with NSLBP. Due to our relatively small study group, future studies would be necessary to confirm our findings. PMID:26765419

  19. Effects of Pilates on muscle strength, postural balance and quality of life of older adults: a randomized, controlled, clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Campos de Oliveira, Laís; Gonçalves de Oliveira, Raphael; Pires-Oliveira, Deise Aparecida de Almeida

    2015-03-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of Pilates on lower leg strength, postural balance and the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of older adults. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-two older adults were randomly allocated either to the experimental group (EG, n = 16; mean age, 63.62 ± 1.02 years), which performed two sessions of Pilates per week for 12 weeks, or to the control group (CG, n = 16; mean age, 64.21 ± 0.80), which performed two sessions of static stretching per week for 12 weeks. The following evaluations were performed before and after the interventions: isokinetic torque of knee extensors and flexors at 300°/s, the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test, the Berg Balance Scale, and the Health Survey assessment (SF-36). [Results] In the intra-group analysis, the EG demonstrated significant improvement in all variables. In the inter-group analysis, the EG demonstrated significant improvement in most variables. [Conclusion] Pilates exercises led to significant improvement in isokinetic torque of the knee extensors and flexors, postural balance and aspects of the health-related quality of life of older adults. PMID:25931749

  20. Effects of Pilates on muscle strength, postural balance and quality of life of older adults: a randomized, controlled, clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Campos de Oliveira, Laís; Gonçalves de Oliveira, Raphael; Pires-Oliveira, Deise Aparecida de Almeida

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of Pilates on lower leg strength, postural balance and the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of older adults. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-two older adults were randomly allocated either to the experimental group (EG, n = 16; mean age, 63.62 ± 1.02 years), which performed two sessions of Pilates per week for 12 weeks, or to the control group (CG, n = 16; mean age, 64.21 ± 0.80), which performed two sessions of static stretching per week for 12 weeks. The following evaluations were performed before and after the interventions: isokinetic torque of knee extensors and flexors at 300°/s, the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test, the Berg Balance Scale, and the Health Survey assessment (SF-36). [Results] In the intra-group analysis, the EG demonstrated significant improvement in all variables. In the inter-group analysis, the EG demonstrated significant improvement in most variables. [Conclusion] Pilates exercises led to significant improvement in isokinetic torque of the knee extensors and flexors, postural balance and aspects of the health-related quality of life of older adults. PMID:25931749

  1. Effects of Pilates mat exercises on muscle strength and on pulmonary function in patients with cystic fibrosis*

    PubMed Central

    Franco, Caroline Buarque; Ribeiro, Antonio Fernando; Morcillo, André Moreno; Zambon, Mariana Porto; Almeida, Marina Buarque; Rozov, Tatiana

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the effects of Pilates mat exercises in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). METHODS: This was a clinical trial involving 19 CF patients recruited from either the CF Outpatient Clinic of the State University at Campinas Hospital de Clínicas or the Children's Institute of the University of São Paulo School of Medicine Hospital das Clínicas. All of the patients performed Pilates mat exercises for four months (one 60-min session per week). The variables studied (before and after the intervention) were respiratory muscle strength, MIP, MEP, FVC, and FEV1. RESULTS: After the intervention, MIP was significantly higher in the male patients (p = 0.017), as were MIP and MEP in the female patients (p = 0.005 and p = 0.007, respectively). There were no significant differences between the pre- and post-intervention values of FVC or FEV1, neither in the sample as a whole nor among the patients of either gender. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that Pilates mat exercises have beneficial effects on respiratory muscle strength in CF patients. PMID:25410840

  2. The effect of Pilates based exercise on mobility, postural stability, and balance in order to decrease fall risk in older adults.

    PubMed

    Pata, Rachel W; Lord, Katrina; Lamb, Jamie

    2014-07-01

    Falls are a common problem in older adults. Impaired balance, mobility and postural stability are risk factors for falling. Limited research has been performed on Pilates exercise and the ability to decrease fall risk. In this quasi-experimental study, 35 adults (61-87 years old) participated in an 8-week Pilates based exercise program. Blind examiners conducted the Timed Up and Go (TUG), Forward Reach Test, and Turn 180 Test before and after the intervention. Number of falls, perception of Pilates, and fear of falling was also recorded. Thirty-two (91.4%) participants completed post-test measures. Significant improvements were seen in the TUG (p <0.001) and Turn 180 Test (p = 0.002). Improvements were also demonstrated in the Forward Reach Test (p = 0.049). A positive perception of the Pilates program and decreased fear of falling was shown. Results suggest a Pilates based exercise program may be effective in improving balance, mobility and postural stability to decrease fall risk. PMID:25042305

  3. Anticancer activity of subfractions containing pure compounds of Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) extract in human cancer cells and in Balbc/c mice bearing Sarcoma-180 cells.

    PubMed

    Chung, Mi Ja; Chung, Cha-Kwon; Jeong, Yoonhwa; Ham, Seung-Shi

    2010-06-01

    The Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) has been used in folk medicine to treat cancers. However, limited information exists on the underlying anticancer effects of the major component of I. obliquusin vivo. We hypothesize that the pure compounds (3beta-hydroxy-lanosta-8,24-dien-21-al, inotodiol and lanosterol, respectively) separated from I. obliquus would inhibit tumor growth in Balbc/c mice bearing Sarcoma-180 cells (S-180) in vivo and growth of human carcinoma cells in vitro. To test this hypothesis, the growth inhibition of each subfraction isolated from I. obliquus on human carcinoma cell lines (lung carcinoma A-549 cells, stomach adenocarcinoma AGS cells, breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells, and cervical adenocarcinoma HeLa cells) was tested in vitro. Then, after S-180 implantation, the mice were fed a normal chow supplemented with 0, 0.1 or 0.2 mg of subfraction 1, 2 or 3 per mouse per day. All of the subfractions isolated from I. obliquus showed significant cytotoxic activity against the selected cancer cell lines in vitro. Subfraction 1 was more active than subfraction 2 and subfraction 3 against the A549, AGS and MCF-7 cancer cell lines in vitro. In in vivo results, subfraction 1 isolated from I. obliquus at concentrations of 0.1 and 0.2 mg/mouse per day significantly decreased tumor volume by 23.96% and 33.71%, respectively, as compared with the control. Subfractions 2 and 3 also significantly inhibited tumor growth in mice bearing S-180 as compared with the control mouse tumor. Subfraction 1 isolated from I. obliquus showed greater inhibition of tumor growth than subfractions 2 and 3, which agrees well with the in vitro results. The results suggest that I. obliquus and its compounds in these subfractions isolated from I. obliquus could be used as natural anticancer ingredients in the food and/or pharmaceutical industry. PMID:20607061

  4. [Effects of mercury concentration on life table demography of Moina macrocopa under different Scenedesmus obliquus densities].

    PubMed

    Huang, Ya; Wang, Ling; Mu, Wei-ping; Ren, Tong-tong; Pan, Ling; Xi, Yi-long

    2015-12-01

    In order to compare the chronic toxicity of pollutants to organisms in an aquatic environment under different food densities, the cladoceran Moina macrocopa was used as test animal to investigate the effects of Hg²⁺ concentrations (0, 0.4, 1.1, 1.8, 2.5, 3.2 and 3.9 µg · L⁻¹) on its life table demography under low (0.5 x 10⁶ cells · mL⁻¹), medium (1.0 x 10⁶ cells · mL⁻¹) and high (2.0 x 10⁶ cells · mL⁻¹) densities of Scenedesmus obliquus. The results showed that at low and high food levels, certain concentrations of Hg²⁺ had inhibitory effects on survival, reproduction and population growth of M. macrocopa. However, at the medium food level, the inhibitory effects disappeared. Compared with the control, at the low food level, Hg²⁺ at 0.4-2.5 and 3.9 µg · L⁻¹ significantly decreased the life expectancy at hatching, Hg²⁺ at 0.4, 1.1, 2.5 and 3.9 µg · L⁻¹ decreased the generation time, Hg²⁺ at 1.1, 2.5 and 3.9 µg · L⁻¹ decreased the net reproduction rate, and Hg²⁺ at 3.9 µg · L⁻¹ decreased the gross reproduction rate of M. macrocopa. At the high food level, Hg²⁺ at 1.1 µg · L⁻¹ decreased the intrinsic rate of population increase, and Hg²⁺ at 3.9 µg · L⁻¹ decreased the life expectancy at hatching and the net reproduction rate of M. macrocopa. However, at the medium food level, Hg²⁺ at 3.2 µg · L⁻¹ increased the life expectancy at hatching of M. macrocopa. When S. obliquus density was 0.5 x 10⁶ cells · mL⁻¹, there were significant dose-effect relationships between Hg²⁺ concentration and the life expectancy at hatching, the generation time as well as the cross reproduction rate of M. macrocopa. However, when S. obliquus density was 1.0 x 10⁶ or 2.0 x 10⁶ cells · mL⁻¹, there were no any significant dose-effect relationships between Hg²⁺ concentration and each of the life table demographic parameters of M. macrocopa. PMID:27112029

  5. Effect of a physical training program using the Pilates method on flexibility in elderly subjects.

    PubMed

    Geremia, Jeam Marcel; Iskiewicz, Matheus Magalhães; Marschner, Rafael Aguiar; Lehnen, Tatiana Ederich; Lehnen, Alexandre Machado

    2015-12-01

    The adaptations of the human body resulting from the aging process especially loss of flexibility can increase the risk of falls and the risk of developing other health conditions. Exercise training, in particular the Pilates exercise method, has become an important form of physical activity that minimizes the deleterious effects of aging on flexibility. Few studies have evaluated the effect of this training method on body flexibility among elderly. We aimed to evaluate the effects of physical training using the Pilates method on body flexibility of elderly individuals. Eighteen elderly women and two elderly men (aged 70 ± 4 years) followed a 10-week Pilates training program. Individuals were recruited from the local community via open invitations. At study entry, none of them had limited mobility (walking requiring the use of walkers or canes). Furthermore, those with neurologic, muscular, or psychiatric disorders as well as those using an assistive device for ambulation were excluded secondary to limited participation. Flexibility assessment tests (flexion, extension, right and left tilt, and right and left rotation of the cervical and thoracolumbar spine; flexion, extension, abduction, and lateral and medial right and left rotation of the glenohumeral joint; flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, and lateral and medial rotation of the right and left hip; and flexion of the right and left knee) were performed by a blinded evaluator using a flexometer before and after the training period. All assessments were carried out at the same time of day. There was an observed increase in flexion (22.86%; p < 0.001), extension (10.49%; p < 0.036), and rotation to the left side (20.45%; p < 0.019) of the cervical spine; flexion (16.45%; p < 0.001), extension (23.74%; p = 0.006), lateral bending right (39.52%; p < 0.001) and left (38.02%; p < 0.001), and right rotation (24.85%; p < 0.001) and left (24.24%; p < 0.001) of the thoracolumbar spine; flexion (right--8.80%, p

  6. Mycosynthesis: antibacterial, antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of silver nanoparticles synthesized from Inonotus obliquus (Chaga mushroom) extract.

    PubMed

    Nagajyothi, P C; Sreekanth, T V M; Lee, Jae-il; Lee, Kap Duk

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were rapidly synthesized from silver nitrate solution at room temperature using Inonotus obliquus extract. The mycogenic synthesized AgNPs were characterized by UV-Visible absorption spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). SEM revealed mostly spherical nanoparticles ranging from 14.7 to 35.2nm in size. All AgNPs concentrations showed good ABT radical scavenging activity. Further, AgNPs showed effective antibacterial activity against both gram negative and gram positive bacteria and antiproliferative activity toward A549 human lung cancer (CCL-185) and MCF-7 human breast cancer (HTB-22) cell lines. The samples demonstrated considerably high antibacterial, and antiproliferative activities against bacterial strains and cell lines. PMID:24380885

  7. Gamma-irradiation improves the color and antioxidant properties of Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) extract.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae-Hun; Sung, Nak-Yun; Kwon, Sun-Kyu; Srinivasan, Periasamy; Song, Beom-Seok; Choi, Jong-Il; Yoon, Yohan; Kim, Jin Kyu; Byun, Myung-Woo; Kim, Mee-Ree; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2009-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of ionizing radiation on color and antioxidative properties of Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) extract (CME). CME (10 mg/mL) was gamma-irradiated at 0, 3, 5, 7, and 10 kGy, and color, antioxidant activity, and total phenolic compound levels were then determined. The lightness and yellowness were increased (P < .05), and the redness was decreased (P < .05), as irradiation dose increased. The antioxidant parameters such as the 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, superoxide, and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities, ferric reducing/antioxidant power, and inhibition of lipid peroxidation increased as the irradiation dose increased. Also, the total phenolic compound levels of CME were increased (P < .05) by gamma-irradiation. These results suggest that gamma-irradiation could be considered a means for improving the antioxidant properties and the color of CME. PMID:20041791

  8. An unusual lanostane-type triterpenoid, spiroinonotsuoxodiol, and other triterpenoids from Inonotus obliquus.

    PubMed

    Handa, Noriko; Yamada, Takeshi; Tanaka, Reiko

    2010-10-01

    An unusual lanostane-type triterpenoid, spiroinonotsuoxodiol (1), and two lanostane-type triterpenoids, inonotsudiol A (2) and inonotsuoxodiol A (3), were isolated from the sclerotia of Inonotus obliquus. Their structures were determined to be (3S,7S,9R)-3,7-dihydroxy-7(8-->9)abeo-lanost-24-en-8-one (1), lanosta-8,24-dien-3beta,11beta-diol (2), and (22R)-3beta,22-dihydroxylanosta-8,24-dien-11-one (3) on the basis of NMR spectroscopy, including 1D and 2D ((1)H-(1)H COSY, NOESY, HMQC, HMBC) NMR, and FABMS. Compounds 1-3 showed moderate activity against cultured P388, L1210, HL-60 and KB cells. PMID:20691456

  9. Physical modifications of polysaccharide from Inonotus obliquus and the antioxidant properties.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ning; Chen, Haixia; Ma, Lishuai; Zhang, Yu

    2013-03-01

    Physical modification of polysaccharides exerted better biological properties because of the change of physicochemical properties. Polysaccharides from Inonotus obliquus (IOPS) were modified by acid, alkali hydrolysis, thermal and ultrasonic treatment in this study. The physicochemical and antioxidant properties of IOPS and its physical modified products were comparatively investigated by chemical methods, gas chromatography, size exclusion chromatography, scanning electron micrograph, circular dichroism spectra, and ferric reducing power assay and lipid peroxidation inhibition assay, respectively. Results showed that physicochemical and antioxidant properties of IOPS were changed after the physical modification of acid, alkali hydrolysis, thermal and ultrasonic treatment. Thermal treated polysaccharide (Th-IOPS) and ultrasonic treated polysaccharide (Ul-IOPS) showed the properties of lower molecular weight distribution, lower intrinsic viscosity, a hyperbranched conformation, and higher antioxidant abilities on ferric-reducing power and lipid peroxidation inhibition activity compared with the native polysaccharide IOPS. Th-IOPS and Ul-IOPS might be explored as a novel potential antioxidant for food industry. PMID:23270834

  10. Accumulation of dieldrin in an alga (Scenedesmus obliquus), Daphnia magna, and the guppy (Poecilia reticulata)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reinert, Robert E.

    1972-01-01

    Scenedesmus obliquus, Daphnia magna, and Poecilia reticulata accumulated dieldrin directly from water; average concentration factors (concentration in organism, dry weight, divided by concentration in water) were 1282 for the alga, 13,954 for D. magna, and 49,307 (estimated) for the guppy. The amount accumulated by each species at equilibrium (after about 1.5, 3-4, and 18 days, respectively) was directly proportional to the concentration of dieldrin in the water. Daphnia magna and guppies accumulated more dieldrin from water than from food that had been exposed to similar concentrations in water. When guppies were fed equal daily rations of D. magna containing different concentrations of insecticide, the amounts of dieldrin accumulated by the fish were directly proportional to the concentration in D. magna; when two lots of guppies were fed different quantities of D. magna (10 and 20 organisms per day) containing identical concentrations of dieldrin, however, the amounts accumulated did not differ substantially.

  11. Change in Photosystem II Photochemistry During Algal Growth Phases of Chlorella vulgaris and Scenedesmus obliquus.

    PubMed

    Oukarroum, Abdallah

    2016-06-01

    Sensitivity of photosynthetic processes towards environmental stress is used as a bioanalytical tool to evaluate the responses of aquatic plants to a changing environment. In this paper, change of biomass density, chlorophyll a fluorescence and photosynthetic parameters during growth phases of two microalgae Chlorella vulgaris and Scenedesmus obliquus were studied. The photosynthetic growth behaviour changed significantly with cell age and algae species. During the exponential phase of growth, the photosynthesis capacity reached its maximum and decreased in ageing algal culture during stationary phase. In conclusion, the chlorophyll a fluorescence OJIP method and the derived fluorescence parameters would be an accurate method for obtaining information on maximum photosynthetic capacities and monitoring algal cell growth. This will contribute to more understanding, for example, of toxic actions of pollutants in microalgae test. PMID:26868257

  12. LED light stress induced biomass and fatty acid production in microalgal biosystem, Acutodesmus obliquus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Yong-Keun; Kumaran, Rangarajulu Senthil; Jeon, Hyeon Jin; Song, Hak-Jin; Yang, Yung-Hun; Lee, Sang Hyun; Song, Kyung-Guen; Kim, Kwang Jin; Singh, Vijay; Kim, Hyung Joo

    2015-06-01

    Microbial algal system can serve as a potential source for the production of much high value bioproducts and biofuels. The quality and intensity of light are the key elements to optimize the production of algal biomass and fatty acid contents. This study presents the effect of differential LED flashing light conditions on the growth of microalgae, Acutodesmus obliquus. The induced light stress was optimized for its biomass and fatty acid content. The microalgae are exposed to various frequency of intermittent LED flashing light (blue and red lights) at three different phases in the 18 day cell growth (log, lag and stationary phase). The frequency of light flashing rate was adjusted to 120, 10, 5, 3.75, and 1 times per min. The effect of light stress on growth and fatty acids composition of A. obliquus induced an increase in algae growth and fatty acid production. Different optimal timing for light stress was subjected to elucidate the effect of light stress on algae growth and fatty acid production. The results showed an increase in the algae growth (1.2 mg/L of chl a content) under light stress condition at FT10 (flashing time, 10 times per min) from the initial day (log phase) compared with the control experiment (0.4 mg/L of chl a content). However, the total fatty acids (71 mg/g) and volumetric FAME production (9.4 ml/l) level was found to be significant under FT5 (flashing time, 5 times per min), adopting flashing light from day 10 (stationary phase). TEM studies also revealed the deposition of lipid to be largest in the 18 day old cells under flashing light (FT5) condition, representing maximum accumulation of lipids bodies (up to 770 nm diameter in particle size) occupying approximately 42% of the total area of the cell.

  13. Enantioselective toxicities of chiral ionic liquids 1-alkyl-3-methyl imidazolium tartrate on Scenedesmus obliquus.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huijun; Zhang, Xiaoqiang; Dong, Ying; Chen, Caidong; Zhu, Shimin; Ma, Xiangjuan

    2015-12-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) are being used in various industries during the last few decades, while the good solubility and high stability of ILs may pose a potential threat to the aquatic environment. Effect of chiral ionic liquids (CILs) 1-alkyl-3-methyl imidazolium tartrate (RMIM T) on Scenedesmus obliquus (S.obliquus) was studied. The growth rate inhibition and cell membrane permeability increased with increasing RMIM T concentration and increasing alkyl chain lengths. The IC50 values of D-(-)-tartrate 1-hexyl-3-methyl imidazolium (D-(-)-HMIM T) were 28.30, 12.23,10.15 and 14.41 mg/L, respectively, at 24, 48, 72 and 96h. While that of L-(+)-tartrate 1-hexyl-3-methyl imidazolium (L-(+)-HMIM T) were 15.97, 7.91, 9.43 and 12.04 mg/L respectively. The concentration of chl a, chl b and chl (a+b) decreased with increasing RMIM T concentration. The chlorophyll fluorescence parameters (F0, Fv/Fm, Fv/F0, Y(II), ETR and NPQ) were affected by RMIM T, indicating that the RMIM T will damage the PSII, inhibit the transmission of excitation energy, decrease the efficiency of photosynthesis. The results showed that there were enantioselective toxicity of RMIM T to algae, and the toxicity of L-(+)-RMIM T was greater than that of D-(-)-RMIM T, but the enantioselective difference becomes smaller with increasing exposure time, and with the increasing carbon chain length of cation, indicating that cation properties may have a larger effect on toxicity than anion properties. PMID:26554523

  14. The cell-wall glycoproteins of the green alga Scenedesmus obliquus. The predominant cell-wall polypeptide of Scenedesmus obliquus is related to the cell-wall glycoprotein gp3 of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Voigt, Jürgen; Stolarczyk, Adam; Zych, Maria; Malec, Przemysław; Burczyk, Jan

    2014-02-01

    The green alga Scenedesmus obliquus contains a multilayered cell wall, ultrastructurally similar to that of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, although its proportion of hydroxyproline is considerably lower. Therefore, we have investigated the polypeptide composition of the insoluble and the chaotrope-soluble wall fractions of S. obliquus. The polypeptide pattern of the chaotrope-soluble wall fraction was strongly modified by chemical deglycosylation with anhydrous hydrogen fluoride (HF) in pyridine indicating that most of these polypeptides are glycosylated. Polypeptide constituents of the chaotrope-soluble cell-wall fraction with apparent molecular masses of 240, 270, 265, and 135 kDa cross-reacted with a polyclonal antibody raised against the 100 kDa deglycosylation product of the C. reinhardtii cell-wall glycoprotein GP3B. Chemical deglycosylation of the chaotrope-soluble wall fraction resulted in a 135 kDa major polypeptide and a 106 kDa minor component reacting with the same antibody. This antibody recognized specific peptide epitopes of GP3B. When the insoluble wall fraction of S. obliquus was treated with anhydrous HF/pyridine, three polypeptides with apparent molecular masses of 144, 135, and 65 kDa were solubilized, which also occured in the deglycosylated chaotrope-soluble wall fraction. These findings indicate that theses glycoproteins are cross-linked to the insoluble wall fraction via HF-sensitive bonds. PMID:24388513

  15. Antiviral activity of Inonotus obliquus fungus extract towards infection caused by hepatitis C virus in cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Shibnev, V A; Mishin, D V; Garaev, T M; Finogenova, N P; Botikov, A G; Deryabin, P G

    2011-09-01

    Fractions of Inonotus obliquus fungus water extract exhibited a virucidal effect towards hepatitis C virus: it 100-fold reduced its infective properties within 10 min. The antiviral effects of fungus extracts manifested after preventive (24 h before infection) and therapeutic use (during infection of porcine embryo kidney cells). Moreover, the data indicate that the birch fungus extracts inhibit production of infective virus by porcine embryo kidney cells. PMID:22462058

  16. Insulin-sensitizing and beneficial lipid-metabolic effects of the water-soluble melanin complex extracted from Inonotus obliquus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung-Han; Hyun, Chang-Kee

    2014-09-01

    Inonotus obliquus has been traditionally used for treatment of metabolic diseases; however, the mechanism remains to be elucidated. In this study, we found that the water-soluble melanin complex extracted from I. obliquus improved insulin sensitivity and reduced adiposity in high fat (HF)-fed obese mice. When the melanin complex was treated to 3T3-L1 adipocytes, insulin-stimulated glucose uptake was increased significantly, and its phosphoinositide 3-kinase-dependent action was proven with wortmannin treatment. Additionally, dose-dependent increases in Akt phosphorylation and glucose transporter 4 translocation into the plasma membrane were observed in melanin complex-treated cells. Adiponectin gene expression in 3T3-L1 cells incubated with melanin complex increased which was corroborated by increased AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylation in HepG2 and C2C12 cells treated with conditioned media from the 3T3-L1 culture. Melanin complex-treated 3T3-L1 cells showed no significant change in expression of several lipogenic genes, whereas enhanced expressions of fatty acid oxidative genes were observed. Similarly, the epididymal adipose tissue of melanin complex-treated HF-fed mice had higher expression of fatty acid oxidative genes without significant change in lipogenic gene expression. Together, these results suggest that the water-soluble melanin complex of I. obliquus exerts antihyperglycemic and beneficial lipid-metabolic effects, making it a candidate for promising antidiabetic agent. PMID:24615848

  17. Metagenome changes in the mesophilic biogas-producing community during fermentation of the green alga Scenedesmus obliquus.

    PubMed

    Wirth, Roland; Lakatos, Gergely; Böjti, Tamás; Maróti, Gergely; Bagi, Zoltán; Kis, Mihály; Kovács, Attila; Ács, Norbert; Rákhely, Gábor; Kovács, Kornél L

    2015-12-10

    A microalgal biomass offers a potential alternative to the maize silage commonly used in biogas technology. In this study, photoautotrophically grown Scenedesmus obliquus was used as biogas substrate. This microalga has a low C/N ratio of 8.5 relative to the optimum 20-30. A significant increase in the ammonium ion content was not observed. The methane content of the biogas generated from Sc. obliquus proved to be higher than that from maize silage, but the specific biogas yield was lower. Semi-continuous steady biogas production lasted for 2 months. Because of the thick cell wall of Sc. obliquus, the biomass-degrading microorganisms require additional time to digest its biomass. The methane concentration in the biogas was also high, in co-digestion (i.e., 52-56%) as in alga-fed anaerobic digestion (i.e., 55-62%). These results may be related to the relative predominance of the order Clostridiales in co-digestion and to the more balanced C/N ratio of the mixed algal-maize biomass. Predominance of the order Methanosarcinales was observed in the domain Archaea, which supported the diversity of metabolic pathways in the process. PMID:26087313

  18. Nitric oxide mediates the fungal-elicitor-enhanced biosynthesis of antioxidant polyphenols in submerged cultures of Inonotus obliquus.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Weifa; Miao, Kangjie; Zhang, Yanxia; Pan, Shenyuan; Zhang, Meimei; Jiang, Hong

    2009-10-01

    A fungal elicitor prepared from the cell debris of the plant-pathogenic ascomycete Alternaria alternata induces multiple responses by Inonotus obliquus cells, including an increase in generation of nitric oxide (NO), activity of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and accumulation of total mycelial phenolic compounds (TMP), but does not trigger production of oxylipins or jasmonic acid (JA). The role of NO in TMP production was investigated via the effects of the NO-specific scavenger 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (cPITO) and the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor aminoguanidine (AG). TMP profiles were assayed using (1)H NMR spectroscopy combining multivariate pattern recognition strategies. Pretreatment of I. obliquus mycelia with cPITO or AG suppressed not only elicitor-enhanced NO generation and PAL activity, but also the elicitor-induced increase in TMP production. This TMP reduction by either a NO scavenger or a NOS inhibitor was reversed by exogenous addition of either a NO donor, sodium nitroprusside, or JA separately. NMR-based metabonomic analysis of TMP profiles showed that the induced TMP were hispidin analogues including inoscavins, phelligridins, davallialactone and methyldavallialactone, which possess high antioxidant activities. Thus, NO mediates an elicitor-induced increase in production of antioxidant polyphenols in I. obliquus via a signalling pathway independent of oxylipins or JA, a mechanism which differs from those in some higher plants. PMID:19556296

  19. Stimulatory Agents Simultaneously Improving the Production and Antioxidant Activity of Polyphenols from Inonotus obliquus by Submerged Fermentation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiangqun; Shen, Mengwei; Quan, Lili

    2015-07-01

    Polyphenols are important secondary metabolites from the edible and medicinal mushroom Inonotus obliquus. Both the rarity of I. obliquus fruit body and the low efficiency of current method of submerged fermentation lead to a low yield of polyphenols. This study was aimed to determine the effect of applying stimulatory agents to liquid cultured I. obliquus on the simultaneous accumulation of exo-polyphenols (EPC) and endo-polyphenols (IPC). Linoleic acid was the most effective out of the 17 tested stimulatory agents, the majority of which increased the EPC and IPC production. The result was totally different from the stimulatory effect of Tween 80 for polysaccharide production in previous studies. The addition of 1.0 g/L linoleic acid on day 0 resulted in 7-, 14-, and 10-fold of increase (p < 0.05) in the production of EPC extracted by ethyl acetate (EA-EPC), EPC extracted by n-butyl alcohol (NB-EPC), and IPC, and significantly increased the production of ferulic acid, gallic acid, epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG), epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), phelligridin G, inoscavin B, and davallialactone. The EA-EPC, BA-EPC, and IPC from the linoleic acid-containing medium had significantly (p < 0.05) stronger scavenging activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radicals (DPPH), which was attributed to the higher content of these bioactive polyphenols. PMID:25951778

  20. Chemical properties and antioxidant activity of exopolysaccharides fractions from mycelial culture of Inonotus obliquus in a ground corn stover medium.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Yuling; Xu, Xiangqun; Li, Juan

    2012-10-15

    The medicinal mushroom Inonotus obliquus has been a folk remedy for a long time in East-European and Asian countries. We first reported the enhancement in production and antioxidant activity of exopolysaccharides by I. obliquus culture under lignocellulose decomposition. In this study, the two different sources of exopolysaccharides from the control medium and the lignocellulose (corn stover) containing medium by I. obliquus in submerged fermentation were fractionated and purified by chromatography. The exopolysaccharides from the corn stover-containing medium presented significantly stronger hydroxyl and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity than the control. Three fractions from the control medium and the corn stover-containing medium were isolated respectively. The fraction of DEPL3 from the corn stover-containing medium with the highest protein content (38.3%), mannose content (49.6%), and the lowest molecular weight (29 kDa) had the highest antioxidant activity with the lowest IC50 values. In conclusion, lignocellulose decomposition changed the chemical characterisation and significantly enhanced the antioxidant activity of exopolysaccharide fractions. PMID:23442636

  1. Bioassay-guided isolation of DPP-4 inhibitory fractions from extracts of submerged cultured of Inonotus obliquus.

    PubMed

    Geng, Yan; Lu, Zhen-Ming; Huang, Wei; Xu, Hong-Yu; Shi, Jin-Song; Xu, Zheng-Hong

    2013-01-01

    Inonotus obliquus is a medicinal mushroom used in Russian and Eastern European folk medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal cancer, cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Previous studies in our laboratory have demonstrated that the mycelium powders of I. obliquus possess significant antihyperglycemic effects in a mouse model of diabetic disease induced by alloxan. However, the active ingredients of mycelium powders responsible for the diabetes activity have not been identified. This study aims to identify the active ingredients of I. obliquus mycelium powders by a bioassay-guided fractionation approach and explore the mechanism of action of these active ingredients by using a well-established DPP-4 (an important enzyme as a new therapeutic target for diabetes) inhibitory assay model. The results showed the chloroform extract of mycelium was potential inhibitory against DPP-4. Bioactivity guided fractionation led to the identification of 19 compounds using UPLC-Q-TOF-MS. Molecular docking between the compounds and DPP-4 revealed that compounds 5, 8, 9, 14, 15 may be the active components responsible for the DPP-4 inhibitory activity. PMID:23325103

  2. Production of bioactive polysaccharides by Inonotus obliquus under submerged fermentation supplemented with lignocellulosic biomass and their antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiangqun; Hu, Yan; Quan, Lili

    2014-12-01

    The effect of lignocellulose degradation in wheat straw, rice straw, and sugarcane bagasse on the accumulation and antioxidant activity of extra- (EPS) and intracellular polysaccharides (IPS) of Inonotus obliquus under submerged fermentation were first evaluated. The wheat straw, rice straw, and sugarcane bagasse increased the EPS accumulation by 91.4, 78.6, and 74.3 % compared with control, respectively. The EPS and IPS extracts from the three lignocellulose media had significantly higher hydroxyl radical- and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging activity than those from the control medium. Of the three materials, wheat straw was the most effective lignocellulose in enhancing the mycelia growth, accumulation and antioxidant activity of I. obliquus polysaccharides (PS). The carbohydrate and protein content, as well as the monosaccharide compositions of the EPS and IPS extracts, were correlated with sugar compositions and dynamic contents during fermentation of individual lignocellulosic materials. The enhanced accumulation of bioactive PS of cultured I. obliquus supplemented with rice straw, wheat straw, and bagasse was evident. PMID:24890137

  3. Effect of Nano-Al2O3 on the Toxicity and Oxidative Stress of Copper towards Scenedesmus obliquus

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaomin; Zhou, Suyang; Fan, Wenhong

    2016-01-01

    Nano-Al2O3 has been widely used in various industries; unfortunately, it can be released into the aquatic environment. Although nano-Al2O3 is believed to be of low toxicity, it can interact with other pollutants in water, such as heavy metals. However, the interactions between nano-Al2O3 and heavy metals as well as the effect of nano-Al2O3 on the toxicity of the metals have been rarely investigated. The current study investigated copper toxicity in the presence of nano-Al2O3 towards Scenedesmus obliquus. Superoxide dismutase activity and concentration of glutathione and malondialdehyde in cells were determined in order to quantify oxidative stress in this study. Results showed that the presence of nano-Al2O3 reduced the toxicity of Cu towards S. obliquus. The existence of nano-Al2O3 decreased the growth inhibition of S. obliquus. The accumulation of copper and the level of oxidative stress in algae were reduced in the presence of nano-Al2O3. Furthermore, lower copper accumulation was the main factor that mitigated copper toxicity with the addition of nano-Al2O3. The decreased copper uptake could be attributed to the adsorption of copper onto nanoparticles and the subsequent decrease of available copper in water. PMID:27294942

  4. Effect of Nano-Al₂O₃ on the Toxicity and Oxidative Stress of Copper towards Scenedesmus obliquus.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaomin; Zhou, Suyang; Fan, Wenhong

    2016-01-01

    Nano-Al₂O₃ has been widely used in various industries; unfortunately, it can be released into the aquatic environment. Although nano-Al₂O₃ is believed to be of low toxicity, it can interact with other pollutants in water, such as heavy metals. However, the interactions between nano-Al₂O₃ and heavy metals as well as the effect of nano-Al₂O₃ on the toxicity of the metals have been rarely investigated. The current study investigated copper toxicity in the presence of nano-Al₂O₃ towards Scenedesmus obliquus. Superoxide dismutase activity and concentration of glutathione and malondialdehyde in cells were determined in order to quantify oxidative stress in this study. Results showed that the presence of nano-Al₂O₃ reduced the toxicity of Cu towards S. obliquus. The existence of nano-Al₂O₃ decreased the growth inhibition of S. obliquus. The accumulation of copper and the level of oxidative stress in algae were reduced in the presence of nano-Al₂O₃. Furthermore, lower copper accumulation was the main factor that mitigated copper toxicity with the addition of nano-Al₂O₃. The decreased copper uptake could be attributed to the adsorption of copper onto nanoparticles and the subsequent decrease of available copper in water. PMID:27294942

  5. Altered motor control, posture and the Pilates method of exercise prescription.

    PubMed

    Curnow, Dorothy; Cobbin, Deirdre; Wyndham, Jennifer; Boris Choy, S T

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to compare the effects of three different Pilates regimes on chronic, mild low back pain symptoms and to determine whether the efficiency of load transfer through the pelvis is improved by those exercises. A between subjects equivalent group experimental design was used. The independent variable was the type of exercise training (three groups) and the two-dependent variables were low back pain symptoms and load transfer through the pelvis. The outcome measures of the first-dependent variable were a comparison between modified Oswestry Disability Questionnaires (one of the standard pain instruments) completed pre- and post-program and frequency, intensity and duration of low back pain. The outcome measure of the second-dependent variable, efficiency of load transfer through the pelvis was the Stork test (one-legged standing test) in weight bearing. Although all groups experienced statistically significant reductions in frequency, intensity and duration of low back pain across the weeks of exercising, there were no significant differences between the groups relative to each other. PMID:19118799

  6. The Pilates Method increases respiratory muscle strength and performance as well as abdominal muscle thickness.

    PubMed

    Giacomini, Mateus Beltrame; da Silva, Antônio Marcos Vargas; Weber, Laura Menezes; Monteiro, Mariane Borba

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the effects of the Pilates Method (PM) training program on the thickness of the abdominal wall muscles, respiratory muscle strength and performance, and lung function. This uncontrolled clinical trial involved 16 sedentary women who were assessed before and after eight weeks of PM training. The thickness of the transversus abdominis (TrA), internal oblique (IO) and external oblique (EO) muscles was assessed. The respiratory muscle strength was assessed by measuring the maximum inspiratory (MIP) and expiratory (MEP) pressure. The lung function and respiratory muscle performance were assessed by spirometry. An increase was found in MIP (p = 0.001), MEP (p = 0.031), maximum voluntary ventilation (p = 0.020) and the TrA (p < 0.001), IO (p = 0.002) and EO (p < 0.001) thickness after the PM program. No alterations in lung function were found. These findings suggest that the PM program promotes abdominal wall muscle hypertrophy and an increase in respiratory muscle strength and performance, preventing weakness in abdominal muscles and dysfunction in ventilatory mechanics, which could favor the appearance of illnesses. PMID:27210841

  7. Cytotoxic and antitumor activities of a polypore macrofungus, Phellinus rimosus (Berk) Pilat.

    PubMed

    Ajith, T A; Janardhanan, K K

    2003-02-01

    Cytotoxic and antitumor activities of ethyl acetate, methanol and aqueous extracts of a wood inhabiting polypore macrofungus, Phellinus rimosus (Berk) Pilat. were studied. Ethyl acetate and methanol extracts showed in vitro cytotoxic activity against Dalton's lymphoma ascites (DLA) and Ehrlich's ascites carcinoma (EAC) cell lines. The aqueous extract did not exhibit cytotoxicity against the tested cell lines. All the three extracts were highly effective in inhibiting growth of solid tumor induced by DLA cell line in mice. However, the antitumor activity of ethyl acetate extract was higher than that of methanol and aqueous extracts. The ethyl acetate extract was also effective in preventing the EAC induced ascites tumor development in mice. The antitumor activity of all the three extracts against solid tumor at a dose of 50 mg/kg (p.o.) was comparable to the clinically used standard reference drug, cisplatin (4 mg/kg, i.p.). Pre-treatment of the extracts was also effective in inhibiting the tumor growth induced by DLA cell lines. The experimental results revealed that ethyl acetate extract of P. rimosus possessed significant antitumor activity. The findings thus suggest the potential use of this mushroom as antitumor agent. PMID:12648809

  8. Thermal evolution of a main detachment zone during late orogenic collapse: the pilat unit case (Variscan chain).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardien, V.; Allemand, P.

    2003-04-01

    The high temperature uplift of deep seated nappes in different tectonic settings is a major question in orogenic domains. Detailed petrological and structural study were performed in the Pilat Unit (Eastern french Massif Central: Variscan chain) in order to discuss the thermal evolution of a main shear zone during late orogenic extension. The Pilat Unit is a 20 km long x 5 km large metamorphic unit and as a strain gradient within it perpandicular to the long axe of the unit. The mylonitic fabrics, in the strained zone are notherly directed. Geometrical and geochronological data indicate that these fabrics are associated with extesional regime that was a post-thickening event. Thermobarometrical determination supported by microstructural analyses indicate the develpoment of contrasting P-T-time evolution in the Pilat Unit. In the strongly mylonitized southern domain in which foliation and streching lineation show a top to the north normal slip, the calculated P-T conditions indicate an increase in temperature during decompression illustrated by the following mineral assemblages:1) Grt + Stau + Kya + Rut, 2) Bio + Sill + Cord, 3) And + Musco + K-feld and dated at 322 Ma. In the northern and less deformed domain, the calculated P-T conditions correspond to a cooling event during decompression illustrated by the following assemblages: 1) Grt + Stau + Kya + Rut, 2) Bio + Musco + Ilm, 3) And + Chlo + Pyro + Tour, dated at 313 Ma. The difference in T° between the southern and the northern domain is 200-250°C and Δ t is 10Ma. Based on these data, we have elaborated 1D numerical model simulating the thermal evolution of the continental crust during thinning associated or not with magma underplating.

  9. Inhibitory effects of a polysaccharide extract from the Chaga medicinal mushroom, Inonotus obliquus (higher Basidiomycetes), on the proliferation of human neurogliocytoma cells.

    PubMed

    Ning, Xianbin; Luo, Qi; Li, Chuang; Ding, Zhaoyi; Pang, Jinfeng; Zhao, Changfu

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the inhibitory roles of a polysaccharide extract from Inonotus obliquus on U251 human neurogliocytoma cells cultured in vitro. After administering the polysaccharide extract from I. obliquus to U251 cells cultivated in vitro, methyl thiazolyl tetrazoliym assay was performed to measure the inhibitory effects of the extract on tumor cell proliferation. The expression of the apoptosis-related proteins Bcl-2 and caspase-3 were determined by Western blotting. Different concentrations of I. obliquus extract (25, 50, 100, 200, and 500 µg/mL) were added to U251 cells at 24, 48, and 72 hours. Methyl thiazolyl tetrazoliym assay showed that the inhibition ratio increased with increased extract concentration and prolonged treatment duration. The I. obliquus extract sharply decreased the expression of Bcl-2 but dramatically increased the expression of caspase-3. This function was gradually enhanced with increased drug concentration and prolonged treatment duration. The I. obliquus extract can inhibit the proliferation of tumor cells. This inhibition function is closely related to the downregulation of Bcl-2 and the upregulation of caspase-3. PMID:24940902

  10. Feasibility and outcomes of a classical Pilates program on lower extremity strength, posture, balance, gait, and quality of life in someone with impairments due to a stroke.

    PubMed

    Shea, Sarah; Moriello, Gabriele

    2014-07-01

    Pilates is a method that can potentially be used for stroke rehabilitation to address impairments in gait, balance, strength, and posture. The purpose of this case report was to document the feasibility of using Pilates and to describe outcomes of a 9-month program on lower extremity strength, balance, posture, gait, and quality of life in an individual with stroke. The participant was taught Pilates exercises up to two times per week for nine months in addition to traditional rehabilitation in the United States. Outcomes were assessed using the Berg Balance Scale (BBS), Stroke Impact Scale (SIS), GAITRite System(®), 5 repetition sit-to-stand test (STST), and flexicurve. Improvements were found in balance, lower extremity strength, and quality of life. Posture and gait speed remained the same. While these changes cannot be specifically attributed to the intervention, Pilates may have added to his overall rehabilitation program and with some modifications was feasible to use in someone with a stroke. PMID:25042304

  11. NMR-based metabonomic analysis on effect of light on production of antioxidant phenolic compounds in submerged cultures of Inonotus obliquus.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Weifa; Zhang, Meimei; Zhao, Yanxia; Miao, Kangjie; Jiang, Hong

    2009-10-01

    This study was designed to investigate the light effect on biosynthesis of antioxidant phenolic compounds by Inonotus obliquus grown in submerged cultures using (1)H NMR spectroscopy combining multivariate pattern recognition strategies. I. obliquus were exposed to a range of light conditions and resultant data were compared to those from field-grown sclerotia and the mycelia grown in daylight. Daylight illumination inhibited biosynthesis of davallialactone and phelligridins and other hispidin analogs. Continuous darkness enhanced the formation of phelligridins, davallialactone and inoscavins. Phelligridins and davallialactone also occurred in the mycelia grown in blue and red light with levels lower than those found in darkness. In addition, polyphenols synthesized under daylight conditions showed less potential antioxidant activity than those determined with other light regimes. These findings demonstrate that light regulates biosynthesis of polyphenols in I. obliquus and their subsequent antioxidant activities, and (1)H NMR-based metabolic profiling is a cost-effective approach for evaluating light effects on fungal metabolisms. PMID:19433352

  12. Isolation and partial characterization of mutants with elevated lipid content in Chlorella sorokiniana and Scenedesmus obliquus.

    PubMed

    Vigeolas, Hélène; Duby, Francéline; Kaymak, Esra; Niessen, Guillaume; Motte, Patrick; Franck, Fabrice; Remacle, Claire

    2012-11-30

    This paper describes the isolation and partial biomass characterization of high triacylglycerol (TAG) mutants of Chlorella sorokiniana and Scenedesmus obliquus, two algal species considered as potential source of biodiesel. Following UV mutagenesis, 2000 Chlorella and 2800 Scenedesmus colonies were screened with a method based on Nile Red fluorescence. Several mutants with high Nile Red fluorescence were selected by this high-throughput method in both species. Growth and biomass parameters of the strongest mutants were analyzed in detail. All of the four Chlorella mutants showed no significant changes in growth rate, cell weight, cell size, protein and chlorophyll contents on a per cell basis. Whereas all contained elevated total lipid and TAG content per unit of dry weight, two of them were also affected for starch metabolism, suggesting a change in biomass/storage carbohydrate composition. Two Scenedesmus mutants showed a 1.5 and 2-fold increased cell weight and larger cells compared to the wild type, which led to a general increase of biomass including total lipid and TAG content on a per cell basis. Such mutants could subsequently be used as commercial oleaginous algae and serve as an alternative to conventional petrol. PMID:22480533

  13. Maximizing the production of Scenedesmus obliquus in photobioreactors under different irradiation regimes: experiments and modeling.

    PubMed

    Barbera, Elena; Sforza, Eleonora; Bertucco, Alberto

    2015-11-01

    Maximizing biomass productivity and photosynthetic efficiency are key factors to develop large-scale microalgae cultivation for biodiesel production. If the photobioreactor (PBR) is not operated under proper conditions, productivity and efficiency values drop considerably. In this work, the growth of Scenedesmus obliquus in continuous flat-panel PBR is considered. Experimental data and simulations were used with the aim of determining suitable working conditions to achieve maximum productivity. Microalgae concentration and productivity have been measured in a continuous 250 mL flat-panel PBR as a function of the space-time τ. Simulations were performed at both low and high irradiance values, with different light regimes (constant light and day-night profiles). Model parameters were optimized based on laboratory-scale experimental data, and the importance of the maintenance energy requirement as a function of light intensity was outlined. The effect of different extent of axial mixing on PBR performances was investigated. Results obtained show how to determine optimum working conditions and how they could be used in the design of a large-scale PBR to achieve maximum microalgal productivity. PMID:26288951

  14. Bioenergetic Strategy for the Biodegradation of p-Cresol by the Unicellular Green Alga Scenedesmus obliquus

    PubMed Central

    Papazi, Aikaterini; Assimakopoulos, Konstantinos; Kotzabasis, Kiriakos

    2012-01-01

    Cultures from the unicellular green alga Scenedesmus obliquus biodegrade the toxic p-cresol (4-methylphenol) and use it as alternative carbon/energy source. The biodegradation procedure of p-cresol seems to be a two-step process. HPLC analyses indicate that the split of the methyl group (first step) that is possibly converted to methanol (increased methanol concentration in the growth medium), leading, according to our previous work, to changes in the molecular structure and function of the photosynthetic apparatus and therefore to microalgal biomass increase. The second step is the fission of the intermediately produced phenol. A higher p-cresol concentration results in a higher p-cresol biodegradation rate and a lower total p-cresol biodegradability. The first biodegradation step seems to be the most decisive for the effectiveness of the process, because methanol offers energy for the further biodegradation reactions. The absence of LHCII from the Scenedesmus mutant wt-lhc stopped the methanol effect and significantly reduced the p-cresol biodegradation (only 9%). The present contribution deals with an energy distribution between microalgal growth and p-cresol biodegradation, activated by p-cresol concentration. The simultaneous biomass increase with the detoxification of a toxic phenolic compound (p-cresol) could be a significant biotechnological aspect for further applications. PMID:23251641

  15. Oxyfluorfen toxic effect on S. obliquus evaluated by different photosynthetic and enzymatic biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Geoffroy, L; Dewez, D; Vernet, G; Popovic, R

    2003-11-01

    The effect of oxyfluorfen was investigated when alga Scenedesmus obliquus has been exposed to different concentrations (7.5, 15, and 22.5 microg x L(-1)) at 12, 24, and 48 hours of exposure. Toxicity test was done by using 13 biomarkers concerning growth rate, chlorophyll content and indicators of photosynthetic and antioxidant enzyme activities. The change of the 13 parameters showed a great variation of sensitivity indicating differences in parameters' suitability to be used as biomarkers when alga culture was exposed to oxyfluorfen toxicity. The order of sensitivity between those biomarkers was: Antenna size (ABS/RC) > Chlorophyll content > Catalase (CAT) > Operational PSII quantum yield (phiS(PSII)) > Glutathione S-transferase (GST) > Functional plastoquinone pool (Q(PQ)) > Glutathione reductase (GR) > Growth rate > Nonphotochemical quenching (QN) > Proton gradient quenching (Q(Emax)) > Ascorbate peroxidase (APX) > Photochemical quenching (Q(p)) > Maximum PSII quantum yield (Phi(PSII)). The effect of oxyfluorfen on the changes of those parameters was interpreted as a result of herbicide mode of action at molecular level of alga cellular system. This study indicated for some photosynthetic and enzymatic biomarkers to be useful indicators of toxicity effect induced in non-target alga species. Determination of biomarkers' sensitivity order may facilitate their selection to be used in environmental risk assessment of polluted water. PMID:14708660

  16. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Inonotus obliquus in Colitis Induced by Dextran Sodium Sulfate

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Se Young; Hur, Sun Jin; An, Chi Sun; Jeon, Yun Hui; Jeoung, Young Jun; Bak, Jong Phil; Lim, Beong Ou

    2010-01-01

    A total of 28 male BALB/c mice (average weight 20.7 ± 1.6 g) were divided into 4 treatment groups and fed a commercial diet (A), a commercial diet + induced colitis by dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) (B), Inonotus obliquus (IO) administration (C), and IO administration + induced colitis by DSS (D). IO treatment (C, D) decreased the expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT)1 compared to those of the colitis induced group (B). The expressions of IL-4 and STAT6 were decreased in group D compared to the colitis induced group (B). The serum immunoglobulin (Ig)E level decreased in IO treatment groups (C, D) compared to no IO treatment groups (A and B) although there was no significant difference between the IO treatment groups. Extract from IO itself had a weak cytotoxic effect on murine macrophage cell line (RAW264.7 cells). Extract from IO inhibited lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced, TNF-α, STAT1, pSTAT1, STAT6, and pSTAT6 production in RAW264.7 cells. PMID:20300439

  17. Anti-inflammatory effects of Inonotus obliquus in colitis induced by dextran sodium sulfate.

    PubMed

    Choi, Se Young; Hur, Sun Jin; An, Chi Sun; Jeon, Yun Hui; Jeoung, Young Jun; Bak, Jong Phil; Lim, Beong Ou

    2010-01-01

    A total of 28 male BALB/c mice (average weight 20.7 +/- 1.6 g) were divided into 4 treatment groups and fed a commercial diet (A), a commercial diet + induced colitis by dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) (B), Inonotus obliquus (IO) administration (C), and IO administration + induced colitis by DSS (D). IO treatment (C, D) decreased the expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT)1 compared to those of the colitis induced group (B). The expressions of IL-4 and STAT6 were decreased in group D compared to the colitis induced group (B). The serum immunoglobulin (Ig)E level decreased in IO treatment groups (C, D) compared to no IO treatment groups (A and B) although there was no significant difference between the IO treatment groups. Extract from IO itself had a weak cytotoxic effect on murine macrophage cell line (RAW264.7 cells). Extract from IO inhibited lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced, TNF-alpha, STAT1, pSTAT1, STAT6, and pSTAT6 production in RAW264.7 cells. PMID:20300439

  18. Amelioration of scopolamine induced cognitive dysfunction and oxidative stress by Inonotus obliquus - a medicinal mushroom.

    PubMed

    Giridharan, Vijayasree Vayalanellore; Thandavarayan, Rajarajan Amirthalingam; Konishi, Tetsuya

    2011-06-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate the cognitive enhancing and anti-oxidant activities of Inonotus obliquus (Chaga) against scopolamine-induced experimental amnesia. Methanolic extract of Chaga (MEC) at 50 and 100 mg kg (-1)doses were administered orally for 7 days to amnesic mice. Learning and memory was assessed by passive avoidance task (PAT) and Morris water maze (MWM) test. Tacrine (THA, 10 mg kg (-1), orally (p.o)) used as a reference drug. To elucidate the mechanism of the cognitive enhancing activity of MEC, the activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), anti-oxidant enzymes, the levels of acetylcholine (ACh) and nitrite of mice brain homogenates were evaluated. MEC treatment for 7 days significantly improved the learning and memory as measured by PAT and MWM paradigms. Further, MEC significantly reduced the oxidative-nitritive stress, as evidenced by a decrease in malondialdehyde and nitrite levels and restored the glutathione and superoxide dismutase levels in a dose dependent manner. In addition, MEC treatment significantly decreased the AChE activity in both the salt and detergent-soluble fraction of brain homogenates. Further, treatment with MEC restored the levels of ACh as did THA. Thus, the significant cognitive enhancement observed in mice after MEC administration is closely related to higher brain anti-oxidant properties and inhibition of AChE activity. These findings stress the critical impact of Chaga, a medicinal mushroom, on the higher brain functions like learning and memory. PMID:21779570

  19. Antioxidant activity of Inonotus obliquus polysaccharide and its amelioration for chronic pancreatitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yang; Sheng, Yi; Yu, Min; Li, Koukou; Ren, Guangming; Xu, Xiuhong; Qu, Juanjuan

    2016-06-01

    Inonotus obliquus polysaccharide (IOP) was extracted by water with a yield of 9.83% and purified by an anion-exchange DEAE cellulose column and Sephadex G-200 gel with a polysaccharide content of 98.6%. The scavenging activities for 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and hydroxyl radicals of IOP were 82.3% and 81.3% respectively at a concentration of 5 mg/mL. IOP was composed of Man, Rha, Glu, Gal, Xyl and Ara in a molar ratio of 9.81:3.6:29.1:20.5:21.6:5.4 respectively. The gel permeation chromatography indicated that IOP was a homogeneous polysaccharide with molecular weight of 32.5 kDa. IOP helped to alleviate pancreatic acinar atrophy and weight loss for chronic pancreatitis (CP) mice induced by Diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC). The SOD level was increased most by IOP-H treatment (400 mg/kg body weight). MDA, IL-1β and LDH were significantly decreased by IOP treatment, especially hydroxyproline, IFN-γ and AMS levels were decreased 39.18%, 37.82% and 41.57% by IOP-H treatment respectively compared to MC group. In conclusion, IOP possessed strong antioxidant activity for scavenging free radicals in vitro and vivo which could be propitious to CP therapy in mice. PMID:26955745

  20. Synthesis and characterization of a new Inonotus obliquus polysaccharide-iron(III) complex.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jia; Chen, Haixia; Wang, Yanwei; Xing, Lisha

    2015-04-01

    A new Inonotus obliquus polysaccharide-iron(III) complex (IOPS-iron) was synthesized and characterized. The preparation conditions of IOPS-iron(III) were optimized and the physicochemical properties were characterized by physicochemical methods, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, respectively. The highest iron content of IOPS-iron(III) complex (19.40%) was obtained at the conditions: the ratio of IOPS and FeCl3 • 6H2O was 3:5 (w/w), the pH value of alkali solution was 10, the reaction temperature was 30 °C and the reaction time was 6h. The iron(III) was shown to be bound through the binding sites of the polysaccharide IOPS and it could form spatially separated iron centers on the polysaccharide backbone. IOPS-iron(III) complex was found to have good digestive availability and antioxidant activities in the in vitro assays, which suggested the IOPS-iron(III) complex might be used as a new iron supplement candidate. PMID:25643995

  1. Purification, characterization and biological activity of a novel polysaccharide from Inonotus obliquus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yiyong; Huang, Youru; Cui, Zhumei; Liu, Jingjing

    2015-08-01

    A novel water-soluble polysaccharide IP3a was successfully isolated and purified from I. obliquus by DEAE-cellulose, Sepharose CL-6B and Sephadex G-200 column chromatography. Chemical characterization and antitumor and immunoregulatory activity of IP3a were investigated. IP3a consisted of rhamnose, arabinose, glucose and galactose in a molar ratio of 2.5:4.6:1.0:2.6 with an average molecular weight of 48,820 Da. IP3a exhibited no significant antitumor activities in vitro. However, IP3a could not only inhibit the growth of transplantable Jurkat tumor in mice significantly, but also could enhance the splenocyte proliferation and lymphocyte proliferation induced by ConA and LPS in a dose-dependent manner. At the same time, IP3a could promote cytokine secretion (IL-2, IL-6, IL-12 and TNF-α) and macrophage phagocytosis in mice. In addition, IP3a could increase Bax expression and inhibit Bcl-2 expression significantly. These results suggested that antitumor mechanisms of IP3a might be associated with improving immune response in vivo and inducing apoptosis of tumor cells in vitro. IP3a might be utilized as a potential therapeutic agent against lymphoma cancer with immunomodulatory activity. PMID:26026982

  2. Immunostimulating activity by polysaccharides isolated from fruiting body of Inonotus obliquus.

    PubMed

    Won, Dong Pil; Lee, Jong Seok; Kwon, Duck Soo; Lee, Keun Eok; Shin, Won Cheol; Hong, Eock Kee

    2011-02-01

    In this study, we investigated the immunostimulating activity of polysaccharides isolated from fruiting body of Inonotus obliquus (PFIO). Additionally, the signaling pathway of PFIO-mediated macrophage activation was investigated in RAW264.7 macrophage cells. We found that PFIO was capable of promoting NO/ROS production, TNF-α secretion and phagocytic uptake in macrophages, as well as cell proliferation, comitogenic effect and IFN-γ/IL-4 secretion in mouse splenocytes. PFIO was able to induce the phosphorylation of three MAPKs as well as the nuclear translocation of NF-κB, resulting in activation of RAW264.7 macrophages. PFIO also induced the inhibition of TNF-α secretion by anti-TLR2 mAb, consequently, PFIO might be involved in TNF-α secretion via the TLR2 receptor. In addition, our results showed that oral administration of PFIO suppressed in vivo growth of melanoma tumor in tumorbearing mice. In conclusion, our experiments presented that PFIO effectively promotes macrophage activation through the MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways, suggesting that PFIO may potentially regulate the immune response. PMID:21191814

  3. [Triterpenoids from Inonotus obliquus protect mice against oxidative damage induced by CCl4].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Fen-Qin; Yan, Lin; Cui, Xian-Hong; Lin, Sheng; Wang, Cong; Zhang, Hui; Kang, Xiao-Yan; Ji, Bian-Sheng

    2012-05-01

    To investigate the effects of lanosterol (1), inotodiol (2) and trametenolic acid (3) from Inonotus obliquus against oxidative damage induced by CCl4 in mice, 1, 2 and 3 (20, 10 and 5 mg x kg(-1)) were respectively administered to mice, once a day for 3 days. Then the mice were induced to oxidative damage by CCl4 on the third day 30 min after the administration. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) and the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) and reductive glutathione (GSH) in serum and liver homogenate were determined. And the levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) concentration in serum were detected. The results showed that treatment with compound 1, 2 and 3 could significantly increase the activities of SOD, CAT and GSH-PX in serum and liver homogenate. Furthermore, the content of GSH in serum and liver homogenate increased and MDA content decreased markedly. In addition, compound 1, 2 and 3 could significantly inhibit the activities of ALT and AST in serum, and decrease the IL-6 concentration in serum remarkably. So, compound 1, 2 and 3 can protect mice against oxidative stress injury induced by CCl4. Furthermore, compound 1, 2 and 3 can protect cells from damage through inhibition on ALT, AST and the expression of IL-6. PMID:22812017

  4. Anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Inonotus obliquus and germinated brown rice extracts.

    PubMed

    Debnath, Trishna; Park, Sa Ra; Kim, Da Hye; Jo, Jeong Eun; Lim, Beong Ou

    2013-01-01

    Inonotus obliquus (IO) is parasitic mushroom that grows on birch and other trees in Russia, Korea, Europe and United States. However, IO is not readily available for consumption due to its high cost and difficult growth. In this regard, IO was inoculated on germinated brown rice (GBR) in the present study and the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of the IO grown on germinated brown rice (IOGBR) extracts were evaluated extensively and compared with those for IO and GBR. IOGBR showed highest antioxidant activities with scavenging total intracellular ROS and MDA levels as well as increasing the antioxidant enzymes activity in the H₂O₂-stimulated mice liver. It also exhibited best inflammatory activities by suppressing the proinflammatory mediators such as NO, PGE₂, iNOS, COX-2, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in an LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cell line. This study provides a comparative approach to find out an excellent natural source of antioxidants and anti-inflammatory agent as a dietary supplement. PMID:23917116

  5. Bioethanol production from Scenedesmus obliquus sugars: the influence of photobioreactors and culture conditions on biomass production.

    PubMed

    Miranda, J R; Passarinho, P C; Gouveia, L

    2012-10-01

    A closed-loop vertical tubular photobioreactor (PBR), specially designed to operate under conditions of scarce flat land availability and irregular solar irradiance conditions, was used to study the potential of Scenedesmus obliquus biomass/sugar production. The results obtained were compared to those from an open-raceway pond and a closed-bubble column. The influence of the type of light source and the regime (natural vs artificial and continuous vs light/dark cycles) on the growth of the microalga and the extent of the sugar accumulation was studied in both PBRs. The best type of reactor studied was a closed-loop PBR illuminated with natural light/dark cycles. In all the cases, the relationship between the nitrate depletion and the sugar accumulation was observed. The microalga Scenedesmus was cultivated for 53 days in a raceway pond (4,500 L) and accumulated a maximum sugar content of 29 % g/g. It was pre-treated for carrying out ethanol fermentation assays, and the highest ethanol concentration obtained in the hydrolysate fermented by Kluyveromyces marxianus was 11.7 g/L. PMID:22899495

  6. Effects of imidazolium chloride ionic liquids and their toxicity to Scenedesmus obliquus.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huijun; Zhang, Xiaoqiang; Chen, Caidong; Du, Shaoting; Dong, Ying

    2015-12-01

    The low volatility of ionic liquids effectively eliminates a major pathway for environmental release and contamination; however, the good solubility, low degree of environmental degradation and biodegradation of ILs may pose a potential threat to the aquatic environment. The growth inhibition of the green alga Scenedesmus obliquus by five 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ionic liquids (ILs) ([Cnmim]Cl, n=6, 8, 10, 12, 16) was investigated, and the effect on cellular membrane permeability and the ultrastructural morphology by ILs ([Cnmim]Cl, n=8, 12, 16) were studied. The results showed that the growth inhibition rate increased with increasing IL concentration and increasing alkyl chain lengths. The relative toxicity was determined to be [C6mim]Cl<[C8mim]Cl<[C10mim]Cl<[C12mim]Cl<[C16mim]Cl. The algae were most sensitive to imidazolium chloride ILs at 48 h according to the results from the growth inhibition rate and cellular membrane permeability tests. The ultrastructural morphology showed that the ILs had negative effects on the cellular morphology and structure of the algae. The cell wall of treated algae became wavy and separated from the cell membrane. Chloroplast grana lamellae became obscure and loose, osmiophilic material was deposited in the chloroplast, and mitochondria and their cristae swelled. Additionally, electron-dense deposits were observed in the vacuoles. PMID:26218552

  7. Effect of static magnetic field on the oxygen production of Scenedesmus obliquus cultivated in municipal wastewater.

    PubMed

    Tu, Renjie; Jin, Wenbiao; Xi, Tingting; Yang, Qian; Han, Song-Fang; Abomohra, Abd El-Fatah

    2015-12-01

    Algal-bacterial symbiotic system, with biological synergism of physiological functions of both algae and bacteria, has been proposed for cultivation of microalgae in municipal wastewater for biomass production and wastewater treatment. The algal-bacterial symbiotic system can enhance dissolved oxygen production which enhances bacterial growth and catabolism of pollutants in wastewater. Therefore, the oxygen production efficiency of microalgae in algal-bacterial systems is considered as the key factor influencing the wastewater treatment efficiency. In the present study, we have proposed a novel approach which uses static magnetic field to enhance algal growth and oxygen production rate with low operational cost and non-toxic secondary pollution. The performance of oxygen production with the magnetic field was evaluated using Scenedesmus obliquus grown in municipal wastewater and was calculated based on the change in dissolved oxygen concentration. Results indicated that magnetic treatment stimulates both algal growth and oxygen production. Application of 1000 GS of magnetic field once at logarithmic growth phase for 0.5 h increased the chlorophyll-a content by 11.5% over the control after 6 days of growth. In addition, magnetization enhanced the oxygen production rate by 24.6% over the control. Results of the study confirmed that application of a proper magnetic field could reduce the energy consumption required for aeration during the degradation of organic matter in municipal wastewater in algal-bacterial symbiotic systems. PMID:26253865

  8. Nanoplastic affects growth of S. obliquus and reproduction of D. magna.

    PubMed

    Besseling, Ellen; Wang, Bo; Lürling, Miquel; Koelmans, Albert A

    2014-10-21

    The amount of nano- and microplastic in the aquatic environment rises due to the industrial production of plastic and the degradation of plastic into smaller particles. Concerns have been raised about their incorporation into food webs. Little is known about the fate and effects of nanoplastic, especially for the freshwater environment. In this study, effects of nano-polystyrene (nano-PS) on the growth and photosynthesis of the green alga Scenedesmus obliquus and the growth, mortality, neonate production, and malformations of the zooplankter Daphnia magna were assessed. Nano-PS reduced population growth and reduced chlorophyll concentrations in the algae. Exposed Daphnia showed a reduced body size and severe alterations in reproduction. Numbers and body size of neonates were lower, while the number of neonate malformations among neonates rose to 68% of the individuals. These effects of nano-PS were observed between 0.22 and 103 mg nano-PS/L. Malformations occurred from 30 mg of nano-PS/L onward. Such plastic concentrations are much higher than presently reported for marine waters as well as freshwater, but may eventually occur in sediment pore waters. As far as we know, these results are the first to show that direct life history shifts in algae and Daphnia populations may occur as a result of exposure to nanoplastic. PMID:25268330

  9. Superior triacylglycerol (TAG) accumulation in starchless mutants of Scenedesmus obliquus: (II) evaluation of TAG yield and productivity in controlled photobioreactors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Many microalgae accumulate carbohydrates simultaneously with triacylglycerol (TAG) upon nitrogen starvation, and these products compete for photosynthetic products and metabolites from the central carbon metabolism. As shown for starchless mutants of the non-oleaginous model alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, reduced carbohydrate synthesis can enhance TAG production. However, these mutants still have a lower TAG productivity than wild-type oleaginous microalgae. Recently, several starchless mutants of the oleaginous microalga Scenedesmus obliquus were obtained which showed improved TAG content and productivity. Results The most promising mutant, slm1, is compared in detail to wild-type S. obliquus in controlled photobioreactors. In the slm1 mutant, the maximum TAG content increased to 57 ± 0.2% of dry weight versus 45 ± 1% in the wild type. In the wild type, TAG and starch were accumulated simultaneously during initial nitrogen starvation, and starch was subsequently degraded and likely converted into TAG. The starchless mutant did not produce starch and the liberated photosynthetic capacity was directed towards TAG synthesis. This increased the maximum yield of TAG on light by 51%, from 0.144 ± 0.004 in the wild type to 0.217 ± 0.011 g TAG/mol photon in the slm1 mutant. No differences in photosynthetic efficiency between the slm1 mutant and the wild type were observed, indicating that the mutation specifically altered carbon partitioning while leaving the photosynthetic capacity unaffected. Conclusions The yield of TAG on light can be improved by 51% by using the slm1 starchless mutant of S. obliquus, and a similar improvement seems realistic for the areal productivity in outdoor cultivation. The photosynthetic performance is not negatively affected in the slm1 and the main difference with the wild type is an improved carbon partitioning towards TAG. PMID:24883102

  10. The effect of discontinuous airlift mixing in outdoor flat panel photobioreactors on growth of Scenedesmus obliquus.

    PubMed

    Leupold, Marco; Hindersin, Stefan; Kerner, Martin; Hanelt, Dieter

    2013-11-01

    Discontinuous airlift mixing was realized by injecting pressured air at time intervals with a frequency between 0.033 and 0.25 Hz (at 80 kPa; i.e., every 4-30 s; valve opening time 800 ms) into outdoor flat panel photobioreactors ([Formula: see text]). This caused a flow velocity between 2 and 20 cm s(-1) of the culture medium within the photobioreactor and the mixing time was between 38 and 103.5 s, requiring 0.175-1.340 L(gas volume) L(photobioreactor volume)(-1) min(-1) pressured air. In order to detect the effect on growth of Scenedesmus obliquus during outdoor experiments and to be able to compare obtained results, a batch run with an airlift frequency of 0.25 Hz was simultaneously used as control. Growth at different airlift frequencies was measured by the increase of cell dry weight (CDW) during 3-5 days and biomass yield on light energy was calculated. With increasing airlift frequencies, growth increased from 52 to 91 % compared to the control. When CDW was at around 1.0-1.5 g L(-1), airlift frequency had no effect on growth, indicating that mass transfer gradients of nutrients and gas were not the limiting factors of growth. Above 1.5 g CDW L(-1), growth increased with increasing airlift frequency and light limitation for a single cell occurred. This effect was observed during low and high irradiance and it is concluded that a higher mean flow causes a better light distribution, resulting in an enhanced growth. Biomass productivity and demand of pressured air are correlated logarithmically, which enables to save mixing energy during cultivation. PMID:23494400

  11. Kinetics of the oxyhydrogen reaction in the presence and absence of carbon dioxide in Scenedesmus obliquus

    SciTech Connect

    Erbes, D.L.; Gibbs, M.

    1981-01-01

    The oxyhydrogen reaction in the presence and absence of CO/sub 2/ was studied in H/sub 2/-adapted Scenedesmus obliquus by monitoring the initial rates of H/sub 2/, O/sub 2/, and /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ uptake and the effect of inhibitors on these rates with gas-sensing electrodes and isotopic techniques. In the presence of 0.02 atmosphere O/sub 2/, the pH/sub 2/ was varied from 0 to 1 atmosphere. Whereas the rate of O/sub 2/ uptake increased by only 30%, the rate of H/sub 2/ uptake increased severalfold over the range of pH/sub 2/ values. At 0.1 atmosphere H/sub 2/ and 0.02 atmosphere O/sub 2/, rates for H/sub 2/ and O/sub 2/ uptake were between 15 and 25 micromoles per milligram chlorophyll per hour. As the pH/sub 2/ was changed from 0 to 1 atmosphere, the quotient H/sub 2/:O/sub 2/ changed from 0 to roughly 2. This change may reflect the competition between H/sub 2/ and the endogenous respiratory electron donors. Respiration in the presence of glucose and acetate was also competitive with H/sub 2/ uptake. KCN inhibited equally respiration (O/sub 2/ uptake in the absence of H/sub 2/) and the oxyhydrogen reaction in the presence and absence of CO/sub 2/. The uncoupler carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone accelerated the rate of respiration and the oxyhydrogen reaction to a similar extent. It was concluded that the oxyhydrogen reaction both in the presence and absence of CO/sub 2/ has properties in common with components of respiration and photosynthesis. Participation of these two processes in the oxyhydrogen reaction would require a closely linked shuttle between mitochondrion and chloroplast.

  12. Uptake and effect of highly fluorescent silver nanoclusters on Scenedesmus obliquus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; He, Yiliang; Goswami, Nirmal; Xie, Jianping; Zhang, Bo; Tao, Xianji

    2016-06-01

    The release of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) in aquatic environment has caused wide public concern about their effects on living organisms (e.g., algae). However, how these small NPs exert cytotoxicity in the living organisms has always been under heated debate. In this study, the uptake and toxicity effects of strongly red-emitting fluorescent silver nanoclusters (r-Ag NCs) exposed to the green algae Scenedesmus obliquus was investigated. Upon exposure to pure r-Ag NCs and r-Ag NCs containing l-cysteine, the algae growth inhibition test showed that Ag(+) ions released from r-Ag NCs played an important role in the toxicity of r-Ag NCs along with the toxicity of intact r-Ag NCs. Furthermore, no signals of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were observed indicating that r-Ag NCs or released Ag(+) ions - mediated growth inhibition of algae cells was independent of ROS production. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) were employed to study cellular uptake and cytotoxicity. Furthermore, analysis of differential expressed gene demonstrated that r-Ag NCs as well as the released Ag(+) ions can simultaneously exist inside the algae cells, and inhibit the transcriptomic process of genes by their "joint-toxicity" mechanism. Taken together, our study provides a new insight into the molecular mechanisms of r-Ag NCs and Ag(+) ions exposure to the aquatic organism and can be applied to early diagnosis of ecologic risk mediated by others metal-based NPs. PMID:27023120

  13. Photosynthesis of Scenedesmus obliquus in outdoor open thin-layer cascade system in high and low CO2 in Belgium.

    PubMed

    de Marchin, Thomas; Erpicum, Michel; Franck, Fabrice

    2015-12-10

    Two outdoor open thin-layer cascade systems operated as batch cultures with the alga Scenedesmus obliquus were used to compare the productivity and photosynthetic acclimations in control and CO2 supplemented cultures in relation with the outdoor light irradiance. We found that the culture productivity was limited by CO2 availability. In the CO2 supplemented culture, we obtained a productivity of up to 24gdwm(-2)day(-1) and found a photosynthetic efficiency (value based on the PAR solar radiation energy) of up to 5%. In the CO2 limited culture, we obtained a productivity of up to 10gdwm(-2)day(-1) while the photosynthetic efficiency was up to 3.3% and decreased to 2.1% when the integrated daily PAR increased. Fluorescence and oxygen evolution measurements showed that ETR and oxygen evolution light saturation curves, as well as light-dependent O2 uptake were similar in algal samples from both cultures when the CO2 limitation was removed. In contrast, we found that CO2 limitation conducted to a decreased PSII photochemical efficiency and an increased light-induced heat-dissipation in the control culture compared to the CO2 supplemented culture. These features are in line with a lower light use efficiency and may therefore contribute to the lower productivity observed in absence of CO2 supplementation in outdoor mass cultures of S. obliquus. PMID:26232563

  14. Inhibitory and Acceleratory Effects of Inonotus obliquus on Tyrosinase Activity and Melanin Formation in B16 Melanoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Zheng-Fei; Yang, Yang; Mao, Xin-Xin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to preliminarily investigate the antimelanogenesis effect of Inonotus obliquus extracts by cell-free mushroom tyrosinase assay. It was found that petroleum ether and n-butanol extracts might contain unknown potential tyrosinase inhibitors, while its ethyl acetate extract might contain some unknown accelerators. Six compounds were isolated and their structures were identified by interpretation of NMR data and nicotinic acid was first discovered in Inonotus obliquus. In cells testing, betulin and trametenolic acid decreased tyrosinase activity and melanin content, while inotodiol and lanosterol significantly increased tyrosinase activity and melanin content, showing an AC⁡50 of 9.74 and 8.43 μM, respectively. Nicotinie acid, 3β,22,25-trihydroxy-lanosta-8-ene, had a little or no effect on tyrosinase. Betulin exhibited a mode of noncompetitive inhibition with a KI = KIS of 0.4 μM on tyrosinase activity showing an IC50 of 5.13 μM and being more effective than kojic acid (6.43 μM), and trametenolic acid exhibited a mode of mixed inhibition with a KI of 0.9 μM, KIS of 0.5 μM, and an IC50 of 7.25 μM. We proposed betulin and trametenolic acid as a new candidate of potent tyrosinase inhibitors and inotodiol and lanosterol as accelerators that could be used as therapeutic agent. PMID:25197307

  15. Inonotus obliquus containing diet enhances the innate immune mechanism and disease resistance in olive flounder Paralichythys olivaceus against Uronema marinum.

    PubMed

    Harikrishnan, Ramasamy; Balasundaram, Chellam; Heo, Moon-Soo

    2012-06-01

    The present study describes the effect of diet supplementation with Chaga mushroom, Inonotus obliquus extract at 0%, 0.01%, 0.1%, and 1.0% levels on the innate humoral (lysozyme, antiprotease, and complement), cellular responses (production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and myeloperoxidase), and disease resistance in olive flounder, Paralichythys olivaceus against Uronema marinum. The lysozyme activity and complement activity significantly increased in each diet on weeks 2 and 4 against pathogen. The serum antiprotease activity and reactive nitrogen intermediates production significantly increased in fish fed with 0.1% and 1.0% diets from weeks 1-4. However, reactive oxygen species production and myeloperoxidase activity significantly increased in 1.0% and 2.0% diets on weeks 2 and 4. In fish fed with 0.1% and 1.0% diets and challenged with U. marinum the cumulative mortality was 50% and 40% while in 0% and 0.01% diets the mortality was 85% and 55%. The results clearly indicate that supplementation diet with I. obliquus at 0.1% and 1.0% level positively enhance the immune system and confer disease resistance which may be potentially used as an immunoprophylactic in finfish culture. PMID:22484608

  16. Effect of carbon source on biomass growth and nutrients removal of Scenedesmus obliquus for wastewater advanced treatment and lipid production.

    PubMed

    Shen, Qiao-Hui; Jiang, Jia-Wei; Chen, Li-Ping; Cheng, Li-Hua; Xu, Xin-Hua; Chen, Huan-Lin

    2015-08-01

    The combination of tertiary wastewater treatment and microalgal lipid production is considered to be a promising approach to water eutrophication as well as energy crisis. To intensify wastewater treatment and microalgal biofuel production, the effect of organic and inorganic carbon on algal growth and nutrient removal of Scenedesmus obliquus were examined by varying TOC (total organic carbon) concentrations of 20-120mgL(-1) in wastewater and feeding CO2 concentrations in the range of 0.03-15%, respectively. The results showed that the maximal biomass and average lipid productivity were 577.6 and 16.7mgL(-1)d(-1) with 5% CO2 aeration. The total nitrogen, total phosphorus and TOC removal efficiencies were 97.8%, 95.6% and 59.1% respectively within 6days when cultured with real secondary municipal wastewater. This work further showed that S. obliquus could be utilized for simultaneous organic pollutants reduction, N, P removal and lipid accumulation. PMID:25958150

  17. High Yields of Hydrogen Production Induced by Meta-Substituted Dichlorophenols Biodegradation from the Green Alga Scenedesmus obliquus

    PubMed Central

    Papazi, Aikaterini; Andronis, Efthimios; Ioannidis, Nikolaos E.; Chaniotakis, Nikolaos; Kotzabasis, Kiriakos

    2012-01-01

    Hydrogen is a highly promising energy source with important social and economic implications. The ability of green algae to produce photosynthetic hydrogen under anaerobic conditions has been known for years. However, until today the yield of production has been very low, limiting an industrial scale use. In the present paper, 73 years after the first report on H2-production from green algae, we present a combinational biological system where the biodegradation procedure of one meta-substituted dichlorophenol (m-dcp) is the key element for maintaining continuous and high rate H2-production (>100 times higher than previously reported) in chloroplasts and mitochondria of the green alga Scenedesmus obliquus. In particular, we report that reduced m-dcps (biodegradation intermediates) mimic endogenous electron and proton carriers in chloroplasts and mitochondria, inhibit Photosystem II (PSII) activity (and therefore O2 production) and enhance Photosystem I (PSI) and hydrogenase activity. In addition, we show that there are some indications for hydrogen production from sources other than chloroplasts in Scenedesmus obliquus. The regulation of these multistage and highly evolved redox pathways leads to high yields of hydrogen production and paves the way for an efficient application to industrial scale use, utilizing simple energy sources and one meta-substituted dichlorophenol as regulating elements. PMID:23145057

  18. Effects of a Pilates exercise program on muscle strength, postural control and body composition: results from a pilot study in a group of post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Bergamin, M; Gobbo, S; Bullo, V; Zanotto, T; Vendramin, B; Duregon, F; Cugusi, L; Camozzi, V; Zaccaria, M; Neunhaeuserer, D; Ermolao, A

    2015-12-01

    Participation in exercise programs is heartily recommended for older adults since the level of physical fitness directly influences functional independence. The aim of this present study was to investigate the effects of supervised Pilates exercise training on the physical function, hypothesizing that a period of Pilates exercise training (PET) can increase overall muscle strength, body composition, and balance, during single and dual-task conditions, in a group of post-menopausal women. Twenty-five subjects, aged 59 to 66 years old, were recruited. Eligible participants were assessed prior and after 3 months of PET performed twice per week. Muscular strength was evaluated with handgrip strength (HGS) test, 30-s chair sit-to-stand test (30CST), and abdominal strength (AST) test. Postural control and dual-task performance were measured through a stabilometric platform while dynamic balance with 8 ft up and go test. Finally, body composition was assessed by means of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Statistically significant improvements were detected on HGS (+8.22%), 30CST (+23.41%), 8 ft up and go test (-5.95%), AST (+30.81%), medio-lateral oscillations in open eyes and dual-task condition (-22.03% and -10.37%). Pilates was effective in increasing upper body, lower body, and abdominal muscle strength. No changes on body composition were detected. Results on this investigation indicated also that 12-week of mat Pilates is not sufficient to determine a clinical meaningful improvement on static balance in single and dual-task conditions. PMID:26578458

  19. Pain Perception and Stabilometric Parameters in People With Chronic Low Back Pain After a Pilates Exercise Program: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Patti, Antonino; Bianco, Antonino; Paoli, Antonio; Messina, Giuseppe; Montalto, Maria Alessandra; Bellafiore, Marianna; Battaglia, Giuseppe; Iovane, Angelo; Palma, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Various exercise interventions, such as Pilates exercises and traditional physical therapy methods, are employed to decrease low back pain (LBP). Nonspecific low back pain (NSLBP) is distinct from LBP, however, as the distribution of pain is restricted to the region between the costal margin and the inferior gluteal. The aim of our randomized controlled trial was to evaluate the effects of a program of Pilates exercises on pain perception and stabilometric parameters in patients with NSLBP.Thirty-eight participants were randomly allocated, using a 1:1 scheme, to either the experimental group (EG) or control group (CG). The EG completed a 14-week program of Pilates exercises, performed thrice per week under the supervision of an exercise specialist, while the CG was managed with a social program only. Measures of posturography and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) for pain perception were obtained at baseline (T0) and after the 14 weeks of intervention (T)1.Posturography measures improved for patients in the EG, with both eyes open and eyes closed (P < 0.05). There were no statistical differences in posturography in the CG. ODI decreased significantly in both groups over the 14 weeks of the study protocol: EG, T0, 13.7 ± 5.0 compared with T1, 6.5 ± 4.0 (P < 0.001); and CG, T0, 10.7 ± 7.8 compared with T1, 8.4 ± 7.8 (P < 0.01). A greater extent of reduction in pain was achieved in the EG.The Pilates exercise program yielded improvements in pain and posturography outcomes. Our study also confirms the applicability of posturography in evaluating postural instability in patients with NSLBP. Due to our relatively small study group, future studies would be necessary to confirm our findings. PMID:26765419

  20. Correlation of nitric oxide produced by an inducible nitric oxide synthase-like protein with enhanced expression of the phenylpropanoid pathway in Inonotus obliquus cocultured with Phellinus morii.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yanxia; Xi, Qi; Xu, Qian; He, Meihong; Ding, Jianing; Dai, Yucheng; Keller, Nancy P; Zheng, Weifa

    2015-05-01

    Fungal interspecific interactions enhance biosynthesis of phenylpropanoid metabolites (PM), and production of nitric oxide (NO) is known to be involved in this process. However, it remains unknown which signaling pathway(s) or regulator(s) mediate fungal PM biosynthesis. In this study, we cocultured two white-rot fungi, Inonotus obliquus and Phellinus morii, to examine NO production, expression of the genes involved in phenylpropanoid metabolism and accumulation of phenylpropanoid-derived polyphenols by I. obliquus. Coculture of the two fungi caused an enhanced NO biosynthesis followed by increased transcription of the genes encoding phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and 4-coumarate CoA ligase (4CL), as well as an upregulated biosynthesis of styrylpyrone polyphenols in I. obliquus. Addition of the NO synthase (NOS) selective inhibitor aminoguanidine (AG) inhibited NO production by more than 90% followed by cease in transcription of PAL and 4Cl. Treatment of guanylyl cyclase inhibitor 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one did not affect NO production but suppressed transcription of PAL and 4CL and reduced accumulation of total phenolic constituents. Genome-wide analysis of I. obliquus revealed two genes encoding a constitutive and an inducible NOS-like protein, respectively (cNOSL and iNOSL). Coculture of the two fungi did not increase the expression of the cNOSL gene but triggered expression of the iNOSL gene. Cloned iNOSL from Escherichia coli shows higher activity in transferring L-arginine to NO, and this activity is lost upon AG addition. Thus, iNOSL is more responsible for NO production in I. obliquus and may act as an important regulator governing PM production during fungal interspecific interactions. PMID:25582560

  1. “Rational” Management of Dichlorophenols Biodegradation by the Microalga Scenedesmus obliquus

    PubMed Central

    Papazi, Aikaterini; Kotzabasis, Kiriakos

    2013-01-01

    The microalga Scenedesmus obliquus exhibited the ability to biodegrade dichlorophenols (dcps) under specific autotrophic and mixotrophic conditions. According to their biodegradability, the dichlorophenols used can be separated into three distinct groups. Group I (2,4-dcp and 2,6 dcp – no meta-substitution) consisted of quite easily degraded dichlorophenols, since both chloride substituents are in less energetically demanding positions. Group II (2,3-dcp, 2,5-dcp and 3,4-dcp – one meta-chloride) was less susceptible to biodegradation, since one of the two substituents, the meta one, required higher energy for C-Cl-bond cleavage. Group III (3,5-dcp – two meta-chlorides) could not be biodegraded, since both chlorides possessed the most energy demanding positions. In general, when the dcp-toxicity exceeded a certain threshold, the microalga increased the energy offered for biodegradation and decreased the energy invested for biomass production. As a result, the biodegradation per cell volume of group II (higher toxicity) was higher, than group I (lower toxicity) and the biodegradation of dichlorophenols (higher toxicity) was higher than the corresponding monochlorophenols (lower toxicity). The participation of the photosynthetic apparatus and the respiratory mechanism of microalga to biodegrade the group I and the group II, highlighted different bioenergetic strategies for optimal management of the balance between dcp-toxicity, dcp-biodegradability and culture growth. Additionally, we took into consideration the possibility that the intermediates of each dcp-biodegradation pathway could influence differently the whole biodegradation procedures. For this reason, we tested all possible combinations of phenolic intermediates to check cometabolic interactions. The present contribution bring out the possibility of microalgae to operate as “smart” bioenergetic “machines”, that have the ability to continuously “calculate” the energy reserves and

  2. Nitrogen removal and recycling by Scenedesmus obliquus in semicontinuous cultures using artificial wastewater and a simulated light and temperature cycle.

    PubMed

    Voltolina, Domenico; Gómez-Villa, Herlinda; Correa, Gabriel

    2005-02-01

    Semicontinuous cultures of Scenedesmus obliquus in artificial wastewater were maintained with 30% and 40% daily dilutions and under a 14:10 h light-dark cycle, with temperatures of 25.5 and 17 degrees C during light and dark hours. Under this regime, the production of organic biomass was 39.3 and 25.2 mg l(-1)d(-1) for the 30% and 40% dilutions, and 24.9 and 16.7 mg l(-1)d(-1) of single-cell proteins. Most of the nitrogen removal took place during the light hours, with daily totals of 9.27 and 8.45 mg l(-1) for the 30% and 40% dilutions. With the former, 43.7% of the nitrogen removed was recycled by the microalgae into proteins and other organic nitrogen cell contents, but this efficiency decreased to 26.4% when the dilutions were raised to 40%. PMID:15474938

  3. Protective Effect of Polysaccharides from Inonotus obliquus on Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Symptoms and Their Potential Mechanisms in Rats.

    PubMed

    Diao, Bao-Zhong; Jin, Wei-Rong; Yu, Xue-Jing

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic effects of polysaccharides from Inonotus obliquus (PIO) on streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced diabetic symptoms and their potential mechanisms. The effect of PIO on body weight, blood glucose, damaged pancreatic β-cells, oxidative stresses, proinflammatory cytokines, and glucose metabolizing enzymes in liver was studied. The results show that administration of PIO can restore abnormal oxidative indices near normal levels. The STZ-damaged pancreatic β-cells of the rats were partly recovered gradually after the mice were administered with PIO 6 weeks later. Therefore, we may assume that PIO is effective in the protection of STZ-induced diabetic rats and PIO may be of use as antihyperglycemic agent. PMID:25093030

  4. Protective Effect of Polysaccharides from Inonotus obliquus on Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Symptoms and Their Potential Mechanisms in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Diao, Bao-zhong; Jin, Wei-rong; Yu, Xue-jing

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic effects of polysaccharides from Inonotus obliquus (PIO) on streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced diabetic symptoms and their potential mechanisms. The effect of PIO on body weight, blood glucose, damaged pancreatic β-cells, oxidative stresses, proinflammatory cytokines, and glucose metabolizing enzymes in liver was studied. The results show that administration of PIO can restore abnormal oxidative indices near normal levels. The STZ-damaged pancreatic β-cells of the rats were partly recovered gradually after the mice were administered with PIO 6 weeks later. Therefore, we may assume that PIO is effective in the protection of STZ-induced diabetic rats and PIO may be of use as antihyperglycemic agent. PMID:25093030

  5. Neuromuscular efficiency of the vastus medialis obliquus and postural balance in professional soccer athletes after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Chaves, Shalimá Figueirêdo; Marques, Natália Pereira; Silva, Rômulo Lemos e; Rebouças, Nahra Santos; de Freitas, Luise Monteiro; de Paula Lima, Pedro Olavo; de Oliveira, Rodrigo Ribeiro

    2012-01-01

    Summary The purpose of this study was to evaluate the neuromuscular efficiency of the vastus medialis obliquus and postural balance in high-performance soccer athletes after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, compared to the uninvolved leg. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 22 male professional soccer players after ACL reconstruction (4–12 months postoperatively). The athletes were submitted to functional rehabilitation with an accelerated protocol on the soccer team. They were evaluated using isokinetic dynamometer, surface electromyography and electronic baropodometer. There was no decrease or difference between neuromuscular efficiency of the VMO when comparing both the limbs after ACL reconstruction in the professional soccer athletes under treatment. The same result was found in postural balance. It can be concluded that the NME of the VMO in the involved member and postural balance were successfully re-established after the reconstruction procedure of the ACL in the sample group studied. PMID:23738285

  6. Effects of nitrogen source availability and bioreactor operating strategies on lutein production with Scenedesmus obliquus FSP-3.

    PubMed

    Ho, Shih-Hsin; Xie, Youping; Chan, Ming-Chang; Liu, Chen-Chun; Chen, Chun-Yen; Lee, Duu-Jong; Huang, Chieh-Chen; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2015-05-01

    In this study, the effects of the type and concentration of nitrogen sources on the cell growth and lutein content of an isolated microalga Scenedesmus obliquus FSP-3 were investigated. With batch culture, the highest lutein content (4.61 mg/g) and lutein productivity (4.35 mg/L/day) were obtained when using 8.0 mM calcium nitrate as the nitrogen source. With this best nitrogen source condition, the microalgae cultivation was performed using two bioreactor strategies (namely, semi-continuous and two-stage operations) to further enhance the lutein content and productivity. Using semi-continuous operation with a 10% medium replacement ratio could obtain the highest biomass productivity (1304.8 mg/L/day) and lutein productivity (6.01 mg/L/day). This performance is better than most related studies. PMID:25453431

  7. Enhancement of exo-polysaccharide production and antioxidant activity in submerged cultures of Inonotus obliquus by lignocellulose decomposition.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui; Yan, Mingchao; Zhu, Jinwei; Xu, Xiangqun

    2011-02-01

    We reported that lignocellulose decomposition can be used to facilitate the production of bioactive polysaccharides from submerged culture of Inonotus obliquus. Exo-polysaccharide (EPS) production and antioxidant activity by Inonotus obliquus was enhanced by employing lignocellulose decomposition in a corn straw-containing submerged fermentation. A significant increase in the EPS production and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity from 1.09 ± 0.01 g/l and 72.3 ± 1.9% in a basal medium to 1.38 ± 0.02 g/l and 82.7 ± 0.5% in a corn straw-containing medium was obtained. A synchronized effect between lignocellulose decomposition and malondialdehyde presenting hydroxyl radical concentration in the fermentation broth was identified. The adding of thiourea, a hydroxyl radical-scavenging reagent, suppressed malondialdehyde generation and lowered the lignocellulose decomposition rate. Correspondingly, the EPS production and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity decreased to 1.26 g/l and 74%. The EPS obtained from the corn straw-containing medium also presented the strongest superoxide radical scavenging activity. The monosaccharide components of the EPS from the corn straw-containing medium are rhamnose, arabinose, xylose, mannose, glucose, and galactose with molar proportions at 3.0, 3.0, 0.9, 46.6, 11.4, and 35.1%, respectively, which are largely different from the molar proportions of the EPS from the basal medium. PMID:20628784

  8. Inhibitory and Acceleratory Effects of Inonotus obliquus on Tyrosinase Activity and Melanin Formation in B16 Melanoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Yan, Zheng-Fei; Yang, Yang; Tian, Feng-Hua; Mao, Xin-Xin; Li, Yu; Li, Chang-Tian

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to preliminarily investigate the antimelanogenesis effect of Inonotus obliquus extracts by cell-free mushroom tyrosinase assay. It was found that petroleum ether and n-butanol extracts might contain unknown potential tyrosinase inhibitors, while its ethyl acetate extract might contain some unknown accelerators. Six compounds were isolated and their structures were identified by interpretation of NMR data and nicotinic acid was first discovered in Inonotus obliquus. In cells testing, betulin and trametenolic acid decreased tyrosinase activity and melanin content, while inotodiol and lanosterol significantly increased tyrosinase activity and melanin content, showing an AC⁡50 of 9.74 and 8.43 μM, respectively. Nicotinie acid, 3β,22,25-trihydroxy-lanosta-8-ene, had a little or no effect on tyrosinase. Betulin exhibited a mode of noncompetitive inhibition with a K I = K IS of 0.4 μM on tyrosinase activity showing an IC50 of 5.13 μM and being more effective than kojic acid (6.43 μM), and trametenolic acid exhibited a mode of mixed inhibition with a K I of 0.9 μM, K IS of 0.5 μM, and an IC50 of 7.25 μM. We proposed betulin and trametenolic acid as a new candidate of potent tyrosinase inhibitors and inotodiol and lanosterol as accelerators that could be used as therapeutic agent. PMID:25197307

  9. Effect of subcellular distribution on nC₆₀ uptake and transfer efficiency from Scenedesmus obliquus to Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qiqing; Hu, Xialin; Yin, Daqiang; Wang, Rui

    2016-06-01

    The potential uptake and trophic transfer ability of nanoparticles (NPs) in aquatic organisms have not been well understood yet. There has been an increasing awareness of the subcellular fate of NPs in organisms, but how the subcellular distribution of NPs subsequently affects the trophic transfer to predator remains to be answered. In the present study, the food chain from Scenedesmus obliquus to Daphnia magna was established to simulate the trophic transfer of fullerene aqueous suspension (nC60). The nC60 contaminated algae were separated into three fractions: cell wall (CW), cell organelle (CO), and cell membrane (CM) fractions, and we investigated the nC60 uptake amounts and trophic transfer efficiency to the predator through dietary exposure to algae or algal subcellular fractions. The nC60 distribution in CW fraction of S. obliquus was the highest, following by CO and CM fractions. nC60 uptake amounts in D. magna were found to be mainly relative to the NPs' distribution in CW fraction and daphnia uptake ability from CW fraction, whereas the nC60 trophic transfer efficiency (TE) were mainly in accordance with the transfer ability of NPs from the CO fraction. CW fed group possessed the highest uptake amount, followed by CO and CM fed groups, but the presence of humic acid (HA) significantly decreased the nC60 uptake from CW fed group. The CO fed groups acquired high TE values for nC60, while CM fed groups had low TE values. Moreover, even though CW fed group had a high TE value; it decreased significantly with the presence of HA. This study contributes to the understanding of fullerene NPs' dietary exposure to aquatic organisms, suggesting that NPs in different food forms are not necessarily equally trophically available to the predator. PMID:26946286

  10. Aqueous extract from a Chaga medicinal mushroom, Inonotus obliquus (higher Basidiomycetes), prevents herpes simplex virus entry through inhibition of viral-induced membrane fusion.

    PubMed

    Pan, Hong-Hui; Yu, Xiong-Tao; Li, Ting; Wu, Hong-Ling; Jiao, Chun-Wei; Cai, Mian-Hua; Li, Xiang-Min; Xie, Yi-Zhen; Wang, Yi; Peng, Tao

    2013-01-01

    Chaga medicinal mushroom, Inonotus obliquus, a popular prescription in traditional medicine in Europe and Asia, was used to reduce inflammation in the nasopharynx and to facilitate breathing. The aqueous extract from I. obliquus (AEIO) exhibited marked decrease in herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection (the 50% inhibitory concentration was 3.82 μg/mL in the plaque reduction assay and 12.29 μg/mL in the HSV-1/blue assay) as well as safety in Vero cells (the 50% cellular cytotoxicity was > 1 mg/mL, and selection index was > 80). Using a time course assay, effective stage analysis, and fusion inhibition assay, the mechanism of anti-HSV activity was found against the early stage of viral infection through inhibition of viral-induced membrane fusion. Therefore, AEIO could effectively prevent HSV-1 entry by acting on viral glycoproteins, leading to the prevention of membrane fusion, which is different from nucleoside analog antiherpetics. PMID:23510282

  11. In vitro antitumor activity and structure characterization of ethanol extracts from wild and cultivated Chaga medicinal mushroom, Inonotus obliquus (Pers.:Fr.) Pilát (Aphyllophoromycetideae).

    PubMed

    Sun, Yong; Yin, Ting; Chen, Xian-Hui; Zhang, Gong; Curtis, Rempel B; Lu, Zhan-Hui; Jiang, Ji-Hong

    2011-01-01

    Inonotus obliquus (Pers.:Fr.) Pilát has been traditionally used as a folk remedy for treatment of cancers, cardiovascular disease and diabetes in Russia, Poland, and most of the Baltic countries, but natural reserves of this fungus have nearly been exhausted. This study was designed to investigate the artificial cultivation of I. obliquus and the antitumor activity of its tissues. The ethanol extract of cultivated sclerotium had the highest cell growth inhibitory rate (74.6%) as determined by an 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. 78% of the bags produced sclerotia and only 6.17 g/bag of sclerotium was obtained. Extracts of the cultivated fruiting body showed 44.2% inhibitory activity against tumor cells. However, the yield was as high as 18.24 g/bag, and 98% of the bags produced fruiting body. The results of gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) showed that similar compounds were extracted from the wild and cultivated samples. The principal compounds observed were lanosterol, inotodiol, and ergosterol. Their percentages of the mass fraction were 86.1, 59.9, and 71.8% of the total, for the wild sclerotium, cultivated sclerotium, and cultivated fruiting body, respectively. Ergosterol was found to be much higher (27.32%) in cultivated fruiting body. We conclude that cultivated fruiting body of I. obliquus obtained by inoculation of the substrate with spawn mycelium of the fifth generation could serve as an ideal substitute for the wild I. obliquus. PMID:22135888

  12. Optimization of ultrasonic/microwave assisted extraction (UMAE) of polysaccharides from Inonotus obliquus and evaluation of its anti-tumor activities.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yiyong; Gu, Xiaohong; Huang, Sheng-quan; Li, Jinwei; Wang, Xin; Tang, Jian

    2010-05-01

    Recently, the use of ultrasonic and microwave has attracted considerable interest as an alternative approach to the traditional extraction methods. In this paper, in order to maximize the yield and purity of polysaccharides from Inonotus obliquus, response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize the ultrasonic/microwave assisted extraction (UMAE) conditions. The results indicated that the optimal conditions for UMAE were 90W microwave power, 50W ultrasonic power together with 40kHz ultrasonic frequency, solid/water ratio was 1:20 (W/V) and the extracting time was 19min, respectively. Under the optimal conditions, the yield and purity of polysaccharides were 3.25% and 73.16%, respectively, which are above that of traditional hot water extraction and close to the predicted value (3.07% and 72.54%, respectively). These results confirmed that ultrasonic/microwave assisted extraction (UMAE) of polysaccharides had great potential and efficiency compared with traditional hot water extraction. At the same time, the anti-tumor activities of the polysaccharides from I. obliquus with UMAE were evaluated. The results suggested that polysaccharides from I. obliquus exhibited obvious anti-tumor activities. PMID:20149817

  13. Beneficial effects of the ethanol extract from the dry matter of a culture broth of Inonotus obliquus in submerged culture on the antioxidant defence system and regeneration of pancreatic beta-cells in experimental diabetes in mice.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hong-Yu; Sun, Jun-En; Lu, Zhen-Ming; Zhang, Xiao-Mei; Dou, Wen-Fang; Xu, Zheng-Hong

    2010-04-01

    The antihyperglycaemic and antilipidperoxidative effects of the ethanol extract from the dry matter of a culture broth (DMCB) of Inonotus obliquus were investigated in alloxan-induced diabetic mice and the possible mechanism of action was also discussed. In alloxan-induced diabetic mice, treatment with the ethanol extract from DMCB of I. obliquus (30 and 60 mg kg(-1) body weight (b.w.) for 21 days) showed a significant decrease in blood glucose level: the percentage reductions on the 7th day were 11.54 and 11.15%, respectively. However, feeding of this drug for three weeks produced reduction of 22.51 and 24.32%. Furthermore, the ethanol extract from the DMCB of I. obliquus treatment significantly decreased serum contents of free fatty acids, total cholesterol, triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, whereas it effectively increased high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, insulin levels and hepatic glycogen contents in livers of diabetic mice. Besides this, the ethanol extracts from the DMCB treatment significantly increased catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities, except for decreasing the maleic dialdehyde level in diabetic mice. Histological morphology examination showed that the ethanol extract from the DMCB of I. obliquus restored the damage of pancreatic tissues in mice with diabetes mellitus. The results showed that the ethanol extract from the DMCB of I. obliquus possesses significant antihyperglycaemic, antilipidperoxidative and antioxidant effects in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. PMID:20397104

  14. Effects of a 12-week Pilates course on lower limb muscle strength and trunk flexibility in women living in the community.

    PubMed

    Kao, Yu-Hsiu; Liou, Tsan-Hon; Huang, Yi-Ching; Tsai, Ya-Wen; Wang, Kuo-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Researchers in Taiwan studying regular adult physical activity found that among married women aged 26 to 55 years, 56% participated in physical activity, and that the convenience and safety of the activity were major factors contributing to their willingness to exercise. Muscle weakness and poor trunk flexibility are closely related to some chronic diseases in women. In this cross-sectional survey, we used the Polestar Pilates™ method to explore the effects of a 12-week Pilates course on the physical fitness of women living in the community. Fifty-three members of the experimental group (mean age: 42.30 ± 9.97) and 43 of the control group (mean age: 41.23 ± 9.83) were included. We confirm that a convenient Pilates exercise intervention can significantly improve muscle strength and trunk flexibility in women. Our findings serve as an important reference for health authorities in Taiwan and provide higher awareness of women's health and physical fitness, which can help prevent chronic and cardiovascular diseases. PMID:24611630

  15. Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) induces G0/G1 arrest and apoptosis in human hepatoma HepG2 cells

    PubMed Central

    Youn, Myung-Ja; Kim, Jin-Kyung; Park, Seong-Yeol; Kim, Yunha; Kim, Se-Jin; Lee, Jin Seok; Chai, Kyu Yun; Kim, Hye-Jung; Cui, Ming-Xun; So, Hong Seob; Kim, Ki-Young; Park, Raekil

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects of Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) water extract on human hepatoma cell lines, HepG2 and Hep3B cells. METHODS: The cytotoxicity of Chaga extract was screened by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Morphological observation, flow cytometry analysis, Western blot were employed to elucidate the cytotoxic mechanism of Chaga extract. RESULTS: HepG2 cells were more sensitive to Chaga extract than Hep3B cells, as demonstrated by markedly reduced cell viability. Chaga extract inhibited the cell growth in a dose-dependent manner, which was accompanied with G0/G1-phase arrest and apoptotic cell death. In addition, G0/G1 arrest in the cell cycle was closely associated with down-regulation of p53, pRb, p27, cyclins D1, D2, E, cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) 2, Cdk4, and Cdk6 expression. CONCLUSION: Chaga mushroom may provide a new therapeutic option, as a potential anticancer agent, in the treatment of hepatoma. PMID:18203281

  16. Optimization of hydroxyl radical scavenging activity of exo-polysaccharides from Inonotus obliquus in submerged fermentation using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui; Xu, Xiangqun; Zhu, Yang

    2010-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the effect of fermentation medium on the hydroxyl radical scavenging activity of exo-polysaccharides from Inonotus obliquus by response surface methodology. A two-level fractional factorial design was used to evaluate the effect of different components of medium. Corn flour, peptone, and KH2PO4 were important factors significantly affecting hydroxyl radical scavenging activity. These selected variables were subsequently optimized using path of steepest ascent (descent), a central composite design, and response surface analysis. The optimal medium composition was (% w/v): corn flour 5.30, peptone 0.32, KH2PO4 0.26, MgSO4 0.02, and CaCl2 0.01. Under the optimal condition, the hydroxyl radical scavenging rate (49.4%) was much higher than that using either basal fermentation medium (10.2%) and single variable optimization of fermentation medium (35.5%). The main monosaccharides components of the RSM optimized polysaccharides are rhamnose, arabinose, xylose, mannose, glucose and galactose with molar proportion at 1.45%, 3.63%, 2.17%, 15.94%, 50.00%, and 26.81%. PMID:20467262

  17. Stimulatory effect of different lignocellulosic materials for phenolic compound production and antioxidant activity from Inonotus obliquus in submerged fermentation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Linghui; Xu, Xiangqun

    2013-04-01

    White-rot fungus Inonotus obliquus grown in submerged culture produces antioxidative phenolic compounds. In this study, addition of lignocellulosic materials into the liquid culture increased the production and antioxidant activity of extra- and intra-cellular phenolic compounds (EPC and IPC, respectively). The production of EPC and IPC was significantly enhanced by wheat straw (by 151.2 and 45.3 %), sugarcane bagasse (by 106.9 and 26.1 %), and rice straw (by 67.6 and 38.9 %). Both of the EPC and IPC extracts from the three substrates showed a higher hydroxyl and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity than those from the control medium. The highly active polyphenols such as tea catechins of epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG) and epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), and phelligridin G in the EPC extracts increased by 113.1, 75.0, and 86.3 % in the sugarcane bagasse medium. Davallialactone and inoscavin B in the EPC extracts were generated in large amounts in the lignocellulose media but not found in the control medium. The IPC extract from the wheat straw medium had the highest production of EGCG and ECG (17.6 and 18.1 mg/l). The different enhancement among the materials was attributed to the content and degradation rate of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. The different antioxidant activity of the EPC and IPC extracts was related to their phenolic compositions. PMID:23408232

  18. Antitumor activity of water extract of a mushroom, Inonotus obliquus, against HT-29 human colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung Hak; Hwang, Hee Sun; Yun, Jong Won

    2009-12-01

    In the current study, it was demonstrated that the hot water extract of I. obliquus (IOWE) exerts inhibitory activity against the proliferation of human colon cancer cells (HT-29). The inhibitory effect of IOWE on the growth of HT-29 cancer cells was evaluated by treating cells with IOWE at concentrations of 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 mg/mL for 24 or 48 h. The IOWE inhibited cell growth in a dose-dependent manner, and this inhibition was accompanied by apoptotic cell death. The maximum inhibitory effect (56%) was observed when IOWE was treated at a concentration of 1.0 mg/mL for 48 h. The apoptotic effect of IOWE on HT-29 cells was also confirmed by flow cytometric analysis. In addition, the apoptotic cell percentage was closely associated with down-regulation of Bcl-2 and up-regulation of Bax and caspase-3. The results suggest that IOWE would be useful as an antitumor agent via the induction of apoptosis and inhibition of the growth of cancer cells through up-regulation of the expression of proapoptotic proteins and down-regulation of antiapoptotic proteins. PMID:19367670

  19. The effect of light color on the nucleocytoplasmic and chloroplast cycle of the green chlorococcal alga Scenedesmus obliquus.

    PubMed

    Cepák, V; Pribyl, P; Vítová, M

    2006-01-01

    The color of light (white, red, blue, and green) had a significant effect on the growth and reproductive processes (both in the nucleocytoplasmic and chloroplast compartment of the cells) in synchronous cultures of Scenedesmus obliquus. This effect decreased in the order red > white > blue > green. In the same order, the light phase of the cell cycle (time when first autospores started to be released) was prolonged. The length of dark phase (time when 100 % of daughters were allowed to release from mothers) was not influenced and was the same for all colors. Critical cell size for cell division in green light was shifted to a smaller size (compared with cells grown in other lights) and so was the size of released daughters. The nuclear cycle was slowed in blue and even in green light, contrary to cells grown in red and white light. At the beginning of the cell cycle, one-nucleus daughters possess approximately 10 nucleoids; during the cell cycle their number doubled in all variants before the division of nuclei. Both events were delayed in cultures grown more slowly most markedly in green light. Smaller daughters in the green variant possessed a lower number of nucleoids. Motile cells released in continuous green or blue lights but not in red one were rarely observed. PMID:17007440

  20. Influence of light presence and biomass concentration on nutrient kinetic removal from urban wastewater by Scenedesmus obliquus.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, J; Arbib, Z; Alvarez-Díaz, P D; Garrido-Pérez, C; Barragán, J; Perales, J A

    2014-05-20

    This work was aimed at studying the effect of light-darkness and high-low biomass concentrations in the feasibility of removing nitrogen and phosphorus from urban treated wastewater by the microalga Scenedesmus obliquus. Laboratory experiments were conducted in batch, where microalgae were cultured under different initial biomass concentrations (150 and 1500mgSSl(-1)) and light conditions (dark or illuminated). Nutrient uptake was more dependent on internal nutrient content of the biomass than on light presence or biomass concentration. When a maximum nitrogen or phosphorus content in the biomass was reached (around 8% and 2%, respectively), the removal of that nutrient was almost stopped. Biomass concentration affected more than light presence on the nutrient removal rate, increasing significantly with its increase. Light was only required to remove nutrients when the maximum nutrient storage capacity of the cells was reached and further growth was therefore needed. Residence times to maintain a stable biomass concentration, avoiding the washout of the reactor, were much higher than those needed to remove the nutrients from the wastewater. This ability to remove nutrients in the absence of light could lead to new configurations of reactors aimed to wastewater treatment. PMID:24631723

  1. Lipid content and fatty acid composition of green algae Scenedesmus obliquus grown in a constant cell density apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, K. J.; Nakhost, Z.; Barzana, E.; Karel, M.

    1987-01-01

    The lipids of alga Scenedesmus obliquus grown under controlled conditions were separated and fractionated by column and thin-layer chromatography, and fatty acid composition of each lipid component was studied by gas-liquid chromatography (GLC). Total lipids were 11.17%, and neutral lipid, glycolipid and phospholipid fractions were 7.24%, 2.45% and 1.48% on a dry weight basis, respectively. The major neutral lipids were diglycerides, triglycerides, free sterols, hydrocarbons and sterol esters. The glycolipids were: monogalactosyl diglyceride, digalactosyl diglyceride, esterified sterol glycoside, and sterol glycoside. The phospholipids included: phosphatidyl choline, phosphatidyl glycerol and phosphatidyl ethanolamine. Fourteen fatty acids were identified in the four lipid fractions by GLC. The main fatty acids were C18:2, C16:0, C18:3(alpha), C18:1, C16:3, C16:1, and C16:4. Total unsaturated fatty acid and essential fatty acid compositions of the total algal lipids were 80% and 38%, respectively.

  2. Toxic responses and antioxidative enzymes activity of Scenedesmus obliquus exposed to fenhexamid and atrazine, alone and in mixture.

    PubMed

    Mofeed, Jelan; Mosleh, Yahia Y

    2013-09-01

    Laboratory studies were conducted to determine the effects of different concentrations of fenhexamid and atrazine (25, 50 and 100 µg L(-1)) on growth and oxidative stress on Scenedesmus obliquus (microalgae) after exposure for 24, 48, and 96 h. In addition, residues of fenhexamid and atrazine were determined in the culture medium after 96 h; 52%, 44% and 43% of fenhexamid remained in the medium for the lowest, middle and highest concentrations, respectively. Atrazine concentration decreased significantly in the medium with time. The reduction was faster with the lowest concentration (-53%), than in the highest concentration (-46%), while it was intermediate with 50 µg L(-1) (-47%). The antioxidative enzyme activities were used as biomarkers to evaluate the toxic effects of fenhexamid and atrazine on the microalgae. Enzymatic activities were measured in the presence of each compound alone after 24, 48 and 96 h and also in mixture after 24h exposure. The results showed that fenhexamid and atrazine induced antioxidative enzyme activities (GST, CAT and GR) at different concentrations. Catalase activities (CAT) in both pesticides treated-algae were significantly increased. Additionally, an increase in gulathione-S-transferase (GST) was observed in algae after 24, 48 and 96 h of exposure to both fenhexamid and atrazine. Antioxidative enzymes in fenhexamid and atrazine mixture treatment showed an antagonistic interaction after 24h of exposure in algae. PMID:23796667

  3. Effects of Pilates, McKenzie and Heckscher training on disease activity, spinal motility and pulmonary function in patients with ankylosing spondylitis: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Roşu, Mihaela Oana; Ţopa, Ionuţ; Chirieac, Rodica; Ancuta, Codrina

    2014-03-01

    The optimal management of ankylosis spondylitis (AS) involves a combination of nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic treatment aiming to maximize health-related quality of life. The primary objective of our study was to demonstrate the benefits of an original multimodal exercise program combining Pilates, McKenzie and Heckscher techniques on pulmonary function in patients with AS, while secondary objectives were to demonstrate the benefits of the same program on function and disease activity. This is a randomized controlled study on ninety-six consecutive patients with AS (axial disease subset), assigned on a 1:1 rationale into two groups based on their participation in the Pilates, McKenzie and Heckscher (group I) or in the classical kinetic program (group II). The exercise program consisted of 50-min sessions performed 3 times weekly for 48 weeks. Standard assessments were done at week 0 and 48 and included pain, modified Schober test (mST) and finger-floor distance (FFD), chest expansion (CE) and vital capacity (VC), as well as disease activity Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), functional Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI) and metrology index Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Metrology Index (BASMI). Groups were comparable at baseline; we demonstrated significant improvement between baseline and after 48 weeks of regular kinetic training for all AS-related parameters in both groups. However, significant improvement was found in pain, lumbar spine motility (mST, FFD), BASFI, BASDAI and BASMI in AS performing the specific multimodal exercise program at the end of study (p = 0.001). Although there were significant improvements in CE in both groups as compared to baseline (group I, p = 0.001; group II, p = 0.002), this parameter increased significantly only in group I (p = 0.001). VC measurements were not significantly changed at the end of the study (group I, p = 0.127; group II, p = 0.997), but we found significant differences

  4. Inhibitory effects of low molecular weight polyphenolics from Inonotus obliquus on human DNA topoisomerase activity and cancer cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Kuriyama, Isoko; Nakajima, Yuki; Nishida, Hiroshi; Konishi, Tetsuya; Takeuchi, Toshifumi; Sugawara, Fumio; Yoshida, Hiromi; Mizushina, Yoshiyuki

    2013-08-01

    Low molecular weight (LMW) polyphenolics containing a polyhydroxylated benzyl moiety are abundant in medicinal plants. In the present study, we report on the activities of seven LMW polyphenolics isolated from Inonotus obliquus, a medicinal mushroom. The isolated compounds included caffeic acid (CA), 3,4-dihydroxybenzalacetone (DBL), gallic acid, syringic acid, protocatechuic acid, 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde and 2,5-dihydroxyterephthalic acid. We analyzed their inhibitory effects on DNA polymerase (pol) and DNA topoisomerase (topo), and their effects on human cancer cell growth. All isolated compounds inhibited human topo II activity; the most potent were DBL and CA, which contain a catechol propanoid moiety. CA and DBL inhibited the activity of human topo I, whereas other compounds had no effect. No compound modulated the activities of 11 mammalian pol species or other DNA metabolic enzymes, including T7 RNA polymerase, mouse IMP dehydrogenase (type II), T4 polynucleotide kinase and bovine deoxyribonuclease I. CA and DBL markedly suppressed the proliferation of human colon HCT116 carcinoma cells with an LD50 of 70.0 and 49.4 µM, respectively, and halted the cell cycle in the G2/M phase. The suppressive effect of these compounds on cancer cell growth correlated with their ability to inhibit topo II. These results suggest that CA- and DBL-dependent decreases in cell proliferation are due to the inhibition of cellular topo II. The mechanism of action of these catechol propanoid compounds and the implication for their use as anticancer agents are discussed. PMID:23799608

  5. Reduction in toxicity of wastewater from three wastewater treatment plants to alga (Scenedesmus obliquus) in northeast China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Sun, Qing; Zhou, Jiti; Masunaga, Shigeki; Ma, Fang

    2015-09-01

    The toxicity of municipal wastewater to the receiving water bodies is still unknown, due to the lack of regulated toxicity based index for wastewater discharge in China. Our study aims at gaining insight into the acute toxic effects of local municipal wastewater on alga, Scenedesmus obliquus. Four endpoints, i.e. cell density, chlorophyll-A concentration, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and cell membrane integrity, of alga were analyzed to characterize the acute toxicity effects of wastewater from municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) with different treatment techniques: sequencing batch reactor (SBR), Linpor and conventional activated sludge. Influent and effluent from each treatment stage in these three WWTPs were sampled and evaluated for their acute toxicity. Our results showed that all three techniques can completely affect the algal chlorophyll-A synthesis stimulation effects of influent; the algal cell growth stimulation effect was only completely removed by the secondary treatment process in conventional activated sludge technique; toxic effects on cell membrane integrity of two influents from WWTPs with SBR and conventional activated sludge techniques were completely removed; the acute toxicity on SOD activity was partially reduced in SBR and conventional activated sludge techniques while not significantly reduced by Linpor system. As to the disinfection unit, NaClO disinfection enhanced wastewater toxicity dramatically while UV radiation had no remarkable influence on wastewater toxicity. Our results illustrated that SOD activity and chlorophyll-A synthesis were relatively sensitive to municipal wastewater toxicity. Our results would aid to understand the acute toxicity of municipal wastewater, as well as the toxicity removal by currently utilized treatment techniques in China. PMID:25996525

  6. Responses of photosystems I and II of Acutodesmus obliquus to chemical stress caused by the use of recycled nutrients.

    PubMed

    Patzelt, Dominik J; Hindersin, Stefan; Kerner, Martin; Hanelt, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    Nutrients derived from hydrothermal gasification of Acutodesmus obliquus were tested on its biological compatibility to support growth of the same microalgae. Photosynthetic parameters of photosystems I and II (PS I and PS II) were investigated to study physiological effects on the microalgal cell. The nutrients were collected as liquid residues. Dilutions of 1:500 showed no effect on both photosystems. Lower dilutions affected PS II initially and later also PS I. Cyclic electron flow around PS I compensated for loss of electrons due to partially inhibited PS II. The highest tested concentration of liquid residue erased any photosynthetic activity of PS II after 28 min and onwards. In contrast, PS I remained active. The results suggest that PS I is less susceptible than PS II and that the mixture of chemicals in the liquid residue did not directly affect PS I but PS II. The toxicants in the residues seemed to interfere with linear electron flow of PS II even though light-driven formation of radicals and subsequent damage to one of the photosystems can be excluded as demonstrated in darkness. Lowered photosynthetic activity of PS I during actinic irradiation was caused due to lack of supply of electrons from PS II. The cyclic electron flow might play a key role in delivering the energy needed to restore PS II activity and to biodegrade the toxicants when linear electron flow failed. These negative effects of liquid residue towards microalgal cells require a remediation step for direct application of the liquid residue to substitute commercial fertilizers in microalgal mass cultures. PMID:26433968

  7. Effect of Solvent System on Extractability of Lipidic Components of Scenedesmus obliquus (M2-1) and Gloeothece sp. on Antioxidant Scavenging Capacity Thereof.

    PubMed

    Amaro, Helena M; Fernandes, Fátima; Valentão, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B; Sousa-Pinto, I; Malcata, F Xavier; Guedes, A Catarina

    2015-10-01

    Microalgae are well known for their biotechnological potential, namely with regard to bioactive lipidic components-especially carotenoids and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), well-known for therapeutic applications based on their antioxidant capacity. The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of four distinct food-grade solvents upon extractability of specific lipidic components, and on the antioxidant capacity exhibited against both synthetic (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH(•)) and 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS(+•))) and biological reactive species (O₂(•)⁻ and (•)NO⁻). A eukaryotic microalga (Scenedesmus obliquus (M2-1)) and a prokaryotic one (Gloeothece sp.) were used as case studies. Concerning total antioxidant capacity, the hexane:isopropanol (3:2) and acetone extracts of Sc. obliquus (M2-1) were the most effective against DPPH(•) and ABTS(+•), respectively. Gloeothece sp. ethanol extracts were the most interesting scavengers of O₂(•)⁻, probably due the high content of linolenic acid. On the other hand, acetone and hexane:isopropanol (3:2) extracts were the most interesting ones in (•)NO⁻ assay. Acetone extract exhibited the best results for the ABTS assay, likely associated to its content of carotenoids, in both microalgae. Otherwise, ethanol stood out in PUFA extraction. Therefore, profiles of lipidic components extracted are critical for evaluating the antioxidant performance-which appears to hinge, in particular, on the balance between carotenoids and PUFAs. PMID:26492257

  8. Polysaccharides from Inonotus obliquus sclerotia and cultured mycelia stimulate cytokine production of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro and their chemical characterization.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiangqun; Li, Juan; Hu, Yan

    2014-08-01

    Inonotus obliquus is an edible and medicinal mushroom to treat many diseases. In the present study, polysaccharides and fractions were isolated and purified by DEAE-52 and Sephadex G-200 chromatography from I. obliquus wild sclerotia, culture broth and cultured mycelia under submerged fermentation. The extracts and fractions could significantly induce the secretion of TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-1β, and IL-2 in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and showed no toxicity to PBMCs. The stimulation effect of the six extracts and eight fractions on the four-cytokine production was dose-dependent. Sclerotial polysaccharides were more effective in the four-cytokine production at 150 μg/ml while exopolysaccharides and endopolysacchrides showed a much better effect on IL-1β production at 30 μg/ml. Purified fractions from exopolysaccharides and endopolysaccharides were more effective than the fraction from sclerotia in most cytokine production. These heteropolysaccharide-protein conjugates mainly contained glucose, galactose, and mannose. Protein content, molecular weight, monosaccharide molar ratio, and anomeric carbon configuration differed from each other and had effects on the cytokine induction activity of the polysaccharides to some extent. PMID:24867795

  9. sup 1 H NMR studies of plastocyanin from Scenedesmus obliquus: Complete sequence-specific assignment, secondary structure analysis, and global fold

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, J.M.; Chazin, W.J.; Wright, P.E. ); Powls, R. )

    1988-10-04

    Two-dimensional {sup 1}H NMR methods have been used to make sequence-specific resonance assignments for the 97 amino acid residues of the plastocyanin from the green alga Scenedesmus obliquus. Assignments were obtained for all backbone protons and the majority of the side-chain protons. Spin system identification relied heavily on the observation of relayed connectivities to the backbone amide proton. Sequence-specific assignments were made by using the sequential assignment procedure. During this process, an extra valine residue was identified that had not been detected in the original amino acid sequence. Elements of regular secondary structure were identified from characteristic NOE connectivities between backbone protons, coupling constant values, and the observation of slowly exchanging amide protons. The protein in solution contains eight {beta}-strands, one short segment of helix, five reverse turns, and five loops. The {beta}-strands may be arranged into two {beta}sheets on the basis of extensive cross-strand NOE connectivities. The chain-folding topology determined from the NMR experiments is that of a Greek key {beta}-barrel and is similar to that observed for French bean plastocyanin in solution and poplar plastocyanin in the crystalline state. While the overall structures are similar, several differences in local structure between the S. obliquus and higher plant plastocyanins have been identified.

  10. Effect of Solvent System on Extractability of Lipidic Components of Scenedesmus obliquus (M2-1) and Gloeothece sp. on Antioxidant Scavenging Capacity Thereof

    PubMed Central

    Amaro, Helena M.; Fernandes, Fátima; Valentão, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B.; Sousa-Pinto, I.; Malcata, F. Xavier; Guedes, A. Catarina

    2015-01-01

    Microalgae are well known for their biotechnological potential, namely with regard to bioactive lipidic components—especially carotenoids and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), well-known for therapeutic applications based on their antioxidant capacity. The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of four distinct food-grade solvents upon extractability of specific lipidic components, and on the antioxidant capacity exhibited against both synthetic (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•) and 2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS+•)) and biological reactive species (O2•− and •NO−). A eukaryotic microalga (Scenedesmus obliquus (M2-1)) and a prokaryotic one (Gloeothece sp.) were used as case studies. Concerning total antioxidant capacity, the hexane:isopropanol (3:2) and acetone extracts of Sc. obliquus (M2-1) were the most effective against DPPH• and ABTS+•, respectively. Gloeothece sp. ethanol extracts were the most interesting scavengers of O2•−, probably due the high content of linolenic acid. On the other hand, acetone and hexane:isopropanol (3:2) extracts were the most interesting ones in •NO− assay. Acetone extract exhibited the best results for the ABTS assay, likely associated to its content of carotenoids, in both microalgae. Otherwise, ethanol stood out in PUFA extraction. Therefore, profiles of lipidic components extracted are critical for evaluating the antioxidant performance—which appears to hinge, in particular, on the balance between carotenoids and PUFAs. PMID:26492257

  11. Muscles within muscles: a tensiomyographic and histochemical analysis of the normal human vastus medialis longus and vastus medialis obliquus muscles

    PubMed Central

    Travnik, Ludvik; Djordjevič, Srdjan; Rozman, Sergej; Hribernik, Marija; Dahmane, Raja

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to show the connection between structure (anatomical and histochemical) and function (muscle contraction properties) of vastus medialis obliquus (VMO) and vastus medialis longus (VML). The non-invasive tensiomyography (TMG) method was used to determine the contractile properties (contraction time; Tc) of VML and VMO muscle, as a reflection of the ratio between the slow and fast fibers in two groups of nine young men. VML and VMO significantly (P < 0.01) differ in the proportion of type 1 (59.6: 44%) and type 2b (6.3: 15%) fibers. The VML muscle is almost entirely composed of type 1 and type 2a fibers. In many samples of this muscle no type 2b fibers were found. The proportion of slow-twitch type 1 fibers is nearly twice as high as the proportion of fast-twitch type 2a fibers. These observations indicate that VML is a slower and more fatigue-resistant muscle than VMO muscle. These characteristics correspond to the different functions of the VML, which is an extensor of the knee, and to the VMO, which maintains the stable position of the patella in the femoral groove. Our results obtained by TMG provided additional evidence that muscle fibers within the segments of VM muscle were not homogenous with regard to their contractile properties, thereby confirming the histochemical results. Tc can be attributed to the higher percentage of slow-twitch fibers – type 1. The statistically shorter Tc (P ≤ 0.001) of VMO (22.8 ± 4.0 ms) compared with VML (26.7 ± 4.0 ms) in our study is consistent with previously found differences in histochemical, morphological and electrophysiological data. In conclusion, the results of this study provide evidence that the VML and VMO muscles are not only anatomically and histochemically different muscles, but also functionally different biological structures. PMID:23586984

  12. [A study of the antiherpetic activity of the chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) extracts in the Vero cells infected with the herpes simplex virus].

    PubMed

    Polkovnikova, M V; Nosik, N N; Garaev, T M; Kondrashina, N G; Finogenova, M P; Shibnev, V A

    2014-01-01

    The chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) contains a wide range of excellent bioactive compounds. However, limited information exists on the antiviral activity of the compounds extracted from chaga. A number of subfractions of chaga were obtained using different solvents and different procedures. The subfractions of chaga extracted with water, alcohol, alkali were tested for their toxicity for the Vero cell culture and antiviral effect in the Vero cells infected with the Herpes simplex virus (HSV), Type 1. It was shown that most of the subfractions were not toxic for the Vero cells and had protective effect on the Vero cells infected with HSV. The subfraction IV in the concentration 5 microg/ml protected the Vero cells from cytodestructive action of HSV and no viral DNA was detected in infected cells treated with chaga extracts. Best protective effect was observed when compound was added before or within one hour after the Vero cells were infected with HSV. PMID:25069286

  13. Separation of an aqueous extract Inonotus obliquus (Chaga). A novel look at the efficiency of its influence on proliferation of A549 human lung carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Mazurkiewicz, Witold; Rydel, Katarzyna; Pogocki, Dariusz; Lemieszek, Marta Kinga; Langner, Ewa; Rzeski, Wojciech

    2010-01-01

    Aqueous extract of Inonotus obliquus was hydrolyzed in dilute hydrochloric acid. The products were extracted applying organic solvents, and separated chromatographically on a silica gel-packed column. Eluted fractions were analyzed by means of GC-MS. The presence of hydrocarbons, alcohols, phenols and various carbonyl compounds in analyzed fractions has been detected and quantified. Preliminarily experiments on the influence of certain separated samples on the proliferation of A549 human lung carcinoma cells were performed. Therefore, we hypothesize that the major antiproliferative effects are related to the presence of benzaldehyde, which is a benzyl alcohol metabolite formed in situ in the cells culture with the yield moderated by the presence of trace amounts of "high molecular mass compounds". PMID:20635536

  14. Effect of Light Wavelengths and Coherence on Growth, Enzymes Activity, and Melanin Accumulation of Liquid-Cultured Inonotus obliquus (Ach.:Pers.) Pilát.

    PubMed

    Poyedinok, Natalia; Mykhaylova, Oksana; Tugay, Tatyana; Tugay, Andrei; Negriyko, Anatoly; Dudka, Irina

    2015-05-01

    To investigate effects of light wavelengths and coherence on growth of liquid-cultured Inonotus obliquus mycelia, melanin accumulation and enzymes activity, culture condition as light of different wavelengths and coherence were studied. Short-term exposure of the vegetative mycelium by low-intensity coherent blue light was optimal for stimulation of growth, melanin synthesis, and increase in extracellular and intracellular activities of tyrosinase and polyphenoloxidase and extracellular catalase. Red coherent light, in the same mode, can effectively be used to stimulate the growth of mycelium and to increase intracellular and extracellular activity of polyphenoloxidase, extracellular catalase and tyrosinase, and intracellular peroxidase. Low-coherent light had less stimulating effect on the biosynthetic activity of I. оbliquus. It should be used in the cultivation directed at the obtaining endomelanin, polyphenoloxidase, and extracellular tyrosinase. PMID:25809995

  15. The synergistic effects for the co-cultivation of oleaginous yeast-Rhodotorula glutinis and microalgae-Scenedesmus obliquus on the biomass and total lipids accumulation.

    PubMed

    Yen, Hong-Wei; Chen, Pin-Wen; Chen, Li-Juan

    2015-05-01

    In this co-culture of oleaginous yeast-Rhodotorula glutinis and microalgae-Scenedesmus obliquus, microalgae potentially acts as an oxygen generator for the growth of aerobic yeast while the yeast mutually provides CO2 to the microalgae as both carry out the production of lipids. To explore the synergistic effects of co-cultivation on the cells growth and total lipids accumulation, several co-culture process parameters including the carbon source concentration, temperature and dissolved oxygen level would be firstly investigated in the flask trials. The results of co-culture in a 5L photobioreactor revealed that about 40-50% of biomass increased and 60-70% of total lipid increased was observed as compared to the single culture batches. Besides the synergistic effects of gas utilization, the providing of trace elements to each other after the natural cells lysis was believed to be another benefit to the growth of the overall co-culture system. PMID:25311189

  16. Identification of a novel blocker of IkappaBalpha kinase activation that enhances apoptosis and inhibits proliferation and invasion by suppressing nuclear factor-kappaB.

    PubMed

    Sung, Bokyung; Pandey, Manoj K; Nakajima, Yuki; Nishida, Hiroshi; Konishi, Tetsuya; Chaturvedi, Madan M; Aggarwal, Bharat B

    2008-01-01

    3,4-dihydroxybenzalacetone (DBL) is a polyphenol derived from the medicinal plant Chaga [Inonotus obliquus (persoon) Pilat]. Although Chaga is used in Russia folk medicine to treat tumors, very little is known about its mechanism of action. Because most genes involved in inflammation, antiapoptosis, and cell proliferation are regulated by the transcription factor nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), we postulated that DBL activity is mediated via modulation of the NF-kappaB activation pathway. We investigated the effects of DBL on NF-kappaB activation by electrophoretic mobility shift assay and on NF-kappaB-regulated gene expression by Western blot analysis. We found that DBL suppressed NF-kappaB activation by a wide variety of inflammatory agents, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin-1beta, epidermal growth factor, okadaic acid, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, and lipopolysaccharide. The suppression was not cell type specific and inhibited both inducible and constitutive NF-kappaB activation. DBL did not interfere with the binding of NF-kappaB to DNA but rather inhibited IkappaBalpha kinase activity, IkappaBalpha phosphorylation and degradation, p65 phosphorylation, and translocation. DBL also suppressed the expression of TNF-induced and NF-kappaB-regulated proliferative, antiapoptotic, and metastatic gene products. These effects correlated with enhancement of TNF-induced apoptosis and suppression of TNF-induced invasion. Together, our results indicate that DBL inhibits NF-kappaB activation and NF-kappaB-regulated gene expression, which may explain the ability of DBL to enhance apoptosis and inhibit invasion. PMID:18202022

  17. Anticancer effects of fraction isolated from fruiting bodies of Chaga medicinal mushroom, Inonotus obliquus (Pers.:Fr.) Pilát (Aphyllophoromycetideae): in vitro studies.

    PubMed

    Lemieszek, Marta Kinga; Langner, Ewa; Kaczor, Józef; Kandefer-Szerszeń, Martyna; Sanecka, Bozena; Mazurkiewicz, Witold; Rzeski, Wojciech

    2011-01-01

    The medicinal mushroom Chaga, Inonotus obliquus (Pers.:Fr.) Pilát (Hymenochaetaceae), has been used in folk medicine in Russia, Poland, and most of the Baltic countries, as a cleansing and disinfecting measure, and as decoctions for stomach diseases, intestinal worms, liver and heart ailments, and cancer treatment. Many reports have been published concerning the health promoting functions of this mushroom, including antibacterial, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, antitumor, and antioxidant activities. The purpose of the present study was evaluation of in vitro anticancer activity of fraction IO4 isolated from I. obliquus. The effect on cell proliferation, motility and viability was assessed in a range of cancer and normal cells. Chaga fraction prepared from dried fruiting bodies was subjected to anticancer evaluation in human lung carcinoma (A549), colon adenocarcinoma (HT-29), and rat glioma (C6) cell cultures. Human skin fibroblasts (HSF), bovine aorta endothelial cells (BAEC), models of rat oligodendrocytes (OLN-93), hepatocytes (Fao), rat astroglia, and mouse neurons (P19) were applied to test toxicity in normal cells. The following methods were applied: tumor cell proliferation (MTT assay and BrdU assay), cytotoxicity (LDH assay), tumor cell motility (wound assay), tumor cell morphology (May-Grünwald-Giemsa staining), and death detection (ELISA). Chaga fraction elicited anticancer effects which were attributed to decreased tumor cell proliferation, motility and morphological changes induction. Of note is the fact that it produced no or low toxicity in tested normal cells. The data presented could open interesting paths for further investigations of fraction IO4 as a potential anticancer agent. PMID:22135889

  18. Comparison of the electromyographic activity of the anterior trunk during the execution of two Pilates exercises - teaser and longspine - for healthy people.

    PubMed

    Dias, Josilainne Marcelino; Menacho, Maryela de Oliveira; Mazuquin, Bruno Fles; Obara, Karen; Mostagi, Fernanda Queiroz Ribeiro Cerci; Lima, Tarcísio Brandão; Moura, Felipe Arruda; Abrão, Taufik; Iversen, Maura Daly; Cardoso, Jefferson Rosa

    2014-10-01

    This study compared abdominal electromyographic (EMG) activity during the performance of Pilates' exercises. 16 females participated in the study. EMG signals of the rectus abdominis (RA) and external oblique (EO) were recorded during Longspine performed on the mat, Cadillac, and Reformer and the Teaser performed on the mat, Cadillac, and Combo-chair. Values were normalized by the EMG peak of a dynamic task and divided in concentric and eccentric phases. Longspine performed on the mat increased EO activity in the concentric phase more than on the Reformer and the Cadillac (Mean Difference (MD)=12.2%; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) [3.36; 21.04]; p=.04). Differences in the eccentric phase of the RA favored the mat compared to the Reformer (MD=5.20%; 95% CI [-0.55; 10.95]; p=.02). Significant differences in eccentric contraction of the RA were found for teaser exercise performed on the mat versus Cadillac (MD=1.1%; 95% CI [-4.13; 6.33]; p=.04) and the mat versus the Combo-chair (MD=6.3%; 95% CI [1.31; 11.29]; p=.005). Higher concentric activation values for the EO were found when the teaser exercise was performed on the Cadillac. Exercises performed on the mat required greater rectus abdominis activation. PMID:25048643

  19. Antitumor activity of a polysaccharide-protein complex isolated from a wood-rotting polypore macro fungus Phellinus rimosus (Berk) Pilat.

    PubMed

    Meera, C R; Janardhanan, Kainoor K

    2012-01-01

    A protein-bound, water-soluble polysaccharide-protein complex was isolated from a medicinal mushroom, Phellinus rimosus (Berk) Pilat (PPC-Pr). The isolation was achieved by hot water extraction, filtration, solvent precipitation, dialysis, and freeze-drying. The proximate analysis showed that PPC-Pr comprised 54.8% polysaccharide and 28.6% protein. The molecular weight of the compound was determined by gel filtration using a Sephadex G 100. The molecular weight of PPC-Pr was approximately 1,200,000 D. The thin-layer chromatography analysis of PPC-Pr after acid hydrolysis with trifluroacetic acid showed that it was composed of glucose as the only monosaccharide unit. The amino acid profile analysis of PPC-Pr revealed that it contained large amounts of aspartic acid, glutamic acid, alanine, glycine, and serine. Thus, the results indicated that PPC-Pr is a glucan-protein complex. The PPC-Pr did not show in vitro cytotoxic activity against Dalton's lymphoma ascites and Ehrlich's ascites carcinoma cell lines. The PPC-Pr was found to be effective in increasing the life span of ascites tumors induced by Ehrlich's ascites carcinoma cell line in mice. PPC-Pr also was found to have significant preventive and curative effects on solid tumors induced by the Dalton's lymphoma ascites cell line. The experimental results thus indicated that protein-bound polysaccharide (PPC-Pr) isolated from P. rimosus possessed profound antitumor activity. The findings suggest the potential therapeutic use of this compound as an antitumor agent. PMID:23339697

  20. Structure determination of inonotsuoxides A and B and in vivo anti-tumor promoting activity of inotodiol from the sclerotia of Inonotus obliquus.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Tomoko; Yamada, Takeshi; Taji, Sayaka; Ohishi, Hirofumi; Wada, Shun-Ichi; Tokuda, Harukuni; Sakuma, Kazuo; Tanaka, Reiko

    2007-01-01

    Two new lanostane-type triterpenoids, inonotsuoxides A (1) and B (2) along with three known lanostane-type triterpenoids, inotodiol (3), trametenolic acid (4), and lanosterol (5), were isolated from the sclerotia of Inonotus obliquus (Pers.: Fr.) (Japanese name: Kabanoanakake) (Russian name: Chaga). Their structures were determined to be 22R,25-epoxylanost-8-ene-3beta,24S-diol (1) and 22S,25-epoxylanost-8-ene-3beta,24S-diol (2) on the basis of spectral data including single crystal X-ray analysis. These compounds except for 2 were tested for their inhibitory effects on Epstein-Barr virus early antigen (EBV-EA) activation induced by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), as a test for potential cancer chemopreventive agents. The most abundant triterpene, inotodiol (3), was investigated for the inhibitory effect in a two-stage carcinogenesis test on mouse skin using 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) as an initiator and TPA as a promoter. Compound 3 was found to exhibit the potent anti-tumor promoting activity in the in vivo carcinogenesis test. PMID:17049251

  1. Inonotus obliquus-derived polysaccharide inhibits the migration and invasion of human non-small cell lung carcinoma cells via suppression of MMP-2 and MMP-9.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ki Rim; Lee, Jong Seok; Song, Jeong Eun; Ha, Suk Jin; Hong, Eock Kee

    2014-12-01

    Polysaccharides isolated from the fruiting body of Inonotus obliquus (PFIO) are known to possess various pharmacological properties including antitumor activity. However, the anti-metastatic effect and its underlying mechanistic signaling pathway involved these polysaccharides in human non-small cell lung carcinoma remain unknown. The present study therefore aimed to determine the anti-metastatic potential and signaling pathways of PFIO in the highly metastatic A549 cells. We found that PFIO suppressed the migration and invasive ability of A549 cells while decreasing the expression levels and activity of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9. Furthermore, PFIO decreased the phosphorylation levels of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (AKT) as well as the expression level of COX-2, and inhibited the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) in A549 cells. These results suggested that PFIO could suppress the invasion and migration of human lung carcinoma by reducing the expression levels and activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9 via suppression of MAPKs, PI3K/AKT, and NF-κB signaling pathways. PMID:25270791

  2. Hepatoprotective Activity of Water Extracts from Chaga Medicinal Mushroom, Inonotus obliquus (Higher Basidiomycetes) Against Tert-Butyl Hydroperoxide-Induced Oxidative Liver Injury in Primary Cultured Rat Hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Hong, Ki Bae; Noh, Dong Ouk; Park, Yooheon; Suh, Hyung Joo

    2015-01-01

    We examined the hepatoprotective activity of Inonotus obliquus water extract (IO-W) against tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced oxidative liver injury in the primary cultured rat hepatocyte. The 50% radical scavenging concentrations (SC50s) of IO-W for radical-scavenging activity against 2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothi- azoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) were 5.19 mg/mL and 0.39 mg/mL, respectively. IO-W pretreatment to the primary cultured hepatocytes significantly (p<0.05) protected the cells from t-BHP-induced cytotoxic injury even at a low concentration of IO-W (10 µg/mL). The cellular leakage of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), as well as malondialdehyde (MDA) formation caused by t-BHP were significantly (p<0.05) suppressed by IO-W pretreatment (>100 µg/ mL). In conclusion, this study demonstrates that IO-W exhibited hepatoprotective activity against t-BHP-induced oxidative liver injury in the primary cultured hepatocyte probably via its abilities of quenching free radicals, inhibiting the leakage of ALT, AST, and LDH, and decreasing MDA formation. PMID:26853962

  3. Reversal of the TPA-induced inhibition of gap junctional intercellular communication by Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) extracts: effects on MAP kinases.

    PubMed

    Park, Jung-Ran; Park, Joon-Suk; Jo, Eun-Hye; Hwang, Jae-Woong; Kim, Sun-Jung; Ra, Jeong-Chan; Aruoma, Okezie I; Lee, Yong-Soon; Kang, Kyung-Sun

    2006-01-01

    Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) has continued to receive attention as a folk medicine with indications for the treatment of cancers and digestive diseases. The anticarcinogenic effect of Chaga mushroom extract was investigated using a model system of gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) in WB-F344 normal rat liver epithelial cells. The cells were pre-incubated with Chaga mushroom extracts (5, 10, 20 microg/ml) for 24 h and this was followed by co-treatment with Chaga mushroom extracts and TPA (12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate, 10 ng/ml) for 1 h. The inhibition of GJIC by TPA (12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate), promoter of cancer, was prevented with treatment of Chaga mushroom extracts. Similarly, the increased phosphorylated ERK1/2 and p38 protein kinases were markedly reduced in Chaga mushroom extracts-treated cells. There was no change in the JNK kinase protein level, suggesting that Chaga mushroom extracts could only block the activation of ERK1/2 and p38 MAP kinase. The Chaga mushroom extracts further prevented the inhibition of GJIC through the blocking of Cx43 phosphorylation. Indeed cell-to-cell communication through gap junctional channels is a critical factor in the life and death balance of cells because GJIC has an important function in maintaining tissue homeostasis through the regulation of cell growth, differentiation, apoptosis and adaptive functions of differentiated cells. Thus Chaga mushroom may act as a natural anticancer product by preventing the inhibition of GJIC through the inactivation of ERK1/2 and p38 MAP kinase. PMID:17012771

  4. Polysaccharide from Inonotus obliquus inhibits migration and invasion in B16-F10 cells by suppressing MMP-2 and MMP-9 via downregulation of NF-κB signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ki Rim; Lee, Jong Seok; Kim, Young Rae; Song, In Gyu; Hong, Eock Kee

    2014-05-01

    Polysaccharides derived from Inonotus obliquus (PIO) are known to possess multiple pharmacological activities including antitumor activity. However, the possible molecular mechanisms of these activities are unknown. In the present study, we determined the anti-metastatic potential and signaling pathways of PIO in the highly metastatic B16-F10 mouse melanoma cell line in vitro. We found that PIO suppressed the migration and invasive ability of B16-F10 cells and decreased the expression levels and activities of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9. In addition, PIO decreased the phosphorylation levels of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK); PIO also decreased the expression level of cyclooxygenase (COX)‑2 and inhibited the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) in B16-F10 melanoma cells. These results suggest that PIO could suppress the invasion and migration of B16-F10 melanoma cells by reducing the expression levels and activities of MMP-2 and MMP-9 through suppressing MAPK, COX-2 and NF-κB signaling pathways. PMID:24677090

  5. The Pilates Method and Ballet Technique: Applications in the Dance Studio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahearn, Elizabeth Lowe

    2006-01-01

    There are many body therapies from which dancers may choose in order to gain and maintain strength, flexibility, and balance and to avoid injury or facilitate rehabilitation from injury. The questions are: which system is best for the given student, and how can educators incorporate the many somatic perspectives into their curriculums. This…

  6. A Field Trial of a Pilated Moraxella bovis Bacterin for the Prevention of Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis

    PubMed Central

    Bateman, Kenneth G.; Leslie, Kenneth E.; Scholl, Thomas P.

    1986-01-01

    Two field trials were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of a Moraxella bovis bacterin in the control of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis. The bacterin did not affect the incidence of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis in either trial but did appear to reduce the severity of lesions, treatments required and withdrawals from pasture required in one trial. Possible reasons for the apparently contradictory results are offered. It is suggested that the bacterin may be of some value when used in conjunction with other preventive measures. PMID:17422610

  7. EFFECT OF 4 WEEKS OF PILATES ON THE BODY COMPOSITION OF YOUNG GIRLS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background. There is a need to find ways to increase the physical activity levels and improve the body composition and blood pressure of girls. Methods. Thirty 11-year-old girls were recruited from two after-school programs in Houston, Texas, in spring 2005. Participants from one program (16) were r...

  8. Cultivation of Scenedesmus obliquus in liquid hydrolysate from flash hydrolysis for nutrient recycling.

    PubMed

    Barbera, Elena; Sforza, Eleonora; Kumar, Sandeep; Morosinotto, Tomas; Bertucco, Alberto

    2016-05-01

    The production of biofuels from microalgae is associated with high demands of nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) required for growth. Recycling nutrients from the residual biomass is essential to obtain a sustainable production. In this work, the aqueous phase obtained from flash hydrolysis of Scenedesmus sp. was used as cultivation medium for a microalga of the same genus, to assess the feasibility of this technique for nutrient recycling purposes. Batch and continuous cultivations were carried out, to determine growth performances in this substrate compared to standard media, and verify if a stable biomass production could be obtained. In continuous experiments, the effect of hydrolysate inlet concentration and of residence time were assessed to optimize nutrient supply in relation to productivity. Results obtained show that nutrient recycling is feasible by treating biomass with flash hydrolysis, and Scenedesmus is capable of recycling large amounts of recovered nutrients. PMID:26868157

  9. Toxicity and accumulation of copper and cadmium in the alga Scenedesmus obliquus LH

    SciTech Connect

    Drbal, K.; Veber, K.; Zahradnik, J.

    1985-06-01

    The techniques of determination of toxic and inhibitory effects, and of measuring the kinetics of metal sorption, used by individual authors differ widely in basic parameters, especially in the experimental concentrations of algal suspensions and in methods of separation of algae. Some authors assume that the drop in the concentration of the metal in the solution, or its concentration in the biomass, are a measure of sorption of the metals by the algae. This is not entirely correct; our study led to this conclusion on the basis of measurement of inhibition of growth and sorption of copper and cadmium ions in dense algal suspensions in a photoautotrophic regime of an intensive culture, and comparison of disappearance of these ions from the solution in the absence of the algae.

  10. [Composition and biological activity of triterpenes and steroids from Inonotus obliquus (chaga)].

    PubMed

    Nikitina, S A; Khabibrakhmanova, V R; Sysoeva, M A

    2016-05-01

    Data on the chemical composition of triterpenic and steroid compounds, isolated from the chaga mushroom grown in natural environment or in a synthetic culture have been summarized. Special attention has been paid to the biological activity of chaga mushroom extracts and these particular compounds against various cancer cell lines in vitro and in vivo. This analysis has demonstrated some common features in inhibition of growth of various cell lines by chaga mushroom components. In this context, the most active are triterpene compounds containing OH group at C-22 and a side chain unsaturated bond. PMID:27562990

  11. Inhibitory Effect on In Vitro LDL Oxidation and HMG Co-A Reductase Activity of the Liquid-Liquid Partitioned Fractions of Hericium erinaceus (Bull.) Persoon (Lion's Mane Mushroom)

    PubMed Central

    Aminudin, Norhaniza

    2014-01-01

    Oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) has been strongly suggested as the key factor in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Mushrooms have been implicated in having preventive effects against chronic diseases due especially to their antioxidant properties. In this study, in vitro inhibitory effect of Hericium erinaceus on LDL oxidation and the activity of the cholesterol biosynthetic key enzyme, 3-hydroxy-3-methyl glutaryl coenzyme A (HMG Co-A) reductase, was evaluated using five liquid-liquid solvent fractions consisting of methanol : dichloromethane (M : DCM), hexane (HEX), dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate (EA), and aqueous residue (AQ). The hexane fraction showed the highest inhibition of oxidation of human LDL as reflected by the increased lag time (100 mins) for the formation of conjugated diene (CD) at 1 µg/mL and decreased production (68.28%, IC50 0.73 mg/mL) of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) at 1 mg/mL. It also mostly inhibited (59.91%) the activity of the HMG Co-A reductase at 10 mg/mL. The GC-MS profiling of the hexane fraction identified the presence of myconutrients: inter alia, ergosterol and linoleic acid. Thus, hexane fraction of Hericium erinaceus was found to be the most potent in vitro inhibitor of both LDL oxidation and HMG Co-A reductase activity having therapeutic potential for the prevention of oxidative stress-mediated vascular diseases. PMID:24959591

  12. Inhibitory effect on in vitro LDL oxidation and HMG Co-A reductase activity of the liquid-liquid partitioned fractions of Hericium erinaceus (Bull.) Persoon (lion's mane mushroom).

    PubMed

    Rahman, Mohammad Azizur; Abdullah, Noorlidah; Aminudin, Norhaniza

    2014-01-01

    Oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) has been strongly suggested as the key factor in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Mushrooms have been implicated in having preventive effects against chronic diseases due especially to their antioxidant properties. In this study, in vitro inhibitory effect of Hericium erinaceus on LDL oxidation and the activity of the cholesterol biosynthetic key enzyme, 3-hydroxy-3-methyl glutaryl coenzyme A (HMG Co-A) reductase, was evaluated using five liquid-liquid solvent fractions consisting of methanol : dichloromethane (M : DCM), hexane (HEX), dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate (EA), and aqueous residue (AQ). The hexane fraction showed the highest inhibition of oxidation of human LDL as reflected by the increased lag time (100 mins) for the formation of conjugated diene (CD) at 1 µg/mL and decreased production (68.28%, IC50 0.73 mg/mL) of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) at 1 mg/mL. It also mostly inhibited (59.91%) the activity of the HMG Co-A reductase at 10 mg/mL. The GC-MS profiling of the hexane fraction identified the presence of myconutrients: inter alia, ergosterol and linoleic acid. Thus, hexane fraction of Hericium erinaceus was found to be the most potent in vitro inhibitor of both LDL oxidation and HMG Co-A reductase activity having therapeutic potential for the prevention of oxidative stress-mediated vascular diseases. PMID:24959591

  13. Antimutagenic effect of Phellinus rimosus (Berk) Pilat against chemical induced mutations of histidine dependent Salmonella typhimurium strains.

    PubMed

    Ajith, T A; Janardhanan, K K

    2011-10-01

    Mutations are one of the important factors contributing to oncogenesis. Somatic mutations have been detected in oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes in various types of cancers. In vitro antimutagenic activity of ethyl acetate extract of macro fungus, Phellinus rimosus was evaluated by Ames' mutagenicity assay. The effect was evaluated against the direct acting mutagens (sodium azide, N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine, doxorubicin and 4-nitro-o-phenylenediamine) and mutagen needing activation (2-acetyl aminofluorine, and benzo[a]pyrene). The extract was significantly (p<0.05) and dose dependently effective against direct acting mutagens and mutagen needing activation. Among the antimutagenic activity against directly acting mutagens, effect was found to be highest against doxorubicin-induced mutation. The antimutagenic effect of the extract against indirect acting mutagen in the presence of mammalian metabolic activation system was also found to be significant (p<0.01). The background bacterial growth and number of revertant colonies in the extract alone treated plate with or with out metabolic activator was almost same as that of spontaneous revertants. This indicated the non-toxic nature of the extract. The effect was partially ascribed to the antioxidant activity. The results of the study suggest the possible antitumor mechanisms of P. rimosus. PMID:21784121

  14. A Healthy Balance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shorr, Manya

    2009-01-01

    Yoga and Pilates are everywhere these days, and it's no wonder. Innumerable medical studies have shown that yoga and Pilates not only help people improve their fitness levels and slim down but also help them to alleviate asthma symptoms, manage arthritis and carpel tunnel pain, decrease cardiovascular risk factors, and improve one's emotional…

  15. Discovery of Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiffermuller) in California: an invasive species new to North America (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The European grape berry moth, Lobesia botrana (Denis and Schiffermüller), is one of the most destructive pests of grapes in the Palearctic Region. Larvae feed on the fruit, causing direct damage and promoting secondary infection by Botrytis cinerea Persoon (botrytis bunch rot or gray mold). On 15 S...

  16. 77 FR 55810 - Meeting of the Manufacturing Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ... International Trade Administration Meeting of the Manufacturing Council AGENCY: International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of an open meeting. SUMMARY: The Manufacturing... Jennifer Pilat, the Manufacturing Council, Room 4043, 1401 Constitution Avenue NW., Washington, DC...

  17. Comparative analysis of trunk muscle activities in climbing of during upright climbing at different inclination angles

    PubMed Central

    Park, Byung-Joon; Kim, Joong-Hwi; Kim, Jang-Hwan; Choi, Byeong-Ho

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was performed to provide evidence for the therapeutic exercise approach through a compative analysis of muscle activities according to climbing wall inclination. [Subjects and Methods] Twentyfour healthy adult subjects without climbing experience performed static exercises at a therapeutic climbing at with various inclination angles (0°, 10°, 20°), and the activities of the trunk muscles (rectus abdominis, obliquus externus abdominis, obliquus internus abdominis, erector spinae) were measured using surface electromyography (EMG) for 7 seconds. [Results] Significant differences were found between the inclination angles of 10° and 0°, as well as 20° in the rectus abdominis, obliquus internus abdominis, right obliquus externus abdominis, and right erector spinae. [Conclusion] Based on measurements of trunk muscle activity in a static climbing standing position at different angles, significant changes in muscle activity appear to be induced at 10 degrees. Therefore, the results appear to provide clinically relevant evidence. PMID:26644661

  18. A new species and new records of Cryptodacus (Diptera: Tephritidae) from Colombia, Bolivia and Peru.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Pedro Alexander; Rodriguez, Erick J; Norrbom, Allen L; Arévalo, Emilio

    2016-01-01

    Cryptodacus bernardoi Rodriguez & Rodriguez, new species, is described from Colombia. It was reared from fruits of Phoradendron sp. near piperoides (Kunth) Trel. New distribution records are reported for Cryptodacus ornatus Norrbom from Colombia and Peru, for Cryptodacus trinotatus Norrbom & Korytkowski from Colombia, and for Cryptodacus obliquus Hendel from Bolivia and Peru. The female abdomen and terminalia of C. obliquus is described for the first time. The Norrbom & Korytkowski (2008)`s key to species was modified to include C. bernardoi n. sp. PMID:27395090

  19. Costs and trade-offs of grazer-induced defenses in Scenedesmus under deficient resource

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xuexia; Wang, Jun; Chen, Qinwen; Chen, Ge; Huang, Yuan; Yang, Zhou

    2016-01-01

    The green alga Scenedesmus obliquus can form inducible defensive morphs under grazing threat. Costs and trade-offs of inducible defense are expected to accompany the benefits of defensive morphs, but are hard to detect under nutrient-sufficient experimental conditions. To test the existence of costs associated with inducible defense, we cultured S. obliquus along resource availability gradients in the presence or absence of infochemical cues from Daphnia, and measured the strength of defensive colony formation and fitness characters. Under the lowest phosphorous concentration, the expression of inducible defensive colony resulted in decreased growth rate, which provides direct evidence for physiological costs. Along the gradient reduction of phosphorous concentration or light intensity, inducible defense in S. obliquus showed a decreasing trend. However, the photosynthetic efficiency of S. obliquus was barely affected by its defense responses, suggesting that the negative correlations between resource availability and colony formation of this alga may be due to resource-based trade-offs in the allocation of limited resources. Thus, our results indicated that expression of inducible defense of S. obliquus was impaired under insufficient phosphorus or light. Furthermore, under severe phosphate deficiency, obvious physiological costs of inducible defense could be detected even though defensive colony formation also decreased significantly. PMID:26932369

  20. Designing and Using a High School Cardio Room

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Carol; Hall, Amber

    2012-01-01

    Attending a gym, fitness center or health club is a popular pastime of many people who wish to exercise and get in shape. Classes are offered in activities such as cardio endurance, toning, Pilates, spinning, step aerobics, core training, and kick boxing. Participants also use rooms with cardio equipment to get their own cardio workout. As many…

  1. 76 FR 53666 - U.S. Travel and Tourism Advisory Board: Meeting of the U.S. Travel and Tourism Advisory Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-29

    ... Daylight Time (EDT) on Wednesday, September 7, 2011 with Jennifer Pilat, the U.S. Travel and Tourism... International Trade Administration U.S. Travel and Tourism Advisory Board: Meeting of the U.S. Travel and... the U.S. Travel and Tourism Advisory Board (Board). The agenda may change to accommodate...

  2. My Career: Group Fitness Instructor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Tammy Kenney, who teaches a yoga-Pilates class in several different gyms. In this interview, Kenney talks about her career as a group fitness instructor and gives her best advice for someone who wants to teach group fitness.

  3. Eye retraction in the giant guitarfish, Rhynchobatus djiddensis (Elasmobranchii: Batoidea): a novel mechanism for eye protection in batoid fishes.

    PubMed

    Tomita, Taketeru; Murakumo, Kiyomi; Miyamoto, Kei; Sato, Keiichi; Oka, Shin-ichiro; Kamisako, Haruka; Toda, Minoru

    2016-02-01

    Eye retraction behavior has evolved independently in some vertebrate linages such as mudskippers (fish), frogs and salamanders (amphibians), and cetaceans (mammals). In this paper, we report the eye retraction behavior of the giant guitarfish (Rhynchobatus djiddensis) for the first time, and discuss its mechanism and function. The eye retraction distance was nearly the same as the diameter of the eyeball itself, indicating that eye retraction in the giant guitarfish is probably one of the largest among vertebrates. Eye retraction is achieved by unique arrangement of the eye muscle: one of the anterior eye muscles (the obliquus inferior) is directed ventrally from the eyeball and attaches to the ventral surface of the neurocranium. Due to such muscle arrangement, the obliquus inferior can pull the eyeball ventrally. This mechanism was also confirmed by electrical stimulation of the obliquus inferior. The eye retraction ability of the giant guitarfish likely represents a novel eye protection behavior of elasmobranch fishes. PMID:26468088

  4. Effects of artemisinin sustained-release granules on mixed alga growth and microcystins production and release.

    PubMed

    Ni, Lixiao; Li, Danye; Hu, Shuzhen; Wang, Peifang; Li, Shiyin; Li, Yiping; Li, Yong; Acharya, Kumud

    2015-12-01

    To safely and effectively apply artemisinin sustained-release granules to control and prevent algal water-blooms, the effects of artemisinin and its sustained-release granules on freshwater alga (Scenedesmus obliquus (S. obliquus) and Microcystis aeruginosa (M. aeruginosa)), as well as the production and release of microcystins (MCs) were studied. The results showed that artemisinin sustained-release granules inhibited the growth of M. aeruginosa (above 95% IR) and S. obliquus (about 90% IR), with M. aeruginosa more sensitive. The artemisinin sustained-release granules had a longer inhibition effect on growth of pure algae and algal coexistence than direct artemisinin dosing. The artemisinin sustained-release granules could decrease the production and release of algal toxins due to the continued stress of artemisinin released from artemisinin sustained-release granules. There was no increase in the total amount of MC-LR in the algal cell culture medium. PMID:26432265

  5. Effects of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) on the interspecific competition between Microcystis and Scenedesmus.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wei; Chen, Huaimin; Guo, Lili; Li, Ming

    2016-08-01

    The widespread use of detergents increases the concentration of surfactant in lakes and reservoirs. High surfactant loads produces toxicity to algae; however, the influence of the increasing surfactant on the competition between algae is not clear. In this paper, different amounts of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) were added to test the effects of LAS on the competition between Microcystis aeruginosa and Scenedesmus obliquus under eutrophic condition. In single culture, the growth of S. obliquus was promoted under lower LAS concentrations (1 and 20 mg L(-1)), but cell density of S. obliquus reduced when treated with higher LAS concentration (100 mg L(-1)). The growth of M. aeruginosa was inhibited markedly with 20 and 100 mg L(-1) LAS. Compared with single culture, the result was opposite in co-cultures and the cell density of S. obliquus increased significantly when treated with LAS of 1, 20, and 100 mg L(-1). The specific growth rates of S. obliquus and M. aeruginosa in both cultures were 0.4-0.5 day(-1) and 0.6-0.7 day(-1), respectively, except that the specific growth rate of M. aeruginosa in both cultures treated with 100 mg L(-1) LAS was about 0.2 day(-1). M. aeruginosa dominated over S. obliquus in the co-culture without LAS, while the competition was completely opposite with the addition of 20 mg L(-1) LAS. The growth of S. obliquus treated with 20 mg L(-1) LAS was not affected significantly in single culture but was promoted by 75 % in co-culture. Moreover, the growth of S. obliquus in co-culture treated with 100 mg L(-1) LAS was promoted by more than 97 %. These results suggested that the increasing LAS would overturn the competition of algae in freshwater ecosystems. PMID:27154838

  6. New Cryptodacus (Diptera: Tephritidae) from Panama with a key to the known species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cryptodacus trinotatus Norrbom & Korytkowski, new species, and C. univittatus Norrbom & Korytkowski, new species, are described from Panama. New distribution records are reported for C. obliquus Hendel (Panama), C. ornatus Norrbom (Ecuador), and C. tau (Foote) (Costa Rica). A key to the species of t...

  7. Nutritional And Taste Characteristics Of Algae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karel, M.; Nakhost, Z.

    1992-01-01

    Report describes investigation of chemical composition of blue-green algae Synechococcus 6311, as well as preparation of protein isolate from green alga Scenedesmus obliquus and incorporation into variety of food products evaluated for taste. Part of program to investigate growth of microalgae aboard spacecraft for use as food.

  8. Enantioselectivity in toxicity and degradation of dichlorprop-methyl in algal cultures.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong; Yuan, Yuli; Shen, Chensi; Wen, Yuezhong; Liu, Huijun

    2008-05-01

    Enantioselectivity in the toxicity and degradation of the herbicide dichlorprop-methyl (2,4-DCPPM) in algal cultures was studied. Enantioselectivity was clearly observed in the toxicity of racemic 2,4-DCPPM and its two enantiomers. R-2,4-DCPPM showed low toxicity to Chlorella pyrenoidosa and Chlorella vulgaris, but higher toxicity to Scenedesmus obliquus. The observed toxicity was ranked: R-2,4-DCPPM>S-2,4-DCPPM>Rac-2,4-DCPPM; the toxicity of R-2,4-DCPPM was about 8-fold higher than that of Rac-2,4-DCPPM. Additionally, 2,4-DCPPM was quickly degraded, in the initial 12 h, and different algae cultures had different enantioselectivity for the 2,4-DCPPM enantiomers. There was no significant enantioselectivity for 2,4-DCPPM in Chlorella vulgaris in the initial 7 h. However, racemic 2,4-DCPPM was degraded by Scenedesmus obliquus quickly, in the initial 4 h, much quicker, in fact, than the S- or R-enantiomers (racemate>R->S-), indicating that the herbicide 2,4-DCPPM was absorbed enantioselectively by Scenedesmus obliquus. The rapid formation of 2,4-DCPP suggested that 2,4-DCPPM adsorbed by algal cells was catalytically hydrolyzed to the free acid, a toxic metabolite. The production rates of 2,4-DCPP were as follows: Scenedesmus obliquus>Chlorella pyrenoidosa>Chlorella vulgaris, consistent with the degradability of 2,4-DCPPM. Scenedesmus obliquus had quick, but different, degradative and uptake abilities for R-, S-, and Rac-2,4-DCPPM. The R- and S- enantiomers were not hydrolyzed in the first 12 h, while both enantiomers were hydrolyzed slowly after that. These results indicate that some physical and chemical properties of compounds are of importance in determining their enantioselective toxicity and degradation. The ester and its metabolite likely played an important role in enantioselective toxicity to the three algae. PMID:18437615

  9. Application of Z-Number Based Modeling in Psychological Research

    PubMed Central

    Aliev, Rafik; Memmedova, Konul

    2015-01-01

    Pilates exercises have been shown beneficial impact on physical, physiological, and mental characteristics of human beings. In this paper, Z-number based fuzzy approach is applied for modeling the effect of Pilates exercises on motivation, attention, anxiety, and educational achievement. The measuring of psychological parameters is performed using internationally recognized instruments: Academic Motivation Scale (AMS), Test of Attention (D2 Test), and Spielberger's Anxiety Test completed by students. The GPA of students was used as the measure of educational achievement. Application of Z-information modeling allows us to increase precision and reliability of data processing results in the presence of uncertainty of input data created from completed questionnaires. The basic steps of Z-number based modeling with numerical solutions are presented. PMID:26339231

  10. Application of Z-Number Based Modeling in Psychological Research.

    PubMed

    Aliev, Rafik; Memmedova, Konul

    2015-01-01

    Pilates exercises have been shown beneficial impact on physical, physiological, and mental characteristics of human beings. In this paper, Z-number based fuzzy approach is applied for modeling the effect of Pilates exercises on motivation, attention, anxiety, and educational achievement. The measuring of psychological parameters is performed using internationally recognized instruments: Academic Motivation Scale (AMS), Test of Attention (D2 Test), and Spielberger's Anxiety Test completed by students. The GPA of students was used as the measure of educational achievement. Application of Z-information modeling allows us to increase precision and reliability of data processing results in the presence of uncertainty of input data created from completed questionnaires. The basic steps of Z-number based modeling with numerical solutions are presented. PMID:26339231