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Sample records for obrazovanii ili kto

  1. MF2KtoMF05UC, a Program To Convert MODFLOW-2000 Files to MODFLOW-2005 and UCODE_2005 Files

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harbaugh, Arlen W.

    2007-01-01

    The program MF2KtoMF05UC has been developed to convert MODFLOW-2000 input files for use by MODFLOW-2005 and UCODE_2005. MF2KtoMF05UC was written in the Fortran 90 computer language. This report documents the use of MF2KtoMF05UC.

  2. The Efficacy of Philadelphia's K-to-8 Schools Compared to Middle Grades Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Offenberg, Robert M.

    2001-01-01

    Natural experiments explored the effects of attending public Philadelphia K-to-8 schools or public middle schools on eighth- and ninth-grade achievement. Found that students attending K-8 schools had higher reading, mathematics, and science achievement than students attending middle schools serving similar communities. Suggested that number of…

  3. The Kto-Skd complex can regulate ptc expression by interacting with Cubitus interruptus (Ci) in the Hedgehog signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Mao, Feifei; Yang, Xiaofeng; Fu, Lin; Lv, Xiangdong; Zhang, Zhao; Wu, Wenqing; Yang, Siqi; Zhou, Zhaocai; Zhang, Lei; Zhao, Yun

    2014-08-01

    The hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway plays a very important role in metazoan development by controlling pattern formation. Drosophila imaginal discs are subdivided into anterior and posterior compartments that derive from adjacent cell populations. The anterior/posterior (A/P) boundaries, which are critical to maintaining the position of organizers, are established by a complex mechanism involving Hh signaling. Here, we uncover the regulation of ptc in the Hh signaling pathway by two subunits of mediator complex, Kto and Skd, which can also regulate boundary location. Collectively, we provide further evidence that Kto-Skd affects the A/P-axial development of the whole wing disc. Kto can interact with Cubitus interruptus (Ci), bind to the Ci-binding region on ptc promoter, which are both regulated by Hh signals to down-regulate ptc expression. PMID:24962581

  4. The Kto-Skd Complex Can Regulate ptc Expression by Interacting with Cubitus interruptus (Ci) in the Hedgehog Signaling Pathway*

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Feifei; Yang, Xiaofeng; Fu, Lin; Lv, Xiangdong; Zhang, Zhao; Wu, Wenqing; Yang, Siqi; Zhou, Zhaocai; Zhang, Lei; Zhao, Yun

    2014-01-01

    The hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway plays a very important role in metazoan development by controlling pattern formation. Drosophila imaginal discs are subdivided into anterior and posterior compartments that derive from adjacent cell populations. The anterior/posterior (A/P) boundaries, which are critical to maintaining the position of organizers, are established by a complex mechanism involving Hh signaling. Here, we uncover the regulation of ptc in the Hh signaling pathway by two subunits of mediator complex, Kto and Skd, which can also regulate boundary location. Collectively, we provide further evidence that Kto-Skd affects the A/P-axial development of the whole wing disc. Kto can interact with Cubitus interruptus (Ci), bind to the Ci-binding region on ptc promoter, which are both regulated by Hh signals to down-regulate ptc expression. PMID:24962581

  5. Using ILI pigs to establish pipeline corrosion rates -- Case histories

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, W.H.

    1999-07-01

    Corrosion is a major concern for the oil and gas industry. Pipelines are subject to internal and external agents that can cause corrosion affecting their safety, integrity, and profitability. Corrosion causes metal losses that may hamper the supply of energy and could lead to substantial damage to the ecology. Restoring pipelines to safe operating condition is the main goal of in-line inspection (ILI) using state-of-the-art Smart Pigs. These tools travel through the full length of pipelines gathering detailed information that is used for the assessment of both the internal and the external surfaces of the line. Ultrasound ILI tools perform direct measurements of the remaining wall thickness of the pipe. The analysis of an ultrasound ILI run determines the residual strength of the pipeline at the time of the inspection. On the other hand, the comparison of successive ultrasound runs establishes patterns of individual defect growth. Under this light the interpretation of the data leads to an assessment of the dynamics of the corrosion phenomena occurring in pipelines. Case histories are presented in this paper in order to illustrate how ultrasound ILI data are being used today to establish courses of action in corrective, preventive, and predictive maintenance of pipelines.

  6. Are atypical lymphocytes present with viral influenza-like illnesses (ILIs) in hospitalized adults?

    PubMed

    Cunha, B A; Connolly, J J; Irshad, N

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine if atypical lymphocytes were of diagnostic value in viral influenza-like illnesses (ILIs) in hospitalized adults during the influenza season. Are atypical lymphocytes present with viral ILIs in hospitalized adults? During the influenza season, hospitals are inundated with influenza and viral ILIs, e.g., human parainfluenza virus-3 (HPIV-3). Without specific testing, clinically, it is difficult to differentiate influenza from ILIs, and surrogate influenza markers have been used for this purpose, e.g., relative lymphopenia. The diagnostic significance of atypical lymphocytes with ILIs is not known. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 35 adults admitted with pneumonia due to viral ILI. The diagnosis of 14 patients was by respiratory virus polymerase chain reaction (PCR). During the 2015 influenza A season with ILIs, atypical lymphocytes were not present in influenza A (H3N2) patients but atypical lymphocytes were present in some ILIs, particularly HPIV-3. With viral ILIs, atypical lymphocytes should suggest a non-influenza viral diagnosis. PMID:27250631

  7. Extremely arid soils of the Ili Depression in Kazakhstan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedeva, M. P.; Gerasimova, M. I.; Golovanov, D. L.; Yamnova, I. A.

    2015-01-01

    On the basis of macro- and micromorphological and analytical studies of extremely arid soils of the Ili Depression in Kazakhstan, a comparative analysis of pedogenetic processes shaping these soils on piedmont plains of different ages and heights is performed. The types of soil horizons and their combinations are analyzed in the context opf modern Russian and international soil classification systems. The genesis of extremely arid soils is controlled by the climatic conditions and by their geomorphic position on alluvial fans of piedmont plains. The following processes are diagnosed in these soils: soil crusting with vesicular porosity, the development of desert pavements with rock varnish, rubification, surface salinization, and iron depletion around the pores. It is suggested that the initial factor-based name (extremely arid) of these soils can be replaced by the name vesicular-crusty soils with the corresponding AKL diagnostic horizon, which is more consistent with the principles of substantive-genetic classification systems. In order to determine the classification position of these soils in terms of the new Russian soil classification system, new diagnostic horizons—AKL and CS—have to be introduced in this system. According to the WRB classification, the studied soils belong to the group of Gypsisols; the soil with strong salinization fits the criteria of the group of Solonchaks. A qualifier [yermic] is to be added to reflect the development of desert pavement and vesicular layer under extreme arid conditions.

  8. {K}+to {π}+ν overline{ν} and {K}_Lto {π}^0ν overline{ν} in the Standard Model: status and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buras, Andrzej J.; Buttazzo, Dario; Girrbach-Noe, Jennifer; Knegjens, Robert

    2015-11-01

    In view of the recent start of the NA62 experiment at CERN that is expected to measure the {K}+to {π}+ν overline{ν} branching ratio with a precision of 10%, we summarise the present status of this promising decay within the Standard Model (SM). We do likewise for the closely related {K}_Lto {π}^0ν overline{ν} , which will be measured by the KOTO experiment around 2020. As the perturbative QCD and electroweak corrections in both decays are under full control, the dominant uncertainties within the SM presently originate from the CKM parameters | V cb |, | V ub | and γ. We show this dependence with the help of analytic expressions as well as accurate interpolating formulae. Unfortunately a clarification of the discrepancies between inclusive and exclusive determinations of | V cb | and | V ub | from tree-level decays will likely require results from the Belle II experiment available at the end of this decade. Thus we investigate whether higher precision on both branching ratios is achievable by determining | V cb |, | V ub | and γ by means of other observables that are already precisely measured. In this context ɛ K and Δ M s,d , together with the expected progress in QCD lattice calculations will play a prominent role. We find B({K}+to {π}+ν overline{ν})=(9.11 ± 0.72) × 1{0}^{-11} and B({K}_Lto {π}^0ν overline{ν})Big) = (3.00 ± 0.30) × 1{0}^{-11} , which is more precise than using averages of the present tree-level values of | V cb |, | V ub | and γ. Furthermore, we point out the correlation between B({K}+to {π}+ν overline{ν}), overline{B}({B}sto {μ}+{μ}-) and γ within the SM, that is only very weakly dependent on other CKM parameters. Finally, we update the correlation of {K}_Lto {π}^0ν overline{ν} with the ratio ɛ' /ɛ in the SM taking the recent progress on ɛ' /ɛ from lattice QCD and the large N approach into account.

  9. Analyzing Idioms and Their Frequency in Three Advanced ILI Textbooks: A Corpus-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alavi, Sepideh; Rajabpoor, Aboozar

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed at identifying and quantifying the idioms used in three ILI "Advanced" level textbooks based on three different English corpora; MICASE, BNC and the Brown Corpus, and comparing the frequencies of the idioms across the three corpora. The first step of the study involved searching the books to find multi-word…

  10. Density- and wavefunction-normalized Cartesian spherical harmonics for <i>l> ≤ 20

    SciTech Connect

    Michael, J. Robert; Volkov, Anatoliy

    2015-03-01

    The widely used pseudoatom formalism in experimental X-ray charge-density studies makes use of real spherical harmonics when describing the angular component of aspherical deformations of the atomic electron density in molecules and crystals. The analytical form of the density-normalized Cartesian spherical harmonic functions for up to <i>l> ≤ 7 and the corresponding normalization coefficients were reported previously by Paturle & Coppens. It was shown that the analytical form for normalization coefficients is available primarily forl ≤ 4. Only in very special cases it is possible to derive an analytical representation of the normalization coefficients for 4 < <i>l> ≤ 7. In most cases for <i>l> > 4 the density normalization coefficients were calculated numerically to within seven significant figures. In this study we review the literature on the density-normalized spherical harmonics, clarify the existing notations, use the Paturle–Coppens method in the Wolfram Mathematicasoftware to derive the Cartesian spherical harmonics for <i>l> ≤ 20 and determine the density normalization coefficients to 35 significant figures, and computer-generate a Fortran90 code. The article primarily targets researchers who work in the field of experimental X-ray electron density, but may be of some use to all who are interested in Cartesian spherical harmonics.

  11. The Invertebrate Lysozyme Effector ILYS-3 Is Systemically Activated in Response to Danger Signals and Confers Antimicrobial Protection in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Gravato-Nobre, Maria João; Vaz, Filipa; Filipe, Sergio; Chalmers, Ronald; Hodgkin, Jonathan

    2016-08-01

    Little is known about the relative contributions and importance of antibacterial effectors in the nematode C. elegans, despite extensive work on the innate immune responses in this organism. We report an investigation of the expression, function and regulation of the six ilys (invertebrate-type lysozyme) genes of C. elegans. These genes exhibited a surprising variety of tissue-specific expression patterns and responses to starvation or bacterial infection. The most strongly expressed, ilys-3, was investigated in detail. ILYS-3 protein was expressed constitutively in the pharynx and coelomocytes, and dynamically in the intestine. Analysis of mutants showed that ILYS-3 was required for pharyngeal grinding (disruption of bacterial cells) during normal growth and consequently it contributes to longevity, as well as being protective against bacterial pathogens. Both starvation and challenge with Gram-positive pathogens resulted in ERK-MAPK-dependent up-regulation of ilys-3 in the intestine. The intestinal induction by pathogens, but not starvation, was found to be dependent on MPK-1 activity in the pharynx rather than in the intestine, demonstrating unexpected communication between these two tissues. The coelomocyte expression appeared to contribute little to normal growth or immunity. Recombinant ILYS-3 protein was found to exhibit appropriate lytic activity against Gram-positive cell wall material. PMID:27525822

  12. The Invertebrate Lysozyme Effector ILYS-3 Is Systemically Activated in Response to Danger Signals and Confers Antimicrobial Protection in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Gravato-Nobre, Maria João; Vaz, Filipa; Filipe, Sergio; Chalmers, Ronald; Hodgkin, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the relative contributions and importance of antibacterial effectors in the nematode C. elegans, despite extensive work on the innate immune responses in this organism. We report an investigation of the expression, function and regulation of the six ilys (invertebrate-type lysozyme) genes of C. elegans. These genes exhibited a surprising variety of tissue-specific expression patterns and responses to starvation or bacterial infection. The most strongly expressed, ilys-3, was investigated in detail. ILYS-3 protein was expressed constitutively in the pharynx and coelomocytes, and dynamically in the intestine. Analysis of mutants showed that ILYS-3 was required for pharyngeal grinding (disruption of bacterial cells) during normal growth and consequently it contributes to longevity, as well as being protective against bacterial pathogens. Both starvation and challenge with Gram-positive pathogens resulted in ERK-MAPK-dependent up-regulation of ilys-3 in the intestine. The intestinal induction by pathogens, but not starvation, was found to be dependent on MPK-1 activity in the pharynx rather than in the intestine, demonstrating unexpected communication between these two tissues. The coelomocyte expression appeared to contribute little to normal growth or immunity. Recombinant ILYS-3 protein was found to exhibit appropriate lytic activity against Gram-positive cell wall material. PMID:27525822

  13. Multiplexed evaluation of serum and CSF pharmacokinetics of brain-targeting single-domain antibodies using a NanoLC-SRM-ILIS method.

    PubMed

    Haqqani, Arsalan S; Caram-Salas, Nadia; Ding, Wen; Brunette, Eric; Delaney, Christie E; Baumann, Ewa; Boileau, Eve; Stanimirovic, Danica

    2013-05-01

    FC5 and FC44 are single-domain antibodies (VHHs), selected by functional panning of phage-display llama VHH library for their ability to internalize human brain endothelial cells (BEC) and to transmigrate the in vitro BBB model. Quantification of brain delivery of FC5 and FC44 in vivo was challenging using classical methods because of their short plasma half-life and their loss of functionality with radioactive labeling. A highly sensitive (detection limit <2 ng/mL) and specific SRM-ILIS method to detect and quantify unlabeled VHHs in multiplexed assays was developed and applied to comparatively evaluate brain delivery of FC5 and FC44, and two control VHHs, EG2 and A20.1. FC5 and FC44 compared to control VHHs demonstrated significantly (p < 0.01) enhanced transport (50-100-fold) across rat in vitro BBB model as well as in vivo brain targeting assessed by optical imaging. The multiplexed SRM-ILIS analyses of plasma and CSF levels of codosed VHHs demonstrated that while all 4 VHHs have similar blood pharmacokinetics, only FC5 and FC44 show elevated CSF levels, suggesting that they are potential novel carriers for delivery of drugs and macromolecules across the BBB. PMID:23150993

  14. Geochemistry of the Miocene oil shale (Hançili Formation) in the Çankırı-Çorum Basin, Central Turkey: Implications for Paleoclimate conditions, source-area weathering, provenance and tectonic setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vosoughi Moradi, A.; Sarı, A.; Akkaya, P.

    2016-07-01

    The geochemistry of oil shale units of Hançili Formation in the Çankırı-Çorum Basin (Central Turkey) was studied using various chemical analyses. The mineralogical composition of the samples were preliminarily investigated using Pearson's correlation coefficients of selected elements, indicating that the samples contain abundant clay minerals as well as K-feldspar and carbonate. The K2O/Al2O3 and SiO2/Al2O3 ratios indicate that the major proportion of clay minerals is composed of smectite. Si, Al, Ti, K, Na, and Fe reside in clay minerals, while Ca, Mg, and Mn are mostly associated with carbonates (e.g., calcite and dolomite) and phosphorous (P) is present as apatite. The total REE content of the oil shale range from 19 to 113 ppm. The chondrite-normalized patterns of the oil shale show LREE enrichments, HREE deficits, negative Eu anomalies and negligible Ce anomalies. In general, major, trace and rare earth element abundances suggest that the studied oil shale in the Çankırı-Çorum Basin are mainly from the intermediate rocks, mixed with small amounts of basic rocks, and that their source rocks are mostly deposited in the continental collision setting. The REE geochemistry of the oil shale suggests that these samples were derived from a consistent terrigenous source and the Eu anomaly was inherited from the source rocks. The paleoclimate index (C-value), varies between 0.07 and 1.22 reflecting a generally semi-arid to humid conditions. In addition, Rb/Sr (~ 0.22) and Sr/Cu (~ 9.09) ratios support the idea that warm and humid conditions prevailed during deposition of the Hançili Formation. Sr/Ba ratios (0.54-3.7) of the studied samples suggest a paleoenvironment with variable salinity. The co-variation among this factor and paleoclimate indicators suggest that variations in climatic conditions exerted a primary control on salinity. The substantially low C-value and Rb/Sr ratio and significantly high ratios of Sr/Cu and Sr/Ba and also elevated carbonate

  15. Ownership of Education Reforms in the Kyrgyz Republic: kto v dome hozyain?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeYoung, Alan J.

    2005-01-01

    An important subset of issues involved in describing the process of educational globalization emerges when considering the reception, response and/or rejection of international proposals, ideologies and agents by indigenous national and regional educators. This case study describes and discusses how foreign/Western education proposals and policies…

  16. Recollections of a translator (Russian title: Vstrecha v verhah ili vospominania perevodchika)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaina, Alex

    The article includes recollections of the author-translator from few meetings in Moscow during 70-th years of the XX-th century. The recollections includes a visit to Moscow of a Romanian delegation of trade-unions, a visit of Nicolae Ceausescu and Elena Ceausescu to Moscow in november 1977 in view of the 60-th years of the Revolution of October celebration. A visit by Nicu Ceausescu, physicist and the leader of the Union of Communist Youth of Romania, to Central Comitee of the All Union Communist Youth Organization of the USSR (Komsomol) in Moscow during a transit fly to Beijing (China) is reported also. The recollections reffers also the following persons: Andrey Gromyko- minister of the foreign office of the USSR, Geidar Aliev - 1-st secretary of the Central Commitee of the Azerbaijan S.S.R. Communist party, Grigor'ev- a secretary of the Soviet Komsomol (All Union Organization of Communist Youth) and other.

  17. Dielectric constant and ordering effects of pure and doped KTaO3 quantum paraelectric; Cu-codoping enhancement effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trepakov, V. A.; Savinov, M. E.; Vikhnin, V. S.; Jastrabik, L.; Kapphan, S.; Syrnikov, P. P.

    ɛ'(T, f) and tan[δ(T, f)] spectra (10-300 K, 120 Hz-1 MHz) of pure KTaO3 (KTO), KTO: Li (0.1-3%), KTO: Fe 1%, KTO: Cu 0.83% below 70 K reveal a Debye-like universal Arrhenius relaxation with Δ ≈ 80-85 meV, τ0 ˜ 5 × 10-14s. In KTO: Li + Fe and KTO: Li + Cu this contribution increases, confirming dipole-pair ordering effects with the leading role of Li+ in pair relaxation (V. Trepakov et al., J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 7, 3785 (1995)). A dramatic Cu-codoping dielectric enhancement effect in KTO: Li + Cu was observed. In KTO: Li 3% + Cu 0.2% in region 50-60 K ɛ'(T) reveals a maximum of ˜ 105, accompanied by temperature hysteresis and dielectric loops. Ferroelectric-type phase transition with a critical dynamic central peak, induced by Cu2+(Ta)-VO centers as a slowest relaxator or oscillator in KTO: Li, is considered as an ɛ' enhancement cause. A possibility of incommensurate phase induced by Cu2+-VO centers and cluster-induced cooperative behavior is discussed too.

  18. Photocatalytic reduction of CO2 and protons using water as an electron donor over potassium tantalate nanoflakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Kimfung; Handoko, Albertus D.; Khraisheh, Majeda; Tang, Junwang

    2014-07-01

    CO2 photoreduction over KTaO3 photocatalysts in water has been investigated. Both reduction (mainly carbon monoxide and hydrogen) and oxidation products (oxygen) were simultaneously detected in the absence of cocatalysts, sacrificial reagents and electrical bias. KTaO3 (KTO) samples were synthesized by solid-state reaction (SSR-KTO) and solvothermal methods in a hexane-water mixture (Hex-KTO) and pure ethanol (Eth-KTO). The different synthesis methods were used to control particle sizes and morphologies of KTaO3 and their correlation towards photocatalytic activity has been further investigated. Strikingly, KTO prepared in a hexane-water mixture solvent represents a nanoflake-like structure, resulting in a seven fold increase in CO2 reduction and hydrogen evolution activities in comparison to conventional cubic structure KTO under UV light irradiation. CO with trace amounts of CH4 is produced from CO2 photoreduction. Upon addition of a silver cocatalyst on KTO, the reduction selectivity has been controlled to favour CO2 photoreduction, and the CO2 to CO yield has been doubled compared to bare KTaO3.CO2 photoreduction over KTaO3 photocatalysts in water has been investigated. Both reduction (mainly carbon monoxide and hydrogen) and oxidation products (oxygen) were simultaneously detected in the absence of cocatalysts, sacrificial reagents and electrical bias. KTaO3 (KTO) samples were synthesized by solid-state reaction (SSR-KTO) and solvothermal methods in a hexane-water mixture (Hex-KTO) and pure ethanol (Eth-KTO). The different synthesis methods were used to control particle sizes and morphologies of KTaO3 and their correlation towards photocatalytic activity has been further investigated. Strikingly, KTO prepared in a hexane-water mixture solvent represents a nanoflake-like structure, resulting in a seven fold increase in CO2 reduction and hydrogen evolution activities in comparison to conventional cubic structure KTO under UV light irradiation. CO with trace

  19. Precise Coulomb Wave Functions for a Wide Range of Complex <i>l>, η, and z

    SciTech Connect

    Michel, Nicolas L

    2007-01-01

    A new algorithm to calculate Coulomb wave functions with all of its arguments complex is proposed. For that purpose, standard methods such as continued fractions and power/asymptotic series are combined with direct integrations of the Schroedinger equation in order to provide very stable calculations, even for large values of |{eta}| or |{lm}({ell})|. Moreover, a simple analytic continuation for R(z)<0 is introduced, so that this zone of the complex z-plane does not pose any problem. This code is particularly well suited for low-energy calculations and the calculation of resonances with extremely small widths. Numerical instabilities appear, however, when both |{eta}| and |{lm}({ell})| are large and |R({ell})| comparable or smaller than |{lm}({ell})|. Catalogue number:ADYO{_}v1{_}0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADYO{_}v1{_}0 Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: none Computers on which the program has been tested: DELL GX400 Operating systems: Linux, Windows Programming language used: C++ No. of bits in a word: 64 No. of processors used: 1 Has the code been vectorized?: no No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 33 092 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 3210 Distribution format:tar.gz Nature of physical problem: The calculation of Coulomb wave functions with all of their arguments complex is revisited.

  20. Literacy Assessment for Out-of-School Youth and Adults: Concepts, Methods and New Directions. ILI Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Daniel A.

    A critical need remains for a practical and low-cost methodology to bridge the gap between methodologies for assessment of literacy at the national survey level. At the program level, it must be able to be used effectively by those in developing countries with limited funds but major literacy problems. Etic (external, quantifiable,…

  1. First principles studies of proton conduction in KTaO3.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sung Gu; Sholl, David S

    2014-07-14

    KTaO3 (KTO) is a useful prototypical perovskite for examining the mechanisms of proton transport in perovskites. Previously, Gomez et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 126, 194701 (2007)] reported density functional theory (DFT) calculations describing proton hopping in defect-free KTO. We use DFT calculations to extend that work in two directions, namely, understanding isotope effects in low and high temperature proton transport and the role of native point defects in KTO. At cryogenic temperatures, quantum tunneling plays a vital role in the net hopping of protons in KTO. At the elevated temperature characteristic of applications involving proton-conducting perovskites, tunneling is negligible but zero point energy effects still lead to non-negligible isotope effects for H(+), D(+), and T(+). We also use DFT to characterize the populations of relevant point defects in KTO as a function of experimental conditions, and to examine the migration of protons that are close in proximity to these defects. This information gives useful insight into the overall transport rates of protons through KTO under a variety of external environments. We also assess the overall diffusivity of protons in KTO at various ranges of oxygen vacancy concentrations by performing kinetic Monte Carlo simulations. PMID:25028038

  2. First principles studies of proton conduction in KTaO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Sung Gu; Sholl, David S.

    2014-07-01

    KTaO3 (KTO) is a useful prototypical perovskite for examining the mechanisms of proton transport in perovskites. Previously, Gomez et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 126, 194701 (2007)] reported density functional theory (DFT) calculations describing proton hopping in defect-free KTO. We use DFT calculations to extend that work in two directions, namely, understanding isotope effects in low and high temperature proton transport and the role of native point defects in KTO. At cryogenic temperatures, quantum tunneling plays a vital role in the net hopping of protons in KTO. At the elevated temperature characteristic of applications involving proton-conducting perovskites, tunneling is negligible but zero point energy effects still lead to non-negligible isotope effects for H+, D+, and T+. We also use DFT to characterize the populations of relevant point defects in KTO as a function of experimental conditions, and to examine the migration of protons that are close in proximity to these defects. This information gives useful insight into the overall transport rates of protons through KTO under a variety of external environments. We also assess the overall diffusivity of protons in KTO at various ranges of oxygen vacancy concentrations by performing kinetic Monte Carlo simulations.

  3. First principles studies of proton conduction in KTaO{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Sung Gu; Sholl, David S.

    2014-07-14

    KTaO{sub 3} (KTO) is a useful prototypical perovskite for examining the mechanisms of proton transport in perovskites. Previously, Gomez et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 126, 194701 (2007)] reported density functional theory (DFT) calculations describing proton hopping in defect-free KTO. We use DFT calculations to extend that work in two directions, namely, understanding isotope effects in low and high temperature proton transport and the role of native point defects in KTO. At cryogenic temperatures, quantum tunneling plays a vital role in the net hopping of protons in KTO. At the elevated temperature characteristic of applications involving proton-conducting perovskites, tunneling is negligible but zero point energy effects still lead to non-negligible isotope effects for H{sup +}, D{sup +}, and T{sup +}. We also use DFT to characterize the populations of relevant point defects in KTO as a function of experimental conditions, and to examine the migration of protons that are close in proximity to these defects. This information gives useful insight into the overall transport rates of protons through KTO under a variety of external environments. We also assess the overall diffusivity of protons in KTO at various ranges of oxygen vacancy concentrations by performing kinetic Monte Carlo simulations.

  4. Istoriya al'ternativnykh techenij v planetnoj kosmogonii (gomogennaya ili geterogennaya akkretsiya) %t The history of two alternative concepts in planetary cosmogony (homogeneous of heterogeneous accretion)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezanov, I. A.

    Initially the hypotheses of Kant, Laplace, and other authors implied homogeneous accretion of planets from uniform material. O. Yu. Schmidt shared this idea. The idea of heterogeneous accretion was proposed in the mid-1940s by V. G. Fesenkov, who demonstrated that the iron cores of planets started to form prior to their silicate mantles. The obvious increase in average planet density with decreasing distance from the Sun suggests that the protoplanetary nebula was also heterogeneous - iron concentrated closer to the Sun, probably under the effect of its magnetic field. In the second half of the 20th century, planetary cosmogony developed against the background of continuous dispute between the adherents of homogeneous and heterogeneous planetary accretion. The confrontation still exists, although arguments in favour of heterogeneous accretion increase in weight. The dilemma under discussion is directly related to modern tectonic concepts, because it is necessary to find an answer to the question whether the core originated from the differentiation of the Earth's material or our planet had a core from the beginning.

  5. Situation Update: Summary of Weekly FluView

    MedlinePlus

    ... Illness (ILI) Pneumonia and Influenza Mortality for 122 Cities Influenza-Associated Pediatric Mortality Geographic Spread of Influenza ... New Jersey) experienced low ILI activity. New York City and 46 states experienced minimal ILI activity. The ...

  6. Alleviating polarity-conflict at the heterointerfaces of KTaO{sub 3}/GdScO{sub 3} polar complex-oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, J.; Nichols, J.; Connell, J. G.; Seo, S. S. A.; Hwang, J.; Stemmer, S.

    2014-09-08

    We have synthesized and investigated the heterointerfaces of KTaO{sub 3} (KTO) and GdScO{sub 3} (GSO), which are both polar complex-oxides along the pseudo-cubic [001] direction. Since their layers have the same, conflicting net charges at interfaces, i.e., KO(−1)/ScO{sub 2}(−1) or TaO{sub 2}(+1)/GdO(+1), forming the heterointerface of KTO/GSO should be forbidden due to strong Coulomb repulsion, the so-called polarity conflict. However, we have discovered that atomic reconstruction occurs at the heterointerfaces between KTO thin-films and GSO substrates, which effectively alleviates the polarity conflict without destroying the hetero-epitaxy. Our result demonstrates one of the important ways to create artificial heterostructures from polar complex-oxides.

  7. Orbital symmetry reconstruction and strong mass renormalization in the two-dimensional electron gas at the surface of KTaO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santander-Syro, A. F.; Bareille, C.; Fortuna, F.; Copie, O.; Gabay, M.; Bertran, F.; Taleb-Ibrahimi, A.; Le Fèvre, P.; Herranz, G.; Reyren, N.; Bibes, M.; Barthélémy, A.; Lecoeur, P.; Guevara, J.; Rozenberg, M. J.

    2012-09-01

    We study, using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) at the surface of KTaO3 (KTO), a wide-gap insulator with strong spin-orbit coupling (SOC). We find that this 2DEG is a genuinely different physical state with respect to the bulk: the orbital symmetries of its subbands are entirely reconstructed and their masses are renormalized. This occurs because the values of the SOC, the Fermi energy, and the subband splittings become comparable in the 2DEG. Additionally, we identify an F-center-like heavy band resulting from the polar nature of the KTO surface.

  8. High-performance visible blind ultraviolet photodetector based on KTaO3 single crystal.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jing-Ting; Ge, Chen; Jin, Kui-Juan; Lu, Hui-Bin; Yang, Guo-Zhen

    2016-03-20

    We report a visible-blind ultraviolet photoconductive detector with interdigitated electrodes based on KTaO3 (KTO) single crystals. Both the steady spectral responses and the transient photovoltaic measurements clearly exhibit a cutoff wavelength at 344 nm (∼3.6  eV), in accordance with the bandgap of KTO. The KTO photodetectors show a low dark current ∼1.5  pA at 20 V, and a high UV-to-visible rejection ratio with 3 orders of magnitude at room temperature. The quantum efficiency is 37.49% under 20 V bias, and the detectivity D* of 3.85×1012  cm·Hz0.5/W, which is comparable to that of silicon photodetectors in the UV region. The rise time of photoelectric response is ∼260  ps, indicating an ultrafast photoelectric response characteristic. The present work offers appealing prospects for the application of KTO materials in high-performance visible blind ultraviolet photodetectors. PMID:27140560

  9. Electronic structure of two dimensional electron gases at the (111) - surface of KTaO3 and SrTiO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruno, Flavio; McKeown Walker, S.; de la Torre, A.; Ricco, S.; Tamai, A.; Wang, Z.; Shi, M.; Kim, T. K.; Hoesch, M.; Bahramy, M. S.; King, P. D. C.; Baumberger, F.

    Doping the band insulators KTaO3 (KTO) and SrTiO3 (STO) by chemical substitution or by the creation of oxygen defects induces metallicity and even superconductivity at exceptionally low carrier densities. A promising strongly correlated model system emerged when it was discovered that a 2D electron gas (2DEG) can be stabilized in KTO by field effect, and in STO by interfacing with other oxides. These materials also support a similar 2DEG formed by an electron accumulation layer screening positively charged oxygen vacancy defects that are created in the surface by irradiating the samples with photons of appropriate energy. [Adv. Mat. 27, 3894 (2015)] Here, we will report on direct measurements of the 2DEG band structure stabilized on the (111) - surface of KTO and STO using high resolution angle-resolved photoemission (ARPES) [Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 177601 (2014)]. The differences and similarities between the electronic structure of these two systems in terms of the strong and weak spin orbit coupling found in KTO and STO respectively will be discussed. FYB acknowledge support from the Swiss National Science Foundation (Ambizione Grant PZ00P2_161327/1).

  10. DOT`s perspective on in-line inspection

    SciTech Connect

    Ulrich, L.W.

    1996-08-01

    The Department of Transportation and its Office of Pipeline Safety have been involved with in-line inspection (ILI) pigs since the construction of the Alaska crude oil pipeline in the early 1970s. Two Congressionally mandated reports concerning ILI pigs and a regulation requiring new and replaced pipe and components to be designed and constructed to accommodate ILI pigs have been issued by the Department. Although there is no present federal requirement to run ILI pigs, they are required by the Office of Pipeline Safety in selected compliance cases. The Department will continue to use ILI pigs in compliance cases. It also supports future ILI pig research, and the use of ILI pig surveys incorporated in any pipeline operator`s future risk management plans developed as safety alternatives to the established pipeline safety regulations. The Department also in the future may require ILI pigs to be run on some pipelines.

  11. Interactions of dicarboxylic porphyrins with unilamellar lipidic vesicles: drastic effects of pH and cholesterol on kinetics.

    PubMed

    Kuzelová, K; Brault, D

    1995-09-01

    The effect of pH on the transfer of deuteroporphyrin from dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) unilamellar vesicles to human serum albumin is investigated using a stopped-flow with fluorescence detection. The kinetics of this process allows for the determination of the rate constants for the porphyrin exist from the outer vesicle layer to the bulk aqueous medium (koff), and for its movement from the inner to the outer vesicle layer (kto). Both koff and kto are found to strongly depend on the pH. The observed behavior can be described by classical titration curves and is most likely due to protonation equilibria involving the two carboxylic groups of the porphyrin. A pH increase accelerates the exist of the porphyrin. The reverse effect is observed for its movement through the bilayer. The presence of cholesterol in the DMPC bilayer also strongly affects the interactions of the porphyrin with the vesicles. The rate constant kto is dramatically reduced by increasing the cholesterol content. An irregularity is noted around 10-20 mol % cholesterol. The results are discussed in relation to the preferential uptake of porphyrins by tumors, a basis of photodynamic therapy, and to possible pH-mediated relocalization of porphyrins among subcellular structures. PMID:7669783

  12. Emergency department and 'Google flu trends' data as syndromic surveillance indicators for seasonal influenza.

    PubMed

    Thompson, L H; Malik, M T; Gumel, A; Strome, T; Mahmud, S M

    2014-11-01

    We evaluated syndromic indicators of influenza disease activity developed using emergency department (ED) data - total ED visits attributed to influenza-like illness (ILI) ('ED ILI volume') and percentage of visits attributed to ILI ('ED ILI percent') - and Google flu trends (GFT) data (ILI cases/100 000 physician visits). Congruity and correlation among these indicators and between these indicators and weekly count of laboratory-confirmed influenza in Manitoba was assessed graphically using linear regression models. Both ED and GFT data performed well as syndromic indicators of influenza activity, and were highly correlated with each other in real time. The strongest correlations between virological data and ED ILI volume and ED ILI percent, respectively, were 0·77 and 0·71. The strongest correlation of GFT was 0·74. Seasonal influenza activity may be effectively monitored using ED and GFT data. PMID:24480399

  13. Influenza-like illness in a Vietnamese province: epidemiology in correlation with weather factors and determinants from the surveillance system

    PubMed Central

    Minh An, Dao Thi; Bich Ngoc, Nguyen Thi; Nilsson, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Background Seasonal influenza affects from 5 to 15% of the world's population annually and causes an estimated 250,000–500,000 deaths worldwide. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends ‘sentinel surveillance’ for influenza-like illness (ILI) because it is simple and calls for standardized methods at a relatively low cost that can be implemented throughout the world. In Vietnam, ILI is a key priority for public health also because of its annually recurring temporal pattern. Two major factors, on which the spread of influenza depends, are the strain of the virus and its rate of mutation, since flu strains constantly mutate as they compete with host immune systems. In the context of global climate change, the role of climatic factors has been discussed, as they may significantly contribute to the cause of large outbreaks of ILI. Objectives 1) To describe the epidemiology of ILI in Ha Nam province, Vietnam; 2) to seek scientific evidence on the association of ILI occurrence with weather factors in Ha Nam province; and 3) to analyze factors from the Ha Nam ILI surveillance system that contribute to explaining the correlation between the ILI and the weather factors. Design A data set of 89,270 monthly reported ILI cases from 2008 to 2012 in Ha Nam was used to describe ILI epidemiological characteristics. Spearman correlation analyses between ILI cases and weather factors were conducted to identify which preceding period of months and weather patterns influenced the occurrence of ILI cases. Ten in-depth interviews with health workers in charge of recording and reporting ILI cases at different levels of the ILI surveillance system were conducted to gain a deeper understanding of factors contributing to explaining the relation between the ILI and the weather factors. Results The results indicated that the ILI occurred annually in all districts of the Ha Nam province in the five studied years. An epidemic occurred in 2009 with the number of cases three times

  14. Influence of observable and unobservable exposure on the patient's risk of acquiring influenza-like illness at hospital.

    PubMed

    Payet, C; Voirin, N; Ecochard, R; Vanhems, P

    2016-07-01

    During outbreaks of hospital-acquired influenza-like illness (HA-ILI) healthcare workers (HCWs), patients, and visitors are each a source of infection for the other. Quantifying the effects of these various exposures will help improve prevention and control of HA-ILI outbreaks. We estimated the attributability of HA-ILI to: (1) exposure to recorded or unrecorded sources; (2) exposure to contagious patient or contagious HCW; (3) exposure during observable or unobservable contagious period of the recorded sources; and, (4) the moment of exposure. Among recorded sources, 59% [95% credible interval (CrI) 34-83] of HA-ILI of patients was associated with exposure to contagious patients and 41% (95% CrI 17-66) with exposure to contagious HCWs. Exposure during the unobservable contagiousness period of source patients accounted for 49% (95% CrI 19-75) of HA-ILI, while exposure during the unobservable contagiousness period of source HCWs accounted for 82% (95% CrI 51-99) of HA-ILI. About 80% of HA-ILIs were associated with exposure 1 day earlier. Secondary cases of HA-ILI might appear as soon as the day after the detection of a primary case highlighting the explosive nature of HA-ILI spread. Unobservable transmission was the main cause of HA-ILI transmission suggesting that symptom-based control measures alone might not prevent hospital outbreaks. The results support the rapid implementation of interventions to control influenza transmission. PMID:26846882

  15. Intermedilysin induces EGR-1 expression through calcineurin/NFAT pathway in human cholangiocellular carcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Susilowati, Heni; Okamura, Hirohiko; Hirota, Katsuhiko; Shono, Masayuki; Yoshida, Kaya; Murakami, Keiji; Tabata, Atsushi; Nagamune, Hideaki; Haneji, Tatsuji; Miyake, Yoichiro

    2011-01-07

    Research highlights: {yields} ILY leads to the accumulation of [Ca{sup 2+}]i in the nucleus in HuCCT1 cells. {yields} ILY induced activation of NFAT1 through a calcineurin-dependent pathway. {yields} Calcineuri/NFAT pathway is involved in EGR-1 expression in response to ILY treatment. -- Abstract: Intermedilysin (ILY) is a cholesterol-dependent cytolysin produced by Streptococcus intermedius, which is associated with human brain and liver abscesses. Although intrahepatic bile duct cells play a valuable role in the pathogenesis of liver abscess, the molecular mechanism of ILY-treated intrahepatic bile duct cells remains unknown. In this study, we report that ILY induced a nuclear accumulation of intracellular calcium ([Ca{sup 2+}]i) in human cholangiocellular cells HuCCT1. We also demonstrate that 10 ng/ml ILY induced NFAT1 dephosphorylation and its nuclear translocation in HuCCT1 cells. In contrast to the result that ILY induced NF-{kappa}B translocation in human hepatic HepG2 cells, ILY did not affect NF-{kappa}B localization in HuCCT1 cells. Dephosphorylation and nuclear translocation of NFAT1 caused by ILY were prevented by [Ca{sup 2+}]i calcium chelator, BAPTA/AM, and calcineurin inhibitors, cyclosporine A and tacrolimus. ILY induced early growth response-1 (EGR-1) expression and it was inhibited by the pre-treatment with cyclosporine A, indicating that the calcineurin/NFAT pathway was involved in EGR-1 expression in response to ILY. ILY-induced calcineurin/NFAT1 activation and sequential EGR-1 expression might be related to the pathogenesis of S. intermedius in human bile duct cells.

  16. Development of an Electronic Notification System for Influenza-Like Illness Sentinel Surveillance.

    PubMed

    Adnan, Mehnaz; Peterkin, Donald; Mackereth, Graham

    2016-01-01

    An electronic Influenza like Illness surveillance system developed to support general practices to electronically notify the cases of influenza like illness (ILI) for national sentinel surveillance in New Zealand. Content analysis was performed to capture the information necessary for ILI surveillance. An online form was implemented within the patient management system to record the details of ILI cases. A middleware framework was developed to manage the information flow between GPs and national influenza surveillance coordinators. The framework used an HL7 version 2.4 messaging standard to receive the notification data and Rhapsody integration engines to parse the message and store the information in national ILI data base. This paper presents the system design and implementation details of electronic ILI notification system. It presents data model designed to capture information for ILI case along with the HL7 messages structure implemented in the system. PMID:27440281

  17. Influenza-like illness and presenteeism among school employees

    PubMed Central

    de Perio, Marie A.; Wiegand, Douglas M.; Brueck, Scott E.

    2015-01-01

    We determined the prevalence of influenza-like illness (ILI) among employees of a suburban Ohio school district. In a survey of 412 of 841 employees (49%), 120 (29%) reported ILI symptoms during the school year, and 92 (77%) reported working while ill. Age ≥50 years and asthma were significantly associated with reporting of ILI symptoms. Encouraging school employees to receive the seasonal influenza vaccine and to stay home when ill should be part of a comprehensive influenza prevention strategy. PMID:24679576

  18. Criteria for performance assessment and calibration of in-line inspections of oil and gas pipelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caleyo, F.; Alfonso, L.; Espina-Hernández, J. H.; Hallen, J. M.

    2007-07-01

    Oil and gas pipeline operators routinely use magnetic flux leakage (MFL) and ultrasonic (UT) in-line inspection (ILI) to detect, locate and size metal losses caused by corrosion. As a preliminary step in fitness-for-service evaluations, the quality of the ILI is assessed through statistical comparison of the ILI data with data gathered in the field at dig sites. This work presents generalized criteria for the performance assessment and calibration of MFL and UT ILI tools from field measurements. The proposed criteria are capable of accounting for the measurement errors of both the ILI tool and the field instrument. The performance assessment of the ILI run is based on the determination of the minimum number of unsuccessful field verifications required to reject the ILI at a given significance level. The calibration of the ILI data uses new, simplified, error-in-variables methods to estimate the true size of the corrosion metal losses reported by the ILI tool. The proposed methodology also allows for determination of the errors associated with the estimation of the true defect depths. This information is of utmost importance in conducting reliability and risk assessments of pipelines based on either the probability distribution properties of the pipeline defect population, or the probability of failure of each individual defect in the pipeline. The proposed criteria are tested using Monte Carlo simulations and a real-life case study is presented to illustrate their application.

  19. Epitaxial growth of polar KTaO3 thin-films on polar perovskite substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, J.; Nichols, J.; Hwang, J.; Seo, S. S. A.

    2014-03-01

    The atomic polarity plays an important role in a wide range of physical phenomena at heterointerfaces. For example, the polar/non-polar nature of a LaAlO3/SrTiO3 system induces partial conducting electrons at the heterointerfaces to avoid diverging electrostatic potential, the so-called ``polar catastrophe,'' which results in intriguing two-dimensional transport and magnetic properties. In this presentation, we discuss another system in which the role of the polar interface is important: the KTaO3/GdScO3 (KTO/GSO) polar/polar system. At the KTO/GSO interface, there is a ``polar conflict'' heterointerface along the [001] direction, where the AO and BO2 layers have reversed net charges so that there is a conflict between the chemical bonding and the electrostatic charges, i.e. K1+O2-(1-)/Sc3+O24- (1-) or Ta5+O24- (1 +) /Gd3+O2-(1 +) , which is unstable in the electrostatic point of view. We ask a fundamental question: ``How is the polar conflict resolved in the atomically flat heterointerfaces of such polar/polar systems?'' We have synthesized epitaxial KTO thin films on GSO substrates using pulsed laser deposition. From X-ray diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, we have observed that the polar conflict is quite effectively avoided by forming only two non-polar mono-layers at the heterointerface, resulting in high-quality epitaxial thin films on top of the layers. Our result suggests a new way to create two-dimensional confined layers using the polar conflict of the heterointerfaces of two polar materials.

  20. Age-Related Differences in the Accuracy of Web Query-Based Predictions of Influenza-Like Illness

    PubMed Central

    Domnich, Alexander; Panatto, Donatella; Signori, Alessio; Lai, Piero Luigi; Gasparini, Roberto; Amicizia, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Background Web queries are now widely used for modeling, nowcasting and forecasting influenza-like illness (ILI). However, given that ILI attack rates vary significantly across ages, in terms of both magnitude and timing, little is known about whether the association between ILI morbidity and ILI-related queries is comparable across different age-groups. The present study aimed to investigate features of the association between ILI morbidity and ILI-related query volume from the perspective of age. Methods Since Google Flu Trends is unavailable in Italy, Google Trends was used to identify entry terms that correlated highly with official ILI surveillance data. All-age and age-class-specific modeling was performed by means of linear models with generalized least-square estimation. Hold-out validation was used to quantify prediction accuracy. For purposes of comparison, predictions generated by exponential smoothing were computed. Results Five search terms showed high correlation coefficients of > .6. In comparison with exponential smoothing, the all-age query-based model correctly predicted the peak time and yielded a higher correlation coefficient with observed ILI morbidity (.978 vs. .929). However, query-based prediction of ILI morbidity was associated with a greater error. Age-class-specific query-based models varied significantly in terms of prediction accuracy. In the 0–4 and 25–44-year age-groups, these did well and outperformed exponential smoothing predictions; in the 15–24 and ≥ 65-year age-classes, however, the query-based models were inaccurate and highly overestimated peak height. In all but one age-class, peak timing predicted by the query-based models coincided with observed timing. Conclusions The accuracy of web query-based models in predicting ILI morbidity rates could differ among ages. Greater age-specific detail may be useful in flu query-based studies in order to account for age-specific features of the epidemiology of ILI. PMID:26011418

  1. Influenza surveillance using electronic health records in the American Indian and Alaska Native population

    PubMed Central

    Keck, James W; Redd, John T; Cheek, James E; Layne, Larry J; Groom, Amy V; Kitka, Sassa; Bruce, Michael G; Suryaprasad, Anil; Amerson, Nancy L; Cullen, Theresa; Bryan, Ralph T; Hennessy, Thomas W

    2014-01-01

    Objective Increasing use of electronic health records (EHRs) provides new opportunities for public health surveillance. During the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) virus pandemic, we developed a new EHR-based influenza-like illness (ILI) surveillance system designed to be resource sparing, rapidly scalable, and flexible. 4 weeks after the first pandemic case, ILI data from Indian Health Service (IHS) facilities were being analyzed. Materials and methods The system defines ILI as a patient visit containing either an influenza-specific International Classification of Disease, V.9 (ICD-9) code or one or more of 24 ILI-related ICD-9 codes plus a documented temperature ≥100°F. EHR-based data are uploaded nightly. To validate results, ILI visits identified by the new system were compared to ILI visits found by medical record review, and the new system's results were compared with those of the traditional US ILI Surveillance Network. Results The system monitored ILI activity at an average of 60% of the 269 IHS electronic health databases. EHR-based surveillance detected ILI visits with a sensitivity of 96.4% and a specificity of 97.8% based on chart review (N=2375) of visits at two facilities in September 2009. At the peak of the pandemic (week 41, October 17, 2009), the median time from an ILI visit to data transmission was 6 days, with a mode of 1 day. Discussion EHR-based ILI surveillance was accurate, timely, occurred at the majority of IHS facilities nationwide, and provided useful information for decision makers. EHRs thus offer the opportunity to transform public health surveillance. PMID:23744788

  2. Factors associated with transmission of influenza-like illness in a cohort of households containing multiple children

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Chelsea R; McCaw, James M; Fairmaid, Emily J; Brown, Lorena E; Leder, Karin; Sinclair, Martha; McVernon, Jodie

    2015-01-01

    Background Household studies of influenza-like illness (ILI) afford opportunities to study determinants of respiratory virus transmission. Objectives We examined predictors of ILI transmission within households containing at least two children. Methods A prospective cohort study recorded ILI symptoms daily for 2712 adult and child participants during the 1998 influenza season in Victoria, Australia. Logistic and Poisson regressions were used to explore predictors of household transmission of ILI and the secondary household attack proportion (SHAP). A date of illness onset during the influenza season was used as a proxy indicator of ILI associated with influenza infection (as opposed to other aetiological causes). Results A total of 1009 ILI episodes were reported by 781 of 2712 (29%) participants residing in 157 households. Transmission, defined as detection of ILI in one or more household members following identification of an index case, was observed in 206 of 705 (29%) household introductions. Transmission of ILI was significantly associated with the onset of ILI in the index case during the peak influenza season compared with the remainder of the observation period (37% versus 27%, odds ratio = 1·59, 95% CI 1·09, 2·31, P = 0·017). The SHAP was 0·12, higher if the index case was of secondary school age [incidence risk ratio (IRR) = 1·80, 95% CI 1·08, 2·98, P = 0·022]. Conclusions Risk of household transmission of ILI was increased during the peak influenza season, indicating an increased burden of disease during the period of influenza circulation. In this cohort, secondary-school-aged children and adults were important transmitters of ILI. PMID:26061755

  3. Influenza-Like Illness among University Students: Symptom Severity and Duration Due to Influenza Virus Infection Compared to Other Etiologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullins, Jocelyn; Cook, Robert; Rinaldo, Charles; Yablonsky, Eric; Hess, Rachel; Piazza, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    Objective: University students with influenza-like illness (ILI) were assessed to determine whether symptom severity, duration, or missed days of school or work varied according to etiology. Participants: Sixty persons presenting to a university health clinic with ILI symptoms during 3 consecutive influenza seasons completed baseline survey and…

  4. Awakening the Languages. Challenges of Enduring Language Programs: Field Reports from 15 Programs from Arizona, New Mexico and Oklahoma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linn, Mary S.; Naranjo, Tessie; Nicholas, Sheilah; Slaughter, Inee; Yamamoto, Akira; Zepeda, Ofelia

    The Indigenous Language Institute (ILI) collaborates with indigenous language communities to combat language decline. ILI facilitates community-based language programs, increases public awareness of language endangerment, and disseminates information on language preservation and successful language revitalization programs. In response to numerous…

  5. The Implementation of Web 2.0 Technology for Information Literacy Instruction in Thai University Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawetrattanasatian, Oranuch

    2014-01-01

    Web 2.0 technology has drawn much attention recently as a fascinating tool for Information Literacy Instruction (ILI), especially in academic libraries. This research was aimed to investigate the implementation of Web 2.0 technology for ILI in Thai university libraries, in terms of information literacy skills being taught, types of Web 2.0…

  6. Isolated Limb Infusion for Limb Salvage in Limb Threatening Extremity Sarcomas

    PubMed Central

    Vohra, Nasreen A.; Turaga, Kiran K.; Gonzalez, Ricardo J.; Conley, Anthony; Reed, Damon; Bui, Marilyn M.; Cheong, David; Letson, Douglas G.; Zager, Jonathan S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Locally advanced, limb threatening soft tissue sarcomas (STS) pose a significant treatment challenge. We report our experience using isolated limb infusion (ILI) in patients with unresectable extremity STS. Methods Twenty-two patients with extremity STS underwent 26 ILIs with melphalan and dactinomycin. Patient characteristics, intra-operative parameters and toxicity were recorded. Outcome measures included limb-salvage and in-field response rates. Results Of the 19 lower and 7 upper extremity ILIs, Wieberdink grade III toxicity or less was observed in all. Median follow up was 11 months. Seventeen patients were evaluable at 3 months post ILI with an overall response rate of 42%. Four (24%) had complete response (CR), 3 (18%) partial response (PR), 3 (18%) stable disease (SD) and 7 (41%) progressive disease (PD). Twelve of 17 (71%) underwent successful limb preservation at a median of 9 months post ILI. Two (12%) were downstaged to resectable disease and remain NED after surgery at 30 and 22 months post ILI. Conclusions ILI is an attractive modality that provides regional disease control and limb preservation in patients with limb threatening sarcoma. Although short term results appear encouraging, long term follow up is needed to fully assess the role of ILI in unresectable extremity STS. PMID:23205633

  7. Impact of Influenza on Outpatient Visits, Hospitalizations, and Deaths by Using a Time Series Poisson Generalized Additive Model

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Ru-ning; Zheng, Hui-zhen; Ou, Chun-quan; Huang, Li-qun; Zhou, Yong; Zhang, Xin; Liang, Can-kun; Lin, Jin-yan; Zhong, Hao-jie; Song, Tie; Luo, Hui-ming

    2016-01-01

    Background The disease burden associated with influenza in developing tropical and subtropical countries is poorly understood owing to the lack of a comprehensive disease surveillance system and information-exchange mechanisms. The impact of influenza on outpatient visits, hospital admissions, and deaths has not been fully demonstrated to date in south China. Methods A time series Poisson generalized additive model was used to quantitatively assess influenza-like illness (ILI) and influenza disease burden by using influenza surveillance data in Zhuhai City from 2007 to 2009, combined with the outpatient, inpatient, and respiratory disease mortality data of the same period. Results The influenza activity in Zhuhai City demonstrated a typical subtropical seasonal pattern; however, each influenza virus subtype showed a specific transmission variation. The weekly ILI case number and virus isolation rate had a very close positive correlation (r = 0.774, P < 0.0001). The impact of ILI and influenza on weekly outpatient visits was statistically significant (P < 0.05). We determined that 10.7% of outpatient visits were associated with ILI and 1.88% were associated with influenza. ILI also had a significant influence on the hospitalization rates (P < 0.05), but mainly in populations <25 years of age. No statistically significant effect of influenza on hospital admissions was found (P > 0.05). The impact of ILI on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) was most significant (P < 0.05), with 33.1% of COPD-related deaths being attributable to ILI. The impact of influenza on the mortality rate requires further evaluation. Conclusions ILI is a feasible indicator of influenza activity. Both ILI and influenza have a large impact on outpatient visits. Although ILI affects the number of hospital admissions and deaths, we found no consistent influence of influenza, which requires further assessment. PMID:26894876

  8. Magnetization behavior of L10-ordered FePt alloy thin films prepared on MgO(100), MgAl2O4(100), and KTaO3(100) single-crystal substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwama, Hiroki; Doi, Masaaki; Shima, Toshiyuki

    2016-07-01

    In order to investigate the effects of lattice mismatch between FePt thin films and single-crystal substrates on the tetragonality and magnetization process, FePt thin films were fabricated on several single-crystal substrates such as KTaO3 (KTO) (100), MgAl2O4 (MAO) (100), and MgO(100) at a substrate temperature of 700 °C. The Fe content of the FePt films was varied from 45.0 to 50.8 at. %. In addition to the fundamental (002) peak, the (001) and (003) superlattice peaks were clearly observed in the X-ray diffraction patterns of all the samples, indicating the formation of the L10-ordered structure. The magnetization measurements show that all the samples were perpendicularly magnetized. Coercivities (H c) of 57.8, 52.5, and 3.3 kOe were obtained for the films with Fe49.3Pt50.7 (at. %) deposited on the MgO, MAO, and KTO substrates. The marked reduction in H c is considered to arise from the morphology of FePt thin films.

  9. Isolated limb infusion: Efficacy, toxicity and an evolution in the management of in-transit melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Chin-Lenn, Laura; Temple-Oberle, Claire; McKinnon, J Gregory

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Isolated limb infusion (ILI) delivers low-flow chemotherapy via percutaneous catheters to treat melanoma in-transit metastases. OBJECTIVE: To describe the experience of two regional referral centres with ILI. METHODS: A retrospective review of patients who underwent ILI between 2002 and 2012 was performed. Outcomes were measured using the WHO criteria for response, the Wieberdink toxicity score and long-term limb function using the Toronto Extremity Salvage Score (TESS). RESULTS: Fifty-two patients (mean age 66 years [range 27 to 90 years], female sex 65%, and lower [treated] limb in 86%) with 54 ILIs were reviewed. Wieberdink toxicity score was ≥3 in 21 (39%) procedures. Median follow-up was 18 months (range one to 117 months). Initial complete response (CR) was 29%, partial response 27%, stable disease 18% and progressive disease 27%. Predictors of better initial response were low disease burden and previous treatment. One or more treatments after ILI were common (65%). At 12 months, 19% of ILI patients had died from melanoma but 44% of surviving patients experienced limb CR. At 24 months, 57% of surviving patients experienced limb CR. The quality of life in the surviving, contactable patients according to the Toronto Extremity Salvage Score was 89%. CONCLUSION: Even if ILI does not result in CR for melanoma intransit metastases. it may slow disease progression as a single therapy, but more frequently in combination with other modalities. PMID:25821769

  10. Hypophosphatemia and recovery of post-hepatectomy liver insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Karanicolas, Paul J.; Zih, Francis S. W.; Cheng, Eva; Wong, Julia; Hanna, Sherif; Coburn, Natalie G.; Law, Calvin H. L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Hypophosphatemia (HP) is frequent following liver resection, and thought to represent use of phosphate during liver regeneration. We sought to evaluate the association of post-hepatectomy HP with liver insufficiency and recovery. Methods Liver resections were retrospectively reviewed from 2009 to 2012 at a single institution. We explored the relationship between HP (defined as serum phosphate ≤0.65 mmol/L), occurrence of initial liver insufficiency (ILI) [bilirubin >50 µmol/L, international normalized ratio (INR) >1.7 within 72 hours of surgery] and in-hospital recovery of ILI. Secondary outcomes included 30-day post-operative major morbidity (Clavien grade 3 and 4 complications), mortality, and re-admission. Results Among 402 patients, 223 (55.5%) experienced HP and 64 (15.9%) met our definition of ILI, of which 53 (82.8%) recovered. Length of stay, 30-day post-operative major morbidity, mortality, and re-admission were similar between patients with and without HP. Among patients with ILI, 44 (68.8%) experienced HP. Following ILI, patients with HP recovered more often than those with NP (90.9% vs. 65.0%; P=0.03). Conclusions In patients who experience post-hepatectomy ILI, HP is associated with improved recovery, potentially indicating more efficient liver regeneration. Further studies should explore the usefulness of post-hepatectomy HP as an early prognostic factor of recovery from ILI. PMID:27275463

  11. Cationic Ionic Liquids Organic Ligands Based Metal-Organic Frameworks for Fabrication of Core-Shell Microspheres for Hydrophilic Interaction Liquid Chromatography.

    PubMed

    Dai, Qian; Ma, Junqian; Ma, Siqi; Wang, Shengyu; Li, Lijun; Zhu, Xianghui; Qiao, Xiaoqiang

    2016-08-24

    In this study, new metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) nanocrystals modified SiO2 core-shell microspheres were designed with cationic ionic liquids (ILs) 1,3-bis(4-carboxybutyl)imidazolium bromide (ILI) as organic ligands. By further adjustment the growth cycles, the new ILI-01@SiO2 core-shell stationary phase was facilely fabricated. The developed stationary phase was respectively characterized via element analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry. Because the introduction of cationic imidazolium-based ILs ILI for fabrication of the MOFs nanocrystals shell, the new stationary phase exhibits the retention mechanism of hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC). Many polar samples, such as amides, vitamins, nucleic acid bases, and nucleosides, were utilized to investigate the performance of the prepared ILI-01@SiO2 column. Compared to the conventional aminosilica column, the new ILI-01@SiO2 column displays high separation selectivity in a shorter separation time. Furthermore, the new ILI-01@SiO2 column was also used for detection of illegal melamine addition in the baby formula. All the above results demonstrate the new ILI-01@SiO2 core-shell stationary phase is of good potentials for high-selectivity separation the polar samples. PMID:27483161

  12. Intensive Lifestyle Intervention Improves Physical Function Among Obese Adults With Knee Pain: Findings From the Look AHEAD Trial

    PubMed Central

    Foy, Capri G.; Lewis, Cora E.; Hairston, Kristen G.; Miller, Gary D.; Lang, Wei; Jakicic, John M.; Rejeski, W. Jack; Ribisl, Paul M.; Walkup, Michael P.; Wagenknecht, Lynne E.

    2011-01-01

    Lifestyle interventions have resulted in weight loss or improved physical fitness among individuals with obesity, which may lead to improved physical function. This prospective investigation involved participants in the Action for Health in Diabetes (Look AHEAD) trial who reported knee pain at baseline (n = 2,203). The purposes of this investigation were to determine whether an Intensive Lifestyle Intervention (ILI) condition resulted in improvement in self-reported physical function from baseline to 12 months vs. a Diabetes Support and Education (DSE) condition, and whether changes in weight or fitness mediated the effect of the ILI. Outcome measures included the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) pain, stiffness, and physical function subscales, and WOMAC summary score. ILI participants exhibited greater adjusted mean weight loss (s.e.) vs. DSE participants (−9.02 kg (0.48) vs. −0.78 kg (0.49); P < 0.001)). ILI participants also demonstrated more favorable change in WOMAC summary scores vs. DSE participants (β (s.e.) = −1.81 (0.63); P = 0.004). Multiple regression mediation analyses revealed that weight loss was a mediator of the effect of the ILI intervention on change in WOMAC pain, function, and summary scores (P < 0.001). In separate analyses, increased fitness also mediated the effect of the ILI intervention upon WOMAC summary score (P < 0.001). The ILI condition resulted in significant improvement in physical function among overweight and obese adults with diabetes and knee pain. The ILI condition also resulted in significant weight loss and improved fitness, which are possible mechanisms through which the ILI condition improved physical function. PMID:20559303

  13. Identification and expression analysis of a new invertebrate lysozyme in Kuruma shrimp (Marsupenaeus japonicus).

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong-Tao; Wang, Jun; Mao, Yong; Liu, Min; Niu, Su-Fang; Qiao, Ying; Su, Yong-Quan; Wang, Chun-Zhong; Zheng, Zhi-Peng

    2016-02-01

    Lysozyme is an important component of the innate immunity system against invading pathogens. An invertebrate (i-type) lysozyme from the hepatopancreas of Kuruma shrimp Marsupenaeus japonicus (Mj-ilys) was identified. The full-length cDNA of Mj-ilys was 580bp with a 429 bp open reading frame encoding a 142 amino acid polypeptide. The encoded polypeptide was predicted to have a 17 amino acid signal peptide, and a 125 amino acid mature protein with a theoretical mass of 14.099 kDa and an isoelectric point (pI) of 4.18. A Destabilase conserved domain was predicted in Mj-ilys amino acid sequences which may be stable by 10 cysteine residues forming 5 disulfide bonds. Mj-ilys may loss the muramidase and isopeptidase activities due to the lack of the key catalytic residues. Mj-ilys had high homologous of 80-82% with i-type lysozymes of penaeid shrimps. It was first grouped with other i-type lysozyme of shrimps and crabs in a phylogenetic tree predicted by the Neighbor-Joining method. Mj-ilys mRNA was expressed mainly in hepatopancreas and almost undetectable in other tissues. The mRNA expression of Mj-ilys were all found from fertilized eggs to post-larvae of 17 days (PL17), and its expression exhibited significant differences among each developmental stage. After white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) challenge (3.6 × 10(8) virions/μl), the time-dependent expression pattern of Mj-ilys in hepatopancreas and gills showed significantly different. These results indicated that Mj-ilys is potentially involved in the ontogenesis and immune defense in Kuruma shrimp. PMID:26723264

  14. Aging and Physical Function in Type 2 Diabetes: 8 Years of an Intensive Lifestyle Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Bray, George A.; Chen, Shyh-Huei; Clark, Jeanne M.; Evans, Mary; Hill, James O.; Jakicic, John M.; Johnson, Karen C.; Neiberg, Rebecca; Ip, Edward H.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Compared with adults without type 2 diabetes mellitus, those with the disease experience more limitations in their physical functioning (PF). Look AHEAD is a large multicenter trial that examined the effects of an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) for weight loss on cardiovascular outcomes compared with diabetes support and education (DSE). Although the current study compared treatment differences between ILI and DSE on PF, the primary goal was to examine whether this effect was moderated by age and history of cardiovascular disease at enrollment. Methods. Overweight or obese adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (n = 5,145) were randomly assigned to either ILI or DSE. The mean (±SD) age and % females in ILI was 58.9 years (±6.9) and 59.8%; it was 58.6 years (6.8) and 59.5% in DSE. Analysis in 4,998 participants assessed the differential rates of decline in PF across a period of 8 years for the ILI and DSE groups. Results. ILI resulted in improved PF compared with DSE after 1 year (p < .0001) and was maintained across time. Within the ILI, older adults experienced greater improvements than younger adults (p < .0001). By year 2, persons in ILI with preexisting cardiovascular disease were no different in PF than in DSE participants with preexisting cardiovascular disease. Conclusion. With the exception of persons who had a history of cardiovascular disease, ILI slowed the decline in PF with type 2 diabetes mellitus despite weight regain, an effect that was stronger for older than younger participants and could translate into reductions in falls and disability. PMID:24986062

  15. Using Web and Social Media for Influenza Surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Corley, Courtney D.; Cook, Diane; Mikler, Armin R.; Singh, Karan P.

    2010-01-04

    Analysis of Google influenza-like-illness (ILI) search queries has shown a strongly correlated pattern with Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and Prevention seasonal ILI reporting data.Web and social media provide another resource to detect increases in ILI. This paper evaluates trends in blog posts that discuss influenza. Our key finding is that from 5-October 2008 to 31-January 2009 a high correlation exists between the frequency of posts, containing influenza keywords, per week and CDC influenza-like-illness surveillance data.

  16. Supporting collaborative use of the diabetes population risk tool (DPoRT) in health-related practice: a multiple case study research protocol

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Health policy makers have stated that diabetes prevention is a priority; however, the type, intensity, and target of interventions or policy changes that will achieve the greatest impact remains uncertain. In response to this uncertainty, the Diabetes Population Risk Tool (DPoRT) was developed and validated to estimate future diabetes risk based on routinely collected population data. To facilitate use of DPoRT, we partnered with regional and provincial health-related decision makers in Ontario and Manitoba, Canada. Primary objectives include: i) evaluate the effectiveness of partnerships between the research team and DPoRT users; ii) explore strategies that facilitate uptake and overcome barriers to DPoRT use; and iii) implement and evaluate the knowledge translation approach. Methods This protocol reflects an integrated knowledge translation (IKT) approach and corresponds to the action phase of the Knowledge-to-Action (KtoA) framework. Our IKT approach includes: employing a knowledge brokering team to facilitate relationships with DPoRT users (objective 1); tailored training for DPoRT users; assessment of barriers and facilitators to DPoRT use; and customized dissemination strategies to present DPoRT outputs to decision maker audiences (objective 2). Finally, a utilization-focused evaluation will assess the effectiveness and impact of the proposed KtoA process for DPoRT application (objective 3). This research design utilizes a multiple case study approach. Units of analyses consist of two public health units, one provincial health organization, and one provincial knowledge dissemination team whereby we will connect with multiple regional health authorities. Evaluation will be based on analysis of both quantitative and qualitative data collected from passive (e.g., observer notes) and active (e.g., surveys and interviews) methods. Discussion DPoRT offers an innovative way to make routinely collected population health data practical and meaningful for

  17. Reduction in Weight and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Individuals With Type 2 Diabetes: One-Year Results of the Look AHEAD Trial

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Objective The effectiveness of intentional weight loss in reducing cardiovascular disease (CVD) events in type 2 diabetes is unknown. This report describes one-year changes in CVD risk factors in a trial designed to examine the long-term effects of an intensive lifestyle intervention on the incidence of major CVD events. Research Design and Methods A multi-centered randomized controlled trial of 5,145 individuals with type 2 diabetes, aged 45–74 years, with body mass index ≥25 kg/m2 (≥27 kg/m2 if taking insulin). An Intensive Lifestyle Intervention (ILI) involving group and individual meetings to achieve and maintain weight loss through decreased caloric intake and increased physical activity was compared to a Diabetes Support and Education (DSE) condition. Results Participants assigned to ILI lost an average 8.6% of their initial weight versus 0.7% in DSE group (p<0.001). Mean fitness increased in ILI by 20.9% versus 5.8% in DSE (p<0.001). A greater proportion of ILI participants had reductions in diabetes, hypertension, and lipid-lowering medicines. Mean HbA1c dropped from 7.3% to 6.6% in ILI (p<0.001) versus from 7.3% to 7.2% in DSE. Systolic and diastolic pressure, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, and urine albumin/creatinine improved significantly more in ILI than DSE participants (all p<0.01). Conclusions At 1 year, ILI resulted in clinically significant weight loss in persons with type 2 diabetes. This was associated with improved diabetes control and CVD risk factors and reduced medicine use in ILI versus DSE. Continued intervention and follow-up will determine whether these changes are maintained and will reduce CVD risk. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00017953 PMID:17363746

  18. Isolated limb infusion chemotherapy for melanoma: an overview of early experience at the Adelaide Melanoma Unit

    PubMed Central

    Giles, Mitchell H; Coventry, Brendon J

    2013-01-01

    Background Isolated limb infusion (ILI) using cytotoxic agents has been demonstrated to be an effective and less invasive alternative modality than isolated limb perfusion for the treatment of melanoma localized to a limb. Percutaneous catheters were inserted into the axial artery and vein of the affected limb while using a pneumatic cuff to restrict limb vascular flow proximally to “isolate” the limb from the body and enable delivery of high-dose intra-arterial chemotherapy selectively to the limb. The ILI technique was developed at the Sydney Melanoma Unit (now renamed the Melanoma Institute Australia), and only a few other centers have reported separate results. We report our early results using the ILI technique for management of locally recurrent surgically nonresectable melanoma. Methods and results Twenty-eight ILI procedures were performed in 20 patients treated with one or more procedures between 1997 and 2007. Patient parameters and clinical responses were evaluated. The median follow-up duration was 15.9 months after the first ILI, with an overall response rate after one or more infusions of 70%, of which 35% were complete responders and 35% were partial responders, with a further 20% showing stable disease, giving a “clinically significant” response rate of 90%. After one ILI (n = 20), the overall response rate was 70%, with 20% complete responders and 50% partial responders, and 20% with stable disease. Low limb toxicities were generally observed, and no amputations were required. Conclusion ILI chemotherapy is a useful technique, which can be readily repeated for control of melanoma in the limb. It is generally well tolerated, and is capable of achieving a cure, delayed progression, or effective palliation in selected cases. The longest survivors in this series were 8 and 10 years from the last ILI. PMID:23990731

  19. Current Trends in Regional Therapy for Melanoma: Lessons Learned from 225 Regional Chemotherapy Treatments between 1995 and 2010 at a Single Institution

    PubMed Central

    Raymond, Amanda K; Beasley, Georgia M; Broadwater, Gloria; Augustine, Christina K; Padussis, James C; Turley, Ryan; Peterson, Bercedis; Seigler, Hilliard; Pruitt, Scott K; Tyler, Douglas S

    2011-01-01

    Background Hyperthermic isolated limb perfusion (HILP) and isolated limb infusion (ILI) are utilized to manage advanced extremity melanoma but no consensus exists as to which treatment is preferable and how to monitor patients post-treatment. Study Design Using a prospectively-maintained database, we reviewed our experience with melphalan based HILP (that included 62 first time and 10 second time) and ILI (that included 126 first time and 18 second time) procedures performed in 188 patients. PET/CT was obtained 3 months post regional treatment for one year and then every 6 months thereafter. Results The overall response rate (complete response (CR) + partial response (PR)) of HILP was 81% (80% CI: 73-87%) while the overall response rate from ILI was 43% (80% CI: 37-49%) for first time procedures only. HILP had a CR rate of 55% with a median duration of 32 months, while ILI had a CR rate of 30% with median duration of 24 months. Patients who experienced a regional recurrence after initial regional treatment were more likely to achieve a CR following repeat HILP (50%, n = 10) compared to repeat ILI (28%, n = 18). Although the spectrum of toxicity was similar for ILI and HILP, the likelihood of rare catastrophic complication of limb loss was greater with HILP (2/62) than ILI (0/122). PET/CT was effective for surveillance after regional therapy to identify regional nodal and pulmonary disease that was not clinically evident, but often amenable to surgical resection (25/49, 51% of cases). In contrast, PET/CT was not effective at predicting complete response to treatment with an accuracy of only 50%. Conclusions In the largest single institution regional therapy series reported to date, we found that while ILI is effective, and well-tolerated, HILP is a more definitive way to control advanced disease. PMID:21493111

  20. Hygiene Behaviors Associated with Influenza-Like Illness among Adults in Beijing, China: A Large, Population-Based Survey

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shuangsheng; Ma, Chunna; Yang, Zuyao; Yang, Peng; Chu, Yanhui; Zhang, Haiyan; Li, Hongjun; Hua, Weiyu; Tang, Yaqing; Li, Chao; Wang, Quanyi

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify possible hygiene behaviors associated with the incidence of ILI among adults in Beijing. In January 2011, we conducted a multi-stage sampling, cross-sectional survey of adults living in Beijing using self-administered anonymous questionnaires. The main outcome variable was self-reported ILI within the past year. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with self-reported ILI. A total of 13003 participants completed the questionnaires. 6068 (46.7%) of all participants reported ILI during the past year. After adjusting for demographic characteristics, the variables significantly associated with a lower likelihood of reporting ILI were regular physical exercise (OR 0.80; 95% CI 0.74–0.87), optimal hand hygiene (OR 0.87; 95% CI 0.80–0.94), face mask use when going to hospitals (OR 0.87; 95% CI 0.80–0.95), and not sharing of towels and handkerchiefs (OR 0.68; 95% CI 0.63–0.73). These results highlight that personal hygiene behaviors were potential preventive factors against the incidence of ILI among adults in Beijing, and future interventions to improve personal hygiene behaviors are needed in Beijing. PMID:26840614

  1. Influenza B outbreak in a primary school in Adelaide, Australia, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Raupach, Jane; D’Onise, Katina; Russo, Deidre

    2012-01-01

    Introduction This report describes a 2011 seasonal influenza B outbreak in a metropolitan primary school in Australia with 179 students. Methods Epidemiological, microbiological and environmental investigations were undertaken. A retrospective cohort study was conducted using a questionnaire that included demographic data, details of illness, chronic health conditions and vaccination status. Influenza-like illness (ILI) was defined as fever plus cough and/or sore throat. Analysis of ILI was undertaken with the χ2 test and Fisher’s exact test. Results Seventy-two questionnaire respondents (75%) reported illness during the outbreak – 43 with ILI, giving an attack rate of 45%. There was no association between ILI and age or chronic lung disease. Six (6%) students were vaccinated against influenza before the outbreak; although four became ill, none satisfied the ILI case definition. Seven students were positive for influenza B including two confirmed as B/Brisbane/60/2008-like; one student was positive for rhinovirus and another for metapneumovirus. The recommended influenza vaccine matched the circulating influenza strains. Discussion This cohort study estimated a high ILI attack rate and demonstrated low influenza vaccine coverage within the setting of a primary school. Gastrointestinal symptoms, in addition to constitutional and respiratory symptoms, were common. PMID:23908928

  2. Hygiene Behaviors Associated with Influenza-Like Illness among Adults in Beijing, China: A Large, Population-Based Survey.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shuangsheng; Ma, Chunna; Yang, Zuyao; Yang, Peng; Chu, Yanhui; Zhang, Haiyan; Li, Hongjun; Hua, Weiyu; Tang, Yaqing; Li, Chao; Wang, Quanyi

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify possible hygiene behaviors associated with the incidence of ILI among adults in Beijing. In January 2011, we conducted a multi-stage sampling, cross-sectional survey of adults living in Beijing using self-administered anonymous questionnaires. The main outcome variable was self-reported ILI within the past year. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with self-reported ILI. A total of 13003 participants completed the questionnaires. 6068 (46.7%) of all participants reported ILI during the past year. After adjusting for demographic characteristics, the variables significantly associated with a lower likelihood of reporting ILI were regular physical exercise (OR 0.80; 95% CI 0.74-0.87), optimal hand hygiene (OR 0.87; 95% CI 0.80-0.94), face mask use when going to hospitals (OR 0.87; 95% CI 0.80-0.95), and not sharing of towels and handkerchiefs (OR 0.68; 95% CI 0.63-0.73). These results highlight that personal hygiene behaviors were potential preventive factors against the incidence of ILI among adults in Beijing, and future interventions to improve personal hygiene behaviors are needed in Beijing. PMID:26840614

  3. An Intensive Lifestyle Intervention Is an Effective Treatment of Morbid Obesity: The TRAMOMTANA Study—A Two-Year Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Burguera, Bartolomé; Jesús Tur, Juan; Escudero, Antonio Jorge; Alos, María; Pagán, Alberto; Cortés, Baltasar; González, Xavier Francesc; Soriano, Joan B.

    2015-01-01

    Bariatric surgery is currently the most effective therapy to induce weight loss in morbidly obese patients. Objective. This controlled, clinical trial with a two-year intervention was aimed at comparing the efficacy of two nonsurgical approaches versus bariatric surgery, on body weight changes and metabolic parameters in morbidly obese patients. Methods. Patients were randomized to an Intensive Lifestyle Intervention (ILI) (n = 60) or Conventional Obesity Therapy (COT) (n = 46). The ILI group received behavioral therapy and nutritional counseling. The COT group received standard medical treatment. They were compared with a third group, Surgical Obesity Group (SOG) (n = 37). Results. Patients who received ILI had a greater percentage of weight loss than patients receiving COT (−11.3% versus −1.6%; p < 0.0044). Interestingly 31.4% of patients included in the ILI group were no longer morbidly obese after just six months of intervention, increasing to 44.4% after 24 months of intervention. The percentage weight loss in SOG was −29.6% after that same period of time. Conclusions. ILI was associated with significant weight loss when compared to COT, in a group of patients with obesity. An ILI approach could be an alternative therapy to patients with obesity, who are not candidates to undergo bariatric surgery. This trial is registered with EudraCT 2009-013737-24. PMID:26257780

  4. Sentinel Surveillance of Influenza-Like-Illness in Two Cities of the Tropical Country of Ecuador: 2006–2010

    PubMed Central

    Douce, Richard W.; Aleman, Washington; Chicaiza-Ayala, Wilson; Madrid, Cesar; Sovero, Merly; Delgado, Franklin; Rodas, Mireya; Ampuero, Julia; Chauca, Gloria; Perez, Juan; Garcia, Josefina; Kochel, Tadeusz; Halsey, Eric S.; Laguna-Torres, V. Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Background Tropical countries are thought to play an important role in the global behavior of respiratory infections such as influenza. The tropical country of Ecuador has almost no documentation of the causes of acute respiratory infections. The objectives of this study were to identify the viral agents associated with influenza like illness (ILI) in Ecuador, describe what strains of influenza were circulating in the region along with their epidemiologic characteristics, and perform molecular characterization of those strains. Methodology/Findings This is a prospective surveillance study of the causes of ILI based on viral culture of oropharyngeal specimens and case report forms obtained in hospitals from two cities of Ecuador over 4 years. Out of 1,702 cases of ILI, nine viral agents were detected in 597 patients. During the time of the study, seven genetic variants of influenza circulated in Ecuador, causing six periods of increased activity. There appeared to be more heterogeneity in the cause of ILI in the tropical city of Guayaquil when compared with the Andean city of Quito. Conclusions/Significance This was the most extensive documentation of the viral causes of ILI in Ecuador to date. Influenza was a common cause of ILI in Ecuador, causing more than one outbreak per year. There was no well defined influenza season although there were periods of time when no influenza was detected alternating with epidemics of different variant strains. PMID:21887216

  5. Economic losses related to internal diseases in Japanese black cattle.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Keiichi; Honda, Takeshi; Oyama, Kenji

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the direct economic losses due to the condemnation of the liver and large intestine because of internal diseases (multifocal necrosis in the liver (MNL) and inflammation of the large intestine (ILI)), and the indirect losses because of reductions in carcass performance from MNL, bovine abdominal fat necrosis (BFN) and ILI using data from 5383 Japanese Black cattle. Direct losses were estimated by multiplying the price of the condemned part by the frequency of its occurrence owing to the disease. Similarly, indirect losses were estimated as the product of unit carcass price and reduction in carcass weight (CW) due to the disease. The direct impact on the beef cattle industry from MNL and ILI was estimated at around $1.29 million (US$1 = ¥120) per year. A least-squares analysis showed that MNL had no influence on any carcass trait, whereas BFN and ILI significantly reduced CW, rib eye area and darkened the beef. ILI also reduced rib thickness. The indirect losses from BFN and ILI were estimated as a maximum of $131.7 and $256.4 per animal and around $6.26 million and $4.03 million for the industry, respectively, mostly because of the reduction in CW. PMID:26277864

  6. Lifestyle intervention and/or statins for the reduction of C-reactive protein in type 2 diabetes: From the Look AHEAD Study

    PubMed Central

    Belalcazar, L.M.; Haffner, S.M.; Lang, W.; Hoogeveen, R.C.; Rushing, J.; Schwenke, D.C.; Tracy, R.P.; Pi-Sunyer, F.X.; Kriska, A.M.; Ballantyne, C.M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Cardiovascular risk remains high despite statin use. Overweight/obese diabetic persons usually have normal/low LDL-cholesterol but high C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. We aimed to examine the effects of intensive lifestyle intervention for weight loss (ILI) on CRP levels in overweight/obese diabetic individuals by statin use. Design and Methods Look AHEAD was a randomized trial in overweight/obese type 2 diabetic individuals testing whether ILI would reduce cardiovascular mortality, when compared to usual care. We evaluated CRP changes in 1,431 participants with biomarker levels, who remained on or off statin treatment for 1-year. Results The reduction in CRP levels with ILI at 1 year in men and women on statins was −44.9 and −42.3 %, respectively, compared to −13.7 and −21.0 % for those on statins and usual care (p<0.0001). At 1 year, median CRP levels were: 1.8 mg/L in participants randomized to ILI on statin therapy; 2.6 mg/L for those on statins randomized to usual care and 2.9 mg/L for participants not on statins but randomized to ILI. Weight loss was associated with 1-year CRP reduction (p<0.0001) in statin and non-statin users. Conclusions Our findings suggest that in overweight/obese diabetic persons, ILI and statin therapy may have substantial additive anti-inflammatory benefits. PMID:23512860

  7. Impact of Weight Loss on Ankle-Brachial Index and Inter-Artery Blood Pressures in Overweight and Obese Adults with Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Espeland, Mark A.; Lewis, Cora E.; Bahnson, Judy; Knowler, William C.; Regensteiner, Judith G.; Gaussoin, Sarah A.; Beavers, Daniel; Johnson, Karen C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess whether weight loss improves markers of peripheral artery disease and vascular stenosis. Design and Methods The Action for Health in Diabetes randomized clinical trial compared intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) for weight loss to a control condition of diabetes support and education (DSE) in overweight or obese adults with type 2 diabetes. Annual ankle and brachial blood pressures over four years were used compute ankle-brachial indices (ABIs) and to assess inter-artery blood pressure differences in 5018 participants. Results ILI, compared to DSE, produced 7.8% (Year 1) to 3.6% (Year 4) greater weight losses. These did not affect prevalence of low (<0.90) ABI (3.60% in DSE versus 3.14% in ILI; p=0.20) or elevated (>1.40) ABI (7.52% in DSE versus 7.59% in ILI: p=0.90), but produced smaller mean (SE) maximum inter-artery systolic blood pressure differences among ankle sites [19.7 (0.2) mmHg for ILI versus 20.6 (0.2) mmHg for DSE (p<0.001)] and between arms [5.8 (0.1) mmHg for ILI versus 6.1 (0.1) mmHg for DSE (p=0.01)]. Conclusions Four years of intensive behavioral weight loss intervention did not significantly alter prevalence of abnormal ABI, however it did reduce differences in systolic blood pressures among arterial sites. PMID:24174392

  8. Effect of thickness and strain on the metamagnetic transition temperature of ultra-thin epitaxial FeRh films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceballos, Alejandro; Bordel, Catherine; Schneider, Oliver; Hellman, Frances

    2015-03-01

    The antiferromagnetic to ferromagnetic transition in ultra-thin epitaxial FeRh films was studied as a function of film thickness and substrate-induced strain. The lattice mismatch from MgO, STO and KTO was used to provide different strain states on FeRh films with thicknesses spanning 5 to 22 nm. The interplay of these parameters was studied using magnetometry, diffractometry, atomic force microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. Our results provide insight into the growth mechanisms of FeRh and how the onset of the magnetic transition can be controlled via strain engineering. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship and the Department of Energy.

  9. Some features of the technogenic pollution of the Kara Sea, with the example of the sunken nuclear submarine K-27

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmitrievskiy, N. N.; Nikiforov, S. L.; Lobkovsky, L. I.; Ananiev, R. A.

    2015-11-01

    This article discusses the results of offshore operations undertaken during a cruise of the R/V Professor Shtokman (2013) during an expedition in the fjord Stepovoi of the Novaya Zemlya Archipelago k]where the nuclear submarine (NPS) K-27 was scuttled in 1981 k]An echo sounding of her hull showed signs of water destratification k]which may be caused by turbulence from gas or heat flows outgoing from the hull k]According to the hypothesis of the author k]the presence of the reactors and radioactive nuclear fuel remnants may lead to the continued heating of the inner cavities of the submarine and k]as a consequence k]to constant heat flow from its surface k]which is an obvious danger k]including risks associated with plans to refloat and transport the submarine for the further dismantlement.

  10. Almost primes in almost all short intervals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    TERÄVÄINEN, JONI

    2016-09-01

    Let $E_k$ be the set of positive integers having exactly $k$ prime factors. We show that almost all intervals $[x,x+\\log^{1+\\varepsilon} x]$ contain $E_3$ numbers, and almost all intervals $[x,x+\\log^{3.51} x]$ contain $E_2$ numbers. By this we mean that there are only $o(X)$ integers $1\\leq x\\leq X$ for which the mentioned intervals do not contain such numbers. The result for $E_3$ numbers is optimal up to the $\\varepsilon$ in the exponent. The theorem on $E_2$ numbers improves a result of Harman, which had the exponent $7+\\varepsilon$ in place of $3.51$. We will also consider general $E_k$ numbers, and find them on intervals whose lengths approach $\\log x$ as $k\\to \\infty$.

  11. Wikipedia Usage Estimates Prevalence of Influenza-Like Illness in the United States in Near Real-Time

    PubMed Central

    McIver, David J.; Brownstein, John S.

    2014-01-01

    Circulating levels of both seasonal and pandemic influenza require constant surveillance to ensure the health and safety of the population. While up-to-date information is critical, traditional surveillance systems can have data availability lags of up to two weeks. We introduce a novel method of estimating, in near-real time, the level of influenza-like illness (ILI) in the United States (US) by monitoring the rate of particular Wikipedia article views on a daily basis. We calculated the number of times certain influenza- or health-related Wikipedia articles were accessed each day between December 2007 and August 2013 and compared these data to official ILI activity levels provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). We developed a Poisson model that accurately estimates the level of ILI activity in the American population, up to two weeks ahead of the CDC, with an absolute average difference between the two estimates of just 0.27% over 294 weeks of data. Wikipedia-derived ILI models performed well through both abnormally high media coverage events (such as during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic) as well as unusually severe influenza seasons (such as the 2012–2013 influenza season). Wikipedia usage accurately estimated the week of peak ILI activity 17% more often than Google Flu Trends data and was often more accurate in its measure of ILI intensity. With further study, this method could potentially be implemented for continuous monitoring of ILI activity in the US and to provide support for traditional influenza surveillance tools. PMID:24743682

  12. Eight-Year Weight Losses with an Intensive Lifestyle Intervention: The Look AHEAD Study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate 8-year weight losses achieved with intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) in the Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) study. Design and Methods Look AHEAD assessed the effects of intentional weight loss on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in 5,145 overweight/obese adults with type 2 diabetes, randomly assigned to ILI or usual care (i.e., diabetes support and education [DSE]). The ILI provided comprehensive behavioral weight loss counseling over 8 years; DSE participants received periodic group education only. Results All participants had the opportunity to complete 8 years of intervention before Look AHEAD was halted in September 2012; ≥88% of both groups completed the 8-year outcomes assessment. ILI and DSE participants lost (mean±SE) 4.7±0.2% and 2.1±0.2% of initial weight, respectively (p<0.001) at year 8; 50.3% and 35.7%, respectively, lost ≥5% (p<0.001), and 26.9% and 17.2%, respectively, lost ≥10% (p<0.001). Across the 8 years ILI participants, compared with DSE, reported greater practice of several key weight-control behaviors. These behaviors also distinguished ILI participants who lost ≥10% and kept it off from those who lost but regained. Conclusions Look AHEAD’s ILI produced clinically meaningful weight loss (≥5%) at year 8 in 50% of patients with type 2 diabetes and can be used to manage other obesity-related co-morbid conditions. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00017953 PMID:24307184

  13. Influenza Surveillance and Incidence in a Rural Area in China during the 2009/2010 Influenza Pandemic

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ying; Li, Lin; Dong, Xiaochun; Kong, Mei; Gao, Lu; Dong, Xiaojing; Xu, Wenti

    2014-01-01

    Background Most influenza surveillance is based on data from urban sentinel hospitals; little is known about influenza activity in rural communities. We conducted influenza surveillance in a rural region of China with the aim of detecting influenza activity in the 2009/2010 influenza season. Methods The study was conducted from October 2009 to March 2010. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to confirm influenza cases. Over-the-counter (OTC) drug sales were daily collected in drugstores and hospitals/clinics. Space-time scan statistics were used to identify clusters of ILI in community. The incidence rate of ILI/influenza was estimated on the basis of the number of ILI/influenza cases detected by the hospitals/clinics. Results A total of 434 ILI cases (3.88% of all consultations) were reported; 64.71% of these cases were influenza A (H1N1) pdm09. The estimated incidence rate of ILI and influenza were 5.19/100 and 0.40/100, respectively. The numbers of ILI cases and OTC drug purchases in the previous 7 days were strongly correlated (Spearman rank correlation coefficient [r] = 0.620, P = 0.001). Four ILI outbreaks were detected by space-time permutation analysis. Conclusions This rural community surveillance detected influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 activity and outbreaks in the 2009/2010 influenza season and enabled estimation of the incidence rate of influenza. It also provides a scientific data for public health measures. PMID:25542003

  14. Limb Preservation With Isolated Limb Infusion for Locally Advanced Nonmelanoma Cutaneous and Soft-Tissue Malignant Neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Turaga, Kiran K.; Beasley, Georgia M.; Kane, John M.; Delman, Keith A.; Grobmyer, Stephen R.; Gonzalez, Ricardo J.; Letson, G. Douglas; Cheong, David; Tyler, Douglas S.; Zager, Jonathan S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To demonstrate the efficacy of isolated limb infusion (ILI) in limb preservation for patients with locally advanced soft-tissue sarcomas and nonmelanoma cutaneous malignant neoplasms. Background Locally advanced nonmelanoma cutaneous and soft-tissue malignant neoplasms, including soft-tissue sarcomas of the extremities, can pose significant treatment challenges. We report our experience, including responses and limb preservation rates, using ILI in cutaneous and soft-tissue malignant neoplasms. Methods We identified 22 patients with cutaneous and soft-tissue malignant neoplasms who underwent 26 ILIs with melphalan and actinomycin from January 1, 2004, through December 31, 2009, from 5 institutions. Outcome measures included limb preservation and in-field response rates. Toxicity was measured using the Wieberdink scale and serum creatinine phosphokinase levels. Results The median age was 70 years (range, 19-92 years), and 12 patients (55%) were women. Fourteen patients (64%) had sarcomas, 7 (32%) had Merkel cell carcinoma, and 1 (5%) had squamous cell carcinoma. The median length of stay was 5.5 days (interquartile range, 4-8 days). Twenty-five of the 26 ILIs (96%) resulted in Wieberdink grade III or less toxicity, and 1 patient (4%) developed grade IV toxicity. The median serum creatinine phosphokinase level was 127 U/L for upper extremity ILIs and 93 U/L for lower extremity ILIs. Nineteen of 22 patients (86%) underwent successful limb preservation. The 3-month in-field response rate was 79% (21% complete and 58% partial), and the median follow-up was 8.6 months (range, 1-63 months). Five patients underwent resection of disease after an ILI, of whom 80% are disease free at a median of 8.6 months. Conclusions Isolated limb infusion provides an attractive alternative therapy for regional disease control and limb preservation in patients with limb-threatening cutaneous and soft-tissue malignant neoplasms. Short-term response rates appear encouraging, yet

  15. Derivation of baseline lung impedance in chronic heart failure patients: use for monitoring pulmonary congestion and predicting admissions for decompensation.

    PubMed

    Shochat, Michael; Shotan, Avraham; Blondheim, David S; Kazatsker, Mark; Dahan, Iris; Asif, Aya; Shochat, Ilia; Frimerman, Aaron; Rozenman, Yoseph; Meisel, Simcha R

    2015-06-01

    The instantaneous lung impedance (ILI) is one of the methods to assess pulmonary congestion or edema (PCE) in chronic heart failure (CHF) patients. Due to usually existing PCE in CHF patients when evaluated, baseline lung impedance (BLI) is unknown. Therefore, the relation of ILI to BLI is unknown. Our aim was to evaluate methods to calculate and appraise BLI or its derivative as reflecting the clinical status of CHF patients. ILI and New York Heart Association (NYHA) class were assessed in 222 patients (67 ± 11 years, LVEF <35 %) during 32 months of frequent outpatient clinic visits. ILI, measured in 120 asymptomatic patients at NYHA class I, with no congestion on the chest X-ray and a low-normal 6-min walk, was defined as BLI. Using measured BLI and ILI values in these patients, formulas for BLI calculation were derived based on logistic regression analysis or on the disparity between BLI and ILI values at different NYHA stages. Both models were equally reliable with <3 % difference between measured and calculated BLI (p = NS). ΔLIR = (ILI/BLI - 1) × 100 % reflected the degree of PCE, or deviation from baseline, correlated with NYHA class (r = -0.9, p < 0.001) and could serve for monitoring. Of study patients, 123 were re-hospitalized for PCE during follow up. Their ΔLIR decreased gradually from -21.7 ± 8.2 % 4 weeks pre-admission to -37.8 ± 9.3 % on admission (p < 0.001). Patients improved during hospital stay (NYHA 3.7 ± 0.5 to 2.9 ± 0.8, p < 0.0001) with ΔLIR increasing to -29.1 ± 12.0 % (p < 0.001). ΔLIR based on calculated BLI correlated with the clinical status of CHF patients and allowed the prediction of hospitalizations for PCE. PMID:25193676

  16. Monitoring Influenza Activity in the United States: A Comparison of Traditional Surveillance Systems with Google Flu Trends

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz, Justin R.; Zhou, Hong; Shay, David K.; Neuzil, Kathleen M.; Fowlkes, Ashley L.; Goss, Christopher H.

    2011-01-01

    Background Google Flu Trends was developed to estimate US influenza-like illness (ILI) rates from internet searches; however ILI does not necessarily correlate with actual influenza virus infections. Methods and Findings Influenza activity data from 2003–04 through 2007–08 were obtained from three US surveillance systems: Google Flu Trends, CDC Outpatient ILI Surveillance Network (CDC ILI Surveillance), and US Influenza Virologic Surveillance System (CDC Virus Surveillance). Pearson's correlation coefficients with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated to compare surveillance data. An analysis was performed to investigate outlier observations and determine the extent to which they affected the correlations between surveillance data. Pearson's correlation coefficient describing Google Flu Trends and CDC Virus Surveillance over the study period was 0.72 (95% CI: 0.64, 0.79). The correlation between CDC ILI Surveillance and CDC Virus Surveillance over the same period was 0.85 (95% CI: 0.81, 0.89). Most of the outlier observations in both comparisons were from the 2003–04 influenza season. Exclusion of the outlier observations did not substantially improve the correlation between Google Flu Trends and CDC Virus Surveillance (0.82; 95% CI: 0.76, 0.87) or CDC ILI Surveillance and CDC Virus Surveillance (0.86; 95%CI: 0.82, 0.90). Conclusions This analysis demonstrates that while Google Flu Trends is highly correlated with rates of ILI, it has a lower correlation with surveillance for laboratory-confirmed influenza. Most of the outlier observations occurred during the 2003–04 influenza season that was characterized by early and intense influenza activity, which potentially altered health care seeking behavior, physician testing practices, and internet search behavior. PMID:21556151

  17. Demonstrating the Use of High-Volume Electronic Medical Claims Data to Monitor Local and Regional Influenza Activity in the US

    PubMed Central

    Viboud, Cécile; Charu, Vivek; Olson, Donald; Ballesteros, Sébastien; Gog, Julia; Khan, Farid; Grenfell, Bryan; Simonsen, Lone

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Fine-grained influenza surveillance data are lacking in the US, hampering our ability to monitor disease spread at a local scale. Here we evaluate the performances of high-volume electronic medical claims data to assess local and regional influenza activity. Material and Methods We used electronic medical claims data compiled by IMS Health in 480 US locations to create weekly regional influenza-like-illness (ILI) time series during 2003–2010. IMS Health captured 62% of US outpatient visits in 2009. We studied the performances of IMS-ILI indicators against reference influenza surveillance datasets, including CDC-ILI outpatient and laboratory-confirmed influenza data. We estimated correlation in weekly incidences, peak timing and seasonal intensity across datasets, stratified by 10 regions and four age groups (<5, 5–29, 30–59, and 60+ years). To test IMS-Health performances at the city level, we compared IMS-ILI indicators to syndromic surveillance data for New York City. We also used control data on laboratory-confirmed Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) activity to test the specificity of IMS-ILI for influenza surveillance. Results Regional IMS-ILI indicators were highly synchronous with CDC's reference influenza surveillance data (Pearson correlation coefficients rho≥0.89; range across regions, 0.80–0.97, P<0.001). Seasonal intensity estimates were weakly correlated across datasets in all age data (rho≤0.52), moderately correlated among adults (rho≥0.64) and uncorrelated among school-age children. IMS-ILI indicators were more correlated with reference influenza data than control RSV indicators (rho = 0.93 with influenza v. rho = 0.33 with RSV, P<0.05). City-level IMS-ILI indicators were highly consistent with reference syndromic data (rho≥0.86). Conclusion Medical claims-based ILI indicators accurately capture weekly fluctuations in influenza activity in all US regions during inter-pandemic and pandemic seasons, and can be

  18. Partial meal replacement plan and quality of the diet at one year: Action for Health in Diabetes (Look AHEAD) Trial

    PubMed Central

    Raynor, Hollie A.; Anderson, Andrea M.; Miller, Gary D.; Reeves, Rebecca; Delahanty, Linda M.; Vitolins, Mara Z.; Harper, Patricia; Mobley, Connie; Konersman, Kati; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Background Little is known about diet quality with a reduced-energy, low-fat, partial meal replacement (PMR) plan, especially in individuals with type 2 diabetes. The Action for Health in Diabetes (Look AHEAD) trial implemented a PMR plan in the intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI). Objective Compare dietary intake and percent meeting fat-related and food group dietary recommendations in ILI and diabetes support and education (DSE) groups at 12 months. Design Randomized controlled trial, comparing ILI to DSE, at 0- and 12-months. Participants/setting From 16 United States sites, the first 50% of participants (aged 45 to 76 years, overweight or obese, with type 2 diabetes) were invited to complete dietary assessments. Complete 0- and 12-month dietary assessments (collected between 2001 and 2004) were available on 2,397 participants (46.6% of total participants), with 1,186 randomized to DSE and 1,211 randomized to ILI. Main outcome measures A food frequency questionnaire assessed intake: energy; percent energy from protein, fat, carbohydrate, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), and saturated fats; trans fatty acids; cholesterol; fiber; weekly meal replacements (MRs); and daily servings from food groups from the Food Guide Pyramid. Statistical analyses performed Mixed-factor analyses of covariance (ANCOVA), using Proc MIXED with a repeated statement, with age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, and income controlled. Unadjusted chi-square tests compared percent meeting fat-related and food group recommendations at 12 months. Results At 12 months, ILI had a significantly lower fat and cholesterol intake and greater fiber intake than DSE. ILI consumed more servings/day of fruits; vegetables; and milk, yogurt & cheese; and fewer servings/day of fats, oils & sweets than DSE. A greater percentage of ILI than DSE participants met fat-related and most food group recommendations. Within ILI, a greater percentage of participants consuming ≥ 2 MRs/day than < 1 MR/day met most

  19. Flu Near You: Crowdsourced Symptom Reporting Spanning 2 Influenza Seasons

    PubMed Central

    Smolinski, Mark S.; Baltrusaitis, Kristin; Chunara, Rumi; Olsen, Jennifer M.; Wójcik, Oktawia; Santillana, Mauricio; Nguyen, Andre; Brownstein, John S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We summarized Flu Near You (FNY) data from the 2012–2013 and 2013–2014 influenza seasons in the United States. Methods. FNY collects limited demographic characteristic information upon registration, and prompts users each Monday to report symptoms of influenza-like illness (ILI) experienced during the previous week. We calculated the descriptive statistics and rates of ILI for the 2012–2013 and 2013–2014 seasons. We compared raw and noise-filtered ILI rates with ILI rates from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ILINet surveillance system. Results. More than 61 000 participants submitted at least 1 report during the 2012–2013 season, totaling 327 773 reports. Nearly 40 000 participants submitted at least 1 report during the 2013–2014 season, totaling 336 933 reports. Rates of ILI as reported by FNY tracked closely with ILINet in both timing and magnitude. Conclusions. With increased participation, FNY has the potential to serve as a viable complement to existing outpatient, hospital-based, and laboratory surveillance systems. Although many established systems have the benefits of specificity and credibility, participatory systems offer advantages in the areas of speed, sensitivity, and scalability. PMID:26270299

  20. Assessment of ICD-9-based case definitions for influenza-like illness surveillance.

    PubMed

    Eick-Cost, Angelia A; Hunt, Devin J

    2015-09-01

    Population-based surveillance of influenza routinely relies on administrative medical encounter databases and ICD-9 codes. However, an assessment of the ICD-9 codes used for the Department of Defense (DoD) influenza-like illness (ILI) case definition has not been conducted since 2007. As coding practices may have changed over time, this analysis was done to determine the sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value (PPV) of the current ILI case definition and three alternative case definitions for the 2014-2015 influenza season. Influenza laboratory tests conducted on specimens from DoD beneficiaries during the 2014-2015 season were matched to ambulatory and inpatient medical encounters. The current DoD ILI case definition had high sensitivity (92%) but low specificity (30%) and moderate PPV (63%). A more specific ILI case definition utilizing only codes with greater than 75% influenza positivity for the matched laboratory test had high specificity (96%) and PPV (96%) and moderate sensitivity (62%). The current ILI case definition is sufficient for broad, sensitive population-based surveillance; however, an alternative case definition may be more appropriate when there is a need to maximize specificity. PMID:26418885

  1. Climatic Drivers Of Seasonal Influenza Epidemics In French Guiana, 2006–2010

    PubMed Central

    Mahamat, A.; Dussart, P.; Bouix, A.; Carvalho, L.; Eltges, F.; Matheus, S.; Miller, MA.; Quenel, P.; Viboud, C.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Influenza seasonality remains poorly studied in Equatorial regions. Here we assessed the seasonal characteristics and environmental drivers of influenza epidemics in French Guiana, where influenza surveillance was established in 2006. Methods Sentinel GPs monitored weekly incidence of Influenza-like illnesses (ILI) from January 2006 through December 2010 and collected nasopharyngeal specimens from patients for virological confirmation. Times series analysis was used to investigate relationship between ILI and climatic parameters (rainfall and specific humidity). Results Based on 1,533 viruses identified during the study period, we observed marked seasonality in the circulation of influenza virus in the pre-pandemic period, followed by year-round activity in the post-pandemic period, with a peak in the rainy season. ILI incidence showed seasonal autoregressive variation based on ARIMA analysis. Multivariate dynamic regression revealed that a 1mm increase of rainfall resulted in an increase of 0.33% in ILI incidence one week later, adjusting for specific humidity (SH). Conversely, an increase of 1g/kg of SH resulted in a decrease of 11% in ILI incidence 3 weeks later, adjusting for rainfall. Conclusions Increased rainfall and low levels of specific humidity favor influenza transmission in French Guiana. PMID:23597784

  2. Perfusion and infusion for melanoma in-transit metastases in the era of effective systemic therapy.

    PubMed

    Grünhagen, Dirk J; Kroon, Hidde M; Verhoef, Cornelis

    2015-01-01

    The management of melanoma in-transit metastases (IT-mets) is challenging. For many years, the absence of effective systemic therapy has prompted physicians to focus on regional therapies for melanoma confined to the limb. The introduction of isolated limb perfusion (ILP) and isolated limb infusion (ILI) has enabled effective delivery of cytotoxic drugs in an isolated circuit, so as to overcome systemic toxicity and maximize local response. Both techniques have evolved over years and both tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha-based ILP and ILI have distinct indications. The development of new systemic treatment options for patients with melanoma in the past decade has shed a new light on melanoma therapy. The present manuscript focuses on the modern role of ILI and ILP in the treatment of patients with melanoma with in-transit metastases in the era of effective systemic therapy. The response and control rates of ILI/ILP are still superior to rates achieved with systemic agents. The extent of disease in patients with stage III disease, however, warrants effective systemic treatment to prolong survival. There is great potential in combining rapid response therapy such as ILI/ILP with systemic agents for sustainable response. Trial results are eagerly awaited. PMID:25993219

  3. Inductive linkage identification on building blocks of different sizes and types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ying-ping; Chuang, Chung-Yao; Huang, Yuan-Wei

    2012-12-01

    The goal of linkage identification is to obtain the dependencies among decision variables. Such information or knowledge can be applied to design crossover operators and/or the encoding schemes in genetic and evolutionary methods. Thus, promising sub-solutions to the problem will be disrupted less likely, and successful convergence may be achieved more likely. To obtain linkage information, a linkage identification technique, called Inductive Linkage Identification (ILI), was proposed recently. ILI was established upon the mechanism of perturbation and the idea of decision tree learning. By constructing a decision tree according to decision variables and fitness difference values, the interdependent variables will be determined by the adopted decision tree learning algorithm. In this article, we aim to acquire a better understanding on the characteristics of ILI, especially its behaviour under problems composed of different-sized and different-type building blocks (BBs) which are not overlapped. Experiments showed that ILI can efficiently handle BBs of different sizes and is insensitive to BB types. Our experimental observations indicate the flexibility and the applicability of ILI on various elementary BB types that are commonly adopted in related experiments.

  4. The accuracy and timeliness of neuraminidase inhibitor dispensing data for predicting laboratory-confirmed influenza.

    PubMed

    Papenburg, J; Charland, K M; DE Serres, G; Buckeridge, D L

    2016-06-01

    Neuraminidase inhibitor (NI) dispensing has emerged as a possible automated data source for influenza surveillance. We aimed to evaluate its timeliness, correlation, and predictive accuracy in relation to influenza activity in Quebec, Canada, 2010-2013. Our secondary objective was to use the same metrics to compare NI dispensing to visits for influenza-like illness (ILI) in emergency departments (EDs). Provincial weekly counts of positive influenza laboratory tests were used as a reference measure for the level of influenza circulation. We applied ARIMA models to account for serial correlation. We computed cross-correlations to measure the strengths of association and lead-lag relationships between NI dispensing, ILI ED visits, and our reference indicator. Finally, using an ARIMA model, we evaluated the ability of NI dispensing and ILI ED visits to predict laboratory-confirmed influenza. NI dispensing was significantly correlated (R = 0·68) with influenza activity with no lag. The maximal correlation of ILI ED visits was not as strong (R = 0·50). Both NI dispensing and ILI ED visits were significant predictors of laboratory-confirmed influenza in a multivariable model; predictive potential was greatest when NI counts were lagged to precede laboratory surveillance by 2 weeks. We conclude that NI dispensing data provides timely and valuable information for influenza surveillance. PMID:26611607

  5. Hepatoprotective Effects of Total Triterpenoids and Total Flavonoids from Vitis vinifera L against Immunological Liver Injury in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tao; Zhao, Jun; Ma, Long; Ding, Yusong; Su, Deqi

    2012-01-01

    Suosuo grape (the fruits of Vitis vinifera L) has been used for prevention and treatment of liver diseases in Uighur folk medicine in China besides its edible value. In this study, the hepatoprotective effects of total triterpenoids (VTT) and total flavonoids (VTF) from Suosuo grape were evaluated in Bacille-Calmette-Guerin- (BCG-) plus-lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced immunological liver injury (ILI) in mice. Various dose groups (50, 150, and 300 mg/kg) of VTT and VTF alleviated the degree of liver injury of ILI mice, effectively reduced the BCG/LPS-induced elevated liver index and spleen index, hepatic nitric oxide (NO), and malondialdehyde (MDA) content, increased liver homogenate alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels, and restored hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in ILI mice. VTT and VTF also significantly inhibited intrahepatic expression of Th1 cytokines (IFN-γ and IL-2) in ILI mice and increased intrahepatic expression of Th2 cytokines (IL-4 and IL-10). Moreover, the increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio was significantly downregulated by VTT and VTF in liver tissue of ILI mice. These results are comparable to those of biphenyl dicarboxylate (DDB, the reference hepatoprotective agent) and suggest that VTT and VTF play a protective role against immunological liver injury, which may have important implications for our understanding of the immunoregulatory mechanisms of this plant. PMID:22262981

  6. Reversible Lipid Accumulation and Associated Division Arrest of Mycobacterium avium in Lipoprotein-Induced Foamy Macrophages May Resemble Key Events during Latency and Reactivation of Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Caire-Brändli, Irène; Papadopoulos, Alexia; Malaga, Wladimir; Marais, David; Canaan, Stéphane; Thilo, Lutz

    2014-01-01

    During the dormant phase of tuberculosis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis persists in lung granulomas by residing in foamy macrophages (FM) that contain abundant lipid bodies (LB) in their cytoplasm, allowing bacilli to accumulate lipids as intracytoplasmic lipid inclusions (ILI). An experimental model of FM is presented where bone marrow-derived mouse macrophages are infected with M. avium and exposed to very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) as a lipid source. Quantitative analysis of detailed electron microscope observations showed the following results. (i) Macrophages became foamy, and mycobacteria formed ILI, for which host triacylglycerides, rather than cholesterol, was essential. (ii) Lipid transfer occurred via mycobacterium-induced fusion between LB and phagosomes. (iii) Mycobacteria showed a thinned cell wall and became elongated but did not divide. (iv) Upon removal of VLDL, LB and ILI declined within hours, and simultaneous resumption of mycobacterial division restored the number of mycobacteria to the same level as that found in untreated control macrophages. This showed that the presence of ILI resulted in a reversible block of division without causing a change in the mycobacterial replication rate. Fluctuation between ILI either partially or fully extending throughout the mycobacterial cytoplasm was suggestive of bacterial cell cycle events. We propose that VLDL-driven FM constitute a well-defined cellular system in which to study changed metabolic states of intracellular mycobacteria that may relate to persistence and reactivation of tuberculosis. PMID:24478064

  7. The role of weather on the relation between influenza and influenza-like illness.

    PubMed

    van Noort, Sander P; Águas, Ricardo; Ballesteros, Sébastien; Gomes, M Gabriela M

    2012-04-01

    Influenza epidemics, enabled by viral antigenic drift, occur invariably each winter in temperate climates. However, attempts to correlate the magnitude of virus change and epidemic size have been unsatisfactory. The incidence of influenza is not typically measured directly, but rather derived from the incidence of influenza-like illness (ILI), a clinical syndrome. Weather factors have been shown to influence the manifestation of influenza-like symptoms. We fitted an influenza transmission model to time series of influenza-like illness as monitored from 2003 to 2010 by two independent symptomatic surveillance systems (Influenzanet and EISN) in three European countries. By assuming that seasonality only acts upon the manifestation of symptoms, the model shows a significant correlation between the absolute humidity and temperature at the time of infection, and the proportion of influenza infections fulfilling the clinical ILI case definition, the so-called ILI factor. When a weather-dependent ILI factor is included in the model, the epidemic size of influenza-like illness becomes dependent not only on the susceptibility of the population at the beginning of the epidemic season but also on the weather conditions during which the epidemic unfolds. The combination reduces season-to-season variation in epidemic size and, interestingly, leads to a non-monotonic trend whereby the largest ILI epidemic occurs for moderate initial susceptibility. PMID:22214751

  8. Adiponectin and the mediation of HDL-cholesterol change with improved lifestyle: the Look AHEAD Study.

    PubMed

    Belalcazar, L Maria; Lang, Wei; Haffner, Steven M; Hoogeveen, Ron C; Pi-Sunyer, F Xavier; Schwenke, Dawn C; Balasubramanyam, Ashok; Tracy, Russell P; Kriska, Andrea P; Ballantyne, Christie M

    2012-12-01

    Adipose tissue dysfunction plays a key role in the development of the metabolic abnormalities characteristic of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and participates actively in lipid metabolism. Adiponectin, found abundantly in circulation and a marker of adipose health, is decreased in obese persons with T2DM. We investigated whether the changes in adiponectin with an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) for weight loss could potentially mediate the increase in low HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) with ILI. Adiponectin and its fractions were determined using an ELISA with selective protease treatment in 1,397 participants from Look AHEAD, a trial examining whether ILI will reduce cardiovascular events in overweight/obese subjects with T2DM when compared with a control arm, diabetes support and education (DSE). Multivariable regression and mediational analyses were performed for adiponectin and its high-molecular-weight (HMW) and non-HMW fractions. ILI increased baseline HDL-C by 9.7% and adiponectin by 11.9%; changes with DSE were 1.3% and 0.2%, respectively (P < 0.0001). In a model including changes in weight, fitness, triglycerides, and glucose control and that adjusted for demographics and medical history, adiponectin changes remained significantly associated with HDL-C change. Data supported the contribution of changes in both HMW- and non-HMW-adiponectin to the improvement in HDL-C with ILI. PMID:22956782

  9. Cre-inducible human CD59 mediates rapid cell ablation after intermedilysin administration.

    PubMed

    Feng, Dechun; Dai, Shen; Liu, Fengming; Ohtake, Yosuke; Zhou, Zhou; Wang, Hua; Zhang, Yonggang; Kearns, Alison; Peng, Xiao; Zhu, Faliang; Hayat, Umar; Li, Man; He, Yong; Xu, Mingjiang; Zhao, Chunling; Cheng, Min; Zhang, Lining; Wang, Hong; Yang, Xiaofeng; Ju, Cynthia; Bryda, Elizabeth C; Gordon, Jennifer; Khalili, Kamel; Hu, Wenhui; Li, Shuxin; Qin, Xuebin; Gao, Bin

    2016-06-01

    Cell ablation is a powerful tool for studying cell lineage and/or function; however, current cell-ablation models have limitations. Intermedilysin (ILY), a cytolytic pore-forming toxin that is secreted by Streptococcus intermedius, lyses human cells exclusively by binding to the human complement regulator CD59 (hCD59), but does not react with CD59 from nonprimates. Here, we took advantage of this feature of ILY and developed a model of conditional and targeted cell ablation by generating floxed STOP-CD59 knockin mice (ihCD59), in which expression of human CD59 only occurs after Cre-mediated recombination. The administration of ILY to ihCD59+ mice crossed with various Cre-driver lines resulted in the rapid and specific ablation of immune, epithelial, or neural cells without off-target effects. ILY had a large pharmacological window, which allowed us to perform dose-dependent studies. Finally, the ILY/ihCD59-mediated cell-ablation method was tested in several disease models to study immune cell functionalities, hepatocyte and/or biliary epithelial damage and regeneration, and neural cell damage. Together, the results of this study demonstrate the utility of the ihCD59 mouse model for studying the effects of cell ablation in specific organ systems in a variety of developmental and disease states. PMID:27159394

  10. Do the omeprazole family compounds exert a protective effect against influenza-like illness?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Infections by influenza viruses place a heavy burden on public health and economies worldwide. Although vaccines are the best weapons against influenza, antiviral drugs could offer an opportunity to alleviate the burden of influenza. Since omeprazole family compounds block the “proton pump”, we hypothesized that they could interfere with the mechanism of fusion of the virus envelope and endosomal membrane, thereby hindering the M2 proton pump mechanism of influenza viruses. Methods A matched case-control study was performed in 2010-2011 in Italy. Cases were subjects aged over 18 years with a diagnosis of Influenza-like Illness (ILI); 254 case-control pairs were recruited. A multivariable conditional logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association between the prevention of ILI and the administration of omeprazole family compounds. The interaction between omeprazole family compounds and influenza vaccination was also examined. Results After control for potential confounders, subjects treated with omeprazole family compounds displayed a lower risk of catching ILI (ORadj = 0.29, 95% CI: 0.15-0.52). The risk of ILI in unvaccinated non-OFC users was about six times than that in vaccinated OFC users. Conclusions Although confirmation is necessary, these results suggest that omeprazole family compounds could be profitably used in the prevention of ILI. PMID:24889553

  11. Externally Wetted Ionic Liquid Thruster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozano, P.; Martinez-Sanchez, M.; Lopez-Urdiales, J. M.

    2004-10-01

    This paper presents initial developments of an electric propulsion system based on ionic liquid ion sources (ILIS). Propellants are ionic liquids, which are organic salts with two important characteristics; they remain in the liquid state at room temperature and have negligible vapor pressure, thus allowing their use in vacuum. The working principles of ILIS are similar to those of liquid metal ion sources (LMIS), in which a Taylor cone is electrostatically formed at the tip of an externally wetted needle while ions are emitted directly from its apex. ILIS have the advantage of being able to produce negative ions that have similar masses than their positive counterparts with similar current levels. This opens up the possibility of achieving plume electrical neutrality without electron emitters. The possible multiplexing of these emitters is discussed in terms of achievable thrust density for applications other than micro-propulsion.

  12. The development of an intelligent laboratory information system for a community health promotion centre.

    PubMed

    Chae, Young Moon; Lim, Hwan-Sub; Lee, Ju Hon; Bae, Mi Young; Kim, Gyu Hyung

    2002-01-01

    This study aimed to develop an Intelligent Laboratory Information System (ILIS) for the community health promotion centre in Kwachun city to help process an increasing amount of laboratory test data in an efficient manner, and to support the clinical decision-making of public health doctors. A sample of 170 cases was used for validation of the system. Overall, the system correctly predicted 92.5% of the cases. This paper also analysed the economic feasibility of the ILIS based on the Information Economics approach. The results showed that the ILIS not only helps screen more people by increasing the capacity of a health promotion centre, but also brings in more revenue to the centre. PMID:12862409

  13. Development of an intelligent laboratory information system for community health promotion center.

    PubMed

    Chae, Y M; Lim, H S; Lee, J H; Bae, M Y; Kim, G H; Bae, J H; Ahn, J O

    2001-01-01

    This study aimed to develop an Intelligent Laboratory Information System (ILIS) for the community health promotion center in Kwachun city to help process an increasing number of laboratory test data in an efficient manner, and to support the clinical decision-making of public health doctors. A sample of 170 cases was used for validation of the system. Overall, the system correctly predicted 92.5% of the cases. This paper also analyzed the economic feasibility of the ILIS based on the Information Economics approach. The results showed that the ILIS not only helps screen more people by increasing the capacity of a health promotion center, but also brings in more revenue to the center. PMID:11604775

  14. The Reliability of Tweets as a Supplementary Method of Seasonal Influenza Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Aslam, Anoshé A; Spitzberg, Brian H; An, Li; Gawron, J Mark; Gupta, Dipak K; Peddecord, K Michael; Nagel, Anna C; Allen, Christopher; Yang, Jiue-An; Lindsay, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    Background Existing influenza surveillance in the United States is focused on the collection of data from sentinel physicians and hospitals; however, the compilation and distribution of reports are usually delayed by up to 2 weeks. With the popularity of social media growing, the Internet is a source for syndromic surveillance due to the availability of large amounts of data. In this study, tweets, or posts of 140 characters or less, from the website Twitter were collected and analyzed for their potential as surveillance for seasonal influenza. Objective There were three aims: (1) to improve the correlation of tweets to sentinel-provided influenza-like illness (ILI) rates by city through filtering and a machine-learning classifier, (2) to observe correlations of tweets for emergency department ILI rates by city, and (3) to explore correlations for tweets to laboratory-confirmed influenza cases in San Diego. Methods Tweets containing the keyword “flu” were collected within a 17-mile radius from 11 US cities selected for population and availability of ILI data. At the end of the collection period, 159,802 tweets were used for correlation analyses with sentinel-provided ILI and emergency department ILI rates as reported by the corresponding city or county health department. Two separate methods were used to observe correlations between tweets and ILI rates: filtering the tweets by type (non-retweets, retweets, tweets with a URL, tweets without a URL), and the use of a machine-learning classifier that determined whether a tweet was “valid”, or from a user who was likely ill with the flu. Results Correlations varied by city but general trends were observed. Non-retweets and tweets without a URL had higher and more significant (P<.05) correlations than retweets and tweets with a URL. Correlations of tweets to emergency department ILI rates were higher than the correlations observed for sentinel-provided ILI for most of the cities. The machine-learning classifier

  15. Interpreting Google flu trends data for pandemic H1N1 influenza: the New Zealand experience.

    PubMed

    Wilson, N; Mason, K; Tobias, M; Peacey, M; Huang, Q S; Baker, M

    2009-01-01

    For the period of the spread of pandemic H1N1 influenza in New Zealand during 2009, we compared results from Google Flu Trends with data from existing surveillance systems. The patterns from Google Flu Trends were closely aligned with (peaking a week before and a week after) two independent national surveillance systems for influenza-like illness (ILI) cases. It was much less congruent with (delayed by three weeks) data from ILI-related calls to a national free-phone Healthline and with media coverage of pandemic influenza. Some patterns were unique to Google Flu Trends and may not have reflected the actual ILI burden in the community. Overall, Google Flu Trends appears to provide a useful free surveillance system but it should probably be seen as supplementary rather than as an alternative. PMID:19941777

  16. Effects of Hand Hygiene Campaigns on Incidence of Laboratory-confirmed Influenza and Absenteeism in Schoolchildren, Cairo, Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Afifi, Salma; Dueger, Erica; El-Ashry, Nagwa; Marfin, Anthony; Kandeel, Amr; Mohareb, Emad; El-Sayed, Nasr

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of an intensive hand hygiene campaign on reducing absenteeism caused by influenza-like illness (ILI), diarrhea, conjunctivitis, and laboratory-confirmed influenza, we conducted a randomized control trial in 60 elementary schools in Cairo, Egypt. Children in the intervention schools were required to wash hands twice each day, and health messages were provided through entertainment activities. Data were collected on student absenteeism and reasons for illness. School nurses collected nasal swabs from students with ILI, which were tested by using a qualitative diagnostic test for influenza A and B. Compared with results for the control group, in the intervention group, overall absences caused by ILI, diarrhea, conjunctivitis, and laboratory-confirmed influenza were reduced by 40%, 30%, 67%, and 50%, respectively (p<0.0001 for each illness). An intensive hand hygiene campaign was effective in reducing absenteeism caused by these illnesses. PMID:21470450

  17. Isolated limb infusion for melanoma: a simple alternative to isolated limb perfusion

    PubMed Central

    Mian, Rizwan; Henderson, Michael A.; Speakman, David; Finkelde, David; Ainslie, Jill; McKenzie, Alan

    2001-01-01

    Objective To describe initial experience with the new technique of isolated limb infusion (ILI) for in-transit melanoma. Design A prospective case series. Setting The major tertiary care oncology centre for the state of Victoria, Australia. Patients Nine patients having for extensive in-transit limb melanoma Interventions All patients received ILI (13 treatments). Outcome measures Patient survival, response to treatment and complications of treatment. Results There were no perioperative deaths and morbidity was limited to deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism in 1 patient. Control of the intransit metastases was achieved to some degree in all patients and was complete in 4. Conclusions ILI is an alternative treatment modality for patients suffering from multiple, advanced intransit melanoma metastases. It provides effective palliation with limited morbidity and offers a safe, quick, inexpensive alternative to isolated limb perfusion with comparable results. PMID:11407828

  18. Impact of Intensive Lifestyle Intervention on Depression and Health-Related Quality of Life in Type 2 Diabetes: The Look AHEAD Trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We examined the effects of an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI), compared with a diabetes support and education (DSE) control intervention, on long-term changes in depression symptoms, antidepressant medication (ADM) use, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in overweight/obese individuals with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Look AHEAD was a multisite randomized controlled trial of 5,145 overweight/obese participants assigned to ILI (designed to produce weight loss) or DSE and followed for a median of 9.6 years. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was administered at baseline, annually at years 1–4, and again at year 8. Mean BDI scores and incidence of BDI scores ≥10, indicative of likely mild or greater depression, were examined. Annually through year 10, participants reported their ADM use and completed the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 (SF-36) questionnaire, which yields physical component summary (PCS) and mental component summary (MCS) scores. RESULTS ILI significantly reduced the incidence of mild or greater depression symptoms (BDI scores ≥10) compared with DSE (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.85; 95% CI 0.75–0.97; P = 0.0145). Although SF-36 PCS scores worsened over time in both groups, ILI participants reported better physical function than DSE throughout the first 8 years (all P values <0.01). There were no significant differences between treatment arms in the proportion of participants who used ADMs or in SF-36 MCS scores. CONCLUSIONS ILI for overweight/obese patients with type 2 diabetes may reduce the risk of developing clinically significant symptoms of depression and preserve physical HRQoL. These findings should be considered when evaluating the potential benefits of ILIs. PMID:24855155

  19. Isolated limb infusion chemotherapy with or without hemofiltration for recurrent limb melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Cecchini, Sara; Sarti, Donatella; Ricci, Stefano; Vergini, Ludovico Delle; Sallei, Manuela; Serresi, Stefano; Ricotti, Giuseppe; Mulazzani, Luca; Lattanzio, Fabrizia; Fiorentini, Giammaria

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To better define the efficacy and the safety of intra-arterial infusion performed with or without hemofiltration for recurrent limb melanoma. METHODS: Patients with the following characteristics were included in the study: recurrent limb melanoma not indicated for surgical resection, measurable disease in the extremity, > 18 years, performances status (Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group ) was 0-1 and life expectancy of at least 6 mo. Twenty nine consecutive patients were enrolled in the study. Patients underwent fluoroscopic placement of angiographic arterial and venous catheters to infuse the drug in the artery [isolated limb infusion (ILI)], and to stop the out flow (venous). Melphalan was rapidly infused into the isolated limb via the arterial catheter after the inflation of venous balloon catheter. Then the circulation of the limb was completely blocked with a pneumatic cuff at the root of the limb. Haemofiltration (HF) was available only in the main center, and was performed with an extracorporeal perfusion system, in order to reduce high systemic toxic peaks of drug. RESULTS: Thirty seven ILI were done in 29 cases (31 ILI-HF and 6 ILI) between 2001 and 2014 at Ancona and Pesaro Hospitals, Italy. Clinical outcomes were monitored 30 d after treatment. Eleven patients (38%) received infusion of melphalan alone, 7 (24%) melphalan associated to mitomicin C and 7 (24%) melphalan associated to cisplatin, the remaining 4 were treated with cisplatin, melphalan and epirubicin or cisplatin and mitomicin C. The overall response rate was 66%, in particular, 3 patients (10%) were complete responders and 16 (56%) were partial responders; whereas 7 patients (24%) had stable disease, and 3 (10%) showed progressive disease. Limb toxicity was assessed adopting Wieberdink scale, with evidence of 90% of low grade (I and II) toxicity. CONCLUSION: ILI-HF and ILI are effective and safe treatments for recurrent non-resectable limb melanoma. They present evidence of favorable

  20. Influenza-Like-Illness and Clinically Diagnosed Flu: Disease Burden, Costs and Quality of Life for Patients Seeking Ambulatory Care or No Professional Care at All

    PubMed Central

    Bilcke, Joke; Coenen, Samuel; Beutels, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    This is one of the first studies to (1) describe the out-of-hospital burden of influenza-like-illness (ILI) and clinically diagnosed flu, also for patients not seeking professional medical care, (2) assess influential background characteristics, and (3) formally compare the burden of ILI in patients with and without a clinical diagnosis of flu. A general population sample with recent ILI experience was recruited during the 2011–2012 influenza season in Belgium. Half of the 2250 respondents sought professional medical care, reported more symptoms (especially more often fever), a longer duration of illness, more use of medication (especially antibiotics) and a higher direct medical cost than patients not seeking medical care. The disease and economic burden were similar for ambulatory ILI patients, irrespective of whether they received a clinical diagnosis of flu. On average, they experienced 5–6 symptoms over a 6-day period; required 1.6 physician visits and 86–91% took medication. An average episode amounted to €51–€53 in direct medical costs, 4 days of absence from work or school and the loss of 0.005 quality-adjusted life-years. Underlying illness led to greater costs and lower quality-of-life. The costs of ILI patients with clinically diagnosed flu tended to increase, while those of ILI patients without clinically diagnosed flu tended to decrease with age. Recently vaccinated persons experienced lower costs and a higher quality-of-life, but this was only the case for patients not seeking professional medical care. This information can be used directly to evaluate the implementation of cost-effective prevention and control measures for influenza. In particular to inform the evaluation of more widespread seasonal influenza vaccination, including in children, which is currently considered by many countries. PMID:25032688

  1. Influenza-like-illness and clinically diagnosed flu: disease burden, costs and quality of life for patients seeking ambulatory care or no professional care at all.

    PubMed

    Bilcke, Joke; Coenen, Samuel; Beutels, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    This is one of the first studies to (1) describe the out-of-hospital burden of influenza-like-illness (ILI) and clinically diagnosed flu, also for patients not seeking professional medical care, (2) assess influential background characteristics, and (3) formally compare the burden of ILI in patients with and without a clinical diagnosis of flu. A general population sample with recent ILI experience was recruited during the 2011-2012 influenza season in Belgium. Half of the 2250 respondents sought professional medical care, reported more symptoms (especially more often fever), a longer duration of illness, more use of medication (especially antibiotics) and a higher direct medical cost than patients not seeking medical care. The disease and economic burden were similar for ambulatory ILI patients, irrespective of whether they received a clinical diagnosis of flu. On average, they experienced 5-6 symptoms over a 6-day period; required 1.6 physician visits and 86-91% took medication. An average episode amounted to €51-€53 in direct medical costs, 4 days of absence from work or school and the loss of 0.005 quality-adjusted life-years. Underlying illness led to greater costs and lower quality-of-life. The costs of ILI patients with clinically diagnosed flu tended to increase, while those of ILI patients without clinically diagnosed flu tended to decrease with age. Recently vaccinated persons experienced lower costs and a higher quality-of-life, but this was only the case for patients not seeking professional medical care. This information can be used directly to evaluate the implementation of cost-effective prevention and control measures for influenza. In particular to inform the evaluation of more widespread seasonal influenza vaccination, including in children, which is currently considered by many countries. PMID:25032688

  2. Four-Year Weight Losses in the Look AHEAD Study: Factors Associated with Long-Term Success

    PubMed Central

    Wadden, Thomas A.; Neiberg, Rebecca H.; Wing, Rena R.; Clark, Jeanne M.; Delahanty, Linda M.; Hill, James O.; Krakoff, Jonathan; Otto, Amy; Ryan, Donna H.; Vitolins, Mara Z.

    2011-01-01

    This report provides a further analysis of the year 4 weight losses in the Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) study and identifies factors associated with long-term success. A total of 5145 overweight/obese men and women with type 2 diabetes were randomly assigned to an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) or a usual care group, referred to as Diabetes Support and Education (DSE). ILI participants were provided approximately weekly group or individual treatment in year 1; continued but less frequent contact was provided in years 2–4. DSE participants received three group educational sessions in all years. As reported previously, at year 4, ILI participants lost an average of 4.7% of initial weight, compared with 1.1% for DSE (p<0.0001). More ILI than DSE participants lost ≥5% (46% vs 25%, p<0.0001) and ≥10% (23% vs 10%, p<0.0001) of initial weight. Within the ILI, acheivement of both the 5% and 10% categorical weight losses at year 4 was strongly related to meeting these goals at year 1. A total of 887 participants in ILI lost ≥10% at year 1, of whom 374 (42.2%) achieved this loss at year 4. Participants who maintained the loss, compared with those who did not, attended more treatment sessions and reported more favorable physical activity and food intake at year 4. These results provide critical evidence that a comprehensive lifestyle intervention can induce clinically significant weight loss (i.e., ≥5%) in overweight/obese participants with type 2 diabetes and maintain this loss in more than 45% of patients at 4 years. PMID:21779086

  3. Effect of a Lifestyle Intervention on Change in Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes: Results from the Look AHEAD Study

    PubMed Central

    Jakicic, John M.; Jaramillo, Sarah A.; Balasubramanyam, Ashok; Bancroft, Barbara; Curtis, Jeffery M.; Mathews, Anne; Pereira, Mark; Regensteiner, Judith G.; Ribisl, Paul M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To examine the effect of an intensive lifestyle weight loss intervention (ILI) compared to diabetes support and education (DSE) on changes in fitness and physical activity in the Look AHEAD trial. Design Randomized clinical trial to compare a lifestyle intervention for weight loss with a diabetes support and education condition in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Subjects Data from 4,376 overweight or obese adults with type 2 diabetes (age = 58.7±6.8 years, BMI = 35.8±5.8 kg/m2) who completed one-year of the Look AHEAD trial and had available fitness data were analyzed. Intervention Subjects were randomly assigned to DSE or ILI. DSE received standard-care plus 3 education sessions over the one-year period. ILI included individual and group contact throughout the year, restriction in energy intake, and 175 min/wk of prescribed physical activity. Measurements Fitness was assessed using a submaximal graded exercise test. Physical activity was assessed via questionnaire in a subset of 2,221 subjects. Results Change in fitness was statistically greater in ILI vs. DSE after adjustment for baseline fitness (20.9% vs. 5.7%) (p<0.0001). Multivariate analysis showed that change in fitness was greater in overweight vs. obese Class II and III (p<0.05). Physical activity increased by 892±1694 kcal/wk in ILI vs. 108±1254 kcal/wk in DSE (p<0.01). Changes in fitness (r=0.41) and physical activity (r=0.42) were significantly correlated with weight loss (p<0.0001). Conclusions The ILI was effective in increasing physical activity and improving cardiorespiratory fitness in overweight and obese individuals with type 2 diabetes. This effect may add to weight loss in improving metabolic control in patients in lifestyle intervention programs. PMID:19153582

  4. Four-year weight losses in the Look AHEAD study: factors associated with long-term success.

    PubMed

    Wadden, Thomas A; Neiberg, Rebecca H; Wing, Rena R; Clark, Jeanne M; Delahanty, Linda M; Hill, James O; Krakoff, Jonathan; Otto, Amy; Ryan, Donna H; Vitolins, Mara Z

    2011-10-01

    This report provides a further analysis of the year 4 weight losses in the Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) study and identifies factors associated with long-term success. A total of 5,145 overweight/obese men and women with type 2 diabetes were randomly assigned to an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) or a usual care group, referred to as Diabetes Support and Education (DSE). ILI participants were provided approximately weekly group or individual treatment in year 1; continued but less frequent contact was provided in years 2-4. DSE participants received three group educational sessions in all years. As reported previously, at year 4, ILI participants lost an average of 4.7% of initial weight, compared with 1.1% for DSE (P < 0.0001). More ILI than DSE participants lost ≥ 5% (46% vs. 25%, P < 0.0001) and ≥ 10% (23% vs. 10%, P < 0.0001) of initial weight. Within the ILI, achievement of both the 5% and 10% categorical weight losses at year 4 was strongly related to meeting these goals at year 1. A total of 887 participants in ILI lost ≥ 10% at year 1, of whom 374 (42.2%) achieved this loss at year 4. Participants who maintained the loss, compared with those who did not, attended more treatment sessions and reported more favorable physical activity and food intake at year 4. These results provide critical evidence that a comprehensive lifestyle intervention can induce clinically significant weight loss (i.e., ≥ 5%) in overweight/obese participants with type 2 diabetes and maintain this loss in more than 45% of patients at 4 years. PMID:21779086

  5. One-Year Weight Losses in the Look AHEAD Study: Factors Associated with Success

    PubMed Central

    Wadden, Thomas A.; West, Delia S.; Neiberg, Rebecca; Wing, Rena R.; Ryan, Donna H.; Johnson, Karen C.; Foreyt, John; Hill, James O.; Trence, Dace; Vitolins, Mara

    2009-01-01

    This report provides a further analysis of the first year weight losses in the Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) study and identifies factors associated with success. Participants were a total of 5,145 men and women with type 2 diabetes who were recruited at 16 sites and randomly assigned to an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) or a control condition, Diabetes Support and Education (DSE). During year 1, participants in ILI received comprehensive diet and physical activity counseling in 42 group and individual sessions, compared with 3 educational sessions for DSE participants. As reported previously, at the end of the year, ILI participants lost 8.6% of initial weight, compared to 0.7% for DSE (p < 0.001). Within the ILI group, all racial/ethnic groups achieved clinically significant weight losses (≥ 5.5%), although there were significant differences among groups. For the year, ILI participants attended an average of 35.4 treatment sessions and reported exercising a mean of 136.6 min/week and consuming a total of 360.9 meal replacement products. Greater self-reported physical activity was the strongest correlate of weight loss, followed by treatment attendance and consumption of meal replacements. The use of orlistat, during the second half of the year, increased weight loss only marginally in those ILI participants who had lost < 5% of initial weight during the first 6 months and chose to take the medication thereafter as a toolbox option. The lifestyle intervention was clinically effective in all subsets of an ethnically and demographically diverse population. PMID:19180071

  6. Comparison of five influenza surveillance systems during the 2009 pandemic and their association with media attention

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background During the 2009 influenza pandemic period, routine surveillance of influenza-like-illness (ILI) was conducted in The Netherlands by a network of sentinel general practitioners (GPs). In addition during the pandemic period, four other ILI/influenza surveillance systems existed. For pandemic preparedness, we evaluated the performance of the sentinel system and the others to assess which of the four could be useful additions in the future. We also assessed whether performance of the five systems was influenced by media reports during the pandemic period. Methods The trends in ILI consultation rates reported by sentinel GPs from 20 April 2009 through 3 January 2010 were compared with trends in data from the other systems: ILI cases self-reported through the web-based Great Influenza Survey (GIS); influenza-related web searches through Google Flu Trends (GFT); patients admitted to hospital with laboratory-confirmed pandemic influenza, and detections of influenza virus by laboratories. In addition, correlations were determined between ILI consultation rates of the sentinel GPs and data from the four other systems. We also compared the trends of the five surveillance systems with trends in pandemic-related newspaper and television coverage and determined correlation coefficients with and without time lags. Results The four other systems showed similar trends and had strong correlations with the ILI consultation rates reported by sentinel GPs. The number of influenza virus detections was the only system to register a summer peak. Increases in the number of newspaper articles and television broadcasts did not precede increases in activity among the five surveillance systems. Conclusions The sentinel general practice network should remain the basis of influenza surveillance, as it integrates epidemiological and virological information and was able to maintain stability and continuity under pandemic pressure. Hospital and virological data are important during a

  7. Adult human metapneumonovirus (hMPV) pneumonia mimicking Legionnaire's disease.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Burke A; Irshad, Nadia; Connolly, James J

    2016-01-01

    In adults hospitalized with viral pneumonias the main differential diagnostic consideration is influenza pneumonia. The respiratory viruses causing viral influenza like illnesses (ILIs), e.g., RSV may closely resemble influenza. Rarely, extrapulmonary findings of some ILIs may resemble Legionnaire's disease (LD), e.g., adenovirus, human parainfluenza virus (HPIV-3). We present a most unusual case of human metapneumonovirus pneumonia (hMPV) with some characteristic extrapulmonary findings characteristic of LD, e.g., relative bradycardia, as well as mildly elevated serum transaminases and hyphosphatemia. We believe this is the first reported case of hMPV pneumonia in a hospitalized adult that had some features of LD. PMID:26988110

  8. Nitrate behaviors in unsaturated zone under farmlands with different fertilization log at Kumamoto region, Japan.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okumura, Azusa; Hosono, Takahiro; Shimada, Jun

    2016-04-01

    Excessive application of fertilizer and manure in agricultural activities often caused an increase of nitrate concentration in groundwater. The study area, Kumamoto is also facing this type of problem. Previous studies using nitrogen-oxygen isotope ratios in nitrate, it was shown that accumulation of chemical fertilizer is the major factor of nitrate contamination in the Kumamoto region. However, once it loaded nitrogen component may change its form and isotopic composition during downwards transportation into the aquifer. Especially, in the study area where the groundwater is recharged through a thick unsaturated zone, and therefore, it is important to elucidate the phenomenon happened in the soil zone of this area. However, it has not been. To clarify the behavior of nitrogen and the change of nitrate concentration in the unsaturated zone, we analyzed the nitrogen-oxygen isotope ratios of the extracted soil water of the unsaturated zone soils, sampled in the farmland having different fertilization logs. In addition, we attempted to verify the origin of groundwater contamination by comparing with previous results. The plateaus-like topography of the study area is consists of the pyroclastic flow deposits. Land use is mainly farmland and this area is a major source of nitrogen load and transport route into the aquifer. Nitrate concentration in groundwater at terraces recharge area has been reported about 40 mg/L. Drilling survey carried out in the unsaturated zone soil on 4 farmlands with the different land use logs in such terraces. Drilling point KO and KTO were treated by both slurry and chemical fertilizers, on the other hand, point M1 and M2 were fertilized by only chemical fertilizers. The drilling depth was up to 14-15 m, and soil samples were kept on evacuated condition after sectioning into 10 cm interval. The soil water was extracted using a centrifuge machine. The extracted soil water was measured for the nitrogen-oxygen isotope ratios in nitrate and

  9. Use of urea and glycine betaine to quantify coupled folding and probe the burial of DNA phosphates in lac repressor-lac operator binding.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jiang; Capp, Mike W; Saecker, Ruth M; Record, M Thomas

    2005-12-27

    Thermodynamic analysis of urea-biopolymer interactions and effects of urea on folding of proteins and alpha-helical peptides shows that urea interacts primarily with polar amide surface. Urea is therefore predicted to be a quantitative probe of coupled folding, remodeling, and other large-scale changes in the amount of water-accessible polar amide surface in protein processes. A parallel analysis indicates that glycine betaine [N,N,N-trimethylglycine (GB)] can be used to detect burial or exposure of anionic (carboxylate, phosphate) biopolymer surface. To test these predictions, we have investigated the effects of these solutes (0-3 m) on the formation of 1:1 complexes between lac repressor (LacI) and its symmetric operator site (SymL) at a constant KCl molality. Urea reduces the binding constant K(TO) [initial slope dlnK(TO)/dm(urea) = -1.7 +/- 0.2], and GB increases K(TO) [initial slope dlnK(TO)/dm(GB) = 2.1 +/- 0.2]. For both solutes, this derivative decreases with an increase in solute concentration. Analysis of these initial slopes predicts that (1.5 +/- 0.3) x 10(3) A2 of polar amide surface and (4.5 +/- 1.0) x 10(2) A2 of anionic surface are buried in the association process. Analysis of published structural data, together with modeling of unfolded regions of free LacI as extended chains, indicates that 1.5 x 10(3) A2 of polar amide surface and 6.3 x 10(2) A2 of anionic surface are buried in complexation. Quantitative agreement between structural and thermodynamic results is obtained for amide surface (urea); for anionic surface (GB), the experimental value is approximately 70% of the structural value. For LacI-SymL binding, two-thirds of the structurally predicted change in amide surface (1.0 x 10(3) A2) occurs outside the protein-DNA interface in protein-protein interfaces formed by folding of the hinge helices and interactions of the DNA binding domain (DBD) with the core of the repressor. Since urea interacts principally with amide surface, it is

  10. Effectiveness of 2012-2013 influenza vaccine against influenza-like illness in general population: estimation in a French web-based cohort.

    PubMed

    Debin, Marion; Colizza, Vittoria; Blanchon, Thierry; Hanslik, Thomas; Turbelin, Clement; Falchi, Alessandra

    2014-01-01

    Most of the methods used for estimating the influenza vaccine effectiveness (IVE) target the individuals who have an influenza-like illness (ILI) rather than virologically-proven influenza and access the healthcare system. The objective of this study was to estimate the 2012-2013 IVE in general French population, using a cohort of volunteers registered on GrippeNet.fr, an online surveillance system for ILI. The IVE estimations were obtained through a logistic regression, and analyses were also performed by focusing on at-risk population of severe influenza, and by varying inclusion period and ILI definition. Overall, 1996 individuals were included in the analyses. The corrected IVE was estimated to 49% (20 to 67) for the overall population, and 32% (0 to 58) for the at-risk population. Three covariables appeared with a significant effect on the occurrence of at least one ILI during the epidemic: the age (P = 0.045), the presence of a child in the household (P<10(-3)), and the frequency of cold/flu (P<10(-3)). Comparable results were found at epidemic peak time in the hypothesis of real-time feed of data. In this study, we proposed a novel, follow-up, web-based method to reveal seasonal vaccine effectiveness, which enables analysis in a portion of the population that is not tracked by the health care system in most VE studies. PMID:24343049

  11. Combining Search, Social Media, and Traditional Data Sources to Improve Influenza Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Santillana, Mauricio; Nguyen, André T.; Dredze, Mark; Paul, Michael J.; Nsoesie, Elaine O.; Brownstein, John S.

    2015-01-01

    We present a machine learning-based methodology capable of providing real-time (“nowcast”) and forecast estimates of influenza activity in the US by leveraging data from multiple data sources including: Google searches, Twitter microblogs, nearly real-time hospital visit records, and data from a participatory surveillance system. Our main contribution consists of combining multiple influenza-like illnesses (ILI) activity estimates, generated independently with each data source, into a single prediction of ILI utilizing machine learning ensemble approaches. Our methodology exploits the information in each data source and produces accurate weekly ILI predictions for up to four weeks ahead of the release of CDC’s ILI reports. We evaluate the predictive ability of our ensemble approach during the 2013–2014 (retrospective) and 2014–2015 (live) flu seasons for each of the four weekly time horizons. Our ensemble approach demonstrates several advantages: (1) our ensemble method’s predictions outperform every prediction using each data source independently, (2) our methodology can produce predictions one week ahead of GFT’s real-time estimates with comparable accuracy, and (3) our two and three week forecast estimates have comparable accuracy to real-time predictions using an autoregressive model. Moreover, our results show that considerable insight is gained from incorporating disparate data streams, in the form of social media and crowd sourced data, into influenza predictions in all time horizons. PMID:26513245

  12. Embedded Librarianship and Teacher Education: A Neuroeducational Paradigm Using Guided Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Signia; Templeton, Lolly

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on a course-embedded guided inquiry project initiated by a senior librarian and an education professor to promote an understanding of how the brain functions and to experiment with brain-targeted teaching techniques. Information literacy instruction (ILI) takes place in the electronic classroom in the Educational Resources…

  13. The East Jakarta Project: surveillance for highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) and seasonal influenza viruses in patients seeking care for respiratory disease, Jakarta, Indonesia, October 2011-September 2012.

    PubMed

    Storms, A D; Kusriastuti, R; Misriyah, S; Praptiningsih, C Y; Amalya, M; Lafond, K E; Samaan, G; Triada, R; Iuliano, A D; Ester, M; Sidjabat, R; Chittenden, K; Vogel, R; Widdowson, M A; Mahoney, F; Uyeki, T M

    2015-12-01

    Indonesia has reported the most human infections with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A(H5N1) virus worldwide. We implemented enhanced surveillance in four outpatient clinics and six hospitals for HPAI H5N1 and seasonal influenza viruses in East Jakarta district to assess the public health impact of influenza in Indonesia. Epidemiological and clinical data were collected from outpatients with influenza-like illness (ILI) and hospitalized patients with severe acute respiratory infection (SARI); respiratory specimens were obtained for influenza testing by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. During October 2011-September 2012, 1131/3278 specimens from ILI cases (34·5%) and 276/1787 specimens from SARI cases (15·4%) tested positive for seasonal influenza viruses. The prevalence of influenza virus infections was highest during December-May and the proportion testing positive was 76% for ILI and 36% for SARI during their respective weeks of peak activity. No HPAI H5N1 virus infections were identified, including hundreds of ILI and SARI patients with recent poultry exposures, whereas seasonal influenza was an important contributor to acute respiratory disease in East Jakarta. Overall, 668 (47%) of influenza viruses were influenza B, 384 (27%) were A(H1N1)pdm09, and 359 (25%) were H3. While additional data over multiple years are needed, our findings suggest that seasonal influenza prevention efforts, including influenza vaccination, should target the months preceding the rainy season. PMID:25912029

  14. Combining Search, Social Media, and Traditional Data Sources to Improve Influenza Surveillance.

    PubMed

    Santillana, Mauricio; Nguyen, André T; Dredze, Mark; Paul, Michael J; Nsoesie, Elaine O; Brownstein, John S

    2015-10-01

    We present a machine learning-based methodology capable of providing real-time ("nowcast") and forecast estimates of influenza activity in the US by leveraging data from multiple data sources including: Google searches, Twitter microblogs, nearly real-time hospital visit records, and data from a participatory surveillance system. Our main contribution consists of combining multiple influenza-like illnesses (ILI) activity estimates, generated independently with each data source, into a single prediction of ILI utilizing machine learning ensemble approaches. Our methodology exploits the information in each data source and produces accurate weekly ILI predictions for up to four weeks ahead of the release of CDC's ILI reports. We evaluate the predictive ability of our ensemble approach during the 2013-2014 (retrospective) and 2014-2015 (live) flu seasons for each of the four weekly time horizons. Our ensemble approach demonstrates several advantages: (1) our ensemble method's predictions outperform every prediction using each data source independently, (2) our methodology can produce predictions one week ahead of GFT's real-time estimates with comparable accuracy, and (3) our two and three week forecast estimates have comparable accuracy to real-time predictions using an autoregressive model. Moreover, our results show that considerable insight is gained from incorporating disparate data streams, in the form of social media and crowd sourced data, into influenza predictions in all time horizons. PMID:26513245

  15. The look AHEAD trial: bone loss at four-year follow-up in type 2 diabetes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) designed to sustain weight loss and improve physical fitness in overweight or obese persons with type 2 diabetes was associated with bone loss after 4 years of follow-up. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This randomized controlled...

  16. Impact of weight loss on ankle-brachial index and interartery blood pressures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: To assess whether weight loss improves markers of peripheral artery disease and vascular stenosis. Methods: The Action for Health in Diabetes randomized clinical trial compared intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) for weight loss to a control condition of diabetes support and education...

  17. Four-year weight losses in the look AHEAD study: factors associated with long-term success

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report provides the year 4 weight loss results of the Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) study and identifies factors associated with success. 5,145 overweight/obese men and women with type 2 diabetes were randomly assigned to an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) or a usual care gr...

  18. Computerized general practice based networks yield comparable performance with sentinel data in monitoring epidemiological time-course of influenza-like illness and acute respiratory illness

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Computerized morbidity registration networks might serve as early warning systems in a time where natural epidemics such as the H1N1 flu can easily spread from one region to another. Methods In this contribution we examine whether general practice based broad-spectrum computerized morbidity registration networks have the potential to act as a valid surveillance instrument of frequently occurring diseases. We compare general practice based computerized data assessing the frequency of influenza-like illness (ILI) and acute respiratory infections (ARI) with data from a well established case-specific sentinel network, the European Influenza Surveillance Scheme (EISS). The overall frequency and trends of weekly ILI and ARI data are compared using both networks. Results Detection of influenza-like illness and acute respiratory illness occurs equally fast in EISS and the computerized network. The overall frequency data for ARI are the same for both networks, the overall trends are similar, but the increases and decreases in frequency do not occur in exactly the same weeks. For ILI, the overall rate was slightly higher for the computerized network population, especially before the increase of ILI, the overall trend was almost identical and the increases and decreases occur in the same weeks for both networks. Conclusions Computerized morbidity registration networks are a valid tool for monitoring frequent occurring respiratory diseases and the detection of sudden outbreaks. PMID:20307266

  19. From Awareness to Action: Evaluation of the ITFL Experience for Future Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dave, Ravindra

    In 1987, when the United Nations proclaimed 1990 as International Literacy Year (ILY), it invited nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) to participate in national and international programs for the year. An evaluation of these programs was done in order to make recommendations for the future battle against worldwide illiteracy. The evaluation…

  20. International Literacy Year 1990: Building the Momentum. Report of the Meeting of the International Task Force on Literacy (2nd, West Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany, June 5-10, 1988).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Judith

    This report provides materials from the second meeting of the International Task Force on Literacy (ITFL), which focused on specific goals and targets for nongovernmental organization (NGO) mobilization for 1990, International Literacy Year (ILY). Section 2 discusses issues that emerged as central to work in literacy, including literacy,…

  1. Testing Educational System Typologies Using Colombian Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parra, Carlos M.; Yano, Masakazu

    2005-01-01

    International Lending Institutions (ILIs) and Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) continuously design and implement Educational System Typologies (ESTs) in order to evaluate a nation's educational performance in terms of quality of life improvements; Traditional ESTs are therefore constantly put at odds by the advent of new ESTs. This study aims…

  2. Utilizing spatiotemporal analysis of influenza-like illness and rapid tests to focus swine-origin influenza virus intervention

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, J. Gaines; Ballou, Jessica; Yan, Chris; Fisher-Hoch, Susan P.; Reininger, Belinda; Gay, Jennifer; Salinas, Jennifer; Sanchez, Pablo; Salinas, Yvette; Calvillo, Fidel; Lopez, Leonel; deLima, Ionara P.; McCormick, Joseph B.

    2010-01-01

    In the spring of 2009, a novel strain of H1N1 swine-origin influenza A virus (S-OIV) emerged in Mexico and the United States, and soon after was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization. This work examined the ability of real-time reports of influenza-like illness (ILI) symptoms and rapid influenza diagnostic tests (RIDTs) to approximate the spatiotemporal distribution of PCR-confirmed S-OIV cases for the purposes of focusing local intervention efforts. Cluster and age-adjusted relative risk patterns of ILI, RIDT and S-OIV were assessed at a fine spatial scale at different time and space extents within Cameron County, Texas on the U.S.-Mexico border. Space-time patterns of ILI and RIDT were found to effectively characterize the areas with highest geographical risk of S-OIV within the first two weeks of the outbreak. Based on these results, ILI and/or RIDT may prove to be acceptable indicators of the location of S-OIV hotspots. Given that S-OIV data is often difficult to obtain real-time during an outbreak, these findings may be of use to public health officials targeting prevention and response efforts during future flu outbreaks. PMID:20810301

  3. Influenza-Like Illness Among University Students: Symptom Severity and Duration Due to Influenza Virus Infection Compared to Other Etiologies

    PubMed Central

    Mullins, Jocelyn; Cook, Robert; Rinaldo, Charles; Yablonsky, Eric; Hess, Rachel; Piazza, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Objective University students with influenza-like illness (ILI) were assessed to determine whether symptom severity, duration, or missed days of school or work varied according to etiology. Participants Sixty persons presenting to a university health clinic with ILI symptoms during 3 consecutive influenza seasons completed baseline survey and viral testing; 51 (85%) completed follow-up. Methods Influenza viral culture and polymerase chain reaction and respiratory virus immunofluorescence assay testing were performed. Information collected at baseline and follow-up included symptom occurrence, severity, duration, and numbers of days of work and school missed. Results Influenza virus was confirmed in 63% of participants. Influenza-positive individuals were no more likely to report any symptom or miss more days of school or work. Self-reported severity and durations of symptoms were similar between groups. Conclusions Students with influenza-associated ILI were similar to those with noninfluenza ILI with respect to severity, duration, and numbers of days of school and work missed. PMID:21308583

  4. An Evaluation of the Individualized Learning Intervention: A Mentoring Program for Early Childhood Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Peggy A.; Abbott-Shim, Martha; VandeWiele, Laura

    2011-01-01

    This study describes the results of an evaluation of the Individualized Learning Intervention (ILI), a mentoring program for early childhood educators that is built upon adult self-directed learning experiences and the collaborative support of others. Sixteen Mentor and 16 Protege teachers in Head Start classrooms were selected for participation…

  5. The Effect of School Dismissal on Rates of Influenza-Like Illness in New York City Schools during the Spring 2009 Novel H1N1 Outbreak

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egger, Joseph R.; Konty, Kevin J.; Wilson, Elisha; Karpati, Adam; Matte, Thomas; Weiss, Don; Barbot, Oxiris

    2012-01-01

    Background: The effects of individual school dismissal on influenza transmission have not been well studied. During the spring 2009 novel H1N1 outbreak, New York City implemented an individual school dismissal policy intended to limit influenza transmission at schools with high rates of influenza-like illness (ILI). Methods: Active disease…

  6. An Infection Control Program for a 2009 Influenza A H1N1 Outbreak in a University-Based Summer Camp

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsalik, Ephraim L.; Cunningham, Coleen K.; Cunningham, Hannah M.; Lopez-Marti, Maria G.; Sangvai, Devdutta G.; Purdy, William K.; Anderson, Deverick J.; Thompson, Jessica R.; Brown, Monte; Woods, Christopher W.; Jaggers, L. Brett; Hendershot, Edward F.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Describe two 2009-H1N1 influenza outbreaks in university-based summer camps and the implementation of an infection control program. Participants: 7,906 campers across 73 residential camps from May 21-August 2, 2009. Methods: Influenza-like-illness (ILI) was defined as fever with cough and/or sore throat. Influenza A was identified…

  7. Viral respiratory infections among Hajj pilgrims in 2013.

    PubMed

    Barasheed, Osamah; Rashid, Harunor; Alfelali, Mohammad; Tashani, Mohamed; Azeem, Mohammad; Bokhary, Hamid; Kalantan, Nadeen; Samkari, Jamil; Heron, Leon; Kok, Jen; Taylor, Janette; El Bashir, Haitham; Memish, Ziad A; Haworth, Elizabeth; Holmes, Edward C; Dwyer, Dominic E; Asghar, Atif; Booy, Robert

    2014-12-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) has emerged in the Arabian Gulf region, with its epicentre in Saudi Arabia, the host of the 'Hajj' which is the world's the largest mass gathering. Transmission of MERS-CoV at such an event could lead to its rapid worldwide dissemination. Therefore, we studied the frequency of viruses causing influenza-like illnesses (ILI) among participants in a randomised controlled trial at the Hajj 2013. We recruited 1038 pilgrims from Saudi Arabia, Australia and Qatar during the first day of Hajj and followed them closely for four days. A nasal swab was collected from each pilgrim who developed ILI. Respiratory viruses were detected using multiplex RT-PCR. ILI occurred in 112/1038 (11%) pilgrims. Their mean age was 35 years, 49 (44%) were male and 35 (31%) had received the influenza vaccine pre-Hajj. Forty two (38%) pilgrims had laboratory-confirmed viral infections; 28 (25%) rhinovirus, 5 (4%) influenza A, 2 (2%) adenovirus, 2 (2%) human coronavirus OC43/229E, 2 (2%) parainfluenza virus 3, 1 (1%) parainfluenza virus 1, and 2 (2%) dual infections. No MERS-CoV was detected in any sample. Rhinovirus was the commonest cause of ILI among Hajj pilgrims in 2013. Infection control and appropriate vaccination are necessary to prevent transmission of respiratory viruses at Hajj and other mass gatherings. PMID:25413828

  8. Use of a large general practice syndromic surveillance system to monitor the progress of the influenza A(H1N1) pandemic 2009 in the UK.

    PubMed

    Harcourt, S E; Smith, G E; Elliot, A J; Pebody, R; Charlett, A; Ibbotson, S; Regan, M; Hippisley-Cox, J

    2012-01-01

    The Health Protection Agency/QSurveillance national surveillance system utilizes QSurveillance®, a recently developed general practitioner database covering over 23 million people in the UK. We describe the spread of the first wave of the influenza A(H1N1) pandemic 2009 using data on consultations for influenza-like illness (ILI), respiratory illness and prescribing for influenza from 3400 contributing general practices. Daily data, provided from 27 April 2009 to 28 January 2010, were used to give a timely overview for those managing the pandemic nationally and locally. The first wave particularly affected London and the West Midlands with a peak in ILI in week 30. Children aged between 1 and 15 years had consistently high consultation rates for ILI. Daily ILI rates were used for modelling national weekly case estimates. The system enabled the 'real-time' monitoring of the pandemic to a small geographical area, linking morbidity and prescribing for influenza and other respiratory illnesses. PMID:21473803

  9. Midcourse correction to a clinical trial when the event rate is underestimated: The Look AHEAD (Action of health in diabetes) study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) Study is a long-term clinical trial that aims to determine the cardiovascular disease (CVD) benefits of an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) in obese adults with type 2 diabetes. The study was designed to have 90% statistical power to detect an 18%...

  10. Lifestyle intervention and/or statins for the reduction of C-reactive Protein in Type 2 diabetes: From the Look AHEAD Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: Cardiovascular risk remains high despite statin use. Overweight/obese diabetic persons usually have normal/low LDL-cholesterol but high C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. We aimed to examine the effects of intensive lifestyle intervention for weight loss (ILI) on CRP levels in overweight/ob...

  11. Student Perceptions of Information Literacy Instruction: The Importance of Active Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Detlor, Brian; Booker, Lorne; Serenko, Alexander; Julien, Heidi

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the merits of employing active learning strategies in the delivery of information literacy instruction (ILI). Traditional approaches to the teaching of information literacy skills--where students are passive recipients of the information they receive--are challenged. Rather, methods that encourage students to actively…

  12. Effectiveness of trivalent and pandemic influenza vaccines in England and Wales 2008-2010: results from a cohort study in general practice.

    PubMed

    Hardelid, Pia; Fleming, Douglas M; Andrews, Nick; Barley, Michele; Durnall, Hayley; Mangtani, Punam; Pebody, Richard

    2012-02-01

    Estimation of influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) is complicated by various degrees of mismatch between circulating and vaccine strains each season. We carried out a cohort study to estimate VE of trivalent (TIV) and pandemic influenza vaccines (PIV) in preventing various respiratory outcomes among general practice (GP) patients in England and Wales between 2008 and 2010. Dates of consultations for influenza-like illness (ILI), acute respiratory tract infection (ARTI), lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) and nasopharyngeal swabs were obtained from the patient-level electronic records of the 100 practices enrolled in a national GP network. Dates of vaccination with TIV and PIV were also extracted. Confounders including age, time period and consultation frequency were adjusted for through Poisson regression models. In the winter of 2008/9, adjusted VE of TIV in preventing ILI was 22.3% (95% CI 13.5%, 30.2%). During the 2009/10 winter VE for PIV in preventing ILI was 21.0% (5.3%, 34.0%). The VE for PIV in preventing PCR-confirmed influenza A/H1N1 (2009) was 63.7% (-6.1%, 87.6%). TIV during the period of influenza circulation of 2008/9 and PIV in the winter of 2009/10 were effective in preventing GP consultations for ILI. The cohort study design could be used each season to estimate VE; however, residual confounding by indication could still present issues, despite adjustment for propensity to consult. PMID:22178524

  13. Effectiveness of lifestyle interventions for individuals with severe obesity and type 2 diabetes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rates of severe obesity (BMI greater than or equal to 40 kg/m(2)) are on the rise, and effective treatment options are needed. We examined the effect of an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) on weight loss, cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, and program adherence in participants with type 2 diab...

  14. Effectiveness of lifestyle interventions for individuals with severe obesity and type 2 diabetes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    OBJECTIVEdRates of severe obesity (BMI$40 kg/m2) are on the rise, and effective treatment options are needed.We examined the effect of an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) on weight loss, cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, and program adherence in participants with type 2 diabetes who were seve...

  15. "Pedagogias Del Camaleon"/Pedagogies of the Chameleon: Identity and Strategies of Survival for Transnational Indigenous Latino Immigrants in the US South

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machado-Casas, Margarita

    2012-01-01

    Based on a 3-year qualitative research study that took place in a new immigrant-receiving community in North Carolina, the manuscript examines the implications of transnational cultural and sociolinguistic patterns of multilingual indigenous Latino immigrants (ILIs), and its effects on their survival in the US. Utilizing narrative analysis, it…

  16. INTRINSIC BIOREMEDIATION OF FUEL CONTAMINATION IN GROUND WATER AT A FIELD SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A spill of gasoline occurred at an automobile service station in 1986. ily phase residue in the subsurface has continued for the past eight years to release water soluble fuel hydrocarbons into the aquifer. he site was characterized for implementation of in@ic remediation. he sub...

  17. Effect of 1 year of an intentional weight loss intervention on bone mineral density in type 2 diabetes: Results from the Look AHEAD randomized trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Intentional weight loss is an important component of treatment for overweight patients with type 2 diabetes, but the effects on bone density are not known. We used data from the Look AHEAD trial to determine the impact of an intensive lifestyle weight loss intervention (ILI) compared with diabetes s...

  18. A 1-year lifestyle intervention for weight loss in individuals with type 2 diabetes reduces high C-reactive protein levels and identifies metabolic predictors of change

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    OBJECTIVE: We examined whether a 1-year intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) for weight loss reduced elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels in obese individuals with diabetes and identified metabolic and fitness predictors of hs-CRP change. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Look A...

  19. Evaluation of 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) exposures and illness among physicians in training

    PubMed Central

    de Perio, Marie A.; Brueck, Scott E.; Mueller, Charles A.; Milne, Caroline K.; Rubin, Michael A.; Gundlapalli, Adi V.; Mayer, Jeanmarie

    2015-01-01

    Background A cluster of influenza-like illness (ILI) among physicians in training during the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) pandemic (pH1N1) led to a health hazard evaluation. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study to examine exposures, infection control practices, ILI prevalence, and transmission among physicians in training at 4 affiliated hospitals during the pandemic. We administered an electronic survey and met with physicians in training and hospital personnel. Results Of the 88 responding physicians, 85% reported exposure to pH1N1. Exposures occurred at work from patients or coworkers and outside of work from coworkers, household members, or the community. Thirteen cases of ILI were reported in May-June 2009; 10 respondents reported working while ill (duration, 1-4 days). Between 13% and 88% of respondents knew which personal protective equipment (PPE) was recommended when caring for influenza patients at the 4 hospitals. The most common reasons for not using PPE were not knowing that a patient had pH1N1 or ILI and not having PPE readily available. Conclusions Physicians in training have gaps in their knowledge of and adherence to recommended PPE and compliance with work restrictions. Our findings underscore the importance of installing isolation precaution signage, making PPE readily available near patients with influenza, and facilitating work restrictions for ill health care personnel. PMID:22622511

  20. Influenza A among patients with human immunodeficiency virus: an outbreak of infection at a residential facility in New York City.

    PubMed

    Fine, A D; Bridges, C B; De Guzman, A M; Glover, L; Zeller, B; Wong, S J; Baker, I; Regnery, H; Fukuda, K

    2001-06-15

    Although annual influenza vaccination is recommended for persons who are infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), data are limited regarding the epidemiology of influenza or the effectiveness of influenza vaccination in this population. We investigated a 1996 outbreak of infection with influenza A at a residential facility for persons with AIDS. We interviewed 118 residents and employees, reviewed 65 resident medical records, and collected serum samples for measurement of influenza antibody titers. After controlling for history of smoking, influenza vaccination, and resident or employee status, in a multivariate model, HIV infection was not statistically associated with influenza-like illness (ILI). Symptoms and duration of ILI were similar for most HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected persons. However, 8 (21.1%) of 38 HIV-infected persons with ILI (vs. none of 15 HIV-uninfected persons) were either hospitalized, evaluated in an emergency room, or had ILI lasting > or = 14 days (P=.06). Vaccination effectiveness (VE) was similar for HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected persons. Vaccination was most effective among HIV-infected persons with CD4 cell counts of >100 cells/microL (VE, 65%; 95% CI, 36%--81%) or HIV type 1 virus load of <30,000 copies/mL (VE, 52%; 95% CI, 11%--75%). Providers should continue to offer influenza vaccination to HIV-infected persons. PMID:11360221

  1. Lifestyle intervention improves heart rate recovery from exercise in adults with Type 2 diabetes: Results from the Look AHEAD Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The primary aims of this paper were (1) to evaluate the influence of intensive lifestyle weight loss and exercise intervention (ILI) compared with diabetes support and education (DSE) upon Heart Rate Recovery (HRR) from graded exercise testing (GXT) and (2) to determine the independent and combined ...

  2. Lifestyle intervention improves heart rate recovery from exercise in adults with type 2 diabetes: Results from the Look AHEAD study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The primary aims of this paper were (1) to evaluate the influence of intensive lifestyle weight loss and exercise intervention (ILI) compared with diabetes support and education (DSE) upon Heart Rate Recovery (HRR) from graded exercise testing (GXT), and (2) to determine the independent and combined...

  3. Four-year change in cardiorespiratory fitness and influence on glycemic control in adults with Type 2 diabetes in a randomized trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    OBJECTIVE To examine an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) compared with diabetes support and education (DSE) on 4-year change in fitness and physical activity (PA), and to examine the effect of change in fitness and PA, adjusting for potential confounders, on glycemic control in the Look AHEAD ...

  4. Effect of Travel on Influenza Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Rimmelzwaan, Guus F.; van den Hoek, Anneke; Sonder, Gerard J.B.

    2013-01-01

    To assess the attack and incidence rates for influenza virus infections, during October 2006–October 2007 we prospectively studied 1,190 adult short-term travelers from the Netherlands to tropical and subtropical countries. Participants donated blood samples before and after travel and kept a travel diary. The samples were serologically tested for the epidemic strains during the study period. The attack rate for all infections was 7% (86 travelers) and for influenza-like illness (ILI), 0.8%. The incidence rate for all infections was 8.9 per 100 person-months and for ILI, 0.9%. Risk factors for infection were birth in a non-Western country, age 55–64 years, and ILI. In 15 travelers with fever or ILI, influenza virus infection was serologically confirmed; 7 of these travelers were considered contagious or incubating the infection while traveling home. Given the large number of travelers to (sub)tropical countries, travel-related infection most likely contributes to importation and further influenza spread worldwide. PMID:23735636

  5. 76 FR 49486 - Notification of Single Source Cooperative Agreement Award for the Pasteur Foundation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-10

    ... Institute and Pasteur Institute affiliates in Cameroon, Central African Republic, and Senegal in Africa, and... in Cameroon and Cambodia became National Reference Laboratories for avian influenza, and all eight... (ILI) and Severe Acute Respiratory Infections (SARI) surveillance. In Sub-Saharan Africa, Cameroon...

  6. Obstructive Sleep Apnea after Weight Loss: A Clinical Trial Comparing Gastric Bypass and Intensive Lifestyle Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Fredheim, Jan Magnus; Rollheim, Jan; Sandbu, Rune; Hofsø, Dag; Omland, Torbjørn; Røislien, Jo; Hjelmesæth, Jøran

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Few studies have compared the effect of surgical and conservative weight loss strategies on obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). We hypothesized that Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) would be more effective than intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) at reducing the prevalence and severity of OSA (apnea-hypopnea-index [AHI] ≥ 5 events/hour). Methods: A total of 133 morbidly obese subjects (93 females) were treated with either a 1-year ILI-program (n = 59) or RYGB (n = 74) and underwent repeated sleep recordings with a portable somnograph (Embletta). Results: Participants had a mean (SD) age of 44.7(10.8) years, BMI 45.1(5.7) kg/m2, and AHI 17.1(21.4) events/hour. Eighty-four patients (63%) had OSA. The average weight loss was 8% in the ILI-group and 30% in the RYGB-group (p < 0.001). The mean (95%CI) AHI reduced in both treatment groups, although significantly more in the RYGB-group (AHI change -6.0 [ILI] vs -13.1 [RYGB]), between group difference 7.2 (1.3, 13.0), p = 0.017. Twenty-nine RYGB-patients (66%) had remission of OSA, compared to 16 ILI-patients (40%), p = 0.028. At follow-up, after adjusting for age, gender, and baseline AHI, the RYGB-patients had significantly lower adjusted odds for OSA than the ILI-patients—OR (95% CI) 0.33 (0.14, 0.81), p = 0.015. After further adjustment for BMI change, treatment group difference was no longer statistically significant—OR (95% CI) 1.31 (0.32, 5.35), p = 0.709. Conclusion: Our study demonstrates that RYGB was more effective than ILI at reducing the prevalence and severity of OSA. However, our analysis also suggests that weight loss, rather than the surgical procedure per se, explains the beneficial effects. Citation: Fredheim JM; Rollheim J; Sandbu R; Hofsø D; Omland T; Røislien J; Hjelmesaeth J. Obstructive sleep apnea after weight loss: a clinical trial comparing gastric bypass and intensive lifestyle intervention. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(5):427-432. PMID:23674932

  7. Assessing the burden of paediatric influenza in Europe: the European Paediatric Influenza Analysis (EPIA) project

    PubMed Central

    Paget, W. John; Casas, Inmaculada; Donker, Gé; Edelman, Laurel; Fleming, Douglas; Larrauri, Amparo; Meijer, Adam; Puzelli, Simona; Rizzo, Caterina; Simonsen, Lone

    2010-01-01

    The European Paediatric Influenza Analysis (EPIA) project is a multi-country project that was created to collect, analyse and present data regarding the paediatric influenza burden in European countries, with the purpose of providing the necessary information to make evidence-based decisions regarding influenza immunisation recommendations for children. The initial approach taken is based on existing weekly virological and age-specific influenza-like illness (ILI) data from surveillance networks across Europe. We use a multiple regression model guided by longitudinal weekly patterns of influenza virus to attribute the weekly ILI consultation incidence pattern to each influenza (sub)type, while controlling for the effect of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) epidemics. Modelling the ILI consultation incidence during 2002/2003–2008 revealed that influenza infections that presented for medical attention as ILI affected between 0.3% and 9.8% of children aged 0–4 and 5–14 years in England, Italy, The Netherlands and Spain in an average season. With the exception of Spain, these rates were always higher in children aged 0–4 years. Across the six seasons analysed (five seasons were analysed from the Italian data), the model attributed 47–83% of the ILI burden in primary care to influenza virus infection in the various countries, with the A(H3N2) virus playing the most important role, followed by influenza viruses B and A(H1N1). National season averages from the four countries studied indicated that between 0.4% and 18% of children consulted a physician for ILI, with the percentage depending on the country and health care system. Influenza virus infections explained the majority of paediatric ILI consultations in all countries. The next step will be to apply the EPIA modelling approach to severe outcomes indicators (i.e. hospitalisations and mortality data) to generate a complete range of mild and severe influenza burden estimates needed for decision making

  8. The Na conductance in the sarcolemma and the transverse tubular system membranes of mammalian skeletal muscle fibers.

    PubMed

    DiFranco, Marino; Vergara, Julio L

    2011-10-01

    Na (and Li) currents and fluorescence transients were recorded simultaneously under voltage-clamp conditions from mouse flexor digitorum brevis fibers stained with the potentiometric dye di-8-ANEPPS to investigate the distribution of Na channels between the surface and transverse tubular system (TTS) membranes. In fibers rendered electrically passive, voltage pulses resulted in step-like fluorescence changes that were used to calibrate the dye response. The effects of Na channel activation on the TTS voltage were investigated using Li, instead of Na, because di-8-ANEPPS transients show anomalies in the presence of the latter. Na and Li inward currents (I(Na), I(Li); using half of the physiological ion concentration) showed very steep voltage dependences, with no reversal for depolarizations beyond the calculated equilibrium potential, suggesting that most of the current originates from a noncontrolled membrane compartment. Maximum peak I(Li) was ∼ 30% smaller than for I(Na), suggesting a Li-blocking effect. I(Li) activation resulted in the appearance of overshoots in otherwise step-like di-8-ANEPPS transients. Overshoots had comparable durations and voltage dependence as those of I(Li). Simultaneously measured maximal overshoot and peak I(Li) were 54 ± 5% and 773 ± 53 µA/cm(2), respectively. Radial cable model simulations predicted the properties of I(Li) and di-8-ANEPPS transients when TTS access resistances of 10-20 Ω cm(2), and TTS-to-surface Na permeability density ratios in the range of 40:60 to 70:30, were used. Formamide-based osmotic shock resulted in incomplete detubulation. However, results from a subpopulation of treated fibers (low capacitance) provide confirmatory evidence that a significant proportion of I(Li), and the overshoot in the optical signals, arises from the TTS in normal fibers. The quantitative evaluation of the distribution of Na channels between the sarcolemma and the TTS membranes, as provided here, is crucial for the

  9. Internet-based surveillance of Influenza-like-illness in the UK during the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Internet-based surveillance systems to monitor influenza-like illness (ILI) have advantages over traditional (physician-based) reporting systems, as they can potentially monitor a wider range of cases (i.e. including those that do not seek care). However, the requirement for participants to have internet access and to actively participate calls into question the representativeness of the data. Such systems have been in place in a number of European countries over the last few years, and in July 2009 this was extended to the UK. Here we present results of this survey with the aim of assessing the reliability of the data, and to evaluate methods to correct for possible biases. Methods Internet-based monitoring of ILI was launched near the peak of the first wave of the UK H1N1v influenza pandemic. We compared the recorded ILI incidence with physician-recorded incidence and an estimate of the true number of cases over the course of the epidemic. We also compared overall attack rates. The effect of using different ILI definitions and alternative denominator assumptions on incidence estimates was explored. Results The crude incidence measured by the internet-based system appears to be influenced by individuals who participated only once in the survey and who appeared more likely to be ill. This distorted the overall incidence trend. Concentrating on individuals who reported more than once results in a time series of ILI incidence that matches the trend of case estimates reasonably closely, with a correlation of 0.713 (P-value: 0.0001, 95% CI: 0.435, 0.867). Indeed, the internet-based system appears to give a better estimate of the relative height of the two waves of the UK pandemic than the physician-recorded incidence. The overall attack rate is, however, higher than other estimates, at about 16% when compared with a model-based estimate of 6%. Conclusion Internet-based monitoring of ILI can capture the trends in case numbers if appropriate weighting is used

  10. Online monitoring of flu in Belgium

    PubMed Central

    Devroey, Dirk; Semaille, Pascal; Vansintejan, Johan; Vandevoorde, Jan; Van De Vijver, Erwin

    2011-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Devroey et al. (2011) Online monitoring of flu in Belgium. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 5(5), 351–356. Background  The diagnosis and treatment of patients with the A(H1N1) pandemic flu caused some serious burden for general practitioners (GPs) in the summer and autumn of 2009. Objective  The aim of this study was to track the incidence of influenza and influenza‐like illness (ILI) in Belgium and to describe the characteristics of the affected patients. Methods  In July 2009, the Belgian online influenza surveillance system (BOISS) was set up to monitor the spread of influenza and ILI. Registrations were made by 93 GPs from all 10 Belgian provinces who participated at least 1 week during the first 12 months of the registration. Only patients who met the WHO criteria for flu were recorded. Results  In total, 1254 patients (53% men) with influenza or ILI were included. Mainly younger persons were affected: 43% was under the age of 20 years. A risk factor for influenza‐related complications was determined in 19% of cases, mainly patients with chronic respiratory problems. A treatment with oseltamivir or zanamivir was prescribed in 13%, and 3% of the patients was admitted to a hospital. The time of the peak incidence (44th week) and the magnitude (623 cases per week per 100 000 inhabitants) corresponded with the figures of the existing paper‐based registration network. The small sample size and possible reporting biases may have influenced the findings of the study. Conclusions  The BOISS provides a good alternative to conduct surveillance activities for influenza and ILI in Belgium. It provides complementary information regarding ILI compared to the existing data capturing. PMID:21668686

  11. Epidemiology and impact of influenza in Mongolia, 2007–2012

    PubMed Central

    Burmaa, Alexanderyn; Kamigaki, Taro; Darmaa, Badarchyn; Nymadawa, Pagbajabyn; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2014-01-01

    Background Mongolia's Health Service began to conduct surveillance for influenza in the 1970s. This surveillance has become more comprehensive over time and now includes 155 sentinel sites in Mongolia. In this study, we analyzed the epidemiological characteristics and impact of influenza using data from influenza surveillance in Mongolia. Materials and methods The data were collected by the National Influenza Center, Mongolia (NIC). Incidence rates of influenza-like illness (ILI) and severe acute respiratory infections (sARI) were calculated as the proportion of the number of ILI and sARI cases to the total population in the studied areas. Nasopharyngeal samples were collected and tested using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction [(rt)-RT-PCR]. Selected samples negative for influenza were tested for other respiratory pathogens by multiplex rt-RT-PCR. Results Averages of 14·0 ILI and 0·8 sARI episodes per 100 population per year were observed during the five influenza seasons. The highest incidences of influenza associated with ILI and sARI were observed among children 0–4 years old. The number of ILI cases showed a clear seasonality, generally peaking between December and February. In contrast, sARI incidence peaked twice during each season. Influenza B was most prevalent during 2007–2008 and 2011–2012, influenza A (H3N2) during 2010–2011, seasonal A (H1N1) during 2008–2009, and A (H1N1) pdm09 during 2009–2010. Conclusions Additional data on the epidemiology and impact of influenza including socioeconomic impact and vaccine effectiveness are required to develop a national influenza control policy, including a vaccination strategy. Our results provide useful data for developing such a policy. PMID:25043147

  12. Lifestyle Intervention Improves Heart Rate Recovery from Exercise in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes: Results from the Look AHEAD Study

    PubMed Central

    Ribisl, Paul M.; Gaussoin, Sarah A.; Lang, Wei; Bahnson, Judy; Connelly, Stephanie A.; Horton, Edward S.; Jakicic, John M.; Killean, Tina; Kitzman, Dalane W.; Knowler, William C.; Stewart, Kerry J.; Research Group, Look AHEAD

    2012-01-01

    The primary aims of this paper were (1) to evaluate the influence of intensive lifestyle weight loss and exercise intervention (ILI) compared with diabetes support and education (DSE) upon Heart Rate Recovery (HRR) from graded exercise testing (GXT) and (2) to determine the independent and combined effects of weight loss and fitness changes upon HRR. In 4503 participants (45–76 years) who completed 1 year of intervention, HRR was measured after a submaximal GXT to compare the influence of (ILI) with (DSE) upon HRR. Participants assigned to ILI lost an average 8.6% of their initial weight versus 0.7% in DSE group (P < 0.001) while mean fitness increased in ILI by 20.9% versus 5.8% in DSE (P < 0.001). At Year 1, all exercise and HRR variables in ILI improved (P < 0.0001) versus DSE: heart rate (HR) at rest was lower (72.8 ± 11.4 versus 77.7 ± 11.7 b/min), HR range was greater (57.7 ± 12.1 versus 53.1 ± 12.4 b/min), HR at 2 minutes was lower (89.3 ± 21.8 versus 93.0 ± 12.1 b/min), and HRR was greater (41.25 ± 22.0 versus 37.8 ± 12.5 b/min). Weight loss and fitness gain produced significant separate and independent improvements in HRR. PMID:23227314

  13. Lifestyle intervention improves heart rate recovery from exercise in adults with type 2 diabetes: results from the Look AHEAD study.

    PubMed

    Ribisl, Paul M; Gaussoin, Sarah A; Lang, Wei; Bahnson, Judy; Connelly, Stephanie A; Horton, Edward S; Jakicic, John M; Killean, Tina; Kitzman, Dalane W; Knowler, William C; Stewart, Kerry J

    2012-01-01

    The primary aims of this paper were (1) to evaluate the influence of intensive lifestyle weight loss and exercise intervention (ILI) compared with diabetes support and education (DSE) upon Heart Rate Recovery (HRR) from graded exercise testing (GXT) and (2) to determine the independent and combined effects of weight loss and fitness changes upon HRR. In 4503 participants (45-76 years) who completed 1 year of intervention, HRR was measured after a submaximal GXT to compare the influence of (ILI) with (DSE) upon HRR. Participants assigned to ILI lost an average 8.6% of their initial weight versus 0.7% in DSE group (P < 0.001) while mean fitness increased in ILI by 20.9% versus 5.8% in DSE (P < 0.001). At Year 1, all exercise and HRR variables in ILI improved (P < 0.0001) versus DSE: heart rate (HR) at rest was lower (72.8 ± 11.4 versus 77.7 ± 11.7 b/min), HR range was greater (57.7 ± 12.1 versus 53.1 ± 12.4 b/min), HR at 2 minutes was lower (89.3 ± 21.8 versus 93.0 ± 12.1 b/min), and HRR was greater (41.25 ± 22.0 versus 37.8 ± 12.5 b/min). Weight loss and fitness gain produced significant separate and independent improvements in HRR. PMID:23227314

  14. Thermal equation of state of silicon carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yuejian; Liu, Zhi T. Y.; Khare, Sanjay V.; Collins, Sean Andrew; Zhang, Jianzhong; Wang, Liping; Zhao, Yusheng

    2016-02-01

    A large volume press coupled with in-situ energy-dispersive synchrotron X-ray was used to probe the change of silicon carbide (SiC) under high pressure and temperature (P-T) up to 8.1 GPa and 1100 K. The obtained pressure-volume-temperature data were fitted to a modified high-T Birch-Murnaghan equation of state, yielding values of a series of thermo-elastic parameters, such as the ambient bulk modulus KTo = 237(2) GPa, temperature derivative of the bulk modulus at a constant pressure (∂K/∂T)P = -0.037(4) GPa K-1, volumetric thermal expansivity α(0, T) = a + bT with a = 5.77(1) × 10-6 K-1 and b = 1.36(2) × 10-8 K-2, and pressure derivative of the thermal expansion at a constant temperature (∂α/∂P)T = 6.53 ± 0.64 × 10-7 K-1 GPa-1. Furthermore, we found the temperature derivative of the bulk modulus at a constant volume, (∂KT/∂T)V, equal to -0.028(4) GPa K-1 by using a thermal pressure approach. In addition, the elastic properties of SiC were determined by density functional theory through the calculation of Helmholtz free energy. The computed results generally agree well with the experimentally determined values.

  15. A dynamic DFT approach to generalized diffusion equations in a system with long-ranged and hydrodynamic interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bleibel, Johannes; Domínguez, Alvaro; Oettel, Martin

    2016-06-01

    We build on an existing approximation scheme to the Smoluchowski equation in order to derive a dynamic density functional theory (DDFT) including two-body hydrodynamic interactions. A generalized diffusion equation and a wavenumber-dependent diffusion coefficient D(k) are derived by linearization in the density fluctuations. The result is applied to a colloidal monolayer at a fluid interface, having bulk-like hydrodynamic interactions and/or interacting via long-ranged capillary forces. In these cases, D(k) shows characteristic singularities as k\\to 0 . The consequences of these singularities are studied by means of analytical perturbation theory, numerical solution of DDFT and simulations for an explicit example: the capillary collapse of a finite, disk-like distribution of particles. There is in general a good agreement between DDFT and simulations if the initial density distributions for the theoretical prediction correspond to the actual initial configurations of simulations, rather than to an average over them. Otherwise, discrepancies arise that are discussed in detail.

  16. Cage-size control of guest vibration and thermal conductivity in Sr8Ga16Si30-xGex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suekuni, K.; Avila, M. A.; Umeo, K.; Takabatake, T.

    2007-05-01

    We present a systematic study of thermal conductivity, specific heat, electrical resistivity, thermopower, and x-ray diffraction measurements performed on single-crystalline samples of the pseudoquaternary type-I clathrate system Sr8Ga16Si30-xGex , in the full range of 0⩽x⩽30 . All the samples show metallic behavior with n -type majority carriers. However, the thermal conductivity and specific heat strongly depend on x . Upon increasing x from 0 to 30, the lattice parameter increases by 3%, from 10.446to10.726Å , and the localized vibrational energies of the Sr guest ions in the tetrakaidecahedron (dodecahedron) cages decrease from 59(120)Kto35(90)K . Furthermore, the lattice thermal conductivity at low temperatures is largely suppressed. In fact, a crystalline peak found at 15K for x=0 gradually decreases and disappears for x⩾20 , evolving into the anomalous glasslike behavior observed for x=30 . It is found that the increase of the free space for the Sr guest motion directly correlates with a continuous transition from quasi-on-center harmonic vibration to off-center anharmonic vibration, with consequent increase in the coupling strength between the guest’s low-energy modes and the cage’s acoustic phonon modes.

  17. Sizing Up Red Giants Using Bayes’ Rule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aufdenberg, Jason P.; Parsotan, Tyler

    2014-06-01

    Using the general-purpose stellar atmosphere code PHOENIX, we have constructed a grid of spherical stellar atmosphere models for comparison to cool giant star spectral energy distributions(SEDs). The models are not only parametrized by effective temperature (3500 Kto 3700 K) and surface gravity (log(g) = -0.5 to 1.0), but also by mass (7 Msun to 21 Msun), a required parameter for spherical model atmospheres. The shapes of the synthetic spectral energy distributions are sensitive to a change in mass at fixed values for the effective temperature and surface gravity. At our lowest surface gravity, differences in mass of a factor of two can yield up to 20% flux differences in the shape of the SED between 400 nm and 900 nm.Also, for a fixed mass, differences in the surface gravity of a factor of 10 can yield up to 100% flux differences in the shape of the SED below 450 nm. We are investigating whether the mass-dependence of the model SED shape may be used to constrain single star masses. One of our target stars is the supergiant Betelgeuse which has a poorly constrained mass: published estimates differ by a factor of two. To aid in our analysis, we have developed a method to extract Bayesian posterior distributions for four model parameters (effective temperature, surface gravity, mass, and angular size) from thecomparison of the synthetic SED grid to individual observed SEDs of red giants.

  18. Investigation of composition-induced strain effect in FexPt1-x films grown on different substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, K. F.; Li, H. H.; Chen, J. S.

    2013-12-01

    Different composition FexPt1-x films were fabricated on three typical single crystal substrates (MgO, KTaO3, and SrTiO3), and the composition-induced strain evolution of FexPt1-x films was systematically investigated. The study showed that different Fe compositions in Fe-Pt films resulted in different strain status and crystallographic textures, and thus influenced the magnetic properties. Under the tensile strain between the Fe-Pt and (MgO, KTaO3, and SrTiO3) substrates, Fe-Pt films preferred to form ordered Fe-Pt (001) texture. Decrease of the Fe atom concentration caused the Fe-Pt films to be further relaxed, and an obvious increase of lattice constant c. Moreover, with reducing the mismatch between Fe-Pt and substrate from MgO to KTaO3 and SrTiO3, the strain status of Fe-Pt films changed from completely strained to partially relaxed. The perpendicular anisotropy of Fe55Pt45 films grown on STO was larger than that grown on MgO and KTO, which was attributed to better epitaxial quality of the FePt (001) texture induced by less lattice mismatch.

  19. A Case Study of the New York City 2012-2013 Influenza Season With Daily Geocoded Twitter Data From Temporal and Spatiotemporal Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Qingyu; Freifeld, Clark C; Santillana, Mauricio; Nojima, Aaron; Chunara, Rumi; Brownstein, John S

    2014-01-01

    Background Twitter has shown some usefulness in predicting influenza cases on a weekly basis in multiple countries and on different geographic scales. Recently, Broniatowski and colleagues suggested Twitter’s relevance at the city-level for New York City. Here, we look to dive deeper into the case of New York City by analyzing daily Twitter data from temporal and spatiotemporal perspectives. Also, through manual coding of all tweets, we look to gain qualitative insights that can help direct future automated searches. Objective The intent of the study was first to validate the temporal predictive strength of daily Twitter data for influenza-like illness emergency department (ILI-ED) visits during the New York City 2012-2013 influenza season against other available and established datasets (Google search query, or GSQ), and second, to examine the spatial distribution and the spread of geocoded tweets as proxies for potential cases. Methods From the Twitter Streaming API, 2972 tweets were collected in the New York City region matching the keywords “flu”, “influenza”, “gripe”, and “high fever”. The tweets were categorized according to the scheme developed by Lamb et al. A new fourth category was added as an evaluator guess for the probability of the subject(s) being sick to account for strength of confidence in the validity of the statement. Temporal correlations were made for tweets against daily ILI-ED visits and daily GSQ volume. The best models were used for linear regression for forecasting ILI visits. A weighted, retrospective Poisson model with SaTScan software (n=1484), and vector map were used for spatiotemporal analysis. Results Infection-related tweets (R=.763) correlated better than GSQ time series (R=.683) for the same keywords and had a lower mean average percent error (8.4 vs 11.8) for ILI-ED visit prediction in January, the most volatile month of flu. SaTScan identified primary outbreak cluster of high-probability infection tweets with

  20. Comparing Prescription Sales, Google Trends and CDC Data as Flu Activity Indicators

    PubMed Central

    Patwardhan, Avinash; Lorber, David

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine if the prescription sales data from a large retail pharmacy chain in the US were comparable to Google Flu trends and CDC’s US ILI Network data as flu activity indicator. Introduction In a 2007 survey of public health officials in the United States, International Society for Disease Surveillance found that only 7% used pharmacy prescription sales data for surveillance (1). There have been many reports suggesting effective use of prescription sales data in syndromic surveillance (2, 3, 4, 5). Community pharmacies can provide a valuable supplementary tool for syndromic surveillance of infectious diseases. Methods We extracted five years of de-identified prescription sales data from the proprietary pharmacy computer system of a large retail pharmacy chain in the United States. The prescriptions were written for the common drugs for the treatment of influenza: Amantadine, Os-eltamivir, Rimantadine, and Zanamivir. We acquired Google Flu trends national aggregate counts data that represented the estimates of the ILI cases per 100,000 physician visits. We acquired CDC ILINET data for 2007. We calculated Pearson ‘r’ between our data and Google and CDC data. We also created comparable trends graphs after converting the counts of the influenza scripts and the counts of the Google estimated ILI cases to logarithmic scale. Results The Pearson ‘r’ between the aggregate counts of scripts for all the four drugs and the Google estimates of the ILI cases for years 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, and 2011 were 0.85 (95% CI, 0.75–0.91), 0.92 (95% CI, 0.86–0.95), 0.91(95% CI, 0.85–0.95), 0.88 (95% CI, 0.80–0.93), and 0.87 (95% CI, 0.78–0.92) and 0.92 (95% CI, 0.90–0.94) for years 2007 through 2011 together. The Pearson ‘r’ between the aggregate counts of scripts and the CDC % unweighted ILI (2007) was 0.97 (95% CI, 0.95–0.98). Conclusions A strong to very strong correlation between prescription sales data and Google Flu trends and CDC’s ILI

  1. Results From the First Six Years of National Sentinel Surveillance for Influenza in Kenya, July 2007–June 2013

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Mark A.; Muthoka, Philip; Emukule, Gideon O.; Kalani, Rosalia; Njuguna, Henry; Waiboci, Lilian W.; Ahmed, Jamal A.; Bigogo, Godfrey; Feikin, Daniel R.; Njenga, Moses K.; Breiman, Robert F.; Mott, Joshua A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent studies have shown that influenza is associated with significant disease burden in many countries in the tropics, but until recently national surveillance for influenza was not conducted in most countries in Africa. Methods In 2007, the Kenyan Ministry of Health with technical support from the CDC-Kenya established a national sentinel surveillance system for influenza. At 11 hospitals, for every hospitalized patient with severe acute respiratory illness (SARI), and for the first three outpatients with influenza-like illness (ILI) per day, we collected both nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swabs. Beginning in 2008, we conducted in-hospital follow-up for SARI patients to determine outcome. Specimens were tested by real time RT-PCR for influenza A and B. Influenza A-positive specimens were subtyped for H1, H3, H5, and (beginning in May 2009) A(H1N1)pdm09. Results From July 1, 2007 through June 30, 2013, we collected specimens from 24,762 SARI and 14,013 ILI patients. For SARI and ILI case-patients, the median ages were 12 months and 16 months, respectively, and 44% and 47% were female. In all, 2,378 (9.6%) SARI cases and 2,041 (14.6%) ILI cases were positive for influenza viruses. Most influenza-associated SARI cases (58.6%) were in children <2 years old. Of all influenza-positive specimens, 78% were influenza A, 21% were influenza B, and 1% were influenza A/B coinfections. Influenza circulated in every month. In four of the six years influenza activity peaked during July–November. Of 9,419 SARI patients, 2.7% died; the median length of hospitalization was 4 days. Conclusions During six years of surveillance in Kenya, influenza was associated with nearly 10 percent of hospitalized SARI cases and one-sixth of outpatient ILI cases. Most influenza-associated SARI and ILI cases were in children <2 years old; interventions to reduce the burden of influenza, such as vaccine, could consider young children as a priority group. PMID:24955962

  2. Burden of Influenza and Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection in Pregnant Women and Infants Under 6 Months in Mongolia: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Chaw, Liling; Kamigaki, Taro; Burmaa, Alexanderyn; Urtnasan, Chuluunbatiin; Od, Ishiin; Nyamaa, Gunregjaviin; Nymadawa, Pagbajabyn; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    Background Pregnant women and infants under 6 months are at risk of influenza-related complications. Limited information exists on their community burden of respiratory viruses. Methods and Findings This prospective, observational open cohort study was conducted in Baganuur district, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia during 2013/14 and 2014/15 influenza seasons. Influenza-like illness (ILI) and severe acute respiratory infection (sARI) were identified by follow-up calls twice a week. For those identified, influenza and respiratory syncytical virus (RSV) were tested by point-of-care test kits. We calculated overall and stratified (by trimester or age group) incidence rates (IR) and used Cox proportional hazard regression for risk factor analyses. Among 1260 unvaccinated pregnant women enrolled, overall IRs for ILI, sARI and influenza A were 11.8 (95% confidence interval (C.I):11.2–12.4), 0.1 (95%C.I:0.0–0.4), and 1.7 (95%C.I:1.5–1.9) per 1,000person-days, respectively. One sARI case was influenza A positive. IRs and adjusted hazard ratios (Adj.HR) for ILI and influenza A were lowest in the third trimester. Those with co-morbidity were 1.4 times more likely to develop ILI [Adj.HR:1.4 (95%C.I:1.1–1.9)]. Among 1304 infants enrolled, overall ILI and sARI IRs were 15.2 (95%C.I:14.5–15.8) and 20.5 (95%C.I:19.7–21.3) per 1,000person-days, respectively. From the tested ILI (77.6%) and sARI (30.6%) cases, the overall positivity rates were 6.3% (influenza A), 1.1% (influenza B) and 9.3% (RSV). Positivity rates of influenza A and RSV tend to increase with age. sARI cases were 1.4 times more likely to be male [Adj.HR:1.4 (95%C.I:1.1–1.8)]. Among all influenza A and RSV positive infants, 11.8% and 68.0% were respectively identified among sARI hospitalized cases. Conclusion We observed low overall influenza A burden in both groups, though underestimation was likely due to point-of-care tests used. For infants, RSV burden was more significant than influenza A. These findings

  3. Viral Etiology of Influenza-Like Illnesses in Antananarivo, Madagascar, July 2008 to June 2009

    PubMed Central

    Razanajatovo, Norosoa Harline; Richard, Vincent; Hoffmann, Jonathan; Reynes, Jean-Marc; Razafitrimo, Girard Marcellin; Randremanana, Rindra Vatosoa; Heraud, Jean-Michel

    2011-01-01

    Background In Madagascar, despite an influenza surveillance established since 1978, little is known about the etiology and prevalence of viruses other than influenza causing influenza-like illnesses (ILIs). Methodology/Principal Findings From July 2008 to June 2009, we collected respiratory specimens from patients who presented ILIs symptoms in public and private clinics in Antananarivo (the capital city of Madagascar). ILIs were defined as body temperature ≥38°C and cough and at least two of the following symptoms: sore throat, rhinorrhea, headache and muscular pain, for a maximum duration of 3 days. We screened these specimens using five multiplex real time Reverse Transcription and/or Polymerase Chain Reaction assays for detection of 14 respiratory viruses. We detected respiratory viruses in 235/313 (75.1%) samples. Overall influenza virus A (27.3%) was the most common virus followed by rhinovirus (24.8%), RSV (21.2%), adenovirus (6.1%), coronavirus OC43 (6.1%), influenza virus B (3.9%), parainfluenza virus-3 (2.9%), and parainfluenza virus-1 (2.3%). Co-infections occurred in 29.4% (69/235) of infected patients and rhinovirus was the most detected virus (27.5%). Children under 5 years were more likely to have one or more detectable virus associated with their ILI. In this age group, compared to those ≥5 years, the risk of detecting more than one virus was higher (OR = 1.9), as was the risk of detecting of RSV (OR = 10.1) and adenovirus (OR = 4.7). While rhinovirus and adenovirus infections occurred year round, RSV, influenza virus A and coronavirus OC43 had defined period of circulation. Conclusions In our study, we found that respiratory viruses play an important role in ILIs in the Malagasy community, particularly in children under 5 years old. These data provide a better understanding of the viral etiology of outpatients with ILI and describe for the first time importance of these viruses in different age group and their period of circulation

  4. Obesity as a risk factor for severe influenza-like illness

    PubMed Central

    Cocoros, Noelle M; Lash, Timothy L; DeMaria, Alfred; Klompas, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background Obesity was recognized as in independent risk factor for influenza during the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic. Objectives We evaluated the association between body mass index (BMI) and influenza-like illness (ILI) during two non-pandemic influenza seasons (2003–2004 and 2004–2005) and during the spring and fall waves of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. Methods Adults with severe (inpatient) and mild (outpatient) ILI were compared to those without ILI using a case-cohort design. The study was nested among those insured by a single health insurance company, receiving care from a large multispecialty practice. Data were collected from insurance claims and the electronic health record. The primary exposure was obesity (BMI ≥ 30·0 kg/m2). Results Across three seasons, the crude and adjusted ORs for obesity and severe ILI were 1·65 (95% CI 1·31, 2·08) and 1·23 (95% CI 0·97, 1·57), respectively. An association was observed for those aged 20–59 years (adjusted OR 1·92, 95% CI 1·26, 2·90), but not for those 60 and older (adjusted OR 1·08, 95% CI 0·80, 1·46). The adjusted ORs for obesity and severe ILI in 2003–2004, 2004–2005, and during H1N1 were 1·14 (95% CI 0·80, 1·64), 1·24 (95% CI 0·86, 1·79), and 1·76 (95% CI 0·91, 3·42), respectively. Among those with a Charlson Comorbidity Index score of zero, the adjusted ORs for 2003–2004, 2004–2005, and H1N1 were 1·60 (95% CI 0·93, 2·76), 1·43 (95% CI 0·80, 2·56), and 1·90 (95% CI 0·68, 5·27), respectively. Conclusions Our results suggest a small to moderate association between obesity and hospitalized ILI among adults. PMID:23957732

  5. Burden of Illness in UK Subjects with Reported Respiratory Infections Vaccinated or Unvaccinated against Influenza: A Retrospective Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Pockett, Rhys D.; Watkins, John; McEwan, Phil; Meier, Genevieve

    2015-01-01

    Objective Detailed data are lacking on influenza burden in the United Kingdom (UK). The objective of this study was to estimate the disease burden associated with influenza-like illness (ILI) in the United Kingdom stratified by age, risk and influenza vaccination status. Methods This retrospective, cross-sectional, exploratory, observational study used linked data from the General Practice Research Database and the Hospital Episode Statistics databases to estimate resource use and cost associated with ILI in the UK. Results Data were included from 156,193 patients with ≥1 general practitioner visit with ILI. There were 21,518 high-risk patients, of whom 12,514 (58.2%) were vaccinated and 9,004 (41.8%) were not vaccinated, and 134,675 low-risk patients, of whom 17,482 (13.0%) were vaccinated and 117,193 (87.0%) were not vaccinated. High-risk vaccinated patients were older (p<0.001) and had more risk conditions (p<0.001). High-risk (odds ratio [OR] 2.16) or vaccinated (OR 1.19) patients had a higher probability of >1 general practitioner visit compared with low-risk and unvaccinated patients. Patients who were high-risk and vaccinated had a reduced risk of >1 general practitioner visit (OR 0.82; p<0.001). High-risk individuals who were also vaccinated had a lower probability of ILI-related hospitalisation than individuals who were high-risk or vaccinated alone (OR 0.59). In people aged ≥65 years, the mortality rate was lower in vaccinated than unvaccinated individuals (OR 0.75). The cost of ILI-related GP visits and hospital admissions in the UK over the study period in low-risk vaccinated patients was £27,391,142 and £141,932,471, respectively. In low-risk unvaccinated patients the corresponding values were £168,318,709 and £112,534,130, respectively. Conclusions Although vaccination rates in target groups have increased, many people are still not receiving influenza vaccination, and the burden of ILI in the United Kingdom remains substantial. Improving

  6. Early Detection for Cases of Enterovirus- and Influenza-Like Illness through a Newly Established School-Based Syndromic Surveillance System in Taipei, January 2010 ~ August 2011

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Ting Chia; Chan, Ta Chien; Li, Zheng Rong Tiger; Cheng, Hao-Yuan; Chu, Yu-Roo; Chiu, Allen Wen-Hsiang; Yen, Muh-Yong; King, Chwan-Chuen

    2015-01-01

    School children may transmit pathogens with cluster cases occurring on campuses and in families. In response to the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) pandemic, Taipei City Government officials developed a School-based Infectious Disease Syndromic Surveillance System (SID-SSS). Teachers and nurses from preschools to universities in all 12 districts within Taipei are required to daily report cases of symptomatic children or sick leave requests through the SID-SSS. The pre-diagnosis at schools is submitted firstly as common pediatric disease syndrome-groups and re-submitted after confirmation by physicians. We retrieved these data from January 2010 to August 2011 for spatio-temporal analysis and evaluated the temporal trends with cases obtained from both the Emergency Department-based Syndromic Surveillance System (ED-SSS) and the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2005 (LHID2005). Through the SID-SSS, enterovirus-like illness (EVI) and influenza-like illness (ILI) were the two most reported syndrome groups (77.6% and 15.8% among a total of 19,334 cases, respectively). The pre-diagnosis judgments made by school teachers and nurses showed high consistency with physicians’ clinical diagnoses for EVI (97.8%) and ILI (98.9%). Most importantly, the SID-SSS had better timeliness with earlier peaks of EVI and ILI than those in the ED-SSS. Furthermore, both of the syndrome groups in these two surveillance systems had the best correlation reaching 0.98 and 0.95, respectively (p<0.01). Spatio-temporal analysis observed the patterns of EVI and ILI both diffuse from the northern suburban districts to central Taipei, with ILI spreading faster. This novel system can identify early suspected cases of two important pediatric infections occurring at schools, and clusters from schools/families. It was also cost-effective (95.5% of the operation cost reduced and 59.7% processing time saved). The timely surveillance of mild EVI and ILI cases integrated with spatial analysis may help public

  7. Understanding and Supporting a Culture of Public Outreach in Amateur Organizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berendsen, M.; Ames, Z.; Figueiredo, C.; Storksdieck, M.; Stein, J.

    2010-08-01

    What types of resources can best support amateur science-based organizations who share their enthusiasm with the public? For several years the Astronomical Society of the Pacific (ASP) and Institute for Learning Innovation (ILI), have partnered to conduct research aimed at understanding the culture of public outreach conducted by astronomy clubs and their members. Through this research ILI has conducted studies that yielded three main conclusions: amateurs want educational tools, pedagogical skills, and club organizational support. With these ideas in mind the ASP began working on solutions to the amateurs needs in 2004. Since then the ASP has developed a number of solution approaches with extensive help from amateur astronomers around the country.

  8. Teacher led school-based surveillance can allow accurate tracking of emerging infectious diseases - evidence from serial cross-sectional surveys of febrile respiratory illness during the H1N1 2009 influenza pandemic in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Schools are important foci of influenza transmission and potential targets for surveillance and interventions. We compared several school-based influenza monitoring systems with clinic-based influenza-like illness (ILI) surveillance, and assessed the variation in illness rates between and within schools. Methods During the initial wave of pandemic H1N1 (pdmH1N1) infections from June to Sept 2009 in Singapore, we collected data on nation-wide laboratory confirmed cases (Sch-LCC) and daily temperature monitoring (Sch-DTM), and teacher-led febrile respiratory illness reporting in 6 sentinel schools (Sch-FRI). Comparisons were made against age-stratified clinic-based influenza-like illness (ILI) data from 23 primary care clinics (GP-ILI) and proportions of ILI testing positive for pdmH1N1 (Lab-ILI) by computing the fraction of cumulative incidence occurring by epidemiological week 30 (when GP-ILI incidence peaked); and cumulative incidence rates between school-based indicators and sero-epidemiological pdmH1N1 incidence (estimated from changes in prevalence of A/California/7/2009 H1N1 hemagglutination inhibition titers ≥ 40 between pre-epidemic and post-epidemic sera). Variation in Sch-FRI rates in the 6 schools was also investigated through a Bayesian hierarchical model. Results By week 30, for primary and secondary school children respectively, 63% and 79% of incidence for Sch-LCC had occurred, compared with 50% and 52% for GP-ILI data, and 48% and 53% for Sch-FRI. There were 1,187 notified cases and 7,588 episodes in the Sch-LCC and Sch-DTM systems; given school enrollment of 485,723 children, this represented 0.24 cases and 1.6 episodes per 100 children respectively. Mean Sch-FRI rate was 28.8 per 100 children (95% CI: 27.7 to 29.9) in the 6 schools. We estimate from serology that 41.8% (95% CI: 30.2% to 55.9%) of primary and 43.2% (95% CI: 28.2% to 60.8%) of secondary school-aged children were infected. Sch-FRI rates were similar across the 6 schools

  9. Automatic detection of tweets reporting cases of influenza like illnesses in Australia.

    PubMed

    Zuccon, Guido; Khanna, Sankalp; Nguyen, Anthony; Boyle, Justin; Hamlet, Matthew; Cameron, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Early detection of disease outbreaks is critical for disease spread control and management. In this work we investigate the suitability of statistical machine learning approaches to automatically detect Twitter messages (tweets) that are likely to report cases of possible influenza like illnesses (ILI). Empirical results obtained on a large set of tweets originating from the state of Victoria, Australia, in a 3.5 month period show evidence that machine learning classifiers are effective in identifying tweets that mention possible cases of ILI (up to 0.736 F-measure, i.e. the harmonic mean of precision and recall), regardless of the specific technique implemented by the classifier investigated in the study. PMID:25870759

  10. Automatic detection of tweets reporting cases of influenza like illnesses in Australia

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Early detection of disease outbreaks is critical for disease spread control and management. In this work we investigate the suitability of statistical machine learning approaches to automatically detect Twitter messages (tweets) that are likely to report cases of possible influenza like illnesses (ILI). Empirical results obtained on a large set of tweets originating from the state of Victoria, Australia, in a 3.5 month period show evidence that machine learning classifiers are effective in identifying tweets that mention possible cases of ILI (up to 0.736 F-measure, i.e. the harmonic mean of precision and recall), regardless of the specific technique implemented by the classifier investigated in the study. PMID:25870759

  11. [EFFICACY AND SECURITY OF A CONVENTIONAL PROCEDURE OF PLASMAPHERESIS IN COMPLEX OF TREATMENT OF NONBILIARY ACUTE PANCREATITIS IN EARLY PHASE OF THE DISEASE].

    PubMed

    Mishalov, V G; Markulan, L Yu; Matveyev, R M

    2016-02-01

    Abstract Efficacy and security of a plasmapheresis procedure in complex of treatment of nonbiliary acute pancreatitis in early phase of the disease were established, basing on the treatment results analysis in 48 patients. The plasmapheresis results were estimated in accordance to changes revealed in the intoxication leukocytic index (ILI), a general protein (GP) content, general calcium (GC) in the blood plasm and of the activated partial thrombin time (APTHT). Application of plasmapheresis in patients, suffering purulent pancreatitis in the enzymal phase, have guaranteed a staged reduction of ILI by (34.86 ± 1.27)%, the APTHT enhancement from (35.15 ± 0.37) to (52.01 ± 0.62) sec, a trustworthy lowering of the GP by (4.35 ± 0.02) g/L at average and of GC in a blood plasmby (10.45 ± 0.38)%. PMID:27244915

  12. Viral etiology of medically attended influenza-like illnesses in children less than five years old in Suzhou, China, 2011-2014.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan; Chen, Liling; Ding, Yunfang; Zhang, Jun; Hua, Jun; Geng, Qian; Ya, Xuerong; Zeng, Shanshan; Wu, Jing; Jiang, Yanwei; Zhang, Tao; Zhao, Genming

    2016-08-01

    Limited information is available on the non-influenza etiology and epidemiology of influenza-like illness (ILI) in China. From April 2011 to March 2014, we collected oropharyngeal swabs from children less than 5 years of age with symptoms of ILI who presented to the outpatient departments of Suzhou University Affiliated Children's Hospital (SCH). We used reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rt-PCR) or PCR to detect 11 respiratory viruses. Among 3,662 enrolled ILI patients, 1,292 (35.3%) tested positive for at least one virus. Influenza virus (16.9%) was detected most frequently (influenza A 7.4%, influenza B 9.5%), followed by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) (5.6%), parainfluenza virus (PIV) types 1-4 (4.8%), human bocavirus (HBoV) (3.8%), human metapneumovirus (HMPV) (3.5%), and adenovirus (ADV) (3.0%). Co-infections were identified in 108 (2.9%) patients. Influenza virus predominantly circulated in January-March and June-July. The 2013-2014 winter peaks of RSV and influenza overlapped. Compared with other virus positive cases, influenza positive cases were more likely to present with febrile seizure, and RSV positive cases were more likely to present with cough and wheezing, and were most frequently diagnosed with pneumonia. These data provide a better understanding of the viral etiology of ILI among children less than 5 years of age in Suzhou, China. Influenza is not only the most frequently identified pathogen but it is also the only vaccine preventable illness among the 11 pathogens tested. Such findings suggest the potential value of exploring value of influenza vaccination among this influenza vaccination target group. J. Med. Virol. 88:1334-1340, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26792409

  13. Prospective surveillance study of acute respiratory infections, influenza-like illness and seasonal influenza vaccine in a cohort of juvenile idiopathic arthritis patients

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Acute respiratory infections (ARI) are frequent in children and complications can occur in patients with chronic diseases. We evaluated the frequency and impact of ARI and influenza-like illness (ILI) episodes on disease activity, and the immunogenicity and safety of influenza vaccine in a cohort of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) patients. Methods Surveillance of respiratory viruses was conducted in JIA patients during ARI season (March to August) in two consecutive years: 2007 (61 patients) and 2008 (63 patients). Patients with ARI or ILI had respiratory samples collected for virus detection by real time PCR. In 2008, 44 patients were immunized with influenza vaccine. JIA activity index (ACRPed30) was assessed during both surveillance periods. Influenza hemagglutination inhibition antibody titers were measured before and 30-40 days after vaccination. Results During the study period 105 ARI episodes were reported and 26.6% of them were ILI. Of 33 samples collected, 60% were positive for at least one virus. Influenza and rhinovirus were the most frequently detected, in 30% of the samples. Of the 50 JIA flares observed, 20% were temporally associated to ARI. Influenza seroprotection rates were higher than 70% (91-100%) for all strains, and seroconversion rates exceeded 40% (74-93%). In general, response to influenza vaccine was not influenced by therapy or disease activity, but patients using anti-TNF alpha drugs presented lower seroconversion to H1N1 strain. No significant differences were found in ACRPed30 after vaccination and no patient reported ILI for 6 months after vaccination. Conclusion ARI episodes are relatively frequent in JIA patients and may have a role triggering JIA flares. Trivalent split influenza vaccine seems to be immunogenic and safe in JIA patients. PMID:23510667

  14. Estimating the Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness against Medically Attended Influenza in Clinical Settings: A Hospital-Based Case-Control Study with a Rapid Diagnostic Test in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Motoi; Yoshimine, Hiroyuki; Harada, Yoshitaka; Tsuchiya, Naho; Shimada, Ikumi; Ariyoshi, Koya; Inoue, Kenichiro

    2013-01-01

    Background Influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) studies are usually conducted by specialized agencies and require time and resources. The objective of this study was to estimate the influenza VE against medically attended influenza using a test-negative case-control design with rapid influenza diagnostic tests (RIDT) in a clinical setting. Methods A prospective study was conducted at a community hospital in Nagasaki, western Japan during the 2010/11 influenza season. All outpatients aged 15 years and older with influenza-like illnesses (ILI) who had undergone RIDT were enrolled. A test-negative case-control design was applied to estimate the VEs: the cases were ILI patients with positive RIDT results and the controls were ILI patients with negative RIDT results. Information on patient characteristics, including vaccination histories, was collected using questionnaires and medical records. Results Between December 2010 and April 2011, 526 ILI patients were tested with RIDT, and 476 were eligible for the analysis. The overall VE estimate against medically attended influenza was 47.6%, after adjusting for the patients' age groups, presence of chronic conditions, month of visit, and smoking and alcohol use. The seasonal influenza vaccine reduced the risk of medically attended influenza by 60.9% for patients less than 50 years of age, but a significant reduction was not observed for patients 50 years of age and older. A sensitivity analysis provided similar figures. Conclusion The test-negative case-control study using RIDT provided moderate influenza VE consistent with other reports. Utilizing the commonly used RIDT to estimate VE provides rapid assessment of VE; however, it may require validation with more specific endpoint. PMID:23326324

  15. Population-based Surveillance for Medically Attended Human Parainfluenza Viruses From the Influenza Incidence Surveillance Project, 2010–2014

    PubMed Central

    Finelli, Lyn; Whitaker, Brett; Fowlkes, Ashley

    2016-01-01

    Background: Parainfluenza viruses (PIV) have been shown to contribute substantially to pediatric hospitalizations in the United States. However, to date, there has been no systematic surveillance to estimate the burden among pediatric outpatients. Methods: From August 2010 through July 2014, outpatient health care providers with enumerated patient populations in 13 states and jurisdictions participating in the Influenza Incidence Surveillance Project conducted surveillance of patients with influenza-like illness (ILI). Respiratory specimens were collected from the first 10 ILI patients each week with demographic and clinical data. Specimens were tested for multiple respiratory viruses, including PIV1–4, using reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction assays. Cumulative incidence was calculated using provider patient population size as the denominator. Results: PIVs 1–3 were detected in 8.0% of 7716 ILI-related outpatient specimens: 30% were PIV1, 26% PIV2 and 44% PIV3. PIV circulation varied noticeably by year and type, with PIV3 predominating in 2010–2011 (incidence 110 per 100,000 children), PIV1 in 2011–2012 (89 per 100,000), dual predominance of PIV2 and PIV3 (88 and 131 per 100,000) in 2012–2013 and PIV3 (100 per 100,000) in 2013–2014. The highest incidence of PIV detections was among patients aged <5 years (259–1307 per 100,000). The median age at detection for PIV3 (3.4 years) was significantly lower than the median ages for PIV1 (4.5 years) and PIV2 (7.0 years; P < 0.05). Conclusions: PIVs 1–3 comprise a substantial amount of medically attended pediatric ILI, particularly among children aged <5 years. Distinct seasonal circulation patterns as well as significant differences in rates by age were observed between PIV types. PMID:26974891

  16. Effect of Improved Fitness beyond Weight Loss on Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Individuals with Type 2 Diabetes in the Look AHEAD Study

    PubMed Central

    Gibbs, Bethany Barone; Brancati, Frederick L.; Chen, Haiying; Coday, Mace; Jakicic, John M.; Lewis, Cora; Stewart, Kerry J.; Clark, Jeanne M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Because lifestyle-induced improvements in cardiovascular risk factors vary substantially across individuals with type 2 diabetes, we investigated the extent to which increases in fitness explain cardiovascular risk factor improvements independent of weight loss in a lifestyle intervention. Methods We studied 1-year changes in Look AHEAD, a randomized trial comparing an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) to a diabetes support and education control group (DSE) in adults with type 2 diabetes. Assessments included weight, fitness, blood pressure (BP), glucose, HbA1c, and lipids. We evaluated the effects of changes in weight and fitness on changes in cardiovascular risk factors by study arm, using R2 from multiple linear regression. Results Analyses included participants with fitness data at baseline and 1-year (n=4,408; 41% male, 36% non-White, mean age 58.7± 6.8 years). Weight change alone improved R2 for explaining changes in risk factors up to 8.2% in ILI and 1.7% in DSE. Fitness change alone improved R2 up to 3.9% in ILI and 0.8% in DSE. After adjusting for weight change, fitness was independently associated (p<0.05) with improvements in R2 for glucose (+0.7%), HbA1c (+1.1 %), HDL cholesterol (+0.4%) and triglycerides (+0.2%) in ILI and DBP (+0.3%), glucose (+0.3%), HbA1c (+0.4%), and triglycerides (+0.1%) in DSE. Taken together, weight and fitness changes explained from 0.1–9.3% of the variability in cardiovascular risk factor changes. Conclusion Increased fitness explained statistically significant but small improvements in several cardiovascular risk factors beyond weight loss. Further research identifying other factors that explain cardiovascular risk factor change is needed. PMID:23012688

  17. Respiratory viral infections and effects of meteorological parameters and air pollution in adults with respiratory symptoms admitted to the emergency room

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Denise R; Viana, Vinícius P; Müller, Alice M; Livi, Fernando P; Dalcin, Paulo de Tarso R

    2014-01-01

    Background Respiratory viral infections (RVIs) are the most common causes of respiratory infections. The prevalence of respiratory viruses in adults is underestimated. Meteorological variations and air pollution are likely to play a role in these infections. Objectives The objectives of this study were to determine the number of emergency visits for influenza-like illness (ILI) and severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) and to evaluate the association between ILI/SARI, RVI prevalence, and meteorological factors/air pollution, in the city of Porto Alegre, Brazil, from November 2008 to October 2010. Methods Eleven thousand nine hundred and fifty-three hospitalizations (adults and children) for respiratory symptoms were correlated with meteorological parameters and air pollutants. In a subset of adults, nasopharyngeal aspirates were collected and analyzed through IFI test. The data were analyzed using time-series analysis. Results Influenza-like illness and SARI were diagnosed in 3698 (30·9%) and 2063 (17·7%) patients, respectively. Thirty-seven (9·0%) samples were positive by IFI and 93 of 410 (22·7%) were IFI and/or PCR positive. In a multivariate logistic regression model, IFI positivity was statistically associated with absolute humidity, use of air conditioning, and presence of mold in home. Sunshine duration was significantly associated with the frequency of ILI cases. For SARI cases, the variables mean temperature, sunshine duration, relative humidity, and mean concentration of pollutants were singnificant. Conclusions At least 22% of infections in adult patients admitted to ER with respiratory complaints were caused by RVI. The correlations among meteorological variables, air pollution, ILI/SARI cases, and respiratory viruses demonstrated the relevance of climate factors as significant underlying contributors to the prevalence of RVI. PMID:24034701

  18. Forecasting the 2013-2014 influenza season using Wikipedia.

    PubMed

    Hickmann, Kyle S; Fairchild, Geoffrey; Priedhorsky, Reid; Generous, Nicholas; Hyman, James M; Deshpande, Alina; Del Valle, Sara Y

    2015-05-01

    Infectious diseases are one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality around the world; thus, forecasting their impact is crucial for planning an effective response strategy. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), seasonal influenza affects 5% to 20% of the U.S. population and causes major economic impacts resulting from hospitalization and absenteeism. Understanding influenza dynamics and forecasting its impact is fundamental for developing prevention and mitigation strategies. We combine modern data assimilation methods with Wikipedia access logs and CDC influenza-like illness (ILI) reports to create a weekly forecast for seasonal influenza. The methods are applied to the 2013-2014 influenza season but are sufficiently general to forecast any disease outbreak, given incidence or case count data. We adjust the initialization and parametrization of a disease model and show that this allows us to determine systematic model bias. In addition, we provide a way to determine where the model diverges from observation and evaluate forecast accuracy. Wikipedia article access logs are shown to be highly correlated with historical ILI records and allow for accurate prediction of ILI data several weeks before it becomes available. The results show that prior to the peak of the flu season, our forecasting method produced 50% and 95% credible intervals for the 2013-2014 ILI observations that contained the actual observations for most weeks in the forecast. However, since our model does not account for re-infection or multiple strains of influenza, the tail of the epidemic is not predicted well after the peak of flu season has passed. PMID:25974758

  19. Geochemistry of hot springs and fumarolic gases from the Banda Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poorter, R. P. E.; Varekamp, J. C.; Sriwana, T.; Van Bergen, M. J.; Erfan, R. D.; Suharyono, K.; Wirakusumah, A. D.; Vroon, P. Z.

    Geothermometry carried out on hot springs occurring on the volcanic non-active Islands of Ambon and Haruku indicates minimum subsurface temperatures of 180°C; for Alor Island we obtained a temperature of 170°C. The hydrothermal systems of these islands are likely crack and fault dominated. Hot springs on the islands with active volcanism indicate subsurface temperatures of 180 to 250°C. The chemical and isotopic compositions of fumarolic gases from the active volcanoes Banda Api in the Banda Archipelago, Serawerna on Teon, Wurlali on Damar and Ili Lewotolo on Lomblen are reported here for the first time. The measured fumarolic gas temperatures ranged from 98°C to 170°C for Banda Api, Laworkawra, Legatala, Serawerna, Wurlali and Sirung volcanoes and reached 490°C for Ili Lewotolo volcano. The main gas components are H 2O, CO 2 and SO 2; CO 2 predominates over (SO 22 + H 2S). The calculated gas equilibrium temperature for Wurlali is 700°C and for Ili Lewotolo more than 1000°C. Stable carbon isotope data for Wurlali ( δ13C = -3.3 % 0) and for Ili Lewotolo ( δ13C = -2.9 % 0) volcanoes are similar to those for other Indonesian volcanoes. The bulk sulfur is relatively rich in the heavy isotope. The 3He/ 4He (R/R A) ratios vary between 1.0 and 3.6, which is low for subduction related volcanoes. A contribution from continental crust or sediment-derived radiogenic 4He is suggested.

  20. Report: NSF Instrumentation and Laboratory Improvement Grants in Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-01-01

    The 1996 awards in chemistry under the Instrumentation and Laboratory Improvement Program (ILI) of the Division of Undergraduate Education (DUE) have been announced and are listed below. The ILI program provides matching funds in the range of 5,000 to 100,000 for purchasing equipment for laboratory improvement. Since the recipient institution must provide matching funds equaling or exceeding the NSF award, the supported projects range in cost from 10,000 to over 200,000. The 311 chemistry proposals requesting 13 million constituted 21% of the total number of proposals submitted to the ILI program. A total of 3.9 million was awarded in support of 110 projects in chemistry. The instruments requested most frequently were high field NMRs, GC/MS instruments, computers for data analysis, and FT-IRs; next most commonly requested were UV-vis spectrophotometers, followed by HPLCs, lasers, computers for molecular modeling, AAs, and GCs. In addition, one award was made this year in chemistry within the Leadership in Laboratory Development category. The next deadline for submission of ILI proposals is November 14, 1997. Guidelines for the preparation of proposals are found in the DUE Program Announcement (NSF 96-10), which may be obtained by calling (703) 306-1666 or by e-mail: undergrad@nsf.gov. Other information about DUE programs and activities and abstracts of the funded proposals can be found on the DUE Home Page at http://www.ehr.nsf.gov/EHR/DUE/start.htm. We thank Sandra D. Nelson, Science Education Analyst in DUE, for assistance in data gathering.

  1. Forecasting the 2013–2014 Influenza Season Using Wikipedia

    PubMed Central

    Hickmann, Kyle S.; Fairchild, Geoffrey; Priedhorsky, Reid; Generous, Nicholas; Hyman, James M.; Deshpande, Alina; Del Valle, Sara Y.

    2015-01-01

    Infectious diseases are one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality around the world; thus, forecasting their impact is crucial for planning an effective response strategy. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), seasonal influenza affects 5% to 20% of the U.S. population and causes major economic impacts resulting from hospitalization and absenteeism. Understanding influenza dynamics and forecasting its impact is fundamental for developing prevention and mitigation strategies. We combine modern data assimilation methods with Wikipedia access logs and CDC influenza-like illness (ILI) reports to create a weekly forecast for seasonal influenza. The methods are applied to the 2013-2014 influenza season but are sufficiently general to forecast any disease outbreak, given incidence or case count data. We adjust the initialization and parametrization of a disease model and show that this allows us to determine systematic model bias. In addition, we provide a way to determine where the model diverges from observation and evaluate forecast accuracy. Wikipedia article access logs are shown to be highly correlated with historical ILI records and allow for accurate prediction of ILI data several weeks before it becomes available. The results show that prior to the peak of the flu season, our forecasting method produced 50% and 95% credible intervals for the 2013-2014 ILI observations that contained the actual observations for most weeks in the forecast. However, since our model does not account for re-infection or multiple strains of influenza, the tail of the epidemic is not predicted well after the peak of flu season has passed. PMID:25974758

  2. Detection of influenza vaccine effectiveness among nursery school children: Lesson from a season with cocirculating respiratory syncytial virus

    PubMed Central

    Nakata, Keiko; Fujieda, Megumi; Miki, Hitoshi; Fukushima, Wakaba; Ohfuji, Satoko; Maeda, Akiko; Kase, Tetsuo; Hirota, Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    In the winter influenza epidemic season, patients with respiratory illnesses including respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections increase among young children. Therefore, we evaluated the effectiveness of influenza vaccine against influenza-like illness (ILI) using a technique to identify outbreaks of RSV infection and to distinguish those patients from ILI patients. The study subjects were 101 children aged 12 to 84 months attending nursery school. We classified the cases into 6 levels based on the definitions of ILI for outcomes. We established observation periods according to information obtained from regional surveillance and rapid diagnostic tests among children. Multivariate odds ratios (ORs) for each case classification were obtained using a logistic regression model for each observation period. For the entire observation period, ORs for cases with fever plus respiratory symptoms were reduced marginally significantly. For the local influenza epidemic period, only the OR for the most serious cases was significantly decreased (0.20 [95%CI: 0.04-0.94]). During the influenza outbreak among the nursery school children, multivariate ORs for fever plus respiratory symptoms decreased significantly (≥ 38.0°C plus ≥ one symptoms: 0.23 [0.06-0.91), ≥ 38.0°C plus ≥ 2 symptoms: 0.21 [0.05-0.85], ≥ 39.0°C plus ≥ one symptoms: 0.18 [0.04-0.93] and ≥ 39.0°C plus ≥ 2 symptoms: 0.16 [0.03-0.87]). These results suggest that confining observation to the peak influenza epidemic period and adoption of a strict case classification system can minimize outcome misclassification when evaluating the effectiveness of influenza vaccine against ILI, even if influenza and RSV cocirculate in the same season. PMID:25714791

  3. Nowcasting influenza outbreaks using open-source media report.

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, Jaideep; Brownstein, John S.

    2013-02-01

    We construct and verify a statistical method to nowcast influenza activity from a time-series of the frequency of reports concerning influenza related topics. Such reports are published electronically by both public health organizations as well as newspapers/media sources, and thus can be harvested easily via web crawlers. Since media reports are timely, whereas reports from public health organization are delayed by at least two weeks, using timely, open-source data to compensate for the lag in %E2%80%9Cofficial%E2%80%9D reports can be useful. We use morbidity data from networks of sentinel physicians (both the Center of Disease Control's ILINet and France's Sentinelles network) as the gold standard of influenza-like illness (ILI) activity. The time-series of media reports is obtained from HealthMap (http://healthmap.org). We find that the time-series of media reports shows some correlation ( 0.5) with ILI activity; further, this can be leveraged into an autoregressive moving average model with exogenous inputs (ARMAX model) to nowcast ILI activity. We find that the ARMAX models have more predictive skill compared to autoregressive (AR) models fitted to ILI data i.e., it is possible to exploit the information content in the open-source data. We also find that when the open-source data are non-informative, the ARMAX models reproduce the performance of AR models. The statistical models are tested on data from the 2009 swine-flu outbreak as well as the mild 2011-2012 influenza season in the U.S.A.

  4. Outbreak of H3N2 Influenza at a US Military Base in Djibouti during the H1N1 Pandemic of 2009

    PubMed Central

    Cosby, Michael T.; Pimentel, Guillermo; Nevin, Remington L.; Fouad Ahmed, Salwa; Klena, John D.; Amir, Ehab; Younan, Mary; Browning, Robert; Sebeny, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Influenza pandemics have significant operational impact on deployed military personnel working in areas throughout the world. The US Department of Defense global influenza-like illness (ILI) surveillance network serves an important role in establishing baseline trends and can be leveraged to respond to outbreaks of respiratory illness. Objective We identified and characterized an operationally unique outbreak of H3N2 influenza at Camp Lemonnier, Djibouti occurring simultaneously with the H1N1 pandemic of 2009 [A(H1N1)pdm09]. Methods Enhanced surveillance for ILI was conducted at Camp Lemonnier in response to local reports of a possible outbreak during the A(H1N1)pdm09 pandemic. Samples were collected from consenting patients presenting with ILI (utilizing a modified case definition) and who completed a case report form. Samples were cultured and analyzed using standard real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (rt-RT-PCR) methodology and sequenced genetic material was phylogenetically compared to other published strains. Results rt-RT-PCR and DNA sequencing revealed that 25 (78%) of the 32 clinical samples collected were seasonal H3N2 and only 2 (6%) were A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza. The highest incidence of H3N2 occurred during the month of May and 80% of these were active duty military personnel. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that sequenced H3N2 strains were genetically similar to 2009 strains from the United States of America, Australia, and South east Asia. Conclusions This outbreak highlights challenges in the investigation of influenza among deployed military populations and corroborates the public health importance of maintaining surveillance systems for ILI that can be enhanced locally when needed. PMID:24339995

  5. Impact of influenza vaccination on respiratory illness rates in children attending private boarding schools in England, 2013-2014: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Brousseau, N; Green, H K; Andrews, N; Pryse, R; Baguelin, M; Sunderland, A; Ellis, J; Pebody, R

    2015-12-01

    Several private boarding schools in England have established universal influenza vaccination programmes for their pupils. We evaluated the impact of these programmes on the burden of respiratory illnesses in boarders. Between November 2013 and May 2014, age-specific respiratory disease incidence rates in boarders were compared between schools offering and not offering influenza vaccine to healthy boarders. We adjusted for age, sex, school size and week using negative binomial regression. Forty-three schools comprising 14 776 boarders participated. Almost all boarders (99%) were aged 11-17 years. Nineteen (44%) schools vaccinated healthy boarders against influenza, with a mean uptake of 48·5% (range 14·2-88·5%). Over the study period, 1468 respiratory illnesses were reported in boarders (5·66/1000 boarder-weeks); of these, 33 were influenza-like illnesses (ILIs, 0·26/1000 boarder-weeks) in vaccinating schools and 95 were ILIs (0·74/1000 boarder-weeks) in non-vaccinating schools. The impact of vaccinating healthy boarders was a 54% reduction in ILI in all boarders [rate ratio (RR) 0·46, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0·28-0·76]. Disease rates were also reduced for upper respiratory tract infections (RR 0·72, 95% CI 0·61-0·85) and chest infections (RR 0·18, 95% CI 0·09-0·36). These findings demonstrate a significant impact of influenza vaccination on ILI and other clinical endpoints in secondary-school boarders. Additional research is needed to investigate the impact of influenza vaccination in non-boarding secondary-school settings. PMID:25876454

  6. Hospitalization Risk Due to Respiratory Illness Associated with Genetic Variation at IFITM3 in Patients with Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 Infection: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Gaio, Vânia; Nunes, Baltazar; Pechirra, Pedro; Conde, Patrícia; Guiomar, Raquel; Dias, Carlos Matias

    2016-01-01

    Background Recent studies suggest an association between the Interferon Inducible Transmembrane 3 (IFITM3) rs12252 variant and the course of influenza infection. However, it is not clear whether the reported association relates to influenza infection severity. The aim of this study was to estimate the hospitalization risk associated with this variant in Influenza Like Illness (ILI) patients during the H1N1 pandemic influenza. Methods A case-control genetic association study was performed, using nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal swabs collected during the H1N1 pandemic influenza. Laboratory diagnosis of influenza infection was performed by RT-PCR, the IFITM3 rs12252 was genotyped by RFLP and tested for association with hospitalization. Conditional logistic regression was performed to calculate the confounder-adjusted odds ratio of hospitalization associated with IFITM3 rs12252. Results We selected 312 ILI cases and 624 matched non-hospitalized controls. Within ILI Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 positive patients, no statistical significant association was found between the variant and the hospitalization risk (Adjusted OR: 0.73 (95%CI: 0.33–1.50)). Regarding ILI Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 negative patients, CT/CC genotype carriers had a higher risk of being hospitalized than patients with TT genotype (Adjusted OR: 2.54 (95%CI: 1.54–4.19)). Conclusions The IFITM3 rs12252 variant was associated with respiratory infection hospitalization but not specifically in patients infected with Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09. PMID:27351739

  7. Detection of influenza vaccine effectiveness among nursery school children: Lesson from a season with cocirculating respiratory syncytial virus.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Keiko; Fujieda, Megumi; Miki, Hitoshi; Fukushima, Wakaba; Ohfuji, Satoko; Maeda, Akiko; Kase, Tetsuo; Hirota, Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    In the winter influenza epidemic season, patients with respiratory illnesses including respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections increase among young children. Therefore, we evaluated the effectiveness of influenza vaccine against influenza-like illness (ILI) using a technique to identify outbreaks of RSV infection and to distinguish those patients from ILI patients. The study subjects were 101 children aged 12 to 84 months attending nursery school. We classified the cases into 6 levels based on the definitions of ILI for outcomes. We established observation periods according to information obtained from regional surveillance and rapid diagnostic tests among children. Multivariate odds ratios (ORs) for each case classification were obtained using a logistic regression model for each observation period. For the entire observation period, ORs for cases with fever plus respiratory symptoms were reduced marginally significantly. For the local influenza epidemic period, only the OR for the most serious cases was significantly decreased (0.20 [95%CI: 0.04-0.94]). During the influenza outbreak among the nursery school children, multivariate ORs for fever plus respiratory symptoms decreased significantly (≥ 38.0°C plus ≥ one symptoms: 0.23 [0.06-0.91), ≥ 38.0°C plus ≥ 2 symptoms: 0.21 [0.05-0.85], ≥ 39.0°C plus ≥ one symptoms: 0.18 [0.04-0.93] and ≥ 39.0°C plus ≥ 2 symptoms: 0.16 [0.03-0.87]). These results suggest that confining observation to the peak influenza epidemic period and adoption of a strict case classification system can minimize outcome misclassification when evaluating the effectiveness of influenza vaccine against ILI, even if influenza and RSV cocirculate in the same season. PMID:25714791

  8. One-Year Changes in Symptoms of Depression and Weight in Overweight/Obese Individuals with Type 2 Diabetes in the Look AHEAD study

    PubMed Central

    Faulconbridge, Lucy F.; Wadden, Thomas A.; Rubin, Richard R.; Wing, Rena R.; Walkup, Michael P.; Fabricatore, Anthony N.; Coday, Mace; Van Dorsten, Brent; Mount, David L.; Ewing, Linda J.

    2011-01-01

    Depressed individuals are frequently excluded from weight loss trials because of fears that weight reduction may precipitate mood disorders, as well as concerns that depressed participants will not lose weight satisfactorily. The present study examined participants in the Look AHEAD study to determine whether moderate weight loss would be associated with incident symptoms of depression and suicidal ideation, and whether symptoms of depression at baseline would limit weight loss at 1 year. Overweight/obese adults with type 2 diabetes (n=5145) were randomly assigned to an Intensive Lifestyle Intervention (ILI) or a usual care group, Diabetes Support and Education (DSE). Of these, 5129 participants completed the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and had their weight measured at baseline and 1 year. Potentially significant symptoms of depression were defined by a BDI score ≥10. Participants in ILI lost 8.6±6.9% of initial weight at 1 year, compared to 0.7±4.8% for DSE (P<0.001, effectsize=−1.33), and had a reduction of 1.4±4.7 points on the BDI, compared to 0.4±4.5 for DSE (P<0.001, effectsize=0.23). At 1 year, the incidence of potentially significant symptoms of depression was significantly (RR=0.66, 95%CI=0.5,0.8; P<0.001) lower in the ILI than DSE group (6.3% vs. 9.6%). In the ILI group, participants with and without symptoms of depression lost 7.8±6.7% and 8.7±6.9%, respectively, a difference not considered clinically meaningful. Intentional weight loss was not associated with the precipitation of symptoms of depression, but instead appeared to protect against this occurrence. Mild (or greater) symptoms of depression at baseline did not prevent overweight/obese individuals with type 2 diabetes from achieving significant weight loss. PMID:22016099

  9. Forecasting the 2013–2014 influenza season using Wikipedia

    SciTech Connect

    Hickmann, Kyle S.; Fairchild, Geoffrey; Priedhorsky, Reid; Generous, Nicholas; Hyman, James M.; Deshpande, Alina; Del Valle, Sara Y.; Salathé, Marcel

    2015-05-14

    Infectious diseases are one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality around the world; thus, forecasting their impact is crucial for planning an effective response strategy. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), seasonal influenza affects 5% to 20% of the U.S. population and causes major economic impacts resulting from hospitalization and absenteeism. Understanding influenza dynamics and forecasting its impact is fundamental for developing prevention and mitigation strategies. We combine modern data assimilation methods with Wikipedia access logs and CDC influenza-like illness (ILI) reports to create a weekly forecast for seasonal influenza. The methods are applied to the 2013-2014 influenza season but are sufficiently general to forecast any disease outbreak, given incidence or case count data. We adjust the initialization and parametrization of a disease model and show that this allows us to determine systematic model bias. In addition, we provide a way to determine where the model diverges from observation and evaluate forecast accuracy. Wikipedia article access logs are shown to be highly correlated with historical ILI records and allow for accurate prediction of ILI data several weeks before it becomes available. The results show that prior to the peak of the flu season, our forecasting method produced 50% and 95% credible intervals for the 2013-2014 ILI observations that contained the actual observations for most weeks in the forecast. However, since our model does not account for re-infection or multiple strains of influenza, the tail of the epidemic is not predicted well after the peak of flu season has passed.

  10. Forecasting the 2013–2014 influenza season using Wikipedia

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Hickmann, Kyle S.; Fairchild, Geoffrey; Priedhorsky, Reid; Generous, Nicholas; Hyman, James M.; Deshpande, Alina; Del Valle, Sara Y.; Salathé, Marcel

    2015-05-14

    Infectious diseases are one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality around the world; thus, forecasting their impact is crucial for planning an effective response strategy. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), seasonal influenza affects 5% to 20% of the U.S. population and causes major economic impacts resulting from hospitalization and absenteeism. Understanding influenza dynamics and forecasting its impact is fundamental for developing prevention and mitigation strategies. We combine modern data assimilation methods with Wikipedia access logs and CDC influenza-like illness (ILI) reports to create a weekly forecast for seasonal influenza. The methods are appliedmore » to the 2013-2014 influenza season but are sufficiently general to forecast any disease outbreak, given incidence or case count data. We adjust the initialization and parametrization of a disease model and show that this allows us to determine systematic model bias. In addition, we provide a way to determine where the model diverges from observation and evaluate forecast accuracy. Wikipedia article access logs are shown to be highly correlated with historical ILI records and allow for accurate prediction of ILI data several weeks before it becomes available. The results show that prior to the peak of the flu season, our forecasting method produced 50% and 95% credible intervals for the 2013-2014 ILI observations that contained the actual observations for most weeks in the forecast. However, since our model does not account for re-infection or multiple strains of influenza, the tail of the epidemic is not predicted well after the peak of flu season has passed.« less

  11. Influenza surveillance in Europe: comparing intensity levels calculated using the moving epidemic method

    PubMed Central

    Vega, Tomás; Lozano, José E; Meerhoff, Tamara; Snacken, René; Beauté, Julien; Jorgensen, Pernille; Ortiz de Lejarazu, Raúl; Domegan, Lisa; Mossong, Joël; Nielsen, Jens; Born, Rita; Larrauri, Amparo; Brown, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Although influenza-like illnesses (ILI) and acute respiratory illnesses (ARI) surveillance are well established in Europe, the comparability of intensity among countries and seasons remains an unresolved challenge. The objective is to compare the intensity of ILI and ARI in some European countries. Design and setting Weekly ILI and ARI incidence rates and proportion of primary care consultations were modeled in 28 countries for the 1996/1997–2013/2014 seasons using the moving epidemic method (MEM). We calculated the epidemic threshold and three intensity thresholds, which delimit five intensity levels: baseline, low, medium, high, and very high. The intensity of 2013/2014 season is described and compared by country. Results The lowest ILI epidemic thresholds appeared in Sweden and Estonia (below 10 cases per 100 000) and the highest in Belgium, Denmark, Hungary, Poland, Serbia, and Slovakia (above 100 per 100 000). The 2009/2010 season was the most intense, with 35% of the countries showing high or very high intensity levels. The European epidemic period in season 2013/2014 started in January 2014 in Spain, Poland, and Greece. The intensity was between low and medium and only Greece reached the high intensity level, in weeks 7 to 9/2014. Some countries remained at the baseline level throughout the entire surveillance period. Conclusions Epidemic and intensity thresholds varied by country. Influenza-like illnesses and ARI levels normalized by MEM in 2013/2014 showed that the intensity of the season in Europe was between low and medium in most of the countries. Comparing intensity among seasons or countries is essential for understanding patterns in seasonal epidemics. An automated standardized model for comparison should be implemented at national and international levels. PMID:26031655

  12. IMMEDIATE VERSUS DELAYED LOADING IMPLANTS: RATIONALE AND CONTROVERSIES.

    PubMed

    Corradini, G; Delle Donne, U; Boni, W; Tettamanti, L; Tagliabue, A

    2015-01-01

    Loading implants immediately after their position in alveolar bone crest is a procedure that has become popular in the last decade. The aim of this study is to evaluate the survival rate of 811 immediate loaded implants (ILIs). In the period between January 2008 and December 2013, 877 patients (498 females and 379 males) were operated at the BDD private Practice Clinic (Milan, Italy). The mean post-surgical follow-up was 30±17 months (max – min, 84 – 1). One thousasnd three hundred and eighty-six fixtures (EDIERRE Implant System SpA, Genoa, Italy) were evaluated in the present study, 811 immediately loaded and 575 loaded after 3 months. All patients underwent the same surgical protocol and agreed to participate in a post-operative check-up program. SPSS program was used for statistical analysis. Survival rate (SVR) was 97.3% since only 38 fixtures were lost from a total of 1,348 implants. Cross-tabulation between failures demonstrated slight but significant worse results for ILIs (p= 0.037). There were 28 failures out of 811 ILIs whereas only 10 fixtures were lost out of 565 implants loaded after 3 months. Immediate loading performed in selected cases is a reliable tool for oral rehabilitation. PMID:26511174

  13. Reduced palatability in lithium- and activity-based, but not in amphetamine-based, taste aversion learning.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, Dominic M; Boakes, Robert A; Hayward, Andrew J

    2008-10-01

    Conditioned taste aversions (CTA) based on lithium chloride (Experiment 1), amphetamine (Experiment 2), and wheel running (Experiment 3) were examined using the analysis of the microstructure of licking to measure the palatability of the taste serving as the conditioned stimulus (CS). Pairing saccharin with amphetamine reduced saccharin intake without reducing the size of licking clusters, initial lick rate, or the distribution of inter-lick intervals (ILIs) within a cluster. By contrast, pairing saccharin with lithium or wheel-running reduced saccharin intake as well as lick cluster size, initial lick rate, and the distribution of ILIs within a cluster. As lick cluster size, initial lick rate, and ILI distribution can be used as indices of stimulus palatability, the current results indicate that taste aversions based on either lithium or activity reduced the palatability of the CS. This suggests that aversions based on both lithium and wheel running involve conditioned nausea to the CS taste. The absence of similar changes in licking microstructure with amphetamine-based CTA is consistent with other evidence indicating this does not involve nausea. PMID:18823162

  14. Dissemination of the Look AHEAD Lifestyle Intervention in the United States Air Force: Study Rationale, Design and Methods

    PubMed Central

    Krukowski, Rebecca A.; Hare, Marion E.; Talcott, Gerald W.; Johnson, Karen C.; Richey, Phyllis A.; Kocak, Mehmet; Balderas, Jennifer; Colvin, Lauren; Keller, Patrick L.; Waters, Teresa M.; Klesges, Robert C.

    2014-01-01

    Despite an increase in overweight and obesity similar to the civilian population, there have been few randomized controlled trials examining behavioral weight management interventions in the military settings. This paper describes the design, intervention development and analysis plan of the Fit Blue study, a randomized controlled behavioral weight loss trial taking place in the United States Air Force. This study compares two adapted versions of the efficacious Look AHEAD Intensive Lifestyle Intervention (ILI), a counselor-initiated condition and a self-paced condition. Also described are the unique steps required when conducting military-based health promotion research and adaptations made to the Look AHEAD intervention to accommodate the military environment. To our knowledge, this is the first translation of the Look AHEAD ILI in the military setting and one of the first translations of the ILI in general. If successful, this intervention could be disseminated to the entire U.S. Military as this project is designed to overcome the barriers and utilize the facilitators for weight loss that are unique to a military population. Programs validated in military populations can have a major public health impact given that with 1.4 million active duty personnel, the Department of Defense is the nation’s largest employer. However, while this intervention is designed for a military population and there are unique aspects of the military that may enhance weight loss interventions, the diversity of the study population should help inform obesity efforts in both civilian and military settings. PMID:25545025

  15. Transmission of influenza on international flights, may 2009.

    PubMed

    Foxwell, A Ruth; Roberts, Leslee; Lokuge, Kamalini; Kelly, Paul M

    2011-07-01

    Understanding the dynamics of influenza transmission on international flights is necessary for prioritizing public health response to pandemic incursions. A retrospective cohort study to ascertain in-flight transmission of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 and influenza-like illness (ILI) was undertaken for 2 long-haul flights entering Australia during May 2009. Combined results, including survey responses from 319 (43%) of 738 passengers, showed that 13 (2%) had an ILI in flight and an ILI developed in 32 (5%) passengers during the first week post arrival. Passengers were at 3.6% increased risk of contracting pandemic (H1N1) 2009 if they sat in the same row as or within 2 rows of persons who were symptomatic preflight. A closer exposed zone (2 seats in front, 2 seats behind, and 2 seats either side) increased the risk for postflight disease to 7.7%. Efficiency of contact tracing without compromising the effectiveness of the public health intervention might be improved by limiting the exposed zone. PMID:21762571

  16. Burden and viral aetiology of influenza-like illness and acute respiratory infection in intensive care units.

    PubMed

    Tramuto, Fabio; Maida, Carmelo Massimo; Napoli, Giuseppe; Mammina, Caterina; Casuccio, Alessandra; Cala', Cinzia; Amodio, Emanuele; Vitale, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to study the viral aetiology of influenza-like illness (ILI) and acute respiratory tract infection (ARTI) among patients requiring intensive care unit admission. A cross-sectional retrospective study was carried out in Sicily over a 4-year period. A total of 233 respiratory samples of patients with ILI/ARTI admitted to intensive care units were molecularly analyzed for the detection of a comprehensive panel of aetiologic agents of viral respiratory infections. About 45% of patients was positive for at least one pathogen. Single aetiology occurred in 75.2% of infected patients, while polymicrobial infection was found in 24.8% of positive subjects. Influenza was the most common aetiologic agent (55.7%), especially among adults. Most of patients with multiple aetiology (76.9%) were adults and elderly. Mortality rates among patients with negative or positive aetiology did not significantly differ (52.4% and 47.6%, respectively). Highly transmissible respiratory pathogens are frequently detected among patients with ILI/ARTI admitted in intensive care units, showing the occurrence of concurrent infections by different viruses. The knowledge of the circulation of several types of microorganisms is of crucial importance in terms of appropriateness of therapies, but also for the implication in prevention strategies and hospital epidemiology. PMID:26706819

  17. Guess Who’s Not Coming to Dinner? Evaluating Online Restaurant Reservations for Disease Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Buckeridge, David L; Brownstein, John S

    2014-01-01

    Background Alternative data sources are used increasingly to augment traditional public health surveillance systems. Examples include over-the-counter medication sales and school absenteeism. Objective We sought to determine if an increase in restaurant table availabilities was associated with an increase in disease incidence, specifically influenza-like illness (ILI). Methods Restaurant table availability was monitored using OpenTable, an online restaurant table reservation site. A daily search was performed for restaurants with available tables for 2 at the hour and at half past the hour for 22 distinct times: between 11:00 am-3:30 pm for lunch and between 6:00-11:30 PM for dinner. In the United States, we examined table availability for restaurants in Boston, Atlanta, Baltimore, and Miami. For Mexico, we studied table availabilities in Cancun, Mexico City, Puebla, Monterrey, and Guadalajara. Time series of restaurant use was compared with Google Flu Trends and ILI at the state and national levels for the United States and Mexico using the cross-correlation function. Results Differences in restaurant use were observed across sampling times and regions. We also noted similarities in time series trends between data on influenza activity and restaurant use. In some settings, significant correlations greater than 70% were noted between data on restaurant use and ILI trends. Conclusions This study introduces and demonstrates the potential value of restaurant use data for event surveillance. PMID:24451921

  18. Utility of the ESSENCE Surveillance System in Monitoring the H1N1 Outbreak.

    PubMed

    Holtry, Rekha S; Hung, Lang M; Lewis, Sheri H

    2010-01-01

    The Electronic Surveillance System for the Early Notification of Community-Based Epidemics (ESSENCE) enables health care practitioners to detect and monitor health indicators of public health importance. ESSENCE is used by public health departments in the National Capital Region (NCR); a cross-jurisdictional data sharing agreement has allowed cooperative health information sharing in the region since 2004. Emergency department visits for influenza-like illness (ILI) in the NCR from 2008 are compared to those of 2009. Important differences in the rates, timing, and demographic composition of ILI visits were found. By monitoring a regional surveillance system, public health practitioners had an increased ability to understand the magnitude and character of different ILI outbreaks. This increased ability provided crucial community-level information on which to base response and control measures for the novel 2009 H1N1 influenza outbreak. This report underscores the utility of automated surveillance systems in monitoring community-based outbreaks. There are several limitations in this study that are inherent with syndrome-based surveillance, including utilizing chief complaints versus confirmed laboratory data, discerning real disease versus those healthcare-seeking behaviors driven by panic, and reliance on visit counts versus visit rates. PMID:23569593

  19. Gastrointestinal, influenza-like illness and dermatological complaints following exposure to floodwater: a cross-sectional survey in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    DE Man, H; Mughini Gras, L; Schimmer, B; Friesema, I H M; DE Roda Husman, A M; VAN Pelt, W

    2016-05-01

    Extreme rainfall events may cause pluvial flooding, increasing the transmission of several waterborne pathogens. However, the risk of experiencing clinically overt infections following exposure to pluvial floodwater is poorly estimated. A retrospective cross-sectional survey was performed to quantify the occurrence of self-reported gastrointestinal, influenza-like illness (ILI) and dermatological complaints, and the frequency of visits to the general practitioner (GP), during a 4-week observation period following pluvial flooding at seven locations in The Netherlands. Questionnaires were sent to 817 flooded households, 149 (17%) of which returned the questionnaire reporting information for 199 participants. Contact with floodwater was significantly associated with increased occurrence of gastrointestinal [odds ratio (OR 4·44)], ILI (OR 2·75) and dermatological (OR 6·67) complaints, and GP visits (OR 2·72). Having hand contact with floodwater was associated with gastrointestinal and dermatological complaints, whereas ILI complaints were associated with being engaged in post-flooding cleaning operations and having walked/cycled through floodwater. This study shows that floodwater-associated diseases occur in urban settings following extreme rainfall events in a high-income country. As pluvial floods are expected to escalate in the future due to global climate change, further research is warranted to determine the disease burden of pluvial flooding and to assess the effect of different interventions, including raising awareness among stakeholders. PMID:26554647

  20. Diversity of influenza-like illness etiology in Polish Armed Forces in influenza epidemic season.

    PubMed

    Kocik, Janusz; Niemcewicz, Marcin; Winnicka, Izabela; Michalski, Aleksander; Bielawska-Drózd, Agata; Kołodziej, Marcin; Joniec, Justyna; Cieślik, Piotr; Graniak, Grzegorz; Mirski, Tomasz; Gaweł, Jerzy; Bielecka-Oder, Anna; Kubiak, Leszek; Russell, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct an epidemiological and laboratory surveillance of Influenza-Like Illnesses (ILI) in Polish Armed Forces, civilian military personnel and their families in 2011/2012 epidemic season, under the United States Department of Defense-Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System (DoD-GEIS). ILI incidence data were analyzed in relation to age, gender, patient category as well as pathogen patterns. Multiple viral, bacterial and viral-bacterial co-infections were identified. Nose and throat swabs of active duty soldiers in the homeland country and in the NATO peacekeeping forces KFOR (Kosovo Force), as well as members of their families were tested for the presence of viral and bacterial pathogens. From October 2011 to May 2012, 416 specimens from ILI symptoms patients were collected and analyzed for the presence of viral and bacterial pathogens. Among viruses, coronavirus was the most commonly detected. In the case of bacterial infections, the most common pathogen was Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:25195140

  1. Effectiveness of the monovalent influenza A(H1N1)2009 vaccine in Navarre, Spain, 2009-2010: cohort and case-control study.

    PubMed

    Castilla, Jesús; Morán, Julio; Martínez-Artola, Víctor; Fernández-Alonso, Mirian; Guevara, Marcela; Cenoz, Manuel García; Reina, Gabriel; Alvarez, Nerea; Arriazu, Maite; Elía, Fernando; Salcedo, Esther; Barricarte, Aurelio

    2011-08-11

    We defined a population-based cohort (596,755 subjects) in Navarre, Spain, using electronic records from physicians, to evaluate the effectiveness of the monovalent A(H1N1)2009 vaccine in preventing influenza in the 2009-2010 pandemic season. During the 9-week period of vaccine availability and circulation of the A(H1N1)2009 virus, 4608 cases of medically attended influenza-like illness (MA-ILI) were registered (46 per 1000 person-years). After adjustment for sociodemographic covariables, outpatient visits and major chronic conditions, vaccination was associated with a 32% (95% CI: 8-50%) reduction in the overall incidence of MA-ILI. In a test negative case-control analysis nested in the cohort, swabs from 633 patients were included, and 123 were confirmed for A(H1N1)2009 influenza. No confirmed case had received A(H1N1)2009 vaccine versus 9.6% of controls (p<0.001). The vaccine effectiveness in preventing laboratory-confirmed influenza was 89% (95% CI: 36-100%) after adjusting for age, health care setting, major chronic conditions and period. Pandemic vaccine was effective in preventing MA-ILI and confirmed cases of influenza A(H1N1)2009 in the 2009-2010 season. PMID:21723358

  2. Outcomes of a Pilot Hand Hygiene Randomized Cluster Trial to Reduce Communicable Infections Among US Office-Based Employees

    PubMed Central

    DuBois, Cathy L.Z.; Grey, Scott F.; Kingsbury, Diana M.; Shakya, Sunita; Scofield, Jennifer; Slenkovich, Ken

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effectiveness of an office-based multimodal hand hygiene improvement intervention in reducing self-reported communicable infections and work-related absence. Methods: A randomized cluster trial including an electronic training video, hand sanitizer, and educational posters (n = 131, intervention; n = 193, control). Primary outcomes include (1) self-reported acute respiratory infections (ARIs)/influenza-like illness (ILI) and/or gastrointestinal (GI) infections during the prior 30 days; and (2) related lost work days. Incidence rate ratios calculated using generalized linear mixed models with a Poisson distribution, adjusted for confounders and random cluster effects. Results: A 31% relative reduction in self-reported combined ARI-ILI/GI infections (incidence rate ratio: 0.69; 95% confidence interval, 0.49 to 0.98). A 21% nonsignificant relative reduction in lost work days. Conclusions: An office-based multimodal hand hygiene improvement intervention demonstrated a substantive reduction in self-reported combined ARI-ILI/GI infections. PMID:25719534

  3. An Outbreak of 2009 Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) Virus Infection in an Elementary School in Pennsylvania

    PubMed Central

    Bhattarai, Achuyt; Fagan, Ryan P.; Ostroff, Stephen; Sodha, Samir V.; Moll, Mària E.; Lee, Bruce Y.; Chang, Chung-Chou H.; Ennis, Brent; Britz, Phyllis; Fiore, Anthony; Nguyen, Michael; Palekar, Rakhee; Archer, W. Roodly; Gift, Thomas L.; Leap, Rebecca; Nygren, Benjamin L.; Cauchemez, Simon; Angulo, Frederick J.; Swerdlow, David

    2011-01-01

    In May 2009, one of the earliest outbreaks of 2009 pandemic influenza A virus (pH1N1) infection resulted in the closure of a semi-rural Pennsylvania elementary school. Two sequential telephone surveys were administered to 1345 students (85% of the students enrolled in the school) and household members in 313 households to collect data on influenza-like illness (ILI). A total of 167 persons (12.4%) among those in the surveyed households, including 93 (24.0%) of the School A students, reported ILI. Students were 3.1 times more likely than were other household members to develop ILI (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.3–4.1). Fourth-grade students were more likely to be affected than were students in other grades (relative risk, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.2–3.9). pH1N1 was confirmed in 26 (72.2%) of the individuals tested by real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. The outbreak did not resume upon the reopening of the school after the 7-day closure. This investigation found that pH1N1 outbreaks at schools can have substantial attack rates; however, grades and classrooms are affected variably. Additioanl study is warranted to determine the effectiveness of school closure during outbreaks. PMID:21342888

  4. Clinical symptoms cannot predict influenza infection during the 2013 influenza season in Bavaria, Germany.

    PubMed

    Campe, H; Heinzinger, S; Hartberger, C; Sing, A

    2016-04-01

    For influenza surveillance and diagnosis typical clinical symptoms are traditionally used to discriminate influenza virus infections from infections by other pathogens. During the 2013 influenza season we performed a multiplex assay for 16 different viruses in 665 swabs from patients with acute respiratory infections (ARIs) to display the variety of different pathogens causing ARI and to test the diagnostic value of both the commonly used case definitions [ARI, and influenza like illness (ILI)] as well as the clinical judgement of physicians, respectively, to achieve a laboratory-confirmed influenza diagnosis. Fourteen different viruses were identified as causing ARI/ILI. Influenza diagnosis based on clinical signs overestimated the number of laboratory-confirmed influenza cases and misclassified cases. Furthermore, ILI case definition and physicians agreed in only 287/651 (44%) cases with laboratory confirmation. Influenza case management has to be supported by laboratory confirmation to allow evidence-based decisions. Epidemiological syndromic surveillance data should be supported by laboratory confirmation for reasonable interpretation. PMID:26388141

  5. Lorentz invariance violation and IceCube neutrino events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomar, Gaurav; Mohanty, Subhendra; Pakvasa, Sandip

    2015-11-01

    The IceCube neutrino spectrum shows a flux which falls of as E -2 for sub PeV energies but there are no neutrino events observed above ˜ 3 PeV. In particular the Glashow resonance expected at 6.3 PeV is not seen. We examine a Planck scale Lorentz violation as a mechanism for explaining the cutoff of observed neutrino energies around a few PeV. By choosing the one free parameter the cutoff in neutrino energy can be chosen to be between 2 and 6.3 PeV. We assume that neutrinos (antineutrinos) have a dispersion relation E 2 = p 2 - (ξ3 /M Pl) p 3, and find that both π + and π - decays are suppressed at neutrino energies of order of few PeV. We find that the μ - decay being a two-neutrino process is enhanced, whereas μ + decay is suppressed. The K + → π 0 e + ν e is also suppressed with a cutoff neutrino energy of same order of magnitude, whereas {K}-to {π}^0{e}-{overline{ν}}_e is enhanced. The nto {p}+{e}-{overline{ν}}_e decay is suppressed (while the overline{n}to {p}-{e}+{ν}_e is enhanced). This means that the {overline{ν}}_e expected from n decay arising from p + γ → Δ → π + n reaction will not be seen. This can explain the lack of Glashow resonance events at IceCube. If no Glashow resonance events are seen in the future then the Lorentz violation can be a viable explanation for the IceCube observations at PeV energies.

  6. Second-harmonic generation and x-ray diffraction studies of the pretransitional region and polar phase in relaxor K(1-x)LixTaO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokota, Hiroko; Uesu, Yoshiaki; Malibert, Charlotte; Kiat, Jean-Michel

    2007-05-01

    Optical second-harmonic generation (SHG) observations and precise x-ray diffraction experiments have been performed on quantum paraelectrics KTaO3 (KTO) and relaxors K(1-x)LixTaO3 with x=3% (KLT-3) and 7% (KLT-7). It is found in KLT-3 and KLT-7 that a pretransitional region exists between two characteristic temperatures TB and Tp(

  7. Permeability evolution in quartz fault gouges under hydrothermal conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giger, Silvio B.; Tenthorey, Eric; Cox, Stephen F.; Fitz Gerald, John D.

    2007-07-01

    The permeability (k) of fine-grained quartz aggregates were measured in situ during hot pressing (HPing) experiments to explore the evolution of fluid transport properties of fault zones during the interseismic period. Experiments were conducted at temperatures of 150°C and between 700 and 850°C, with confining and pore water pressures of 250 and 150 MPa, respectively. Significant permeability reduction was observed between 700 and 850°C, with permeability reduction rates (r = (1/t) ln (kto/kt)), ranging from approximately 6 × 10-5 s-1 at 700°C to a maximum of approximately 7.4 × 10-4 s-1 at 850°C. Permeability decreased exponentially with time, and the permeability reduction rate increased with increasing temperature, increasing differential stress, and decreasing grain size. Analysis of the permeability-porosity relationships indicates that permeability in the simulated gouge at high temperature shuts off at a critical porosity of 0.045 ± 0.004. The presence of microstructures, such as grain interpenetration, grain shape truncation, arrays of fluid inclusions, and development of quartz overgrowths on grains, indicate that k reduction was controlled by dissolution-precipitation creep processes. Extrapolation of the permeability reduction rates, measured in this study, to temperatures typical of the continental seismogenic regime highlights the strongly time-dependent nature of permeability in natural fault wear products at depths of nucleation of major earthquakes. Within the recurrence time of large earthquakes, quartz-rich fault zones in the fluid-active midcrustal to lower continental crustal regimes can evolve from high-permeability conduits to low-permeability seals. Episodic changes in the fluid transport properties of faults during the interseismic period are likely to impact on the pore pressure evolution of fault wear products.

  8. Apparatus for nonresonant rf power absorption studies in high Tc superconductors and CMR materials using rf oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarangi, S.; Bhat, S. V.

    2005-02-01

    The design, fabication, and performance of an apparatus for measurement of nonresonant rf power absorption (NRRA) in superconducting and CMR samples are described. The system consists of an effective self-resonant LC tank circuit driven by a NOT gate (Logic gate). The samples under investigation are placed in the core of an inductive coil and nonresonant power absorption is determined from the measured shift in total current supplies to the whole oscillator circuit. A customized low temperature insert is used to integrate the experiment with a commercial oxford cryostat and temperature controller. The system makes use of a sensitive digital multimeter (Keithley 2002 model) and is capable of measuring NRRA in superconducting and colossal magnetoresistance samples of volume as small as 1×10-3cm3 with a signal to noise ratio of 10. Further increase in the sensitivity of the experimental setup can be obtained by summing the results of repeated measurements obtained in the same temperature interval. The system has been tested for an IC 74LS04 oscillator at frequencies between 1MHz and 25MHz in the temperature range from 4.2Kto400K and in magnetic field from 0to1.4T. The system performance is evaluated by measuring the NRRA in YBa2Cu3O7 (YBCO) superconducting sample and La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 (LSMO) colossal magnetoresistive (CMR) manganite samples at different rf frequencies. During a measurement all operation are controlled automatically by computer from a menu-driven software system, with user input required only on initiation of measurement sequence.

  9. Thermoconvectional phenomena induced by vibrations in supercritical SF6 under weightlessness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrabos, Y.; Beysens, D.; Lecoutre, C.; Dejoan, A.; Polezhaev, V.; Emelianov, V.

    2007-05-01

    The effect of a linear harmonic vibration on heat propagation is investigated in near-critical SF6 under weightlessness conditions in space. Heat was issued from a pointlike source (thermistor), a situation representative of an industrial use of pressurized supercritical fluid storage. Two kinds of vibrations were used, large amplitude (64mm) at 0.2Hz and low amplitude (0.8mm) at 1.6Hz , with temperatures from 5Kto20mK from the critical temperature. The vibrations are seen to strongly affect the evolution and shape of the hot boundary layer (HBL), the heat exchange between the heat source and the fluid, and the bulk thermalization process by the adiabatic piston-effect process. The HBL is initially convected as symmetrical plumes over a distance that only depends on the vibration velocity and which corresponds to a Rayleigh-Bénard-like instability where the vibration acceleration acts as the earth gravity. Then the extremities of the plumes are convected perpendicularly to the direction of oscillation as two “pancakes,” a process encountered in the vibrational Rayleigh-Bénard instability. When the vibration velocity is small, only one pancake centered at the hot source is observed. Temperature evolutions of the hot source and the fluid are studied in different locations. Convection flows and adiabatic piston effect compete to determine the thermal dynamics, with the latter being the most efficient near the critical point. The experimental results are compared with a two-dimensional numerical simulation that highlights the similarities and differences between the very compressible van der Waals gas and an ideal gas.

  10. Influenza vaccine effectiveness estimates in Europe in a season with three influenza type/subtypes circulating: the I-MOVE multicentre case-control study, influenza season 2012/13.

    PubMed

    Kissling, E; Valenciano, M; Buchholz, U; Larrauri, A; Cohen, J M; Nunes, B; Rogalska, J; Pitigoi, D; Paradowska-Stankiewicz, I; Reuss, A; Jiménez-Jorge, S; Daviaud, I; Guiomar, R; O'Donnell, J; Necula, G; Głuchowska, M; Moren, A

    2014-01-01

    In the fifth season of Influenza Monitoring Vaccine Effectiveness in Europe (I-MOVE), we undertook a multicentre case-control study (MCCS) in seven European Union (EU) Member States to measure 2012/13 influenza vaccine effectiveness against medically attended influenza-like illness (ILI) laboratory confirmed as influenza. The season was characterised by substantial co-circulation of influenza B, A(H1N1)pdm09 and A(H3N2) viruses. Practitioners systematically selected ILI patients to swab ≤7 days of symptom onset. We compared influenza-positive by type/subtype to influenza-negative patients among those who met the EU ILI case definition. We conducted a complete case analysis using logistic regression with study as fixed effect and calculated adjusted vaccine effectiveness (AVE), controlling for potential confounders (age, sex, symptom onset week and presence of chronic conditions). We calculated AVE by type/subtype. Study sites sent 7,954 ILI/acute respiratory infection records for analysis. After applying exclusion criteria, we included 4,627 ILI patients in the analysis of VE against influenza B (1,937 cases), 3,516 for A(H1N1)pdm09 (1,068 cases) and 3,340 for influenza A(H3N2) (730 cases). AVE was 49.3% (95% confidence interval (CI): 32.4 to 62.0) against influenza B, 50.4% (95% CI: 28.4 to 65.6) against A(H1N1)pdm09 and 42.2% (95% CI: 14.9 to 60.7) against A(H3N2). Our results suggest an overall low to moderate AVE against influenza B, A(H1N1)pdm09 and A(H3N2), between 42 and 50%. In this season with many co-circulating viruses, the high sample size enabled stratified AVE by type/subtype. The low estimates indicate seasonal influenza vaccines should be improved to achieve acceptable protection levels. PMID:24556348

  11. Prevalence of influenza-like illness and seasonal and pandemic H1N1 influenza vaccination coverage among workers--United States, 2009-10 influenza season.

    PubMed

    Luckhaupt, Sara E; Calvert, Geoffrey M; Li, Jia; Sweeney, Marie; Santibanez, Tammy A

    2014-03-14

    During an influenza pandemic, information about the industry and occupation (I&O) of persons likely to be infected with influenza virus is important to guide key policy decisions regarding vaccine prioritization and exposure-control measures. Health-care personnel (HCP) might have increased opportunity for exposure to influenza infection, and they have been prioritized for influenza vaccination because of their own risk and the risk that infected HCP pose to patients. To identify other groups of workers that might be at increased risk for pandemic influenza infection, influenza-like illness (ILI) and vaccination coverage data from the 2009 National H1N1 Flu Survey (NHFS), which was conducted during October 2009 through June 2010, were analyzed. In a representative sample of 28,710 employed adults, 5.5% reported ILI symptoms in the month before the interview, and 23.7% received the 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) influenza vaccine. Among employed adults, the highest prevalence of ILI was reported by those employed in the industry groups "Real estate and rental and leasing" (10.5%) and "Accommodation and food services" (10.2%), and in the occupation groups "Food preparation and serving related" (11.0%) and "Community and social services" (8.3%). Both seasonal influenza and pH1N1 vaccination coverage were relatively low in all of these groups of workers. Adults not in the labor force (i.e., homemakers, students, retired persons, and persons unable to work) had ILI prevalence and pH1N1 vaccination coverage similar to those found in all employed adults combined; in contrast, ILI prevalence was higher and pH1N1 vaccination coverage was lower among unemployed adults (i.e., those looking for work). These results suggest that adults employed in certain industries and occupations might have increased risk for influenza infection, and that the majority of these workers did not receive seasonal or pH1N1 influenza vaccine. Unemployed adults might also be considered a high risk group

  12. Is the onset of influenza in the community age-related?

    PubMed

    Fleming, D M; Durnall, H; Warburton, F; Ellis, J S; Zambon, M C

    2016-08-01

    We studied the spread of influenza in the community between 1993 and 2009 using primary-care surveillance data to investigate if the onset of influenza was age-related. Virus detections [A(H3N2), B, A(H1N1)] and clinical incidence of influenza-like illness (ILI) in 12·3 million person-years in the long-running Royal College of General Practitioners-linked clinical-virological surveillance programme in England & Wales were examined. The number of days between symptom onset and the all-age peak ILI incidence were compared by age group for each influenza type/subtype. We found that virus detection and ILI incidence increase, peak and decrease were in unison. The mean interval between symptom onset to peak ILI incidence in virus detections (all ages) was: A(H3N2) 20·5 [95% confidence interval (CI) 19·7-21·6] days; B, 18·8 (95% CI 15·8·0-21·7) days; and A(H1N1) 17·0 (95% CI 15·6-18·4) days. Differences by age group were examined using the Kruskal-Wallis test. For A(H3N2) and A(H1N1) viruses the interval was similar in each age group. For influenza B there were highly significant differences by age group (P = 0·0001). Clinical incidence rates of ILI reported in the 8 weeks preceding the period of influenza virus activity were used to estimate a baseline incidence and threshold value (upper 95% CI of estimate) which was used as a marker of epidemic progress. Differences between the age groups in the week in which the threshold was reached were small and not localized to any age group. In conclusion we found no evidence to suggest that influenza A(H3N2) and A(H1N1) occurs in the community in one age group before another. For influenza B, virus detection was earlier in children aged 5-14 years than in persons aged ⩾25 years. PMID:27350234

  13. Estimation of the Burden of Pandemic(H1N1)2009 in Developing Countries: Experience from a Tertiary Care Center in South India

    PubMed Central

    Moorthy, Mahesh; Samuel, Prasanna; Peter, John Victor; Vijayakumar, Saranya; Sekhar, Dipika; Verghese, Valsan P.; Agarwal, Indira; Moses, Prabhakar D.; Ebenezer, Kala; Abraham, Ooriapadickal Cherian; Thomas, Kurien; Mathews, Prasad; Mishra, Akhilesh C.; Lal, Renu; Muliyil, Jayaprakash; Abraham, Asha Mary

    2012-01-01

    Background The burden of the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza might be underestimated if detection of the virus is mandated to diagnose infection. Using an alternate approach, we propose that a much higher pandemic burden was experienced in our institution. Methodology/Principal Findings Consecutive patients (n = 2588) presenting to our hospital with influenza like illness (ILI) or severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) during a 1-year period (May 2009–April 2010) were prospectively recruited and tested for influenza A by real-time RT-PCR. Analysis of weekly trends showed an 11-fold increase in patients presenting with ILI/SARI during the peak pandemic period when compared with the pre-pandemic period and a significant (P<0.001) increase in SARI admissions during the pandemic period (30±15.9 admissions/week) when compared with pre-pandemic (7±2.5) and post-pandemic periods (5±3.8). However, Influenza A was detected in less than one-third of patients with ILI/SARI [699 (27.0%)]; a majority of these (557/699, 79.7%) were Pandemic (H1N1)2009 virus [A/H1N1/09]. An A/H1N1/09 positive test was correlated with shorter symptom duration prior to presentation (p = 0.03). More ILI cases tested positive for A/H1N1/09 when compared with SARI (27.4% vs. 14.6%, P = 0.037). When the entire study population was considered, A/H1N1/09 positivity was associated with lower risk of hospitalization (p<0.0001) and ICU admission (p = 0.013) suggesting mild self-limiting illness in a majority. Conclusion/Significance Analysis of weekly trends of ILI/SARI suggest a higher burden of the pandemic attributable to A/H1N1/09 than estimates assessed by a positive PCR test alone. The study highlights methodological consideration in the estimation of burden of pandemic influenza in developing countries using hospital-based data that may help assess the impact of future outbreaks of respiratory illnesses. PMID:22957015

  14. Influenza-Like Illness Sentinel Surveillance in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Laguna-Torres, V. Alberto; Gómez, Jorge; Ocaña, Víctor; Aguilar, Patricia; Saldarriaga, Tatiana; Chavez, Edward; Perez, Juan; Zamalloa, Hernán; Forshey, Brett; Paz, Irmia; Gomez, Elizabeth; Ore, Roel; Chauca, Gloria; Ortiz, Ernesto; Villaran, Manuel; Vilcarromero, Stalin; Rocha, Claudio; Chincha, Omayra; Jiménez, Gerardo; Villanueva, Miguel; Pozo, Edwar; Aspajo, Jackeline; Kochel, Tadeusz

    2009-01-01

    Background Acute respiratory illnesses and influenza-like illnesses (ILI) are a significant source of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Despite the public health importance, little is known about the etiology of these acute respiratory illnesses in many regions of South America. In 2006, the Peruvian Ministry of Health (MoH) and the US Naval Medical Research Center Detachment (NMRCD) initiated a collaboration to characterize the viral agents associated with ILI and to describe the clinical and epidemiological presentation of the affected population. Methodology/Principal Findings Patients with ILI (fever ≥38°C and cough or sore throat) were evaluated in clinics and hospitals in 13 Peruvian cities representative of the four main regions of the country. Nasal and oropharyngeal swabs, as well as epidemiological and demographic data, were collected from each patient. During the two years of this study (June 2006 through May 2008), a total of 6,835 patients, with a median age of 13 years, were recruited from 31 clinics and hospitals; 6,308 were enrolled by regular passive surveillance and 527 were enrolled as part of outbreak investigations. At least one respiratory virus was isolated from the specimens of 2,688 (42.6%) patients, with etiologies varying by age and geographical region. Overall the most common viral agents isolated were influenza A virus (25.1%), influenza B virus (9.7%), parainfluenza viruses 1, 2, and 3, (HPIV-1,-2,-3; 3.2%), herpes simplex virus (HSV; 2.6%), and adenoviruses (1.8%). Genetic analyses of influenza virus isolates demonstrated that three lineages of influenza A H1N1, one lineage of influenza A H3N2, and two lineages of influenza B were circulating in Peru during the course of this study. Conclusions To our knowledge this is the most comprehensive study to date of the etiologic agents associated with ILI in Peru. These results demonstrate that a wide range of respiratory pathogens are circulating in Peru and this fact needs to be

  15. Long Term Effects of a Lifestyle Intervention on Weight and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Individuals with Type 2 Diabetes: Four Year Results of the Look AHEAD Trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objective Lifestyle interventions produce short-term improvements in glycemia and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in individuals with type 2 diabetes, but no long-term data are available. We examined the effects of a lifestyle intervention on changes in weight, fitness and cardiovascular (CVD) risk factors over 4 years. Research Design and Methods Look AHEAD is a multi-center randomized clinical trial comparing the effects of intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) and diabetes support and education (DSE, control group) on the incidence of major CVD events in 5145 individuals with type diabetes, aged 45 to 76 years, who were overweight or obese (BMI > 25 kg/m2). Participants have ongoing intervention and annual assessments. Results Averaged across four years of follow-up, participants in ILI had greater percent weight losses than those in DSE (−6.15% vs −0.88%, p<.0001) and greater improvements in fitness (12.74% vs. 1.96%, p < .0001), HbA1c (A1c, −0.36% vs. 0.09%, p<.0001), systolic blood pressure (SBP, −5.33 vs. −2.97 mmHg, p<.0001), diastolic blood pressure (DBP, −2.92 vs. −2.48 mmHg, p<.012), HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C, 3.67 vs. 1.97 mg/dl, p<.0001), and triglycerides (−25.56 vs. −19.75 mg/dl, p<.0006). Reductions in LDL-C were greater in DSE than ILI (−11.27 vs. −12.84 mg/dl, p=.009), but adjusted for medication use, changes in LDL-C did not differ between the two groups. Although the greatest benefits were often seen at 1 year, ILI participants still had greater improvements than DSE in weight, fitness, HbA1c, SBP, and HDL-C at 4 years. Conclusions Intensive lifestyle intervention can produce and maintain significant weight losses and improvements in fitness in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Across four years of follow-up, those in ILI had better overall levels of glycemic control, blood pressure, HDL-C and triglycerides, and thus spent considerable time with lower CVD risk. Whether this translates to reduction in CVD events will

  16. High Rate of A(H1N1)pdm09 Infections among Rural Thai Villagers, 2009–2010

    PubMed Central

    Khuntirat, Benjawan; Yoon, In-Kyu; Chittaganpitch, Malinee; Krueger, Whitney S.; Supawat, Krongkaew; Blair, Patrick J.; Putnam, Shannon D.; Gibbons, Robert V.; Buddhari, Darunee; Sawanpanyalert, Pathom; Heil, Gary L.; Friary, John A.; Gray, Gregory C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Pandemic influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 emerged in Thailand in 2009. A prospective longitudinal adult cohort and household transmission study of influenza-like illness (ILI) was ongoing in rural Thailand at the time of emergence. Symptomatic and subclinical A(H1N1)pdm09 infection rates in the cohort and among household members were evaluated. Methods A cohort of 800 Thai adults underwent active community-based surveillance for ILI from 2008–2010. Acute respiratory samples from ILI episodes were tested for A(H1N1)pdm09 by qRT-PCR; acute and 60-day convalescent blood samples were tested by A(H1N1)pdm09 hemagglutination inhibition assay (HI). Enrollment, 12-month and 24-month follow-up blood samples were tested for A(H1N1)pdm09 seroconversion by HI. Household members of influenza A-infected cohort subjects with ILI were enrolled in household transmission investigations in which day 0 and 60 blood samples and acute respiratory samples were tested by either qRT-PCR or HI for A(H1N1)pdm09. Seroconversion between annual blood samples without A(H1N1)pdm09-positive ILI was considered as subclinical infection. Results The 2-yr cumulative incidence of A(H1N1)pdm09 infection in the cohort in 2009/2010 was 10.8% (84/781) with an annual incidence of 1.2% in 2009 and 9.7% in 2010; 83.3% of infections were subclinical (50% in 2009 and 85.9% in 2010). The 2-yr cumulative incidence was lowest (5%) in adults born ≤1957. The A(H1N1)pdm09 secondary attack rate among household contacts was 47.2% (17/36); 47.1% of these infections were subclinical. The highest A(H1N1)pdm09 secondary attack rate among household contacts (70.6%, 12/17) occurred among children born between 1990 and 2003. Conclusion Subclinical A(H1N1)pdm09 infections in Thai adults occurred frequently and accounted for a greater proportion of all A(H1N1)pdm09 infections than previously estimated. The role of subclinical infections in A(H1N1)pdm09 transmission has important implications in formulating strategies to

  17. Effect of a Long-Term Behavioral Weight Loss Intervention on Nephropathy in Overweight or Obese Adults with Type 2 Diabetes: the Look AHEAD Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Knowler, William C.; Bahnson, Judy L.; Bantle, John P.; Bertoni, Alain G.; Bray, George A.; Chen, Haiying; Cheskin, Lawrence; Clark, Jeanne M.; Egan, Caitlin; Evans, Mary; Foreyt, John P.; Glasser, Stephen P.; Greenway, Frank L.; Gregg, Edward W.; Hazuda, Helen P.; Hill, James O.; Horton, Edward S.; Hubbard, Van S.; Jakicic, John M.; Jeffery, Robert W.; Johnson, Karen C.; Kahn, Steven E.; Kitabchi, Abbas E.; Korytkowski, Mary; Krakoff, Jonathan; Kure, Anne; Lewis, Cora E.; Maschak-Carey, Barbara J.; Michaels, Sara; Montez, Maria G.; Nathan, David M.; Nyenwe, Ebenezer; Patricio, Jennifer; Peters, Anne; Pi-Sunyer, Xavier; Pownall, Henry; Wadden, Thomas A.; Wagenknecht, Lynne E.; Williamson, David F.; Wing, Rena R.; Wyatt, Holly; Yanovski, Susan Z.

    2015-01-01

    Background Long-term effects of behavioral weight loss interventions on diabetes complications are unknown. We assessed whether an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) affects the development of nephropathy in Look AHEAD, a multicenter randomized clinical trial in type 2 diabetes. Methods 5145 overweight or obese persons aged 45–76 years with type 2 diabetes were randomized to ILI designed to achieve and maintain weight loss through reduced caloric consumption and increased physical activity or to a diabetes support and education (DSE) group. Randomization to ILI or DSE, in a 1:1 ratio, was implemented in a central web-based data management system, stratified by clinical center, and blocked with random block sizes. Outcomes assessors and laboratory staff were masked to treatment. The interventions ended early because of lack of effect on the primary outcome of cardiovascular disease events. Albuminuria and estimated glomerular filtration rate were prespecified “other” outcomes and were assessed from baseline through 9.6 years (median) of follow-up until the interventions ended. They were combined post-hoc to define the main outcome for this report: very-high-risk chronic kidney disease (CKD) based on the 2013 Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes classification. Data were analyzed by intention to treat. The trial is registered as Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00017953. Findings The incidence rate of very-high-risk CKD was 31% lower in ILI than DSE with hazard rates of 0.90 cases/100 person-years in DSE and 0.63 in ILI (difference=0.27 cases/100 person-years, hazard ratio and 95% confidence interval: HR=0.69, 0.55 to 0.87). This effect was partly attributable to reductions in weight, HbA1c, and blood pressure. Interpretation Weight loss should be considered as an adjunct to medical therapies to prevent or delay progression of CKD in overweight or obese persons with type 2 diabetes. Primary Funding National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

  18. Integrated Land Information System - a relevant step for development of information background for PEEX?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shvidenko, Anatoly; Schepaschenko, Dmitry; Baklanov, Alexander

    2014-05-01

    PEEX, as a long-term multidisciplinary integrated study, needs a systems design of a relevant information background. The idea of development of an Integrated Land Information System (ILIS) for the region as an initial step of future advanced integrated observing systems is considered as a promising way. The ILIS could serve (1) for introduction of a unified system of classification and quantification of environment, ecosystems and landscapes; (2) as a benchmark for tracing the dynamics of land use - land cover and ecosystems parameters, particularly for forests; (3) as a systems background for empirical assessment of indicators of an interest (e.g., components of biogeochemical cycles); (4) comparisons, harmonizing and mutual constraints of the results obtained by different methods; (5) for parameterization of surface fluxes for the 'atmosphere-land' system; (6) for use in divers models and for models' validation; (7) for downscaling of available information to a required scale; (8) for understanding of gradients for up-scaling of "point" data, etc. The ILIS is presented in form of multi-layer and multi-scale GIS that includes a hybrid land cover (HLC) by a definite date and corresponding legends and attributive databases. The HLC is based on relevant combination of a "multi" remote sensing concept that includes sensors of different type and resolution and ground data. The ILIS includes inter alia (1) general geographical and biophysical description of the territory (landscapes, soil, vegetation, hydrology, bioclimatic zones, permafrost etc.); (2) diverse datasets of measurements in situ; (3) sets of empirical and semi-empirical aggregation and auxiliary models, (4) data on different inventories and surveys (forest inventory, land account, results of forest monitoring); (5) spatial and temporal description of anthropogenic and natural disturbances; (5) climatic data with relevant temporal resolution etc. The ILIS should include only the data with known

  19. Systolic Blood Pressure Control Among Individuals With Type 2 Diabetes: A Comparative Effectiveness Analysis of Three Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Probstfield, Jeffery; Hire, Donald; Redmon, J. Bruce; Evans, Gregory W.; Coday, Mace; Lewis, Cora E.; Johnson, Karen C.; Wilmoth, Sharon; Bahnson, Judy; Dulin, Michael F.; Green, Jennifer B.; Knowler, William C.; Kitabchi, Abbas; Murillo, Anne L.; Osei, Kwame; Rehman, Shakaib U.; Cushman, William C.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The relative effectiveness of 3 approaches to blood pressure control—(i) an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) focused on weight loss, (ii) frequent goal-based monitoring of blood pressure with pharmacological management, and (iii) education and support—has not been established among overweight and obese adults with type 2 diabetes who are appropriate for each intervention. METHODS Participants from the Action for Health in Diabetes (Look AHEAD) and the Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) cohorts who met criteria for both clinical trials were identified. The proportions of these individuals with systolic blood pressure (SBP) <140mm Hg from annual standardized assessments over time were compared with generalized estimating equations. RESULTS Across 4 years among 480 Look AHEAD and 1,129 ACCORD participants with baseline SBPs between 130 and 159mm Hg, ILI (OR = 1.46; 95% CI = [1.18–1.81]) and frequent goal-based monitoring with pharmacotherapy (OR = 1.51; 95% CI = [1.16–1.97]) yielded higher rates of blood pressure control compared to education and support. The intensive behavioral-based intervention may have been more effective among individuals with body mass index >30kg/m2, while frequent goal-based monitoring with medication management may be more effective among individuals with lower body mass index (interaction P = 0.047). CONCLUSIONS Among overweight and obese adults with type 2 diabetes, both ILI and frequent goal-based monitoring with pharmacological management can be successful strategies for blood pressure control. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRY clinicaltrials.gov identifiers NCT00017953 (Look AHEAD) and NCT00000620 (ACCORD). PMID:25666468

  20. Low and decreasing vaccine effectiveness against influenza A(H3) in 2011/12 among vaccination target groups in Europe: results from the I-MOVE multicentre case-control study.

    PubMed

    Kissling, E; Valenciano, M; Larrauri, A; Oroszi, B; Cohen, J M; Nunes, B; Pitigoi, D; Rizzo, C; Rebolledo, J; Paradowska-Stankiewicz, I; Jiménez-Jorge, S; Horváth, J K; Daviaud, I; Guiomar, R; Necula, G; Bella, A; O'Donnell, J; Głuchowska, M; Ciancio, B C; Nicoll, A; Moren, A

    2013-01-01

    Within the Influenza Monitoring Vaccine Effectiveness in Europe (I-MOVE) project we conducted a multicentre case–control study in eight European Union (EU) Member States to estimate the 2011/12 influenza vaccine effectiveness against medically attended influenza-like illness (ILI) laboratory-confirmed as influenza A(H3) among the vaccination target groups. Practitioners systematically selected ILI / acute respiratory infection patients to swab within seven days of symptom onset. We restricted the study population to those meeting the EU ILI case definition and compared influenza A(H3) positive to influenza laboratory-negative patients. We used logistic regression with study site as fixed effect and calculated adjusted influenza vaccine effectiveness (IVE), controlling for potential confounders (age group, sex, month of symptom onset, chronic diseases and related hospitalisations, number of practitioner visits in the previous year). Adjusted IVE was 25% (95% confidence intervals (CI): -6 to 47) among all ages (n=1,014), 63% (95% CI: 26 to 82) in adults aged between 15 and 59 years and 15% (95% CI: -33 to 46) among those aged 60 years and above. Adjusted IVE was 38% (95%CI: -8 to 65) in the early influenza season (up to week 6 of 2012) and -1% (95% CI: -60 to 37) in the late phase. The results suggested a low adjusted IVE in 2011/12. The lower IVE in the late season could be due to virus changes through the season or waning immunity. Virological surveillance should be enhanced to quantify change over time and understand its relation with duration of immunological protection. Seasonal influenza vaccines should be improved to achieve acceptable levels of protection. PMID:23399425

  1. The Unrecognized Burden of Influenza in Young Kenyan Children, 2008-2012.

    PubMed

    McMorrow, Meredith L; Emukule, Gideon O; Njuguna, Henry N; Bigogo, Godfrey; Montgomery, Joel M; Nyawanda, Bryan; Audi, Allan; Breiman, Robert F; Katz, Mark A; Cosmas, Leonard; Waiboci, Lilian W; Duque, Jazmin; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Mott, Joshua A

    2015-01-01

    Influenza-associated disease burden among children in tropical sub-Saharan Africa is not well established, particularly outside of the 2009 pandemic period. We estimated the burden of influenza in children aged 0-4 years through population-based surveillance for influenza-like illness (ILI) and acute lower respiratory tract illness (ALRI). Household members meeting ILI or ALRI case definitions were referred to health facilities for evaluation and collection of nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swabs for influenza testing by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Estimates were adjusted for health-seeking behavior and those with ILI and ALRI who were not tested. During 2008-2012, there were 9,652 person-years of surveillance among children aged 0-4 years. The average adjusted rate of influenza-associated hospitalization was 4.3 (95% CI 3.0-6.0) per 1,000 person-years in children aged 0-4 years. Hospitalization rates were highest in the 0-5 month and 6-23 month age groups, at 7.6 (95% CI 3.2-18.2) and 8.4 (95% CI 5.4-13.0) per 1,000 person-years, respectively. The average adjusted rate of influenza-associated medically attended (inpatient or outpatient) ALRI in children aged 0-4 years was 17.4 (95% CI 14.2-19.7) per 1,000 person-years. Few children who had severe laboratory-confirmed influenza were clinically diagnosed with influenza by the treating clinician in the inpatient (0/33, 0%) or outpatient (1/109, 0.9%) settings. Influenza-associated hospitalization rates from 2008-2012 were 5-10 times higher than contemporaneous U.S. estimates. Many children with danger signs were not hospitalized; thus, influenza-associated severe disease rates in Kenyan children are likely higher than hospital-based estimates suggest. PMID:26379030

  2. Burden of Disease predicts response to isolated limb infusion with melphalan and actinomycin D in melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Muilenburg, Diego J.; Beasley, Georgia M.; Thompson, Zachary J.; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Tyler, Douglas S.; Zager, Jonathan S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Isolated limb infusion (ILI) with melphalan is a minimally invasive, effective treatment for in transit melanoma. We hypothesized that burden of disease (BOD) would correlate to treatment response. Methods We retrospectively analyzed a prospectively collected database from two academic centers. BOD was stratified as high or low (less than 10 lesions, none > 2cm). Response rates were measured 3 months post-ILI. Multivariable analysis (MV) was used to evaluate the association between the response rate and BOD. Kaplan-Meier methods with log-rank tests and multivariable Cox proportional hazard models were used to analyze overall survival (OS) and progression free survival (PFS) Results Sixty (38%) patients had low and 100 (62%) high BOD. Patients with low BOD had an overall response rate (ORR) of 73%, and 50% CR; compared to an ORR of 47% and 24% CR in patients with high BOD (p= 0.002). MV analysis of preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative parameters showed no significant impact on 3-month response. Patients with a CR at 3 months demonstrated improved PFS over the remainder of the cohort, but OS was equal. Low BOD patients had an increased median PFS of 6.9 vs 3.8 months (p= 0.047), and a non-statistically significantly increased median OS, 38.4 vs. 30.9 months (p=0.146). Conclusions Lower BOD is associated with an increased ORR and CR rate with statistically significantly improved PFS in patients undergoing ILI for in transit extremity melanoma. BOD provides useful prognostic information for patient counseling and serves as a marker to stratify patient risk groups. PMID:25192683

  3. [Prediction of School Dropout among Turkish High School Students: A Model Testing with Moderator and Mediator Variables.

    PubMed

    Ozer, Arif; Gençtanirim, Dilek; Ergene, Tuncay

    2011-01-01

    Bu araştırmada ilk olarak, dürtüsel davranma ile okulu terk etme riski arasındaki ilişkiye disiplin cezası almanın, antisosyal davranışların ve sigara-alkol kullanımının aracılık edip etmediği incelenmiştir. İkinci olarak, öğretmen desteği ve antisosyal davranış etkileşiminin okulu terk etme riski üzerindeki etkisi test edilmiştir. Araştırma grubunu 2009-2010 yılında Ankara İlinde genel liselere devam eden 478 öğrenci oluşturmuştur. Sonuçlar okulu terk etme riskini aile ve arkadaş desteğinin azalttığını, dürtüsel davranmanın ise artırdığını göstermiştir. Ayrıca disiplin cezası, alkol-sigara kullanma ve antisosyal davranışlar okulu terk etme riskini artıran aracı değişkenlerdir. Antisosyal davranışlarla okulu terk etme arasındaki ilişki öğretmen desteğine bağlı olarak değişmektedir. Öğrencilerin cinsiyet ve başarıları ile okulu terk etme riskleri arasında anlamlı bir ilişki bulunmamaktadır. PMID:22003257

  4. School-Located Influenza Vaccination Reduces Community Risk for Influenza and Influenza-Like Illness Emergency Care Visits

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Cuc H.; Sugimoto, Jonathan D.; Pulliam, Juliet R. C.; Ryan, Kathleen A.; Myers, Paul D.; Castleman, Joan B.; Doty, Randell; Johnson, Jackie; Stringfellow, Jim; Kovacevich, Nadia; Brew, Joe; Cheung, Lai Ling; Caron, Brad; Lipori, Gloria; Harle, Christopher A.; Alexander, Charles; Yang, Yang; Longini, Ira M.; Halloran, M. Elizabeth; Morris, J. Glenn; Small, Parker A.

    2014-01-01

    Background School-located influenza vaccination (SLIV) programs can substantially enhance the sub-optimal coverage achieved under existing delivery strategies. Randomized SLIV trials have shown these programs reduce laboratory-confirmed influenza among both vaccinated and unvaccinated children. This work explores the effectiveness of a SLIV program in reducing the community risk of influenza and influenza-like illness (ILI) associated emergency care visits. Methods For the 2011/12 and 2012/13 influenza seasons, we estimated age-group specific attack rates (AR) for ILI from routine surveillance and census data. Age-group specific SLIV program effectiveness was estimated as one minus the AR ratio for Alachua County versus two comparison regions: the 12 county region surrounding Alachua County, and all non-Alachua counties in Florida. Results Vaccination of ∼50% of 5–17 year-olds in Alachua reduced their risk of ILI-associated visits, compared to the rest of Florida, by 79% (95% confidence interval: 70, 85) in 2011/12 and 71% (63, 77) in 2012/13. The greatest indirect effectiveness was observed among 0–4 year-olds, reducing AR by 89% (84, 93) in 2011/12 and 84% (79, 88) in 2012/13. Among all non-school age residents, the estimated indirect effectiveness was 60% (54, 65) and 36% (31, 41) for 2011/12 and 2012/13. The overall effectiveness among all age-groups was 65% (61, 70) and 46% (42, 50) for 2011/12 and 2012/13. Conclusion Wider implementation of SLIV programs can significantly reduce the influenza-associated public health burden in communities. PMID:25489850

  5. Consistency and advantage of loop regularization method merging with Bjorken-Drell's analogy between Feynman diagrams and electrical circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Da; Wu, Yue-Liang

    2012-07-01

    The consistency of loop regularization (LORE) method is explored in multiloop calculations. A key concept of the LORE method is the introduction of irreducible loop integrals (ILIs) which are evaluated from the Feynman diagrams by adopting the Feynman parametrization and ultraviolet-divergence-preserving (UVDP) parametrization. It is then inevitable for the ILIs to encounter the divergences in the UVDP parameter space due to the generic overlapping divergences in the four-dimensional momentum space. By computing the so-called αβγ integrals arising from two-loop Feynman diagrams, we show how to deal with the divergences in the parameter space with the LORE method. By identifying the divergences in the UVDP parameter space to those in the subdiagrams, we arrive at the Bjorken-Drell analogy between Feynman diagrams and electrical circuits. The UVDP parameters are shown to correspond to the conductance or resistance in the electrical circuits, and the divergence in Feynman diagrams is ascribed to the infinite conductance or zero resistance. In particular, the sets of conditions required to eliminate the overlapping momentum integrals for obtaining the ILIs are found to be associated with the conservations of electric voltages, and the momentum conservations correspond to the conservations of electrical currents, which are known as the Kirchhoff laws in the electrical circuits analogy. As a practical application, we carry out a detailed calculation for one-loop and two-loop Feynman diagrams in the massive scalar ϕ 4 theory, which enables us to obtain the well-known logarithmic running of the coupling constant and the consistent power-law running of the scalar mass at two-loop level. Especially, we present an explicit demonstration on the general procedure of applying the LORE method to the multiloop calculations of Feynman diagrams when merging with the advantage of Bjorken-Drell's circuit analogy.

  6. Real-Time Epidemic Monitoring and Forecasting of H1N1-2009 Using Influenza-Like Illness from General Practice and Family Doctor Clinics in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Jimmy Boon Som; Chen, Mark I-Cheng; Cook, Alex R.; Lee, Huey Chyi; Lee, Vernon J.; Lin, Raymond Tzer Pin; Tambyah, Paul Ananth; Goh, Lee Gan

    2010-01-01

    Background Reporting of influenza-like illness (ILI) from general practice/family doctor (GPFD) clinics is an accurate indicator of real-time epidemic activity and requires little effort to set up, making it suitable for developing countries currently experiencing the influenza A (H1N1 -2009) pandemic or preparing for subsequent epidemic waves. Methodology/Principal Findings We established a network of GPFDs in Singapore. Participating GPFDs submitted returns via facsimile or e-mail on their work days using a simple, standard data collection format, capturing: gender; year of birth; “ethnicity”; residential status; body temperature (°C); and treatment (antiviral or not); for all cases with a clinical diagnosis of an acute respiratory illness (ARI). The operational definition of ILI in this study was an ARI with fever of 37.8°C or more. The data were processed daily by the study co-ordinator and fed into a stochastic model of disease dynamics, which was refitted daily using particle filtering, with data and forecasts uploaded to a website which could be publicly accessed. Twenty-three GPFD clinics agreed to participate. Data collection started on 2009-06-26 and lasted for the duration of the epidemic. The epidemic appeared to have peaked around 2009-08-03 and the ILI rates had returned to baseline levels by the time of writing. Conclusions/Significance This real-time surveillance system is able to show the progress of an epidemic and indicates when the peak is reached. The resulting information can be used to form forecasts, including how soon the epidemic wave will end and when a second wave will appear if at all. PMID:20418945

  7. Late-Paleozoic emplacement and Meso-Cenozoic reactivation of the southern Kazakhstan granitoid basement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Pelsmaeker, Elien; Glorie, Stijn; Buslov, Mikhail M.; Zhimulev, Fedor I.; Poujol, Marc; Korobkin, Valeriy V.; Vanhaecke, Frank; Vetrov, Evgeny V.; De Grave, Johan

    2015-11-01

    The Ili-Balkhash Basin in southeastern Kazakhstan is located at the junction of the actively deforming mountain ranges of western Junggar and the Tien Shan, and is therefore part of the southwestern Central Asian Orogenic Belt. The basement of the Ili-Balkhash area consists of an assemblage of mainly Precambrian microcontinental fragments, magmatic arcs and accretionary complexes. Eight magmatic basement samples (granitoids and tuffs) from the Ili-Balkhash area were dated with zircon U-Pb LA-ICP-MS and yield Carboniferous to late Permian (~ 350-260 Ma) crystallization ages. These ages are interpreted as reflecting the transition from subduction to (post-) collisional magmatism, related to the closure of the Junggar-Balkhash Ocean during the Carboniferous-early Permian and hence, to the final late Paleozoic accretion history of the ancestral Central Asian Orogenic Belt. Apatite fission track (AFT) dating of 14 basement samples (gneiss, granitoids and volcanic tuffs) mainly provides Cretaceous cooling ages. Thermal history modeling based on the AFT data reveals that several intracontinental tectonic reactivation episodes affected the studied basement during the late Mesozoic and Cenozoic. Late Mesozoic reactivation and associated basement exhumation is interpreted as distant effects of the Cimmerian collisions at the southern Eurasian margin and possibly of the Mongol-Okhotsk Orogeny in SE Siberia during the Jurassic-Cretaceous. Following tectonic stability during the Paleogene, inherited basement structures were reactivated during the Neogene (constrained by Miocene AFT ages of ~ 17-10 Ma). This late Cenozoic reactivation is interpreted as the far-field response of the India-Eurasia collision and reflects the onset of modern mountain building and denudation in southeast Kazakhstan, which seems to be at least partially controlled by the inherited basement architecture.

  8. Holocene River Dynamics, Climate Change and Floodwater Farming in the Watersheds of the Pamir and Tien Shan Mountains of Inner Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macklin, M. G.; Panyushkina, I. P.; Toonen, W. H. J.

    2014-12-01

    The Ili, Syr Dayra and Amu Dayra rivers of Inner Asia are emerging as critical areas for the development of irrigation-based agriculture in the ancient world. Following research by Russian archaeologists in the 1970s it is evident that these watersheds had flourishing riverine civilizations comparable to those in Mesopotamia and the Indus Valley. But unlike these areas where the relationship between Holocene river dynamics, climate change and floodwater farming is increasingly underpinned by radiometric dating, the alluvial archaeology of Inner Asia is significantly under researched. To address this, a major multi-disciplinary research program was begun in 2011 centred on the Talgar catchment, a south-bank tributary of the Ili river, southeast Kazakhstan. Building on archaeological excavations and surveys conducted over the past 20 years, we have undertaken one of the most detailed investigations of Holocene people-river environment interactions in Inner Asia. River development has been reconstructed over the last 20,000 years and human settlement histories from the Eneolithic to the Medieval period documented. Periods of Holocene river aggradation and high water levels in Lake Balkhash and Aral Sea correspond with cooler and wetter neoglacial episodes while river entrenchment and floodplain soil development are associated with warmer and drier conditions. Floodwater farming in the Talgar river reached its acme in the late Iron Age (400-200 cal. BC) with more than 60 settlement sites and 550 burial mounds. This corresponds to a period of reduced flood flows, river stability and glacier retreat in the Tien Shan headwaters. A new hydroclimatic-based model for the spatial and temporal dynamics of floodwater farming in the Ili, Syr Dayra and Amu Dayra watersheds is proposed, which explains the large scale expansion (down-river) and contraction (up-river) of settlements since the first use of irrigation in the Neolithic through to the late Medieval period.

  9. Timing and Spatial Distribution of Loess in Xinjiang, NW China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yun; Song, Yougui; Yan, Libin; Chen, Tao; An, Zhisheng

    2015-01-01

    Central Asia is one of the most significant loess regions on Earth, with an important role in understanding Quaternary climate and environmental change. However, in contrast to the widely investigated loess deposits in the Chinese Loess Plateau, the Central Asian loess–paleosol sequences are still insufficiently known and poorly understood. Through field investigation and review of the previous literature, the authors have investigated the distribution, thickness and age of the Xinjiang loess, and analyzed factors that control these parameters in the Xinjiang in northwest China, Central Asia. The loess sediments cover river terraces, low uplands, the margins of deserts and the slopes of the Tianshan Mountains and Kunlun Mountains and are also present in the Ili Basin. The thickness of the Xinjiang loess deposits varies from several meters to 670 m. The variation trend of the sand fraction (>63 μm) grain-size contour can indicate the local major wind directions, so we conclude that the NW and NE winds are the main wind directions in the North and South Xinjiang, and the westerly wind mainly transport dust into the Ili basin. We consider persistent drying, adequate regional wind energy and well-developed river terraces to be the main factors controlling the distribution, thickness and formation age of the Xinjiang loess. The well-outcropped loess sections have mainly developed since the middle Pleistocene in Xinjiang, reflecting the appearance of the persistent drying and the present air circulation system. However, the oldest loess deposits are as old as the beginning of the Pliocene in the Tarim Basin, which suggests that earlier aridification occurred in the Tarim Basin rather than in the Ili Basin and the Junggar Basin. PMID:25970617

  10. Timing and Spatial Distribution of Loess in Xinjiang, NW China.

    PubMed

    Li, Yun; Song, Yougui; Yan, Libin; Chen, Tao; An, Zhisheng

    2015-01-01

    Central Asia is one of the most significant loess regions on Earth, with an important role in understanding Quaternary climate and environmental change. However, in contrast to the widely investigated loess deposits in the Chinese Loess Plateau, the Central Asian loess-paleosol sequences are still insufficiently known and poorly understood. Through field investigation and review of the previous literature, the authors have investigated the distribution, thickness and age of the Xinjiang loess, and analyzed factors that control these parameters in the Xinjiang in northwest China, Central Asia. The loess sediments cover river terraces, low uplands, the margins of deserts and the slopes of the Tianshan Mountains and Kunlun Mountains and are also present in the Ili Basin. The thickness of the Xinjiang loess deposits varies from several meters to 670 m. The variation trend of the sand fraction (>63 μm) grain-size contour can indicate the local major wind directions, so we conclude that the NW and NE winds are the main wind directions in the North and South Xinjiang, and the westerly wind mainly transport dust into the Ili basin. We consider persistent drying, adequate regional wind energy and well-developed river terraces to be the main factors controlling the distribution, thickness and formation age of the Xinjiang loess. The well-outcropped loess sections have mainly developed since the middle Pleistocene in Xinjiang, reflecting the appearance of the persistent drying and the present air circulation system. However, the oldest loess deposits are as old as the beginning of the Pliocene in the Tarim Basin, which suggests that earlier aridification occurred in the Tarim Basin rather than in the Ili Basin and the Junggar Basin. PMID:25970617

  11. Treatment of Nodular Fasciitis Occurring on the Face

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Byung Ho; Kim, Jihee; Zheng, Zhenlong; Roh, Mi Ryung

    2015-01-01

    Background Surgical excision is generally recommended for the treatment of nodular fasciitis (NF) to rule out sarcoma. However, in cases of NF occurring on the face, the reported recurrence rate is higher and the surgical approach may result in considerable aesthetic concern. Objective To describe our experience with NF occurring on the face and evaluate the outcomes of surgical and nonsurgical methods of treatment. Methods We performed a retrospective review of 16 patients with NF on the face. The patients were treated with surgical excision or nonsurgical methods such as triamcinolone intralesional injection (TA ILI) and pinhole method with a carbon dioxide (CO2) laser. Results Among the 16 patients, surgical treatment was performed in 9 and recurrence occurred in 7 of these 9 patients (77.8%). The recurred lesions showed regression after repeated TA ILI. On the other hand, five patients underwent nonsurgical treatment after the histologic exclusion of malignancy. Their lesions showed regression after repeated pinhole treatment and TA ILI. In one case, NF spontaneously regressed. On a visual analogue scale, the nonsurgical approach showed superior results. However, the values were not statistically significant (6.90±1.56 vs. 5.61±1.36; p=0.163). The satisfaction level was lower in patients who experienced recurrence after surgical excision. Conclusion Surgical treatment for NF on the face showed a noticeable recurrence rate and resulted in scarring. Therefore, considering the possibility of spontaneous regression, the nonsurgical method can be considered as an alternative treatment option for NF on the face. PMID:26719638

  12. Google Flu Trends: Correlation With Emergency Department Influenza Rates and Crowding Metrics

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Yu-Hsiang; Levin, Scott R.; Pines, Jesse M.; Mareiniss, Darren P.; Mohareb, Amir; Gaydos, Charlotte A.; Perl, Trish M.; Rothman, Richard E.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Google Flu Trends (GFT) is a novel Internet-based influenza surveillance system that uses search engine query data to estimate influenza activity and is available in near real time. This study assesses the temporal correlation of city GFT data to cases of influenza and standard crowding indices from an inner-city emergency department (ED). Methods. This study was performed during a 21-month period (from January 2009 through October 2010) at an urban academic hospital with physically and administratively separate adult and pediatric EDs. We collected weekly data from GFT for Baltimore, Maryland; ED Centers for Disease Control and Prevention–reported standardized influenzalike illness (ILI) data; laboratory-confirmed influenza data; and ED crowding indices (patient volume, number of patients who left without being seen, waiting room time, and length of stay for admitted and discharged patients). Pediatric and adult data were analyzed separately using cross-correlation with GFT. Results. GFT correlated with both number of positive influenza test results (adult ED, r = 0.876; pediatric ED, r = 0.718) and number of ED patients presenting with ILI (adult ED, r = 0.885; pediatric ED, r = 0.652). Pediatric but not adult crowding measures, such as total ED volume (r = 0.649) and leaving without being seen (r = 0.641), also had good correlation with GFT. Adult crowding measures for low-acuity patients, such as waiting room time (r = 0.421) and length of stay for discharged patients (r = 0.548), had moderate correlation with GFT. Conclusions. City-level GFT shows strong correlation with influenza cases and ED ILI visits, validating its use as an ED surveillance tool. GFT correlated with several pediatric ED crowding measures and those for low-acuity adult patients. PMID:22230244

  13. Are School Absences Correlated with Influenza Surveillance Data in England? Results from Decipher My Data—A Research Project Conducted through Scientific Engagement with Schools

    PubMed Central

    Aldridge, Robert W.; Hayward, Andrew C.; Field, Nigel; Warren-Gash, Charlotte; Smith, Colette; Pebody, Richard; Fleming, Declan; McCracken, Shane

    2016-01-01

    Background School aged children are a key link in the transmission of influenza. Most cases have little or no interaction with health services and are therefore missed by the majority of existing surveillance systems. As part of a public engagement with science project, this study aimed to establish a web-based system for the collection of routine school absence data and determine if school absence prevalence was correlated with established surveillance measures for circulating influenza. Methods We collected data for two influenza seasons (2011/12 and 2012/13). The primary outcome was daily school absence prevalence (weighted to make it nationally representative) for children aged 11 to 16. School absence prevalence was triangulated graphically and through univariable linear regression to Royal College of General Practitioners (RCGP) influenza like illness (ILI) episode incidence rate, national microbiological surveillance data on the proportion of samples positive for influenza (A+B) and with Rhinovirus, RSV and laboratory confirmed cases of Norovirus. Results 27 schools submitted data over two respiratory seasons. During the first season, levels of influenza measured by school absence prevalence and established surveillance were low. In the 2012/13 season, a peak of school absence prevalence occurred in week 51, and week 1 in RCGP ILI surveillance data. Linear regression showed a strong association between the school absence prevalence and RCGP ILI (All ages, and 5–14 year olds), laboratory confirmed cases of influenza A & B, and weak evidence for a linear association with Rhinovirus and Norovirus. Interpretation This study provides initial evidence for using routine school illness absence prevalence as a novel tool for influenza surveillance. The network of web-based data collection platforms we established through active engagement provides an innovative model of conducting scientific research and could be used for a wide range of infectious disease studies

  14. Türk Lise Öğrencilerinde Okul Terkinin Yordanması: Aracı ve Etkileşim Değişkenleri ile Bir Model Testi

    PubMed Central

    Özer, Arif; Gençtanirim, Dilek; Ergene, Tuncay

    2011-01-01

    Bu araştırmada ilk olarak, dürtüsel davranma ile okulu terk etme riski arasındaki ilişkiye disiplin cezası almanın, antisosyal davranışların ve sigara-alkol kullanımının aracılık edip etmediği incelenmiştir. İkinci olarak, öğretmen desteği ve antisosyal davranış etkileşiminin okulu terk etme riski üzerindeki etkisi test edilmiştir. Araştırma grubunu 2009-2010 yılında Ankara İlinde genel liselere devam eden 478 öğrenci oluşturmuştur. Sonuçlar okulu terk etme riskini aile ve arkadaş desteğinin azalttığını, dürtüsel davranmanın ise artırdığını göstermiştir. Ayrıca disiplin cezası, alkol-sigara kullanma ve antisosyal davranışlar okulu terk etme riskini artıran aracı değişkenlerdir. Antisosyal davranışlarla okulu terk etme arasındaki ilişki öğretmen desteğine bağlı olarak değişmektedir. Öğrencilerin cinsiyet ve başarıları ile okulu terk etme riskleri arasında anlamlı bir ilişki bulunmamaktadır. PMID:22003257

  15. Agent based modeling of "crowdinforming" as a means of load balancing at emergency departments.

    PubMed

    Neighbour, Ryan; Oppenheimer, Luis; Mukhi, Shamir N; Friesen, Marcia R; McLeod, Robert D

    2010-01-01

    This work extends ongoing development of a framework for modeling the spread of contact-transmission infectious diseases. The framework is built upon Agent Based Modeling (ABM), with emphasis on urban scale modelling integrated with institutional models of hospital emergency departments. The method presented here includes ABM modeling an outbreak of influenza-like illness (ILI) with concomitant surges at hospital emergency departments, and illustrates the preliminary modeling of 'crowdinforming' as an intervention. 'Crowdinforming', a component of 'crowdsourcing', is characterized as the dissemination of collected and processed information back to the 'crowd' via public access. The objective of the simulation is to allow for effective policy evaluation to better inform the public of expected wait times as part of their decision making process in attending an emergency department or clinic. In effect, this is a means of providing additional decision support garnered from a simulation, prior to real world implementation. The conjecture is that more optimal service delivery can be achieved under balanced patient loads, compared to situations where some emergency departments are overextended while others are underutilized. Load balancing optimization is a common notion in many operations, and the simulation illustrates that 'crowdinforming' is a potential tool when used as a process control parameter to balance the load at emergency departments as well as serving as an effective means to direct patients during an ILI outbreak with temporary clinics deployed. The information provided in the 'crowdinforming' model is readily available in a local context, although it requires thoughtful consideration in its interpretation. The extension to a wider dissemination of information via a web service is readily achievable and presents no technical obstacles, although political obstacles may be present. The 'crowdinforming' simulation is not limited to arrivals of patients at

  16. Healthcare personnel infected with novel influenza A H1N1 virus in university hospitals in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Querci, Marcia; Stryjewski, Martin E; Herrera, Fabián; Temporiti, Elena; Alcalá, Wanda; Chavez, Natalia; Figueras, Laura; Barberis, Fernanda; Echavarría, Marcela; Videla, Cristina; Martínez, Alfredo; Carballal, Guadalupe; Bonvehí, Pablo

    2011-01-01

    Data on the clinical presentation, risk factors, and outcomes for healthcare personnel (HCP) infected with influenza A H1N1 virus (H1N1) are limited. From June to July 2009, a prospective study was conducted among HCP with influenza-like illness (ILI) at university hospitals in Buenos Aires. A reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to diagnose H1N1. A logistic regression model was developed to identify factors associated with H1N1. Among 1519 HCP, 96 (6.3%) were diagnosed with an ILI. Of these, 85 (88.5%) were swabbed for H1N1 detection, with 43 positive cases (2.8%). Seasonal influenza immunization was recorded in 76%. Comparison of H1N1-positive vs. H1N1-negative cases showed that H1N1-positive cases more frequently had asthenia (72% vs. 48%, p = 0.03) and cough (79% vs. 43%, p = 0.008) and less frequently had diarrhoea (9% vs. 29%, p = 0.03) and prior prophylaxis with oseltamivir (5% vs. 31%, p = 0.002). The logistic regression model showed that presence of cough (odds ratio (OR) 6.93, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.24, 21.4) was associated with an increased risk of H1N1. Prior prophylaxis with oseltamivir (OR 0.08, 95% CI 0.01, 0.43) was associated with a lower probability of H1N1 infection. A high proportion of HCP with an ILI were infected with H1N1. Complication rates were relatively low. Prior prophylaxis with oseltamivir was associated with a lower risk of developing H1N1. PMID:20854220

  17. Prospective association of a genetic risk score and lifestyle intervention with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality among individuals with type 2 diabetes: the Look AHEAD randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis Both obesity and genetics contribute to cardiovascular disease (CVD). We examined whether a genetic risk score (GRS) prospectively predicted cardiovascular morbidity and mortality among overweight/obese individuals with type 2 diabetes and whether behavioural weight loss could diminish this association. Methods Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) is a randomised controlled trial to determine the effects of intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI), including weight loss and physical activity, relative to diabetes support and education, on cardiovascular outcomes among overweight/obese individuals with type 2 diabetes. Of the participants, 4,016 provided consent for genetic analyses and had DNA samples passing quality control procedures. These secondary data analyses focused on whether a GRS derived from 153 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with coronary artery disease in the most recent genome-wide association study predicted cardiovascular morbidity and mortality over a median of 9.6 years of follow-up, and whether ILI would diminish this association. Results The GRS significantly predicted the primary composite endpoint of death from cardiovascular causes, nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, or hospitalisation for angina in the full sample (HR, 95% CI per 1 SD increase in GRS: 1.19 [1.10, 1.28]) and among individuals with no known history of CVD at baseline (HR 1.18 [95% CI 1.07, 1.30]). In no case did ILI significantly alter this association. Conclusions/interpretation A GRS comprised of SNPs significantly predicts cardiovascular morbidity and mortality over 9.6 years of follow-up in Look AHEAD. Lifestyle intervention did not alter the genetic association. PMID:25972230

  18. Bottom-up assessment of the Net Ecosystem Carbon Balance of Russian forests in 2010 for comparison to Top-down estimates.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maksyutov, S. S.; Shvidenko, A.; Shchepashchenko, D.

    2014-12-01

    The verified full carbon assessment of Russian forests (FCA) is based on an Integrated Land Information System (ILIS) that includes a multi-layer and multi-scale GIS with basic resolution of 1 km and corresponding attributive databases. The ILIS aggregates all available information about ecosystems and landscapes, sets of empirical and semi-empirical data and aggregations, data of different inventories and surveys, and multi-sensor remote sensing data. The ILIS serves as an information base for application of the landscape-ecosystem approach (LEA) of the FCA and as a systems design for comparison and mutual constraints with other methods of study of carbon cycling of forest ecosystems (eddy covariance; process models; inverse modeling; and multi-sensor application of remote sensing). The LEA is based on a complimentary use of the flux-based method with some elements of the pool-based method. Introduction of climatic parameters of individual years in the LEA, as well as some process-based elements, allows providing a substantial decrease of the uncertainties of carbon cycling yearly indicators of forest ecosystems. Major carbon pools (live biomass, coarse woody debris, soil organic carbon) are estimated based on data on areas, distribution and major biometric characteristics of Russian forests presented in form of the ILIS for the country. The major fluxes accounted for include Net Primary Production (NPP), Soil Heterotrophic Respiration (SHR), as well as fluxes caused by decomposition of Coarse Woody Debris (CWD), harvest and use of forest products, fluxes caused by natural disturbances (fire, insect outbreaks, impacts of unfavorable environment) and lateral fluxes to hydrosphere and lithosphere. Use of landscape-ecosystem approach resulted in the NECB at 573±140 Tg C yr-1 (CI 0.9). While the total carbon sink is high, large forest areas, particularly on permafrost, serve as a carbon source. The ratio between net primary production and soil heterotrophic

  19. Description of the female of Catocala toropovi Saldaitis et al. 2014 (Lepidoptera, Erebidae).

    PubMed

    Volynkin, Anton V; Saldaitis, Aidas; Chen, Liusheng

    2016-01-01

    Catocala toropovi Saldaitis, Kons & Borth, 2014 was recently described from the valleys of the Ili and Charyn rivers in southeast Kazakhstan. This species is similar to C. repudiata Staudinger, 1888 and C. optima Staudinger, 1888, but differs on morphological as well as genetic characters (Saldaitis et al. 2014). Catocala toropovi was described based on male specimens, as females were unknown at the time. During studies of Lepidoptera in Xinjiang Province, China, two females of C. toropovi were collected, and this paper provides a brief description and analysis of the female of this species. PMID:27470813

  20. Protocol for a randomised controlled trial examining the impact of a web-based personally controlled health management system on the uptake of influenza vaccination rates

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Online social networking and personally controlled health management systems (PCHMS) offer a new opportunity for developing innovative interventions to prevent diseases of public health concern (e.g., influenza) but there are few comparative studies about patterns of use and impact of these systems. Methods/Design A 2010 CONSORT-compliant randomised controlled trial with a two-group parallel design will assess the efficacy of a web-based PCHMS called Healthy.me in facilitating the uptake of influenza vaccine amongst university students and staff. Eligible participants are randomised either to obtain access to Healthy.me or a 6-month waitlist. Participants complete pre-study, post-study and monthly surveys about their health and utilisation of health services. A post-study clinical audit will be conducted to validate self-reports about influenza vaccination and visits to the university health service due to influenza-like illness (ILI) amongst a subset of participants. 600 participants older than 18 years with monthly access to the Internet and email will be recruited. Participants who (i) discontinue the online registration process; (ii) report obtaining an influenza vaccination in 2010 before the commencement of the study; or (iii) report being influenced by other participants to undertake influenza vaccination will be excluded from analysis. The primary outcome measure is the number of participants obtaining influenza vaccination during the study. Secondary outcome measures include: number of participants (i) experiencing ILI symptoms, (ii) absent from or experiencing impairment in work or study due to ILI symptoms, (iii) using health services or medications due to ILI symptoms; (iv) expressing positive or negative attitudes or experiences towards influenza vaccination, via their reasons of receiving (or not receiving) influenza vaccine; and (v) their patterns of usage of Healthy.me (e.g., frequency and timing of hits, duration of access, uptake of

  1. Molecular characterization of adenovirus circulating in Central and South America during the 2006–2008 period

    PubMed Central

    García, Josefina; Sovero, Merly; Laguna‐Torres, Victor Alberto; Gomez, Jorge; Chicaiza, Wilson; Barrantes, Melvin; Sanchez, Felix; Jimenez, Mirna; Comach, Guillermo; De Rivera, Ivette L.; Agudo, Roberto; Arango, Ana E.; Barboza, Alma; Aguayo, Nicolas; Kochel, Tadeusz J.

    2009-01-01

    Background  Human Adenoviruses are recognized pathogens, causing a broad spectrum of diseases. Serotype identification is critical for epidemiological surveillance, detection of new strains and understanding of HAdvs pathogenesis. Little data is available about HAdvs subtypes in Latin America. Methods  In this study, we have molecularly characterized 213 adenoviruses collected from ILI presenting patients, during 2006‐08, in Central and South America. Results  Our results indicate that 161(76%) adenoviruses belong to subgroup C, 45 (21%) to subgroup B and 7 (3%) to subtype E4. PMID:19903214

  2. I-MOVE Multi-Centre Case Control Study 2010-11: Overall and Stratified Estimates of Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Kissling, Esther; Valenciano, Marta; Cohen, Jean Marie; Oroszi, Beatrix; Barret, Anne-Sophie; Rizzo, Caterina; Stefanoff, Pawel; Nunes, Baltazar; Pitigoi, Daniela; Larrauri, Amparo; Daviaud, Isabelle; Horvath, Judit Krisztina; O'Donnell, Joan; Seyler, Thomas; Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona Anna; Pechirra, Pedro; Ivanciuc, Alina Elena; Jiménez-Jorge, Silvia; Savulescu, Camelia; Ciancio, Bruno Christian; Moren, Alain

    2011-01-01

    Background In the third season of I-MOVE (Influenza Monitoring Vaccine Effectiveness in Europe), we undertook a multicentre case-control study based on sentinel practitioner surveillance networks in eight European Union (EU) member states to estimate 2010/11 influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) against medically-attended influenza-like illness (ILI) laboratory-confirmed as influenza. Methods Using systematic sampling, practitioners swabbed ILI/ARI patients within seven days of symptom onset. We compared influenza-positive to influenza laboratory-negative patients among those meeting the EU ILI case definition. A valid vaccination corresponded to > 14 days between receiving a dose of vaccine and symptom onset. We used multiple imputation with chained equations to estimate missing values. Using logistic regression with study as fixed effect we calculated influenza VE adjusting for potential confounders. We estimated influenza VE overall, by influenza type, age group and among the target group for vaccination. Results We included 2019 cases and 2391 controls in the analysis. Adjusted VE was 52% (95% CI 30-67) overall (N = 4410), 55% (95% CI 29-72) against A(H1N1) and 50% (95% CI 14-71) against influenza B. Adjusted VE against all influenza subtypes was 66% (95% CI 15-86), 41% (95% CI -3-66) and 60% (95% CI 17-81) among those aged 0-14, 15-59 and ≥60 respectively. Among target groups for vaccination (N = 1004), VE was 56% (95% CI 34-71) overall, 59% (95% CI 32-75) against A(H1N1) and 63% (95% CI 31-81) against influenza B. Conclusions Results suggest moderate protection from 2010-11 trivalent influenza vaccines against medically-attended ILI laboratory-confirmed as influenza across Europe. Adjusted and stratified influenza VE estimates are possible with the large sample size of this multi-centre case-control. I-MOVE shows how a network can provide precise summary VE measures across Europe. PMID:22110695

  3. Management of Influenza-Like Illness by Homeopathic and Allopathic General Practitioners in France During the 2009–2010 Influenza Season

    PubMed Central

    Demonceaux, Antoine; Deswarte, Didier; Scimeca, Daniel; Bordet, Marie-France

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective This study was done to determine characteristics and management of patients in France visiting allopathic general practitioners (AGPs) and homeopathic general practitioners (HGPs) for influenza-like illness (ILI). Materials and Methods Design: This was a prospective observational study. Settings/location: It was conducted in metropolitan France during the 2009–2010 influenza season. Subjects: Sixty-five HGPs and 124 AGPs recruited a total of 461 patients with ILI. Interventions: Patients were treated for ILI by their GPs. GPs and patients completed questionnaires recording demographic characteristics and patient symptoms when patients were included in the study. Patients reported satisfaction with treatment on day 4. Prescriptions were recorded by the GPs. Outcome measures: Outcome measures were patient characteristics, demographics, and symptoms at baseline; medications prescribed by type of physician; and satisfaction with treatment by type of physician and medication. Results Most AGPs (86%), and most patients visiting them (58%) were men; whereas most HGPs (57%; p<0.0001), and most patients visiting them (56%; p=0.006) were women. Patients visiting AGPs were seen sooner after the appearance of symptoms, and they self-treated more frequently with cough suppressants or expectorants (p=0.0018). Patients visiting HGPs were seen later after the appearance of symptoms and they self-treated with homeopathic medications more frequently (p<0.0001). At enrollment, headaches (p=0.025), cough (p=0.01), muscle/joint pain (p=0.049), chills/shivering (p<0.001), and nasal discharge/congestion (p=0.002) were more common in patients visiting AGPs. Of these patients, 37.1% visiting AGPs were prescribed at least one homeopathic medication, and 59.6% of patients visiting HGPs were prescribed at least one allopathic medication. Patient satisfaction with treatment did not differ between AGPs and HGPs but was highest for patients treated with homeopathic

  4. Correlation between National Influenza Surveillance Data and Google Trends in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Min Woo; Shin, Soo-Yong; Lee, Jae Ho; Ryoo, Seoung Mok; Kim, Won Young; Seo, Dong-Woo

    2013-01-01

    Background In South Korea, there is currently no syndromic surveillance system using internet search data, including Google Flu Trends. The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between national influenza surveillance data and Google Trends in South Korea. Methods Our study was based on a publicly available search engine database, Google Trends, using 12 influenza-related queries, from September 9, 2007 to September 8, 2012. National surveillance data were obtained from the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (KCDC) influenza-like illness (ILI) and virologic surveillance system. Pearson's correlation coefficients were calculated to compare the national surveillance and the Google Trends data for the overall period and for 5 influenza seasons. Results The correlation coefficient between the KCDC ILI and virologic surveillance data was 0.72 (p<0.05). The highest correlation was between the Google Trends query of H1N1 and the ILI data, with a correlation coefficient of 0.53 (p<0.05), for the overall study period. When compared with the KCDC virologic data, the Google Trends query of bird flu had the highest correlation with a correlation coefficient of 0.93 (p<0.05) in the 2010-11 season. The following queries showed a statistically significant correlation coefficient compared with ILI data for three consecutive seasons: Tamiflu (r = 0.59, 0.86, 0.90, p<0.05), new flu (r = 0.64, 0.43, 0.70, p<0.05) and flu (r = 0.68, 0.43, 0.77, p<0.05). Conclusions In our study, we found that the Google Trends for certain queries using the survey on influenza correlated with national surveillance data in South Korea. The results of this study showed that Google Trends in the Korean language can be used as complementary data for influenza surveillance but was insufficient for the use of predictive models, such as Google Flu Trends. PMID:24339927

  5. A cluster randomised trial of cloth masks compared with medical masks in healthcare workers

    PubMed Central

    MacIntyre, C Raina; Seale, Holly; Dung, Tham Chi; Hien, Nguyen Tran; Nga, Phan Thi; Chughtai, Abrar Ahmad; Rahman, Bayzidur; Dwyer, Dominic E; Wang, Quanyi

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of cloth masks to medical masks in hospital healthcare workers (HCWs). The null hypothesis is that there is no difference between medical masks and cloth masks. Setting 14 secondary-level/tertiary-level hospitals in Hanoi, Vietnam. Participants 1607 hospital HCWs aged ≥18 years working full-time in selected high-risk wards. Intervention Hospital wards were randomised to: medical masks, cloth masks or a control group (usual practice, which included mask wearing). Participants used the mask on every shift for 4 consecutive weeks. Main outcome measure Clinical respiratory illness (CRI), influenza-like illness (ILI) and laboratory-confirmed respiratory virus infection. Results The rates of all infection outcomes were highest in the cloth mask arm, with the rate of ILI statistically significantly higher in the cloth mask arm (relative risk (RR)=13.00, 95% CI 1.69 to 100.07) compared with the medical mask arm. Cloth masks also had significantly higher rates of ILI compared with the control arm. An analysis by mask use showed ILI (RR=6.64, 95% CI 1.45 to 28.65) and laboratory-confirmed virus (RR=1.72, 95% CI 1.01 to 2.94) were significantly higher in the cloth masks group compared with the medical masks group. Penetration of cloth masks by particles was almost 97% and medical masks 44%. Conclusions This study is the first RCT of cloth masks, and the results caution against the use of cloth masks. This is an important finding to inform occupational health and safety. Moisture retention, reuse of cloth masks and poor filtration may result in increased risk of infection. Further research is needed to inform the widespread use of cloth masks globally. However, as a precautionary measure, cloth masks should not be recommended for HCWs, particularly in high-risk situations, and guidelines need to be updated. Trial registration number Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: ACTRN12610000887077. PMID

  6. One-year changes in symptoms of depression and weight in overweight/obese individuals with type 2 diabetes in the Look AHEAD study.

    PubMed

    Faulconbridge, Lucy F; Wadden, Thomas A; Rubin, Richard R; Wing, Rena R; Walkup, Michael P; Fabricatore, Anthony N; Coday, Mace; Van Dorsten, Brent; Mount, David L; Ewing, Linda J

    2012-04-01

    Depressed individuals are frequently excluded from weight loss trials because of fears that weight reduction may precipitate mood disorders, as well as concerns that depressed participants will not lose weight satisfactorily. The present study examined participants in the Look AHEAD study to determine whether moderate weight loss would be associated with incident symptoms of depression and suicidal ideation, and whether symptoms of depression at baseline would limit weight loss at 1 year. Overweight/obese adults with type 2 diabetes (n = 5,145) were randomly assigned to an Intensive Lifestyle Intervention (ILI) or a usual care group, Diabetes Support and Education (DSE). Of these, 5,129 participants completed the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and had their weight measured at baseline and 1 year. Potentially significant symptoms of depression were defined by a BDI score ≥10. Participants in ILI lost 8.6 ± 6.9% of initial weight at 1 year, compared to 0.7 ± 4.8% for DSE (P < 0.001, effect size = 1.33), and had a reduction of 1.4 ± 4.7 points on the BDI, compared to 0.4 ± 4.5 for DSE (P < 0.001, effect size = 0.23). At 1 year, the incidence of potentially significant symptoms of depression was significantly lower in the ILI than DSE group (6.3% vs. 9.6%) (relative risk (RR) = 0.66, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.5, 0.8; P < 0.001). In the ILI group, participants with and without symptoms of depression lost 7.8 ± 6.7% and 8.7 ± 6.9%, respectively, a difference not considered clinically meaningful. Intentional weight loss was not associated with the precipitation of symptoms of depression, but instead appeared to protect against this occurrence. Mild (or greater) symptoms of depression at baseline did not prevent overweight/obese individuals with type 2 diabetes from achieving significant weight loss. PMID:22016099

  7. Little Evidence of Subclinical Avian Influenza Virus Infections among Rural Villagers in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Gregory C.; Krueger, Whitney S.; Chum, Channimol; Putnam, Shannon D.; Wierzba, Thomas F.; Heil, Gary L.; Anderson, Benjamin D.; Yasuda, Chadwick Y.; Williams, Maya; Kasper, Matthew R.; Saphonn, Vonthanak; Blair, Patrick J.

    2014-01-01

    In 2008, 800 adults living within rural Kampong Cham Province, Cambodia were enrolled in a prospective cohort study of zoonotic influenza transmission. After enrollment, participants were contacted weekly for 24 months to identify acute influenza-like illnesses (ILI). Follow-up sera were collected at 12 and 24 months. A transmission substudy was also conducted among the family contacts of cohort members reporting ILI who were influenza A positive. Samples were assessed using serological or molecular techniques looking for evidence of infection with human and avian influenza viruses. Over 24 months, 438 ILI investigations among 284 cohort members were conducted. One cohort member was hospitalized with a H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus infection and withdrew from the study. Ninety-seven ILI cases (22.1%) were identified as influenza A virus infections by real-time RT-PCR; none yielded evidence for AIV. During the 2 years of follow-up, 21 participants (3.0%) had detectable antibody titers (≥1∶10) against the studied AIVs: 1 against an avian-like A/Migratory duck/Hong Kong/MPS180/2003(H4N6), 3 against an avian-like A/Teal/Hong Kong/w312/97(H6N1), 9 (3 of which had detectible antibody titers at both 12- and 24-month follow-up) against an avian-like A/Hong Kong/1073/1999(H9N2), 6 (1 detected at both 12- and 24-month follow-up) against an avian-like A/Duck/Memphis/546/74(H11N9), and 2 against an avian-like A/Duck/Alberta/60/76(H12N5). With the exception of the one hospitalized cohort member with H5N1 infection, no other symptomatic avian influenza infections were detected among the cohort. Serological evidence for subclinical infections was sparse with only one subject showing a 4-fold rise in microneutralization titer over time against AvH12N5. In summary, despite conducting this closely monitored cohort study in a region enzootic for H5N1 HPAI, we were unable to detect subclinical avian influenza infections, suggesting either that these

  8. Community -and hospital laboratory-based surveillance for respiratory viruses.

    PubMed

    Zachariah, Philip; Whittier, Susan; Reed, Carrie; LaRussa, Philip; Larson, Elaine L; Vargas, Celibell Y; Saiman, Lisa; Stockwell, Melissa S

    2016-09-01

    Traditional surveillance for respiratory viruses relies on symptom detection and laboratory detection during medically attended encounters for acute respiratory infection/influenza-like illness (ARI/ILI). Ecological momentary reporting using text messages is a novel method for surveillance. This study compares respiratory viral activity detected through longitudinal community-based surveillance using text message responses for sample acquisition and testing to respiratory viral activity obtained from hospital laboratory data from the same community. We demonstrate a significant correlation between community- and hospital laboratory-based surveillance for most respiratory viruses, although the relative proportions of viruses detected in the community and hospital differed significantly. PMID:26987664

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF AN EMAT IN-LINE INSPECTION SYSTEM FOR DETECTION, DISCRIMINATION, AND GRADING OF STRESS CORROSION CRACKING IN PIPELINES

    SciTech Connect

    Jeff Aron; Jeff Jia; Bruce Vance; Wen Chang; Raymond Pohler; Jon Gore; Stuart Eaton; Adrian Bowles; Tim Jarman

    2005-02-01

    This report describes prototypes, measurements, and results for a project to develop a prototype pipeline in-line inspection (ILI) tool that uses electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs) to detect and grade stress corrosion cracking (SCC). The introduction briefly provides motivation and describes SCC, gives some background on EMATs and guided ultrasonic waves, and reviews promising results of a previous project using EMATs for SCC. The experimental section then describes lab measurement techniques and equipment, the lab mouse and prototypes for a mule, and scan measurements made on SCC. The mouse was a moveable and compact EMAT setup. The prototypes were even more compact circuits intended to be pulled or used in an ILI tool. The purpose of the measurements was to determine the best modes, transduction, and processing to use, to characterize the transducers, and to prove EMATs and mule components could produce useful results. Next, the results section summarizes the measurements and describes the mouse scans, processing, prototype circuit operating parameters, and performance for SH0 scans. Results are given in terms of specifications--like SNR, power, insertion loss--and parametric curves--such as signal amplitude versus magnetic bias or standoff, reflection or transmission coefficients versus crack depth. Initially, lab results indicated magnetostrictive transducers using both SH0 and SV1 modes would be worthwhile to pursue in a practical ILI system. However, work with mule components showed that SV1 would be too dispersive, so SV1 was abandoned. The results showed that reflection measurements, when normalized by the direct arrival are sensitive to and correlated with SCC. This was not true for transmission measurements. Processing yields a high data reduction, almost 60 to 1, and permits A and C scan display techniques and software already in use for pipeline inspection. An analysis of actual SH0 scan results for SCC of known dimensions showed that length

  10. Spatial uniformity of the current emitted by an array of passively fed electrospray porous emitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerra-Garcia, C.; Krejci, D.; Lozano, P.

    2016-03-01

    Ionic liquid ion sources (ILIS) have a broad range of applications ranging from focused ion beams (FIB) to spacecraft propulsion. For space thrusters, having a beam of ions of high velocity and low energy spread results in high specific impulse (a measure of the efficiency of propellant consumption) and high power efficiency. For FIB applications, these traits benefit focusing and resolution respectively. Since typical current levels emitted by individual ILIS range from tens of nA to a few μA, both applications often require using arrays of emitters in order to increase the total beam current; i.e. the thrust level in the case of a thruster or the throughput in ion milling applications. So far, most studies of emitter arrays have dealt with experimental measurements of global, spatially-averaged, properties and theoretical analyses generally assume that all emitters operate in a similar manner, so that scaling of the current is linear with the number of emitters. In this work we use a current probe to explore the uniformity properties of the current emitted by an array of porous emitters. We present measurements of the current density of both the array and individual tips, and analyze the reason and implications of the experimental observations.

  11. Risk of infection and associated influenza-like disease among abattoir workers due to two Leptospira species.

    PubMed

    Dreyfus, A; Heuer, C; Wilson, P; Collins-Emerson, J; Baker, M G; Benschop, J

    2015-07-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the annual incidence of infection with Leptospira interrogans serovar Pomona and/or Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo and its association with influenza-like illness (ILI) in meat workers in New Zealand. Sera were collected twice, 50-61 weeks apart, from 592 workers at eight abattoirs slaughtering sheep (n = 4), cattle (n = 2) and deer (n = 2), and tested by the microscopic agglutination test for Hardjo and Pomona. Forty-nine (8·3%) participants either seroconverted or had at least a twofold increased serological titre against either serovar. The worker infection risk was higher in sheep abattoirs (11·9%) than in abattoirs processing deer (0%) or cattle (1·2%) (P < 0·01). The annualized risk of mild (ILI) or severe clinical disease attributable to the two Leptospira serovars was 2·7%. This study has demonstrated that meat workers are at substantial risk of infection and clinical disease, suggesting further investigation of infection sources and preventive measures are warranted. PMID:25266854

  12. Do weight loss and adherence cluster within behavioral treatment groups?

    PubMed Central

    Wing, Rena R.; Leahey, Tricia; Jeffery, Robert; Johnson, Karen C.; Hill, James O.; Coday, Mace; Espeland, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Weight loss programs are often conducted in a group format, but it is unclear whether weight losses or adherence cluster within treatment group and whether characteristics of the group (e.g. size or homogeneity) affect outcomes. We examined these questions within Look AHEAD, a multicenter study of the effects of an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) in overweight/obese individuals with type 2 diabetes. Design and Methods Weight losses and adherence (attendance, use of meal replacement products, and minutes of activity) were examined over one year of intervention in 2329 ILI participants in 209 treatment groups, which all received the same weight loss program. Results Weight losses did not cluster among members of a treatment group (intra-class correlation [ICC] of .007), whereas measures of adherence had small/moderate clustering (ICCs of .05–.11). The 209 groups varied in weight losses, with a mean of 8.64 % (SD=2.35 %, interquartile range=6.82%, 10.32%), but neither size nor baseline homogeneity of members affected the outcome. Conclusions Although these findings suggest that it may not be necessary to control for clustering in behavioral weight loss studies, they also indicate that merely treating individuals in groups is not sufficient to harness social influences on weight loss. PMID:23804576

  13. in silico Surveillance: evaluating outbreak detection with simulation models

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Detecting outbreaks is a crucial task for public health officials, yet gaps remain in the systematic evaluation of outbreak detection protocols. The authors’ objectives were to design, implement, and test a flexible methodology for generating detailed synthetic surveillance data that provides realistic geographical and temporal clustering of cases and use to evaluate outbreak detection protocols. Methods A detailed representation of the Boston area was constructed, based on data about individuals, locations, and activity patterns. Influenza-like illness (ILI) transmission was simulated, producing 100 years of in silico ILI data. Six different surveillance systems were designed and developed using gathered cases from the simulated disease data. Performance was measured by inserting test outbreaks into the surveillance streams and analyzing the likelihood and timeliness of detection. Results Detection of outbreaks varied from 21% to 95%. Increased coverage did not linearly improve detection probability for all surveillance systems. Relaxing the decision threshold for signaling outbreaks greatly increased false-positives, improved outbreak detection slightly, and led to earlier outbreak detection. Conclusions Geographical distribution can be more important than coverage level. Detailed simulations of infectious disease transmission can be configured to represent nearly any conceivable scenario. They are a powerful tool for evaluating the performance of surveillance systems and methods used for outbreak detection. PMID:23343523

  14. Rapid and cyclic dust accumulation during MIS 2 in Central Asia inferred from loess OSL dating and grain-size analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yun; Song, Yougui; Lai, Zhongping; Han, Li; An, Zhisheng

    2016-01-01

    Due to lack of reliable proxies from the Westerlies-dominant region, the strength change of Northern Hemisphere Westerlies remains poorly understood. The aim of this study is to provide a reliable paleoclimatic proxy about the Northern Hemisphere Westerlies change. Here we report a 30.7 m thick loess section from the Ili basin directly controlled by the Westerlies. Based on optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and high resolution grain-size records, we reconstruct the change history of the Westerlies strength during the last glacial period (mainly Marine Isotope Stages 2, MIS2), being similar with the Westerlies index recorded in the Qinghai Lake sediments. Within error limits, all ages are in stratigraphic order. We further compare the climatic records among the Ili loess, Qinghai Lake and the NGRIP, their similarity shows a good climatic coupling relationship among the Central Asia, East Asia and the North Atlantic, and the Westerlies plays a critical influence in transporting the North Atlantic signal to Central and East Asia. PMID:27586593

  15. Inhibition of Sophocarpine on Poly I: C/D-GalN-Induced Immunological Liver Injury in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yin-Qiu; Li, Peng-Yan; Wang, Jia-Bo; Zhou, Hou-Qin; Yang, Zhi-Rui; Yang, Rui-Chuang; Bai, Zhao-Fang; Wang, Li-Fu; Li, Jian-Yu; Liu, Hong-Hong; Zhao, Yan-Ling; Xiao, Xiao-He

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence has suggested that natural killer (NK) cells contribute to the pathogenesis of human immunological liver injury (ILI). Previous studies have demonstrated that Sophocarpine exerts activity in immune modulation. It also has a therapeutic effect on liver protection in that it can alleviate liver fibrosis by suppressing both the activation of hepatic stellate cells and the proliferation of the activated hepatic stellate cells. However, whether Sophocarpine protects the liver by regulating NK cell activity remains unclear. In this study, the modulating effect of Sophocarpine on NK cells in the liver was investigated. The results showed that Sophocarpine dramatically decreased the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and attenuated the liver injury induced by Poly I: C/D-GalN in C57BL/6- mice. More importantly, Sophocarpine pre-treatment significantly suppressed NK cell activation and downregulated the expression of NKG2D, a receptor responsible for NK cell activation. Moreover, the protein levels of DAP12, ZAP76 and Syk decreased, as did their corresponding mRNA levels. Overall, our study demonstrates that Sophocarpine inhibits NK cell activity, thus making it a promising therapy for ILI. PMID:27570511

  16. Google Flu Trends in Canada: a comparison of digital disease surveillance data with physician consultations and respiratory virus surveillance data, 2010-2014.

    PubMed

    Martin, L J; Lee, B E; Yasui, Y

    2016-01-01

    The value of Google Flu Trends (GFT) remains unclear after it overestimated the proportion of physician visits related to influenza-like illness (ILI) in the United States in 2012-2013. However, GFT estimates (%GFT) have not been examined nationally in Canada nor compared with positivity for respiratory viruses other than influenza. For 2010-2014, we compared %GFT for Canada to Public Health Agency of Canada ILI consultation rates (%PHAC) and to positivity for influenza A and B, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human metapneumovirus (hMPV), and rhinoviruses. %GFT correlated well with %PHAC (ρ = 0·77-0·90) and influenza A positivity (ρ = 0·64-0·96) and overestimated the 2012-2013 %PHAC peak by 0·99 percentage points. %GFT peaks corresponded temporally with peaks in positivity for influenza A and rhinoviruses (all seasons) and RSV and hMPV when their peaks preceded influenza peaks. In Canada, %GFT represented traditional surveillance data and corresponded temporally with patterns in circulating respiratory viruses. PMID:26135239

  17. Novel Use of Flu Surveillance Data: Evaluating Potential of Sentinel Populations for Early Detection of Influenza Outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Daughton, Ashlynn R; Velappan, Nileena; Abeyta, Esteban; Priedhorsky, Reid; Deshpande, Alina

    2016-01-01

    Influenza causes significant morbidity and mortality each year, with 2-8% of weekly outpatient visits around the United States for influenza-like-illness (ILI) during the peak of the season. Effective use of existing flu surveillance data allows officials to understand and predict current flu outbreaks and can contribute to reductions in influenza morbidity and mortality. Previous work used the 2009-2010 influenza season to investigate the possibility of using existing military and civilian surveillance systems to improve early detection of flu outbreaks. Results suggested that civilian surveillance could help predict outbreak trajectory in local military installations. To further test that hypothesis, we compare pairs of civilian and military outbreaks in seven locations between 2000 and 2013. We find no predictive relationship between outbreak peaks or time series of paired outbreaks. This larger study does not find evidence to support the hypothesis that civilian data can be used as sentinel surveillance for military installations. We additionally investigate the effect of modifying the ILI case definition between the standard Department of Defense definition, a more specific definition proposed in literature, and confirmed Influenza A. We find that case definition heavily impacts results. This study thus highlights the importance of careful selection of case definition, and appropriate consideration of case definition in the interpretation of results. PMID:27391232

  18. The use of oseltamivir during an influenza B outbreak in a chronic care hospital

    PubMed Central

    Seale, Holly; Weston, Kathryn M.; Dwyer, Dominic E.; Zhu, Mengzhi; Allchin, Lisa; Booy, Robert; Raina MacIntyre, C.

    2009-01-01

    Background  Residents of nursing homes and long‐term care facilities are at a higher risk of outbreaks of influenza and of serious complications of influenza than those in the community. In late July 2005, a 90‐bed chronic care psycho‐geriatric hospital in Sydney, Australia, reported cases of influenza‐like illness (ILI) occurring amongst its residents. Methods  An investigation to confirm the outbreak, and its cause, was undertaken. Influenza vaccination levels amongst residents, and the effects of antiviral drugs used for prevention and treatment, were assessed. Oseltamivir was only given to the residents, in the form of both treatment and prophylaxis. Results  A total of 22 out of 89 residents met the clinical case definition of ILI with onset on or after 27 July 2005. This represents an attack rate of 25%. Oseltamivir was commenced on day 9 of the outbreak. Influenza B was identified in six residents as the causative agent of the outbreak. No deaths or acute hospitalization were recorded for this outbreak and there were no further reported cases after the introduction of oseltamivir. Vaccine effectiveness was 75% and the strain of influenza B isolated was well matched to that year’s vaccine. Conclusions  There are few data on the use of oseltamivir in influenza B outbreaks. Early antiviral intervention appeared to curtail this outbreak of influenza B in a chronic care facility. We found high vaccine effectiveness in this frail, institutionalized population, highlighting the importance of influenza vaccination for residents of chronic care facilities. PMID:19453437

  19. Medication sales and syndromic surveillance, France.

    PubMed

    Vergu, Elisabeta; Grais, Rebecca F; Sarter, Hélène; Fagot, Jean-Paul; Lambert, Bruno; Valleron, Alain-Jaques; Flahault, Antoine

    2006-03-01

    Although syndromic surveillance systems using nonclinical data have been implemented in the United States, the approach has yet to be tested in France. We present the results of the first model based on drug sales that detects the onset of influenza season and forecasts its trend. Using weekly lagged sales of a selected set of medications, we forecast influenzalike illness (ILI) incidence at the national and regional level for 3 epidemic seasons (2000-01, 2001-02, and 2002-03) and validate the model with real-time updating on the fourth (2003-04). For national forecasts 1-3 weeks ahead, the correlation between observed ILI incidence and forecast was 0.85-0.96, an improvement over the current surveillance method in France. Our findings indicate that drug sales are a useful additional tool to syndromic surveillance, a complementary and independent source of information, and a potential improvement for early warning systems for both epidemic and pandemic planning. PMID:16704778

  20. Use of Hangeul Twitter to Track and Predict Human Influenza Infection

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eui-Ki; Seok, Jong Hyeon; Oh, Jang Seok; Lee, Hyong Woo; Kim, Kyung Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Influenza epidemics arise through the accumulation of viral genetic changes. The emergence of new virus strains coincides with a higher level of influenza-like illness (ILI), which is seen as a peak of a normal season. Monitoring the spread of an epidemic influenza in populations is a difficult and important task. Twitter is a free social networking service whose messages can improve the accuracy of forecasting models by providing early warnings of influenza outbreaks. In this study, we have examined the use of information embedded in the Hangeul Twitter stream to detect rapidly evolving public awareness or concern with respect to influenza transmission and developed regression models that can track levels of actual disease activity and predict influenza epidemics in the real world. Our prediction model using a delay mode provides not only a real-time assessment of the current influenza epidemic activity but also a significant improvement in prediction performance at the initial phase of ILI peak when prediction is of most importance. PMID:23894447

  1. ANS complex of St John's wort PR-10 protein with 28 copies in the asymmetric unit: A fiendish combination of pseudosymmetry with tetartohedral twinning

    SciTech Connect

    Sliwiak, Joanna; Dauter, Zbigniew; Kowiel, Marcin; McCoy, Airlie J.; Read, Randy J.; Jaskolski, Mariusz

    2015-03-26

    Hyp-1, a pathogenesis-related class 10 (PR-10) protein from St John's wort (Hypericum perforatum), was crystallized in complex with the fluorescent probe 8-anilino-1-naphthalene sulfonate (ANS). The highly pseudosymmetric crystal has 28 unique protein molecules arranged in columns with sevenfold translational noncrystallographic symmetry (tNCS) along c and modulated X-ray diffraction with intensity crests at <i>l> = 7n and <i>l> = 7n ± 3. The translational NCS is combined with pseudotetragonal rotational NCS. The crystal was a perfect tetartohedral twin, although detection of twinning was severely hindered by the pseudosymmetry. The structure determined at 2.4 Å resolution reveals that the Hyp-1 molecules (packed as β-sheet dimers) have three novel ligand-binding sites (two internal and one in a surface pocket), which was confirmed by solution studies. In addition to 60 Hyp-1-docked ligands, there are 29 interstitial ANS molecules distributed in a pattern that violates the arrangement of the protein molecules and is likely to be the generator of the structural modulation. In particular, whenever the stacked Hyp-1 molecules are found closer together there is an ANS molecule bridging them.

  2. Oxidative phosphorylation and lacunar stroke

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Christopher D.; Hurford, Robert; Bevan, Steve; Markus, Hugh S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: We investigated whether oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) abnormalities were associated with lacunar stroke, hypothesizing that these would be more strongly associated in patients with multiple lacunar infarcts and leukoaraiosis (LA). Methods: In 1,012 MRI-confirmed lacunar stroke cases and 964 age-matched controls recruited from general practice surgeries, we investigated associations between common genetic variants within the OXPHOS pathway and lacunar stroke using a permutation-based enrichment approach. Cases were phenotyped using MRI into those with multiple infarcts or LA (MLI/LA) and those with isolated lacunar infarcts (ILI) based on the number of subcortical infarcts and degree of LA, using the Fazekas grading. Using gene-level association statistics, we tested for enrichment of genes in the OXPHOS pathway with all lacunar stroke and the 2 subtypes. Results: There was a specific association with strong evidence of enrichment in the top 1% of genes in the MLI/LA (subtype p = 0.0017) but not in the ILI subtype (p = 1). Genes in the top percentile for the all lacunar stroke analysis were not significantly enriched (p = 0.07). Conclusions: Our results implicate the OXPHOS pathway in the pathogenesis of lacunar stroke, and show the association is specific to patients with the MLI/LA subtype. They show that MRI-based subtyping of lacunar stroke can provide insights into disease pathophysiology, and imply that different radiologic subtypes of lacunar stroke subtypes have distinct underlying pathophysiologic processes. PMID:26674331

  3. Syndromic Surveillance of Infectious Diseases meets Molecular Epidemiology in a Workflow and Phylogeographic Application.

    PubMed

    Janies, Daniel; Witter, Zachary; Gibson, Christian; Kraft, Thomas; Senturk, Izzet F; Çatalyürek, Ümit

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, epidemiologists have counted cases and groups of symptoms. Modeling on these data consists of predicting expansion or contraction in the number of cases over time in epidemic curves or compartment models. Geography is considered a variable when these data are presented in choropleth maps. These approaches have significant drawbacks if the cases counted are not accurately diagnosed. For example, most regional public health authorities count influenza like illnesses (ILI). Cases of these diseases are designated as ILI if the patient exhibits fever, respiratory symptoms, and perhaps gastrointestinal symptoms. Several molecular epidemiological studies have shown that there are many pathogens that cause these symptoms and the relative proportions of these pathogens change over time and space. One way to bridge the gap between syndromic and genetic surveillance of infectious diseases is to compare signals of symptoms to pathogens recorded in molecular databases. We present a web-based workflow application that uses chief complaints found in the public Twitter feed as a syndromic surveillance tool and connects outbreak signals in these data to pathogens historically known to circulate in the same area. For the pathogen(s) of interest, we provide Genbank links to metadata and sequences in a workflow for phylogeographic analysis and visualization. The visualizations provide information on the geographic traffic of the spread of the pathogens and places that are hubs for their transport. PMID:26262155

  4. Native defects in LiNH2: A first-principles study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jianchuan; Du, Yong; Xu, Honghui; Jiang, Chao; Kong, Yi; Sun, Lixian; Liu, Zi-Kui

    2011-07-01

    Native defects in lithium amide (LiNH2), a promising candidate for hydrogen storage, are investigated by first-principles calculations based on density functional theory. We examine the structural properties and formation energies of H-, Li-, and N-related defects in all possible states. We find that the dominant H- and Li-related defects are in charged states, i.e., negatively charged H vacancy (VH-), positively charged H interstitial (Hi+), negatively charged Li vacancy (VLi-), and positively charged Li interstitial (ILi+). VLi- and ILi+ are present in the highest concentration. The positively charged NH2 vacancy has the lowest formation energy among N-related defects. Furthermore, migration processes of the dominant defects are investigated. VLi- diffuses most rapidly with the lowest migration energy of 0.20 eV. Both formation and migration energies of Li-related dominant defects are found to be lower than those of H-related dominant defects. With an activation energy of 0.72 eV, VLi- is the major diffusive species in LiNH2. Our results further indicate that the formation of Hi is the bottleneck for H transport.

  5. Multiple Estimates of Transmissibility for the 2009 Influenza Pandemic Based on Influenza-like-Illness Data from Small US Military Populations

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Pete; Ben-Nun, Michal; Armenta, Richard; Linker, Jon A.; Eick, Angela A.; Sanchez, Jose L.; George, Dylan; Bacon, David P.; Riley, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Rapidly characterizing the amplitude and variability in transmissibility of novel human influenza strains as they emerge is a key public health priority. However, comparison of early estimates of the basic reproduction number during the 2009 pandemic were challenging because of inconsistent data sources and methods. Here, we define and analyze influenza-like-illness (ILI) case data from 2009–2010 for the 50 largest spatially distinct US military installations (military population defined by zip code, MPZ). We used publicly available data from non-military sources to show that patterns of ILI incidence in many of these MPZs closely followed the pattern of their enclosing civilian population. After characterizing the broad patterns of incidence (e.g. single-peak, double-peak), we defined a parsimonious SIR-like model with two possible values for intrinsic transmissibility across three epochs. We fitted the parameters of this model to data from all 50 MPZs, finding them to be reasonably well clustered with a median (mean) value of 1.39 (1.57) and standard deviation of 0.41. An increasing temporal trend in transmissibility (, p-value: 0.013) during the period of our study was robust to the removal of high transmissibility outliers and to the removal of the smaller 20 MPZs. Our results demonstrate the utility of rapidly available – and consistent – data from multiple populations. PMID:23696723

  6. Rapid and cyclic dust accumulation during MIS 2 in Central Asia inferred from loess OSL dating and grain-size analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Yun; Song, Yougui; Lai, Zhongping; Han, Li; An, Zhisheng

    2016-01-01

    Due to lack of reliable proxies from the Westerlies-dominant region, the strength change of Northern Hemisphere Westerlies remains poorly understood. The aim of this study is to provide a reliable paleoclimatic proxy about the Northern Hemisphere Westerlies change. Here we report a 30.7 m thick loess section from the Ili basin directly controlled by the Westerlies. Based on optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and high resolution grain-size records, we reconstruct the change history of the Westerlies strength during the last glacial period (mainly Marine Isotope Stages 2, MIS2), being similar with the Westerlies index recorded in the Qinghai Lake sediments. Within error limits, all ages are in stratigraphic order. We further compare the climatic records among the Ili loess, Qinghai Lake and the NGRIP, their similarity shows a good climatic coupling relationship among the Central Asia, East Asia and the North Atlantic, and the Westerlies plays a critical influence in transporting the North Atlantic signal to Central and East Asia. PMID:27586593

  7. Pattern selection and super-patterns in the bounded confidence model

    SciTech Connect

    Ben-Naim, E.; Scheel, A.

    2015-10-26

    We study pattern formation in the bounded confidence model of opinion dynamics. In this random process, opinion is quantified by a single variable. Two agents may interact and reach a fair compromise, but only if their difference of opinion falls below a fixed threshold. Starting from a uniform distribution of opinions with compact support, a traveling wave forms and it propagates from the domain boundary into the unstable uniform state. Consequently, the system reaches a steady state with isolated clusters that are separated by distance larger than the interaction range. These clusters form a quasi-periodic pattern where the sizes of the clusters and the separations between them are nearly constant. We obtain analytically the average separation between clusters <i>L>. Interestingly, there are also very small quasi-periodic modulations in the size of the clusters. Furthermore, the spatial periods of these modulations are a series of integers that follow from the continued-fraction representation of the irrational average separation <i>L>.

  8. A Long-Term Intensive Lifestyle Intervention and Physical Function: the Look AHEAD Movement and Memory Study

    PubMed Central

    Houston, Denise K.; Leng, Xiaoyan; Bray, George A.; Hergenroeder, Andrea L.; Hill, James O.; Jakicic, John M.; Johnson, Karen C.; Neiberg, Rebecca H.; Marsh, Anthony P.; Rejeski, W. Jack; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the long-term effects of an intensive lifestyle intervention on physical function using a randomized post-test design in the Look AHEAD trial. METHODS Overweight and obese (BMI ≥25 kg/m2) middle-aged and older adults (aged 45–76 years at enrollment) with type 2 diabetes (n=964) at four clinics in Look AHEAD, a trial evaluating an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) designed to achieve weight loss through caloric restriction and increased physical activity compared to diabetes support and education (DSE), underwent standardized assessments of performance-based physical function including an expanded short physical performance battery (SPPBexp), 20-m and 400-m walk, and grip and knee extensor strength 8 years post-randomization, during the trial’s weight maintenance phase. RESULTS Eight years post-randomization, individuals randomized to ILI had better SPPBexp scores (adjusted mean (SE) difference: 0.055 (0.022), p=0.01) and faster 20-m and 400-m walk speeds (0.032 (0.012) m/sec, p=0.01, and 0.025 (0.011) m/sec, p=0.02, respectively) compared to those randomized to DSE. Achieved weight loss greatly attenuated the group differences in physical function and the intervention effect was no longer significant. CONCLUSIONS An intensive lifestyle intervention has long-term benefits for mobility function in overweight and obese middle-aged and older individuals with type 2 diabetes. PMID:25452229

  9. Inhibition of Sophocarpine on Poly I: C/D-GalN-Induced Immunological Liver Injury in Mice.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yin-Qiu; Li, Peng-Yan; Wang, Jia-Bo; Zhou, Hou-Qin; Yang, Zhi-Rui; Yang, Rui-Chuang; Bai, Zhao-Fang; Wang, Li-Fu; Li, Jian-Yu; Liu, Hong-Hong; Zhao, Yan-Ling; Xiao, Xiao-He

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence has suggested that natural killer (NK) cells contribute to the pathogenesis of human immunological liver injury (ILI). Previous studies have demonstrated that Sophocarpine exerts activity in immune modulation. It also has a therapeutic effect on liver protection in that it can alleviate liver fibrosis by suppressing both the activation of hepatic stellate cells and the proliferation of the activated hepatic stellate cells. However, whether Sophocarpine protects the liver by regulating NK cell activity remains unclear. In this study, the modulating effect of Sophocarpine on NK cells in the liver was investigated. The results showed that Sophocarpine dramatically decreased the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and attenuated the liver injury induced by Poly I: C/D-GalN in C57BL/6- mice. More importantly, Sophocarpine pre-treatment significantly suppressed NK cell activation and downregulated the expression of NKG2D, a receptor responsible for NK cell activation. Moreover, the protein levels of DAP12, ZAP76 and Syk decreased, as did their corresponding mRNA levels. Overall, our study demonstrates that Sophocarpine inhibits NK cell activity, thus making it a promising therapy for ILI. PMID:27570511

  10. Interactive voice response and web-based questionnaires for population-based infectious disease reporting.

    PubMed

    Bexelius, Christin; Merk, Hanna; Sandin, Sven; Nyrén, Olof; Kühlmann-Berenzon, Sharon; Linde, Annika; Litton, Jan-Eric

    2010-10-01

    The authors aimed to evaluate the web and an Interactive Voice Response (IVR) phone service as vehicles in population-based infectious disease surveillance. Fourteen thousand subjects were randomly selected from the Swedish population register and asked to prospectively report all respiratory tract infections, including Influenza-like Illness (ILI-clinical symptoms indicative of influenza but no laboratory confirmation), immediately as they occurred during a 36-week period starting October 2007. Participants were classified as belonging to the web or IVR group based on their choice of technology for initial registration. In all, 1,297 individuals registered via IVR while 2,044 chose the web. The latter were more often young and well-educated than those registered via IVR. Overall, 52% of the participants reported at least one infection episode. The risk of an infectious disease report was 14% (95% CI: 6, 22%) higher in the web group than in the IVR group. For ILI the excess was 27% (95% CI: 11, 47%). After adjustments for socio-demographic factors, statistically non-significant excesses of 1 and 8% remained, indicating trivial differences potentially attributable to the two reporting techniques. With attention to confounding, it should be possible to combine the web and IVR for simple reporting of infectious disease symptoms. PMID:20596884

  11. A human metapneumovirus outbreak at a community hospital in England, July to September 2010.

    PubMed

    Degail, M A; Hughes, G J; Maule, C; Holmes, C; Lilley, M; Pebody, R; Bonnet, J; Bermingham, A; Bracebridge, S

    2012-04-12

    We describe an outbreak of human metapneumovirus (hMPV) which occurred in July-September 2010 at a community hospital in the East of England. Based on the medical and nursing records, cases were retrospectively defined as suspected if they had had an influenza-like illness (ILI), and probable if they had had an ILI and an epidemiological link to a laboratory-confirmed case. Of a total of 17 symptomatic inpatients, five were classified as probable cases, five were laboratory confirmed and seven were suspected. The attack rate was 29.4% for confirmed and probable cases combined. The median age of symptomatic inpatients was 85 years-old (range 68-96) and the majority (16/17) of symptomatic inpatients had an underlying medical condition. Control measures introduced appeared to restrict further exposure of susceptible patients to infection although modelling suggested that up to four of 10 confirmed and probable cases (40%) could have been prevented through more timely diagnosis and recognition of an outbreak. These findings suggest that there should be increased awareness of hMPV infection within healthcare settings, particularly when the population at risk has a high prevalence of underlying co-morbidities. PMID:22516049

  12. Harmonizing influenza primary-care surveillance in the United Kingdom: piloting two methods to assess the timing and intensity of the seasonal epidemic across several general practice-based surveillance schemes.

    PubMed

    Green, H K; Charlett, A; Moran-Gilad, J; Fleming, D; Durnall, H; Thomas, D Rh; Cottrell, S; Smyth, B; Kearns, C; Reynolds, A J; Smith, G E; Elliot, A J; Ellis, J; Zambon, M; Watson, J M; McMenamin, J; Pebody, R G

    2015-01-01

    General Practitioner consultation rates for influenza-like illness (ILI) are monitored through several geographically distinct schemes in the UK, providing early warning to government and health services of community circulation and intensity of activity each winter. Following on from the 2009 pandemic, there has been a harmonization initiative to allow comparison across the distinct existing surveillance schemes each season. The moving epidemic method (MEM), proposed by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control for standardizing reporting of ILI rates, was piloted in 2011/12 and 2012/13 along with the previously proposed UK method of empirical percentiles. The MEM resulted in thresholds that were lower than traditional thresholds but more appropriate as indicators of the start of influenza virus circulation. The intensity of the influenza season assessed with the MEM was similar to that reported through the percentile approach. The MEM pre-epidemic threshold has now been adopted for reporting by each country of the UK. Further work will continue to assess intensity of activity and apply standardized methods to other influenza-related data sources. PMID:25023603

  13. Prevention of Diabetes Through the Lifestyle Intervention: Lessons Learned from the Diabetes Prevention Program and Outcomes Study and its Translation to Practice

    PubMed Central

    Hoskin, Mary A.; Bray, George A.; Hattaway, Kathy; Khare-Ranade, Prajakta A.; Pomeroy, Jeremy; Semler, Linda N.; Weinzierl, Valarie A.; Wylie-Rosett, Judith

    2014-01-01

    A number of strategies have been used to delay or prevent the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) in high-risk adults. Among them were diet, exercise, medications and surgery. This report focuses on the nutritional lessons learned from implementation of the Intensive Lifestyle Intervention (ILI) in the DPP and its follow-up DPPOS that looked at weight loss through modification of diet and exercise. The Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) is a large clinical trial, sponsored by the National Institutes of Health, designed to look at several strategies to prevent conversion to type 2 diabetes (T2D) by adults with prediabetes (IGT/IFG) including an Intensive Lifestyle Intervention (ILI). The ∼3800 ethnically diverse participants (46% reported non-white race) were overweight, had impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and impaired fasting glucose (IFG). Treatments were assigned randomly. The Diabetes Prevention Program Outcomes Study (DPPOS) is a follow up study evaluating the long-term outcomes of the clinical trial. PMID:25383256

  14. Novel use of flu surveillance data: Evaluating potential of sentinel populations for early detection of influenza outbreaks

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Daughton, Ashlynn R.; Velappan, Nileena; Abeyta, Esteban; Priedhorsky, Reid; Deshpande, Alina; Turner, Stephen J.

    2016-07-08

    Influenza causes significant morbidity and mortality each year, with 2–8% of weekly outpatient visits around the United States for influenza-like-illness (ILI) during the peak of the season. Effective use of existing flu surveillance data allows officials to understand and predict current flu outbreaks and can contribute to reductions in influenza morbidity and mortality. Previous work used the 2009–2010 influenza season to investigate the possibility of using existing military and civilian surveillance systems to improve early detection of flu outbreaks. Results suggested that civilian surveillance could help predict outbreak trajectory in local military installations. To further test that hypothesis, we comparemore » pairs of civilian and military outbreaks in seven locations between 2000 and 2013. We find no predictive relationship between outbreak peaks or time series of paired outbreaks. This larger study does not find evidence to support the hypothesis that civilian data can be used as sentinel surveillance for military installations. We additionally investigate the effect of modifying the ILI case definition between the standard Department of Defense definition, a more specific definition proposed in literature, and confirmed Influenza A. We find that case definition heavily impacts results. In conclusion, this study thus highlights the importance of careful selection of case definition, and appropriate consideration of case definition in the interpretation of results.« less

  15. Regional Therapy for Recurrent Metastatic Melanoma Confined to the Extremity: Hyperthermic Isolated Limb Perfusion vs. Isolated Limb Infusion

    PubMed Central

    Reintgen, Michael; Reintgen, Christian; Nobo, Christopher; Giuliano, Rosemary; Shivers, Steven; Reintgen, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    Melanoma patients with recurrent disease confined to an extremity can be offered one of two regional therapies that both give high complete response rates. Isolated limb infusion (ILI) is a newer technique performed with catheters and tourniquets that has a reduced potential morbidity, decreased efficacy and does not treat the regional nodal basin. Hyperthermic Isolated Limb Perfusion (HILP) is an open surgical technique that includes removal of the regional nodal basin as part of the surgical procedure. An analysis was performed of the rates of regional nodal disease in this patient population to determine the percentage of patients with stage III metastatic disease to the lymph nodes that would be under treated with the ILI technique. A total of 229 patients underwent a HILP for melanoma with regional lymph node dissection as is our standard between July 1987 and December 2009. Ninty-two of the 229 patients (40%) had metastatic regional nodal disease documented at the time of the HILP procedure. HILP is the only technique that addresses all micrometastatic disease on the extremity. PMID:24281032

  16. Household transmission of 2009 influenza A (H1N1) virus after a school-based outbreak in New York City, April-May 2009.

    PubMed

    France, Anne Marie; Jackson, Michael; Schrag, Stephanie; Lynch, Michael; Zimmerman, Christopher; Biggerstaff, Matthew; Hadler, James

    2010-04-01

    In April 2009, an outbreak due to infection with the 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus (pH1N1) was investigated in a New York City high school. We surveyed household contacts of ill students to characterize the extent of transmission within households, identify contact groups at highest risk for illness, and assess the potential for preventing household transmission. Influenza-like illness (ILI) was reported by 79 of 702 household contacts (11.3% attack rate). Multivariate analysis showed that older age was protective: for each increasing year of age, the risk of ILI was reduced 5%. Additional protective factors included antiviral prophylaxis and having had a household discussion about influenza. Providing care for the index case patient and watching television with the index case patient were risk factors among parents and siblings, respectively. Fifty percent of cases occurred within 3 days of onset of illness in the student. These factors have implications for mitigating the impact of pH1N1 transmission. PMID:20187740

  17. Estimating the secondary attack rate and serial interval of influenza-like illnesses using social media

    PubMed Central

    Yom-Tov, Elad; Johansson-Cox, Ingemar; Lampos, Vasileios; Hayward, Andrew C

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Knowledge of the secondary attack rate (SAR) and serial interval (SI) of influenza is important for assessing the severity of seasonal epidemics of the virus. To date, such estimates have required extensive surveys of target populations. Here, we propose a method for estimating the intrafamily SAR and SI from postings on the Twitter social network. This estimate is derived from a large number of people reporting ILI symptoms in them and\\or their immediate family members. Design We analyze data from the 2012–2013 and the 2013–2014 influenza seasons in England and find that increases in the estimated SAR precede increases in ILI rates reported by physicians. Results We hypothesize that observed variations in the peak value of SAR are related to the appearance of specific strains of the virus and demonstrate this by comparing the changes in SAR values over time in relation to known virology. In addition, we estimate SI (the average time between cases) as 2·41 days for 2012 and 2·48 days for 2013. Conclusions The proposed method can assist health authorities by providing near-real-time estimation of SAR and SI, and especially in alerting to sudden increases thereof. PMID:25962320

  18. Human Cardiovascular Disease IBC Chip-Wide Association with Weight Loss and Weight Regain in the Look AHEAD Trial

    PubMed Central

    McCaffery, Jeanne M.; Papandonatos, George D.; Huggins, Gordon S.; Peter, Inga; Erar, Bahar; Kahn, Steven E.; Knowler, William C.; Lipkin, Edward W.; Kitabchi, Abbas E.; Wagenknecht, Lynne E.; Wing, Rena R.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims The present study identified genetic predictors of weight change during behavioral weight loss treatment. Methods Participants were 3,899 overweight/obese individuals with type 2 diabetes from Look AHEAD, a randomized controlled trial to determine the effects of intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI), including weight loss and physical activity, relative to diabetes support and education, on cardiovascular outcomes. Analyses focused on associations of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on the Illumina CARe iSelect (IBC) chip (minor allele frequency >5%; n = 31,959) with weight change at year 1 and year 4, and weight regain at year 4, among individuals who lost ≥ 3% at year 1. Results Two novel regions of significant chip-wide association with year-1 weight loss in ILI were identified (p < 2.96E-06). ABCB11 rs484066 was associated with 1.16 kg higher weight per minor allele at year 1, whereas TNFRSF11A, or RANK, rs17069904 was associated with 1.70 kg lower weight per allele at year 1. Conclusions This study, the largest to date on genetic predictors of weight loss and regain, indicates that SNPs within ABCB11, related to bile salt transfer, and TNFRSF11A, implicated in adipose tissue physiology, predict the magnitude of weight loss during behavioral intervention. These results provide new insights into potential biological mechanisms and may ultimately inform weight loss treatment. PMID:24081232

  19. Influenza vaccine effectiveness among healthcare workers in comparison to hospitalized patients: A 2004-2009 case-test, negative-control, prospective study.

    PubMed

    Vanhems, P; Baghdadi, Y; Roche, S; Bénet, T; Regis, C; Lina, B; Robert, O; Voirin, N; Ecochard, R; Amour, S

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to calculate Vaccine Effectiveness (VE) in healthcare workers (HCW) and to compare VE between patients and HCW. A case-control investigation based on the prospective study was conducted between 2004 and 2009 in a teaching hospital. All HCW with influenza-like illness (ILI) from participating units (n = 24) were included, and vaccination status was characterized by interview. A total of 150 HCW presented ILI; 130 (87%) were female, 27 (18%) were positive for influenza, and 42 (28%) were vaccinated. Adjusted VE was 89% (95% CI 39 to 98). Among patients, adjusted VE was 42% (95% CI -39 to 76). The difference of VE (VEhcw - VEpat) was 46.15% (95% CI 2.41 to 144). The VE ratio (VEhcw / VEpat) was 2.09 (95% CI -1.60 to 134.17). Influenza VE differed between HCW and patients when the flu season was taken into account. This finding confirms the major impact of host determinants on influenza VE. PMID:26327520

  20. Partial protection against 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) of seasonal influenza vaccination and related regional factors: Updated systematic review and meta-analyses

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhi-Yuan; Chen, Jin-Yan; Zhang, Yan-Ling; Fu, Wei-Ming

    2015-01-01

    This updated systematic review and meta-analyses aims to systematically evaluate the cross-protection of seasonal influenza vaccines against the 2009 pandemic A (H1N1) influenza infection, and investigate the potential effect of the influenza strains circulating previous to the pandemic on the association between vaccine receipt and pandemic infection. In addition, subgroup analysis was performed based on the study locations and previous circulating influenza viruses. Relevant articles in English and Chinese from 2009 to October 2013 were systematically searched, and 21 eligible studies were included. For case-control studies, an insignificant 20% reduced risk for pandemic influenza infection based on combined national data (OR = 0.80; 95%CI: 0.60, 1.05) was calculated for people receiving seasonal influenza vaccination. However, for RCTs, an insignificant increase in the risk of seasonal influenza vaccines was observed (RR = 1.27; 95% CI: 0.46, 3.53). For the subgroup analysis, a significant 35% cross-protection was observed in the subgroup where influenza A outbreaks were detected before the 2009 pandemic. Moreover, the results indicated that seasonal influenza vaccination may reduce the risk of influenza-like illnesses (ILIs) (RR = 0.91; 95% CI: 0.84, 0.99). Our findings partially support the hypothesis that seasonal vaccines may offer moderate cross-protection for adults against laboratory-confirmed pandemic influenza A (H1N1) infection and ILIs. Further immunological studies are needed to understand the mechanism underlying these findings. PMID:25692308

  1. Prospective Association of GLUL rs10911021 With Cardiovascular Morbidity and Mortality Among Individuals With Type 2 Diabetes: The Look AHEAD Study.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    Genetic studies have identified a glutamate-ammonia ligase gene (GLUL) polymorphism associated with cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality among people with type 2 diabetes (T2D). We sought to determine whether GLUL rs10911021 is associated prospectively with adjudicated cardiovascular composite end points among overweight/obese individuals with T2D and whether a lifestyle intervention resulting in weight loss could diminish this association. Look AHEAD is a randomized, controlled trial to determine the effects of intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI), including weight loss and physical activity, relative to diabetes support and education, on cardiovascular outcomes. Look AHEAD participants included in this report were 3,845 overweight/obese individuals with T2D who provided consent for genetic analyses. Over a median of 9.6 years of follow-up, the risk (C) allele for GLUL rs10911021 was significantly associated with the primary composite end point of death from cardiovascular causes, nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, or hospitalization for angina among individuals with no history of cardiovascular disease (CVD) at baseline using additive genetic models (hazard ratio 1.17 [95% CI 1.01-1.36]; P = 0.032). Results appeared more consistent in recessive models and among individuals with no known history of CVD at baseline; ILI did not alter these associations. These results extend the association of GLUL rs10911021 to incident CVD morbidity and mortality in the setting of T2D. PMID:26395743

  2. Novel Use of Flu Surveillance Data: Evaluating Potential of Sentinel Populations for Early Detection of Influenza Outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Velappan, Nileena; Abeyta, Esteban; Priedhorsky, Reid; Deshpande, Alina

    2016-01-01

    Influenza causes significant morbidity and mortality each year, with 2–8% of weekly outpatient visits around the United States for influenza-like-illness (ILI) during the peak of the season. Effective use of existing flu surveillance data allows officials to understand and predict current flu outbreaks and can contribute to reductions in influenza morbidity and mortality. Previous work used the 2009–2010 influenza season to investigate the possibility of using existing military and civilian surveillance systems to improve early detection of flu outbreaks. Results suggested that civilian surveillance could help predict outbreak trajectory in local military installations. To further test that hypothesis, we compare pairs of civilian and military outbreaks in seven locations between 2000 and 2013. We find no predictive relationship between outbreak peaks or time series of paired outbreaks. This larger study does not find evidence to support the hypothesis that civilian data can be used as sentinel surveillance for military installations. We additionally investigate the effect of modifying the ILI case definition between the standard Department of Defense definition, a more specific definition proposed in literature, and confirmed Influenza A. We find that case definition heavily impacts results. This study thus highlights the importance of careful selection of case definition, and appropriate consideration of case definition in the interpretation of results. PMID:27391232

  3. Evaluation of early weight loss thresholds for identifying non-responders to an intensive lifestyle intervention

    PubMed Central

    Unick, Jessica L.; Hogan, Patricia E.; Neiberg, Rebecca H.; Cheskin, Lawrence J.; Dutton, Gareth R.; Evans-Hudnall, Gina; Jeffery, Robert; Kitabchi, Abbas E.; Nelson, Julie A.; Pi-Sunyer, F. Xavier; West, Delia Smith; Wing, Rena R.

    2014-01-01

    Weight losses in lifestyle interventions are variable, yet prediction of long-term success is difficult. Objective We examined the utility of using various weight loss thresholds in the first 2 months of treatment for predicting 1-year outcomes. Design and Methods Participants included 2327 adults with type 2 diabetes (BMI:35.8±6.0) randomized to the intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) of the Look AHEAD trial. ILI included weekly behavioral sessions designed to increase physical activity and reduce caloric intake. 1-month, 2-month, and 1-year weight changes were calculated. Results Participants failing to achieve a ≥2% weight loss at Month 1 were 5.6 (95% CI:4.5,7.0) times more likely to also not achieve a ≥10% weight loss at Year 1, compared to those losing ≥2% initially. These odds were increased to 11.6 (95% CI:8.6,15.6) when using a 3% weight loss threshold at Month 2. Only 15.2% and 8.2% of individuals failing to achieve the ≥2% and ≥3% thresholds at Months 1 and 2 respectively, go on to achieve a ≥10% weight loss at Year 1. Conclusions Given the association between initial and 1-year weight loss, the first few months of treatment may be an opportune time to identify those who are unsuccessful and utilize rescue efforts. PMID:24771618

  4. Development of processes allowing near real-time refinement and validation of triage tools during the early stage of an outbreak in readiness for surge: the FLU-CATs Study.

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesan, Sudhir; Myles, Puja R; McCann, Gerard; Kousoulis, Antonis A; Hashmi, Maimoona; Belatri, Rabah; Boyle, Emma; Barcroft, Alan; van Staa, Tjeerd Pieter; Kirkham, Jamie J; Nguyen Van Tam, Jonathan S; Williams, Timothy J; Semple, Malcolm G

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND During pandemics of novel influenza and outbreaks of emerging infections, surge in health-care demand can exceed capacity to provide normal standards of care. In such exceptional circumstances, triage tools may aid decisions in identifying people who are most likely to benefit from higher levels of care. Rapid research during the early phase of an outbreak should allow refinement and validation of triage tools so that in the event of surge a valid tool is available. The overarching study aim is to conduct a prospective near real-time analysis of structured clinical assessments of influenza-like illness (ILI) using primary care electronic health records (EHRs) during a pandemic. This abstract summarises the preparatory work, infrastructure development, user testing and proof-of-concept study. OBJECTIVES (1) In preparation for conducting rapid research in the early phase of a future outbreak, to develop processes that allow near real-time analysis of general practitioner (GP) assessments of people presenting with ILI, management decisions and patient outcomes. (2) As proof of concept: conduct a pilot study evaluating the performance of the triage tools 'Community Assessment Tools' and 'Pandemic Medical Early Warning Score' to predict hospital admission and death in patients presenting with ILI to GPs during inter-pandemic winter seasons. DESIGN Prospective near real-time analysis of structured clinical assessments and anonymised linkage to data from EHRs. User experience was evaluated by semistructured interviews with participating GPs. SETTING Thirty GPs in England, Wales and Scotland, participating in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink. PARTICIPANTS All people presenting with ILI. INTERVENTIONS None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Study outcome is proof of concept through demonstration of data capture and near real-time analysis. Primary patient outcomes were hospital admission within 24 hours and death (all causes) within 30 days of GP assessment. Secondary

  5. Oseltamivir Treatment for Children with Influenza-Like Illness in China: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Kunling; Xiong, Tengbin; Tan, Seng Chuen; Wu, Jiuhong

    2016-01-01

    Background Influenza is a common viral respiratory infection that causes epidemics and pandemics in the human population. Oseltamivir is a neuraminidase inhibitor—a new class of antiviral therapy for influenza. Although its efficacy and safety have been established, there is uncertainty regarding whether influenza-like illness (ILI) in children is best managed by oseltamivir at the onset of illness, and its cost-effectiveness in children has not been studied in China. Objective To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of post rapid influenza diagnostic test (RIDT) treatment with oseltamivir and empiric treatment with oseltamivir comparing with no antiviral therapy against influenza for children with ILI. Methods We developed a decision-analytic model based on previously published evidence to simulate and evaluate 1-year potential clinical and economic outcomes associated with three managing strategies for children presenting with symptoms of influenza. Model inputs were derived from literature and expert opinion of clinical practice and research in China. Outcome measures included costs and quality-adjusted life year (QALY). All the interventions were compared with incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER). Results In base case analysis, empiric treatment with oseltamivir consistently produced the greatest gains in QALY. When compared with no antiviral therapy, the empiric treatment with oseltamivir strategy is very cost effective with an ICER of RMB 4,438. When compared with the post RIDT treatment with oseltamivir, the empiric treatment with oseltamivir strategy is dominant. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis projected that there is a 100% probability that empiric oseltamivir treatment would be considered as a very cost-effective strategy compared to the no antiviral therapy, according to the WHO recommendations for cost-effectiveness thresholds. The same was concluded with 99% probability for empiric oseltamivir treatment being a very cost-effective strategy

  6. The Unrecognized Burden of Influenza in Young Kenyan Children, 2008-2012

    PubMed Central

    McMorrow, Meredith L.; Emukule, Gideon O.; Njuguna, Henry N.; Bigogo, Godfrey; Montgomery, Joel M.; Nyawanda, Bryan; Audi, Allan; Breiman, Robert F.; Katz, Mark A.; Cosmas, Leonard; Waiboci, Lilian W.; Duque, Jazmin; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Mott, Joshua A.

    2015-01-01

    Influenza-associated disease burden among children in tropical sub-Saharan Africa is not well established, particularly outside of the 2009 pandemic period. We estimated the burden of influenza in children aged 0–4 years through population-based surveillance for influenza-like illness (ILI) and acute lower respiratory tract illness (ALRI). Household members meeting ILI or ALRI case definitions were referred to health facilities for evaluation and collection of nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swabs for influenza testing by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Estimates were adjusted for health-seeking behavior and those with ILI and ALRI who were not tested. During 2008–2012, there were 9,652 person-years of surveillance among children aged 0–4 years. The average adjusted rate of influenza-associated hospitalization was 4.3 (95% CI 3.0–6.0) per 1,000 person-years in children aged 0–4 years. Hospitalization rates were highest in the 0–5 month and 6–23 month age groups, at 7.6 (95% CI 3.2–18.2) and 8.4 (95% CI 5.4–13.0) per 1,000 person-years, respectively. The average adjusted rate of influenza-associated medically attended (inpatient or outpatient) ALRI in children aged 0–4 years was 17.4 (95% CI 14.2–19.7) per 1,000 person-years. Few children who had severe laboratory-confirmed influenza were clinically diagnosed with influenza by the treating clinician in the inpatient (0/33, 0%) or outpatient (1/109, 0.9%) settings. Influenza-associated hospitalization rates from 2008–2012 were 5–10 times higher than contemporaneous U.S. estimates. Many children with danger signs were not hospitalized; thus, influenza-associated severe disease rates in Kenyan children are likely higher than hospital-based estimates suggest. PMID:26379030

  7. Sentinel Surveillance of Influenza-Like Illness in Two Hospitals in Maracay, Venezuela: 2006–2010

    PubMed Central

    Comach, Guillermo; Teneza-Mora, Nimfa; Kochel, Tadeusz J.; Espino, Carlos; Sierra, Gloria; Camacho, Daria E.; Laguna-Torres, V. Alberto; Garcia, Josefina; Chauca, Gloria; Gamero, Maria E.; Sovero, Merly; Bordones, Slave; Villalobos, Iris; Melchor, Angel; Halsey, Eric S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Limited information exists on the epidemiology of acute febrile respiratory illnesses in tropical South American countries such as Venezuela. The objective of the present study was to examine the epidemiology of influenza-like illness (ILI) in two hospitals in Maracay, Venezuela. Methodology/Principal Findings We performed a prospective surveillance study of persons with ILI who presented for care at two hospitals in Maracay, Venezuela, from October 2006 to December 2010. A respiratory specimen and clinical information were obtained from each participant. Viral isolation and identification with immunofluorescent antibodies and molecular methods were employed to detect respiratory viruses such as adenovirus, influenza A and B, parainfluenza, and respiratory sincytial virus, among others. There were 916 participants in the study (median age: 17 years; range: 1 month – 86 years). Viruses were identified in 143 (15.6%) subjects, and one participant was found to have a co-infection with more than one virus. Influenza viruses, including pandemic H1N1 2009, were the most frequently detected pathogens, accounting for 67.4% (97/144) of the viruses detected. Adenovirus (15/144), parainfluenza virus (13/144), and respiratory syncytial virus (11/144) were also important causes of ILI in this study. Pandemic H1N1 2009 virus became the most commonly isolated influenza virus during its initial appearance in 2009. Two waves of the pandemic were observed: the first which peaked in August 2009 and the second - higher than the preceding - that peaked in October 2009. In 2010, influenza A/H3N2 re-emerged as the most predominant respiratory virus detected. Conclusions/Significance Influenza viruses were the most commonly detected viral organisms among patients with acute febrile respiratory illnesses presenting at two hospitals in Maracay, Venezuela. Pandemic H1N1 2009 influenza virus did not completely replace other circulating influenza viruses during its initial

  8. Quantum Structure of Field Theory and Standard Model Based on Infinity-Free Loop Regularization/renormalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yue-Liang

    2014-04-01

    To understand better the quantum structure of field theory and standard model in particle physics, it is necessary to investigate carefully the divergence structure in quantum field theories (QFTs) and work out a consistent framework to avoid infinities. The divergence has got us into trouble since developing quantum electrodynamics in 1930s. Its treatment via the renormalization scheme is satisfied not by all physicists, like Dirac and Feynman who have made serious criticisms. The renormalization group analysis reveals that QFTs can in general be defined fundamentally with the meaningful energy scale that has some physical significance, which motivates us to develop a new symmetry-preserving and infinity-free regularization scheme called loop regularization (LORE). A simple regularization prescription in LORE is realized based on a manifest postulation that a loop divergence with a power counting dimension larger than or equal to the space-time dimension must vanish. The LORE method is achieved without modifying original theory and leads the divergent Feynman loop integrals well-defined to maintain the divergence structure and meanwhile preserve basic symmetries of original theory. The crucial point in LORE is the presence of two intrinsic energy scales which play the roles of ultraviolet cutoff Mc and infrared cutoff μs to avoid infinities. As Mc can be made finite when taking appropriately both the primary regulator mass and number to be infinity to recover the original integrals, the two energy scales Mc and μs in LORE become physically meaningful as the characteristic energy scale and sliding energy scale, respectively. The key concept in LORE is the introduction of irreducible loop integrals (ILIs) on which the regularization prescription acts, which leads to a set of gauge invariance consistency conditions between the regularized tensor-type and scalar-type ILIs. An interesting observation in LORE is that the evaluation of ILIs with ultraviolet

  9. Quantum Structure of Field Theory and Standard Model Based on Infinity-Free Loop Regularization/renormalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yue-Liang

    2014-02-01

    To understand better the quantum structure of field theory and standard model in particle physics, it is necessary to investigate carefully the divergence structure in quantum field theories (QFTs) and work out a consistent framework to avoid infinities. The divergence has got us into trouble since developing quantum electrodynamics in 1930s. Its treatment via the renormalization scheme is satisfied not by all physicists, like Dirac and Feynman who have made serious criticisms. The renormalization group analysis reveals that QFTs can in general be defined fundamentally with the meaningful energy scale that has some physical significance, which motivates us to develop a new symmetry-preserving and infinity-free regularization scheme called loop regularization (LORE). A simple regularization prescription in LORE is realized based on a manifest postulation that a loop divergence with a power counting dimension larger than or equal to the space-time dimension must vanish. The LORE method is achieved without modifying original theory and leads the divergent Feynman loop integrals well-defined to maintain the divergence structure and meanwhile preserve basic symmetries of original theory. The crucial point in LORE is the presence of two intrinsic energy scales which play the roles of ultraviolet cutoff Mc and infrared cutoff μs to avoid infinities. As Mc can be made finite when taking appropriately both the primary regulator mass and number to be infinity to recover the original integrals, the two energy scales Mc and μs in LORE become physically meaningful as the characteristic energy scale and sliding energy scale, respectively. The key concept in LORE is the introduction of irreducible loop integrals (ILIs) on which the regularization prescription acts, which leads to a set of gauge invariance consistency conditions between the regularized tensor-type and scalar-type ILIs. An interesting observation in LORE is that the evaluation of ILIs with ultraviolet

  10. Seroprevalence of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza and effectiveness of 2010/2011 influenza vaccine during 2010/2011 season in Beijing, China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Peng; Zhang, Li; Shi, Weixian; Lu, Guilan; Cui, Shujuan; Peng, Xiaomin; Zhang, Daitao; Liu, Yimeng; Liang, Huijie; Pang, Xinghuo; Wang, Quanyi

    2011-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Yang et al. (2011) Seroprevalence of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza and effectiveness of 2010/2011 influenza vaccine during 2010/2011 season in Beijing, China. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 6(6), 381–388. Background  In the post‐pandemic period, pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus was expected to circulate seasonally and was introduced into trivalent influenza vaccine during 2010/2011 season in the Northern Hemisphere. Objectives  The aim of this study was to examine the evolution of herd immunity against pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus in Beijing, China, during 2010/2011 season and effectiveness of the 2010/2011 trivalent vaccine. Methods  Two serological surveys were conducted before and after 2010/2011 season in Beijing. A case–control study was used to investigate vaccine effectiveness against influenza‐like illness (ILI) and lower respiratory tract infection (LRI). Results  A total of 4509 and 4543 subjects participated in the pre‐ and post‐season surveys, respectively. The standardized seroprevalence of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza increased from 22·1% pre‐season to 24·3% post‐season (P < 0·001). Significant elevation in seroprevalence appeared in the ≥60 years age‐group (P < 0·001), but not in others. The 2010/2011 trivalent vaccine contributed to the higher post‐seasonal seroprevalence in unvaccinated individuals (P = 0·024), but not in those vaccinated with monovalent pandemic vaccine (P = 0·205), as well as in those without prior immunity versus those with immunity. The adjusted effectiveness of the 2010/2011 trivalent vaccine was 79% protection against ILI (95% CI, 61–89%) and 95% against LRI (95% CI: 59–99%). Conclusions  A slight increase in herd immunity against pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza was observed in Beijing, China, during the 2010/2011 season. Prior vaccination and immunity had a suppressive impact on immune response toward this novel influenza virus

  11. Enhanced health event detection and influenza surveillance using a joint Veterans Affairs and Department of Defense biosurveillance application

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The establishment of robust biosurveillance capabilities is an important component of the U.S. strategy for identifying disease outbreaks, environmental exposures and bioterrorism events. Currently, U.S. Departments of Defense (DoD) and Veterans Affairs (VA) perform biosurveillance independently. This article describes a joint VA/DoD biosurveillance project at North Chicago-VA Medical Center (NC-VAMC). The Naval Health Clinics-Great Lakes facility physically merged with NC-VAMC beginning in 2006 with the full merger completed in October 2010 at which time all DoD care and medical personnel had relocated to the expanded and remodeled NC-VAMC campus and the combined facility was renamed the Lovell Federal Health Care Center (FHCC). The goal of this study was to evaluate disease surveillance using a biosurveillance application which combined data from both populations. Methods A retrospective analysis of NC-VAMC/Lovell FHCC and other Chicago-area VAMC data was performed using the ESSENCE biosurveillance system, including one infectious disease outbreak (Salmonella/Taste of Chicago-July 2007) and one weather event (Heat Wave-July 2006). Influenza-like-illness (ILI) data from these same facilities was compared with CDC/Illinois Sentinel Provider and Cook County ESSENCE data for 2007-2008. Results Following consolidation of VA and DoD facilities in North Chicago, median number of visits more than doubled, median patient age dropped and proportion of females rose significantly in comparison with the pre-merger NC-VAMC facility. A high-level gastrointestinal alert was detected in July 2007, but only low-level alerts at other Chicago-area VAMCs. Heat-injury alerts were triggered for the merged facility in June 2006, but not at the other facilities. There was also limited evidence in these events that surveillance of the combined population provided utility above and beyond the VA-only and DoD-only components. Recorded ILI activity for NC-VAMC/Lovell FHCC was more

  12. Using an online survey of healthcare-seeking behaviour to estimate the magnitude and severity of the 2009 H1N1v influenza epidemic in England

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background During the 2009 H1N1v influenza epidemic, the total number of symptomatic cases was estimated by combining influenza-like illness (ILI) consultations, virological surveillance and assumptions about healthcare-seeking behaviour. Changes in healthcare-seeking behaviour due to changing scientific information, media coverage and public anxiety, were not included in case estimates. The purpose of the study was to improve estimates of the number of symptomatic H1N1v cases and the case fatality rate (CFR) in England by quantifying healthcare-seeking behaviour using an internet-based survey carried out during the course of the 2009 H1N1v influenza epidemic. Methods We used an online survey that ran continuously from July 2009 to March 2010 to estimate the proportion of ILI cases that sought healthcare during the 2009 H1N1v influenza epidemic. We used dynamic age- and gender-dependent measures of healthcare-seeking behaviour to re-interpret consultation numbers and estimate the true number of cases of symptomatic ILI in 2009 and the case fatality rate (CFR). Results There were significant differences between age groups in healthcare usage. From the start to the end of the epidemic, the percentage of individuals with influenza-like symptoms who sought medical attention decreased from 43% to 32% (p < 0.0001). Adjusting official numbers accordingly, we estimate that there were 1.1 million symptomatic cases in England, over 320,000 (40%) more cases than previously estimated and that the autumn epidemic wave was 45% bigger than previously thought. Combining symptomatic case numbers with reported deaths leads to a reduced overall CFR estimate of 17 deaths per 100,000 cases, with the largest reduction in adults. Conclusions Active surveillance of healthcare-seeking behaviour, which can be achieved using novel data collection methods, is vital for providing accurate real-time estimates of epidemic size and disease severity. The differences in healthcare-seeking between

  13. Viral etiology and seasonality of influenza-like illness in Gabon, March 2010 to June 2011

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Surveillance of influenza-like illness (ILI) in Central Africa began only recently, and few data are therefore available on the circulation of influenza virus and other respiratory viruses. In Gabon, a Central African country, we established a surveillance network in four major towns in order to analyze cases of ILI among patients who visited health centers between March 2010 and June 2011, and to determine the viral etiology. Methods Nasal swabs were sent for analysis to the Centre International de Recherches Médicales de Franceville, where they were screened for 17 respiratory viruses in a multiplex real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for all pathogens according the following pairs: adenovirus/parainfluenza virus 4, respiratory syncytial virus/human metapneumovirus, parainfluenza virus 1/parainfluenza virus 2, pandemic influenza virus A/seasonal influenza virus A (H1N1, H3N2)/seasonal influenza virus B, human coronaviruses 229E/OC43, human coronaviruses NL63/HKU1, rhinovirus/human parechovirus, and enterovirus/parainfluenza virus 3. Results We analyzed a total of 1041 specimens, of which 639 (61%) were positive for at least one virus. Three-quarters of the patients were children under five years old. We therefore focused on this age group, in which 68.1% of patients were positive for at least one virus. The most common viruses were adenoviruses (17.5%), followed by parainfluenza viruses (PIVs) 1–4 (16.8%), enteroviruses (EV) (14.7%), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) (13.5%), and influenza virus (11.9%). The prevalence of some viruses was subject to geographic and seasonal variations. One-third of positive samples contained more than one virus. Conclusions Like most studies in the world, the virus PIVs, EV, RSV, Influenza virus, HRV were predominant among children under five years old in Gabon. An exception is made for adenoviruses which have a high prevalence in our study. However adenoviruses can be detected in asymptomatic

  14. Low Clinical Burden of 2009 Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) Infection during Pregnancy on the Island of La Réunion

    PubMed Central

    Gérardin, Patrick; El Amrani, Rachid; Cyrille, Béatrice; Gabrièle, Marc; Guillermin, Philippe; Boukerrou, Malik; Boumahni, Brahim; Randrianaivo, Hanitra; Winer, Arnaud; Rouanet, Jean-Fabien; Bohrer, Michel; Jaffar-Bandjee, Marie-Christine; Robillard, Pierre-Yves; Barau, Georges; Michault, Alain

    2010-01-01

    Background Pregnant women have been identified as a group at risk, both for respiratory complications than for the admissions to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) during the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic (pdm). The purpose of this prospective register-based cohort-study was to characterize the clinical virulence of the pdm (H1N1/09)v during pregnancy in La Réunion. Methods/Principal Findings Over a twelve-week pdm wave (13 July to 3 October 2009), 294 pregnant women presented with an influenza-like illness (ILI) to one of the three maternity departments of the South Reunion area, Indian Ocean. Out of these, 278 were checked by RT-PCR for influenza viruses (157 positive and 121 negative, of whom, 141 with pdm flu and 132 with ILIs of non pdm origin, 5 untyped). The median body temperature was higher in women experiencing pdm flu than in those with non pdm ILI (38.9°C versus 38.3°C, P<0.0001), without evidence linked to circulating viremia. Oseltamivir was given for 86% of pdm flu cases in a median time inferior than 48 hrs (range 0–7 days). The hospitalization rate for pdm flu was of 60% and not associated with underlying conditions. Six viral pneumonia and fourteen asthma attacks were observed among 84 hospitalized pdm flu cases, of whom, only one led to the ICU for an acute lung injury. No maternal death occurred during the pdm wave. None adverse pregnancy outcome was associated with pdm flu. No congenital birth defect, nor early-onset neonatal influenza infection was attributable to pdm flu exposure. Conclusions/Significance This report mitigates substantially the presumed severity of pandemic H1N1/09 influenza infection during pregnancy. The reasons for which the clinical burden of H1N1/09 influenza virus may differ worldwide raise questions about a differential local viral-strain effect and public health preparedness, notably in timely access to special care and antiviral treatments. PMID:20531946

  15. Sleep Architecture Following a Weight Loss Intervention in Overweight and Obese Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Type 2 Diabetes: Relationship to Apnea-Hypopnea Index

    PubMed Central

    Shechter, Ari; St-Onge, Marie-Pierre; Kuna, Samuel T.; Zammit, Gary; RoyChoudhury, Arindam; Newman, Anne B.; Millman, Richard P.; Reboussin, David M.; Wadden, Thomas A.; Jakicic, John M.; Pi-Sunyer, F. Xavier; Wing, Rena R.; Foster, Gary D.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: To determine if weight loss and/or changes in apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) improve sleep architecture in overweight/obese adults with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Methods: This was a randomized controlled trial including 264 overweight/obese adults with T2D and OSA. Participants were randomized to an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) or a diabetes and support education (DSE) control group. Measures included anthropometry, AHI, and sleep at baseline and year-1, year-2, and year-4 follow-ups. Results: Changes in sleep duration (total sleep time [TST]), continuity [wake after sleep onset (WASO)], and architecture stage 1, stage 2, slow wave sleep, and REM sleep) from baseline to year 1, 2, and 4 did not differ between ILI and DSE. Repeated-measure mixed-model analyses including data from baseline through year-4 for all participants demonstrated a significant positive association between AHI and stage 1 sleep (p < 0.001), and a significant negative association between AHI and stage 2 (p = 0.01) and REM sleep (p < 0.001), whereas changes in body weight had no relation to any sleep stages or TST. WASO had a significant positive association with change in body weight (p = 0.009). Conclusions: Compared to control, the ILI did not induce significant changes in sleep across the 4-year follow-up. In participants overall, reduced AHI in overweight/obese adults with T2D and OSA was associated with decreased stage 1, and increased stage 2 and REM sleep. These sleep architecture changes are more strongly related to reductions in AHI than body weight, whereas WASO may be more influenced by weight than AHI. Clinical Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00194259 Citation: Shechter A, St-Onge MP, Kuna ST, Zammit G, RoyChoudhury A, Newman AB, Millman RP, Reboussin DM, Wadden TA, Jakicic JM, Pi-Sunyer FX, Wing RR, Foster GD, Sleep AHEAD Research Group of the Look AHEAD Research Group. Sleep architecture following a

  16. Using sentinel surveillance system to monitor seasonal and novel H1N1 influenza infection in Houston, Texas: outcome analysis of 2008-2009 flu season.

    PubMed

    Khuwaja, Salma; Mgbere, Osaro; Awosika-Olumo, Adebowale; Momin, Fayaz; Ngo, Katherine

    2011-10-01

    The advent of the novel H1N1 virus prompted the Houston Department of Health and Human services (HDHHS) to use the existing sentinel surveillance system to effectively monitor the situation of novel H1N1 virus in the Houston metropolitan area. The objective of this study was to evaluate the demographic characteristics and common symptoms associated with confirmed cases of seasonal influenza and Novel H1N1 virus reported to HDHHS between October 2008 and October 2009. A total of 30 providers were randomly selected using the probability proportional to size (PPS) sampling technique to participate in a sentinel surveillance system. The system was used to effectively monitor both seasonal and novel H1N1 virus in the Houston metropolitan area. These providers collected and submitted specimens for testing at HDHHS laboratory from patients with influenza-like illness (ILI) symptoms who visited their clinics during the period, October 2008 and October 2009. These data formed the basis of the current study. Data obtained were subjected to both descriptive and inferential statistical analyses using SAS software version 9.1.3. Overall a total of 1,122 ILI cases were reported to HDHHS by sentinel providers and tested by HDHHS laboratory. Of this number 296 (67.5%) specimens tested positive for influenza A; 140 (32.0%) for influenza B, and 2 (0.46%) for influenza A/B. Two hundred and fifty-nine (59%) were confirmed cases of seasonal influenza and 179 (41%) were novel H1N1 subtype, respectively. The median ages for seasonal influenza and novel H1N1 virus were 7 and 8 years, with majority of the cases reported among children of age 5-9 years. Fever was the most common symptom reported among patients with seasonal flu and novel H1N1 virus, followed by cough. Twenty-three percent (23%) of patients who were vaccinated against seasonal flu prior to the epidemic were infected with seasonal flu virus. The sentinel surveillance system provided timely data on the circulating ILI that

  17. A Terrestrial Ecosystem Full Verified Carbon Accounting for Russian Land: Results and Uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shvidenko, A.; Schepaschenko, D.; Maksyutov, S.

    2010-12-01

    We present a terrestrial full carbon account (FCA) for Russian land in a spatially explicit form for 2009 and aggregated country-wide annual estimates for 2004-2008. The integrated methodology of the FCA takes into account the fuzzy character of the studied systems. IIASA’s landscape-ecosystem approach (LEA) is used for designing the account boundaries and assessment of major pools and fluxes. An Integrated Land Information System (ILIS) serves as the information background of the FCA. The ILIS is based on a system integration of all available ground data and multi-sensor remote sensing applications. The ILIS includes a georeferenced hybrid land cover (~500 land classes, resolution 1 x 1 km), corresponding attributive datasets and sets of empirical and semi-empirical ecosystem and landscape models. The latter are based on long-period measurements of ecological parameters with corrections - if necessary - due to weather specifics of individual growth seasons. On average, terrestrial ecosystems of Russia served as a sink of roughly 0.6 Pg C yr-1 during the last five years which exceeds the technosphere’s emissions of the country by about one third. Two major fluxes (net primary production and heterotrophic respiration) for all productive lands of the country are estimated at 323 and 204 g C yr-1 m-2, respectively. Disturbance and consumption of plant products comprise from 15 to 20% of the net primary production. Forests serve as a major component of the sink (~85% of the country’s total). Disturbed forests and peatlands, as well as cultivated agricultural lands, are a relatively small carbon source. The interannual variability of the net ecosystem carbon balance are mostly driven by climatic conditions and natural disturbance (fire, insects) of the growth periods and is in limits of 10-15% for the country as a whole, but could exceed 25-30% for large regions with weather anomalies of the vegetation periods. Uncertainty within the LEA was assessed for all

  18. Binge eating and weight loss outcomes in overweight and obese individuals with type 2 diabetes: Results from the Look AHEAD trial

    PubMed Central

    Gorin, Amy A.; Niemeier, Heather M.; Hogan, Patricia; Coday, Mace; Davis, Cralen; DiLillo, Vicki G.; Gluck, Marci E.; Wadden, Thomas A.; West, Delia S.; Williamson, Donald; Yanovski, Susan Z.

    2009-01-01

    Context Binge eating (BE) is common in overweight and obese individuals with type 2 diabetes yet little is known about how BE affects weight loss in this population. Objective To determine whether BE was related to 1-year weight losses in overweight and obese individuals with type 2 diabetes participating in an ongoing clinical trial. Design and Setting Look AHEAD is a randomized controlled trial examining the long-term effect of intentional weight loss on CVD in overweight and obese adults with type 2 diabetes. Participants Overweight and obese individuals, 45–76 years old, with type 2 diabetes (n=5145). Interventions Participants were randomly assigned to an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) or to enhanced usual care (DSE). Main outcome measures At baseline and 1-year, participants had their weight measured and completed a fitness test and self-report measures of BE and dietary intake. Four groups were created based on BE status at baseline and 1-year (Yes/Yes, No/No, Yes/No, No/Yes). Analyses controlled for baseline differences between binge eaters and non-binge eaters. Results Most individuals (85.4%) did not report BE at baseline or 1-year, 7.5% reported BE only at baseline, 3.7% reported BE at both times, and 3.4% reported BE only at 1-year, with no differences between ILI and DSE conditions (p=.14). Across ILI and DSE, greater weight losses were observed in participants who stopped BE at 1-year (5.3±.4 kg) and in those who reported no BE at either time point (4.8±.1 kg) than in those who continued to BE (3.1±.6 kg) and those who began BE at 1-year (3.0±.6 kg) (p=.0003). Post hoc analyses suggested these differences were due to changes in caloric intake. Conclusions Overweight and obese individuals with type 2 diabetes who stop binge eating appear just as successful at weight loss as non-binge eaters after one year of treatment. PMID:19047532

  19. A Prospective Study of Romanian Agriculture Workers for Zoonotic Influenza Infections

    PubMed Central

    Coman, Alexandru; Maftei, Daniel N.; Krueger, Whitney S.; Heil, Gary L.; Chereches, Razvan M.; Sirlincan, Emanuela; Bria, Paul; Dragnea, Claudiu; Kasler, Iosif; Valentine, Marissa A.; Gray, Gregory C.

    2014-01-01

    Background In this prospective study we sought to examine seroepidemiological evidence for acute zoonotic influenza virus infection among Romanian agricultural workers. Methods Sera were drawn upon enrollment (2009) and again at 12 and 24 months from 312 adult agriculture workers and 51 age-group matched controls. Participants were contacted monthly for 24 months and queried regarding episodes of acute influenza-like illnesses (ILI). Cohort members meeting ILI criteria permitted respiratory swab collections as well as acute and convalescent serum collection. Serologic assays were performed against 9 avian, 3 swine, and 3 human influenza viruses. Results During the two-year follow-up, a total of 23 ILI events were reported. Two subjects' specimens were identified as influenza A by rRT-PCR. During the follow-up period, three individuals experienced elevated microneutralization antibody titers ≥1∶80 against three (one each) avian influenza viruses: A/Teal/Hong Kong/w312/97(H6N1), A/Hong Kong/1073/1999(H9N2), or A/Duck/Alberta/60/1976(H12N5). However, none of these participants met the criteria for poultry exposure. A number of subjects demonstrated four-fold increases over time in hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay titers for at least one of the three swine influenza viruses (SIVs); however, it seems likely that two of these three responses were due to cross-reacting antibody against human influenza. Only elevated antibody titers against A/Swine/Flanders/1/1998(H3N2) lacked evidence for such confounding. In examining risk factors for elevated antibody against this SIV with multiple logistic regression, swine exposure (adjusted OR = 1.8, 95% CI 1.1–2.8) and tobacco use (adjusted OR = 1.8; 95% CI 1.1–2.9) were important predictors. Conclusions While Romania has recently experienced multiple incursions of highly pathogenic avian influenza among domestic poultry, this cohort of Romanian agriculture workers had sparse evidence of avian influenza virus

  20. Little Evidence of Avian or Equine Influenza Virus Infection among a Cohort of Mongolian Adults with Animal Exposures, 2010–2011

    PubMed Central

    Khurelbaatar, Nyamdavaa; Krueger, Whitney S.; Heil, Gary L.; Darmaa, Badarchiin; Ulziimaa, Daramragchaa; Tserennorov, Damdindorj; Baterdene, Ariungerel; Anderson, Benjamin D.; Gray, Gregory C.

    2014-01-01

    Avian (AIV) and equine influenza virus (EIV) have been repeatedly shown to circulate among Mongolia’s migrating birds or domestic horses. In 2009, 439 Mongolian adults, many with occupational exposure to animals, were enrolled in a prospective cohort study of zoonotic influenza transmission. Sera were drawn upon enrollment and again at 12 and 24 months. Participants were contacted monthly for 24 months and queried regarding episodes of acute influenza-like illnesses (ILI). Cohort members confirmed to have acute influenza A infections, permitted respiratory swab collections which were studied with rRT-PCR for influenza A. Serologic assays were performed against equine, avian, and human influenza viruses. Over the 2 yrs of follow-up, 100 ILI investigations in the cohort were conducted. Thirty-six ILI cases (36%) were identified as influenza A infections by rRT-PCR; none yielded evidence for AIV or EIV. Serological examination of 12 mo and 24 mo annual sera revealed 37 participants had detectable antibody titers (≥1∶10) against studied viruses during the course of study follow-up: 21 against A/Equine/Mongolia/01/2008(H3N8); 4 against an avian A/Teal/Hong Kong/w3129(H6N1), 11 against an avian-like A/Hong Kong/1073/1999(H9N2), and 1 against an avian A/Migrating duck/Hong Kong/MPD268/2007(H10N4) virus. However, all such titers were <1∶80 and none were statistically associated with avian or horse exposures. A number of subjects had evidence of seroconversion to zoonotic viruses, but the 4-fold titer changes were again not associated with avian or horse exposures. As elevated antibodies against seasonal influenza viruses were high during the study period, it seems likely that cross-reacting antibodies against seasonal human influenza viruses were a cause of the low-level seroreactivity against AIV or EIV. Despite the presence of AIV and EIV circulating among wild birds and horses in Mongolia, there was little evidence of AIV or EIV infection in this prospective

  1. Difference in immune response in vaccinated and unvaccinated Swedish individuals after the 2009 influenza pandemic

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous exposures to flu and subsequent immune responses may impact on 2009/2010 pandemic flu vaccine responses and clinical symptoms upon infection with the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza strain. Qualitative and quantitative differences in humoral and cellular immune responses associated with the flu vaccination in 2009/2010 (pandemic H1N1 vaccine) and natural infection have not yet been described in detail. We designed a longitudinal study to examine influenza- (flu-) specific immune responses and the association between pre-existing flu responses, symptoms of influenza-like illness (ILI), impact of pandemic flu infection, and pandemic flu vaccination in a cohort of 2,040 individuals in Sweden in 2009–2010. Methods Cellular flu-specific immune responses were assessed by whole-blood antigen stimulation assay, and humoral responses by a single radial hemolysis test. Results Previous seasonal flu vaccination was associated with significantly lower flu-specific IFN-γ responses (using a whole-blood assay) at study entry. Pandemic flu vaccination induced long-lived T-cell responses (measured by IFN-γ production) to influenza A strains, influenza B strains, and the matrix (M1) antigen. In contrast, individuals with pandemic flu infection (PCR positive) exhibited increased flu-specific T-cell responses shortly after onset of ILI symptoms but the immune response decreased after the flu season (spring 2010). We identified non-pandemic-flu vaccinated participants without ILI symptoms who showed an IFN-γ production profile similar to pandemic-flu infected participants, suggesting exposure without experiencing clinical symptoms. Conclusions Strong and long-lived flu-M1 specific immune responses, defined by IFN-γ production, in individuals after vaccination suggest that M1-responses may contribute to protective cellular immune responses. Silent flu infections appeared to be frequent in 2009/2010. The pandemic flu vaccine induced qualitatively and quantitatively

  2. Influenza-like illness surveillance on Twitter through automated learning of naïve language.

    PubMed

    Gesualdo, Francesco; Stilo, Giovanni; Agricola, Eleonora; Gonfiantini, Michaela V; Pandolfi, Elisabetta; Velardi, Paola; Tozzi, Alberto E

    2013-01-01

    Twitter has the potential to be a timely and cost-effective source of data for syndromic surveillance. When speaking of an illness, Twitter users often report a combination of symptoms, rather than a suspected or final diagnosis, using naïve, everyday language. We developed a minimally trained algorithm that exploits the abundance of health-related web pages to identify all jargon expressions related to a specific technical term. We then translated an influenza case definition into a Boolean query, each symptom being described by a technical term and all related jargon expressions, as identified by the algorithm. Subsequently, we monitored all tweets that reported a combination of symptoms satisfying the case definition query. In order to geolocalize messages, we defined 3 localization strategies based on codes associated with each tweet. We found a high correlation coefficient between the trend of our influenza-positive tweets and ILI trends identified by US traditional surveillance systems. PMID:24324799

  3. Characterizing the Epidemiology of the 2009 Influenza A/H1N1 Pandemic in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Chowell, Gerardo; Echevarría-Zuno, Santiago; Viboud, Cécile; Simonsen, Lone; Tamerius, James; Miller, Mark A.; Borja-Aburto, Víctor H.

    2011-01-01

    Background Mexico's local and national authorities initiated an intense public health response during the early stages of the 2009 A/H1N1 pandemic. In this study we analyzed the epidemiological patterns of the pandemic during April–December 2009 in Mexico and evaluated the impact of nonmedical interventions, school cycles, and demographic factors on influenza transmission. Methods and Findings We used influenza surveillance data compiled by the Mexican Institute for Social Security, representing 40% of the population, to study patterns in influenza-like illness (ILIs) hospitalizations, deaths, and case-fatality rate by pandemic wave and geographical region. We also estimated the reproduction number (R) on the basis of the growth rate of daily cases, and used a transmission model to evaluate the effectiveness of mitigation strategies initiated during the spring pandemic wave. A total of 117,626 ILI cases were identified during April–December 2009, of which 30.6% were tested for influenza, and 23.3% were positive for the influenza A/H1N1 pandemic virus. A three-wave pandemic profile was identified, with an initial wave in April–May (Mexico City area), a second wave in June–July (southeastern states), and a geographically widespread third wave in August–December. The median age of laboratory confirmed ILI cases was ∼18 years overall and increased to ∼31 years during autumn (p<0.0001). The case-fatality ratio among ILI cases was 1.2% overall, and highest (5.5%) among people over 60 years. The regional R estimates were 1.8–2.1, 1.6–1.9, and 1.2–1.3 for the spring, summer, and fall waves, respectively. We estimate that the 18-day period of mandatory school closures and other social distancing measures implemented in the greater Mexico City area was associated with a 29%–37% reduction in influenza transmission in spring 2009. In addition, an increase in R was observed in late May and early June in the southeast states, after mandatory school

  4. Easily Transported CCD Systems for Use in Astronomy Labs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meisel, D.

    1992-12-01

    Relatively inexpensive CCD cameras and portable computers are now easily obtained as commercially available products. I will describe a prototype system that can be used by introductory astronomy students, even urban enviroments, to obtain useful observations of the night sky. It is based on the ST-4 CCDs made by Santa Barbara Instruments Group and Macintosh Powerbook145 computers. Students take outdoor images directly from the college campus, bring the exposures back into the lab and download the images into our networked server. These stored images can then be processed (at a later time) using a variety of image processing programs including a new astronomical version of the popular "freeware" NIH Image package that is currently under development at Geneseo. The prototype of this system will be demonstrated and available for hands-on use during the meeting. This work is supported by NSF ILI Demonstration Grant USE9250493 and Grants from SUNY-GENESEO.

  5. Evaluating detection and monitoring tools for incipient and relictual non-native ungulate populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Judge, Seth W.; Hess, Steve; Faford, Jonathan K.J.; Pacheco, Dexter; Leopold, Christina R.; Cole, Colleen; Deguzman, Veronica

    2016-01-01

    Two baseline ungulate surveys have been completed at the Hō‘ili Wai study area in the highpriority watershed of Ka‘ū Forest Reserve adjacent to Kahuku prior to the completion of an exclusionary ungulate fence. Ground-based surveys were conducted on four transects within a 4.99 km2 area on 5 August and 5–6 November 2014. In August, 20.71% of 565 plots surveyed had fresh or intermediate ungulate sign. In November, 17.41% of 557 plots surveyed had fresh or intermediate ungulate sign. These surveys represent baseline levels of ungulate activity prior to management; therefore comparative inferences can be made about ungula

  6. Encouraging A Culture Of Outreach In Astronomy Clubs: Findings From The Astronomical Society Of The Pacific, The Institute For Learning Innovation, And Inverness Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manning, Jim; Jones, E.; St. John, M.; Berendsen, M.; Schultz, G.; Gurton, S.; Yocco, V.; Castori, P.; Santascoy, J.; White, V.; Frank, K.

    2012-05-01

    Astronomy clubs constitute a “marching army” of knowledgeable and experienced astronomy enthusiasts deployed in a national network: an enormously valuable and important resource for engaging the public through educational outreach events and activities. The Astronomical Society of the Pacific (ASP) in partnership with the Institute for Learning Innovation (ILI) and Inverness Research, Inc., has been engaged in a multi-year NSF-supported project focusing on this network and its potential to advance common astronomy education and outreach objectives. The project has explored the culture of astronomy clubs, identified impediments to building cultures of outreach within clubs, and developed and introduced new mechanisms to overcome these impediments and enhance clubs’ abilities to encourage and sustain cultures that value and promote outreach efforts. The presenter will share initial research, development and evaluation findings of the project, and describe ongoing supplemental efforts that continue to advance project objectives.

  7. Encouraging A Culture Of Outreach In Astronomy Clubs: Findings From The Astronomical Society Of The Pacific, The Institute For Learning Innovation, And Inverness Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manning, Jim; Jones, E.; St. John, M.; Berendsen, M.; Schultz, G. R.; Gurton, S.; Yocco, V.; Castori, P.; Santascoy, J.; White, V.; FRANK, K.

    2013-01-01

    Astronomy clubs constitute a “marching army” of knowledgeable and experienced astronomy enthusiasts deployed in a national network: an enormously valuable and important resource for engaging the public through educational outreach events and activities. The Astronomical Society of the Pacific (ASP) in partnership with the Institute for Learning Innovation (ILI) and Inverness Research, Inc., has been engaged in a multiyear NSF-supported project focusing on this network and its potential to advance common astronomy education and outreach objectives. The project has explored the culture of astronomy clubs, identified impediments to building cultures of outreach within clubs, and developed and introduced new mechanisms to overcome these impediments and enhance clubs’ abilities to encourage and sustain cultures that value and promote outreach efforts. The presenter will share initial research, development and evaluation findings of the project, and describe ongoing supplemental efforts that continue to advance project objectives.

  8. Evaluating Syndromic surveillance systems at institutions of higher education (IHEs): A retrospective analysis of the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic at two universities

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Syndromic surveillance has been widely adopted as a real-time monitoring tool for timely response to disease outbreaks. During the second wave of the pH1N1 pandemic in Fall 2009, two major universities in Washington, DC collected data that were potentially indicative of influenza-like illness (ILI) cases in students and staff. In this study, our objectives were three-fold. The primary goal of this study was to characterize the impact of pH1N1 on the campuses as clearly as possible given the data available and their likely biases. In addition, we sought to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of the data series themselves, in order to inform these two universities and other institutions of higher education (IHEs) about real-time surveillance systems that are likely to provide the most utility in future outbreaks (at least to the extent that it is possible to generalize from this analysis). Methods We collected a wide variety of data that covered both student ILI cases reported to medical and non-medical staff, employee absenteeism, and hygiene supply distribution records (from University A only). Communication data were retrieved from university broadcasts, university preparedness websites, and H1N1-related on campus media reports. Regional data based on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Outpatient Influenza-like Illness Surveillance Network (CDC ILINet) surveillance network, American College Health Association (ACHA) pandemic influenza surveillance data, and local Google Flu Trends were used as external data sets. We employed a "triangulation" approach for data analysis in which multiple contemporary data sources are compared to identify time patterns that are likely to reflect biases as well as those that are more likely to be indicative of actual infection rates. Results Medical personnel observed an early peak at both universities immediately after school began in early September and a second peak in early November; only the second peak

  9. Influenza-Like Illness Surveillance on Twitter through Automated Learning of Naïve Language

    PubMed Central

    Gesualdo, Francesco; Stilo, Giovanni; Agricola, Eleonora; Gonfiantini, Michaela V.; Pandolfi, Elisabetta; Velardi, Paola; Tozzi, Alberto E.

    2013-01-01

    Twitter has the potential to be a timely and cost-effective source of data for syndromic surveillance. When speaking of an illness, Twitter users often report a combination of symptoms, rather than a suspected or final diagnosis, using naïve, everyday language. We developed a minimally trained algorithm that exploits the abundance of health-related web pages to identify all jargon expressions related to a specific technical term. We then translated an influenza case definition into a Boolean query, each symptom being described by a technical term and all related jargon expressions, as identified by the algorithm. Subsequently, we monitored all tweets that reported a combination of symptoms satisfying the case definition query. In order to geolocalize messages, we defined 3 localization strategies based on codes associated with each tweet. We found a high correlation coefficient between the trend of our influenza-positive tweets and ILI trends identified by US traditional surveillance systems. PMID:24324799

  10. The Next Generation of NASA Night Sky Network: A Searchable Nationwide Database of Astronomy Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ames, Z.; Berendsen, M.; White, V.

    2010-08-01

    With support from NASA, the Astronomical Society of the Pacific (ASP) first developed the Night Sky Network (NSN) in 2004. The NSN was created in response to research conducted by the Institute for Learning Innovation (ILI) to determine what type of support amateur astronomers could use to increase the efficiency and extent of their educational outreach programs. Since its creation, the NSN has grown to include an online searchable database of toolkit resources, Presentation Skills Videos covering topics such as working with kids and how to answer difficult questions, and a searchable nationwide calendar of astronomy events that supports club organization. The features of the NSN have allowed the ASP to create a template that amateur science organizations might use to create a similar support network for their members and the public.

  11. Natural radionuclides and toxic elements in transboundary rivers of Kazakhstan.

    PubMed

    Solodukhin, V; Poznyak, V; Kabirova, G; Stepanov, V; Ryazanova, L; Lennik, S; Liventsova, A; Bychenko, A; Zheltov, D

    2015-06-01

    The paper reports on the study of radionuclide and elemental composition of water, bottom sediment and soil samples collected at the border areas of the following transboundary rivers in Kazakhstan: Chagan, Ural, Ilek, Tobol, Ayat, Irtysh, Emel, Ili, Tekes, Shu, Karabalta, Talas and Syrdarya. The employed analyses include the following methods: instrumental gamma-ray spectrometry, radiochemical analysis, neutron activation analysis, XRF and the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Evidence of water environment contamination with radionuclides and toxic elements has been revealed in many of the studied rivers both in Kazakhstan and in adjacent countries. Transboundary transfer of the contaminants is most likely related to local industry (uranium mining and processing) and the presence of radioactive substances in the river basins. PMID:25971346

  12. Metagenomic characterization of biodiversity in the extremely arid desert soils of Kazakhstan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutovaya, O. V.; Lebedeva, M. P.; Tkhakakhova, A. K.; Ivanova, E. A.; Andronov, E. E.

    2015-05-01

    For the first time, the composition of microbiomes in the biological crust (AKL) horizons of extremely arid desert soils (Aridic Calcisols) developed from saline and nonsaline alluvial deposits in the Ili Depression (eastern Kazakhstan) was analyzed. To describe the diversity of microorganisms in the soil samples, a novel method of pyrosequencing (Roche/454 Life Sciences) was applied. It was shown that bacteria from the Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Verrucomicrobia, Acidobacteria, and Bacteroidetes phyla predominate in all the samples; these are typical representatives of the microbiome of soil crusts. A distinctive feature of the extremely arid soils is the high contribution of cyanobacteria (25-30%) to the total DNA. In the soils developed from saline sediments, representatives from the Rubrobacteraceae, Streptococcaceae, and Caulobacteraceae families and from the Firmicutes phylum predominated. In the soils developed from nonsaline gypsiferous deposits, bacteria from the class of Acidobacteria, subgroup Gp3, of the Methylobacteriaceae family and the class of Subdivision 3 from the Verrucomicrobia phylum predominated.

  13. Natural A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza virus infection case in a pet ferret in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hui-Ting; Wang, Ching-Ho; Wu, Wen-Ling; Chi, Chau-Hwa; Wang, Lih Chiann

    2014-11-01

    Ferrets have demonstrated high susceptibility to the influenza virus. This study discusses a natural 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) (A(H1N1)pdm09) virus infection in a pet ferret (Mustela putorius furo) identified in Taiwan in 2013. The ferret was in close contact with family members who had recently experienced an influenza-like illness (ILI). The ferret nasal swab showed positive results for influenza A virus using one-step RT-PCR. The virus was isolated and the phylogenetic analysis indicated that all of the eight segmented genes were closely related to the human A(H1N1)pdm09 virus linage isolated in Taiwan. This study may provide a perspective view on natural influenza A virus transmission from the local human population into pet ferrets. PMID:25597188

  14. Quantification of the new triketone herbicides, sulcotrione and mesotrione, and other important herbicides and metabolites, at the ng/l level in surface waters using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Luciana Gomides; Götz, Christian W; Ruff, Matthias; Singer, Heinz P; Müller, Stephan R

    2004-03-01

    The LC/ESI/MSMS method allows the trace quantification (ng/l) of the new triketone herbicides, i.e. sulcotrione and mesotrione, and important herbicides and metabolites, in natural waters. Solid phase extraction (SPE) for sample enrichment is performed with OASIS (recoveries 94-112% for parent herbicides). Neutral and acidic compounds were analyzed separately with ESI in positive and negative mode, respectively. Quantification limits varied between 0.5 and 10 ng/l. The acidic herbicides detection was improved by a neutralizing post-column addition solution. The influence of ion suppression on quantification is discussed in detail. It is shown that we could overcome this problem and achieve reliable quantification using isotope labeled internal standards (ILIS) for every single analyte. The methods performance is illustrated with samples from a lake depth profile. PMID:14989481

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF NONLINEAR HARMONIC SENSORS FOR DETECTION OF MECHANICAL DAMAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Alfred E. Crouch; Alan Dean; Carl Torres; Jeff Aron

    2004-03-01

    In a joint effort with Tuboscope Pipeline Services of Houston, Texas, Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) adapted its nonlinear harmonic (NLH) sensing technology for use on a new in-line inspection system (smart pig). Nonlinear harmonics, an AC magnetic method for detecting local anomalies of stress and plastic deformation, shows promise of improved characterization of mechanical damage defects such as gouged dents, even though the dents may have re-rounded. The SwRI-Tuboscope project produced a sensor design, electronic design, and sensor suspension design that are directly adaptable to a multitechnology ILI system. This report describes the NLH method, the sensor, circuit, and suspension designs, and shows results from the supporting laboratory work.

  16. Infrared Spectroscopy in the General Chemistry Lab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Margaret A.

    2001-01-01

    Acquisition of infrared spectrometers for use in general chemistry lab was made possible through the NSF-sponsored Instrumentation and Laboratory Improvement (ILI) program. Three laboratory exercises suitable for first-year students are described in which students learn to interpret infrared spectra for simple structural identification. A polymer identification lab is the first of these with minimal sample preparation. It uses familiar household polymer samples and teaches students how to use infrared spectral data to determine what bond types are present in the polymers. In a second lab, students learn to prepare potassium bromide pellets of fluorene derivatives and identify them by their functional group differences. The final exercise combines IR with several other lab techniques to identify an organic acid from a field of fourteen possibilities.

  17. Encouraging a Culture of Outreach in Astronomy Clubs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manning, J.; Berendsen, M.; Schultz, G.; Gurton, S.; Santascoy, J.; White, V.; Frank, K.; Jones, E.; Yocco, V.; John, M. S.; Castori, P.

    2014-07-01

    Astronomy clubs constitute a “marching army” of knowledgeable, experienced astronomy enthusiasts deployed in a national network: an important resource for engaging the public through educational outreach events and activities. The Astronomical Society of the Pacific (ASP) in partnership with the Institute for Learning Innovation (ILI) and Inverness Research, Inc., has been engaged in a multi-year NSF-supported project focusing on this network and its potential to advance astronomy education and outreach. The project has explored the culture of astronomy clubs, identified impediments to building cultures of outreach within clubs, and developed and introduced new mechanisms to overcome these impediments and enhance clubs' abilities to encourage and sustain cultures that value and promote outreach efforts. This paper shares initial research, development and evaluation findings of the project, and describes ongoing supplemental efforts that continue to advance project objectives.

  18. Solar hot water system installed at Days Inn Motel, Dallas, Texas (Valley View)

    SciTech Connect

    1980-09-01

    The solar hot water system installed in the Days Inns of America, Inc., Days Inn Motel (120 rooms), I-35/2276 Valley View Lane, Dallas, Texas is described. The solar system was designed by ILI Incorporated to provide 65 percent of the total domestic hot water (DHW) demand. The Solar Energy Products, model CU-30WW liquid (water) flat plate collector (1000 square feet) system automatically drains into the 1000 gallon steel storage tank when the solar pump is not running. This system is one of eleven systems planned. Heat is transferred from the DHW tanks through a shell and tube heat exchanger. A circulating pump between the DHW tanks and heat exchanger enables solar heated water to help make up standby losses. All pumps are controlled by differential temperature controllers. The operation of this system was begun March 11, 1980. The solar components were partly funded ($15,000 of 30,000 cost) by a Department of Energy grant.

  19. Etiology and Incidence of Viral Acute Respiratory Infections Among Refugees Aged 5 Years and Older in Hagadera Camp, Dadaab, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Gedi A; Ahmed, Jamal A; Marano, Nina; Mohamed, Abdinoor; Moturi, Edna; Burton, Wagacha; Otieno, Samora; Fields, Barry; Montgomery, Joel; Kabugi, Willy; Musa, Hashim; Cookson, Susan T

    2015-12-01

    We used the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-Kenya Medical Research Institute Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI) Surveillance System data to estimate severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) hospitalization rates, viral etiology, and associated complaints of influenza-like illnesses (ILI) and SARI conditions among those aged 5 years and older in Hagadera, Dadaab refugee camp, Kenya, for 2010-2012. A total of 471 patients aged ≥ 5 years met the case definition for ILI or SARI. SARI hospitalization rates per 10,000 person-years were 14.7 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 9.1, 22.2) for those aged 5-14 years; 3.4 (95% CI = 1.6, 7.2) for those aged 15-24 year; and 3.8 (95% CI = 1.6, 7.2) for those aged ≥ 25 years. Persons between the ages of 5 and 14 years had 3.5 greater odds to have been hospitalized as a result of SARI than those aged ≥ 25 years (odds ratio [OR] = 3.5, P < 0.001). Among the 419 samples tested, 169 (40.3%) were positive for one or more virus. Of those samples having viruses, 36.9% had influenza A; 29.9% had adenovirus; 20.2% had influenza B; and 14.4% had parainfluenza 1, 2, or 3. Muscle/joint pain was associated with influenza A (P = 0.002), whereas headache was associated with influenza B (P = 0.019). ARIs were responsible for a substantial disease burden in Hagadera camp. PMID:26458776

  20. Improvements in analytical methodology for the determination of frequently consumed illicit drugs in urban wastewater.

    PubMed

    Bijlsma, Lubertus; Beltrán, Eduardo; Boix, Clara; Sancho, Juan V; Hernández, Félix

    2014-07-01

    Rapid and sensitive analytical methodology based on ultra high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry has been developed for the determination of widely consumed drugs of abuse (amphetamines, MDMA, cocaine, opioids, cannabis and ketamine) and their major metabolites in urban wastewaters. Sample clean-up and pre-concentration was performed by a generic off-line SPE procedure using Oasis HLB. Special effort was made to incorporate amphetamine, which was found highly problematic in the wastewater samples tested, including an additional clean-up with Oasis MCX SPE and dispersive primary secondary amine. Correction for possible SPE losses or degradation during storage was made by the use of isotope-labelled internal standards (ILIS), available for all compounds, which were added to the samples as surrogates. Although ILIS were also efficient for matrix effects correction, the strong ionization suppression observed was not eliminated; therefore, a four-fold dilution prior to SPE was applied to influent wastewaters and a low injection volume was selected (3 μL), in order to reach a compromise between matrix effects, chromatographic performance and sensitivity. The method was validated at 25 and 200 ng L(-1) (effluent), and 100 and 800 ng L(-1) (influent), obtaining limits of quantification (i.e. the lowest level that the compound can be quantified and also confirmed with at least two MS/MS transitions) between 0.4-25 ng L(-1) (effluent) and 2-100 ng L(-1) (influent). The applicability of the method was demonstrated by analysis of 14 influent and 14 effluent wastewater samples collected over 2 weeks in Castellón (Spain) within a European collaborative study. PMID:24752696

  1. Timely detection of localized excess influenza activity in Northern California across patient care, prescription, and laboratory data.

    PubMed

    Greene, Sharon K; Kulldorff, Martin; Huang, Jie; Brand, Richard J; Kleinman, Kenneth P; Hsu, John; Platt, Richard

    2011-02-28

    Timely detection of clusters of localized influenza activity in excess of background seasonal levels could improve situational awareness for public health officials and health systems. However, no single data type may capture influenza activity with optimal sensitivity, specificity, and timeliness, and it is unknown which data types could be most useful for surveillance. We compared the performance of 10 types of electronic clinical data for timely detection of influenza clusters throughout the 2007/08 influenza season in northern California. Kaiser Permanente Northern California generated zip code-specific daily episode counts for: influenza-like illness (ILI) diagnoses in ambulatory care (AC) and emergency departments (ED), both with and without regard to fever; hospital admissions and discharges for pneumonia and influenza; antiviral drugs dispensed (Rx); influenza laboratory tests ordered (Tests); and tests positive for influenza type A (FluA) and type B (FluB). Four credible events of localized excess illness were identified. Prospective surveillance was mimicked within each data stream using a space-time permutation scan statistic, analyzing only data available as of each day, to evaluate the ability and timeliness to detect the credible events. AC without fever and Tests signaled during all four events and, along with Rx, had the most timely signals. FluA had less timely signals. ED, hospitalizations, and FluB did not signal reliably. When fever was included in the ILI definition, signals were either delayed or missed. Although limited to one health plan, location, and year, these results can inform the choice of data streams for public health surveillance of influenza. PMID:21312219

  2. Betidamino acids: versatile and constrained scaffolds for drug discovery.

    PubMed Central

    Rivier, J E; Jiang, G; Koerber, S C; Porter, J; Simon, L; Craig, A G; Hoeger, C A

    1996-01-01

    Betidamino acids (a contraction of "beta" position and "amide") are N'-monoacylated (optionally, N'-monoacylated and N-mono- or N,N'-dialkylated) aminoglycine derivatives in which each N'acyl/alkyl group may mimic naturally occurring amino acid side chains or introduce novel functionalities. Betidamino acids are most conveniently generated on solid supports used for the synthesis of peptides by selective acylation of one of the two amino functions of orthogonally protected aminoglycine(s) to generate the side chain either prior to or after the elongation of the main chain. We have used unresolved Nalpha-tert-butyloxycarbonyl-N'alpha-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl++ + aminoglycine, and Nalpha-(Nalpha-methyl)-tert-butyloxycarbonyl-N'alpha-fluo renylmethoxycarbonyl aminoglycine as the templates for the introduction of betidamino acids in Acyline [Ac-D2Nal-D4Cpa-D3Pal-Ser-4Aph(Ac)-D4Aph(A c)-Leu-Ilys-Pro-DAla-NH2, where 2Nal is 2-naphthylalanine, 4Cpa is 4-chlorophenylalanine, 3Pal is 3-pyridylalanine, Aph is 4-aminophenylalanine, and Ilys is Nepsilon-isopropyllysine], a potent gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist, in order to test biocompatibility of these derivatives. Diasteremneric peptides could be separated in most cases by reverse-phase HPLC. Biological results indicated small differences in relative potencies (<5-fold) between the D and L nonalkylated betidamino acid-containing Acyline derivatives. Importantly, most betide diastereomers were equipotent with Acyline. In an attempt to correlate structure and observed potency, Ramachandran-type plots were calculated for a series of betidamino acids and their methylated homologs. According to these calculations, betidamino acids have access to a more limited and distinct number of conformational states (including those associated with alpha-helices, beta-sheets, or turn structures), with deeper minima than those observed for natural amino acids. PMID:8700880

  3. Cumulative Query Method for Influenza Surveillance Using Search Engine Data

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Dong-Woo; Sohn, Chang Hwan; Shin, Soo-Yong; Lee, JaeHo; Yu, Maengsoo; Kim, Won Young; Lim, Kyoung Soo; Lee, Sang-Il

    2014-01-01

    Background Internet search queries have become an important data source in syndromic surveillance system. However, there is currently no syndromic surveillance system using Internet search query data in South Korea. Objectives The objective of this study was to examine correlations between our cumulative query method and national influenza surveillance data. Methods Our study was based on the local search engine, Daum (approximately 25% market share), and influenza-like illness (ILI) data from the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. A quota sampling survey was conducted with 200 participants to obtain popular queries. We divided the study period into two sets: Set 1 (the 2009/10 epidemiological year for development set 1 and 2010/11 for validation set 1) and Set 2 (2010/11 for development Set 2 and 2011/12 for validation Set 2). Pearson’s correlation coefficients were calculated between the Daum data and the ILI data for the development set. We selected the combined queries for which the correlation coefficients were .7 or higher and listed them in descending order. Then, we created a cumulative query method n representing the number of cumulative combined queries in descending order of the correlation coefficient. Results In validation set 1, 13 cumulative query methods were applied, and 8 had higher correlation coefficients (min=.916, max=.943) than that of the highest single combined query. Further, 11 of 13 cumulative query methods had an r value of ≥.7, but 4 of 13 combined queries had an r value of ≥.7. In validation set 2, 8 of 15 cumulative query methods showed higher correlation coefficients (min=.975, max=.987) than that of the highest single combined query. All 15 cumulative query methods had an r value of ≥.7, but 6 of 15 combined queries had an r value of ≥.7. Conclusions Cumulative query method showed relatively higher correlation with national influenza surveillance data than combined queries in the development and validation

  4. Correlation between National Influenza Surveillance Data and Search Queries from Mobile Devices and Desktops in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Dong-Woo; Sohn, Chang Hwan; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Ryoo, Seung Mok; Lee, Yoon-Seon; Lee, Jae Ho; Kim, Won Young; Lim, Kyoung Soo

    2016-01-01

    Background Digital surveillance using internet search queries can improve both the sensitivity and timeliness of the detection of a health event, such as an influenza outbreak. While it has recently been estimated that the mobile search volume surpasses the desktop search volume and mobile search patterns differ from desktop search patterns, the previous digital surveillance systems did not distinguish mobile and desktop search queries. The purpose of this study was to compare the performance of mobile and desktop search queries in terms of digital influenza surveillance. Methods and Results The study period was from September 6, 2010 through August 30, 2014, which consisted of four epidemiological years. Influenza-like illness (ILI) and virologic surveillance data from the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention were used. A total of 210 combined queries from our previous survey work were used for this study. Mobile and desktop weekly search data were extracted from Naver, which is the largest search engine in Korea. Spearman’s correlation analysis was used to examine the correlation of the mobile and desktop data with ILI and virologic data in Korea. We also performed lag correlation analysis. We observed that the influenza surveillance performance of mobile search queries matched or exceeded that of desktop search queries over time. The mean correlation coefficients of mobile search queries and the number of queries with an r-value of ≥ 0.7 equaled or became greater than those of desktop searches over the four epidemiological years. A lag correlation analysis of up to two weeks showed similar trends. Conclusion Our study shows that mobile search queries for influenza surveillance have equaled or even become greater than desktop search queries over time. In the future development of influenza surveillance using search queries, the recognition of changing trend of mobile search data could be necessary. PMID:27391028

  5. Association of Type 2 Diabetes Susceptibility Loci With One-Year Weight Loss in the Look AHEAD Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Peter, Inga; McCaffery, Jeanne M.; Kelley-Hedgepeth, Alyson; Hakonarson, Hakon; Reis, Steven; Wagenknecht, Lynne E.; Kopin, Alan S.; Huggins, Gondon S.

    2012-01-01

    The importance of lifestyle intervention for the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D) has been underscored by the limited benefit of pharmacologic therapies. We sought to determine whether genetic variants that contribute to T2D risk modify the response of weight and waist circumference to an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) in patients with obesity and T2D. Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) is a randomized clinical trial comparing an ILI with a control condition on the risk of cardiovascular disease in overweight adults with T2D. We analyzed 28 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at/near 17 T2D-susceptibility genes in 3,903 consented participants. We genetically characterized the cohort by assessing whether T2D-susceptibility loci were overrepresented compared with a nondiabetic community-based cohort (N = 1,016). We evaluated the association of individual variants and a composite genetic risk score (GRS) with anthropometric traits at baseline and after 1-year of intervention. Look AHEAD subjects carried more T2D-susceptibility alleles than the control population. At baseline, TCF7L2 risk alleles and the highest GRS were associated with lower BMI and waist circumference. Nominally significant genotype-by-intervention interactions were detected for 1-year change in waist circumference with JAZF1, MTNR1B, and IRS1, and BMI with JAZF1. Highest GRS was associated with a greater reduction in waist circumference at year 1, although the variance in change attributable to the GRS was small. This study shows that the genetic burden associated with T2D risk does not undermine the effect of lifestyle intervention and suggests the existence of additional genomic regions, distinct from the T2D-susceptibility loci, which may enhance or mitigate weight loss. PMID:22307069

  6. Molecular identification of adenoviruses associated with respiratory infection in Egypt from 2003 to 2010

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Human adenoviruses of species B, C, and E (HAdV-B, –C, -E) are frequent causative agents of acute respiratory infections worldwide. As part of a surveillance program aimed at identifying the etiology of influenza-like illness (ILI) in Egypt, we characterized 105 adenovirus isolates from clinical samples collected between 2003 and 2010. Methods Identification of the isolates as HAdV was accomplished by an immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and confirmed by a set of species and type specific polymerase chain reactions (PCR). Results Of the 105 isolates, 42% were identified as belonging to HAdV-B, 60% as HAdV–C, and 1% as HAdV-E. We identified a total of six co-infections by PCR, of which five were HAdV-B/HAdV-C co-infections, and one was a co-infection of two HAdV-C types: HAdV-5/HAdV-6. Molecular typing by PCR enabled the identification of eight genotypes of human adenoviruses; HAdV-3 (n = 22), HAdV-7 (n = 14), HAdV-11 (n = 8), HAdV-1 (n = 22), HAdV-2 (20), HAdV-5 (n = 15), HAdV-6 (n = 3) and HAdV-4 (n = 1). The most abundant species in the characterized collection of isolates was HAdV-C, which is concordant with existing data for worldwide epidemiology of HAdV respiratory infections. Conclusions We identified three species, HAdV-B, -C and -E, among patients with ILI over the course of 7 years in Egypt, with at least eight diverse types circulating. PMID:24479824

  7. Enteroviruses and Rhinoviruses: Molecular Epidemiology of the Most Influenza-Like Illness Associated Viruses in Senegal.

    PubMed

    Fall, Amary; Dia, Ndongo; Kébé, Ousmane; Sarr, Fatoumata Diene; Kiori, Davy E; Cissé, El Hadj Abdoul Khadir; Sy, Sara; Goudiaby, Deborah; Richard, Vincent; Diop, Ousmane Madiagne; Niang, Mbayame Ndiaye

    2016-08-01

    Different viruses have been identified as etiologic agents of respiratory tract infections, including severe cases. Among these, human rhinoviruses (HRVs) and human enteroviruses (HEVs) are recognized as leading causes. The present study describes the molecular epidemiology of HRVs and HEVs in Senegal over a 3-year surveillance period. From January 2012 to December 2014, nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swabs specimen were collected from patients with influenza-like illness (ILI). A real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was performed for HRV and HEV detection using the RV16 kit. Two regions were targeted for the molecular characterization of RVs: 5' untranslated region (5'UTR) and viral protein 4/viral protein 2 (VP4/VP2) transition region. For enteroviruses (EVs) phylogeny, VP1 gene was targeted. A total of 4,194 samples were collected. Children up to 5 years accounted for 52.9%. Among them, 1,415 (33.7%) were positive for HRV, 857 (20.4%) for HEV, and 437 cases of dual infections HRV/HEV. HRVs and HEVs were identified significantly in children aged 5 years or less. Only cough and vomiting signs were observed with significant association with viral infection. Both viruses co-circulated all year long with a marked increase of activity during rainy and cold period. All HRV types circulate in Senegal. HRV-A and C groups were the most common. HEV serotyping identified coxsackie B viruses (CBV) only. VP1 region revealed different CBV (CBV1, CBV2, CBV3, CBV4, and CBV5), echoviruses, coxsackieviruses A4-like strains and a poliovirus 2. The results suggest strong year-round respiratory picornavirus activity in children up to 5 years of age. Molecular studies identified a wide variety of RVs along with diverse EVs in samples from patients with ILI. PMID:27246444

  8. Reassessing Google Flu Trends Data for Detection of Seasonal and Pandemic Influenza: A Comparative Epidemiological Study at Three Geographic Scales

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Donald R.; Konty, Kevin J.; Paladini, Marc; Viboud, Cecile; Simonsen, Lone

    2013-01-01

    The goal of influenza-like illness (ILI) surveillance is to determine the timing, location and magnitude of outbreaks by monitoring the frequency and progression of clinical case incidence. Advances in computational and information technology have allowed for automated collection of higher volumes of electronic data and more timely analyses than previously possible. Novel surveillance systems, including those based on internet search query data like Google Flu Trends (GFT), are being used as surrogates for clinically-based reporting of influenza-like-illness (ILI). We investigated the reliability of GFT during the last decade (2003 to 2013), and compared weekly public health surveillance with search query data to characterize the timing and intensity of seasonal and pandemic influenza at the national (United States), regional (Mid-Atlantic) and local (New York City) levels. We identified substantial flaws in the original and updated GFT models at all three geographic scales, including completely missing the first wave of the 2009 influenza A/H1N1 pandemic, and greatly overestimating the intensity of the A/H3N2 epidemic during the 2012/2013 season. These results were obtained for both the original (2008) and the updated (2009) GFT algorithms. The performance of both models was problematic, perhaps because of changes in internet search behavior and differences in the seasonality, geographical heterogeneity and age-distribution of the epidemics between the periods of GFT model-fitting and prospective use. We conclude that GFT data may not provide reliable surveillance for seasonal or pandemic influenza and should be interpreted with caution until the algorithm can be improved and evaluated. Current internet search query data are no substitute for timely local clinical and laboratory surveillance, or national surveillance based on local data collection. New generation surveillance systems such as GFT should incorporate the use of near-real time electronic health data

  9. Improving Google Flu Trends Estimates for the United States through Transformation

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Leah J.; Xu, Biying; Yasui, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    Google Flu Trends (GFT) uses Internet search queries in an effort to provide early warning of increases in influenza-like illness (ILI). In the United States, GFT estimates the percentage of physician visits related to ILI (%ILINet) reported by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). However, during the 2012–13 influenza season, GFT overestimated %ILINet by an appreciable amount and estimated the peak in incidence three weeks late. Using data from 2010–14, we investigated the relationship between GFT estimates (%GFT) and %ILINet. Based on the relationship between the relative change in %GFT and the relative change in %ILINet, we transformed %GFT estimates to better correspond with %ILINet values. In 2010–13, our transformed %GFT estimates were within ±10% of %ILINet values for 17 of the 29 weeks that %ILINet was above the seasonal baseline value determined by the CDC; in contrast, the original %GFT estimates were within ±10% of %ILINet values for only two of these 29 weeks. Relative to the %ILINet peak in 2012–13, the peak in our transformed %GFT estimates was 2% lower and one week later, whereas the peak in the original %GFT estimates was 74% higher and three weeks later. The same transformation improved %GFT estimates using the recalibrated 2013 GFT model in early 2013–14. Our transformed %GFT estimates can be calculated approximately one week before %ILINet values are reported by the CDC and the transformation equation was stable over the time period investigated (2010–13). We anticipate our results will facilitate future use of GFT. PMID:25551391

  10. Epidemiological and virological characteristics of influenza B: results of the Global Influenza B Study

    PubMed Central

    Caini, Saverio; Huang, Q Sue; Ciblak, Meral A; Kusznierz, Gabriela; Owen, Rhonda; Wangchuk, Sonam; Henriques, Cláudio M P; Njouom, Richard; Fasce, Rodrigo A; Yu, Hongjie; Feng, Luzhao; Zambon, Maria; Clara, Alexey W; Kosasih, Herman; Puzelli, Simona; Kadjo, Herve A; Emukule, Gideon; Heraud, Jean-Michel; Ang, Li Wei; Venter, Marietjie; Mironenko, Alla; Brammer, Lynnette; Mai, Le Thi Quynh; Schellevis, François; Plotkin, Stanley; Paget, John

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Literature on influenza focuses on influenza A, despite influenza B having a large public health impact. The Global Influenza B Study aims to collect information on global epidemiology and burden of disease of influenza B since 2000. Methods Twenty-six countries in the Southern (n = 5) and Northern (n = 7) hemispheres and intertropical belt (n = 14) provided virological and epidemiological data. We calculated the proportion of influenza cases due to type B and Victoria and Yamagata lineages in each country and season; tested the correlation between proportion of influenza B and maximum weekly influenza-like illness (ILI) rate during the same season; determined the frequency of vaccine mismatches; and described the age distribution of cases by virus type. Results The database included 935 673 influenza cases (2000–2013). Overall median proportion of influenza B was 22·6%, with no statistically significant differences across seasons. During seasons where influenza B was dominant or co-circulated (>20% of total detections), Victoria and Yamagata lineages predominated during 64% and 36% of seasons, respectively, and a vaccine mismatch was observed in ≈25% of seasons. Proportion of influenza B was inversely correlated with maximum ILI rate in the same season in the Northern and (with borderline significance) Southern hemispheres. Patients infected with influenza B were usually younger (5–17 years) than patients infected with influenza A. Conclusion Influenza B is a common disease with some epidemiological differences from influenza A. This should be considered when optimizing control/prevention strategies in different regions and reducing the global burden of disease due to influenza. PMID:26256290

  11. Applying a New Model for Sharing Population Health Data to National Syndromic Influenza Surveillance: DiSTRIBuTE Project Proof of Concept, 2006 to 2009.

    PubMed

    Olson, Donald R; Paladini, Marc; Lober, William B; Buckeridge, David L

    2011-01-01

    The Distributed Surveillance Taskforce for Real-time Influenza Burden Tracking and Evaluation (DiSTRIBuTE) project began as a pilot effort initiated by the International Society for Disease Surveillance (ISDS) in autumn 2006 to create a collaborative electronic emergency department (ED) syndromic influenza-like illness (ILI) surveillance network based on existing state and local systems and expertise. DiSTRIBuTE brought together health departments that were interested in: 1) sharing aggregate level data; 2) maintaining jurisdictional control; 3) minimizing barriers to participation; and 4) leveraging the flexibility of local systems to create a dynamic and collaborative surveillance network. This approach was in contrast to the prevailing paradigm for surveillance where record level information was collected, stored and analyzed centrally. The DiSTRIBuTE project was created with a distributed design, where individual level data remained local and only summarized, stratified counts were reported centrally, thus minimizing privacy risks. The project was responsive to federal mandates to improve integration of federal, state, and local biosurveillance capabilities. During the proof of concept phase, 2006 to 2009, ten jurisdictions from across North America sent ISDS on a daily to weekly basis year-round, aggregated data by day, stratified by local ILI syndrome, age-group and region. During this period, data from participating U.S. state or local health departments captured over 13% of all ED visits nationwide. The initiative focused on state and local health department trust, expertise, and control. Morbidity trends observed in DiSTRIBuTE were highly correlated with other influenza surveillance measures. With the emergence of novel A/H1N1 influenza in the spring of 2009, the project was used to support information sharing and ad hoc querying at the state and local level. In the fall of 2009, through a broadly collaborative effort, the project was expanded to enhance

  12. U.S. utilization patterns of influenza antiviral medications during the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic

    PubMed Central

    Borders‐Hemphill, Vicky; Mosholder, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Borders‐Hemphill and Mosholder (2012) U.S. utilization patterns of influenza antiviral medications during the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 6(601), e129–e133. Background  The 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic in the United States occurred from April 2009 to April 2010. The 2009 H1N1 influenza virus was susceptible to neuraminidase inhibitors (oseltamivir and zanamivir). Objectives  To characterize the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic in the United States from April 2009 to April 2010 using weekly influenza antiviral prescription utilization data and the CDC’s weekly reports of the number of visits for influenza‐like‐illnesses by the Influenza Sentinel Provider Surveillance Network. Methods  A proprietary outpatient data source used by the FDA, which captures adjudicated U.S. prescription claims for select influenza antiviral drugs, was used to conduct this analysis. Data were extracted weekly and analyzed for surveillance during the pandemic. Results were compiled at the end of the pandemic. Results  Oseltamivir has dominated the U.S. influenza antiviral market share of dispensed prescriptions since approval in October 1999 and was the primary influenza antiviral drug used during the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic. However, commercial availability of the suspension formulation of oseltamivir was reduced by high demand during the pandemic. Dispensed prescription trends of other influenza antiviral medications studied followed that those of oseltamivir, even antivirals for which the 2009 H1N1 strains showed resistance. Conclusion  Weekly prescription utilization of all influenza antivirals used to treat influenza during the seasonal influenza outbreak followed the same trend of weekly reports of the number of visits for influenza‐like‐illnesses (ILI) by the Influenza Sentinel Provider Surveillance Network. The ILI epidemic curve resembled dispensed antiviral prescription trends (both

  13. Extensive genetic divergence among Diptychus maculatus populations in northwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Wei; Yang, Tianyan; Hai, Sa; Ma, Yanwu; Cai, Lingang; Ma, Xufa; Gao, Tianxiang; Guo, Yan

    2015-05-01

    D. maculates is a kind of specialized Schizothoracinae fish has been locally listed as a protected animal in Xinjiang Province, China. Ili River located in north of Tianshan Mountain and Tarim River located in north of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau were two main distribution areas of this fish. To investigate the genetic diversity and genetic structure of D. maculates, four populations from Tarim River system and two populations from Ili River system were collected in this study. A 570-bp sequence of the control region was obtained for 105 specimens. Twenty-four haplotypes were detected from six populations, only Kunes River population and Kashi River population shared haplotypes with each other. For all the populations examined, the haplotype diversity ( h) was 0.904 8±0.012 6, nucleotide diversity (π) was 0.027 9±0.013 9, and the average number of pairwise nucleotide differences ( k) was 15.878 3±7.139 1. The analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed that 86.31% of the total genetic variation was apportioned among populations, and the variation within sampled populations was 13.69%. Genetic differences among sampled populations were highly significant. F st statistical test indicated that all populations were significantly divergent from each other ( P<0.01). The largest F st value was between Yurungkash River population and Muzat River population, while the smallest F st value was between Kunes River population and Kashi River population. NJ phylogenetic tree of D-loop haplotypes revealed two main clades. The neutrality test and mismatch distribution analysis suggested that the fish had went through a recent population expansion. The uplift of Tianshan Mountain and movement of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau might contribute to the wide genetic divergence of D. maculates in northwest China.

  14. National surveillance for influenza and influenza-like illness in Vietnam, 2006-2010.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Yen T; Graitcer, Samuel B; Nguyen, Tuan H; Tran, Duong N; Pham, Tho D; Le, Mai T Q; Tran, Huu N; Bui, Chien T; Dang, Dat T; Nguyen, Long T; Uyeki, Timothy M; Dennis, David; Kile, James C; Kapella, Bryan K; Iuliano, A D; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Nguyen, Hien T

    2013-09-13

    Influenza virus infections result in considerable morbidity and mortality both in the temperate and tropical world. Influenza surveillance over multiple years is important to determine the impact and epidemiology of influenza and to develop a national vaccine policy, especially in countries developing influenza vaccine manufacturing capacity, such as Vietnam. We conducted surveillance of influenza and influenza-like illness in Vietnam through the National Influenza Surveillance System during 2006-2010. At 15 sentinel sites, the first two patients presenting each weekday with influenza-like illness (ILI), defined as fever and cough and/or sore throat with illness onset within 3 days, were enrolled and throat specimens were collected and tested for influenza virus type and influenza A subtype by RT-PCR. De-identified demographic and provider reported subsequent hospitalization information was collected on each patient. Each site also collected information on the total number of patients with influenza-like illness evaluated per week. Of 29,804 enrolled patients presenting with influenza-like illness, 6516 (22%) were influenza positive. Of enrolled patients, 2737 (9.3%) were reported as subsequently hospitalized; of the 2737, 527 (19%) were influenza positive. Across all age groups with ILI, school-aged children had the highest percent of influenza infection (29%) and the highest percent of subsequent hospitalizations associated with influenza infection (28%). Influenza viruses co-circulated throughout most years in Vietnam during 2006-2010 and often reached peak levels multiple times during a year, when >20% of tests were influenza positive. Influenza is an important cause of all influenza-like illness and provider reported subsequent hospitalization among outpatients in Vietnam, especially among school-aged children. These findings may have important implications for influenza vaccine policy in Vietnam. PMID:23911781

  15. Reassessing Google Flu Trends data for detection of seasonal and pandemic influenza: a comparative epidemiological study at three geographic scales.

    PubMed

    Olson, Donald R; Konty, Kevin J; Paladini, Marc; Viboud, Cecile; Simonsen, Lone

    2013-01-01

    The goal of influenza-like illness (ILI) surveillance is to determine the timing, location and magnitude of outbreaks by monitoring the frequency and progression of clinical case incidence. Advances in computational and information technology have allowed for automated collection of higher volumes of electronic data and more timely analyses than previously possible. Novel surveillance systems, including those based on internet search query data like Google Flu Trends (GFT), are being used as surrogates for clinically-based reporting of influenza-like-illness (ILI). We investigated the reliability of GFT during the last decade (2003 to 2013), and compared weekly public health surveillance with search query data to characterize the timing and intensity of seasonal and pandemic influenza at the national (United States), regional (Mid-Atlantic) and local (New York City) levels. We identified substantial flaws in the original and updated GFT models at all three geographic scales, including completely missing the first wave of the 2009 influenza A/H1N1 pandemic, and greatly overestimating the intensity of the A/H3N2 epidemic during the 2012/2013 season. These results were obtained for both the original (2008) and the updated (2009) GFT algorithms. The performance of both models was problematic, perhaps because of changes in internet search behavior and differences in the seasonality, geographical heterogeneity and age-distribution of the epidemics between the periods of GFT model-fitting and prospective use. We conclude that GFT data may not provide reliable surveillance for seasonal or pandemic influenza and should be interpreted with caution until the algorithm can be improved and evaluated. Current internet search query data are no substitute for timely local clinical and laboratory surveillance, or national surveillance based on local data collection. New generation surveillance systems such as GFT should incorporate the use of near-real time electronic health data

  16. I-MOVE multicentre case-control study 2010/11 to 2014/15: Is there within-season waning of influenza type/subtype vaccine effectiveness with increasing time since vaccination?

    PubMed

    Kissling, Esther; Nunes, Baltazar; Robertson, Chris; Valenciano, Marta; Reuss, Annicka; Larrauri, Amparo; Cohen, Jean Marie; Oroszi, Beatrix; Rizzo, Caterina; Machado, Ausenda; Pitigoi, Daniela; Domegan, Lisa; Paradowska-Stankiewicz, Iwona; Buchholz, Udo; Gherasim, Alin; Daviaud, Isabelle; Horváth, Judit Krisztina; Bella, Antonino; Lupulescu, Emilia; O Donnell, Joan; Korczyńska, Monika; Moren, Alain

    2016-04-21

    Since the 2008/9 influenza season, the I-MOVE multicentre case-control study measures influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) against medically-attended influenza-like-illness (ILI) laboratory confirmed as influenza. In 2011/12, European studies reported a decline in VE against influenza A(H3N2) within the season. Using combined I-MOVE data from 2010/11 to 2014/15 we studied the effects of time since vaccination on influenza type/subtype-specific VE. We modelled influenza type/subtype-specific VE by time since vaccination using a restricted cubic spline, controlling for potential confounders (age, sex, time of onset, chronic conditions). Over 10,000 ILI cases were included in each analysis of influenza A(H3N2), A(H1N1)pdm09 and B; with 4,759, 3,152 and 3,617 influenza positive cases respectively. VE against influenza A(H3N2) reached 50.6% (95% CI: 30.0-65.1) 38 days after vaccination, declined to 0% (95% CI: -18.1-15.2) from 111 days onwards. At day 54 VE against influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 reached 55.3% (95% CI: 37.9-67.9) and remained between this value and 50.3% (95% CI: 34.8-62.1) until season end. VE against influenza B declined from 70.7% (95% CI: 51.3-82.4) 44 days after vaccination to 21.4% (95% CI: -57.4-60.8) at season end. To assess if vaccination campaign strategies need revising more evidence on VE by time since vaccination is urgently needed. PMID:27124420

  17. 24 Y-chromosomal STR haplotypic structure for Chinese Kazak ethnic group and its genetic relationships with other groups.

    PubMed

    Mei, Ting; Zhang, Li-Ping; Liu, Yao-Shun; Chen, Jian-Gang; Meng, Hao-Tian; Yan, Jiang-Wei; Zhu, Bo-Feng

    2016-09-01

    The Kazak ethnic minority is a large ethnic group in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China and is valuable resource for the study of ethnogeny. In the present study, 24 Y-chromosomal short tandem repeat (Y-STR) loci were analyzed in 201 unrelated Kazak male individuals from Ili Kazak Autonomous Prefecture, Xinjiang, China. The gene diversity of the 24 Y-STR loci in the studied Kazak group ranged from 0.0050 to 0.9104. According to haplotypic analysis of the 24 Y-STR loci, 113 different haplotypes were obtained, 96 of which were unique. The haplotype diversity and discrimination capacity in Kazak group were 0.9578 and 0.5622 at 24 STR loci, respectively. The haplotype diversity and discrimination capacity at Y-filer 17 loci, extended 11 loci, and minimal 9 loci were reduced to 0.9274 and 0.4279, 0.8459 and 0.3284, and 0.8354 and 0.2985, respectively, which could indicate that the more loci were detected, the higher forensic efficacy was obtained. We evaluated the application value of the 24 loci in forensic sciences and analyzed interpopulation differentiations by making comparisons between the Kazak1 (represent our samples from Ili Kazak Autonomous Prefecture) group and other 14 groups. The results of pairwise genetic distances, multidimensional scaling plot, and neighbor-joining tree at the same set of 17 Y-filer loci indicated that the Kazak1 group had the closer genetic relationships with Kazak2 (represent samples from the whole territory of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region), Mongolian, and Uygur ethnic groups. The present results may provide useful information for paternal lineages in forensic cases and can also increase our understanding of the genetic relationships between Kazak1 and other groups. PMID:27085524

  18. Elevated transmission of upper respiratory illness among new recruits in military barracks in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Jens W; Bhoomiboonchoo, Piraya; Simasathien, Sriluck; Salje, Henrik; Huang, Angkana; Rangsin, Ram; Jarman, Richard G; Fernandez, Stefan; Klungthong, Chonticha; Hussem, Kittinun; Gibbons, Robert V; Yoon, In-Kyu

    2015-01-01

    Background New recruits within military barracks present conditions favorable for the spread of respiratory pathogens. However, respiratory pathogen transmission in such confined settings in the tropics has not been well studied. Methods Recruits in four successive Royal Thai Army basic training classes living in military barracks were monitored for the symptoms of influenza-like illness (ILI) or upper respiratory illness (URI). Classes 1 and 2 were also monitored after basic training. Nasal/throat swabs from acute illnesses were collected and tested by influenza RT-PCR (all four classes). In addition, class 1 had multiplex PCR performed along with the analysis of bed locations within the barracks. Results Influenza-like illness/upper respiratory illness rates ranged from 4·7 to 6·9 per 100 recruit-weeks in the four classes and generally decreased during the course of basic training (P < 0·05 in three of four classes). Rates during basic training were 1·7 (95% CI: 1·29, 2·29) and 2·5 (95% CI: 1·5, 4·1) times higher than after basic training (classes 1 and 2, respectively). In class 1, coronavirus, parainfluenza virus, and rhinovirus were the most commonly identified respiratory pathogens; only one influenza PCR-positive infection was detected in all four classes. Bed locations of URI/ILI cases in class 1 tended to be in closer proximity to each other. Conclusion Basic training recruits in military barracks in the tropics had high rates of acute respiratory illnesses with illness patterns consistent with external seeding followed by substantial internal transmission. Our findings may contribute to control measures in similar confined settings both within and outside the military. PMID:26271648

  19. Epidemiologic, clinical, and virologic characteristics of human rhinovirus infection among otherwise healthy children and adults

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei-Ju; Arnold, John C.; Fairchok, Mary P.; Danaher, Patrick J.; McDonough, Erin A.; Blair, Patrick J.; Garcia, Josefina; Halsey, Eric S.; Schofield, Christina; Ottolini, Martin; Mor, Deepika; Ridoré, Michelande; Burgess, Timothy H.; Millar, Eugene V.

    2015-01-01

    Background Human rhinovirus (HRV) is a major cause of influenza-like illness (ILI) in adults and children. Differences in disease severity by HRV species have been described among hospitalized patients with underlying illness. Less is known about the clinical and virologic characteristics of HRV infection among otherwise healthy populations, particularly adults. Objectives To characterize molecular epidemiology of HRV and association between HRV species and clinical presentation and viral shedding. Study design Observational, prospective, facility-based study of ILI was conducted from February 2010 to April 2012. Collection of nasopharyngeal specimens, patient symptoms, and clinical information occurred on days 0, 3, 7, and 28. Patients recorded symptom severity daily for the first 7 days of illness in a symptom diary. HRV was identified by RT-PCR and genotyped for species determination. Cases who were co-infected with other viral respiratory pathogens were excluded from the analysis. We evaluated the associations between HRV species, clinical severity, and patterns of viral shedding. Results Eighty-four HRV cases were identified and their isolates genotyped. Of these, 62 (74%) were >18y. Fifty-four were HRV-A, 11 HRV-B, and 19 HRV-C. HRV-C infection was more common among children than adults (59% vs. 10%, P<0.001). Among adults, HRV-A was associated with higher severity of upper respiratory symptoms compared to HRV-B (P=0.02), but no such association was found in children. In addition, adults shed HRV-A significantly longer than HRV-C (Ptrend=0.01). Conclusions Among otherwise healthy adults with HRV infection, we observed species-specific differences in respiratory symptom severity and duration of viral shedding. PMID:25728083

  20. Prescribing antibiotics to ‘at-risk’ children with influenza-like illness in primary care: qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Ashdown, Helen F; Räisänen, Ulla; Wang, Kay; Ziebland, Sue; Harnden, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Objectives National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidelines recommend immediate antibiotic treatment of respiratory tract infections in ‘at-risk’ individuals with comorbidities. Observational evidence suggests that influenza particularly predisposes children to bacterial complications. This study investigates general practitioners’ (GPs’) accounts of factors influencing their decision-making about antibiotic prescribing in the management of at-risk children with influenza-like illness (ILI). Design Qualitative interview study using a maximum variation sample with thematic analysis through constant comparison. Setting Semistructured telephone interviews with UK GPs using a case vignette of a child with comorbidities presenting with ILI. Participants There were 41 GPs (41.5% men; 40 from England, 1 from Northern Ireland) with a range of characteristics including length of time in practice, paediatrics experience, practice setting and deprivation. Results There was considerable uncertainty and variation in the way GPs responded to the case and difference of opinion about how long-term comorbidities should affect their antibiotic prescribing pattern. Factors influencing their decision included the child's case history and clinical examination; the GP's view of the parent's ability to self-manage; the GP's own confidence and experiences of managing sick children and assessment of individual versus abstract risk. GPs rarely mentioned potential influenza infection or asked about immunisation status. All said that they would want to see the child; views about delayed prescribing varied in relation to local health service provision including options for follow-up and paediatric services. Conclusions The study demonstrates diagnostic uncertainty and wide variation in GP decision-making about prescribing antibiotics to children with comorbidity. Future guidelines might encourage consideration of a specific diagnosis such as influenza, and risk assessment

  1. Fluence-related risk coefficients using the Harderian gland data as an example.

    PubMed

    Curtis, S B; Townsend, L W; Wilson, J W; Powers-Risius, P; Alpen, E L; Fry, R J

    1992-01-01

    The risk of radiation-induced cancer to space travelers outside the earth's magnetosphere will be of concern on missions to the Moon and beyond to Mars. High energy galactic cosmic rays with high charge (HZE particles) will penetrate the spacecraft and the bodies of the astronauts, sometimes fragmenting into nuclear secondary species of lower charge but always ionizing densely, thus causing cellular damage which may lead to malignant transformation. To quantitate this risk, the concept of dose equivalent (in which a quality factor Q as a function of LET is assumed) may not be adequate, since different particles of the same LET may have different efficiencies for tumor induction. Also, RBE values on which quality factors are based depend on response to low-LET radiation at low doses, a very difficult region for which to obtain reliable experimental data. Thus, we introduce a new concept, a fluence-related risk coefficient (F), which is the risk of a cancer per unit particle fluence and which we call the risk cross section. The total risk is the sum of the risk from each particle type: sigma i integral Fi(Li) phi i(Li) dLi, where Li is the LET and phi i(Li) is the fluence-LET spectrum of the ith particle type. As an example, tumor prevalence data in mice are used to estimate the probability of mouse Harderian gland tumor induction per year on an extra-magnetospheric mission inside an idealized shielding configuration of a spherical aluminum shell 1 g/cm2 thick. The combined shielding code BRYNTRN/GCR is used to generate the LET spectra at the center of the sphere. Results indicate a yearly prevalence at solar minimum conditions of 0.06, with 60% of this arising from charge components with Z between 10 and 28, and two-thirds of the contribution arising from LET components between 10 and 200 keV/micrometers. PMID:11537038

  2. Midcourse correction to a clinical trial when the event rate is underestimated: the Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) Study.

    PubMed

    Brancati, Frederick L; Evans, Mary; Furberg, Curt D; Geller, Nancy; Haffner, Steven; Kahn, Steven E; Kaufmann, Peter G; Lewis, Cora E; Nathan, David M; Pitt, Bertram; Safford, Monika M

    2012-02-01

    The Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) Study is a long-term clinical trial that aims to determine the cardiovascular disease (CVD) benefits of an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) in obese adults with type 2 diabetes. The study was designed to have 90% statistical power to detect an 18% reduction in the CVD event rate in the ILI Group compared to the Diabetes Support and Education (DSE) Group over 10.5 years of follow-up. The original power calculations were based on an expected CVD rate of 3.125% per year in the DSE group; however, a much lower-than-expected rate in the first 2 years of follow-up prompted the Data and Safety Monitoring Board (DSMB) to recommend that the Steering Committee undertake a formal blinded evaluation of these design considerations. The Steering Committee created an Endpoint Working Group (EPWG) that consisted of individuals masked to study data to examine relevant issues. The EPWG considered two primary options: (1) expanding the definition of the primary endpoint and (2) extending follow-up of participants. Ultimately, the EPWG recommended that the Look AHEAD Steering Committee approve both strategies. The DSMB accepted these modifications, rather than recommending that the trial continue with inadequate statistical power. Trialists sometimes need to modify endpoints after launch. This decision should be well justified and should be made by individuals who are fully masked to interim results that could introduce bias. This article describes this process in the Look AHEAD study and places it in the context of recent articles on endpoint modification and recent trials that reported endpoint modification. PMID:22334468

  3. Effects of cephalometric landmark validity on incisor angulation.

    PubMed

    Chan, C K; Tng, T H; Hägg, U; Cooke, M S

    1994-11-01

    An experimental cephalometric study on the accuracy of independently locating eight landmarks and the subsequent effects on the maxillary (ILs/NL) and mandibular (ILi/ML) incisor angulation was carried out on 30 dry skulls. The true location of each landmark was marked with a steel ball glued onto the skulls. Two additional steel balls were used as reference markers. A purpose-designed skullholder was made to assure a firm and reproducible positioning of the skulls in the cephalostat. Six series of cephalograms were recorded. One reference series with all the steel balls, four series each with a single steel ball marker removed, one at a time, from each jaw and one series with all the steel ball markers removed, except the reference markers. The combined method error in relocating and replacing the steel ball markers, repositioning the skulls into the skull holder, and digitizing, was low. From the first series, the true position of the palatal plane (NL), the maxillary incisor line (ILs), the mandibular plane (ML) and the mandibular incisor line (ILi) were assessed. From series 2 to 5, each of the landmarks without the steel ball markers was estimated. The accuracy of each landmark was then assessed relative to the true cephalometric plane and its perpendicular. On average, the accuracy was high for all the landmarks except posterior nasal spine (PNS), which was estimated 1.2 mm too far anteriorly (p < 0.05). The standard deviations of the accuracy of the dental and skeletal landmarks were similar, being 1.4 to 2.4 mm. The maxillary incisors were proclined 1.1 degrees (p < 0.05) by the estimates of incision superior (Is).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7977189

  4. Association of type 2 diabetes susceptibility loci with one-year weight loss in the look AHEAD clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Peter, Inga; McCaffery, Jeanne M; Kelley-Hedgepeth, Alyson; Hakonarson, Hakon; Reis, Steven; Wagenknecht, Lynne E; Kopin, Alan S; Huggins, Gondon S

    2012-08-01

    The importance of lifestyle intervention for the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D) has been underscored by the limited benefit of pharmacologic therapies. We sought to determine whether genetic variants that contribute to T2D risk modify the response of weight and waist circumference to an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) in patients with obesity and T2D. Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) is a randomized clinical trial comparing an ILI with a control condition on the risk of cardiovascular disease in overweight adults with T2D. We analyzed 28 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at/near 17 T2D-susceptibility genes in 3,903 consented participants. We genetically characterized the cohort by assessing whether T2D-susceptibility loci were overrepresented compared with a nondiabetic community-based cohort (N = 1,016). We evaluated the association of individual variants and a composite genetic risk score (GRS) with anthropometric traits at baseline and after 1-year of intervention. Look AHEAD subjects carried more T2D-susceptibility alleles than the control population. At baseline, TCF7L2 risk alleles and the highest GRS were associated with lower BMI and waist circumference. Nominally significant genotype-by-intervention interactions were detected for 1-year change in waist circumference with JAZF1, MTNR1B, and IRS1, and BMI with JAZF1. Highest GRS was associated with a greater reduction in waist circumference at year 1, although the variance in change attributable to the GRS was small. This study shows that the genetic burden associated with T2D risk does not undermine the effect of lifestyle intervention and suggests the existence of additional genomic regions, distinct from the T2D-susceptibility loci, which may enhance or mitigate weight loss. PMID:22307069

  5. Influenza vaccine effectiveness in preventing inpatient and outpatient cases in a season dominated by vaccine-matched influenza B virus

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Baz, Iván; Navascués, Ana; Pozo, Francisco; Chamorro, Judith; Albeniz, Esther; Casado, Itziar; Reina, Gabriel; Cenoz, Manuel García; Ezpeleta, Carmen; Castilla, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Studies that have evaluated the influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) to prevent laboratory-confirmed influenza B cases are uncommon, and few have analyzed the effect in preventing hospitalized cases. We have evaluated the influenza VE in preventing outpatient and hospitalized cases with laboratory-confirmed influenza in the 2012–2013 season, which was dominated by a vaccine-matched influenza B virus. In the population covered by the Navarra Health Service, all hospitalized patients with influenza-like illness (ILI) and all ILI patients attended by a sentinel network of general practitioners were swabbed for influenza testing, and all were included in a test-negative case-control analysis. VE was calculated as (1-odds ratio)×100. Among 744 patients tested, 382 (51%) were positive for influenza virus: 70% for influenza B, 24% for A(H1N1)pdm09, and 5% for A(H3N2). The overall estimate of VE in preventing laboratory-confirmed influenza was 63% (95% confidence interval (CI): 34 to 79), 55% (1 to 80) in outpatients and 74% (33 to 90) in hospitalized patients. The VE was 70% (41 to 85) against influenza B and 43% (−45 to 78) against influenza A. The VE against virus B was 87% (52 to 96) in hospitalized patients and 56% in outpatients (−5 to 81). Adjusted comparison of vaccination status between inpatient and outpatient cases with influenza B did not show statistically significant differences (odds ratio: 1.13; p = 0.878). These results suggest a high protective effect of the vaccine in the 2012–2013 season, with no differences found for the effect between outpatient and hospitalized cases. PMID:25996366

  6. ɛ ' /ɛ in 331 models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buras, Andrzej J.; De Fazio, Fulvia

    2016-03-01

    Motivated by the recent findings that the ratio ɛ ' /ɛ in the Standard Model (SM) appears to be significantly below the data we investigate whether the necessary enhancement of ɛ ' /ɛ can be obtained in 331 models, based on the gauge group SU(3) C × SU(3) L × U(1) X . In these models new physics (NP) contributions to ɛ ' /ɛ and other flavour observables are dominated by tree-level exchanges of a Z ' with non-negligible contributions from tree-level Z exchanges generated through the Z - Z ' mixing. NP contributions to ɛ ' /ɛ in these models are governed by the electroweak penguin operator Q 8 for which the hadronic matrix element is already rather well known so that our analysis of NP contributions is subject to much smaller theoretical uncertainties than within the SM. In particular strong cancelations between different contributions do not take place. The size of NP effects depends not only on M Z' but in particular on a parameter β, which distinguishes between various 331 models. Also a parameter tan overline{β} present in the Z - Z' mixing plays a role. We perform the analysis in seven 331 models characterized by different β, tan overline{β} and fermion representations under the gauge group that have been selected in our earlier analysis on the basis of electroweak precision data. Imposing the constraints from Δ F = 2 transitions we find that only three of these models can provide a significant positive shift in ɛ ' /ɛ up to 6 × 10 -4 for M Z' = 3 TeV. Two of them allow simultaneously a supression of the rate for B s → μ + μ - by 20% thereby bringing the theory closer to the data without any significant impact on the Wilson coefficient C 9. The third model provides simultaneous shift Δ C 9 = -0 .6, softening the anomalies in B → K ∗ μ + μ - , without any significant impact on B s → μ + μ - . NP effects in rare K decays, in particular in {K}+to {π}+ν overline{ν} , turn out to be small. This is also the case of Bto K

  7. New physics patterns in ɛ'/ ɛ and ɛ K with implications for rare kaon decays and ∆ M K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buras, Andrzej J.

    2016-04-01

    The Standard Model (SM) prediction for the ratio ɛ'/ ɛ appears to be significantly below the experimental data. Also ɛ K in the SM tends to be below the data. Any new physics (NP) removing these anomalies will first of all have impact on flavour observables in the K meson system, in particular on rare decays {K}+to {π}+ν overline{ν} , {K}_Lto {π}^0ν overline{ν} , K L → μ + μ - and K L → π 0 ℓ + ℓ - and Δ M K . Restricting the operators contributing to ɛ'/ ɛ to the SM ones and to the corresponding primed operators, NP contributions to ɛ'/ ɛ are quite generally dominated either by QCD penguin (QCDP) operators Q 6( Q 6 ' ) or electroweak penguin (EWP) operators Q 8( Q 8 ' ) with rather different implications for other flavour observables. Our presentation includes general models with tree-level Z and Z' flavour violating exchanges for which we summarize known results and add several new ones. We also briefly discuss few specific models. The correlations of ɛ'/ɛ with other flavour observables listed above allow to differentiate between models in which ɛ'/ ɛ can be enhanced. Various DNA-tables are helpful in this respect. We find that simultaneous enhancements of ɛ'/ ɛ, ɛ K , B({K}_Lto {π}^0ν overline{ν}) and B({K}+to {π}+ν overline{ν}) in Z scenarios are only possible in the presence of both left-handed and right-handed flavour-violating couplings. In Z' scenarios this is not required but the size of NP effects and the correlation between B({K}_Lto {π}^0ν overline{ν}) and B({K}+to {π}+ν overline{ν}) depends strongly on whether QCDP or EWP dominate NP contributions to ɛ'/ ɛ. In the QCDP case possible enhancements of both branching ratios are much larger than for EWP scenario and take place only on the branch parallel to the Grossman-Nir bound, which is in the case of EWP dominance only possible in the absence of NP in ɛ K .We point out that QCDP and EWP scenarios of NP in ɛ'/ ɛ can also be uniquely distinguished by the

  8. Distribution of chemical properties in groundwater of a drained Greek peatland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karyotis, Theodore; Panagopoulos, A.; Charoulis, A.; Karyoti, C.; Tziouvalekas, M.; Panoras, A.

    2010-05-01

    as toxicity risk to sensitive crops is not possible, while the sulphate content exceeds 400 mg/l. The examined cations for both samplings were found to the following decreasing order: Ca2+ > Mg2+ > Na+ > K+. Increased content of Ca2+, Mg2+ and Na+ cations can mainly be attributed to background concentration and to irrigation practices, whilst K+to fertilization practices. It seems that water system is strongly controlled by exploitation over the summer peak irrigation period and also by the recharge sources over the wet season. Some parts of the examined area are under high pollution risk with nitrates, and discouragement of agricultural activities can be suggested. Groundwater table is recommended to be kept at a certain depth in the spring. Effective rotation schemes can be suggested and crops with deep rooting system such as alfalfa can be introduced for enhancing soil fertility and for increasing physical properties, such as soil aggregates stability. Soils should be remaining undisturbed for certain years in order soil subsidence to be mitigated. Moreover, prevention of water pollution can be achieved by additional measures such as rational application of fertilisers and proper use of water according to crops requirements.

  9. Calcium-mediated DNA adsorption to yeast cells and kinetics of cell transformation by electroporation.

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, E; Kakorin, S; Tsoneva, I; Nikolova, B; Tomov, T

    1996-01-01

    Detailed kinetic data suggest that the direct transfer of plasmid DNA (YEp 351, 5.6 kbp, supercoiled, Mr approximately 3.5 x 10(6)) by membrane electroporation of yeast cells (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, strain AH 215) is mainly due to electrodiffusive processes. The rate-limiting step for the cell transformation, however, is a bimolecular DNA-binding interaction in the cell interior. Both the adsorption of DNA, directly measured with [32P]dCTP DNA, and the number of transformants are collinearly enhanced with increasing total concentrations [Dt] and [Cat] of DNA and of calcium, respectively. At [Cat] = 1 mM, the half-saturation or equilibrium constant is KD = 15 +/- 1 nM at 293 K (20 degrees C). The optimal transformation frequency is TFopt = 4.1 +/- 0.4 X 10(-5) if a single exponential pulse of initial field strength E0 = 4 kV cm-1 and decay time constant tauE = 45 ms is applied at [Dt] = 2.7 nM and 10(8) cells in 0.1 ml. The dependence of TF on [Cat] yields the equilibrium constants KCazero = 1.8 +/- 0.2 mM (in the absence of DNA) and K'Ca (at 2.7 nM DNA), comparable with and derived from electrophoresis data. In yeast cells, too, the appearance of a DNA molecule in its whole length in the cell interior is clearly an after-field event. At Eo = 4.0 kV cm-1 and T = 293 K, the flow coefficient of DNA through the porous membrane patches is Kto = 7.0 +/- 0.7 x 10(3)S-1 and the electrodiffusion of DNA is approximately 10 times more effective than simple diffusion: D/D0 approximately 10.3. The mean radius of these pores is rp = 0.39 +/- 0.05 nm, and the mean number of pores per cell (of size ø approximately 5.5 microns) is Np = 2.2 +/- 0.2 x 10(4). The maximal membrane area that is involved in the electrodiffusive penetration of adsorbed DNA into the outer surface of the electroporated cell membrane patches is only 0.023% of the total cell surface. The surface penetration is followed either by additional electrodiffusive or by passive (after-field) diffusive

  10. The Early Miocene-Early Pliocene Vegetation and Climate Changes at the north to northwest Çankırı -Çorum Basin (Central Anatolian Plateau)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atalar, Müge; Kováčová, Marianna; Sezgül Kayseri Ozer, Mine; Utescher, Torsten; Mazzini, Ilaria; Gliozzi, Elsa; Cosentino, Domenico

    2016-04-01

    The ALErT project targets on climate and tectonic hazards in the densely populated regions in the Central Anatolian Plateau (CAP), within the framework of the Marie Curie FP7-PEOPLE-2013-ITN program, The CAP extends in a wide area in between zone the Aegean extensional zone and Bitlis /Zagros compressional zone. Çankırı Basin (in the middle CAP) is a key to understand aridification plateau interior and it was a deep pelagic Basin from Late Cretaceous -Early Tertiary as a result of the closure of Neo- Tethyan till the Middle Eocene. North to south of the Çankırı Basin; the Plio - Quaternary Deǧim formation (fluvial deposits) consist of massive mudstones and sandstones and it unconformable overlies the Bozkır formation (lacustrine deposits). That is a Messinian succession mainly by a 200 m-thick cyclic sequence of continental gypsum layers, clays and sandy clays in gypsum with different thicknesses crops. Bozkır formation, the lower being the contact with the Süleymanlı formation. It is overlay the Tuǧlu formation with uncomformably, which is an Upper Miocene succession mainly composed of dark grey silty and organic rich clays. Following formation, which outcrops in the northwest of Çankırı basin, is Hançili formation. The unit is covered by grey sediments of the Hançili Formation, showing alternations of channel sandstones and clay stones over 100 m thick in Early - Middle Miocene in the Çankırı basin. In this study, samples were analyzed for biotic proxy data (palynology) to figure the paleo-environmental and paleoclimate changes. Additionally only for Bozkir formation (longest section in the study area) were sampled for geochemical (δ18O - δ13C isotopes analyses and CaCO3) analysis and the rest of the formations were interpreted using the previous study. In the most pollen spectra the herbs and shrubs prevail: in Deǧim formation (50%), in Bozkır formation (75%), in Süleymanlı formation (47%), in Tuǧlu formation (60%) and in Hançili

  11. A cluster randomized clinical trial comparing fit‐tested and non‐fit‐tested N95 respirators to medical masks to prevent respiratory virus infection in health care workers

    PubMed Central

    MacIntyre, Chandini Raina; Wang, Quanyi; Cauchemez, Simon; Seale, Holly; Dwyer, Dominic E.; Yang, Peng; Shi, Weixian; Gao, Zhanhai; Pang, Xinghuo; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Xiaoli; Duan, Wei; Rahman, Bayzidur; Ferguson, Neil

    2011-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: MacIntyre et al. (2011) A cluster randomized clinical trial comparing fit‐tested and non‐fit‐tested N95 respirators to medical masks to prevent respiratory virus infection in health care workers. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses DOI: 10.1111/j.1750‐2659.2010.00198.x. Background  We compared the efficacy of medical masks, N95 respirators (fit tested and non fit tested), in health care workers (HCWs). Methods  A cluster randomized clinical trial (RCT) of 1441 HCWs in 15 Beijing hospitals was performed during the 2008/2009 winter. Participants wore masks or respirators during the entire work shift for 4 weeks. Outcomes included clinical respiratory illness (CRI), influenza‐like illness (ILI), laboratory‐confirmed respiratory virus infection and influenza. A convenience no‐mask/respirator group of 481 health workers from nine hospitals was compared. Findings  The rates of CRI (3·9% versus 6·7%), ILI (0·3% versus 0·6%), laboratory‐confirmed respiratory virus (1·4% versus 2·6%) and influenza (0·3% versus 1%) infection were consistently lower for the N95 group compared to medical masks. By intention‐to‐treat analysis, when P values were adjusted for clustering, non‐fit‐tested N95 respirators were significantly more protective than medical masks against CRI, but no other outcomes were significant. The rates of all outcomes were higher in the convenience no‐mask group compared to the intervention arms. There was no significant difference in outcomes between the N95 arms with and without fit testing. Rates of fit test failure were low. In a post hoc analysis adjusted for potential confounders, N95 masks and hospital level were significant, but medical masks, vaccination, handwashing and high‐risk procedures were not. Interpretation  Rates of infection in the medical mask group were double that in the N95 group. A benefit of respirators is suggested but would need to be confirmed by a larger trial

  12. Outcomes of Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 Virus Infection: Results from Two International Cohort Studies

    PubMed Central

    Lynfield, Ruth; Davey, Richard; Dwyer, Dominic E.; Losso, Marcelo H.; Wentworth, Deborah; Cozzi-Lepri, Alessandro; Herman-Lamin, Kathy; Cholewinska, Grazyna; David, Daniel; Kuetter, Stefan; Ternesgen, Zelalem; Uyeki, Timothy M.; Lane, H. Clifford; Lundgren, Jens; Neaton, James D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Data from prospectively planned cohort studies on risk of major clinical outcomes and prognostic factors for patients with influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus are limited. In 2009, in order to assess outcomes and evaluate risk factors for progression of illness, two cohort studies were initiated: FLU 002 in outpatients and FLU 003 in hospitalized patients. Methods and Findings Between October 2009 and December 2012, adults with influenza-like illness (ILI) were enrolled; outpatients were followed for 14 days and inpatients for 60 days. Disease progression was defined as hospitalization and/or death for outpatients, and hospitalization for >28 days, transfer to intensive care unit (ICU) if enrolled from general ward, and/or death for inpatients. Infection was confirmed by RT-PCR. 590 FLU 002 and 392 FLU 003 patients with influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 were enrolled from 81 sites in 17 countries at 2 days (IQR 1–3) and 6 days (IQR 4–10) following ILI onset, respectively. Disease progression was experienced by 29 (1 death) outpatients (5.1%; 95% CI: 3.4–7.2%) and 80 inpatients [death (32), hospitalization >28 days (43) or ICU transfer (20)] (21.6%; 95% CI: 17.5–26.2%). Disease progression (death) for hospitalized patients was 53.1% (26.6%) and 12.8% (3.8%), respectively, for those enrolled in the ICU and general ward. In pooled analyses for both studies, predictors of disease progression were age, longer duration of symptoms at enrollment and immunosuppression. Patients hospitalized during the pandemic period had a poorer prognosis than in subsequent seasons. Conclusions Patients with influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, particularly when requiring hospital admission, are at high risk for disease progression, especially if they are older, immunodeficient, or admitted late in infection. These data reinforce the need for international trials of novel treatment strategies for influenza infection and serve as a reminder of the need to monitor the severity of seasonal and pandemic

  13. Human Sentinel Surveillance of Influenza and Other Respiratory Viral Pathogens in Border Areas of Western Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Ilin; Samon, Nou; Uthaimongkol, Nichapat; Klungthong, Chonticha; Manasatienkij, Wudtichai; Thaisomboonsuk, Butsaya; Tyner, Stuart D.; Rith, Sareth; Horm, Viseth Srey; Jarman, Richard G.; Bethell, Delia; Chanarat, Nitima; Pavlin, Julie; Wongstitwilairoong, Tippa; Saingam, Piyaporn; El, But Sam; Fukuda, Mark M.; Touch, Sok; Sovann, Ly; Fernandez, Stefan; Buchy, Philippe; Chanthap, Lon; Saunders, David

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about circulation of influenza and other respiratory viruses in remote populations along the Thai-Cambodia border in western Cambodia. We screened 586 outpatients (median age 5, range 1–77) presenting with influenza-like-illness (ILI) at 4 sentinel sites in western Cambodia between May 2010 and December 2012. Real-time reverse transcriptase (rRT) PCR for influenza was performed on combined nasal and throat specimens followed by viral culture, antigenic analysis, antiviral susceptibility testing and full genome sequencing for phylogenetic analysis. ILI-specimens negative for influenza were cultured, followed by rRT-PCR for enterovirus and rhinovirus (EV/RV) and EV71. Influenza was found in 168 cases (29%) and occurred almost exclusively in the rainy season from June to November. Isolated influenza strains had close antigenic and phylogenetic relationships, matching vaccine and circulating strains found elsewhere in Cambodia. Influenza vaccination coverage was low (<20%). Western Cambodian H1N1(2009) isolate genomes were more closely related to 10 earlier Cambodia isolates (94.4% genome conservation) than to 13 Thai isolates (75.9% genome conservation), despite sharing the majority of the amino acid changes with the Thai references. Most genes showed signatures of purifying selection. Viral culture detected only adenovirus (5.7%) and parainfluenza virus (3.8%), while non-polio enteroviruses (10.3%) were detected among 164 culture-negative samples including coxsackievirus A4, A6, A8, A9, A12, B3, B4 and echovirus E6 and E9 using nested RT-PCR methods. A single specimen of EV71 was found. Despite proximity to Thailand, influenza epidemiology of these western Cambodian isolates followed patterns observed elsewhere in Cambodia, continuing to support current vaccine and treatment recommendations from the Cambodian National Influenza Center. Amino acid mutations at non-epitope sites, particularly hemagglutinin genes, require further investigation in light

  14. The community impact of the 2009 influenza pandemic in the WHO European Region: a comparison with historical seasonal data from 28 countries

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The world has recently experienced the first influenza pandemic of the 21st century that lasted 14 months from June 2009 to August 2010. This study aimed to compare the timing, geographic spread and community impact during the winter wave of influenza pandemic A (H1N1) 2009 to historical influenza seasons in countries of the WHO European region. Methods We assessed the timing of pandemic by comparing the median peak of influenza activity in countries of the region during the last seven influenza seasons. The peaks of influenza activity were selected by two independent researchers using predefined rules. The geographic spread was assessed by correlating the peak week of influenza activity in included countries against the longitude and latitude of the central point in each country. To assess the community impact of pandemic influenza, we constructed linear regression models to compare the total and age-specific influenza-like-illness (ILI) or acute respiratory infection (ARI) rates reported by the countries in the pandemic season to those observed in the previous six influenza seasons. Results We found that the influenza activity reached its peak during the pandemic, on average, 10.5 weeks (95% CI 6.4-14.2) earlier than during the previous 6 seasons in the Region, and there was a west to east spread of pandemic A(H1N1) influenza virus in the western part of the Region. A regression analysis showed that the total ILI or ARI rates were not higher than historical rates in 19 of the 28 countries. However, in countries with age-specific data, there were significantly higher consultation rates in the 0-4 and/or 5-14 age groups in 11 of the 20 countries. Conclusions Using routine influenza surveillance data, we found that pandemic influenza had several differential features compared to historical seasons in the region. It arrived earlier, caused significantly higher number of outpatient consultations in children in most countries and followed west to east spread

  15. Inorganic nitrogen leaching from organic and conventional rice production on a newly claimed calciustoll in Central Asia.

    PubMed

    Meng, Fanqiao; Olesen, Jørgen E; Sun, Xiangping; Wu, Wenliang

    2014-01-01

    Characterizing the dynamics of nitrogen (N) leaching from organic and conventional paddy fields is necessary to optimize fertilization and to evaluate the impact of these contrasting farming systems on water bodies. We assessed N leaching in organic versus conventional rice production systems of the Ili River Valley, a representative aquatic ecosystem of Central Asia. The N leaching and overall performance of these systems were measured during 2009, using a randomized block experiment with five treatments. PVC pipes were installed at soil depths of 50 and 180 cm to collect percolation water from flooded organic and conventional paddies, and inorganic N (NH4-N+NO3-N) was analyzed. Two high-concentration peaks of NH4-N were observed in all treatments: one during early tillering and a second during flowering. A third peak at the mid-tillering stage was observed only under conventional fertilization. NO3-N concentrations were highest at transplant and then declined until harvest. At the 50 cm soil depth, NO3-N concentration was 21-42% higher than NH4-N in percolation water from organic paddies, while NH4-N and NO3-N concentrations were similar for the conventional and control treatments. At the depth of 180 cm, NH4-N and NO3-N were the predominant inorganic N for organic and conventional paddies, respectively. Inorganic N concentrations decreased with soil depth, but this attenuation was more marked in organic than in conventional paddies. Conventional paddies leached a higher percentage of applied N (0.78%) than did organic treatments (0.32-0.60%), but the two farming systems leached a similar amount of inorganic N per unit yield (0.21-0.34 kg N Mg(-1) rice grains). Conventional production showed higher N utilization efficiency compared to fertilized organic treatments. These results suggest that organic rice production in the Ili River Valley is unlikely to reduce inorganic N leaching, if high crop yields similar to conventional rice production are to be maintained

  16. TNF, IL6, and IL1B Polymorphisms Are Associated with Severe Influenza A (H1N1) Virus Infection in the Mexican Population

    PubMed Central

    García-Ramírez, Román Alejandro; Ramírez-Venegas, Alejandra; Quintana-Carrillo, Roger; Camarena, Ángel Eduardo; Falfán-Valencia, Ramcés; Mejía-Aranguré, Juan Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Background Hypercytokinemia is the main immunopathological mechanism contributing to a more severe clinical course in influenza A (H1N1) virus infections. Most patients infected with the influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 virus had increased systemic levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines; including interleukin IL-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). We propose that single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the promoter regions of pro-inflammatory genes are associated with the severity of influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 virus infection. Methods 145 patients with influenza A (H1N1) (pA/H1N1), 133 patients with influenza-like illness (ILI), and 360 asymptomatic healthy contacts (AHCs) were included. Eleven SNPs were genotyped in six genes (TNF, LT, IL1B, IL6, CCL1, and IL8) using real-time PCR; the ancestral genotype was used for comparison. Genotypes were correlated with 27 clinical severity variables. Ten cytokines (GM-CSF, TNF-α, IL-2, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IFN-γ, IL-10, IL-5, and IL-4) were measured on a Luminex 100. Results The IL6 rs1818879 (GA) heterozygous genotype was associated with severe influenza A (H1N1) virus infection (odds ratio [OR] = 5.94, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.05–11.56), and two IL1B SNPs, rs16944 AG and rs3136558 TC, were associated with a decreased risk of infection (OR = 0.52 and OR = 0.51, respectively). Genetic susceptibility was determined (pA/H1N1 vs. AHC): the LTA rs909253 TC heterozygous genotype conferred greater risk (OR = 1.9), and a similar association was observed with the IL1B rs3136558 CC genotype (OR = 1.89). Additionally, severely ill patients were compared with moderately ill patients. The TNF-238 GA genotype was associated with an increased risk of disease severity (OR = 16.06, p = 0.007). Compared with ILIs, patients with severe pA/H1N1 infections exhibited increased serum IL-5 (p <0.001) and IL-6 (p  =  0.007) levels. Conclusions The TNF gene was associated with disease severity, whereas IL1B and IL6 SNPs were

  17. Influenza and influenza-like illness in general practice: drawing lessons for surveillance from a pilot study in Paris, France.

    PubMed Central

    Carrat, F; Tachet, A; Housset, B; Valleron, A J; Rouzioux, C

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There are two types of inflenza surveillance techniques: qualitative laboratory-based surveillance and quantitative medical practice-based surveillance. The former is of great importance in isolating new strains of the virus, which helps in the decision-making process concerning the composition of the vaccine, and the latter provides estimates of morbidity, mortality or economic impact as a result of infection from the influenza virus. Rapid methods such as immunoflourescence (IF) or immunocapture assays (ICA) are now available for diagnosis of influenza infections. However, little is known about the use of these methods for influenza surveillance purposes. AIMS: To evaluate the feasibility of a rapid influenza diagnosis in ambulatory conditions, and to investigate the therapeutical outcomes of patients suffering from influenza-like illness (ILI) in relation to the virological diagnoses. METHOD: During the 1994-1995 influenza season, 130 patients presenting with ILI symptoms (< 36 hours) to 33 general practitioners (GPs) were included in a prospective study. Two nasal swabs and one throat swab per patient were collected and sent to the laboratory within 12 hours. Information concerning therapeutical outcomes was recorded during examination. Specimens were analysed using the immunofluorescence (IF) method and antigen immunocapture assay (ICA). RESULTS: Sixteen influenza A (12%) and 19 influenza B (15%) infections were diagnosed. The overall rate of influenza positive specimens was 17% in the pre-epidemic period and 31% during the epidemic (P = 0.1). The rates of usable specimens for IF assay, nasal ICA and throat ICA were 46%, 100% and 99% respectively. The combination of these three collections ensured a highly sensitive influenza virological diagnosis. There were no differences in therapeutical outcomes between the influenza positive and negative cases. The GPs prescribed antibiotics in 60% of the cases for a mean duration of 7 days (+/- 1.2). The mean

  18. Influenza and other respiratory viruses in three Central American countries

    PubMed Central

    Laguna‐Torres, Victor A.; Sánchez‐Largaespada, José F.; Lorenzana, Ivette; Forshey, Brett; Aguilar, Patricia; Jimenez, Mirna; Parrales, Eduardo; Rodriguez, Francisco; García, Josefina; Jimenez, Ileana; Rivera, Maribel; Perez, Juan; Sovero, Merly; Rios, Jane; Gamero, María E.; Halsey, Eric S.; Kochel, Tadeusz J.

    2010-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Laguna‐Torres et al. (2011) Influenza and other respiratory viruses in three Central American countries. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 5(2), 123–134. Background  Despite the disease burden imposed by respiratory diseases on children in Central America, there is a paucity of data describing the etiologic agents of the disease. Aims  To analyze viral etiologic agents associated with influenza‐like illness (ILI) in participants reporting to one outpatient health center, one pediatric hospital, and three general hospitals in El Salvador, Honduras, and Nicaragua Material & Methods  Between August 2006 and April 2009, pharyngeal swabs were collected from outpatients and inpatients. Patient specimens were inoculated onto cultured cell monolayers, and viral antigens were detected by indirect and direct immunofluorescence staining. Results  A total of 1,756 patients were enrolled, of whom 1,195 (68.3%) were under the age of 5; and 183 (10.4%) required hospitalization. One or more viral agents were identified in 434 (24.7%) cases, of which 17 (3.9%) were dual infections. The most common viruses isolated were influenza A virus (130; 7.4% of cases), respiratory syncytial virus (122; 6.9%), adenoviruses (63; 3.6%), parainfluenza viruses (57; 3.2%), influenza B virus (47; 2.7% of cases), and herpes simplex virus 1 (22; 1.3%). In addition, human metapneumovirus and enteroviruses (coxsackie and echovirus) were isolated from patient specimens. Discussion  When compared to the rest of the population, viruses were isolated from a significantly higher percentage of patients age 5 or younger. The prevalence of influenza A virus or influenza B virus infections was similar between the younger and older age groups. RSV was the most commonly detected pathogen in infants age 5 and younger and was significantly associated with pneumonia (p < 0.0001) and hospitalization (p < 0.0001). Conclusion  Genetic analysis of influenza

  19. Human Sentinel Surveillance of Influenza and Other Respiratory Viral Pathogens in Border Areas of Western Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Timmermans, Ans; Melendrez, Melanie C; Se, Youry; Chuang, Ilin; Samon, Nou; Uthaimongkol, Nichapat; Klungthong, Chonticha; Manasatienkij, Wudtichai; Thaisomboonsuk, Butsaya; Tyner, Stuart D; Rith, Sareth; Horm, Viseth Srey; Jarman, Richard G; Bethell, Delia; Chanarat, Nitima; Pavlin, Julie; Wongstitwilairoong, Tippa; Saingam, Piyaporn; El, But Sam; Fukuda, Mark M; Touch, Sok; Sovann, Ly; Fernandez, Stefan; Buchy, Philippe; Chanthap, Lon; Saunders, David

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about circulation of influenza and other respiratory viruses in remote populations along the Thai-Cambodia border in western Cambodia. We screened 586 outpatients (median age 5, range 1-77) presenting with influenza-like-illness (ILI) at 4 sentinel sites in western Cambodia between May 2010 and December 2012. Real-time reverse transcriptase (rRT) PCR for influenza was performed on combined nasal and throat specimens followed by viral culture, antigenic analysis, antiviral susceptibility testing and full genome sequencing for phylogenetic analysis. ILI-specimens negative for influenza were cultured, followed by rRT-PCR for enterovirus and rhinovirus (EV/RV) and EV71. Influenza was found in 168 cases (29%) and occurred almost exclusively in the rainy season from June to November. Isolated influenza strains had close antigenic and phylogenetic relationships, matching vaccine and circulating strains found elsewhere in Cambodia. Influenza vaccination coverage was low (<20%). Western Cambodian H1N1(2009) isolate genomes were more closely related to 10 earlier Cambodia isolates (94.4% genome conservation) than to 13 Thai isolates (75.9% genome conservation), despite sharing the majority of the amino acid changes with the Thai references. Most genes showed signatures of purifying selection. Viral culture detected only adenovirus (5.7%) and parainfluenza virus (3.8%), while non-polio enteroviruses (10.3%) were detected among 164 culture-negative samples including coxsackievirus A4, A6, A8, A9, A12, B3, B4 and echovirus E6 and E9 using nested RT-PCR methods. A single specimen of EV71 was found. Despite proximity to Thailand, influenza epidemiology of these western Cambodian isolates followed patterns observed elsewhere in Cambodia, continuing to support current vaccine and treatment recommendations from the Cambodian National Influenza Center. Amino acid mutations at non-epitope sites, particularly hemagglutinin genes, require further investigation in light

  20. Effectiveness of influenza vaccine against laboratory-confirmed influenza, in the late 2011–2012 season in Spain, among population targeted for vaccination

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In Spain, the influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) was estimated in the last three seasons using the observational study cycEVA conducted in the frame of the existing Spanish Influenza Sentinel Surveillance System. The objective of the study was to estimate influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) against medically attended, laboratory-confirmed influenza-like illness (ILI) among the target groups for vaccination in Spain in the 2011–2012 season. We also studied influenza VE in the early (weeks 52/2011-7/2012) and late (weeks 8-14/2012) phases of the epidemic and according to time since vaccination. Methods Medically attended patients with ILI were systematically swabbed to collect information on exposure, laboratory outcome and confounding factors. Patients belonging to target groups for vaccination and who were swabbed <8 days after symptom onset were included. Cases tested positive for influenza and controls tested negative for any influenza virus. To examine the effect of a late season, analyses were performed according to the phase of the season and according to the time between vaccination and symptoms onset. Results The overall adjusted influenza VE against A(H3N2) was 45% (95% CI, 0–69). The estimated influenza VE was 52% (95% CI, -3 to 78), 40% (95% CI, -40 to 74) and 22% (95% CI, -135 to 74) at 3.5 months, 3.5-4 months, and >4 months, respectively, since vaccination. A decrease in VE with time since vaccination was only observed in individuals aged ≥ 65 years. Regarding the phase of the season, decreasing point estimates were only observed in the early phase, whereas very low or null estimates were obtained in the late phase for the shortest time interval. Conclusions The 2011–2012 influenza vaccine showed a low-to-moderate protective effect against medically attended, laboratory-confirmed influenza in the target groups for vaccination, in a late season and with a limited match between the vaccine and circulating strains. The

  1. Assessing Google Flu Trends Performance in the United States during the 2009 Influenza Virus A (H1N1) Pandemic

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Samantha; Conrad, Corrie; Fowlkes, Ashley L.; Mohebbi, Matthew H.

    2011-01-01

    Background Google Flu Trends (GFT) uses anonymized, aggregated internet search activity to provide near-real time estimates of influenza activity. GFT estimates have shown a strong correlation with official influenza surveillance data. The 2009 influenza virus A (H1N1) pandemic [pH1N1] provided the first opportunity to evaluate GFT during a non-seasonal influenza outbreak. In September 2009, an updated United States GFT model was developed using data from the beginning of pH1N1. Methodology/Principal Findings We evaluated the accuracy of each U.S. GFT model by comparing weekly estimates of ILI (influenza-like illness) activity with the U.S. Outpatient Influenza-like Illness Surveillance Network (ILINet). For each GFT model we calculated the correlation and RMSE (root mean square error) between model estimates and ILINet for four time periods: pre-H1N1, Summer H1N1, Winter H1N1, and H1N1 overall (Mar 2009–Dec 2009). We also compared the number of queries, query volume, and types of queries (e.g., influenza symptoms, influenza complications) in each model. Both models' estimates were highly correlated with ILINet pre-H1N1 and over the entire surveillance period, although the original model underestimated the magnitude of ILI activity during pH1N1. The updated model was more correlated with ILINet than the original model during Summer H1N1 (r = 0.95 and 0.29, respectively). The updated model included more search query terms than the original model, with more queries directly related to influenza infection, whereas the original model contained more queries related to influenza complications. Conclusions Internet search behavior changed during pH1N1, particularly in the categories “influenza complications” and “term for influenza.” The complications associated with pH1N1, the fact that pH1N1 began in the summer rather than winter, and changes in health-seeking behavior each may have played a part. Both GFT models performed well prior to and during pH1N1

  2. Healthcare Information Systems to Assess Influenza Outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Figar, S.; Aliperti, V.; Salazar, E.; Otero, C.; Schpilberg, M.; Taliercio, V.; Otero, P.; de Quirós, F. González Bernaldo

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine whether a private HIS could have detected the influenza epidemic outbreaks earlier through changes in morbidity and mortality patterns. Methods Data Source included a health information system (HIS) from an academic tertiary health care center integrating administrative and clinical applications. It used a local interface terminology server which provides support through data autocoding of clinical documentation. Specific data subsets were created to compare the burden of influenza during the epidemiological week (EW) 21 to 26 for years 2007 to 2009 among 150,000 Health Maintenance Organization members in Argentina. The threshold for identifying an epidemic was considered met when the weekly influenza-like illness (ILI) rate exceeded 200 per 100,000 visits. Case fatality rates and mortality rates of severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) from 2007 to 2009 were retrospectively compared. Case fatality rates and mortality rates for A/H1N1 influenza 2009 also were estimated. Results The HIS detected the outbreak in EW 23 while the government Ministry of Health (MoH) gave a national epidemic alert during EW 25. The number of visits for ILI increased more than fourfold when comparing 2009 to the period 2007-2008. The SARI mortality rate in 2009 was higher than in 2008 (RR 2.8; 95%CI 1.18-6.63) and similar to that of 2007 (RR 1.05; 95%CI 0.56-1.49). 2009 was the first year with mortalities younger than 65 years attributable to SARI. The estimated A/H1N1 case fatality rate for SARI was 6.2% (95%CI 2.5 to 15.5) and A/H1N1 mortality rate was 6 per 100,000 (95%CI 0 to 11.6). Conclusion Our HIS detected the outbreak two weeks before than the MoH gave a national alert. The information system was useful in assessing morbidity and mortality during the 2009 influenza epidemic H1N1 outbreak suggesting that with a private-public integration a more real-time outbreak and disease surveillance system could be implemented. PMID:23616861

  3. Spatiotemporal characteristics of pandemic influenza

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Prediction of timing for the onset and peak of an influenza pandemic is of vital importance for preventive measures. In order to identify common spatiotemporal patterns and climate influences for pandemics in Sweden we have studied the propagation in space and time of A(H1N1)pdm09 (10,000 laboratory verified cases), the Asian Influenza 1957–1958 (275,000 cases of influenza-like illness (ILI), reported by local physicians) and the Russian Influenza 1889–1890 (32,600 ILI cases reported by physicians shortly after the end of the outbreak). Methods All cases were geocoded and analysed in space and time. Animated video sequences, showing weekly incidence per municipality and its geographically weighted mean (GWM), were created to depict and compare the spread of the pandemics. Daily data from 1957–1958 on temperature and precipitation from 39 weather stations were collected and analysed with the case data to examine possible climatological effects on the influenza dissemination. Results The epidemic period lasted 11 weeks for the Russian Influenza, 10 weeks for the Asian Influenza and 9 weeks for the A(H1N1)pdm09. The Russian Influenza arrived in Sweden during the winter and was immediately disseminated, while both the Asian Influenza and the A(H1N1)pdm09 arrived during the spring. They were seeded over the country during the summer, but did not peak until October-November. The weekly GWM of the incidence moved along a line from southwest to northeast for the Russian and Asian Influenza but northeast to southwest for the A(H1N1)pdm09. The local epidemic periods of the Asian Influenza were preceded by falling temperature in all but one of the locations analysed. Conclusions The power of spatiotemporal analysis and modeling for pandemic spread was clearly demonstrated. The epidemic period lasted approximately 10 weeks for all pandemics. None of the pandemics had its epidemic period before late autumn. The epidemic period of the Asian Influenza was

  4. The Complex Relationship of Realspace Events and Messages in Cyberspace: Case Study of Influenza and Pertussis Using Tweets

    PubMed Central

    Nagel, Anna C; Spitzberg, Brian H; An, Li; Gawron, J Mark; Gupta, Dipak K; Yang, Jiue-An; Han, Su; Peddecord, K Michael; Lindsay, Suzanne; Sawyer, Mark H

    2013-01-01

    Background Surveillance plays a vital role in disease detection, but traditional methods of collecting patient data, reporting to health officials, and compiling reports are costly and time consuming. In recent years, syndromic surveillance tools have expanded and researchers are able to exploit the vast amount of data available in real time on the Internet at minimal cost. Many data sources for infoveillance exist, but this study focuses on status updates (tweets) from the Twitter microblogging website. Objective The aim of this study was to explore the interaction between cyberspace message activity, measured by keyword-specific tweets, and real world occurrences of influenza and pertussis. Tweets were aggregated by week and compared to weekly influenza-like illness (ILI) and weekly pertussis incidence. The potential effect of tweet type was analyzed by categorizing tweets into 4 categories: nonretweets, retweets, tweets with a URL Web address, and tweets without a URL Web address. Methods Tweets were collected within a 17-mile radius of 11 US cities chosen on the basis of population size and the availability of disease data. Influenza analysis involved all 11 cities. Pertussis analysis was based on the 2 cities nearest to the Washington State pertussis outbreak (Seattle, WA and Portland, OR). Tweet collection resulted in 161,821 flu, 6174 influenza, 160 pertussis, and 1167 whooping cough tweets. The correlation coefficients between tweets or subgroups of tweets and disease occurrence were calculated and trends were presented graphically. Results Correlations between weekly aggregated tweets and disease occurrence varied greatly, but were relatively strong in some areas. In general, correlation coefficients were stronger in the flu analysis compared to the pertussis analysis. Within each analysis, flu tweets were more strongly correlated with ILI rates than influenza tweets, and whooping cough tweets correlated more strongly with pertussis incidence than

  5. Prevalence and characterization of enterovirus infections among pediatric patients with hand foot mouth disease, herpangina and influenza like illness in Thailand, 2012.

    PubMed

    Puenpa, Jiratchaya; Mauleekoonphairoj, John; Linsuwanon, Piyada; Suwannakarn, Kamol; Chieochansin, Thaweesak; Korkong, Sumeth; Theamboonlers, Apiradee; Poovorawan, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) and herpangina are common infectious diseases caused by several genotypes of human enterovirus species A and frequently occurring in young children. This study was aimed at analyzing enteroviruses from patients with these diseases in Thailand in 2012. Detection and genotype determination of enteroviruses were accomplished by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and sequencing of the VP1 region. Enterovirus-positive samples were differentiated into 17 genotypes (coxsackievirus A4 (CAV4), A5, A6, A8, A9, A10, A12, A16, A21, B1, B2, B4, B5, echovirus 7, 16, 25 and Enterovirus 71). The result showed CAV6 (33.5%), followed by CAV16 (9.4%) and EV71 (8.8%) as the most frequent genotypes in HFMD, CAV8 (19.3%) in herpangina and CAV6 (1.5%) in influenza like illness. Enterovirus infections were most prevalent during July with 34.4% in HFMD, 39.8% in herpangina and 1.6% in ILI. The higher enterovirus infection associated with HFMD and herpangina occurred in infants over one year-old. This represents the first report describing the circulation of multiple enteroviruses in Thailand. PMID:24887237

  6. Using networks to combine "big data" and traditional surveillance to improve influenza predictions.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Michael W; Haim, Dotan A; Radin, Jennifer M

    2015-01-01

    Seasonal influenza infects approximately 5-20% of the U.S. population every year, resulting in over 200,000 hospitalizations. The ability to more accurately assess infection levels and predict which regions have higher infection risk in future time periods can instruct targeted prevention and treatment efforts, especially during epidemics. Google Flu Trends (GFT) has generated significant hope that "big data" can be an effective tool for estimating disease burden and spread. The estimates generated by GFT come in real-time--two weeks earlier than traditional surveillance data collected by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). However, GFT had some infamous errors and is significantly less accurate at tracking laboratory-confirmed cases than syndromic influenza-like illness (ILI) cases. We construct an empirical network using CDC data and combine this with GFT to substantially improve its performance. This improved model predicts infections one week into the future as well as GFT predicts the present and does particularly well in regions that are most likely to facilitate influenza spread and during epidemics. PMID:25634021

  7. Assessing Workshop Models for Informal Educators: ASP's "Astronomy from the Ground Up” Experiment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manning, Jim; Gurton, S.; Hurst Schmitt, A.; Pompea, S.; Glass, M.; Haley, K.

    2011-01-01

    The classic workshop model for science educators in the past has been largely in situ: you show up somewhere, meet your fellow workshoppers, get personal treatment from instructors over several intensive days of content delivery, illustrative activities, and practice in technique, and try to incorporate what you've learned once you get back. But in an age when everybody's digitally connected, and many can't afford to travel, can an "online” workshop be as effective? This was a key question in the Astronomical Society of the Pacific (ASP) NSF-funded project "Astronomy from the Ground Up,” designed to increase astronomy education capacity at small and medium-sized science and nature centers and museums around the U.S. Together with its institutional partners, the Association of Science and Technology Centers (ASTC) and the Institute for Learning Innovation (ILI), and a cadre of individual partners, the ASP conducted both on-site and online workshops and created an online community of practice to increase informal educator capacity to present astronomy to their audiences, and to evaluate the relative effectiveness of the on-site and online delivery schemes. The presenter(s) will share some initial results and findings of the project.

  8. [Epidemiologic description of a post-pandemic outbreak of influenza A H1N1 2009 in an isolated community of the region of Aysén, Chilean patagonia].

    PubMed

    Layera, Sebastián; Fontena, Nicolás; Rojas, Edgardo; Acuña, Marco; Saldivia, Paola

    2011-08-01

    On August 10th 2010 the World Health Organization (WHO)announced the end of the influenza A H1N1 2009 pandemic. On August 13th, three cases of influenza A H1N1 2009 from the local school were confirmed at the Hospital de Chile Chico. An epidemiological investigation was conducted in conjunction with the regional health authority (SEREMI), in order to monitor the outbreak and establish appropriate control strategies. During the study period (august 7 to 21), 304 cases of influenza-like-illness (ILI) were reported, with an incidence of 6171 cases per 100.000 in epidemiological week no 33. Most of the affected people were 19 years old or younger (68% of cases). Hospitalized patients (n: 7) had a favorable outcome, without severe symptoms or need for transfer to an intensive care unit. A female patient with a congenital heart defect who had not been vaccinated was the only fatal case. The outstanding features of this post-pandemic outbreak were its intensity and the demonstration of the importance of control measures to prevent further spread of influenza A H1N1 2009 infections, in the community setting. PMID:22052398

  9. The association between pre-morbid conditions and respiratory tract manifestations amongst Malaysian Hajj pilgrims.

    PubMed

    Deris, Zakuan Zainy; Hasan, Habsah; Ab Wahab, Mohd Suhaimi; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah; Naing, Nyi Nyi; Othman, Nor Hayati

    2010-08-01

    In a very closed and overcrowding environment, influenza transmission during Hajj season is almost inevitable. The aim of this study was to determine the association between pre-morbid conditions and influenza-like illness (ILI) amongst Hajj pilgrims. A cross-sectional study was conducted amongst Malaysian Hajj pilgrims in year 2007. Survey forms were distributed at Madinatul-Hujjaj, Jeddah and Tabung Haji Clinic, Medina, Saudi Arabia where pilgrims stay on transit before returning to Malaysia. Allergic rhinitis was significantly associated with sore throat (p=0.047), longer duration of cough (p=0.017) and runny nose (p=0.016). Pilgrims who suffered from chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) had significant association with longer duration of cough (p=0.041) and those with diabetes mellitus had significant association with longer duration of sore throat (p=0.048). Underlying asthma was significantly associated with severe influenza like illness requiring admission to hospital for further treatment of respiratory symptoms (p=0.016). Based on these findings, we suggest those with underlying asthma should be discouraged from participating in the hajj and they should seek early treatment if they develop respiratory symptoms. PMID:20962728

  10. [Genetic characterization of the Syr-Darya valley fever virus (SDVFV) (Picornaviridae, Cardiovirus) isolated from the blood of the patients and ticks Hyalomma as. asiaticum (Hyalomminae), Dermacentor daghestanicus (Rhipicephalinae) (Ixodidae) and Ornithodoros coniceps (Argasidae) in Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan].

    PubMed

    L'vov, D K; Al'khovskiĭ, S V; Shchelkanov, M Iu; Shchetinin, A M; Deriabin, P G; Gitel'man, A K; Aristova, V A; Botikov, A G

    2014-01-01

    The Syr-Darya valley fever virus (SDVFV) was originally isolated from the blood of the patient with fever in the Kyzylorda province, Kazakhstan, in July 1973 and was classified to the Cardiovirus genus (fam. Picornaviridae). Later, SDVFV was isolated from the ticks Hyalomma as. asiaticum Schulze et Schlottke, 1929 (Hyalomminae) (1 strain) and Dermacentor daghestanicus Olenev, 1929 (Rhipicephalinae) (7 strains), collected in the floodplains of the Syr-Darya river and the Ili river. In this paper, complet genome of the SDVFV (strain LEIV-Tur2833) was sequenced using the next-generation sequencing approach (GenBank ID: KJ191558). It was demonstrated that, phylogenetically, the SDVFV is closely related closest to the Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) and Vilyuisk human encephalomyelitis virus (VMEV). The similarity of the SDVFV with VHEV and TMEV based on P1 region of the polyprotein-precursor (structural proteins VP1-VP4), reaches 75% and 91% for nucleotide sequences and 80% and 93% for putative amino acid sequences, respectively. For nonstructural proteins regions P2 (2A-2C) and P3 (3A-3D) similarity of SDVFV with TMEV and VHEV is 96%-98%. PMID:25549463

  11. Effects of changes in vegetation on precipitation in the northern Tianshan Mountains evaluated using multiple time scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Qinming; Liu, Tong; Han, Zhiquan; Wu, Yongping; Li, Bai-Lian

    2016-04-01

    This study used a combination of the wavelet cross-correlation technique and numerical analysis of vegetative feedback to study the role of climate-vegetation feedback from 1981 to 2009 in the northern Tianshan Mountains, Xinjiang Province, China. The study area included the Irtysh River, the Bortala and Ili River valleys, the northern slopes of the Tianshan Mountains, and the western Junggar Basin. The feedback effects of changes in vegetation on precipitation appeared to vary in these five regions when different time scales are used to examine them. The most useful time scale was generally found to be 4-6 months. Time lag was another characteristic of this process, and the optimal time lag was 3-4 months. Nevertheless, optimal time scale and time lag did not differ significantly in these five regions. In this way, the correct time scale of the effects of variations in vegetation on precipitation in this cold, arid area was found. This time scale and time lag can be assessed through wavelet cross-correlation analysis. Then numerical analysis can be used to improve the accuracy of the analysis.

  12. Ineffectiveness of the 2014-2015 H3N2 influenza vaccine.

    PubMed

    Mandelboim, Michal; Glatman-Freedman, Aharona; Drori, Yaron; Sherbany, Hilda; Pando, Rakefet; Sefty, Hanna; Zadka, Hila; Shohat, Tamar; Keller, Nathan; Mendelson, Ella

    2016-01-12

    The seasonal influenza vaccine is currently the most effective preventive modality against influenza infection. Nasopharyngeal samples of vaccinated and non-vaccinated patients presenting with Influenza-like-illness (ILI) were collected from over 20 outpatient clinics located in different geographic parts of Israel and were tested for the presence of influenza viruses (influenza A and influenza B). Here we show, that in the 2014-2015 season, the vaccine that included the A/Texas/50/2012 H3N2 virus was ineffective. Significant numbers of individuals vaccinated with the 2014-2015 vaccine, of all ages, were infected with influenza A (H3N2), manifesting similar symptoms as the non-vaccinated group. We further demonstrate that the Israeli circulating influenza A(H3N2) virus was different than that included in the 2014-2015 northern hemisphere vaccine, and that antibodies elicited by this vaccine were significantly less efficient in neutralizing influenza A(H3N2) infection. PMID:26716420

  13. Proteomic analysis of protective effects of polysaccharides from Salvia miltiorrhiza against immunological liver injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xue-Gang; Fu, Xiu-Qiong; Cai, Hong-Bing; Liu, Qiang; Li, Chun-Hua; Liu, Ya-Wei; Li, Ying-Jia; Liu, Zhi-Feng; Song, Yu-Hong; Lv, Zhi-Ping

    2011-07-01

    This study was designed to investigate mechanisms of the protective effects of Salvia miltiorrhiza polysaccharide (SMPS) against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced immunological liver injury (ILI) in Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG)-primed mice. Two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) analysis showed that three proteins are down-regulated and six proteins are up-regulated by SMPS. SMPS reduces the degree of liver injury by up-regulating the enzymes of the citric acid cycle, namely malate dehydrogenase (MDH) and 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex. LPS significantly increases nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activation, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression and MDA level in BCG primed mice liver, whereas SMPS treatment protects against the immunological liver injury through inhibition of the NF-κB activation by up-regulation of PRDX6 and the subsequent attenuation of lipid peroxidation, iNOS expression and inflammation. PMID:21480413

  14. Iodine valence and local environments in borosilicate waste glasses using X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKeown, David A.; Muller, Isabelle S.; Pegg, Ian L.

    2015-01-01

    The radioisotope 129I, a fission product in spent nuclear fuel, has a long half-life, and can be highly mobile in the environment. Iodine K-edge X-ray absorption spectra were collected to characterize the iodine valence and coordination environment in simulated Hanford low activity waste glasses. Both iodine XANES and EXAFS data for eleven borosilicate glasses indicate iodide-like environments within the glass structure, where I- has Na or Li nearest-neighbors, and where the nearest-neighbor cation-type correlates to the most common network-modifying cation in the glass. This is further supported by the systematic increase of iodine incorporation with the combined Na2O + Li2O content in the glass. EXAFS analyses determined I-Na distances near 3.04 Å with coordination numbers near 4.0 and I-Li distances near 2.80 Å with coordination numbers near 3.0. I-Na environments determined for the glasses are similar to the tetrahedral INa4 coordination found in NaI-sodalite. These weakly bound iodine-alkali configurations may be the only pathways for iodine to be retained in the glass. These environments may be precursors to NaI-sodalite crystallization in Na-rich glass. Iodine also shows distinct differences from chlorine in terms of the preferred sites in the glass structure.

  15. Human rhinoviruses and enteroviruses in influenza-like illness in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Human rhinoviruses (HRVs) belong to the Picornaviridae family with high similarity to human enteroviruses (HEVs). Limited data is available from Latin America regarding the clinical presentation and strains of these viruses in respiratory disease. Methods We collected nasopharyngeal swabs at clinics located in eight Latin American countries from 3,375 subjects aged 25 years or younger who presented with influenza-like illness. Results Our subjects had a median age of 3 years and a 1.2:1.0 male:female ratio. HRV was identified in 16% and HEV was identified in 3%. HRVs accounted for a higher frequency of isolates in those of younger age, in particular children < 1 years old. HRV-C accounted for 38% of all HRVs detected. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a high proportion of recombinant strains between HRV-A/HRV-C and between HEV-A/HEV-B. In addition, both EV-D68 and EV-A71 were identified. Conclusions In Latin America as in other regions, HRVs and HEVs account for a substantial proportion of respiratory viruses identified in young people with ILI, a finding that provides additional support for the development of pharmaceuticals and vaccines targeting these pathogens. PMID:24119298

  16. Influenza Activity - United States, 2015-16 Season and Composition of the 2016-17 Influenza Vaccine.

    PubMed

    Davlin, Stacy L; Blanton, Lenee; Kniss, Krista; Mustaquim, Desiree; Smith, Sophie; Kramer, Natalie; Cohen, Jessica; Cummings, Charisse Nitura; Garg, Shikha; Flannery, Brendan; Fry, Alicia M; Grohskopf, Lisa A; Bresee, Joseph; Wallis, Teresa; Sessions, Wendy; Garten, Rebecca; Xu, Xiyan; Elal, Anwar Isa Abd; Gubareva, Larisa; Barnes, John; Wentworth, David E; Burns, Erin; Katz, Jacqueline; Jernigan, Daniel; Brammer, Lynnette

    2016-01-01

    During the 2015-16 influenza season (October 4, 2015-May 21, 2016) in the United States, influenza activity* was lower and peaked later compared with the previous three seasons (2012-13, 2013-14, and 2014-15). Activity remained low from October 2015 until late December 2015 and peaked in mid-March 2016. During the most recent 18 influenza seasons (including this season), only two other seasons have peaked in March (2011-12 and 2005-06). Overall influenza activity was moderate this season, with a lower percentage of outpatient visits for influenza-like illness (ILI),(†) lower hospitalization rates, and a lower percentage of deaths attributed to pneumonia and influenza (P&I) compared with the preceding three seasons. Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses predominated overall, but influenza A(H3N2) viruses were more commonly identified from October to early December, and influenza B viruses were more commonly identified from mid-April through mid-May. The majority of viruses characterized this season were antigenically similar to the reference viruses representing the recommended components of the 2015-16 Northern Hemisphere influenza vaccine (1). This report summarizes influenza activity in the United States during the 2015-16 influenza season (October 4, 2015-May 21, 2016)(§) and reports the vaccine virus components recommended for the 2016-17 Northern Hemisphere influenza vaccines. PMID:27281364

  17. Isolation and Characterization of Influenza C Viruses in the Philippines and Japan

    PubMed Central

    Odagiri, Takashi; Matsuzaki, Yoko; Okamoto, Michiko; Suzuki, Akira; Saito, Mariko; Tamaki, Raita; Lupisan, Socorro P.; Sombrero, Lydia T.; Hongo, Seiji

    2014-01-01

    From November 2009 to December 2013 in the Philippines, 15 influenza C viruses were isolated, using MDCK cells, from specimens obtained from children with severe pneumonia and influenza-like illness (ILI). This is the first report of influenza C virus isolation in the Philippines. In addition, from January 2008 to December 2013, 7 influenza C viruses were isolated from specimens that were obtained from children with acute respiratory illness (ARI) in Sendai city, Japan. Antigenic analysis with monoclonal antibodies to the hemagglutinin-esterase (HE) glycoprotein showed that 19 strains (12 from the Philippines and 7 from Japan) were similar to the influenza C virus reference strain C/Sao Paulo/378/82 (SP82). Phylogenetic analysis of the HE gene showed that the strains from the Philippines and Japan formed distinct clusters within an SP82-related lineage. The clusters that included the Philippine and Japanese strains were shown to have diverged from a common ancestor around 1993. In addition, phylogenetic analysis of the internal genes showed that all strains isolated in the Philippines and Japan had emerged through reassortment events. The composition of the internal genes of the Philippine strains was different from that of the Japanese strains, although all strains were classified into an SP82-related lineage by HE gene sequence analysis. These observations suggest that the influenza C viruses analyzed here had emerged through different reassortment events; however, the time and place at which the reassortment events occurred were not determined. PMID:25552361

  18. Epidemiological, clinical and laboratory features of patients hospitalized with 2009 pandemic influenza in north of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Najafi, Narges; Davoudi, Ali Reza; Baba Mahmoodi, Farhang; Tayebi, Atefe; Alian, Sharyar; Ghassemian, Roya; Alikhani, Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Background: The clinical manifestations and outcome of influenza infection differ between various patients in the world. The purpose of this study was to assess the clinical manifestations of patients with confirmed or suspected novel H1N1 flu infection in Sari, North of Iran. Methods: From September 2009 to January 2010, the patients’ data were collected by retrospective chart review of medical records. Laboratory confirmation included a positive RT–PCR (reverse transcriptase–polymerase-chain-reaction assay) from a nasal or pharyngeal swab sample. Results: Nearly 80% of established patients were in age group of 15-45 years. Approximately 14.6% of female cases were pregnant There was no significant difference in clinical and laboratory characteristics of patients with confirmed H1N1 virus infection to total cases with Influenza Like Illness (ILI). Thirty nine (95.1%) of the established patients had a combination of fever plus sore throat or cough. Relative lymphopenia was reported in 36.6%. Pneumonia was the most common complication. Acute pericarditis evolved in one case and aseptic meningitis was reported in another. Conclusion: Precise collecting information of clinical manifestations, risk factors and other characteristics of flu, can help to the early infection detection, timely treatment of patients and proper preventive measurements. PMID:26557290

  19. Drug dosage in isolated limb perfusion: evaluation of a limb volume model for extremity volume calculation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Exact drug dosing in isolated limb perfusion (ILP) and infusion (ILI) is essential. We developed and evaluated a model for calculating the volume of extremities and compared this model with body weight- and height-dependent parameters. Methods The extremity was modeled by a row of coupled truncated cones. The sizes of the truncated cone bases were derived from the circumference measurements of the extremity at predefined levels (5 cm). The resulting volumes were added. This extremity volume model was correlated to the computed tomography (CT) volume data of the extremity (total limb volume). The extremity volume was also correlated with the patient’s body weight, body mass index (BMI) and ideal body weight (IBW). The no-fat CT limb volume was correlated with the circumference-measured limb volume corrected by the ideal-body-weight to actual-body-weight ratio (IBW corrected-limb-volume). Results The correlation between the CT volume and the volume measured by the circumference was high and significant. There was no correlation between the limb volume and the bare body weight, BMI or IBW. The correlation between the no-fat CT volume and IBW-corrected limb volume was high and significant. Conclusions An appropriate drug dosing in ILP can be achieved by combining the limb volume with the simple circumference measurements and the IBW to body-weight ratio. PMID:24684972

  20. Molecular epidemiology and phylogenetic analysis of HA gene of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 strain during 2010-2014 in Dalian, North China.

    PubMed

    Han, Yan; Sun, Nan; Lv, Qiu-Yue; Liu, Dan-Hong; Liu, Da-Peng

    2016-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the epidemiology of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and its hemagglutinin (HA) molecular and phylogenetic analysis during 2010-2014 in Dalian, North China. A total of 3717 influenza-like illness (ILI) cases were tested by real-time PCR and 493 were found to be positive. Out of these 493 cases, 121 were subtype influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, of which 14 cases were reported in 2010-2011, 29 in 2012-2013, and 78 in 2013-2014. HA coding regions of 45 isolates were compared to that of the vaccine strain A/California/7/09(H1N1), and a number of variations were detected. P83S, S185T, S203T, R223Q, and I321V mutations were observed in all of the Dalian isolates. Furthermore, a high proportion >71 % of the strains possessed the variation D97N and K283E. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed the close match of the majority of circulating strains with the vaccine strains. However, it also reveals a trend of strains to accumulate amino acid variations and form new phylogenetic groups. PMID:27251702

  1. Assessing Healthcare Utilization for Influenza-like Illness at an Emergency Department and a Student Health Service during the 2009-2010 H1N1 Pandemic.

    PubMed

    Bhandari, Ruchi; Hartley, Tara A; Lindsley, William G; Fisher, Melanie A; Palmer, Jan E

    2013-01-01

    Estimates of healthcare utilization during an influenza pandemic are needed in order to plan for the allocation of staff and resources. The aim of this study was to assess the number, age, and arrival time of patients with influenza-like-illness (ILI), and associations between their symptoms during the 2009-2010 H1N1 pandemic. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of electronic health records from the student health service (SHS) and an emergency department (ED) in Morgantown, West Virginia, between January 2009 and December 2010. During the 2009-2010 H1N1 pandemic, patient arrivals at SHS and ED varied over the week. SHS patients arrived early in the week and primarily in the afternoon. ED patient arrivals were more evenly distributed, with busier evenings and weekends. Those with fever were more likely to experience cough, sore throat, vomiting/nausea, chills, congestion, headache, and body-ache. These results can assist health professionals in preparing for an influenza pandemic. PMID:24847173

  2. Cellular Functions and X-ray Structure of Anthrolysin O, a Cholesterol-dependent Cytolysin Secreted by Bacillus anthracis*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Bourdeau, Raymond W.; Malito, Enrico; Chenal, Alexandre; Bishop, Brian L.; Musch, Mark W.; Villereal, Mitch L.; Chang, Eugene B.; Mosser, Elise M.; Rest, Richard F.; Tang, Wei-Jen

    2009-01-01

    Anthrolysin O (ALO) is a pore-forming, cholesterol-dependent cytolysin (CDC) secreted by Bacillus anthracis, the etiologic agent for anthrax. Growing evidence suggests the involvement of ALO in anthrax pathogenesis. Here, we show that the apical application of ALO decreases the barrier function of human polarized epithelial cells as well as increases intracellular calcium and the internalization of the tight junction protein occludin. Using pharmacological agents, we also found that barrier function disruption requires increased intracellular calcium and protein degradation. We also report a crystal structure of the soluble state of ALO. Based on our analytical ultracentrifugation and light scattering studies, ALO exists as a monomer. Our ALO structure provides the molecular basis as to how ALO is locked in a monomeric state, in contrast to other CDCs that undergo antiparallel dimerization or higher order oligomerization in solution. ALO has four domains and is globally similar to perfringolysin O (PFO) and intermedilysin (ILY), yet the highly conserved undecapeptide region in domain 4 (D4) adopts a completely different conformation in all three CDCs. Consistent with the differences within D4 and at the D2-D4 interface, we found that ALO D4 plays a key role in affecting the barrier function of C2BBE cells, whereas PFO domain 4 cannot substitute for this role. Novel structural elements and unique cellular functions of ALO revealed by our studies provide new insight into the molecular basis for the diverse nature of the CDC family. PMID:19307185

  3. Sensitivity Analysis of Mechanical Parameters of Different Rock Layers to the Stability of Coal Roadway in Soft Rock Strata

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zeng-hui; Wang, Wei-ming; Gao, Xin; Yan, Ji-xing

    2013-01-01

    According to the geological characteristics of Xinjiang Ili mine in western area of China, a physical model of interstratified strata composed of soft rock and hard coal seam was established. Selecting the tunnel position, deformation modulus, and strength parameters of each layer as influencing factors, the sensitivity coefficient of roadway deformation to each parameter was firstly analyzed based on a Mohr-Columb strain softening model and nonlinear elastic-plastic finite element analysis. Then the effect laws of influencing factors which showed high sensitivity were further discussed. Finally, a regression model for the relationship between roadway displacements and multifactors was obtained by equivalent linear regression under multiple factors. The results show that the roadway deformation is highly sensitive to the depth of coal seam under the floor which should be considered in the layout of coal roadway; deformation modulus and strength of coal seam and floor have a great influence on the global stability of tunnel; on the contrary, roadway deformation is not sensitive to the mechanical parameters of soft roof; roadway deformation under random combinations of multi-factors can be deduced by the regression model. These conclusions provide theoretical significance to the arrangement and stability maintenance of coal roadway. PMID:24459447

  4. Failure Behavior and Constitutive Model of Weakly Consolidated Soft Rock

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei-ming; Zhao, Zeng-hui; Wang, Yong-ji; Gao, Xin

    2013-01-01

    Mining areas in western China are mainly located in soft rock strata with poor bearing capacity. In order to make the deformation failure mechanism and strength behavior of weakly consolidated soft mudstone and coal rock hosted in Ili No. 4 mine of Xinjiang area clear, some uniaxial and triaxial compression tests were carried out according to the samples of rocks gathered in the studied area, respectively. Meanwhile, a damage constitutive model which considered the initial damage was established by introducing a damage variable and a correction coefficient. A linearization process method was introduced according to the characteristics of the fitting curve and experimental data. The results showed that samples under different moisture contents and confining pressures presented completely different failure mechanism. The given model could accurately describe the elastic and plastic yield characteristics as well as the strain softening behavior of collected samples at postpeak stage. Moreover, the model could precisely reflect the relationship between the elastic modulus and confining pressure at prepeak stage. PMID:24489511

  5. Description of a Simple Method of Stoma Protection During Prone Positioning.

    PubMed

    Mackert, Gina A; Reid, Christopher M; Dobke, Marek K; Tenenhaus, Mayer

    2016-06-01

    Surgeries conducted with the patient in the prone position are frequent and can be lengthy. Abdominal stomas and su- prapubic catheters require protection for the complete duration of the procedure to avoid complications such as stomal ischemia, bleeding, or mucocutaneous separation. Standard protection strategies such as pillows and wedges can eas- ily fail. In the course of managing several patients who had sustained ostomy complications following surgery in a prone position, a simple method of stoma protection was devised. Instead of discarding the foam headrest typically used dur- ing induction by anesthesia staff, this device is placed with its central recess over the stoma and secured to the patient's abdominal wall with gentle tape just before turning the patient into a prone position. This method, used in more than 80 patients, has been found to effectively relieve pressure, and no complications have been observed. The foam shape also enables unobstructed drainage of fluids, facilitating collection and preventing leakage and contamination of the surgical field. Because the device is widely used by anesthesia, it is readily available and does not add any extra cost. PMID:27356146

  6. A review of the surveillance systems of influenza in selected countries in the tropical region

    PubMed Central

    Sanicas, Melvin; Forleo, Eduardo; Pozzi, Gianni; Diop, Doudou

    2014-01-01

    Influenza viruses cause annual epidemics of respiratory tract disease that affect all age groups. Many developing countries do not have an influenza surveillance system or adequate laboratory capacity for virus detection. The objective of this study was to describe the influenza surveillance systems in the different countries in the tropics and to identify outstanding research needs. A questionnaire was designed and sent to 52 NICs and MoHs in the different countries in tropical Asia and Africa to gather information on the surveillance systems, sentinel sites, specimen and data collection, and laboratory testing. Replies were received from 32 NICs and MoHs (61.5% response) – 17 were located in tropical Asia and 15 in Africa. There are 20 WHO recognized NICs in tropical Asia and 14 in tropical Africa, all with virus isolation and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing capacity. Of the Asian countries, only Hong Kong and Singapore reported that the patient population from the sites represents the broader community. In tropical Africa, only Senegal has sentinel sites distributed all over the country contributing to the geographic representativeness of the surveillance system. The rest of the countries in Africa have just established their influenza surveillance system in the past decade and are working toward geographic expansion of the ILI and SARI sites. Limited laboratory capacity or infrastructure to perform influenza surveillance makes difficult to justify the importance of influenza vaccine or other influenza control measures as a strategy for improving population health in the tropical region. PMID:25745529

  7. Developing syndrome definitions based on consensus and current use

    PubMed Central

    Dowling, John N; Baer, Atar; Buckeridge, David L; Cochrane, Dennis; Conway, Michael A; Elkin, Peter; Espino, Jeremy; Gunn, Julia E; Hales, Craig M; Hutwagner, Lori; Keller, Mikaela; Larson, Catherine; Noe, Rebecca; Okhmatovskaia, Anya; Olson, Karen; Paladini, Marc; Scholer, Matthew; Sniegoski, Carol; Thompson, David; Lober, Bill

    2010-01-01

    Objective Standardized surveillance syndromes do not exist but would facilitate sharing data among surveillance systems and comparing the accuracy of existing systems. The objective of this study was to create reference syndrome definitions from a consensus of investigators who currently have or are building syndromic surveillance systems. Design Clinical condition–syndrome pairs were catalogued for 10 surveillance systems across the United States and the representatives of these systems were brought together for a workshop to discuss consensus syndrome definitions. Results Consensus syndrome definitions were generated for the four syndromes monitored by the majority of the 10 participating surveillance systems: Respiratory, gastrointestinal, constitutional, and influenza-like illness (ILI). An important element in coming to consensus quickly was the development of a sensitive and specific definition for respiratory and gastrointestinal syndromes. After the workshop, the definitions were refined and supplemented with keywords and regular expressions, the keywords were mapped to standard vocabularies, and a web ontology language (OWL) ontology was created. Limitations The consensus definitions have not yet been validated through implementation. Conclusion The consensus definitions provide an explicit description of the current state-of-the-art syndromes used in automated surveillance, which can subsequently be systematically evaluated against real data to improve the definitions. The method for creating consensus definitions could be applied to other domains that have diverse existing definitions. PMID:20819870

  8. Physiological and Immunological Regulations in Caenorhabditis elegans Infected with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi.

    PubMed

    Sivamaruthi, Bhagavathi Sundaram; Balamurugan, Krishnaswamy

    2014-03-01

    Studies pertaining to Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium infection by utilizing model systems failed to mimic the essential aspects of immunity induced by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, as the determinants of innate immunity are distinct. The present study investigated the physiological and innate immune responses of S. Typhi infected Caenorhabditis elegans and also explored the Ty21a mediated immune enhancement in C. elegans. Ty21a is a known live vaccine for typhoidal infection in human beings. Physiological responses of C. elegans infected with S. Typhi assessed by survival and behavioral assays revealed that S. Typhi caused host mortality by persistent infection. However, Ty21a exposure to C. elegans was not harmful. Ty21a pre-exposed C. elegans, exhibited significant resistance against S. Typhi infection. Elevated accumulation of S. Typhi inside the infected host was observed when compared to Ty21a exposures. Transcript analysis of candidate innate immune gene (clec-60, clec-87, lys-7, ilys-3, scl-2, cpr-2, F08G5.6, atf-7, age-1, bec-1 and daf-16) regulations in the host during S. Typhi infection have been assessed through qPCR analysis to understand the activation of immune signaling pathways during S. Typhi infections. Gene silencing approaches confirmed that clec-60 and clec-87 has a major role in the defense system of C. elegans during S. Typhi infection. In conclusion, the study revealed that preconditioning of host with Ty21a protects against subsequent S. Typhi infection. PMID:24426167

  9. Cellular Functions and X-ray Structure of Anthrolysin O, a Cholesterol-dependent Cytolysin Secreted by Bacillus anthracis

    SciTech Connect

    Bourdeau, Raymond W.; Malito, Enrico; Chenal, Alexandre; Bishop, Brian L.; Musch, Mark W.; Villereal, Mitch L.; Chang, Eugene B.; Mosser, Elise M.; Rest, Richard F.; Tang, Wei-Jen

    2009-06-02

    Anthrolysin O (ALO) is a pore-forming, cholesterol-dependent cytolysin (CDC) secreted by Bacillus anthracis, the etiologic agent for anthrax. Growing evidence suggests the involvement of ALO in anthrax pathogenesis. Here, we show that the apical application of ALO decreases the barrier function of human polarized epithelial cells as well as increases intracellular calcium and the internalization of the tight junction protein occludin. Using pharmacological agents, we also found that barrier function disruption requires increased intracellular calcium and protein degradation. We also report a crystal structure of the soluble state of ALO. Based on our analytical ultracentrifugation and light scattering studies, ALO exists as a monomer. Our ALO structure provides the molecular basis as to how ALO is locked in a monomeric state, in contrast to other CDCs that undergo antiparallel dimerization or higher order oligomerization in solution. ALO has four domains and is globally similar to perfringolysin O (PFO) and intermedilysin (ILY), yet the highly conserved undecapeptide region in domain 4 (D4) adopts a completely different conformation in all three CDCs. Consistent with the differences within D4 and at the D2-D4 interface, we found that ALO D4 plays a key role in affecting the barrier function of C2BBE cells, whereas PFO domain 4 cannot substitute for this role. Novel structural elements and unique cellular functions of ALO revealed by our studies provide new insight into the molecular basis for the diverse nature of the CDC family.

  10. Pandemic influenza: Experience in a flu OPD of a tertiary care hospital

    PubMed Central

    Mahesh, S.H.; Kushwaha, A.S.; Kotwal, Atul

    2012-01-01

    Background In April 2009, Mexican health authorities announced an outbreak of a novel H1N1 influenza virus, which subsequently caused a pandemic. The world is now moving into the post-pandemic period. The experience gained in handling this pandemic at various levels under different settings has provided us many lessons for the future. Objective To study the profile of various activities undertaken at flu screening centre as a response to pandemic influenza in a tertiary care hospital. Methods Record-based study conducted in a tertiary care hospital of Pune. Required data was collected from records of flu OPD, ward and local health authority and interviewing related staff. Study included data from October 2009 to October 2010. Results A total of 8020 people presenting with influenza like illness (ILI) were screened in the flu OPD under study. Out of these, only 388 (4.84%) met clinical criteria where throat samples were collected, out of which only 81 were found to be positive (20.88%). Total three fatalities (3.7%) occurred out of 81 who had tested positive. Most cases of flu were managed at home (76.54%) while only 19 (23.4%) lab confirmed cases of H1N1 required hospitalisation. Conclusion Majority of cases of H1N1 (2009) were managed at home. Early diagnosis, quick initiation of treatment, infection control measures, and good care at the hospital can effectively reduce morbidity and mortality in H1N1 pandemic. PMID:24623946

  11. Ductile damage evolution and experimental simulation under high rates of strain in 10100 copper.

    SciTech Connect

    Thissell, W. R.; McKirgan, J. B.; Chen, S. R.; Trujillo, C. P.; Macdougall, D. A. S.

    2001-01-01

    The high strain-rate damage evolution and Eracture behavior of half-hard 10 LOO Cu was investigated by experiments and computer simulations. Testing of uniaxial stress and axisymmetric notched bars of the Hancock-Mackenzie geometries were performetl using a momentum trapped tensile split Hopkinson pressure bar. Specimens were. tested to fracture and to several stages of incipient failure prior to fracture. Recovered specimens were sectioned and metallographically examined using image analysis and optical profilornelry to quantify the resulting damage. The quantified damage is described by spatially resolved porosity distributions, spatially resolved volumetric number densiries, and spatia Ily resolved void size distributions. Concurrent to mechanical testing, explicit finite element simulations of the tensile split Hopkinson pressure bar experiments were perfornicd to quantify the local stress-state and strain-state within the material and to determine the evolution of damage within the notch region. The coinpressive plasticity behavior of the material was fit to the mechanical threshold stress constitutive model, and was used in the simulations. The quantified damage was coniprued with damage model (TEPLA) predictions and used to refine model parameters and damage nucleation criteria. The simulation results also show that the maximum stress triaxiality in the specimens quickly enlarges after the onset of plastic flow or tensile instability to almost twice that of the Bridgman predicted levels.

  12. Corrosion Protection for Space and Beyond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calle, Luz Marina

    2007-01-01

    Florida is home to NASA's Launch Operations Center. Since its establishment in July 1962, the spaceport has served as the departure gate for every American manned mission and hundreds of advanced scientific spacecraft under the Launch Services Program. The center was renamed the John F. Kennedy Space Center in late 1963 to honor the president who put America on the path to the moon. Today, NASA is on the edge of a bold new chaIlenge: the ConsteIlation Program. ConsteIlation is a NASA program to create a new generation of spacecraft for human spaceflight, consisting primarily of the Ares I and Ares V launch vehicles, the Orion crew capsule, the Earth Departure stage and the Lunar access module. These spacecraft will be capable of performing a variety of missions, from Space Station resupply to lunar landings. The ambitious new endeavor caIls for NASA to return human explorers to the moon and then venture even farther, to Mars and beyond. As the nation's premier spaceport, Kennedy Space Center (KSC) will playa critical role in this new chapter in exploration, particularly in the conversion of the launch facilities to accommodate the new launch vehicles. To prepare for this endeavor, the launch site and facilities for the next generation of crew and cargo vehicles must be redesigned, assembled and tested. One critical factor that is being carefuIly considered during the renovation is protecting the new facilities and structures from corrosion and deterioration.

  13. Interactions of Jet Fuels with Nitrile O-Rings: Petroleum-Derived versus Synthetic Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Gormley, R.J.; Link, D.D.; Baltrus, J.P.; Zandhuis, P.H.

    2008-01-01

    A transition from petroleum-derived jet fuels to blends with Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) fuels, and ultimately fully synthetic hydro-isomerized F-T fuels has raised concern about the fate of plasticizers in nitrile-butadiene rubber o-rings that are contacted by the fuels as this transition occurs. The partitioning of plasticizers and fuel molecules between nitrile o-rings and petroleum-derived, synthetic, and additized-synthetic jet fuels has been measured. Thermal desorption of o-rings soaked in the various jet fuels followed by gas chromatographic analysis with a mass spectrometric detector showed many of the plasticizer and stabilizer compounds were removed from the o-rings regardless of the contact fuel. Fuel molecules were observed to migrate into the o-rings for the petroleum-derived fuel as did both the fuel and additive for a synthetic F-T jet fuel additized with benzyl alcohol, but less for the unadditized synthetic fuel. The specific compounds or classes of compounds involved in the partitioning were identified and a semiquantitative comparison of relative partitioning of the compounds of interest was made. The results provide another step forward in improving the confidence level of using additized, fuIly synthetic jet fuel in the place of petroleum-derived fueL

  14. An NMR-based metabolomics study of pork from different crossbreeds and relation to sensory perception.

    PubMed

    Straadt, Ida K; Aaslyng, Margit D; Bertram, Hanne Christine

    2014-02-01

    Meat extracts from five different pig crossbreeds including Duroc/Landrace/Yorkshire (DLY), Iberian/Duroc (ID), Iberian/Duroc/Landrace (ILY), Mangalitza/Duroc (MD), and Mangalitza/Landrace/Yorkshire (MLY) were analysed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics. The results were compared with technological traits and sensory analyses in order to elucidate the potential of NMR-based metabolomics to highlight meat metabolites of importance for technological and sensory attributes of meat. Amino acids including alanine, carnosine, isoleucine, methionine, phenylalanine, and valine, as well as lactate, inosine monophosphate (IMP), inosine, glycerol and choline-containing compounds were found to be significantly affected by crossbreed. The breed-specific differences in the metabolome were ascribed to differences in ante mortem metabolism, differences in the membrane properties and glycolytic potential of muscle fibres and differences in lipolysis and proteolysis. A high content of carnosine in the meat was associated with a low value of many sensory attributes related to meat flavor/taste, while IMP and inosine were in general not correlated with sensory attributes related to meat flavor/taste. PMID:24200563

  15. Respiratory symptoms in households as an effective marker for influenza-like illness surveillance in the community.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shui Shan; Wong, Ngai Sze

    2014-06-01

    To effectively track the growth of influenza, we piloted an online system to monitor influenza-like illness (ILI) in the community in one district of Hong Kong. Four syndromic markers, namely fever, respiratory symptoms, fever with respiratory symptoms, fever and/or respiratory symptoms, either of the individual or of the household, were collected during the study period from June 2012 to October 2013. A total of 132 residents of Tuen Mun District reported syndromic markers at the individual and household levels on a weekly basis. Temporal patterns of these markers were compared with data derived from laboratory surveillance by dynamic linear regression. Household respiratory symptoms were found to be an effective syndromic marker, pre-dating overall laboratory virus surveillance results on influenza diseases in two influenza seasons by 3-4 weeks. To conclude, respiratory symptoms can be a good marker predicting the onset of the influenza season in the community, and is particularly useful with regard to data from households, even if the sample size may not be a large one. PMID:24680819

  16. Simultaneous determination of PPCPs, EDCs, and artificial sweeteners in environmental water samples using a single-step SPE coupled with HPLC-MS/MS and isotope dilution.

    PubMed

    Tran, Ngoc Han; Hu, Jiangyong; Ong, Say Leong

    2013-09-15

    A high-throughput method for the simultaneous determination of 24 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and artificial sweeteners (ASs) was developed. The method was based on a single-step solid phase extraction (SPE) coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) and isotope dilution. In this study, a single-step SPE procedure was optimized for simultaneous extraction of all target analytes. Good recoveries (≥ 70%) were observed for all target analytes when extraction was performed using Chromabond(®) HR-X (500 mg, 6 mL) cartridges under acidic condition (pH 2). HPLC-MS/MS parameters were optimized for the simultaneous analysis of 24 PPCPs, EDCs and ASs in a single injection. Quantification was performed by using 13 isotopically labeled internal standards (ILIS), which allows correcting efficiently the loss of the analytes during SPE procedure, matrix effects during HPLC-MS/MS and fluctuation in MS/MS signal intensity due to instrument. Method quantification limit (MQL) for most of the target analytes was below 10 ng/L in all water samples. The method was successfully applied for the simultaneous determination of PPCPs, EDCs and ASs in raw wastewater, surface water and groundwater samples collected in a local catchment area in Singapore. In conclusion, the developed method provided a valuable tool for investigating the occurrence, behavior, transport, and the fate of PPCPs, EDCs and ASs in the aquatic environment. PMID:23708627

  17. Validation of 1 Year of Champ Radio Occultation Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marquardt, C.; Schöllhammer, K.; Schroedter, M.; Tomassini, M.; Beyerle, G.; Schmidt, T.; Wickert, J.; König, R.; Grunwaldt, L.; Reigber, Ch.

    The German polar-orbiting satellite CHAMP (Challenging mini-satellite Payload) was successfully launched in mid-2000. Equipped with a space borne GPS (Global Posi- tioning System) receiver provided by JPL (Jet Propulsion laboratory), CHAMP ex- ploits the signals of the global constellation of GPS satellites for the remote sensing of temperature and humidity in the atmosphere. This new remote sensing technique provides globally distributed, calibration free and weather independent measurements with - thanks to its limb geometry - high vertical resolution. In contrast to the earlier US proof-of-concept mission GPS/MET, CHAMP exhibits improved technical char- acteristics of the instrument and aims at quasi-continuous operation. Since its first successful radio occultation sounding in February 2001, CHAMP col- lected more than 40000 individual profiles of temperature and tropospheric moisture. By now, several multi-week periods of continuous measurements are available for all seasons, each one providing up to 200 daily soundings. We present a validation study of this data set against operational meteorological anal- yses, the global radiosonde network, and retrievals obtained from the ATOVS fam- ily of instruments (AMSU-A, AMSU-B, and HIRS) on board NOAA-16 for both stratospheric temperatures and tropospheric moisture. The performance of the pro- cessing system for strongly disturbed atmospheric conditions like those during the stratospheric major warming events in the early winter 2001/2002 will be addressed.

  18. Influence of the Qinghai-Tibetan railway on the habitat selection of wild animals, using satellite data and satellite-based ARGOS system data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buhe, Aosier

    The Qinghai-Tibet Railway (QTR) was in trial operation since 1 July 2006, is the world's highest-elevation railway and the longest highland railway, extending over 1956 km from Xining (Qinghai's capital in northwestern China) to Lhasa, the capital city of the Tibet Autonomous Region. This QTR railway was crosses five nature reserves along the route Hoh Xil (COCOX- ILI), Qinghai Sanjiangyuan, Chang Tang, Lin-chou Pengbo, and La-lu, and Hoh xil nature reserve is the important breeding sites of Tibetan Antelope (Pantholops hodgsoni). In order to clearly the habitat use and habitat selection of the Tibetan Antelope was divided in the north and south by the QTR railway, we planned the capture of ten Tibetan Antelopes and attach a satellite-based ARGOS system platform transmitter terminal (PTT) to the Tibetan Antelopes. And we succeeded in the capture of two Tibetan Antelopes for the first time in the world in 2007a summer and attached an ARGOS PTT. In this study, we estimate RASTER model of habitat change, using satellite-based ARGOS PTT tracking analyst data and satellite (Terra/MODIS, Terra/ASTER, ALOS and SPOT/vegetation instrument data) land cover change data, order to clearly the spatial and temporal characteristics of wide area habitat selection of Tibetan Antelope.

  19. The mitochondrial phylogeography and intraspecific taxonomy of the Steppe Racerunner, Eremias arguta (Pallas) (Lacertidae: Sauria, Reptilia), reflects biogeographic patterns in Middle Asia.

    PubMed

    Poyarkov, Nikolay A; Orlova, Valentina F; Chirikova, Marina A

    2014-01-01

    Steppe racerunner, Eremias (Eremias) arguta, is one of the most widespread species of the Asian racerunners (genus Eremias). Several subspecies were traditionally recognized however, morphological variability is so high that delimitation of these subspecies was always problematic. Here we present a phylogenetic hypothesis for this species based on cytochrome b sequences (55 samples from 35 populations, 900 bp partial sequences), infer it biogeography and the revise its subspecific structure. Six major phylogenetic lineages were revealed. The southernmost populations (E. a. uzbekistanica) from Uzbekistan form a clade together with the Issyk-Kul Lake subspecies (E. a. darevskii) based on both molecular and morphological evidence. Within more northern populations, there is a split between populations from Northern Caucasus, Europe and Western Kazakhstan (E. a. deserti) and Central and Eastern Kazakhstan populations (E. a. arguta). Transcaucasian (E. a. transcaucasica) steppe racerunners are grouped with Middle Asian populations. Finally, the easternmost samples, assigned to "E. a. potanini" are nested within the E. a. arguta clade. Populations from the Ili River Valley form a separate lineage sister to the clade joining all other E. arguta lineages and might represent a yet undescribed taxon. Species distribution in relation to historical biogeography of Middle Asia is discussed.  PMID:25543565

  20. Transdermal iontophoresis of gonadotropin releasing hormone (LHRH) and two analogues.

    PubMed

    Miller, L L; Kolaskie, C J; Smith, G A; Rivier, J

    1990-06-01

    Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH), as well as an antagonist [Ac-D2Nal,1 D4ClPhe,2 D3Pal,3 NicLys,5 DNicLys,6 ILys,8 DAla10] GnRH.HOAc (1) and a superagonist [DTrp6, Pro9-NHEt]GnRH (2), have been electrochemically driven across excised hairless mouse skin. Determined by HPLC analysis, the delivery rate from aqueous solution into isotonic saline at 0.5 mA cm-2 was as high as 19 nM cm-2 h-1 for 2. Because of its insolubility in water, analogue 1 could only be delivered from an acidic donor solution. Analogue 2 was also delivered in pulsatile fashion using current on/off cycles. For all three peptides, passive transport was negligible and stability is evident when in contact with the stratum corneum. Slow metabolism occurs when GnRH contacts the dermal side of hairless mouse skin. PMID:2203894

  1. Search performance is better predicted by tileability than presence of a unique basic feature

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Honghua; Rosenholtz, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Traditional models of visual search such as feature integration theory (FIT; Treisman & Gelade, 1980), have suggested that a key factor determining task difficulty consists of whether or not the search target contains a “basic feature” not found in the other display items (distractors). Here we discriminate between such traditional models and our recent texture tiling model (TTM) of search (Rosenholtz, Huang, Raj, Balas, & Ilie, 2012b), by designing new experiments that directly pit these models against each other. Doing so is nontrivial, for two reasons. First, the visual representation in TTM is fully specified, and makes clear testable predictions, but its complexity makes getting intuitions difficult. Here we elucidate a rule of thumb for TTM, which enables us to easily design new and interesting search experiments. FIT, on the other hand, is somewhat ill-defined and hard to pin down. To get around this, rather than designing totally new search experiments, we start with five classic experiments that FIT already claims to explain: T among Ls, 2 among 5s, Q among Os, O among Qs, and an orientation/luminance-contrast conjunction search. We find that fairly subtle changes in these search tasks lead to significant changes in performance, in a direction predicted by TTM, providing definitive evidence in favor of the texture tiling model as opposed to traditional views of search. PMID:27548090

  2. Solar hot water system installed at Days Inn Motel, Jacksonville, Florida

    SciTech Connect

    1980-09-01

    The solar energy hot water system installed in the Days Inns of America, Inc., Days Inn Motel (120 rooms) I-95 and Cagle Road, Jacksonville, Florida, is described. The solar system was designed by ILI, Incorporated to provide 65 percent of the hot water demand. The system is one of eleven systems planned under this grant. Water (in the Solar Energy Products, Model CU-30ww liquid flat plate collector (900 square feet) system) automatically drains into the 1000 gallon lined and vented steel storage tank when the pump is not running. Heat is transferred from storage to Domestic Hot Water (DHW) tanks through a tube and shell heat exchanger. A circulating pump between the DHW tanks and heat exchanger enables solar heated water to help make up DHW standby losses. All pumps are controlled by differential temperature. This system was turned on June 19, 1979. The solar components were partly funded ($15,823 of $31,823 cost) by the Department of Energy.

  3. Solar hot water system installed at Days Inn Motel, Dallas, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    The solar energy hot water system installed in the Days Inn of America, Inc., Days Inn Motel (100 rooms), I-635/2753 Forrest Lane, Dallas, Texas is described. The solar system was designed by ILI, Inc., to provide 65% of the total Domestic Hot Water (DHW) demand. The liquid flat plate (water) collector is 1000 square feet of solar energy products, Model CU-30W array. Water in the collector system automatically drains into the 1000 gallon steel storage tank located in the mechanical room when the pump is not running. Heat is transferred from the storage tank to DHW tanks through a tube and shell heat exchanger. A circulating pump between the DHW tanks and the heat exchanger enables solar heated water to help make up DHW tank standby losses. All pumps are controlled by differential temperature. Operation of this system was begun March 11, 1980. The solar components were partly funded ($15,000 of $30,000 cost) by the Department of Energy Grant.

  4. Material property relationships for pipeline steels and the potential for application of NDE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smart, Lucinda; Bond, Leonard J.

    2016-02-01

    The oil and gas industry in the USA has an extensive infrastructure of pipelines, 70% of which were installed prior to 1980, and almost half were installed during the 1950s and 1960s. Ideally the mechanical properties (i.e. yield strength, tensile strength, transition temperature, and fracture toughness) of a steel pipe must be known in order to respond to detected defects in an appropriate manner. Neither current in-ditch methods nor the ILI inspection data have yet determined and map the desired mechanical properties with adequate confidence. In the quest to obtain the mechanical properties of a steel pipe using a nondestructive method, it is important to understand that there are many inter-related variables. This paper reports a literature review and an analysis of a sample set of data. There is promise for correlating the results of NDE measurement modalities to the information required to develop relationships between those measurements and the mechanical measurements desired for pipelines to ensure proper response to defects which are of significant threat.

  5. Multimodal Therapy of Ulcers on the Dorsum of the Hand With Exposed Tendons Caused by Pyoderma Gangrenosum.

    PubMed

    Leitsch, Sebastian; Koban, Konstantin Christoph; Pototschnig, Adrian; Titze, Virginia; Giunta, Riccardo Enzo

    2016-03-01

    The authors present the case of a 54-year-old man with ul- cers on the dorsal hand and forearm with exposed extensor tendons after he received misdiagnoses at 2 other hospitals, leading to deep soft tissue defects from multiple debridements. Due to the compli- cated nature of the wound, the ulcers did not heal under the sys- temic medication. After careful debridement, the defect was primar- ily closed with a collagen-glycosaminoglycan biodegradable matrix (Integra Matrix Wound Dressing, Integra LifeSciences, Plainsboro, NJ) on the dorsal hand and covered with a mesh graft 14 days later. Necrosis and superinfection over the index finger was treated again with systemic antibiotics and an unmeshed skin graft under a vacuum bandage with a mesh wound contact layer (Mepitel, Mölnlycke Health Care, Norcross, GA). The patient was satisfied with the functional and aesthetic outcome 1 month later when wounds were completely healed. The authors conclude that in cases where patients are living with pyoderma gangrenosum, even a challenging and complicated wound can be handled successfully with correct systemic immuno- suppression and appropriate soft tissue coverage. PMID:26992198

  6. Unit physics testing of a mix model in an eulerian fluid computation

    SciTech Connect

    Vold, Erik; Douglass, Rod

    2010-01-01

    A K-L turbulence mix model driven with a drag-buoyancy source term is tested in an Eulerian code in a series of basic unit-physics tests, as part of a mix validation milestone. The model and the closure coefficient values are derived in the work of Dimonte-Tipton [D-T] in Phys.Flu.18, 085101 (2006), and many of the test problems were reported there, where the mix model operated in Lagrange computations. The drag-buoyancy K-L mix model was implemented within the Eulerian code framework by A.J. Scannapieco. Mix model performance is evaluated in terms of mix width growth rates compared to experiments in select regimes. Results in our Eulerian code are presented for several unit-physics I-D test problems including the decay of homogeneous isotropic turbulence (HIT), Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) unstable mixing, shock amplification of initial turbulence, Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) mixing in several single shock test cases and in comparison to two RM experiments including re-shock (Vetter-Sturtevant and Poggi, et.al.). Sensitivity to model parameters, to Atwood number, and to initial conditions are examined. Results here are in good agreement in some tests (HIT, RT) with the previous results reported for the mix model in the Lagrange calculations. The HIT turbulent decay agrees closely with analytic expectations, and the RT growth rate matches experimental values for the default values of the model coefficients proposed in [D-T]. Results for RM characterized with a power law growth rate differ from the previous mix model work but are still within the range for reasonable agreement with experiments. Sensitivity to IC values in the RM studies are examined; results are sensitive to initial values of L[t=O], which largely determines the RM mix layer growth rate, and generally differs from the IC values used in the RT studies. Result sensitivity to initial turbulence, K[t=O], is seen to be small but significant above a threshold value. Initial conditions can be adjusted so that single

  7. The biological factors influence on the conversion of mineral components of Extremely Arid Desert Soils (Kazakhstan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutovaya, Olga; Vasilenko, Elena; Lebedeva, Marina; Tkhakakhova, Azida

    2013-04-01

    Extremely arid soils of stony deserts (hamadas) along the southern periphery of the Ili Depression are considered to be analogous to extremely arid soils of Mongolia, also named as "ultra-arid primitive gray-brown soils." In general, the morphology of extremely arid soils of hamadas in the Ili Depression is similar to that of the soils of stony deserts in other parts of the world, including the Gobi, Atacama, and Tarim deserts. The diagnostics of the active communities of microorganisms were performed according to the method of Rybalkina-Kononenko. The exact identification of the living forms of microorganisms to the species level is not always possible with the use of this method. However, it allows us to study the physiological role of the microorganisms and their ecological functions, including the relationships with the soil matrix and other organisms. In particular, it is possible to estimate the contribution of the microorganisms to the transformation of mineral soil components. The obtained materials allow us to conclude that the extremely arid desert soils are characterized by the very high biological activity during short periods of the increased soil moistening after rare and strong rains. The diversity of living forms is very considerable; both prokaryotes (cyanobacteria, actinomycetes, and iron bacteria) and protists (green algae, diatoms, and dinoflagellates) are developed in the soil. Thus, during a short period after the rains, these microorganisms pass from the stage of anabiosis to the stage of active growth and reproduction. Then, upon drying of the soil, the biotic activity of the soil slows down and, finally, terminates. The organisms remain in the state of anabiosis until the next rain. During the period of active growth, the microorganisms compose a specific consortium of different species and exert a profound impact on the soil properties. They participate in the transformation of the soil minerals with the formation of amorphous substances

  8. The Severity of Pandemic H1N1 Influenza in the United States, from April to July 2009: A Bayesian Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Presanis, Anne M.; De Angelis, Daniela; Hagy, Angela; Reed, Carrie; Riley, Steven; Cooper, Ben S.; Finelli, Lyn; Biedrzycki, Paul; Lipsitch, Marc

    2009-01-01

    Background Accurate measures of the severity of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza (pH1N1) are needed to assess the likely impact of an anticipated resurgence in the autumn in the Northern Hemisphere. Severity has been difficult to measure because jurisdictions with large numbers of deaths and other severe outcomes have had too many cases to assess the total number with confidence. Also, detection of severe cases may be more likely, resulting in overestimation of the severity of an average case. We sought to estimate the probabilities that symptomatic infection would lead to hospitalization, ICU admission, and death by combining data from multiple sources. Methods and Findings We used complementary data from two US cities: Milwaukee attempted to identify cases of medically attended infection whether or not they required hospitalization, while New York City focused on the identification of hospitalizations, intensive care admission or mechanical ventilation (hereafter, ICU), and deaths. New York data were used to estimate numerators for ICU and death, and two sources of data—medically attended cases in Milwaukee or self-reported influenza-like illness (ILI) in New York—were used to estimate ratios of symptomatic cases to hospitalizations. Combining these data with estimates of the fraction detected for each level of severity, we estimated the proportion of symptomatic patients who died (symptomatic case-fatality ratio, sCFR), required ICU (sCIR), and required hospitalization (sCHR), overall and by age category. Evidence, prior information, and associated uncertainty were analyzed in a Bayesian evidence synthesis framework. Using medically attended cases and estimates of the proportion of symptomatic cases medically attended, we estimated an sCFR of 0.048% (95% credible interval [CI] 0.026%–0.096%), sCIR of 0.239% (0.134%–0.458%), and sCHR of 1.44% (0.83%–2.64%). Using self-reported ILI, we obtained estimates approximately 7–9× lower. sCFR and sCIR appear to

  9. Carbon Budget and its Dynamics over Northern Eurasia Forest Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shvidenko, Anatoly; Schepaschenko, Dmitry; Kraxner, Florian; Maksyutov, Shamil

    2016-04-01

    The presentation contains an overview of recent findings and results of assessment of carbon cycling of forest ecosystems of Northern Eurasia. From a methodological point of view, there is a clear tendency in understanding a need of a Full and Verified Carbon Account (FCA), i.e. in reliable assessment of uncertainties for all modules and all stages of FCA. FCA is considered as a fuzzy (underspecified) system that supposes a system integration of major methods of carbon cycling study (land-ecosystem approach, LEA; process-based models; eddy covariance; and inverse modelling). Landscape-ecosystem approach 1) serves for accumulation of all relevant knowledge of landscape and ecosystems; 2) for strict systems designing the account, 3) contains all relevant spatially distributed empirical and semi-empirical data and models, and 4) is presented in form of an Integrated Land Information System (ILIS). The ILIS includes a hybrid land cover in a spatially and temporarily explicit way and corresponding attributive databases. The forest mask is provided by utilizing multi-sensor remote sensing data, geographically weighed regression and validation within GEO-wiki platform. By-pixel parametrization of forest cover is based on a special optimization algorithms using all available knowledge and information sources (data of forest inventory and different surveys, observations in situ, official statistics of forest management etc.). Major carbon fluxes within the LEA (NPP, HR, disturbances etc.) are estimated based on fusion of empirical data and aggregations with process-based elements by sets of regionally distributed models. Uncertainties within LEA are assessed for each module and at each step of the account. Within method results of LEA and corresponding uncertainties are harmonized and mutually constrained with independent outputs received by other methods based on the Bayesian approach. The above methodology have been applied to carbon account of Russian forests for 2000

  10. Interactions and Interventions: Current Research on Improving Informal Astronomy Education via the Astronomical Society of the Pacific (ASP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manning, James G.; Gurton, S.; Hurst, A.; Berendsen, M.; Storksdieck, M.; Haley-Goldman, K.; Stein, J.; Pompea, S.; Garmany, C.; Sparks, R.; Pollock, W.

    2007-12-01

    In building national capacity for better informal astronomy education and public outreach (EPO), what sorts of professional development interactions are most effective in what situations--and what interventions for improvement can be effectively applied? Building on previous experience, the ASP, in conjunction with its partners, is conducting two National Science Foundation (NSF) funded projects investigating astronomy teaching and learning in informal contexts to explore these questions in both museum-based and amateur astronomy club settings. "Astronomy from the Ground Up" (AfGU) develops capacity for hands-on astronomy education in small and medium-sized science centers and nature centers through on-site and online professional development workshops and the establishment of a "community of practice" network. The ASP, in collaboration with the National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO) and the Association of Science and Technology Centers (ASTC), is investigating which model--face-to-face or online professional development--works best and will be sustainable for that target group. "Sharing the Universe" (STU) builds on the Night Sky Network in which amateur astronomy clubs, through the ASP with financial and logistical support from NASA and its missions, are provided tools and training to conduct EPO activities with their public audiences. The ASP, in collaboration with the Institute for Learning Innovation (ILI), launched a national survey in late 2007 to investigate the factors that either support or discourage sustained amateur astronomer EPO efforts, followed by an in-depth study of a subset of both successful and struggling clubs, and leading to the development of interventions that support amateur astronomy outreach within the context of a nurturing club environment. The presentation will offer some early and initial results of the AfGU project--which reveal some interesting and unforeseen advantages of the online model over the on-site model--and some

  11. Carbon account of forest ecosystems as a fuzzy system: a case study for Northern Eurasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shvidenko, A.; Shchepashchenko, D.; Kraxner, F.; Maksyutov, S. S.

    2015-12-01

    We consider practicality of a verified account of Net Ecosystem Carbon Budget for forest ecosystems (FCA) that supposes reliable assessment of uncertainties, i.e. understanding "uncertainty of uncertainties". The FCA is a fuzzy (underspecified) system, of which membership function is inherently stochastic. Thus, any individually used method of FCA is not able to estimate structural uncertainties and usually reported "within method" uncertainties are inevitably partial. Attempting at estimation of "full uncertainties" of the studied system we follow the requirements of applied systems analysis integrating the major methods of terrestrial ecosystems carbon account, assessing the uncertainties "within method" for intermediate and final indicators of FCA with their following mutual constrains. Landscape-ecosystem approach (LEA) 1) serves for strict systems designing the account, 2) contains all relevant spatially distributed empirical and semi-empirical data and models, and 3) is presented in form of an Integrated Land Information System (ILIS). By-pixel parametrization of forest cover is provided by utilizing multi-sensor remote sensing data (12 RS products used) within GEO-wiki platform and other relevant information based on special optimization algorithms. Major carbon fluxes within the LEA (NPP, HR, disturbances etc.) are estimated based on fusion of empirical data with process-based elements by sets of regionally distributed models. Uncertainties within LEA are assessed for each module and at each step of the account. "Within method" results and uncertainties (including LEA, process-based models, eddy covariance, and inverse modelling) are harmonized based on the Bayesian approach. The above methodology have been applied to carbon account of Russian forests for 2000-2010; uncertainties of the FCA for individual years were estimated in limits of 25%. We discussed strengths and weaknesses of the approach, system requirements to different methods of FCA, information

  12. Target and suspect screening of psychoactive substances in sewage-based samples by UHPLC-QTOF.

    PubMed

    Baz-Lomba, J A; Reid, Malcolm J; Thomas, Kevin V

    2016-03-31

    The quantification of illicit drug and pharmaceutical residues in sewage has been shown to be a valuable tool that complements existing approaches in monitoring the patterns and trends of drug use. The present work delineates the development of a novel analytical tool and dynamic workflow for the analysis of a wide range of substances in sewage-based samples. The validated method can simultaneously quantify 51 target psychoactive substances and pharmaceuticals in sewage-based samples using an off-line automated solid phase extraction (SPE-DEX) method, using Oasis HLB disks, followed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF) in MS(e). Quantification and matrix effect corrections were overcome with the use of 25 isotopic labeled internal standards (ILIS). Recoveries were generally greater than 60% and the limits of quantification were in the low nanogram-per-liter range (0.4-187 ng L(-1)). The emergence of new psychoactive substances (NPS) on the drug scene poses a specific analytical challenge since their market is highly dynamic with new compounds continuously entering the market. Suspect screening using high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) simultaneously allowed the unequivocal identification of NPS based on a mass accuracy criteria of 5 ppm (of the molecular ion and at least two fragments) and retention time (2.5% tolerance) using the UNIFI screening platform. Applying MS(e) data against a suspect screening database of over 1000 drugs and metabolites, this method becomes a broad and reliable tool to detect and confirm NPS occurrence. This was demonstrated through the HRMS analysis of three different sewage-based sample types; influent wastewater, passive sampler extracts and pooled urine samples resulting in the concurrent quantification of known psychoactive substances and the identification of NPS and pharmaceuticals. PMID:26965330

  13. Trouble in the aquatic world: How wildlife professionals are battling amphibian declines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, Deanna H.; Chestnut, Tara E.

    2014-01-01

    A parasitic fungus, similar to the one that caused the extinction of numerous tropical frog and toad species, is killing salaman-ders in Europe. Scientists first identified the fungus, Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans, in 2013 as the culprit behind the death of fire salamanders (Salamandra salamandra) in the Netherlands (Martel et al. 2013) and are now exploring its potential impact to other species. Although the fungus, which kills the amphibians by infecting their skin, has not yet spread to the United States, researchers believe it's only a mat-ter of time before it does and, when that happens, the impact on salamander populations could be devastating (Martel et al. 2014). Reports of worldwide declines of amphibians began a quarter of a century ago (Blaustein & Wake 1990). Globally, some amphibian popula-tion declines occurred in the late 1950s and early 1960s, and declining trends continued in North America (Houlahan et al. 2000). In the earlier years, population declines were attributed primar-ily to overharvest due to unregulated supply of species such as the northern leopard frog (Litho-bates pipiens) for educational use (Dodd 2013). In later years, however, causes of declines were less evident. In 1989, herpetologists at the First World Congress of Herpetology traded alarming stories of losses across continents and in seemingly pro-tected landscapes, making it clear that amphibian population declines were a "global phenomenon." In response to these reports, in 1991, the Interna-tional Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) established the Declining Amphibian Populations Task Force to better understand the scale and scope of global amphibian declines. Unfortunate-ly, the absence of long-term monitoring data and targeted studies made it difficult for the task force to compile information.

  14. Effects of grapheme-to-phoneme probability on writing durations.

    PubMed

    Afonso, Olivia; Álvarez, Carlos J; Kandel, Sonia

    2015-05-01

    The relative involvement of the lexical and sublexical routes across different writing tasks remains a controversial topic in the field of handwriting production research. The present article reports two experiments examining whether or not the probability of a grapheme-to-phoneme (G-P) mapping affected production during copy of polyvalent graphemes embedded in French (Exps. 1a and 1b) and Spanish (Exp. 2) known words. The relative probabilities of two different G-P mappings associated with the same polyvalent grapheme were manipulated (higher vs. lower probability). In Experiment 1a, we used the polyvalent French grapheme E. Writing durations revealed that the interletter intervals (ILIs) located before and after this letter were shorter and that the letter itself was executed faster in the condition of higher probability of the G-P mapping (e.g., S E RVICE, "service") than in the lower-probability condition (e.g., S E MAINE, "week"). In Experiment 1b, we used the sequence TI (e.g., VIC TI ME-MAR TI EN, "victim-Martian"), which is less frequent. In this case, we failed to observe significant differences between the conditions. In Experiment 2, effects similar to those obtained in Experiment 1a were found with Spanish words using different pronunciations of the letter C (e.g., DES C ANSO-DES C ENSO, "rest-descent"). Altogether, these results reveal that the link between a grapheme and a phoneme is weighted according to its probability in the language. Moreover, they suggest that a two-phase route linking graphemes to phonemes and phonemes to graphemes is functional during copy. PMID:25421318

  15. Results of the post flash-flood disaster investigation occurred in the Transylvanian Depression during the last decade (2001-2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arghius, V. I.; Ozunu, A.; Samara, I.; Rosian, Gh.

    2012-04-01

    Flash-flood disasters are very rare in the Transylvanian Depression. Therefore, none of the significant flash-floods that hit Romania during the second half of the 20th century is found in the study region. During the last decade (i.e. 2001-2010 period), the occurrence of such events has increased throughout the country, as the flash-floods are listed first in the natural disaster category, in terms of life losses. The study area was also impacted by these events. The three most significant flash-floods occurring in the study area during the last decade had a significant impact on several localities situated at the Transylvanian Depression border, where the slope gradient of the micro-basins is higher. Flash-floods affecting localities which belong to Feernic, Ilişua or Ciunga basins, were possible even with the implementation of leading technologies that provide nowcasting warnings and the adoption of the National Strategy for Flood Risk Management. Based on the post flash-flood investigation (analysis of rain gauge measurements and Doppler Radar images, cross-sectional survey for peak discharge estimates, the official damage reports, the operational flood management reports, the interviews and other data), this study intends to find out which were the causes that have led to disaster in a region, rarely affected by such kind of events. The results showed that, in addition to high stream power and unexpected character, common to flash-flood hazards, the inappropriate flood risk management measures, both pre-event and during its operation, increased the dimension of negative effects leading to tens of life losses and millions of dollars economical damages.

  16. Virological Surveillance of Influenza Viruses during the 2008–09, 2009–10 and 2010–11 Seasons in Tunisia

    PubMed Central

    El Moussi, Awatef; Pozo, Francisco; Ben Hadj Kacem, Mohamed Ali; Ledesma, Juan; Cuevas, Maria Teresa; Casas, Inmaculada; Slim, Amine

    2013-01-01

    Background The data contribute to a better understanding of the circulation of influenza viruses especially in North-Africa. Objective The objective of this surveillance was to detect severe influenza cases, identify their epidemiological and virological characteristics and assess their impact on the healthcare system. Method We describe in this report the findings of laboratory-based surveillance of human cases of influenza virus and other respiratory viruses' infection during three seasons in Tunisia. Results The 2008–09 winter influenza season is underway in Tunisia, with co-circulation of influenza A/H3N2 (56.25%), influenza A(H1N1) (32.5%), and a few sporadic influenza B viruses (11.25%). In 2010–11 season the circulating strains are predominantly the 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 (70%) and influenza B viruses (22%). And sporadic viruses were sub-typed as A/H3N2 and unsubtyped influenza A, 5% and 3%, respectively. Unlike other countries, highest prevalence of influenza B virus Yamagata-like lineage has been reported in Tunisia (76%) localised into the clade B/Bangladesh/3333/2007. In the pandemic year, influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 predominated over other influenza viruses (95%). Amino acid changes D222G and D222E were detected in the HA gene of A(H1N1)pdm09 virus in two severe cases, one fatal case and one mild case out of 50 influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses studied. The most frequently reported respiratory virus other than influenza in three seasons was RSV (45.29%). Conclusion This article summarises the surveillance and epidemiology of influenza viruses and other respiratory viruses, showing how rapid improvements in influenza surveillance were feasible by connecting the existing structure in the health care system for patient records to electronic surveillance system for reporting ILI cases. PMID:24069267

  17. Fertilization rate and its determinants in intracytoplasmic sperm injection

    PubMed Central

    Jawed, Shireen; Rehman, Rehana; Ali, Mohammad Ashfaq; Abdullah, Umme Hani; Gul, Hina

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To identify predictors of fertilization rate in patients of unexplained infertility after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Methods: Retrospective analysis of females (282) enrolled in quasi experimental design for ICSI at “Islamabad Clinic Serving Infertile Couples” was carried out from July 2013 till June 2014. Females with unexplained infertility were included, whereas well defined male and female causes of infertility were excluded. Fertilization rate (FR) was calculated as percentage transformation of micro injected oocytes into two pronuclei. Categorical variable of FR defined on the basis of 50% FR grouped females; Group I with FR ≤50% and Group II with FR >50%. The groups were compared in terms of demographic variables, base line hormones and oocyte parameters. Univariate logistic regression was executed to obtain odds ratio with 95% confidence interval to quantify the association of predictors like age, duration of infertility, oocytes parameters, hormones; Estradiol, progesterone, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone, prolactin and cytokines interleukin-Iβ (IL-Iβ) with the FR. Results: In our study out of 282 females, 19 (6.73%) were in group I and 263 (93.26%) comprised of Group II. Females with high FR(group II) had low Progesterone and FSH (p=0.04, p=0.02) respectively. Mature oocytes (OR: 0.35; 95% CI 1 – 2.56) and IL-Iβ in follicular phase (OR: 1.04; 95% CI: 0.000- 1.20) were significant positive predictors of FR while peak progesterone and FSH had significant negative effect on it Conclusion: Fertilization of oocytes in females of unexplained infertility depended on maturity of oocytes and optimal amounts of ILI- β released by developing follicles in the follicular phase of stimulation cycles of ICSI. PMID:27022334

  18. Statistical analysis of compositional factors affecting the compressive strength of alumina-loaded epoxy (ALOX).

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, Stephen Tedford; Ahn, Sung K. (Washington State University, Pullman, WA); Lee, Moo Yul

    2006-02-01

    Detailed statistical analysis of the experimental data from testing of alumina-loaded epoxy (ALOX) composites was conducted to better understand influences of the selected compositional properties on the compressive strength of these ALOX composites. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) for different models with different sets of parameters identified the optimal statistical model as, y{sub l} = -150.71 + 29.72T{sub l} + 204.71D{sub l} + 160.93S{sub 1l} + 90.41S{sub 2l}-20.366T{sub l}S{sub 2l}-137.85D{sub l}S{sub 1l}-90.08D{sub l}S{sub 2l} where y{sub l} is the predicted compressive strength, T{sub l} is the powder type, D{sub l} is the density as the covariate for powder volume concentration, and S{sub il}(i=1,2) is the strain rate. Based on the optimal statistical model, we conclude that the compressive strength of the ALOX composite is significantly influenced by the three main factors examined: powder type, density, and strain rate. We also found that the compressive strength of the ALOX composite is significantly influenced by interactions between the powder type and the strain rate and between the powder volume concentration and the strain rate. However, the interaction between the powder type and the powder volume concentration may not significantly influence the compressive strength of the ALOX composite.

  19. NOX2 Inhibition Impairs Early Muscle Gene Expression Induced by a Single Exercise Bout

    PubMed Central

    Henríquez-Olguín, Carlos; Díaz-Vegas, Alexis; Utreras-Mendoza, Yildy; Campos, Cristian; Arias-Calderón, Manuel; Llanos, Paola; Contreras-Ferrat, Ariel; Espinosa, Alejandra; Altamirano, Francisco; Jaimovich, Enrique; Valladares, Denisse M.

    2016-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) participate as signaling molecules in response to exercise in skeletal muscle. However, the source of ROS and the molecular mechanisms involved in these phenomena are still not completely understood. The aim of this work was to study the role of skeletal muscle NADPH oxidase isoform 2 (NOX2) in the molecular response to physical exercise in skeletal muscle. BALB/c mice, pre-treated with a NOX2 inhibitor, apocynin, (3 mg/kg) or vehicle for 3 days, were swim-exercised for 60 min. Phospho–p47phox levels were significantly upregulated by exercise in flexor digitorum brevis (FDB). Moreover, exercise significantly increased NOX2 complex assembly (p47phox–gp91phox interaction) demonstrated by both proximity ligation assay and co-immunoprecipitation. Exercise-induced NOX2 activation was completely inhibited by apocynin treatment. As expected, exercise increased the mRNA levels of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), citrate synthase (CS), mitochondrial transcription factor A (tfam) and interleukin-6 (IL-I6) in FDB muscles. Moreover, the apocynin treatment was associated to a reduced activation of p38 MAP kinase, ERK 1/2, and NF-κB signaling pathways after a single bout of exercise. Additionally, the increase in plasma IL-6 elicited by exercise was decreased in apocynin-treated mice compared with the exercised vehicle-group (p < 0.001). These results were corroborated using gp91-dstat in an in vitro exercise model. In conclusion, NOX2 inhibition by both apocynin and gp91dstat, alters the intracellular signaling to exercise and electrical stimuli in skeletal muscle, suggesting that NOX2 plays a critical role in molecular response to an acute exercise. PMID:27471471

  20. Influenza-like illness sentinel surveillance in one hospital in Medellin, Colombia. 2007–2012

    PubMed Central

    Arango, Ana Eugenia; Jaramillo, Sergio; Perez, Juan; Ampuero, Julia S; Espinal, David; Donado, Jorge; Felices, Vidal; Garcia, Josefina; Laguna-Torres, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Background The city of Medellin in Colombia has almost no documentation of the causes of acute respiratory infections (ARIs). As part of an ongoing collaboration, we conducted an epidemiologic surveillance for influenza and other respiratory viruses. It described the influenza strains that were circulating in the region along with their distribution over time, and performing molecular characterization to some of those strains. This will contribute to the knowledge of local and national epidemiology. Objectives To analyze viral etiologic agents associated with influenza like illness (ILI) in participants reporting to one General hospital in Medelllin, Colombia. Results From January 2007 to December 2012, a total of 2039 participants were enrolled. Among them, 1120 (54·9%) were male and 1364 (69%) were under the age of five. Only 124 (6%) were older than the age of 15. From all 2039 participants, 1040 samples were diagnosed by either isolation or RT-PCR. One or more respiratory viruses were found in 737 (36%) participants. Of those, 426 (57·8%) got influenza A or B. Adenoviral and parainfluenza infections represented 19·1% and 14·9% of viral infections, respectively. Influenza A was detected almost throughout the whole year except for the first quarter of 2010, right after the 2009 influenza A pandemic. Influenza B was detected in 2008, 2010, and 2012 with no pattern detected. During 2008 and 2010, both types circulated in about the same proportion. Unusually, in many months of 2012, the proportion of influenza B infections was higher than influenza A (ranging between 30% and 42%). The higher proportion of adenovirus was mainly detected in the last quarter of years 2007 and 2010. Adenoviral cases are more frequent in participants under the age of four. Conclusions The phylogenetic analysis of influenza viruses shows that only in the case of influenza A/H1N1, the circulating strains totally coincide with the vaccine strains each year. PMID:25100179

  1. GIS for Predicting the Avalanche Zones in the Mountain Regions of Kazakhstan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omirzhanova, Zh. T.; Urazaliev, A. S.; Aimenov, A. T.

    2015-10-01

    Foothills of Trans Ili Alatau is a recreational area with buildings and sports facilities and resorts, sanatoriums, etc. In summer and winter there are a very large number of skiers, climbers, tourists and workers of organizations which located in the mountains. In this regard, forecasting natural destructive phenomena using GIS software is an important task of many scientific fields. The formation of avalanches, except meteorological conditions, such as temperature, wind speed, snow thickness, especially affecting mountainous terrain. Great importance in the formation of avalanches play steepness (slope) of the slope and exposure. If steep slopes contribute to the accumulation of snow in some places, increase the risk of flooding of the slope, the various irregularities can delay an avalanche. According to statistics, the bulk of the avalanche is formed on the slopes steeper than 30°. In the course of research a 3D model of the terrain was created with the help of programs ArcGIS and Surfer. Identified areas with steep slopes, the exposure is made to the cardinal. For dangerous terrain location is divided into three groups: favorable zone, danger zone and the zone of increased risk. The range of deviations from 30-45° is dangerous, since the angle of inclination of more than 30°, there is a maximum thickness of sliding snow, water, the upper layer of the surface and there is an increase rate of moving array, and the mountain slopes at an angle 450 above are the area increased risk. Created on DTM data are also plotted Weather Service for the winter of current year. The resulting model allows to get information upon request and display it on map base, assess the condition of the terrain by avalanches, as well as to solve the problem of life safety in mountainous areas, to develop measures to prevent emergency situations and prevent human losses.

  2. The SWT Materials Physics Program: Linking Physics Curriculum with Industry Needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutierrez, C. J.

    1998-03-01

    As recently as five years ago, the undergraduate physics curriculum at Southwest Texas State University (SWT) resembled that of many other typical baccalaureate degree physics programs. As an improvement to our program, we recently assessed the state of relevant major regional industries and initiated the development of an alternative curriculum path for physics undergraduates who wish to expand their marketability in today's "high tech" economy. "To take physics local", we learned that our new curriculum would have to create new opportunities for our physics students in the lucrative semiconductor industry in nearby Austin, TX. As a first step towards developing the Materials Physics program, we chose to cultivate a new faculty expertise in thin film materials physics. This would be crucial for developing new curriculum facilitating our graduates' exposure to marketable techniques critical for the 200 billion semiconductor device industry and the 80 billion magnetic device industry. The crucial involvement of interested industry alumni and representatives towards actualizing this initiative will also be discussed. The curriculum content of the new Materials Physics program will be compared to our traditional physics program to show how a few well-chosen modifications in the curriculum can vastly improve the marketability of our students. We will describe how these changes are expected to develop a vibrant and well-attended Physics program with great relevance to local industry. (* CJG acknowledges the support of the NSF-CAREER program for the freedom to pursue these curriculum changes, and the NSF-ILI program for the creation of the SWT Materials Physics Lab (DUE 9552338).)

  3. Visualizing the quality of partially accruing data for use in decision making

    PubMed Central

    Eaton, Julia; Painter, Ian; Olson, Don; Lober, William B

    2015-01-01

    Secondary use of clinical health data for near real-time public health surveillance presents challenges surrounding its utility due to data quality issues. Data used for real-time surveillance must be timely, accurate and complete if it is to be useful; if incomplete data are used for surveillance, understanding the structure of the incompleteness is necessary. Such data are commonly aggregated due to privacy concerns. The Distribute project was a near real-time influenza-like-illness (ILI) surveillance system that relied on aggregated secondary clinical health data. The goal of this work is to disseminate the data quality tools developed to gain insight into the data quality problems associated with these data. These tools apply in general to any system where aggregate data are accrued over time and were created through the end-user-as-developer paradigm. Each tool was developed during the exploratory analysis to gain insight into structural aspects of data quality. Our key finding is that data quality of partially accruing data must be studied in the context of accrual lag—the difference between the time an event occurs and the time data for that event are received, i.e. the time at which data become available to the surveillance system. Our visualization methods therefore revolve around visualizing dimensions of data quality affected by accrual lag, in particular the tradeoff between timeliness and completion, and the effects of accrual lag on accuracy. Accounting for accrual lag in partially accruing data is necessary to avoid misleading or biased conclusions about trends in indicator values and data quality.

  4. The NSF IUSE-EHR Program: What's New (and Old) About It, and Resources for Geoscience Proposers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, J.; Ryan, J. G.

    2015-12-01

    The NSF Division of Undergraduate Education recently released a new solicitation for the IUSE program -- the latest iteration in a succession of funding programs dating back over 30 years (including the Instrumentation and Laboratory Improvement Program (ILI), the Course and Curriculum Development Program (CCD), the Course Curriculum and Laboratory Improvement Program (CCLI), and the Transforming Undergraduate STEM Education Program (TUES). All of these programs sought/seek to support high quality STEM education for majors and non-majors in lower- and upper-division undergraduate courses. The current IUSE-EHR program is described in a 2-year solicitation that includes two tracks: Engaged Student Learning, and Institutional & Community Transformation. Each track has several options for funding level and project duration. A wide range of activities can be proposed for funding, and the program recognizes the varying needs across STEM disciplines. Geoscientists and other potential IUSE proposers are strongly encouraged to form collaborations with colleagues that conduct educational research and to propose projects that build upon the educational knowledge base in the discipline as well as contribute to it. Achieving this may not be immediately obvious to many geoscientists who have interests in improving student learning in their courses, but are not fluent in the scholarship of education in their field. To lower the barriers that have historically prevented larger numbers of geoscientists from developing their ideas into competitive education-related proposals, we have explored strategies for building and leveraging partnerships, sought to identify available resources for proposers, and explored a range of strategies for engaging and supporting larger numbers of potential geoscience proposers.

  5. Virological characterization of influenza H1N1pdm09 in Vietnam, 2010-2013

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Hang K L; Nguyen, Phuong T K; Nguyen, Thach C; Hoang, Phuong V M; Le, Thanh T; Vuong, Cuong D; Nguyen, Anh P; Tran, Loan T T; Nguyen, Binh G; Lê, Mai Q

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Influenza A/H1N1pdm09 virus was first detected in Vietnam on May 31, 2009, and continues to circulate in Vietnam as a seasonal influenza virus. This study has monitored genotypic and phenotypic changes in this group of viruses during 2010–2013 period. Design and setting We sequenced hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes from representative influenza A/H1N1pdm09 and compared with vaccine strain A/California/07/09 and other contemporary isolates from neighboring countries. Hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and neuraminidase inhibition (NAI) assays also were performed on these isolates. Sample Representative influenza A/H1N1pdm09 isolates (n = 61) from ILI and SARI surveillances in northern Vietnam between 2010 and 2013. Main outcome measures and results The HA and NA phylogenies revealed six and seven groups, respectively. Five isolates (8·2%) had substitutions G155E and N156K in the HA, which were associated with reduced HI titers by antiserum raised against the vaccine virus A/California/07/2009. One isolate from 2011 and one isolate from 2013 had a predicted H275Y substitution in the neuraminidase molecule, which was associated with reduced susceptibility to oseltamivir in a NAI assay. We also identified a D222N change in the HA of a virus isolated from a fatal case in 2013. Conclusions Significant genotypic and phenotypic changes in A/ H1N1pdm09 influenza viruses were detected by the National Influenza Surveillance System (NISS) in Vietnam between 2010 and 2013 highlighting the value of this system to Vietnam and to the region. Sustained NISS and continued virological monitoring of seasonal influenza viruses are required for vaccine policy development in Vietnam. 3 PMID:25966032

  6. NOX2 Inhibition Impairs Early Muscle Gene Expression Induced by a Single Exercise Bout.

    PubMed

    Henríquez-Olguín, Carlos; Díaz-Vegas, Alexis; Utreras-Mendoza, Yildy; Campos, Cristian; Arias-Calderón, Manuel; Llanos, Paola; Contreras-Ferrat, Ariel; Espinosa, Alejandra; Altamirano, Francisco; Jaimovich, Enrique; Valladares, Denisse M

    2016-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) participate as signaling molecules in response to exercise in skeletal muscle. However, the source of ROS and the molecular mechanisms involved in these phenomena are still not completely understood. The aim of this work was to study the role of skeletal muscle NADPH oxidase isoform 2 (NOX2) in the molecular response to physical exercise in skeletal muscle. BALB/c mice, pre-treated with a NOX2 inhibitor, apocynin, (3 mg/kg) or vehicle for 3 days, were swim-exercised for 60 min. Phospho-p47(phox) levels were significantly upregulated by exercise in flexor digitorum brevis (FDB). Moreover, exercise significantly increased NOX2 complex assembly (p47(phox)-gp91(phox) interaction) demonstrated by both proximity ligation assay and co-immunoprecipitation. Exercise-induced NOX2 activation was completely inhibited by apocynin treatment. As expected, exercise increased the mRNA levels of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), citrate synthase (CS), mitochondrial transcription factor A (tfam) and interleukin-6 (IL-I6) in FDB muscles. Moreover, the apocynin treatment was associated to a reduced activation of p38 MAP kinase, ERK 1/2, and NF-κB signaling pathways after a single bout of exercise. Additionally, the increase in plasma IL-6 elicited by exercise was decreased in apocynin-treated mice compared with the exercised vehicle-group (p < 0.001). These results were corroborated using gp91-dstat in an in vitro exercise model. In conclusion, NOX2 inhibition by both apocynin and gp91dstat, alters the intracellular signaling to exercise and electrical stimuli in skeletal muscle, suggesting that NOX2 plays a critical role in molecular response to an acute exercise. PMID:27471471

  7. İhtimaller Hesabına Dayalı İstanbul ve Çevresindeki Deprem Tehlikesi (Seismic hazard assessment of Istanbul and its surroundings)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gulkan, Polat; Kalkan, E.

    2010-01-01

    Bu yazının amacı, İstanbul ve yakın çevresinin maruz olduğu deprem tehlikesine dair 1999 depremlerinden bu yana devam eden tartışmalara bilimsel verilere ve hesaplara dayanan ve mümkün olduğu ölçüde kolay anlaşılır bir açıklama getirmektir. Depremlerin bir bölgede yaratabileceği tehlike, yani yerin sarsılması yüzünden yapılar üzerinde doğacak deprem etkileri, bölgenin deprem riskine, yani o bölgede olabilecek en yüksek deprem büyüklüğüne ve bölgenin zemin durumuna bağlıdır. Bu çalışmada, deprem oluşturma potansiyeline sahip aktif faylar ve son 500 yılda meydana gelmiş depremler ihtimal hesapları kullanılarak ilişkilendirilmiş ve Marmara Bölgesi’nde deprem sonucu doğacak yer hareketi şiddetinin dağılımı haritalanmıştır. Sunulan yeni deprem tehlike haritaları önceki bölgesel tehlike haritaları ile karşılaştırıldığında, Marmara Bölgesi’nde hissedilebilecek yer hareketi şiddetinde, benzer çalışmalara oranla % 10 ila % 15 arası artış görülmektedir.

  8. Toll-like receptor 3 gene polymorphisms and severity of pandemic A/H1N1/2009 influenza in otherwise healthy children

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Toll-like receptors (TLRs) form an essential part of the innate immune system, which plays a fundamental role in rapidly and effectively controlling infections and initiating adaptive immunity. There are no published data concerning the importance of polymorphisms of TLRs in conditioning susceptibility to influenza or the severity of the disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether selected polymorphisms of TLR2, TLR3 and TLR4 influence the incidence and clinical picture of pandemic A/H1N1/2009 influenza. Results The study involved 272 healthy children attending our Emergency Room for influenza-like illness (ILI), including 51 (18.8%) with pandemic A/H1N1/2009 influenza as revealed by real-time polymerase chain reaction, and 164 healthy controls examined after minor surgery. Genomic DNA was extracted from whole blood samples and five single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were studied: TLR2 rs5743708, TLR3 rs5743313, TLR3 rs5743315, TLR4 rs4986790 and TLR4 rs4986791. The TLR3 rs5743313/CT polymorphism was found in all of the children with pneumonia and influenza infection, but in a significantly smaller number of those with A/H1N1/2009 influenza without pneumonia (<0.0001). TLR2, TLR3 rs5743315/AC and TLR4 polymorphisms were equally distributed in all of the groups regardless of the presence of the pandemic A/H1N1/2009 virus and clinical diagnosis. Viral load was comparable in all of the study groups. Conclusions There is a close relationship between the presence of TLR3 rs5743313/CT and an increased risk of pneumonia in children infected by the pandemic A/H1N1/2009 influenza virus. PMID:23151015

  9. Tapping the Late Pleistocene-Holocene environmental change and alluvial geoarchaeology in Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macklin, Mark; Panyushkina, Irina; Toonen, Willem; Chang, Claudia; Seitkaliyev, Meyram; Voyakin, Dmitry

    2015-04-01

    We integrate the environmental history derived from spatial-temporal variability of multi proxies and the prehistory of arid lands from archaeological data in Central Asia in order to determine the relationship between the Holocene river dynamics, climate change and floodwater farming. This study addresses to developing fluvial achieves and geoarcheological records from the Talgar catchment, a south-bank tributary of the Ili River and the Talas catchment, a east-bank tributary of the Syr Darya River, in the southern Kazakhstan. The catchments of these steppe rivers flowing northwest had favorable habitats for farming from the Eneolithic to the medieval period as appears from human settlement histories documented with archaeological surveys and in some cases excavations. The river development has been reconstructed over the last 20,000 years and the key archaeological sites have been dated with radiocarbon. Periods of Holocene river aggradation and high water in downstream Lake Balkhash and Aral Sea correspond with cooler and wetter neoglacial episodes while river entrenchment and floodplain soil development are associated with warmer and drier conditions. Floodwater farming in the Talgar River reached its height in the late Iron Age (400-200 cal. BC) with more than 70 settlement sites and 700 burial mounds, and in the Talas River during the medieval period. This corresponds to a period of reduced flood flows, river stability and glacier retreat in the Tien Shan headwaters. A new hydroclimatic-based model for the spatial and temporal dynamics of floodwater farming is proposed, which explains settlement patterns since the first documented use of irrigation in the Iron Age and medieval times. The undertaken research highlights the Holocene human adaptations to the environmental change of floodplains in Central Asia.

  10. The stability of H/V spectral ratios from noise measurements in Armutlu Peninsula (Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livaoǧlu, Hamdullah; Irmak, T. Serkan; Caka, Deniz; Yavuz, Evrim; Lühr, B. G.; Woith, H.; Tunç, B.; Baris, S.

    2016-04-01

    The horizontal to vertical spectral ratio (H/V) method has been successfully using in order to estimate the fundamental resonance frequency of the sedimentary cover, its thickness and amplification factor since at least 3 decades. There are numerous studies have been carried out on the stability of the H/V spectral ratios. Almost all studies showed that fundamental frequency is stable even measurements are repeated at different times. From this point of view, the results will show us an approach whether the stations are suitable for accurate estimate of earthquake studies and engineering purposes or not. Also we want to see if any effects of the amplification factor changing on the seismograms for Armutlu Seismic Network (ARNET) even though seismic stations are established far away from cultural noise and located on hard rock sites. It has been selected one hour recorded data of all stations during the most stationary times. The amplification and resonant frequency variations of H/V ratio were calculated to investigate temporal stability in time. There is a total harmony in fundamental frequencies values and H/V spectral ratio values in time-lagged periods. Some stations shows secondary minor peaks in high frequency band due to a shallow formation effect or cultural noises around. In the east side of the area ILYS station shows amplitude peak in lower fundamental frequency band from expected. This could compose a high amplification in lower frequencies and so that yield less reliable results in local earthquakes studies. By the experimental results from ambient noise analysis, it could be worked up for relocation of one station.

  11. A novel influenza A (H1N1) outbreak experience among residents of a long term-care facility in Saudi Arabia during 2010 seasonal flu circulation

    PubMed Central

    Affifi, Raouf M.; Omar, Sherif R.; El Raggal, Ahmad A.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was to describe and analyze an outbreak of novel 2009 influenza A (H1N1) among residents of a long-term care facility (LTCF) in Prince Mansour Military Hospital (PMMH), Taif, Saudi Arabia. These patients had been admitted to the LTCF months or years before the outbreak for several reasons, e.g. cerebral palsy, neurological deficits due to road traffic accidents with resultant handicap, chronic diseases associated with old age. An observational study was carried out to demonstrate and analyze the epidemiological characteristics (demographic factors, risk factors, and outcomes) associated with the outbreak in order to clarify which prevention and control measures had been taken and which recommendations were followed. During the period October 28 to November 11 2010, 21 LTCF residents were suspected to be clinically involved: fever ≥38°C with influenza-like illness (ILI). Age ranged from 9-91 years (mean 46±24.13); 62% were males. Among them, 12 (57%) were influenza A (H1N1) positive by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Mortality involved 2 (17%) of the A (H1N1) laboratory confirmed individuals. Implementation of the recommended infection control measures mitigated the transmission of infection to new individuals. The fulfillment of strict infection control measures could limit H1N1 infection among LTCF-PMMH patients. Routine influenza, including specific H1N1 immunization of all LTCF residents together with their healthcare staff, should be mandatory in those settings serving immunocompromised patients. PMID:24470930

  12. A novel influenza A (H1N1) outbreak experience among residents of a long term-care facility in Saudi Arabia during 2010 seasonal flu circulation.

    PubMed

    Affifi, Raouf M; Omar, Sherif R; El Raggal, Ahmad A

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was to describe and analyze an outbreak of novel 2009 influenza A (H1N1) among residents of a long-term care facility (LTCF) in Prince Mansour Military Hospital (PMMH), Taif, Saudi Arabia. These patients had been admitted to the LTCF months or years before the outbreak for several reasons, e.g. cerebral palsy, neurological deficits due to road traffic accidents with resultant handicap, chronic diseases associated with old age. An observational study was carried out to demonstrate and analyze the epidemiological characteristics (demographic factors, risk factors, and outcomes) associated with the outbreak in order to clarify which prevention and control measures had been taken and which recommendations were followed. During the period October 28 to November 11 2010, 21 LTCF residents were suspected to be clinically involved: fever ≥38°C with influenza-like illness (ILI). Age ranged from 9-91 years (mean 46±24.13); 62% were males. Among them, 12 (57%) were influenza A (H1N1) positive by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Mortality involved 2 (17%) of the A (H1N1) laboratory confirmed individuals. Implementation of the recommended infection control measures mitigated the transmission of infection to new individuals. The fulfillment of strict infection control measures could limit H1N1 infection among LTCF-PMMH patients. Routine influenza, including specific H1N1 immunization of all LTCF residents together with their healthcare staff, should be mandatory in those settings serving immunocompromised patients. PMID:24470930

  13. Geoscience Education Programs in the NSF Division of Undergraduate Education: Different Acronyms with Similar Intent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, J.; Ryan, J. G.

    2014-12-01

    For the past three decades, the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Division of Undergraduate Education (DUE) has administered a succession of programs intended to improve undergraduate STEM education for all students. The IUSE (Improving Undergraduate STEM Education) program is the latest program in this succession, and reflects an expanded, NSF-wide effort to make sustainable improvements in STEM education on a national scale. The origins and thinking behind IUSE can be in part traced back to precursor programs including: ILI (Instrumentation and Laboratory Improvement), CCD (Course and Curriculum Development), UFE (Undergraduate Faculty Enhancement), CCLI (Course, Curriculum and Laboratory Improvement), and TUES (Transforming Undergraduate Education in STEM), all of which sought to support faculty efforts to investigate and improve curriculum and instructional practice in undergraduate STEM education, and to disseminate effective STEM educational practices for broad adoption. IUSE, like its predecessor programs, is open to all STEM fields, and as such is intended to support improvements in geoscience education, spanning the atmospheric, ocean, and Earth sciences, as well as in environmental science, GIS science, climate change and sustainability/resilience. An emphasis on discipline-based research on learning that had origins in the CCLI and TUES programs is a new priority area in IUSE, with the ambition that projects will take advantage of the integrated expertise of domain scientists, educational practioners, and experts in learning science. We trace and describe the history of undergraduate education efforts with an emphasis placed on the recently introduced IUSE program. Understanding the origin of DUE's IUSE program can provide insights for faculty interested in developing proposals for submission and gain a greater appreciation of trends and priorities within the division.

  14. Research at Appalachian State University's Dark Sky Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caton, D. B.

    2003-12-01

    Astronomical research at Appalachian State University centers around the interests of the three observational astronomers on the faculty, and primarily involves observational work at our Dark Sky Observatory (DSO). ASU is a member of the 16-campus University of North Carolina system, and is a comprehensive university with about 13,000 students. Besides the usual constraint found in such a setting (teaching loads of 9-12 hours/semester), we face the challenges of maintaining a significant observatory facility in an era of shrinking state budgets. The DSO facility is 20 miles from campus, adding additional problems. This scenario differs from those of the other panelists, who are at private institutions and/or use shared facilities. The character of students at ASU also adds constraints--many have to hold part-time jobs that limit their participation in the very research that could contribute significantly to their success. Particularly, their need to leave for the summer for gainful employment at the very time that faculty have the most time for research is a loss for all concerned. In spite of these challenges, we have a long record of maintaining research programs in eclipsing binary star photometry, stellar spectroscopy and QSO/AGN monitoring. Undergraduate students are involved in all aspects of the work, from becoming competent at solo observing to publication of the results and presentation of papers and posters at meetings. Graduate students in our Masters in Applied Physics program (emphasis on instrumentation), have constructed instruments and control systems for the observatory. Most of what we have achieved would have been impossible without the support of the National Science Foundation. We have been fortunate to acquire funds under the Division of Undergraduate Education's ILI program and the Research at Undergraduate Institutions program. Among other things, this support provided our main telescope, CCD cameras, and some student stipends.

  15. Elasticity Anisotropy Due To Foliation and Microcracks In Serpentinized Ultramafic Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, I.; Suh, M.; Woo, Y.; Hao, T.

    We carried out an ultrasonic study in serpentinized ultramafic rocks which are in- terpreted as originating from a slightly depleted upper mantle, and as having been emplaced in the crust through the large fault zones striking N10E in the middle of Korean peninsula. Measurements of compressional and shear wave velocities were conducted under hydrostatic confining pressures up to 70 MPa on cylindrical speci- mens cored along and across the foliation planes. The sonic wave velocity increases systematically with a decreasing rate as the confining pressure is raised. This nonlin- ear behavior is recognized as a result of the gradual closure of microcracks in rock specimens. Our tests also revealed that the foliation of the rock specimens induces a clear velocity anisotropy between two orthogonal directions with faster velocity along the foliation plane and slower across the plane. We calculated the dynamic elastic moduli of the rock specimens with two assumptions; one is that the specimens are transversely isotropic due to the foliation, and the other is that the actual wave surface of energy propagation from a point source is an ellipsoid. The calculated elasticity anisotropy varies systematically with increasing confining pressure, initially fast and gradually slowdown. This nonlinear variation is probably due to the gradual closure of microcracks with preferred orientation as a similar fashion in the velocity incre- ment. Depending on the angle between the preferred orientation of microcracks and the direction of foliation, the anisotropy either increases or decreases as a function of the confining pressure. Once cracks are closed mechanically at high confining pres- sure, any remaining anisotropy is considered as an intrinsic characteristic caused by the foliation of the metamorphic rock. In conclusion, the elastic anisotropy is primar- ily caused by the preferred orientation of constituent minerals due to metamorphism, and secondly by the preferred orientation of

  16. Response of Glaciers to Climate Change in Northwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Z.; Wang, P.

    2015-12-01

    In Northwest China, an extremely dry region, more than 20,000 mountain glaciers are developed. Glacial melt water is vital for local water resources, ecosystem in the lower reaches, peoples' living and city development there. During the past several decades, due to climate warming, the most glaciers in NW China are in a state of rapid retreating. To obtain the general idea on response of glaciers in that region, Tianshan Glaciological Station, Chinese Academy of Sciences selected more than ten glaciers in six sub-regions along Altai Mountain, Tianshan and Qilian Mountain, respectively, doing in-situ observations. Based on field observation and remote sensing technique, this study has revealed that the area reductions in different regions range between 8.8%~34.2 % during the past four decades. The potential impact of the glacier recession on water resource in future will be spatially different. For the Tarim River, the glacier runoff is estimated to maintain its current level or increase somewhat in next 30~50 years. In the north slope of Tianshan, the glaciers with a size smaller than 1 km2 are most likely to be melted away in next 20~40 years, and those larger than 5 km2 are melting intensively. In eastern Xinjiang, because the number of the glaciers is small and also because the climate is extremely dry, the glacier retreating are causing the water shortage problem. For Ili River and Irtysh River, because they are dominant by snow melt runoff, the impact of the glacier shrinkage and temperature rise would be limited on the quantity of the river runoff, but significant on the annual distribution of the river runoff. For Qilian Mountains, glaciers are quite small. The vanishing of small glacier will have significant impact on local water resources in near future.

  17. Summary Profiles of Hanford Effluent Release Data

    SciTech Connect

    KM Tominey; MK White

    1999-01-07

    Hanford publishes extensive estimates of their offsite releases of various chemical and radiological species annuaIly. In this report we examine using these estimates to develop additional insight into how effectively such releases of hazardous materials are being controlled at Hanford. Historical estimates of airborne and surface water releases of selected contaminants are compared with estimates of the overall Site inventory of those contaminants and with the corresponding release limits and background levels. These comparisons are also examined over a five-year period (1993 to 1997) to determine how these releases have changed during that time. Most of the waste management and environmental restoration activities under way at Hanford are intended to provide final, permanent disposition of the Site's inventory of hazardous materials, with the ultimate objective of ensuring that risks to the public and the environment are controlled to an acceptable level. An important consideration during the conduct of these activities is prott%ting the public and the environment while accomplishing the longer-term ~~ objectives. The amounts of hazardous materials that are being released to the air or surface water while waste management and environmental activities are being conducted is one important measure of their overall effectiveness. The comparisons described in this report indicate that measures to control the release of the selected contaminants from the Hanford Site are, and have been, veryeffective. The amounts of these materials released to surface water and air are very small compared with background and regulatory limits and smaller still considering the inventories" under management. Comparisons of annual releases ranged from slightly over background to five orders of magnitude below background levels (e.g., l/10,000* of background levels), and up to 14 orders of magnitude less than estimates of Site inventories. Annual releases for these contaminants

  18. Empowering line intensity mapping to study early galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comaschi, P.; Ferrara, A.

    2016-09-01

    Line intensity mapping is a superb tool to study the collective radiation from early galaxies. However, the method is hampered by the presence of strong foregrounds, mostly produced by low-redshift interloping lines. We present here a general method to overcome this problem which is robust against foreground residual noise and based on the cross-correlation function ψαL(r) between diffuse line emission and Lyα emitters (LAE). We compute the diffuse line (Lyα is used as an example) emission from galaxies in a (800Mpc)3 box at z = 5.7 and 6.6. We divide the box in slices and populate them with 14000(5500) LAEs at z = 5.7(6.6), considering duty cycles from 10-3 to 1. Both the LAE number density and slice volume are consistent with the expected outcome of the Subaru HSC survey. We add gaussian random noise with variance σN up to 100 times the variance of the Lyα emission, σα, to simulate residual foregrounds and compute ψαL(r). We find that the signal-to-noise of the observed ψαL(r) does not change significantly if σN ≤ 10σα and show that in these conditions the mean line intensity, ILyα, can be precisely recovered independently of the LAE duty cycle. Even if σN = 100σα, Iα can be constrained within a factor 2. The method works equally well for any other line (e.g. [CII], HeII) used for the intensity mapping experiment.

  19. Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) for the International Space Station (ISS): Mission Description and Science Goals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blakeslee, R. J.; Christian, H. J.; Stewart, M. F.; Mach, D. M.; Bateman, M.; Walker, T. D.; Buechler, D.; Koshak, W. J.; OBrien, S.; Wilson, T.; Colley, E. C.; Abbott, T.; Carter, J.; Pavelitz, S.; Coker, C.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, the University of Alabama in Huntsville, and their partners have developed and demonstrated space-based lightning observations as an effective remote sensing tool for Earth science research and applications. The Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) continues to provide global observations of total lightning after 17 years on-orbit. In April 2013, a space-qualified LIS built as the flight spare for TRMM, was selected for flight as a science mission on the International Space Station. The ISS LIS (or I-LIS as Hugh Christian prefers) will be flown as a hosted payload on the Department of Defense Space Test Program (STP) H5 mission, which has a January 2016 baseline launch date aboard a SpaceX launch vehicle for a 2-4 year or longer mission. The LIS measures the amount, rate, and radiant energy of global lightning. More specifically, it measures lightning during both day and night, with storm scale resolution, millisecond timing, and high, uniform detection efficiency, without any land-ocean bias. Lightning is a direct and most impressive response to intense atmospheric convection. It has been found that the characteristics of lightning that LIS measures can be quantitatively coupled to both thunderstorm and other geophysical processes. Therefore, the ISS LIS lightning observations will provide important gap-filling inputs to pressing Earth system science issues across a broad range of disciplines, including weather, climate, atmospheric chemistry, and lightning physics. A unique contribution from the ISS platform will be the availability of real-time lightning, especially valuable for operational applications over data sparse regions such as the oceans. The ISS platform will also uniquely enable LIS to provide simultaneous and complementary observations with other payloads such as the European Space Agency's Atmosphere-Space Interaction Monitor (ASIM) that will be exploring

  20. Multi-factor Constrained Information Analysis Method for Landslide Hazard Risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Kunwang; Wang, Liang; Qian, Xinlin

    2015-04-01

    Landslide hazard cause enormous damage to human life, property, and the environment. The most effective way to mitigate the effects of landslides is to evaluate the risk of the landslides, and take measures to avoid the loss in advance. Various factors should be considered for the landslides' risk assessment, so the assessment has great complexity and uncertainty. According to landslides, the multiple factors constrained method for landslides risk assessment was proposed at the same time, which with three step to carried it out, first using the GIS technology to divide the analysis grid as the base analysis unit, second, according to the available information, slope, lithology, faults, landuse, etc. as the multiple evaluation factors, finally, based on years of landslides in the observed data, the risk assessment analysis of landslides were realized with of multiple factors constrained assessment model, which the weight value of every factor was determined by the information model. The region of Gongliu was selected as the experimental area which located in Xinjiang Ili River basin and the altitude of 600 to 4000 meters, with the special terrain characteristics of long at the east to west, narrow at north to south. The unique topography characters is the abundant rainfall which causing frequent landslides. By selecting 500m * 500m as an analysis grid which covering the whole study area, based on the multiple factors constrained method for the landslides risk assessment, a comprehensive assessment of the landslides risk in this region were computed out, and the landslide hazard classification map was realized at the end. From the experimental results of the statistical perspective, the proportion of landslide hazard point is 94.04% at a little high risk and high risk areas. And the proportion of 4.64% at the low risk zone, 1.32% at the most low risk zone. The results showed a high probability of landslides at high level of the assess region, which showed that

  1. Influenza vaccine effectiveness in Italy: Age, subtype-specific and vaccine type estimates 2014/15 season.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Caterina; Bella, Antonino; Alfonsi, Valeria; Puzelli, Simona; Palmieri, Anna Pina; Chironna, Maria; Pariani, Elena; Piatti, Alessandra; Tiberti, Donatella; Ghisetti, Valeria; Rangoni, Roberto; Colucci, Maria Eugenia; Affanni, Paola; Germinario, Cinzia; Castrucci, Maria Rita

    2016-06-01

    The 2014/15 influenza season in Europe was characterised by the circulation of influenza A(H3N2) viruses with an antigenic and genetic mismatch from the vaccine strain A/Texas/50/2012(H3N2) recommended for the Northern hemisphere for the 2014/15 season. Italy, differently from other EU countries where most of the subtyped influenza A viruses were H3N2, experienced a 2014/15 season characterized by an extended circulation of two influenza viruses: A(H1N1)pdm09 and A(H3N2), that both contributed substantially to morbidity. Within the context of the existing National sentinel influenza surveillance system (InfluNet) a test-negative case-control study was established in order to produce vaccine effectiveness (VE) estimates. The point estimates VE were adjusted by age group (<5; 5-15; 15-64; 65+ years), the presence of at least one chronic condition, target group for vaccination and need help for walking or bathing. In Italy, adjusted estimates of the 2014/15 seasonal influenza VE against medically attended influenza-like illness (ILI) laboratory-confirmed as influenza for all age groups were 6.0% (95%CI: -36.5 to 35.2%), 43.6% (95%CI: -3.7 to 69.3%), -84.5% (95%CI: (-190.4 to -17.2%) and 50.7% (95% CI: -2.5 to 76.3%) against any influenza virus, A(H1N1)pdm09, A(H3N2) and B, respectively. These results suggest evidence of good VE against A(H1N1)pdm09 and B viruses in Italy and evidence of lack of VE against A(H3N2) virus due to antigenic and genetic mismatch between circulating A(H3N2) and the respective 2014/15 vaccine strain. PMID:27154392

  2. Elevated IL-23R Expression and Foxp3+Rorgt+ Cells in Intestinal Mucosa During Acute and Chronic Colitis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jiayin; Xu, Lili

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND IL-23/IL-23R signaling plays a pivotal role during the course of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). However, the underlying mechanisms are poorly characterized. Foxp3+ regulatory T cells are critical in the maintenance of gut immune homeostasis and therefore are important in preventing the development of IBD. This study was performed to clarify the association between IL-23/IL-23R signaling and Foxp3+ regulatory T cells in colitis. MATERIAL AND METHODS Acute and chronic mouse colitis models were established by administering mice DSS in drinking water. IL-23R, IL-23, IL-I7, and IFN-γ expression level, as well as regulatory T cell, Th17-, and Th1-related transcription factors Foxp3, RORgt, and T-bet were assayed by real-time PCR. The frequency of Foxp3+ RORγt+ cells in a Foxp3+ cell population in colon mucosa during acute and chronic colitis was evaluated through flow cytometry. The signaling pathway mediated by IL-23R in the colon mucosa from acute colitis mice and chronic colitis mice was monitored by Western blot analysis. RESULTS We detected elevated IL-23R, IL-23, and IFN-γ expression in colon mucosa during acute and chronic colitis and found increased IL-17 in acute colitis mice. Transcription factors Foxp3 and T-bet were elevated in colon mucosa during acute and chronic colitis. Phosphorylation of Stat3 was greatly enhanced, indicating the activation of IL-23R function in colitis mice. The percentage of Foxp3+ T cells in acute and chronic colitis mice was comparable to control mice, but there was a 2-fold increase of Foxp3+ RORγt+ cells among the Foxp3+ cell population in acute and chronic colitis mice compared to control mice. CONCLUSIONS These findings indicate that the induction of Foxp3+ RORgt+ T cells could be enhanced during inflammation in the intestine where IL-23R expression is greatly induced. Our study highlights the importance of IL-23R expression level and the instability of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells in the development of

  3. Associations between Meteorological Parameters and Influenza Activity in Berlin (Germany), Ljubljana (Slovenia), Castile and León (Spain) and Israeli Districts

    PubMed Central

    Soebiyanto, Radina P.; Gross, Diane; Jorgensen, Pernille; Buda, Silke; Bromberg, Michal; Kaufman, Zalman; Prosenc, Katarina; Socan, Maja; Vega Alonso, Tomás; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Kiang, Richard K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Studies in the literature have indicated that the timing of seasonal influenza epidemic varies across latitude, suggesting the involvement of meteorological and environmental conditions in the transmission of influenza. In this study, we investigated the link between meteorological parameters and influenza activity in 9 sub-national areas with temperate and subtropical climates: Berlin (Germany), Ljubljana (Slovenia), Castile and León (Spain) and all 6 districts in Israel. Methods We estimated weekly influenza-associated influenza-like-illness (ILI) or Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI) incidence to represent influenza activity using data from each country’s sentinel surveillance during 2000–2011 (Spain) and 2006–2011 (all others). Meteorological data was obtained from ground stations, satellite and assimilated data. Two generalized additive models (GAM) were developed, with one using specific humidity as a covariate and another using minimum temperature. Precipitation and solar radiation were included as additional covariates in both models. The models were adjusted for previous weeks’ influenza activity, and were trained separately for each study location. Results Influenza activity was inversely associated (p<0.05) with specific humidity in all locations. Minimum temperature was inversely associated with influenza in all 3 temperate locations, but not in all subtropical locations. Inverse associations between influenza and solar radiation were found in most locations. Associations with precipitation were location-dependent and inconclusive. We used the models to estimate influenza activity a week ahead for the 2010/2011 period which was not used in training the models. With exception of Ljubljana and Israel’s Haifa District, the models could closely follow the observed data especially during the start and the end of epidemic period. In these locations, correlation coefficients between the observed and estimated ranged between 0.55 to 0.91and

  4. Validity and timeliness of syndromic influenza surveillance during the autumn/winter wave of A (H1N1) influenza 2009: results of emergency medical dispatch, ambulance and emergency department data from three European regions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Emergency medical service (EMS) data, particularly from the emergency department (ED), is a common source of information for syndromic surveillance. However, the entire EMS chain, consists of both out-of-hospital and in-hospital services. Differences in validity and timeliness across these data sources so far have not been studied. Neither have the differences in validity and timeliness of this data from different European countries. In this paper we examine the validity and timeliness of the entire chain of EMS data sources from three European regions for common syndromic influenza surveillance during the A(H1N1) influenza pandemic in 2009. Methods We gathered local, regional, or national information on influenza-like illness (ILI) or respiratory syndrome from an Austrian Emergency Medical Dispatch Service (EMD-AT), an Austrian and Belgian ambulance services (EP-AT, EP-BE) and from a Belgian and Spanish emergency department (ED-BE, ED-ES). We examined the timeliness of the EMS data in identifying the beginning of the autumn/winter wave of pandemic A(H1N1) influenza as compared to the reference data. Additionally, we determined the sensitivity and specificity of an aberration detection algorithm (Poisson CUSUM) in EMS data sources for detecting the autumn/winter wave of the A(H1N1) influenza pandemic. Results The ED-ES data demonstrated the most favourable validity, followed by the ED-BE data. The beginning of the autumn/winter wave of pandemic A(H1N1) influenza was identified eight days in advance in ED-BE data. The EP data performed stronger in data sets for large catchment areas (EP-BE) and identified the beginning of the autumn/winter wave almost at the same time as the reference data (time lag +2 days). EMD data exhibited timely identification of the autumn/winter wave of A(H1N1) but demonstrated weak validity measures. Conclusions In this study ED data exhibited the most favourable performance in terms of validity and timeliness for syndromic

  5. Can Novel Flu Surveillance Be Conducted With Limited Resources?

    PubMed Central

    Siniscalchi, Alan; Schulte, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    surveillance systems require trained and experienced public health and informatics staff to maintain? Is your agency having difficulties in recruiting and retaining trained surveillance staff? Has influenza A (H3N2)v been identified in your state or jurisdiction? Does your agency have sufficient staff and other resources to be able to conduct targeted surveillance of novel influenza strains, such as identifying H3N2v cases associated with agricultural fairs or school surveillance for ILI cases? Which surveillance systems provide useful data for monitoring health impact during seasons with highly pathological influenza strains? Which surveillance systems provide useful data for identifying the presence of novel influenza strains and conducting situational awareness?

  6. Geologic map of the Sappho Patera Quadrangle (V-20), Venus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGill, George E.

    2000-01-01

    The Sappho Patera quadrangle (V–20) of Venus is bounded by 0° and 30° East longitude, 0° and 25° North latitude. It is one of 62 quadrangles covering the entire planet at a scale of 1:5,000,000. The quadrangle derives its name from Sappho Patera, a large rimmed depression (diameter about 225 km) lying on top of a shield-shaped mountain named Irnini Mons. Sappho, a noted Greek poet born about 612 B.C., spent most of her life on the island of Lesbos. All of her works were burned in 1073 by order of ecclesiastical authorities in Rome and Constantinople. What little survives was discovered in 1897 as parts of papier mâché coffins in the Fayum (Durant, 1939). The Sappho Patera quadrangle includes the central portion of Eistla Regio, an elongated, moderately elevated (relief ~1 km) region extending for about 7,500 km west-northwestward from the west end of Aphrodite Terra. It is generally interpreted to be the surface manifestation of one or more mantle plumes (Phillips and Malin, 1983; Stofan and Saunders, 1990; Kiefer and Hager, 1991; Senske and others, 1992; Grimm and Phillips, 1992; Solomon and others, 1992). Eistla Regio is dominated by several large volcanic features. All or parts of four of these occur within the Sappho Patera quadrangle: the eastern flank of Gula Mons, Irnini Mons, Anala Mons, and Kali Mons. The quadrangle also includes eight named coronae: Nehalennia, Sunrta, Libera, Belet-Ili, Gaia, Asomama, Rabzhima, and Changko. A major rift extends from Gula Mons in the northwestern corner of the quadrangle to Libera Corona near the east border. East of Irnini and Anala Montes this rift is named Guor Linea; west of the montes it is named Virtus Linea. In addition to these major features, the Sappho Patera quadrangle includes numerous smaller volcanic flows and constructs, several unnamed coronae and corona-like features, a complex array of faults, fractures, and wrinkle ridges, and extensive plains that are continuous with the regional plains that

  7. Constraints on Galactic Center Activity: A Search for Enhanced Galactic Center Lithium and Boron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubowich, D. A.; Turner, B. E.; Hobbs, L. M.

    1998-12-01

    The abundances of lithium and boron provide important information about big bang nucleosynthesis, Galactic chemical evolution, stellar evolution, and cosmic-ray spallation reactions. We conducted the first search for the ground-state hyperfine-structure transitions of Li I (2S1/2; F = 2-1 803 MHz) and B I (2P1/2; F = 2-1 732 MHz). We used the 43 m NRAO radio telescope to search for enhanced Galactic center (GC) Li and B expected from models of Galactic activity. We did not detect Li I or B I and obtained upper limits of N(Li I) < 1.9 × 1016 cm-2, (Li/H) < 3.9 × 10-8, N(B I) < 2.2 × 1018 cm-2, and (B/H) < 9.2 × 10-6 for the dense 20 km s-1 Sgr A molecular cloud where our largest sources of uncertainties are Li I/Li, B I/B, and N(H). Our observations imply (Li/H)GC < 22 (Li/H)disk, (Li/H)GC < 39 (Li/H)disk-spallation, (B/H)GC < 1.2 × 104 (B/H)disk, (B/H)GC < 1.5 × 104 (B/H)disk-spallation. For a simple model combining mass loss from AGB stars (only for Li), spallation reactions, and SN ν-nucleosynthesis, we estimate (Li/H)GC = 1.3 × 10-8 (13 times enhancement) and (B/H)GC = 7.4 × 10-9 (10 times enhancement). If Li is primarily produced via spallation reactions from a cosmic-ray proton flux φp(t) with the same energy and trapping as in the disk, then [\\smallint φp(t)dt]GC < 13[\\smallint φp(t)dt]disk. Comparing our results to AGN models, we conclude that the GC has not had an extended period of AGN activity containing a large cosmic-ray flux (LCR <= 1044 ergs s-1 for 108 yr), a large low-energy cosmic-ray flux (less than 100 times the disk flux), or a large γ-ray flux (Lγ < 1042 ergs s-1 for 109 yr). Furthermore, since any Galactic deuterium production will significantly enhance the abundances of Li and B, our results imply that there are no sources of D in the GC or Galaxy. Therefore, all the Galactic D originated from the infall of primordial matter with the current D/H reduced by astration and mixing.

  8. Analysis of Regional Deformations In Asia and North America Using Vlbi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Z.; Ma, C.; Luk, P. H.; Shum, C. K.

    solutions and a method described above. The relative deformation rate between the Kashima34 and Kashima stations may due to some unknown local geophysical phe- nomena despite of their baseline length being only 300 meters apart, and not necessar- ily due to instrument or measurement drift. The deformation values of San Francisco, Yuma and other VLBI stations also show differences using this solution technique as compared to the recent ITRF97 and ITRF2000 solutions.

  9. Should tumor with direct adjacent lobe invasion (Tdali) be assigned to T2 or T3 in non-small cell lung cancer: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Zhilan; Cao, Christphor; Mei, Jiandong; Liao, Hu; Yan, Tristan

    2016-01-01

    Background The staging of tumor with direct adjacent lobe invasion (Tdali) or interlobar invasion pleural 3 (ILI PL3) in TNM system of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is still in controversy. We conducted a meta-analysis to compare the prognosis of Tdali with T2 or T3 disease. Methods PubMed and Embase were searched for relevant studies. Ln hazard ratio (HR) and its standard error (SE) of each study were estimated in the comparison of overall survival (OS) between Tdali and T2 or T3 respectively. Forest plots were used to show the combined HRs. Results The meta-analysis for comparison of OS of Tdali and T2 or T3 disease both showed a significant HR [Tdali versus T2, 1.39 (1.21, 1.61), P<0.000, Tdali versus T3, 0.73 (0.57, 0.93), P=0.01]. Comparisons of OS of Tdali specified to T2 (Tdali-T2) and that of all patients of T2 or T3 disease also both showed significant HRs [Tdali-T2 versus T2, 1.44 (1.23, 1.69), P<0.000, Tdali-T2 versus T3, 0.77 (0.64, 0.94), P=0.008]. When only analyzing the patients with N0 status, those with Tdali-T2N0 compared to the T2N0 group had a HR of 1.79 (1.37, 2.34) (P<0.000). For those with Tdali-T2N0 compared to the T3N0 group, the HR was 0.98 (0.71, 1.35) (P=0.91). Conclusions Our meta-analysis showed that the prognosis of Tdali is poorer than T2 disease but similar to T3 disease after controlled for T and N status. We suggest that Tdali should be considered to be upgraded to T3. Our work challenges the current staging system regarding staging of Tdali, which might be important evidence of future revision of Tdali staging. As the malignancy of Tdali has been underrated till now, more attention needs to be drawn to proper treatment of Tdali patients. PMID:27621847

  10. Three-dimensional exospheric hydrogen atom distributions obtained from observations of the geocorona in Lyman-alpha

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, Justin J.

    magnetospheric images in ENA fluxes and obtaining ring current ion densities. Some of the main findings in this work have been accepted [Ilie et al., 2012] or are already published [Bailey and Gruntman, 2011; Zoennchen et al., 2011] in various scientific journals.

  11. Epidemiology and Molecular Characterization of Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus in Senegal after Four Consecutive Years of Surveillance, 2012–2015

    PubMed Central

    Cisse, El Hadj Abdel Kader; Kiori, Davy E.; Sarr, Fatoumata Diene; Sy, Sara; Goudiaby, Debora; Richard, Vincent; Niang, Mbayame Ndiaye

    2016-01-01

    Background The burden of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection remains poorly defined in Africa. To address this, we carried out a descriptive and retrospective pilot study, with a focus on the epidemiology of RSV in Senegal after 4 years of surveillance. Methodology and Results From January 2012 to October 2015 swabs were collected from consenting ILI outpatients. Viral detection was performed using RV16 kit enabling direct subtyping of RSV-A and B. For the molecular characterization of HRSV, the second hypervariable region of the Glycoprotein (G) gene was targeted for sequencing. We enrolled 5338 patients with 2803 children younger than five years of age (52.5%). 610 (11.4%) were positive for RSV infection: 276 (45.2%) were group A infections, 334 (54.8%) were group B infections and 21 (3.4%) were A/B co-infections. RSV detection rate is significantly higher (P < 0.0001) in children below 5 years. We noted that the annual distribution of RSV varied substantially by season and for the predominant subtype. Globally, results show a clear circulation pattern in the second half of each year; between June and September and possibly extended into November. The majority of RSV-A strains from Senegal clustered with strains that were previously assigned NA1 and novel ON1 genotype sequences. RSV-B sequences from Senegal clustered with the BA9 genotype. At the amino acid level, RSV-A strains from Senegal show proximity with the genotype ON1 characterized by a 72 nt insertion in G, resulting in 24 extra amino acids of which 23 are duplications of aa 261–283. Conclusion Globally our results show a clear circulation pattern of RSV in the second half of each year, between June and September and possibly extending into November, with children under 5 being more susceptible. Molecular studies identified the novel strains ON1 and BA9 as the major genotypes circulating in Senegal between 2012 and 2015. PMID:27315120

  12. NSF Support for Physics at the Undergraduate Level: A View from Inside

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBride, Duncan

    2015-03-01

    NSF has supported a wide range of projects in physics that involve undergraduate students. These projects include NSF research grants in which undergraduates participate; Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) centers and supplements; and education grants that range from upper-division labs that may include research, to curriculum development for upper- and lower-level courses and labs, to courses for non-majors, to Physics Education Research (PER). The NSF Divisions of Physics, Materials Research, and Astronomy provide most of the disciplinary research support, with some from other parts of NSF. I recently retired as the permanent physicist in NSF's Division of Undergraduate Education (DUE), which supports the education grants. I was responsible for a majority of DUE's physics grants and was involved with others overseen by a series of physics rotators. There I worked in programs entitled Instrumentation and Laboratory Improvement (ILI); Course and Curriculum Development (CCD); Course, Curriculum, and Laboratory Improvement (CCLI); Transforming Undergraduate STEM Education (TUES); and Improving Undergraduate STEM Education (IUSE). NSF support has enabled physics Principal Investigators to change and improve substantially the way physics is taught and the way students learn physics. The most important changes are increased undergraduate participation in physics research; more teaching using interactive engagement methods in classes; and growth of PER as a legitimate field of physics research as well as outcomes from PER that guide physics teaching. In turn these have led, along with other factors, to students who are better-prepared for graduate school and work, and to increases in the number of undergraduate physics majors. In addition, students in disciplines that physics directly supports, notably engineering and chemistry, and increasingly biology, are better and more broadly prepared to use their physics education in these fields. I will describe NSF

  13. The influence of Late Pleistocene geomorphological inheritance and Holocene hydromorphic regimes on floodwater farming in the Talgar catchment, southeast Kazakhstan, Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macklin, Mark G.; Panyushkina, Irina P.; Toonen, Willem H. J.; Chang, Claudia; Tourtellotte, Perry A.; Duller, Geoff A. T.; Wang, Hong; Prins, Maarten A.

    2015-12-01

    In comparison to Southwest Asia and the Indian subcontinent, the relationship between Holocene river dynamics, climate change and floodwater farming in Central Asia is significantly under researched. To address this, a multi-disciplinary research project was begun in 2011 centred on the Talgar catchment, a south-bank tributary of the Ili River, southeast Kazakhstan. Building on archaeological excavations and surveys conducted over the past 20 years, we have undertaken investigations of Holocene human adaptations to changing hydromorphic regimes in the Tien Shan piedmont region, Central Asia. Fluvial geochronologies have been reconstructed over the last 20,000 years using Optically Stimulated Luminescence and 14C dating, and are compared with human settlement histories from the Eneolithic to the medieval period. Phases of Late Pleistocene and Holocene river aggradation at c. 17,400-6420, 4130-2880 and 910-500 cal. BC and between the mid-18th and early 20th centuries were coeval with cooler and wetter neoglacial episodes. Entrenchment and floodplain soil development (c. 2880-2490 cal. BC and cal. AD 1300-1640) coincided with warmer and drier conditions. Prior to the modern period, floodwater farming in the Talgar River reached its height in the late Iron Age (400 cal. BC - cal. AD 1) with more than 70 settlement sites and 700 burial mounds. This period of agricultural expansion corresponds to a phase of reduced flooding, river stability and glacier retreat in the Tien Shan Mountains. Late Iron age agriculturists appear to have been opportunistic by exploiting a phase of moderate flows within an alluvial fan environment, which contained a series of partially entrenched distributary channels that could be easily 'engineered' to facilitate floodwater farming. Holocene climate change was therefore not a proximate cause for the development and demise of this relatively short-lived (c. 200 years) period of Iron Age farming. River dynamics in the Tien Shan piedmont are

  14. Phosphorus Equilibria Among Mafic Silicate Phases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berlin, Jana; Xirouchakis, Dimitris

    2002-01-01

    data also indicate that DXVliQP2O5 decrease in the same order, but DOVLiQP2O5 and DOpx/LiQP205 are likely constant, respectively equal to 0.08(3) and 0.007(4), in contrast, DG1ILiQP205 increases from 0.15(3) to 0.36(10) as garnet becomes majoritic, thus silica-enriched, and may also depend on liquid composition (SiO2, P2O5 and Na2O wt%).

  15. The transient pore formed by homologous terminal complement complexes functions as a bidirectional route for the transport of autocrine and paracrine signals across human cell membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Acosta, J. A.; Benzaquen, L. R.; Goldstein, D. J.; Tosteson, M. T.; Halperin, J. A.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We have previously shown that the membrane attack complex (MAC) of complement stimulates cell proliferation and that insertion of homologous MAC into the membranes of endothelial cells results in the release of potent mitogens, including basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). The mechanism of secretion of bFGF and other polypeptides devoid of signal peptides, such as interleukin 1 (IL-1) is still an open problem in cell biology. We have hypothesized that the homologous MAC pore itself could constitute a transient route for the diffusion of biologically active macromolecules in and out of the target cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human red blood cell ghosts and artificial lipid vesicles were loaded with labeled growth factors, cytokines and IgG, and exposed to homologous MAC. The release of the 125I-macromolecules was followed as a function of time. The incorporation of labeled polypeptides and fluorescent dextran (MW: 10,000) was measured in MAC-impacted human red blood cells and human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVEC), respectively. RESULTS: Homologous MAC insertion into HUVEC resulted in the massive uptake of 10-kD dextran and induced the release of bFGF, in the absence of any measurable lysis. Red blood cell ghosts preloaded with bFGF, IL-1 beta, and the alpha-chain of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) released the polypeptides upon MAC insertion, but they did not release preloaded IgG. MAC-impacted ghosts took up radioactive IFN-gamma from the extracellular medium. Vesicles loaded with IL-I released the polypeptide when exposed to MAC. CONCLUSIONS: The homologous MAC pore in its nonlytic form allows for the export of cytosolic proteins devoid of signal peptides that are not secreted through the classical endoplasmic reticulum/Golgi exocytotic pathways. Our results suggest that the release, and perhaps the uptake, of biologically active macromolecules through the homologous MAC pore is a novel biological function of the complement system in mammals

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF AN EMAT IN-LINE INSPECTION SYSTEM FOR DETECTION, DISCRIMINATION, AND GRADING OF STRESS CORROSION CRACKING IN PIPELINES

    SciTech Connect

    Jeff Aron; Jon Gore, Roger Dalton; Stuart Eaton; Adrian Bowles; Owen Thomas; Tim Jarman

    2003-07-01

    scans of SCC interactions. This section also reviews further coil optimization and implementation requirements. These involve transmitter and receiver power, acquisition parameters, and magnetic configuration. At this time all these seem reasonable for an ILI tool.

  17. Women and Couples in Isolated Extreme Environments: Applications for Long-Duration Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leon, G. R.; Sandal, G. M.

    four women from Greenland, Denmark, UK and Russia who traversed the Greenland ice by ski. The participants did not know each other prior to the expedition. Three were classified as "the right stuff' based on PCI findings. Diary and post-expedition reports indicated that incidents of interpersonal tension were often related to fatigue, homesickness, pain or cold. The participants also indicated that respect and tolerance for differences between them, as weIl as mutual emotional support were crucial factors for the successful completion of the expedition. Group 3 consisted of 3 married couples and the 2 1/2 year old child of the leader and his wife. Five of the crew sailed a small boat from Norway to the Canadian High Arctic; the leader's wife and child joined the team in Greenland. Over a 9 month period, the icelocked boat was ilie center of habitation, scientific, and other activities. Three of the group carried out a 6 week exploratory trek at the end of the winter-over. Participants completed the MPQ prior to the expedition, a WRF over the entire Arctic period, and a semi-structured personality interview at the close of the interval during which the entire group was together. AlI participants scored relatively highest on the Absorption scale, manifested in the salutory experience of enjoying and becoming engrossed in the beauty of the environment. WRF and interview findings indicated that team members consistently reported that the emotional support of and ability to confide in their partner were extremely important in alleviating interpersonal tensions with other team members, and contributed to the overall effective functioning of the group. Reported level of emotional response to stress and coping patterns used while in the stationary habitat were consistent with WRF responses during the later exploratory trek. The woman team member on the trek reported more discomfort regarding personal hygiene issues and fear of injury .In alI groups, the salience of the

  18. An Integrated Biochemistry Laboratory, Including Molecular Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Adele J. Wolfson Mona L.; Branham, Thomas R.

    1996-11-01

    ) experience with methods of protein purification; (iii) incorporation of appropriate controls into experiments; (iv) use of basic statistics in data analysis; (v) writing papers and grant proposals in accepted scientific style; (vi) peer review; (vii) oral presentation of results and proposals; and (viii) introduction to molecular modeling. Figure 1 illustrates the modular nature of the lab curriculum. Elements from each of the exercises can be separated and treated as stand-alone exercises, or combined into short or long projects. We have been able to offer the opportunity to use sophisticated molecular modeling in the final module through funding from an NSF-ILI grant. However, many of the benefits of the research proposal can be achieved with other computer programs, or even by literature survey alone. Figure 1.Design of project-based biochemistry laboratory. Modules (projects, or portions of projects) are indicated as boxes. Each of these can be treated independently, or used as part of a larger project. Solid lines indicate some suggested paths from one module to the next. The skills and knowledge required for protein purification and design are developed in three units: (i) an introduction to critical assays needed to monitor degree of purification, including an evaluation of assay parameters; (ii) partial purification by ion-exchange techniques; and (iii) preparation of a grant proposal on protein design by mutagenesis. Brief descriptions of each of these units follow, with experimental details of each project at the end of this paper. Assays for Lysozyme Activity and Protein Concentration (4 weeks) The assays mastered during the first unit are a necessary tool for determining the purity of the enzyme during the second unit on purification by ion exchange. These assays allow an introduction to the concept of specific activity (units of enzyme activity per milligram of total protein) as a measure of purity. In this first sequence, students learn a turbidimetric assay

  19. High temperature hall effect measurement system design, measurement and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkun, Isil

    A reliable knowledge of the transport properties of semiconductor materials is essential for the development and understanding of a number of electronic devices. In this thesis, the work on developing a Hall Effect measurement system with software based data acqui- sition and control for a temperature range of 300K-700K will be described. A system was developed for high temperature measurements of materials including single crystal diamond, poly-crystalline diamond, and thermoelectric compounds. An added capability for monitor- ing the current versus voltage behavior of the contacts was used for studying the influence of ohmic and non-ohmic contacts on Hall Effect measurements. The system has been primar- ily used for testing the transport properties of boron-doped single crystal diamond (SCD) deposited in a microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) reactor [1]. Diamond has several outstanding properties that are of high interest for its development as an electronic material. These include a relatively wide band gap of 5.5 (eV), high thermal conductivity, high mobility, high saturation velocity, and a high breakdown voltage. For a temperature range of 300K-700K, IV curves, Hall mobilities and carrier concentrations are shown. Temperature dependent Hall effect measurements have shown carrier concentrations from below 1017cm --3 to approximately 1021 cm--3 with mobilities ranging from 763( cm2/V s) to 0.15(cm 2/V s) respectively. Simulation results have shown the effects of single and mixed carrier models, activation energies, effective mass and doping concentrations. These studies have been helpful in the development of single crystal diamond for diode applications. Reference materials of Ge and GaAs were used to test the Hall Effect system. The system was also used to characterize polycrystalline diamond deposited on glass for electrochemical applications, and Mg2(Si,Sn) compounds which are promising candidates of low-cost, light weight and non

  20. Undergraduate Laboratory for Surface Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okumura, Mitchio; Beauchamp, Jesse L.; Dickert, Jeffrey M.; Essy, Blair R.; Claypool, Christopher L.

    1996-02-01

    be added to the curriculum this academic year. This experiment introduces students to the concepts of surface adsorption and desorption kinetics. The sample mount can be both heated to 900 oC and cooled by liquid nitrogen, allowing the study of the desorption of a variety of adsorbates, both chemisorbed and physisorbed. Adsorbed species evolving from the heated surface are detected with a quadrupole mass spectrometer. Initially, students will study the desorption kinetics of CO from a Pt(111) surface for a range of coverages and temperature programming rates in order to obtain rate parameters and to test the validity of Redhead's relationship between the activation energy of desorption and the peak desorption temperature. They then will be introduced to the mechanisms of surface reactions (Langmuir-Hinshelwood) in a study of CO oxidation on this surface. We have also set up a scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) laboratory using a commercially available instrument (Burleigh Instruments, Inc.), which complements the UHV surface structure experiments by introducing the topography of a real surface, for example, with steps and defect sites. With the apparatus now completed, we can explore other possible developments, for example, an applied physics track designed around experiments on semiconductor substrates. Future additions include X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and completion of a separate surface infrared spectroscopy experiment on supported catalysts. We acknowledge support from the National Science Foundation, Division of Undergraduate Education Instrumentation and Laboratory Improvement (ILI) Program (Grant No. DUE-9352254) and an AT&T Special Purpose Grant. Literature Cited Somorjai, G. Introduction to Surface Chemistry and Catalysis; Wiley: New York, 1994; Woodruff, D. P.; Delchar, T. A. Modem Techniques of Surface Science; Cambridge University: Cambridge, 1986; Christmann, K. Introduction to Surface Physical Chemistry; Springer Verlag: New York, 1991