Sample records for observable physical quantities

  1. Informationally complete sets of physical quantities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Busch

    1991-01-01

    The notion of informational completeness is formulated within the convex state (or operational) approach to statistical physical theories and employed to introduce a type of statistical metrics. Further, a criterion for a set of physical quantities to be informationally complete is proven. Some applications of this result are given within the algebraic and Hilbert space formulations of quantum theory.

  2. On the Representation of Physical Quantities in Natural Language Text

    E-print Network

    Forbus, Kenneth D.

    language. Our focus is on physical quantities found in descriptions of physical processes that water will eventually boil if you heat it on a stove, that a ball placed at the top of a steep ramp continuous properties can appear in written natural language. Our focus is on physical quantities found

  3. Average observational quantities in the timescape cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Wiltshire, David L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8140, New Zealand, and International Center for Relativistic Astrophysics Network (ICRANet), Piazzale le della Repubblica 10, Pescara 65121 (Italy)

    2009-12-15

    We examine the properties of a recently proposed observationally viable alternative to homogeneous cosmology with smooth dark energy, the timescape cosmology. In the timescape model cosmic acceleration is realized as an apparent effect related to the calibration of clocks and rods of observers in bound systems relative to volume-average observers in an inhomogeneous geometry in ordinary general relativity. The model is based on an exact solution to a Buchert average of the Einstein equations with backreaction. The present paper examines a number of observational tests which will enable the timescape model to be distinguished from homogeneous cosmologies with a cosmological constant or other smooth dark energy, in current and future generations of dark energy experiments. Predictions are presented for comoving distance measures; H(z); the equivalent of the dark energy equation of state, w(z); the Om(z) measure of Sahni, Shafieloo, and Starobinsky; the Alcock-Paczynski test; the baryon acoustic oscillation measure, D{sub V}; the inhomogeneity test of Clarkson, Bassett, and Lu; and the time drift of cosmological redshifts. Where possible, the predictions are compared to recent independent studies of similar measures in homogeneous cosmologies with dark energy. Three separate tests with indications of results in possible tension with the {lambda}CDM model are found to be consistent with the expectations of the timescape cosmology.

  4. WHAT PHYSICAL QUANTITIES MAKE SENSE IN NONEQUILIBRIUM STATISTICAL MECHANICS?

    E-print Network

    Ruelle, David

    WHAT PHYSICAL QUANTITIES MAKE SENSE IN NONEQUILIBRIUM STATISTICAL MECHANICS? by David Ruelle*. Abstract. Statistical mechanics away from equilibrium is in a formative stage, where general concepts;1 Introduction. Statistical mechanics, as seen by Boltzmann, is an attempt to understand the bulk properties

  5. WHAT PHYSICAL QUANTITIES MAKE SENSE IN NONEQUILIBRIUM STATISTICAL MECHANICS?

    E-print Network

    Ruelle, David

    WHAT PHYSICAL QUANTITIES MAKE SENSE IN NONEQUILIBRIUM STATISTICAL MECHANICS? by David Ruelle*. Abstract. Statistical mechanics away from equilibrium is in a formative stage, where general concepts: ruelle@ihes.fr 1 #12; 1 Introduction. Statistical mechanics, as seen by Boltzmann, is an attempt

  6. Can the Lorenz-Gauge Potentials Be Considered Physical Quantities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heras, Jose A.; Fernandez-Anaya, Guillermo

    2010-01-01

    Two results support the idea that the scalar and vector potentials in the Lorenz gauge can be considered to be physical quantities: (i) they separately satisfy the properties of causality and propagation at the speed of light and do not imply spurious terms and (ii) they can naturally be written in a manifestly covariant form. In this paper we…

  7. The $p?n$ fractal decomposition: partitioning conserved physical quantities

    E-print Network

    Vladimir Garcia-Morales

    2015-05-11

    A mathematical method for constructing fractal curves and surfaces, termed the $p\\lambda n$ fractal decomposition, is presented. It allows any function to be split into a finite set of fractal discontinuous functions whose sum is equal everywhere to the original function. Thus, the method is specially suited for constructing families of fractal objects arising from a conserved physical quantity, the decomposition yielding an exact partition of the quantity in question. A most prominent class of examples is provided by Hamiltonian functions: By using this method, any Hamiltonian can be decomposed in the ordinary sum of a specified number of terms (generally fractal functions), the decomposition being both exact and valid everywhere on the constant energy surface. Our method gives strong theoretical support to nonextensive statistics, nanothermodynamics and superstatistics.

  8. "Physical quantity" and " Physical reality" in Quantum Mechanics: an epistemological path

    E-print Network

    David Vernette; Michele Caponigro

    2006-12-05

    We reconsider briefly the relation between "physical quantity" and "physical reality in the light of recent interpretations of Quantum Mechanics. We argue, that these interpretations are conditioned from the epistemological relation between these two fundamental concepts. In detail, the choice as ontic level of the concept affect, the relative interpretation. We note, for instance, that the informational view of quantum mechanics (primacy of the subjectivity) is due mainly to the evidence of the "random" physical quantities as ontic element. We will analyze four positions: Einstein, Rovelli, d'Espagnat and Zeilinger.

  9. Heisenberg uncertainty principle and economic analogues of basic physical quantities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vladimir Soloviev; Vladimir Saptsin

    2011-01-01

    From positions, attained by modern theoretical physics in understanding of the universe bases, the methodological and philosophical analysis of fundamental physical concepts and their formal and informal connections with the real economic measurings is carried out. Procedures for heterogeneous economic time determination, normalized economic coordinates and economic mass are offered, based on the analysis of time series, the concept of

  10. Heisenberg uncertainty principle and economic analogues of basic physical quantities

    E-print Network

    Soloviev, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    From positions, attained by modern theoretical physics in understanding of the universe bases, the methodological and philosophical analysis of fundamental physical concepts and their formal and informal connections with the real economic measurings is carried out. Procedures for heterogeneous economic time determination, normalized economic coordinates and economic mass are offered, based on the analysis of time series, the concept of economic Plank's constant has been proposed. The theory has been approved on the real economic dynamic's time series, including stock indices, Forex and spot prices, the achieved results are open for discussion.

  11. Heisenberg uncertainty principle and economic analogues of basic physical quantities

    E-print Network

    Vladimir Soloviev; Vladimir Saptsin

    2011-11-10

    From positions, attained by modern theoretical physics in understanding of the universe bases, the methodological and philosophical analysis of fundamental physical concepts and their formal and informal connections with the real economic measurings is carried out. Procedures for heterogeneous economic time determination, normalized economic coordinates and economic mass are offered, based on the analysis of time series, the concept of economic Plank's constant has been proposed. The theory has been approved on the real economic dynamic's time series, including stock indices, Forex and spot prices, the achieved results are open for discussion.

  12. The Scientific Method and Physical Quantities Covers Chapters 1.11.2

    E-print Network

    Cinabro, David

    The Scientific Method and Physical Quantities Covers Chapters 1.1­1.2 The scientific method on the scientific method is called science. Physics is the science that seeks to discover the basic ways in which was one of the founder of this method. The process of building up a body of knowledge based

  13. Measurement of multiple unrelated physical quantities using a single magnetic field response sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodard, Stanley E.; Taylor, Bryant D.

    2007-05-01

    This paper presents a non-contact method for powering and interrogating magnetic field response sensors that facilitates measurement of multiple unrelated physical quantities using the same sensor. The sensors are electrically passive inductive-capacitive or passive inductive-capacitive-resistive circuits that are powered using oscillating magnetic fields, and once electrically active, the sensors respond with their own oscillating magnetic fields. The sensor's magnetic field response frequency, amplitude and bandwidth are correlated to the magnitude of one or more physical quantities that each sensor measures. The magnetic field response sensors and the technique for powering and interrogation alleviate many shortcomings of traditional sensor/measurement systems. The shortcomings are having a data acquisition channel dedicated to each sensor, wiring/circuitry weight associated with measurements, electrical arcing, wire degradations due to wear or chemical decay and the logistics needed to add new sensors. Because measurements can be derived from influences upon the sensor's magnetic field or electrical field, the circuit that forms the sensor need not be in physical contact with the measurand. The method for discerning sensor response frequency, resistance and amplitude is presented herein. The method does not require the sensors to be near or physically connected to acquisition hardware or a power source. The theoretical basis for the measurement acquisition technique is discussed including the influence of key parameters on measurement acquisition. One example of a magnetic field response sensor for measuring the magnitude of three unrelated physical quantities—material phase transition, temperature and position—will be presented. A fluid-level measurement will also be presented.

  14. Theoretical and observational planetary physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldwell, J.

    1986-01-01

    This program supports NASA's deep space exploration missions, particularly those to the outer Solar System, and also NASA's Earth-orbital astronomy missions, using ground-based observations, primarily with the NASA IRTF at Mauna Kea, Hawaii, and also with such instruments as the Kitt Peak 4 meter Mayall telescope and the NRAO VLA facility in Socorro, New Mexico. An important component of the program is the physical interpretation of the observations. There were two major scientific discoveries resulting from 8 micrometer observations of Jupiter. The first is that at that wavelength there are two spots, one near each magnetic pole, which are typically the brightest and therefore warmest places on the planet. The effect is clearly due to precipitating high energy magnetospheric particles. A second ground-based discovery is that in 1985, Jupiter exhibited low latitude (+ or - 18 deg.) stratospheric wave structure.

  15. Nature of the Physical Observer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osoroma, Drahcir S.

    2010-12-01

    The nature of the observer has long plagued physical science. Here we review the current status of cognitive science in the context of a cosmology of mind in an Anthropic Multiverse. The concept of an élan vital or life force has long been considered the elementary action principle driving the evolution of living-systems by theologically minded scientists and individuals. Sufficiently extending Einstein's original model of a Static Universe, to a Holographic Anthropic Multiverse (HAM), provides a context for solving this centuries old problem for introducing this type of teleological principle into Physics, Biology, Medicine and Psychology. This means the contemporary framework of biological mechanism should no longer be considered the formal philosophical basis for describing living systems and contemporary allopathic (scientific) medicine. The new noetic action principle has far reaching implications for medicine and transpersonal psychology.

  16. A wireless interrogation system exploiting narrowband acoustic resonator for remote physical quantity measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Friedt, J.-M [SENSeOR, 32 Avenue de l'Observatoire, 25044 Besancon (France); Droit, C.; Martin, G.; Ballandras, S. [Department of Time and Frequency, FEMTO-ST, 32 Avenue de l'Observatoire, 25044 Besancon (France)

    2010-01-15

    Monitoring physical quantities using acoustic wave devices can be advantageously achieved using the wave characteristic dependence to various parametric perturbations (temperature, stress, and pressure). Surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonators are particularly well suited to such applications as their resonance frequency is directly influenced by these perturbations, modifying both the phase velocity and resonance conditions. Moreover, the intrinsic radio frequency (rf) nature of these devices makes them ideal for wireless applications, mainly exploiting antennas reciprocity and piezoelectric reversibility. In this paper, we present a wireless SAW sensor interrogation unit operating in the 434 MHz centered ISM band--selected as a tradeoff between antenna dimensions and electromagnetic wave penetration in dielectric media--based on the principles of a frequency sweep network analyzer. We particularly focus on the compliance with the ISM standard which reveals complicated by the need for switching from emission to reception modes similarly to radar operation. In this matter, we propose a fully digital rf synthesis chain to develop various interrogation strategies to overcome the corresponding difficulties and comply with the above-mentioned standard. We finally assess the reader interrogation range, accuracy, and dynamics.

  17. The composition of a quad of buildings sector energy: Physical, economic, and environmental quantities

    SciTech Connect

    Secrest, T.J.; Nicholls, A.K.

    1990-07-01

    In an analysis conducted for the US Department of Energy Office of Building Technologies (OBT), the Pacific Northwest Laboratory examined the fuel type composition of energy consumed in the US buildings sector. Numerical estimates were developed for the physical quantities of fuel consumed, as well as of the fossil fuel emissions (carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides) and nuclear spent fuel byproducts associated with that consumption. Electric generating requirements and the economic values associated with energy consumption also were quantified. These variables were quantified for a generic quad (1 quadrillion Btu) of primary energy for the years 1987 and 2010, to illustrate the impacts of a fuel-neutral reduction in buildings sector energy use, and for specific fuel types, to enable meaningful comparisons of benefits achievable through various OBT research projects or technology developments. Two examples are provided to illustrate how these conversion factors may be used to quantify the impacts of energy savings potentially achievable through OBT building energy conservation efforts. 18 refs., 6 figs., 16 tabs.

  18. A wavelet-based framework for acquired radiometric quantity representation and accurate physical rendering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luc Claustres; Mathias Paulin; Yannick Boucher

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we present a framework based on a generic representation, which is able to handle most of the radiometric quantities required by global illumination software. A sparse representation in the wavelet space is built using the separation between the directional and the wavelength dependencies of such radiometric quantities. Particularly, we show how to use this representation for spectral

  19. Calculating Observable Quantities for the Hofstadter-Type Spectrum of Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhemchuzhna, Liubov; Huang, Danhong; Gumbs, Godfrey; Iurov, Andrii; Krishna, Sanjay

    2015-03-01

    We numerically obtain density of states and the conductivity of the periodically modulated graphene in the presence of magnetic field. These quantities play most important role since they could be measured directly in experiment, so we compare our results with those from the existing experimental papers. The density of states has been calculated and shows a remarkable self-similarity like the energy bands. We estimate that for modulation period of 10 nm the region where the Hofstadter butterfly is revealed at B <= 2 T . Both single layer and bilayer graphene have been considered.

  20. Observational physics of mirror world

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khlopov, M. YA.; Beskin, G. M.; Bochkarev, N. E.; Pustilnik, L. A.; Pustilnik, S. A.

    1989-01-01

    The existence of the whole world of shadow particles, interacting with each other and having no mutual interactions with ordinary particles except gravity is a specific feature of modern superstring models, being considered as models of the theory of everything. The presence of shadow particles is the necessary condition in the superstring models, providing compensation of the asymmetry of left and right chirality states of ordinary particles. If compactification of additional dimensions retains the symmetry of left and right states, shadow world turns to be the mirror one, with particles and fields having properties strictly symmetrical to the ones of corresponding ordinary particles and fields. Owing to the strict symmetry of physical laws for ordinary and mirror particles, the analysis of cosmological evolution of mirror matter provides rather definite conclusions on possible effects of mirror particles in the universe. A general qualitative discussion of possible astronomical impact of mirror matter is given, in order to make as wide as possible astronomical observational searches for the effects of mirror world, being the unique way to test the existence of mirror partners of ordinary particles in the Nature.

  1. An exploratory investigation of the intuition of physical quantity among 15 to 17 year old high school students from an evolutionary epistemological perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernavski, Ghennady

    This study examines the issue of perception of extreme amounts of various physical quantities among 14 to 17 year old public schools students. The methods used in this investigation consisted of combined multiple-choice-open response questions and clinical interviews. The subjects in this study have relatively well defined ideas about quantitative relationships of the physical world as long as the quantities involved lie within their perceptual limits. Beyond these limits, their quantitative understanding was vague across all concepts with respect to their inability to do adequate quantitative comparisons. Very small physical quantities as well as very small changes in quantities did not seem to be present in the mental frameworks of the subjects. Most subjects were able to comprehend micro-quantities and micro-changes by relating them to those within their mesocosmical range. Analogical reasoning appeared to be central to this process. The subjects failed to perceive identical physical situations as analogical if one of them involved mesocosmical quantities and the other contained those lying beyond their mental mesocosmical range. Crossing mesocosmical boundaries in one's mind caused interruption in analogical reasoning. Very large physical quantities, namely those beyond the human range of sensual perception, were present in the subjects' mental frameworks. However, they were unable to reason adequately about quantitative differences between distinct quantities of the same concept if these quantities were beyond their sensual range. The findings of this study provide empirical support to Vollmer's (1984) theory of mesocosmical mind.

  2. Higher Dimensional Dust Cosmological Implications of a Decay Law for $?$ Term : Expressions for Some Observable Quantities

    E-print Network

    G. S. Khadekar; Anirudh Pradhan; M. R. Molaei

    2005-09-18

    In this paper we have considered the multidimensional cosmological implications of a decay law for $\\Lambda$ term that is proportional to $\\beta \\frac{\\ddot {a}}{a}$, where $\\beta$ is a constant and $a$ is the scale factor of RW-space time. We discuss the cosmological consequences of a model for the vanishing pressure for the case $k=0$. It has been observed that such models are compatible with the result of recent observations and cosmological term $\\Lambda$ gradually reduces as the universe expands. In this model $\\Lambda$ varies as the inverse square of time, which matches its natural units. The proper distance, the luminosity distance-redshift, the angular diameter distance-redshift, and look back time-redshift for the model are presented in the frame work of higher dimensional space time. The model of the Freese {\\it et al.} ({\\it Nucl. Phys. B} {\\bf 287}, 797 (1987)) for $n=2$ is retrieved for the particular choice of $A_{0}$ and also Einstein-de Sitter model is obtained for $A_{0} = {2/3}$. This work has thus generalized to higher dimensions the well-know result in four dimensional space time. It is found that there may be significant difference in principle at least, from the analogous situation in four dimensional space time.

  3. In-situ observation of irradiation quantities using a tethered balloon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Ralf; Gross, Steffen; Behrens, Klaus

    2014-05-01

    Irradiance is a key parameter in Earth's weather and climate system. Accurate observations of the components of the radiation budget are therefore essential to create reliable time series, to analyse spatial variability and to test, validate and adapt satellite-based algorithms. This holds true for near surface measurements as well as for in-situ observations in the lower troposphere. Such measurements are difficult to realise and therefore rarely performed. A tethered balloon system manufactured by Vailsala (9 cbm) is utilised as a carrier of a radiation budget sonde operating up to 1000 m above ground. Application is limited to fair weather conditions with maximum winds of 20 km/h and visibility greater than 3 km at ground level. The experimental setup is composed of a downward and upward looking pair of Kipp&Zonen CM11 (0.305-2.8 ?m) and a corresponding pair of Kipp&Zonen CG4 (4.5 - 42 ?m). Instruments are categorized as WMO 'secondary standard' according to ISO9660 and can be characterised as sufficiently robust and with acceptable response time for this purpose. Instrumentation is complemented by meteorological sensors (wind, temperature, humidity) flown on a dedicated suspension close (less than 50 m distance) to radiation sonde. In-situ measurements of irradiation in flowing and turbulent air are subjected to errors due to moving platform (roll/yaw/pitch). Potential deviations to near-surface measurements are discussed and an error estimate is given. Some comparisons of results of radiative transfer calculations for simple meteorological conditions have been made so far. It can be accomplished either by referring to profiles or by evaluating time series taken at elevated levels. Profiling lacks stationarity most time of a day due to high variability of shortwave downward and thus must be interpreted carefully. First results for longwave profiles as well as evaluation of time series obtained at distinct levels above ground show good correspondence.

  4. Near-Earth asteroids: Observer alert network and physical observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Donald R.; Chapman, Clark R.

    1992-01-01

    This project strives to obtain physical observations on newly discovered Near-Earth Objects (NEO's) in order to provide fundamental data needed to assess the resources available in the population. The goal is acquiring data on all objects brighter than magnitude V= 17.0. To accomplish this, an electronic mail alert and observer information service that informs observers around the world as to the status of physical observations on currently observable NEO's was established. Such data is also acquired ourselves through a cooperative program with European colleagues that uses telescopes on La Palma to obtain spectra of NEO's and through observations made from a local telescope on Tumamoc Hill. This latter telescope has the advantage that large amounts of observing time are available, so that whenever a new NEO's discovered, we can be assured of getting time to observe it.

  5. The physics of Reionization: processes relevant for SKA observations

    E-print Network

    Semelin, Benoit

    2015-01-01

    The local intensity of the 21 cm signal emitted during the Epoch of Reionization that will be mapped by the SKA is modulated by the amount of neutral hydrogen. Consequently, understanding the process of reionization of the intergalactic medium (IGM) is crucial for predicting and interpreting the upcoming observations. After presenting the basic physics and most meaningful quantities pertaining to the process of reionization, we will review recent progress in our understanding of the production and escape of ionizing photons in primordial galaxies and of their absorption in the IGM especially in so-called minihalos and Lyman Limit Systems.

  6. Walking: a matter of quantity and quality physical activity for type 2 diabetes management.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Steven T; Boulé, Normand G; Bell, Gordon J; Bell, Rhonda C

    2008-08-01

    Walking is often prescribed as a mode of physical activity for people with type 2 diabetes (T2D). We and others have found that although people with T2D may increase the amount that they walk (e.g., more steps per day), improvements in key health outcomes are rarely achieved. We agree that walking is an acceptable approach for people with T2D to meet current clinical practice guidelines, but consideration of both the total number of daily steps and the walking speed of a portion of those total daily steps are necessary to gain health benefit. PMID:18641725

  7. The Built Environment Predicts Observed Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Cheryl; Wilson, Jeffrey S.; Schootman, Mario; Clennin, Morgan; Baker, Elizabeth A.; Miller, Douglas K.

    2014-01-01

    Background: In order to improve our understanding of the relationship between the built environment and physical activity, it is important to identify associations between specific geographic characteristics and physical activity behaviors. Purpose: Examine relationships between observed physical activity behavior and measures of the built environment collected on 291 street segments in Indianapolis and St. Louis. Methods: Street segments were selected using a stratified geographic sampling design to ensure representation of neighborhoods with different land use and socioeconomic characteristics. Characteristics of the built environment on-street segments were audited using two methods: in-person field audits and audits based on interpretation of Google Street View imagery with each method blinded to results from the other. Segments were dichotomized as having a particular characteristic (e.g., sidewalk present or not) based on the two auditing methods separately. Counts of individuals engaged in different forms of physical activity on each segment were assessed using direct observation. Non-parametric statistics were used to compare counts of physically active individuals on each segment with built environment characteristic. Results: Counts of individuals engaged in physical activity were significantly higher on segments with mixed land use or all non-residential land use, and on segments with pedestrian infrastructure (e.g., crosswalks and sidewalks) and public transit. Conclusion: Several micro-level built environment characteristics were associated with physical activity. These data provide support for theories that suggest changing the built environment and related policies may encourage more physical activity. PMID:24904916

  8. Evidence for Direct Retrieval of Relative Quantity Information in a Quantity Judgment Task: Decimals, Integers, and the Role of Physical Similarity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Dale J.

    2010-01-01

    Participants' reaction times (RTs) in numerical judgment tasks in which one must determine which of 2 numbers is greater generally follow a monotonically decreasing function of the numerical distance between the two presented numbers. Here, I present 3 experiments in which the relative influences of numerical distance and physical similarity are…

  9. X ray timing observations and gravitational physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michelson, Peter F.; Wood, Kent S.

    1989-01-01

    Photon-rich x ray observations on bright compact galactic sources will make it possible to detect many fast processes that may occur in these systems on millisecond and submillisecond timescales. Many of these processes are of direct relevance to gravitational physics because they arise in regions of strong gravity near neutron stars and black holes where the dynamical timescales for compact objects of stellar mass are milliseconds. To date, such observations have been limited by the detector area and telemetry rates available. However, instruments such as the proposed X ray Large Array (XLA) would achieve collecting areas of about 100 sq m. This instrument has been described elsewhere (Wood and Michelson 1988) and was the subject of a recent prephase A feasibility study at Marshall Space Flight Center. Observations with an XLA class instrument will directly impact five primary areas of astrophysics research: the attempt to detect gravitational radiation, the study of black holes, the physics of mass accretion onto compact objects, the structure of neutron stars and nuclear matter, and the characterization of dark matter in the universe. Those observations are discussed that are most directly relevant to gravitational physics: the search for millisecond x ray pulsars that are potential sources of continuous gravitational radiation; and the use of x ray timing observations to probe the physical conditions in extreme relativistic regions of space near black holes, both stellar-sized and supermassive.

  10. PHYSICAL AND BIOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS ON HERPESVIRUS

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Kendall O.

    1963-01-01

    Smith, Kendall O. (Baylor University College of Medicine, Houston, Texas). Physical and biological observations on herpesvirus. J. Bacteriol. 86:999–1009. 1963.—The development of herpesvirus in human lung fibroblasts was studied by plaque assays and physical particle counts. Approximately 200 infectious units and 60,000 particles were produced by single cells during a single growth cycle. Production of physically recognizable particles preceded infectious virus particle production by about 5 to 6 hr, suggesting the occurrence of a maturation process during formation. Aggregation of particles in clusters and chains was observed in many cases. One of the mechanisms for this aggregation was the connection of particles by deoxyribonucleic acid strands. These strands appeared to connect some particles in a way that suggests a structural continuity between their cores. Images PMID:14080813

  11. Physical observations and taxonomy of asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, D.

    1978-01-01

    Physical asteroid observations are summarized and the classification scheme to describe asteroid surfaces in relation to mineralogical composition is detailed. The principle classes, distinguished on the basis of a number of parameters involving albedo and color, are called C, S, and M.

  12. European Marine Observation Data Network - EMODnet Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzella, Giuseppe M. R.; Novellino, Antonio; D'Angelo, Paolo; Gorringe, Patrick; Schaap, Dick; Pouliquen, Sylvie; Loubrieu, Thomas; Rickards, Lesley

    2015-04-01

    The EMODnet-Physics portal (www.emodnet-physics.eu) makes layers of physical data and their metadata available for use and contributes towards the definition of an operational European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet). It is based on a strong collaboration between EuroGOOS associates and its regional operational systems (ROOSs), and it is bringing together two very different marine communities: the "real time" ocean observing institute/centers and the National Oceanographic Data Centres (NODCs) that are in charge of ocean data validation, quality check and update for marine environmental monitoring. The EMODnet-Physics is a Marine Observation and Data Information System that provides a single point of access to near real time and historical achieved data (www.emodnet-physics.eu/map) it is built on existing infrastructure by adding value and avoiding any unless complexity, it provides data access to users, it is aimed at attracting new data holders, better and more data. With a long-term vision for a pan European Ocean Observation System sustainability, the EMODnet-Physics is supporting the coordination of the EuroGOOS Regional components and the empowerment and improvement of their data management infrastructure. In turn, EMODnet-Physics already implemented high-level interoperability features (WMS, Web catalogue, web services, etc…) to facilitate connection and data exchange with the ROOS and the Institutes within the ROOSs (www.emodnet-physics.eu/services). The on-going EMODnet-Physics structure delivers environmental marine physical data from the whole Europe (wave height and period, temperature of the water column, wind speed and direction, salinity of the water column, horizontal velocity of the water column, light attenuation, and sea level) as monitored by fixed stations, ARGO floats, drifting buoys, gliders, and ferry-boxes. It does provide discovering of data sets (both NRT - near real time - and Historical data sets), visualization and free download of data from more than 1500 platforms. The portal is composed mainly of three sections: the Map, the Selection List and the Station Info Panel. The Map is the core of the EMODnet-Physics system: here the user can access all available data, customize the map visualization and set different display layers. It is also possible to interact with all the information on the map using the filters provided by the service that can be used to select the stations of interest depending on the type, physical parameters measured, the time period of the observations in the database of the system, country of origin, the water basin of reference. It is also possible to browse the data in time by means of the slider in the lower part of the page that allows the user to view the stations that recorded data in a particular time period. Finally, it is possible to change the standard map view with different layers that provide additional visual information on the status of the waters. The Station Info panel available from the main map by clicking on a single platform provides information on the measurements carried out by the station. Moreover, the system provides full interoperability with third-party software through WMS service, Web Service and Web catalogue in order to exchange data and products according to the most recent interop standards. Further developments will ensure the compatibility to the OGS-SWE (Sensor Web Enablement) standard for the description of sensors and related observations using OpenGIS specifications (SensorML, O&M, SOS). The full list of services is available at www.emodnet-physics.eu/services. The result is an excellent example of innovative technologies for providing open and free access to geo-referenced data for the creation of new advanced (operational) oceanography services.

  13. A New Formula of Averaging Physical Quantities (Application to calculation of the average radius of tapering tube and average flow velocity in the tube)

    E-print Network

    I. A. Stepanow

    2006-03-22

    The traditional method of finding the average value of a physical quantity often gives wrong results. Another formula of averaging is derived which gives correct results. It is applied to calculation of the average radius of tapering tube and the average flow velocity in the tube. The new formula is applicable to many other processes.

  14. 10 CFR 37.73 - Applicability of physical protection of category 1 and category 2 quantities of radioactive...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...false Applicability of physical protection of category 1 and category 2...REGULATORY COMMISSION PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF CATEGORY 1 AND CATEGORY 2...RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL Physical Protection in Transit § 37.73...

  15. Physics Beyond the Single Top Quark Observation

    SciTech Connect

    Heinson, A.P.; Collaboration, for the DZero

    2010-10-01

    In March 2009, the D0 Collaboration first observed the electroweak production of single top quarks at 5{sigma} significance. We measured the cross section for the combined s-channel and t-channel production modes, and set a lower limit on the CKM matrix element |V{sub tb}|. Since then, we have used the same dataset to measure the t-channel production mode independently, the combined cross section in the hadronically-decaying tau lepton final state, and the width and lifetime of the top quark, and we have set upper limits on contributions from anomalous flavor-changing neutral currents. This paper describes these new measurements, as presented at the 3rd International Workshop on Top Quark Physics, held in Brugge, Belgium, May 31-June 4, 2010.

  16. (Astro)Physics 344 Observational Optical Astronomy

    E-print Network

    Glashausser, Charles

    course number = 01:750:344 web page = http://www.physics.rutgers.edu/ugrad/344/ #12;Personnel Professor Tad Pryor Serin W302 445-5500 x5462 (office) pryor[at]physics.rutgers.edu Instructor Jesse Jedrusiak of solar system objects change (relatively) rapidly. #12;Coordinate systems: telescope's point of view

  17. Observable physical modes of modified gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hojjati, Alireza; Pogosian, Levon; Silvestri, Alessandra; Zhao, Gong-Bo

    2014-04-01

    At linear order in cosmological perturbations, departures from the growth in the cosmological standard model can be quantified in terms of two functions of redshift z and Fourier number k. Previous studies have performed principal component forecasts for several choices of these two functions based on expected capabilities of upcoming large structure surveys. It is typically found that there will be many well-constrained degrees of freedom. However, not all and probably most of these degrees of freedom were physical if the parametrization had allowed for an arbitrary k dependence. In this paper, we restrict the k dependence to that allowed in local theories of gravity under the quasistatic approximation, i.e. ratios of polynomials in k, and identify the best constrained features in the (z ,k) dependence of the commonly considered functions ? and ? as measured by a Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST)-like weak lensing survey. We estimate the uncertainty in the measurements of the eigenmodes of modified growth. We find that imposing the theoretical prior on k dependence reduces the number of degrees of freedom and the covariance between parameters. On the other hand, imaging surveys like LSST are not as sensitive to the z dependence as they are to the k dependence of the modified growth functions. This trade-off provides us with, more or less, the same number of well-constrained eigenmodes (with respect to our prior) as found before, but now these modes are physical.

  18. On Whether People Have the Capacity to Make Observations of Mutually Exclusive Physical Phenomena Simultaneously

    E-print Network

    D. M. Snyder

    2001-08-12

    It has been shown by Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen that in quantum mechanics either one of two different wave functions predicting specific values for quantities represented by non-commuting Hermitian operators can characterize the same physical existent, without a physical interaction responsible for which wave function occurs. This result means that one can make predictions regarding mutually exclusive features of a physical existent. It is important to ask whether people have the capacity to make observations of mutually exclusive phenomena. Our everyday experience informs us that a human observer is capable of observing only one set of physical circumstances at a time. Evidence from psychology, though, indicates that people may have the capacity to make observations of mutually exclusive physical phenomena, even though this capacity is not generally recognized. Working independently, Sigmund Freud and William James provided some of this evidence. How the nature of the quantum mechanical wave function is associated with the problem posed by Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen is addressed at the end of the paper.

  19. Quantity Stickiness versus Stackelberg Leadership

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, F. A.

    2008-10-01

    We study the endogenous Stackelberg relations in a dynamic market. We analyze a twice-repeated duopoly where, in the beginning, each firm chooses either a quantity-sticky production mode or a quantity-flexible production mode. The size of the market becomes observable after the first period. In the second period, a firm can adjust its quantity if, and only if, it has adopted the flexible mode. Hence, if one firm chooses the sticky mode whilst the other chooses the flexible mode, then they respectively play the roles of a Stackelberg leader and a Stackelberg follower in the second marketing period. We compute the supply quantities at equilibrium and the corresponding expected profits of the firms. We also analyze the effect of the slope parameter of the demand curve on the expected supply quantities and on the profits.

  20. Quantity Stickiness versus Stackelberg Leadership

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreira, F. A. [ESEIG, Instituto Politecnico do Porto, Rua D. Sancho I, 981, 4480-876 Vila do Conde (Portugal)

    2008-10-30

    We study the endogenous Stackelberg relations in a dynamic market. We analyze a twice-repeated duopoly where, in the beginning, each firm chooses either a quantity-sticky production mode or a quantity-flexible production mode. The size of the market becomes observable after the first period. In the second period, a firm can adjust its quantity if, and only if, it has adopted the flexible mode. Hence, if one firm chooses the sticky mode whilst the other chooses the flexible mode, then they respectively play the roles of a Stackelberg leader and a Stackelberg follower in the second marketing period. We compute the supply quantities at equilibrium and the corresponding expected profits of the firms. We also analyze the effect of the slope parameter of the demand curve on the expected supply quantities and on the profits.

  1. Sensitivity of the action observation network to physical and observational learning.

    PubMed

    Cross, Emily S; Kraemer, David J M; Hamilton, Antonia F de C; Kelley, William M; Grafton, Scott T

    2009-02-01

    Human motor skills can be acquired by observation without the benefit of immediate physical practice. The current study tested if physical rehearsal and observational learning share common neural substrates within an action observation network (AON) including premotor and inferior parietal regions, that is, areas activated both for execution and observation of similar actions. Participants trained for 5 days on dance sequences set to music videos. Each day they physically rehearsed one set of dance sequences ("danced"), and passively watched a different set of sequences ("watched"). Functional magnetic resonance imaging was obtained prior to and immediately following the 5 days of training. After training, a subset of the AON showed a degree of common activity for observational and physical learning. Activity in these premotor and parietal regions was sustained during observation of sequences that were danced or watched, but declined for unfamiliar sequences relative to the pretraining scan session. These imaging data demonstrate the emergence of action resonance processes in the human brain based on observational learning without physical practice and identify commonalities in the neural substrates for physical and observational learning. PMID:18515297

  2. Panel discussion on chiral extrapolation of physical observables

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claude Bernard; Shoji Hashimoto; Derek B. Leinweber; Peter Lepage; Elisabetta Pallante; Stephen R. Sharpe; Hartmut Wittig

    2003-01-01

    This is an approximate reconstruction of the panel discussion on chiral extrapolation of physical observables. The session consisted of brief presentations from panelists, followed by responses from the panel, and concluded with questions and comments from the floor with answers from panelists. In the following, the panelists have summarized their statements, and the ensuing discussion has been approximately reconstructed from

  3. PHYSICS OF PLANETS: OBSERVING EXTRASOLAR GIANT PLANETS WITH Tristan Guillot

    E-print Network

    Guillot, Tristan

    1 PHYSICS OF PLANETS: OBSERVING EXTRASOLAR GIANT PLANETS WITH DARWIN/TPF Tristan Guillot/TPF. Extrasolar giant planets are milestones on the quest for our origins: they hold crucial information con for those objects with little or no atmosphere). On the other hand, extrasolar giant planets represent a new

  4. Name Those Quantities

    SciTech Connect

    Strom, Daniel J.

    2004-03-22

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has created a number of radiation protection quantities since its Publication 26 appeared in 1977. The ensuing years have brought chaos in the form of multiple definitions and symbols for the same and similar quantities, conflicting definitions, mathematical absurdities, and a proliferation of terms. Despite this, the most commonly used radiation protection quantities in the USA and in the International Atomic Energy Agency's Basic Safety Standards have not been named or clearly defined by the ICRP. This paper proposes the names "total effective dose" for the prospective quantity, and "total personal effective dose" for the quantity pertaining to an exposed individual.

  5. Is $\\hat{q}$ a physical quantity or just a parameter? and other unanswered questions in High-$p_T$ Physics

    E-print Network

    M. J. Tannenbaum

    2015-04-14

    The many different theoretical studies of energy loss of a quark or gluon traversing a medium have one thing in common: the transport coefficient of a gluon in the medium, $\\hat{q}$, which is defined as the mean 4-momentum transfer$^2$, $\\left$, by a gluon to the medium per gluon mean free path, $\\lambda_{\\rm mfp}$. In the original BDMPSZ formalism, the energy loss of an outgoing parton, $-dE/dx$, per unit length ($x$) of a medium with total length $L$, due to coherent gluon bremsstrahlung, is proportional to the $\\left$ and takes the form: ${-dE/dx }\\simeq \\alpha_s \\left=\\alpha_s\\, \\mu^2\\, L/\\lambda_{\\rm mfp} =\\alpha_s\\, \\hat{q}\\, L\\ $ , where $\\mu$, is the mean momentum transfer per collision. Thus, the total energy loss in the medium goes like $L^2$. Additionally, the accumulated momentum$^2$, $\\left$, transverse to a gluon traversing a length $L$ in the medium is well approximated by $\\left\\approx\\left=\\hat{q}\\, L$. A simple estimate shows that the $\\left\\approx\\hat{q}\\,L$ should be observable at RHIC at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}=200$ GeV via the broadening of di-hadron azimuthal correlations resulting in an azimuthal width $\\sim\\sqrt{2}$ larger in Au$+$Au than in $p+p$ collisions . Measurements relevant to this issue will be discussed as well as recent STAR jet results presented at QM2014. Other topics to be discussed include the danger of using forward energy to define centrality in $p(d)+$A collisions for high $p_T$ measurements, the danger of not using comparison $p+p$ data at the same $\\sqrt{s}$ in the same detector for $R_{AA}$ or lately for $R_{pA}$ measurements.

  6. PHYSICS OF ELEMENTARY PARTICLES AND FIELDS Noether Symmetry and Noether Conserved Quantity of Nielsen Equation for Dynamical Systems of Relative Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Yin-Li; Yang, Xin-Fang; Jia, Li-Qun

    2011-01-01

    Noether symmetry of Nielsen equation and Noether conserved quantity deduced directly from Noether symmetry for dynamical systems of the relative motion are studied. The definition and criteria of Noether symmetry of a Nielsen equation under the infinitesimal transformations of groups are given. Expression of Noether conserved quantity deduced directly from Noether symmetry of Nielsen equation for the system are obtained. Finally, an example is given to illustrate the application of the results.

  7. Physical properties of Moving Magnetic Features observed around a pore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Criscuoli, S.; Del Moro, D.; Giannattasio, F.; Viticchié, B.; Giorgi, F.; Ermolli, I.; Zuccarello, F.; Berrilli, F.

    2012-06-01

    Movies of magnetograms of sunspots often show small-size magnetic patches that move radially away and seem to be expelled from the field of the spot. These patches are named Moving Magnetic Features (MMFs). They have been mostly observed around spots and have been interpreted as manifestations of penumbral filaments. Nevertheless, few observations of MMFS streaming out from spots without penumbra have been reported. He we investigate the physical properties of MMFs observed around the field of a pore derived by the analyses of high spectral, spatial and temporal resolution data acquired at the Dunn Solar Telescope with IBIS. We find that the main properties of the investigated features agree with those reported for MMFs observed around regular spots. These results indicate that an improvement of current numerical simulations is required to understand the generation of MMFs in the lack of penumbrae.

  8. To observe or not to observe peers when learning physical examination skills; that is the question

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Learning physical examination skills is an essential element of medical education. Teaching strategies include practicing the skills either alone or in-group. It is unclear whether students benefit more from training these skills individually or in a group, as the latter allows them to observing their peers. The present study, conducted in a naturalistic setting, investigated the effects of peer observation on mastering psychomotor skills necessary for physical examination. Methods The study included 185 2nd-year medical students, participating in a regular head-to-toe physical examination learning activity. Students were assigned either to a single-student condition (n = 65), in which participants practiced alone with a patient instructor, or to a multiple-student condition (n = 120), in which participants practiced in triads under patient instructor supervision. The students subsequently carried out a complete examination that was videotaped and subsequently evaluated. Student’s performance was used as a measure of learning. Results Students in the multiple-student condition learned more than those who practiced alone (81% vs 76%, p < 0.004). This result possibly derived from a positive effect of observing peers; students who had the possibility to observe a peer (the second and third students in the groups) performed better than students who did not have this possibility (84% vs 76%, p <. 001). There was no advantage of observing more than one peer (83.7% vs 84.1%, p > .05). Conclusions The opportunity to observe a peer during practice seemed to improve the acquisition of physical examination skills. By using small groups instead of individual training to teach physical examination skills, health sciences educational programs may provide students with opportunities to improve their performance by learning from their peers through modelling. PMID:23594455

  9. Strongly intensive quantities

    SciTech Connect

    Gorenstein, M. I. [Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kiev (Ukraine); Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Frankfurt (Germany); Gazdzicki, M. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, University of Frankfurt, Frankfurt (Germany); Jan Kochanowski University, Kielce (Poland)

    2011-07-15

    Analysis of fluctuations of hadron production properties in collisions of relativistic particles profits from use of measurable intensive quantities which are independent of system size variations. The first family of such quantities was proposed in 1992; another is introduced in this paper. Furthermore we present a proof of independence of volume fluctuations for quantities from both families within the framework of the grand canonical ensemble. These quantities are referred to as strongly intensive ones. Influence of conservation laws and resonance decays is also discussed.

  10. Radiometric quantities and units

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harry Moseley; David H. Sliney

    1997-01-01

    Radiometric quantities and units It is logical that in a single issue devoted to a specialist topic there should be, at the outset, a brief discussion of currently agreed terminology. This does not mean that each article will comply nor every author concur with the definitions below. However, there is fairly broad agreement on the quantities and units described in

  11. Quantity Theory of Money

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. V. GOPINATH

    2005-01-01

    Quantity Theory is a foolproof theory. This Theory is based on Law of Conservation of Wealth. This Theory tests positive with Law of Mass Action of reversible economic (chemical) reactions. Study of utility ( I call utility as all that a human being needs) helps us understand Quantity Theory better. Utility and water have similarities. Water is a form of

  12. Physics of the inner heliosphere: Mechanisms, models and observational signatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Withbroe, George L.

    1987-01-01

    Selected problems concerned with the important physical processes that occur in the corona and solar wind acceleration region, particularly time dependent phenomena were studied. Both the physics of the phenomena and the resultant effects on observational signatures, particularly spectroscopic signatures were also studied. Phenomena under study include: wave motions, particularly Alfven and fast mode waves; the formation of standing shocks in the inner heliosphere as a result of momentum and/or heat addition to the wind; and coronal transient phenomena where momentum and/or heat are deposited in the corona to produce transient plasma heating and/or mass ejection. The development of theoretical models for the inner heliosphere, the theoretical investigation of spectroscopic plasma diagnostics for this region, and the analysis of existing skylab and other relevant data are also included.

  13. Proposal for truth particle observable definitions in physics measurements

    E-print Network

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Measurements and theory predictions at the proton-proton collider LHC become increasingly precise. This makes it necessary to use definitions in the physics measurements that allow for a meaningful comparison of theory and experiment. Moreover, measurements should be defined such that they have a minimal model dependence and that future Monte Carlo simulation can be used for data comparisons. A suitable measurement definition can be based on the stable particles entering the detector. In this note a proposal for the definition of truth particles in the Monte Carlo simulation and observables derived from them is discussed.

  14. Quality versus Quantity: The Use of Observation by Early Childhood Educators in Improving the Performance of Children Enrolled in Preschool Programs in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tackie-Ofosu, Vivian; Bentum, Kwesi

    2013-01-01

    In the current study, the authors explored how early childhood educators used observation to support children in the learning environment. The objectives set were to find out the observation methods teachers used, ascertain their understanding of child observation, find out activities children undertook, and how teachers documented what children…

  15. Assessing Children's Physical Activity in Their Homes: The Observational System for Recording Physical Activity in Children–Home

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KERRY L. MCIVER; WILLIAM H. BROWN; KARIN A. PFEIFFER; Marsha Dowda; RUSSELL R. PATE

    2009-01-01

    The present study describes the development and pilot testing of the Observation System for Recording Physical Activity in Children-Home version. This system was developed to document physical activity and related physical and social contexts while children are at home. An analysis of interobserver agreement and a description of children's physical activity in various settings are presented. The system, which was

  16. Physics of the inner heliosphere: Mechanisms, models and observational signatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Withbroe, G. L.

    1985-01-01

    The physics of the solar wind acceleration phenomena (e.g. effect of transient momentum deposition on the temporal and spatial variation of the temperature, density and flow speed of the solar wind, formation of shocks, etc.) and the resultant effects on observational signatures, particularly spectroscopic signature are studied. Phenomena under study include: (1) wave motions, particularly spectroscopic signatures are studied. Phenomena under study include:(1) wave motions, particularly Alfven and fast mode waves, (2) the formation of standing shocks in the inner heliosphere as a result of momentum and/or heat addition to the wind and (3) coronal transient phenomena where momentum and/or heat are deposited in the corona to produce transient plasma heating and/or mass ejections. Also included are the theoretical investigation of spectroscopic plasma diagnostics for the inner heliosphere and the analysis of existing Skylab and other relevant data.

  17. Saddle quantities and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joyal, Pierre; Rousseau, Christiane

    In this paper we make the connection between the theoretical study of the generalized homoclinic loop bifurcation (GHB ?) and the practical computational aspects. For this purpose we first compare the Dulac normal form with the Joyal normal form. These forms were both used to prove the GHB ? theorem. But the second one is far more practical from the algorithmic point of view. We then show that the information carried by these normal forms can be computed in a much simpler way, using what we shall call dual Lyapunov constants. The coefficients of a normal form or the dual Lyapunov quantities are particular cases of what we shall call saddle quantities. We calculate the saddle quantities for quadratic systems, and we show that no more than three limit cycles can appear in a homoclinic loop bifurcation. We also study the homoclinic loop bifurcation of order 5, appearing in a 6-parameter family close to a Hamiltonian system. To our knowledge, this is the first time that one can find a complete description of a GHB ? of such high order. Finally we calculate the saddle quantities for a symmetric cubic vector field, and we deduce a bound for the number of limit cycles that appear in a GHB ?.

  18. Water quality Water quantity

    E-print Network

    Boisvert, Jeff

    · Water quality · Water quantity · Remediation strategies MinE 422: Water Resources: Younger, Banwart and Hedin. 2002. Mine Water. Hydrology, Pollution, Remediation. Impacts of mining on water ­ Discharge of untreated waters #12;Impacts of mining on water · Impacts from the mining process

  19. Water quality Water quantity

    E-print Network

    Boisvert, Jeff

    01-1 · Water quality · Water quantity · Remediation strategies MinE 422: Water Resources: Younger, Banwart and Hedin. 2002. Mine Water. Hydrology, Pollution, Remediation. Impacts of mining on water ­ Discharge of untreated waters #12;01-2 Impacts of mining on water · Impacts from the mining process

  20. Judgment by Quantity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert A. Josephs; R. Brian Giesler; David H. Silvera

    1994-01-01

    Five studies are presented that demonstrate the influence of computationally simple quantity information on judgment and the regulation of behavior. Study 1 revealed that Ss used the height of a pile of pages of text to judge their proofreading performance, even when pile size was obviously not determined by the amount of text proofread. In Studies 2 and 3, Ss

  1. Synoptic Observations for Physical Characterization of Fast Rotator NEOs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikwaya Eluo, Jean-Baptiste; Hergenrother, Carl W.

    2014-11-01

    NEOs can be studied not only dynamically, to learn about their impact hazard, but also physically, to establish various properties important both to better address their potential hazard and also to understand what they can tell us about the origin of the solar system and its ongoing processes.Taking advantage of the two-meter-class telescopes around Tucson, we plan to observe NEOs synoptically using telescopes at three different locations: VATT (Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope) at Mount Graham (longitude: -109.8719, latitude: 32.7016, elevation: 10469 feet), Bok 2.3 m at Kitt Peak (longitude: -111.6004, latitude: 31.9629, elevation: 6795 feet) and Kuiper 1.5-m at Mount Bigelow (longitude: -110.7345, latitude: 32.4165, elevation: 8235 feet). All three telescopes will aim simultaneously at the same object, each with a different instrument. The three telescopes will be part of the Arizona Robotic Telescope (ART) network, a University of Arizona initiative to provide near real-time observations of Target of Opportunity objects across the visible and near-infrared wavelengths. The VATT-4K optical imager mounted on the VATT has already been used for photometry. In the future we plan to utilize the BCSpec (Boller & Chivens Spectrograph) for visible spectroscopy on Bok 2.3 meter and a near-infrared instrument on Kuiper 1.5 meter. We report here the preliminary results of several NEOs whose rotation rate and color have been estimated using photometry with images recorded with VATT-4K. 2009 SQ104 has a rotation rate of 6.85+/- 0.03 h, 2014 AY28 has a rotation rate of 0.91 +/- 0.02 h, 2014 EC of 0.54 +/-0.04 h, 2014 FA44 of 3.45 +/- 0.05 h, and 2014 KS40 of 1.11 +/- 0.06 h.

  2. Physical Characterization of Tropical Oceanic Convection Observed in KWAJEX.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuter, Sandra E.; Houze, Robert A., Jr.; Smith, Eric A.; Wilheit, Thomas T.; Zipser, Edward

    2005-04-01

    The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Kwajalein Experiment (KWAJEX) was designed to obtain an empirical physical characterization of precipitating convective clouds over the tropical ocean. Coordinated datasets were collected by three aircraft, one ship, five upper-air sounding sites, and a variety of continuously recording remote and in situ surface-based sensors, including scanning Doppler radars, profilers, disdrometers, and rain gauges. This paper describes the physical characterization of the Kwajalein cloud population that has emerged from analyses of datasets that were obtained during KWAJEX and combined with long-term TRMM ground validation site observations encompassing three rainy seasons. The spatial and temporal dimensions of the precipitation entities exhibit a lognormal probability distribution, as has been observed over other parts of the tropical ocean. The diurnal cycle of the convection is also generally similar to that seen over other tropical oceans. The largest precipitating cloud elements—those with rain areas exceeding 14 000 km2—have the most pronounced diurnal cycle, with a maximum frequency of occurrence before dawn; the smallest rain areas are most frequent in the afternoon. The large systems exhibited stratiform rain areas juxtaposed with convective regions. Frequency distributions of dual-Doppler radar data showed narrow versus broad spectra of divergence in the stratiform and convective regions, respectively, as expected because strong up- and downdrafts are absent in the stratiform regions. The dual-Doppler profiles consistently showed low-level convergence and upper-level divergence in convective regions and midlevel convergence sandwiched between lower- and upper-level divergence in stratiform regions. However, the magnitudes of divergence are sensitive to assumptions made in classifying the radar echoes as convective or stratiform. This sensitivity implies that heating profiles derived from satellite radar data will be sensitive to the details of the scheme used to separate convective and stratiform rain areas. Comparison of airborne passive microwave data with ground-based radar data indicates that the pattern of scattering of 85-GHz radiance by ice particles in the upper portions of KWAJEX precipitating clouds is poorly correlated with the precipitation pattern at lower levels while the emission channels (10 and 19 GHz) have brightness temperature patterns that closely correspond to the lower-level precipitation structure. In situ ice particle imagery obtained by aircraft at upper levels (11 km) shows that the concentrations of ice particles of all densities are greater in the upper portions of active convective rain regions and lower in the upper portions of stratiform regions, probably because the active updrafts convey the particles to upper levels, whereas in the stratiform regions sedimentation removes the larger ice particles over time. Low-level aircraft flying in the rain layer show similar total drop concentrations in and out of convective cells, but they also show a sudden jump in the concentration of larger raindrops at the boundaries of the cells, indicating a discontinuity in growth processes such as coalescence at the cell boundary.

  3. RF Modal Quantity Gaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanleuven, K.

    1989-01-01

    The primary objective is to provide a concept of a radio frequency (RF) modal resonance technique which is being investigated as a method for gaging the quantities of subcritical cryogenic propellants in metallic tanks. Of special interest are the potential applications of the technique to microgravity propellant gaging situations. The results of concept testing using cryogenic oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen, as well as paraffin simulations of microgravity fluid orientations, are reported. These test results were positive and showed that the gaging concept was viable.

  4. Behavior of physical observables in the vicinity of the QCD critical end point

    SciTech Connect

    Costa, Pedro [Centro de Fisica Teorica, Departamento de Fisica, Universidade, P3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal)

    2007-02-27

    Using the SU(3) Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model, we study the chiral phase transition at finite T and {mu}B. Special attention is given to the QCD critical end point (CEP): the study of physical quantities, as the pressure, the entropy, the baryon number susceptibility and the specific heat near the CEP, will provide complementary information concerning the order of the phase transition. We also analyze the information provided by the study of the critical exponents around the CEP.

  5. Varieties of quantity estimation in children.

    PubMed

    Sella, Francesco; Berteletti, Ilaria; Lucangeli, Daniela; Zorzi, Marco

    2015-06-01

    In the number-to-position task, with increasing age and numerical expertise, children's pattern of estimates shifts from a biased (nonlinear) to a formal (linear) mapping. This widely replicated finding concerns symbolic numbers, whereas less is known about other types of quantity estimation. In Experiment 1, Preschool, Grade 1, and Grade 3 children were asked to map continuous quantities, discrete nonsymbolic quantities (numerosities), and symbolic (Arabic) numbers onto a visual line. Numerical quantity was matched for the symbolic and discrete nonsymbolic conditions, whereas cumulative surface area was matched for the continuous and discrete quantity conditions. Crucially, in the discrete condition children's estimation could rely either on the cumulative area or numerosity. All children showed a linear mapping for continuous quantities, whereas a developmental shift from a logarithmic to a linear mapping was observed for both nonsymbolic and symbolic numerical quantities. Analyses on individual estimates suggested the presence of two distinct strategies in estimating discrete nonsymbolic quantities: one based on numerosity and the other based on spatial extent. In Experiment 2, a non-spatial continuous quantity (shades of gray) and new discrete nonsymbolic conditions were added to the set used in Experiment 1. Results confirmed the linear patterns for the continuous tasks, as well as the presence of a subset of children relying on numerosity for the discrete nonsymbolic numerosity conditions despite the availability of continuous visual cues. Overall, our findings demonstrate that estimation of numerical and non-numerical quantities is based on different processing strategies and follow different developmental trajectories. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26010388

  6. Use of Technology to Observe and Assess Physical Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiorentino, Leah Holland

    2005-01-01

    In discussing the myth that technology has no benefit to the world of play, there seems to be little doubt that technology has made the task of assessing children's activity levels and identifying types of behaviors a simpler and more reliable process. There are three major approaches currently used to measure the amount of physical activity…

  7. Physical Characterization of Tropical Oceanic Convection Observed in KWAJEX

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandra E. Yuter; ROBERT A. HOUZE JR; Eric A. Smith; Thomas T. Wilheit; Edward Zipser

    2005-01-01

    The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Kwajalein Experiment (KWAJEX) was designed to obtain an empirical physical characterization of precipitating convective clouds over the tropical ocean. Coordinated datasets were collected by three aircraft, one ship, five upper-air sounding sites, and a variety of continuously recording remote and in situ surface-based sensors, including scanning Doppler radars, profilers, disdrometers, and rain gauges. This

  8. Physical properties of orbital debris from spectroscopic observations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Jorgensen; J. Africano; K. Hamada; E. Stansbery; P. Kervin

    2004-01-01

    Currently, certain physical properties, such as material type and albedo, of orbital debris are assumed when used to determine the size of the objects. A study to ascertain whether or not the assumed values are valid has begun using reflectance spectroscopy as a means of determining the material type of the object. What appears to some as a squiggly line

  9. Observations of sea ice physical properties during the sea ice electromagnetics initiative

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. J. Gow; D. K. Perovich

    1996-01-01

    An Office of Naval Research sponsored sea ice electromagnetics research initiative has been directed towards relating the observed variability in sea ice electromagnetic signatures to changes in sea ice physical properties, and then using this information to develop forward and inverse models. In this paper the authors present an overview of laboratory and field observations made of sea ice physical

  10. Learning to Detect Error in Movement Timing Using Physical and Observational Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Charles B.; Wright, David L.; Magnuson, Curt E.; Brueckner, Sebastian

    2005-01-01

    Three experiments assessed the possibility that a physical practice participant 's ability to render appropriate movement timing estimates may be hindered compared to those who merely observed. Results from these experiments revealed that observers and physical practice participants executed and estimated the overall durations of movement…

  11. The physics and modes of star cluster formation: observations.

    PubMed

    Lada, Charles J

    2010-02-28

    Stellar clusters are born in cold and dusty molecular clouds and the youngest clusters are embedded to various degrees in a dusty dark molecular material. Such embedded clusters can be considered protocluster systems. The most deeply buried examples are so heavily obscured by dust that they are only visible at infrared wavelengths. These embedded protoclusters constitute the nearest laboratories for a direct astronomical investigation of the physical processes of cluster formation and early evolution. I review the present state of empirical knowledge concerning embedded-cluster systems and discuss the implications for understanding their formation and subsequent evolution to produce bound stellar clusters. PMID:20083503

  12. The JMU Mineral Museum - Observing Physical Properties of Minerals

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Cynthia A. Kearns

    Mineral museums provide a resourse for students to explore beautiful examples of minerals. During the exploration process, they can also apply or reinforce visual observation skills they have learned in lab. The James Madison University Mineral Museum (http://csm.jmu.edu/minerals/) provides educational opportunities for both introductory geology and earth science courses as well as advanced major. In this exercise, students have possibly their first opportunity to enjoy the wonderous world of minerals in an exhilerating display. During the exploration process, students are provided a reinforcment of visual observation skills previously experienced in lab and an introduction to mineral names and classifications.

  13. imperfect radiosonde observations. Model physics becomes important when the model

    E-print Network

    Jewitt, David C.

    measurements per day provided by a single orbiting GPS receiver would exceed that of the radio- sonde network. Atmospheric radio occultation observations using a GPS receiver in low Earth orbit were proposed and developed orbits, and to calibrate and remove receiver and transmitter clock biases and instabilities (9, 24

  14. Radar observations and physical model of asteroid 6489 Golevka

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, R.; Ostro, S.; Jurgens, R.; Rosema, K.; Giorgini, J.; Winkler, R.; Rose, R.; Choate, D.; Cormier, R.; Franck, C.; Frye, R.; Howard, D.; Kelley, D.; Littlefair, R.; Slade, M.; Benner, L.; Thomas, M.; Mitchell, D.; Chodas, P.; Yeomans, D.; Scheeres, D.; Palmer, P.; Zaitsev, A.; Koyama, Y.; Nakamura, A.

    2000-01-01

    We report 8510-MHz (3,5-cm) radar observations of the Earth crossing asteroid (ECA) 6489 Golevka (1991 JX) obtained between June 3 and June 15, 1995, at Goldstone, the Very Large Array and the Evpatoria (Ukraine) and Kashima (Japan) radio antennas.

  15. Giacobini-Zinner comet: Polarimetric and physical observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martel, M. T.; Maines, P.; Grudzinska, S.; Stawikowski, A.

    1984-01-01

    The results of observations of the Giacobini-Zinner comet on 25 and 31 October 1959 are presented. The magnitude of the comet was measured photoelectrically in two spectral regions. The radius is on the order of one kilometer. The photoelectric measurements of comets 1959b and 1957c were used to measure the abundances of the CN and C2 radicals and of solid particles in the heads.

  16. Physics and Physical Oceanography Data Report 99-3 Observations of Currents,

    E-print Network

    deYoung, Brad

    and Salinity in Placentia Bay, Newfoundland 1998-9 Dwayne J. Hart, Brad de Young and Jack Foley ©1999 Department of Physics and Physical Oceanography Memorial University of Newfoundland St. John's, Newfoundland an ongoing research project designed to model the circulation in Newfoundland bays. This report is meant

  17. Observable gravitational and electromagnetic orbits and trajectories in discrete physics

    SciTech Connect

    Noyes, H.P.; McGoveran, D.O.

    1988-11-28

    Our discrete and finite version of relativistic quantum mechanics provides an elementary particle physics consistent with the standard model of quarks and leptons. Our recent relativistic calculation of the bound state spectrum of hydrogen has allowed us to make a combinatorial correction to the first order estimate of 1/..cap alpha.. = /Dirac h/c/e/sup 2/ = 137 derived from the combinatorial hierarchy and achieve agreement with experiment up to terms of order ..cap alpha../sup 3/. The same theory requires that to first order /Dirac h/c/Gm/sub p//sup 2/ = 2/sup 127/ + 136 approx. = 1.7 /times/ 10/sup 38/. Using the emission and absorption of spin 1 photons and spin 2 gravitons in this framework, we try to show that we can meet the three additional tests of general relativity---solar red shift, solar bending of light, and precession of the perihelion of Mercury. We predict that a macroscopic electromagnetic orbit would have four times the Sommerfeld precession for basically the same reason that Mercury has six times the Sommerfeld precession. 20 refs.

  18. Radar observations and a physical model of Asteroid 1580 Betulia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magri, Christopher; Ostro, Steven J.; Scheeres, Daniel J.; Nolan, Michael C.; Giorgini, Jon D.; Benner, Lance A. M.; Margot, Jean-Luc

    2007-01-01

    We report Arecibo (2380-MHz, 13-cm) observations of Asteroid 1580 Betulia in May-June 2002. We combine these continuous-wave Doppler spectra and delay-Doppler images with optical lightcurves from the 1976 and 1989 apparitions in order to estimate Betulia's shape and spin vector. We confirm the spin vector solution of Kaasalainen et al. [Kaasalainen, M., and 21 colleagues, 2004. Icarus 167, 178-196], with sidereal period P=6.13836 h and ecliptic pole direction (?,?)=(136°,+22°), and obtain a model that resembles the Kaasalainen et al. convex-definite shape reconstruction but is dominated by a prominent concavity in the southern hemisphere. We find that Betulia has a maximum breadth of 6.59±0.66 km and an effective diameter of 5.39±0.54 km. These dimensions are in accord with reanalyzed polarimetric and radar data from the 1970s. Our effective diameter is 15% larger than the best radiometric estimate of Harris et al. [Harris, A.W., Mueller, M., Delbó, M., Bus, S.J., 2005. Icarus 179, 95-108], but this difference is much smaller than the size differences between past models. Considering orbits of test particles around Betulia, we find that this asteroid's unusual shape results in six equilibrium points close to its equatorial plane rather than the usual four points; two of these six points represent stable synchronous orbits while four are unstable. Betulia's close planetary encounters can be predicted for over four thousand years into the future.

  19. Radar Observations and Physical Model of Asteroid 6489 Golevka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, R. S.; Ostro, S. J.; Jurgens, R. F.; Rosema, K. D.; Giorgini, J. D.; Winkler, R.; Rose, R.; Choate, D.; Cormier, R. A.; Franck, C. R.; Frye, R.; Howard, D.; Kelley, D.; Littlefair, R.; Slade, M. A.; Benner, L. A. M.; Thomas, M. L.; Mitchell, D. L.; Chodas, P. W.; Yeomans, D. K.; Scheeres, D. J.; Palmer, P.; Zaitsev, A.; Koyama, Y.; Nakamura, A.; Harris, A. W.; Meshkov, M. N.

    2000-11-01

    We report 8510-MHz (3.5-cm) radar observations of the Earth-crossing asteroid (ECA) 6489 Golevka (1991 JX) obtained between June 3 and June 15, 1995, at Goldstone, the Very Large Array and the Evpatoria (Ukraine) and Kashima (Japan) radio antennas. One-dimensional Doppler spectra are used to estimate the object's convex hull, refine the ephemeris, and yield four possible pole directions. Three-dimensional modeling using two-dimensional delay-Doppler images and published lightcurves unambiguously defines the pole and reveals an extraordinarily angular shape with flat sides, sharp edges and corners, and peculiar concavities. The equivalent diameter of the object is 530±30 m, with moments of inertia about the (long, intermediate, short) axes proportional to (1.00, 1.38, 1.39) ±0.1. The asteroid's pole direction is ?=202±5°, ?=-45±5°, and its sidereal period is P=6.0289±0.0001 h. The asteroid's circular polarization ratio, SC/OC=0.23±0.02, is lower than the average for radar-detected near-Earth asteroids and reveals only a modest degree of near-surface roughness at scales near the 3.5-cm wavelength. However, the approximately Lambertian radar scattering law implies considerable surface roughness at larger scales. The asteroid's radar scattering law is modeled as ?cos n?, with ?=0.25±0.12 and n=1.7±0.7 giving an equivalent spherical albedo of 0.18±0.09. This value is in the middle of the distribution of albedos of S-class asteroid's previously imaged by radar. The Hapke parameters describing the object's optical scattering properties are w=0.173±0.006, h=0.024±0.012, B0=1.03±0.45, g=-0.34±0.02, and overline?=20±5°. Both the optical and the radar scattering properties are consistent with those of a typical S-class asteroid. Goldstone-VLA plane-of-sky images do not resolve the asteroid but do provide astrometry with uncertainties less than 0.1 arcsec. Integration of an orbit based on all available radar and optical astrometry shows that Golevka has an insignificant probability of collision with any planet during at least the next nine centuries. We investigate Golevka's dynamical environment, assuming uniform density. Some areas of the surface are characterized by large enough slopes that we expect that they are exposed, solid, monolithic rock.

  20. Features and New Physical Scales in Primordial Observables: Theory and Observation

    E-print Network

    Jens Chluba; Jan Hamann; Subodh P. Patil

    2015-06-18

    All cosmological observations to date are consistent with adiabatic, Gaussian and nearly scale invariant initial conditions. These findings provide strong evidence for a particular symmetry breaking pattern in the very early universe (with a close to vanishing order parameter, $\\epsilon$), widely accepted as conforming to the predictions of the simplest realizations of the inflationary paradigm. However, given that our observations are only privy to perturbations, in inferring something about the background that gave rise to them, it should be clear that many different underlying constructions project onto the same set of cosmological observables. Features in the primordial correlation functions, if present, would offer a unique and discriminating window onto the parent theory in which the mechanism that generated the initial conditions is embedded. In certain contexts, simple linear response theory allows us to infer new characteristic scales from the presence of features that can break the aforementioned degeneracies among different background models, and in some cases can even offer a limited spectroscopy of the heavier degrees of freedom that couple to the inflaton. In this review, we offer a pedagogical survey of the diverse, theoretically well grounded mechanisms which can imprint features into primordial correlation functions in addition to reviewing the techniques one can employ to probe observations. These observations include cosmic microwave background anisotropies and spectral distortions as well as the matter two and three point functions as inferred from large-scale structure and potentially, 21 cm surveys.

  1. Satellite observations of plasma physics near the magnetic field reconnection X line

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Satellite observations of plasma physics near the magnetic field reconnection X line F. S. Mozer,1 the electric field. Citation: Mozer, F. S., D. Sundkvist, J. P. McFadden, P. L. Pritchett, and I. Roth (2011

  2. Top 10 Research Questions Related to Assessing Physical Activity and Its Contexts Using Systematic Observation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Thomas L.; van der Mars, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Numerous methods are available to assess physical activity (PA) but systematic observation (SO) excels in being able to provide contextually rich data on the setting in which the activity occurs. As SO is particularly useful for determining how activity is influenced by the immediate physical and social environments, its use is becoming more…

  3. Physical Therapy Observation and Assessment in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Eilish; Campbell, Suzann K.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the elements of the Observation and Assessment section of the Infant Care Path for Physical Therapy in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). The types of physical therapy assessments presented in this path are evidence-based and the suggested timing of these assessments is primarily based on practice knowledge from expert…

  4. Thermal quantities of 46Ti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmatinejad, A.; Razavi, R.; Kakavand, T.

    2015-07-01

    Thermodynamic quantities of 46Ti have been calculated in the framework of the BCS model with inclusion of modified nuclear pairing gap (MPBCS) that was proposed in our previous publication. Using modified paring gap results in an S-shaped heat capacity curve at critical temperature with a smooth behavior instead of singular behavior of the same curve in the BCS calculations. In addition the thermal quantities have been extracted within the framework of a canonical ensemble according to the new experimental data on nuclear level densities measured by the Oslo group. Comparison shows a good agreement between our calculations in MPBCS and the extracted quantities in the canonical ensemble framework.

  5. Girls' interactions with teachers in mixed physics classes: results of classroom observation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keith S. Taber

    1992-01-01

    An observation schedule was developed to find out if girls have less interaction with teachers than boys in physics lessons. The schedule was intended to be used by a single observer with pencil and paper. It was also intended that the analysis of the data collected should be as straightforward as possible, without the need for video or audio playback,

  6. Strategies for Estimating Discrete Quantities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crites, Terry W.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the benchmark and decomposition-recomposition estimation strategies and presents five techniques to develop students' estimation ability. Suggests situations involving quantities of candy and popcorn in which the teacher can model those strategies for the students. (MDH)

  7. On Whether People Have the Capacity to Make Observations of Mutually Excl usive Physical Phenomena Simultaneously

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder

    1998-04-01

    It has been shown by Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen that in quantum mechanics two different wave functions can simultaneously characterize the same physical existent. This result means that one can make predictions regarding simultaneous, mutually exclusive features of a physical existent. It is important to ask whether people have the capacity to make observations of mutually exclusive phenomena simultaneously? Our everyday experience informs us that a human observer is capable of observing only one set of physical circumstances at a time. Evidence from psychology, though, indicates that people indeed have the capacity to make observations of mutually exclusive phenomena simultaneously, even though this capacity is not generally recognized. Working independently, Sigmund Freud and William James provided some of this evidence. How the nature of the quantum mechanical wave function is associated with the problem posed by Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen, is addressed at the end of the paper.

  8. In situ observations of aerosol physical and optical properties in northern India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lihavainen, H.; Hyvarinen, A.; Hooda, R. K.; Raatikainen, T. E.; Sharma, V.; Komppula, M.

    2012-12-01

    The southern Asia, including India, is exposed to substantial quantities of particulate air pollution originating mainly from fossil fuel combustion and biomass burning. Besides serious adverse health effects, these aerosols cause a large reduction of solar radiation at the surface accompanied by a substantial atmospheric heating, which is expected to have significant influences on the air temperature, crop yields, livestock and water resources over the southern Asia. The various influences by aerosols in this region depend crucially on the development of aerosol emissions from household, industrial, transportation and biomass burning sectors. The main purpose of this study is to investigate several measured aerosol optical and physical properties. We take advantage of observations from two measurement stations which have been established by the Finnish Meteorological Institute and The Energy and Resources Institute. Another station is on the foothills of Himalayas, in Mukteshwar, about 350 km east of New Delhi at elevation about 2 km ASL. This site is considered as a rural background site. Measurements of aerosol size distribution (7-500 nm), PM10, PM2.5, aerosol scattering and absorption coefficients and weather parameters have been conducted since 2006. Another station is located at the outskirts of New Delhi, in Gual Pahari, about 35 km south of city centre. It is considered as an urban background site. Measurements of aerosol size distribution (7 nm- 10 ?m), PM10, PM2.5, aerosol scattering and absorption coefficients, aerosol optical depth, aerosol vertical distribution (LIDAR), aerosol filter sampling for chemical characterization and weather parameters were conducted between 2008 and 2010. On the overall average PM10 and PM2.5 values were about 3-4 times higher in Gual Pahari than in Mukteshwar as expected, 216 and 126 ?g m^-3, respectively. However, difference depended much on the season, so that during winter time PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations were about 9 and 6 times higher in Gual Pahari than in Mukteshwar. During the pre-monsoon the concentrations in Gual Pahari were only twofold compared to Mukteshwar. The monsoon cleans the atmosphere from particulate matter so that PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations reduced to more than half compared to pre-monsoon values. We also found a very clear diurnal cycle on both station, except during the monsoon season. However the phase of the cycle was different between stations. This annual and diurnal variation is controlled besides emissions by evolution of boundary layer and transport of aerosols from Indo- Gangetic plains to the background site in Mukteshwar. Basically all measured aerosol properties behaved similarly. We also analyzed the data to observe the so called elevated heat pump hypothesis and trends in long term aerosol properties, although six years of data is not enough to make solid conclusions.

  9. Modulation of Motor Cortex Excitability by Physical Similarity with an Observed Hand Action

    PubMed Central

    Désy, Marie-Christine; Théoret, Hugo

    2007-01-01

    The passive observation of hand actions is associated with increased motor cortex excitability, presumably reflecting activity within the human mirror neuron system (MNS). Recent data show that in-group ethnic membership increases motor cortex excitability during observation of culturally relevant hand gestures, suggesting that physical similarity with an observed body part may modulate MNS responses. Here, we ask whether the MNS is preferentially activated by passive observation of hand actions that are similar or dissimilar to self in terms of sex and skin color. Transcranial magnetic stimulation-induced motor evoked potentials were recorded from the first dorsal interosseus muscle while participants viewed videos depicting index finger movements made by female or male participants with black or white skin color. Forty-eight participants equally distributed in terms of sex and skin color participated in the study. Results show an interaction between self-attributes and physical attributes of the observed hand in the right motor cortex of female participants, where corticospinal excitability is increased during observation of hand actions in a different skin color than that of the observer. Our data show that specific physical properties of an observed action modulate motor cortex excitability and we hypothesize that in-group/out-group membership and self-related processes underlie these effects. PMID:17912350

  10. Research in space physics at the University of Iowa. [astronomical observatories, spaceborne astronomy, satellite observation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanallen, J. A.

    1974-01-01

    Various research projects in space physics are summarized. Emphasis is placed on: (1) the study of energetic particles in outer space and their relationships to electric, magnetic, and electromagnetic fields associated with the earth, the sun, the moon, the planets, and interplanetary medium; (2) observational work on satellites of the earth and the moon, and planetary and interplanetary spacecraft; (3) phenomenological analysis and interpretation; (4) observational work by ground based radio-astronomical and optical techniques; and (5) theoretical problems in plasma physics. Specific fields of current investigations are summarized.

  11. Tri-Axial Accelerometry and Heart Rate Telemetry: Relation and Agreement with Behavioral Observation in Elementary Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scruggs, Philip W.; Beveridge, Sandy K.; Clocksin, Brian D.

    2005-01-01

    The relation and agreement of tri-axial accelerometry and heart rate telemetry in measuring moderate to vigorous physical activity were examined in association to behavioral observation during 1st- and 2nd-grade physical education. In Study 1, physical activity measures of heart rate and behavioral observation were collected on 346 participants…

  12. Observed Initiation and Reciprocity of Physical Aggression in Young, At-Risk Couples

    PubMed Central

    Capaldi, Deborah M.; Kim, Hyoun K.; Shortt, Joann Wu

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined sex differences in initiation of physical aggression as observed during discussion tasks and in the likelihood of a similar response from the partner. In addition, patterns for men and women in the prevalence of aggression initiation and partner reciprocation across 4 time points spanning approximately 9 years from late adolescence through the mid-20s are examined, as well as overall associations with reported aggression and injuries. Findings indicated that the young women were more likely than the men to initiate physical aggression at late adolescence, but by the mid-20s in early adulthood there were no significant sex differences in initiation rates. The average rates of reciprocation across the 4 time points appeared to be similar for men and women. Women and men appeared more likely to report injuries if the couples observed physical aggression involved mutual aggression in their interactions. PMID:17468783

  13. OBSERVING AND MODELLING STELLAR MAGNETIC FIELDS: BASIC PHYSICS AND SIMPLE MODELS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John D. Landstreet

    This and the following two chapters present a general intro- duction to the subject of observing magnetic fields in stars using spec- tropolarimetry. The three chapters will consider (1) the basic physics of the Zeeman and related effects, direct deductions about stellar mag- netic fields that may be made where this effect is detected, and how such measurements have provided

  14. Post-Lesson Observation Conferencing of University Supervisors and Physical Education Teacher Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Steven; Grenier, Michelle; Channell, Kathy

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of our descriptive study was to examine post-lesson observation conferencing discourse between university supervisors (USs) and physical education teacher education students (PTs). Three USs completed a questionnaire related to demographic information and their perceptions of their role as a supervisor. These USs then audio-recorded…

  15. Occurrence, Physical Conditions, and Observations of Super-Ios and Hyper-Ios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briot, D.; Schneider, J.

    2010-10-01

    If a volcanic activity similar to that of Io occurs in Exo-Earths or super-Earths, these objects would correspond to super-Ios and even more hyper-Ios. We study extreme physical conditions of these objects and their very special observational features.

  16. The system for observing fitness instruction time (SOFIT) as a measure of energy expenditure during classroom based physical activity

    E-print Network

    Honas, Jeffery J.; Washburn, Richard A.; Smith, Bryan K.; Greene, Leon; Cook-Wiens, Galen; Donnelly, Joseph E.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to develop an equation to estimate physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) during a 10-min physically active academic lesson using The System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time ...

  17. Spectroscopic Observations of a Coronal Loop: Basic Physical Plasma Parameters Along the Full Loop Length

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, G. R.; Tripathi, Durgesh; Mason, Helen E.

    2015-02-01

    Coronal loops are the basic structures of the solar transition region and corona. Understanding of the physical mechanisms behind the loop heating, plasma flows, and filling are still considered a major challenge in solar physics. The mechanism(s) should be able to supply mass to the corona from the chromosphere and to heat the plasma over 1 MK within a small distance of a few hundred kilometers from the chromosphere to the corona. This problem makes coronal loops an interesting target for detailed study. In this study, we focus on spectroscopic observations of a coronal loop observed in its full length in various spectral lines as recorded by the Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer on board Hinode. We derive physical plasma parameters such as electron density, temperature, pressure, column depth, and filling factors along the loop length from one footpoint to the another. The obtained parameters are used to infer whether the observed coronal loop is overdense or underdense with respect to gravitational stratification of the solar atmosphere. These new measurements of physical plasma parameters, from one footpoint to another, provide important constraints on the modeling of the mass and energy balance in coronal loops.

  18. Western North Pacific Integrated Physical-Biogeochemical Ocean Observation Experiment (INBOX): Biogeochemical impact of mesoscale disturbance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suga, T.; Hosoda, S.; Sato, K.; Kita, T.; Inoue, R.; Kouketsu, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobashi, F.; Toyama, K.; Honda, M. C.; Kawano, T.; Saino, T.

    2012-12-01

    Combination of autonomous float and biogeochemical sensor technologies has enabled concurrent measurements of physical and biogeochemical parameters for wide spatial and temporal ranges, which could open a new world of synergistic use of those data to advance not only each discipline but also a holistic understanding of the ocean. Study of mesoscale processes is one of those areas greatly benefitted from the synergistic use of physical and biogeochemical data acquired by autonomous platforms, because our understanding of those processes is still limited mainly due to the difficulty in measuring them despite their importance widely recognized. To acquire physical-biogeochemical data which could resolve mesoscale phenomena in the western North Pacific, JAMSTEC launched an interdisciplinary project "Western North Pacific Integrated Physical-Biogeochemical Ocean Observation Experiment (INBOX)" in 2010. INBOX aims to quantify impacts of physical processes on biogeochemical phenomena, so that we could also ultimately utilize biogeochemical information for understanding physical processes. Through a series of field experiments, we also hope that INBOX could contribute to designing effectively sustained biogeochemical observing system. As the first phase of INBOX, profiling floats with oxygen sensors were intensively deployed around the biogeochemical mooring station S1 maintained since spring 2010 at 30N, 145E, further south of the Kuroshio Extension. We have deployed 5 floats in fall 2010 and 25 floats in summer 2011 with profiling cycles of 2-3 days in the 150 km-square area centered at the S1. In this presentation, following the overall description of INBOX, we will highlight cyclonic eddies captured by the INBOX float array and impacts of their passage on primary production. In order to fully utilize data from the float array with a nominal resolution of "30 km x 2 days" for describing mesoscale physical-biogeochemical fields, oxygen sensors should be calibrated appropriately. The calibration procedure will be also presented briefly.

  19. Using Momentary Time Sampling to Estimate Minutes of Physical Activity in Physical Education: Validation of Scores for the System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heath, Edward M.; Coleman, Karen J.; Lensegrav, Tera L.; Fallon, Jennifer A.

    2006-01-01

    The System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time (SOFIT) is a direct observation system specifically developed for use during physical education (PE; McKenzie, 1991; McKenzie, Sallis, & Nader, 1991). The purpose of this study was to validate the estimates of time spent in various physical activity intensities obtained with the paper and pencil…

  20. Statistical physics concepts for the explanation of effects observed in martensitic phase transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oberaigner, Eduard Roman; Leindl, Mario

    2012-09-01

    Structural solid-to-solid transformations play a key role for the behaviour of several materials, e.g., shape memory alloys, steels, polymers and ceramics. A novel theoretical approach modelling martensitic phase transformation is demonstrated in the present study. The generally formulated model is based on the block-spin approach and on renormalization in statistical mechanics and is applied to a representative volume element (resp. representative mole element) which is assumed to be in a local thermodynamic equilibrium. The neighbouring representative volume elements are in a generally different thermodynamic equilibrium. This leads to fluxes between those elements. Using fundamental physical properties of a shape memory alloy (SMA) single crystal as input data the model predicts the order parameter ‘total strain’, the martensitic phase fraction and the stress-assisted transformation accompanied by pseudo-elasticity without the requirement of evolution equations for internal variables and assumptions on the mathematical structure of the classical free energy. In order to demonstrate the novel approach the first computations are carried out for a simple one-dimensional case, which can be generalized to the two- and three-dimensional case. Results for total strain and martensitic phase fraction are in good qualitative agreement with well known experimental data according to their macroscopic strain rearrangement when phase transformation occurs. Further a material softening effect during phase transformation in SMAs is predicted by the statistical physics approach. Formulas are presented for the relevant quantities such as volume fraction, total strain, transformation strain, rates of the volume fractions and of the strains.

  1. Observations of Asteroid 2577 Litva with Analysis of Physical Properties Through Bayesian Interence Based Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lust, Nathaniel B.; Britt, Daniel

    2014-11-01

    Observations of asteroid 2577 Litva, a known multiple system, were taken from Robinson Observatory at the University of Central Florida spanning several weeks from late 2013 to early 2014. This work outlines a modified Bayesian Inference methodology for determining periodicities within the data as well as correcting for orbital effects with pole determination, and compares our results with previously published works. For the primary object, Litva, we find the most probable period to be 2.812186±5x10 - 6 hours, the most probable for the pole direction to be at 26.96 ± 2 , 298.8 ± 11 degrees latitude and longitude. The secondary system does not appear to eclipse the primary object, most likely due orbital geometries. For the third object we find the most probable rotation period to be 5.68389 ± 0.0005 hours. We discuss how to extend this work to determine the direction of the rotation axis for the third body, as well as the pole direction for the eclipsing satellite. This methodology is a novel tool for generating probability distributions for each measured quantity handling low signal-to-noise observations, working with widely spaced data, and detecting periodicities.

  2. Observational Evidence for Two Cosmological Predictions Made by Bit-String Physics

    E-print Network

    H. Pierre Noyes

    2001-03-27

    A decade ago bit-string physics predicted that the baryon/photon ratio at the time of nucleogenesis $\\eta= 1/256^4$ and that the dark matter/baryonic matter ratio $\\Omega_{DM}/\\Omega_B= 12.7$. Accepting that the normalized Hubble constant is constrained observationally to lie in the range $0.6 \\Omega_M > 0.183 $. This and a prediction by E.D.Jones, using a model-independent argument and ideas with which bit-string physics is not inconsistent, that the cosmological constant $\\Omega_{\\Lambda}=0.6\\pm 0.1$ are in reasonable agreement with recent cosmological observations, including the BOOMERANG data.

  3. Physical properties (particle size, rock abundance) from thermal infrared remote observations: Implications for Mars landing sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, P. R.; Edgett, Kenneth S.

    1994-01-01

    Critical to the assessment of potential sites for the 1997 Pathfinder landing is estimation of general physical properties of the martian surface. Surface properties have been studied using a variety of spacecraft and earth-based remote sensing observations, plus in situ studies at the Viking lander sites. Because of their value in identifying landing hazards and defining scientific objectives, we focus this discussion on thermal inertia and rock abundance derived from middle-infrared (6 to 30 microns) observations. Used in conjunction with other datasets, particularly albedo and Viking orbiter images, thermal inertia and rock abundance provide clues about the properties of potential Mars landing sites.

  4. Radar observations and a physical model of Asteroid 4660 Nereus, a prime space mission target

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marina Brozovic; Steven J. Ostro; Lance A. M. Benner; Jon D. Giorgini; Raymond F. Jurgens; Randy Rose; Michael C. Nolan; Alice A. Hine; Christopher Magri; Daniel J. Scheeres; Jean-Luc Margot

    2009-01-01

    Near–Earth Asteroid 4660 Nereus has been identified as a potential spacecraft target since its 1982 discovery because of the low delta-V required for a spacecraft rendezvous. However, surprisingly little is known about its physical characteristics. Here we report Arecibo (S-band, 2380-MHz, 13-cm) and Goldstone (X-band, 8560-MHz, 3.5-cm) radar observations of Nereus during its 2002 close approach. Analysis of an extensive

  5. Physical properties of individual coronal loops in a solar active region observed in the XUV

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C.-C. Cheng

    1980-01-01

    The physical properties of individual coronal loops in a solar active region observed in the XUV by the slitless objective grating spectroheliograph on board Skylab are investigated. Spectroheliograms of the normal active loop region McMath 12378 reveal three distinctive structural groups of loops in different temperature ranges, namely (1) small compact and smaller loops at temperatures of about 2,000,000 K

  6. Observing System Simulation of Snow Microwave Emissions Over Data Sparse Regions— Part I: Single Layer Physics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Do Hyuk Kang; Ana P. Barros

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this work is to develop a framework for monitoring snow water equivalent (SWE) and snowpack radiometric properties (e.g., surface emissivity and reflectivity) and microwave emissions in remote regions where ancillary data and ground-based observations for model calibration and\\/or data assimilation are lacking. For this purpose, an existing land surface hydrology model (LSHM) with single-layer (SL) snow physics

  7. Rg Flow of Transport Quantities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Bum-Hoon; Pal, Shesansu Sekhar; Sin, Sang-Jin

    The RG flow equation of various transport quantities are studied in arbitrary space-time dimensions, in the fixed as well as fluctuating background geometry both for the Maxwellian and DBI type of actions. The regularity condition on the flow equation of the conductivity at the horizon for the DBI action reproduces naturally the leading order result of Hartnoll et al. [J. High Energy Phys. 04, 120 (2010)]. Motivated by the result of van der Marel et al. [Science 425, 271 (2003], we studied, analytically, the conductivity versus frequency plane by dividing it into three distinct parts: ? < T, ? > T and ? ? T. In order to compare, we choose (3+1)-dimensional bulk space-time for the computation of the conductivity. In the ? < T range, the conductivity does not show up the Drude like form in any space-time dimensions. In the ? > T range and staying away from the horizon, for the DBI action with unit dynamical exponent, nonzero magnetic field and charge density, the conductivity goes as ?-2/3, whereas the phase of the conductivity, goes as, arctan(Im ?xx/Re ?xx) = ?/6 and arctan(Im ?xy/Re ?xy) = -?/3. There exists a universal quantity at the horizon that is the phase angle of conductivity, which either vanishes or an integral multiple of ?. Furthermore, we calculate the temperature dependence to the thermoelectric and the thermal conductivity at the horizon. The charge diffusion constant for the DBI action is studied.

  8. Household Water Quantity and Health: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Stelmach, Rachel D.; Clasen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    While the quantity of water used in the home is thought to be an important determinant of health, much of the evidence relies on using water access as a proxy for quantity. This review examines the health effects of household water quantity using studies that directly measured water quantity. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and article reference lists. Eligible studies included experimental and observational studies that measured a difference in water quantity and quantified an association between water quantity and health outcomes. 21 studies, divided into six of the many possible water-quantity associated outcomes, met the eligibility criteria. Due to heterogeneity in designs, settings, methods, and outcomes, a meta-analysis was inappropriate. Overall results showed a positive association between water quantity and health outcomes, but the effect depended on how the water was used. Increased water usage for personal hygiene was generally associated with improved trachoma outcomes, while increased water consumption was generally associated with reduced gastrointestinal infection and diarrheal disease and improved growth outcomes. In high-income countries, increased water consumption was associated with higher rates of renal cell carcinoma and bladder cancer but not associated with type II diabetes, cardiac-related mortality, or all-cause mortality. PMID:26030467

  9. Transformative Relation of Kinematical Descriptive Quantities Defined by Different Spatial Referential Frame, Its Property and Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Ji

    2012-08-01

    Quantitative transformations between corresponding kinetic quantities defined by any two spatial referential frames, whose relative kinematics relations (purely rotational and translational movement) are known, are presented based on necessarily descriptive definitions of the fundamental concepts (instant, time, spatial referential frame that distinguishes from Maths. Coordination, physical point) had being clarified by directly empirical observation with artificially descriptive purpose. Inductive investigation of the transformation reveals that all physical quantities such as charge, temperature, time, volume, length, temporal rate of the quantities and relations like temporal relation between signal source and observer as such are independent to spatial frames transformation except above kinematical quantities transformations, kinematics related dynamics such as Newton ’ s second law existing only in inertial frames and exchange of kinetic energy of mass being valid only in a selected inertial frame. From above bas is, we demonstrate a series of inferences and applications such as phase velocity of light being direct respect to medium (including vacuum) rather than to the frame, using spatial referential frame to describe any measurable field (electric field, magnetic field, gravitational field) and the field ’ s variation; and have tables to contrast and evaluate all aspects of those hypotheses related with spacetime such as distorted spacetime around massive stellar, four dimension spacetime, gravitational time dilation and non - Euclid geometry with new one. The demonstration strongly suggests all the hypotheses are invalid in capable tested concepts ’ meaning and relations. The conventional work on frame transformation and its property, hypothesized by Voigt, Heaviside, Lorentz, Poincare and Einstein a century ago with some mathematical speculation lacking rigorous definition of the fundamental concepts such as instant, time, spatial reference, straight line, plane area, merely good in building up patchwork to do self p referred explanation by making up derivative concepts or accumulating new hypothesis, has disturbed people to describe the physical nature by setting up the sound basis of concept and relations with capable tested method, it’s time to be replaced by empirically effective alternative.

  10. A physically insightful approach to the design and accuracy assessment of flux observers for field oriented induction machine drives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. L. Jansen; R. D. Lorenz

    1992-01-01

    Rotor flux observers can provide an attractive means for achieving direct field oriented control of induction machines. The authors present a physics-based design methodology and use it to evaluate open loop observers and to develop a novel closed loop flux observer. It is shown that the new flux observer is a straightforward structure with properties that combine the best features

  11. Unobservability of short-lived unstable particles and its implications for observational claims and theories in physics

    E-print Network

    Cabbolet, Marcoen J T F

    2015-01-01

    The physics literature contains many claims that elementary particles have been observed: such observational claims are, of course, important for the development of existential knowledge. Regarding claimed observations of short-lived unstable particles in particular, the term `observation' is not used with reference to any particular concept of observation: physicists merely use the word `observation' based on the convention in physics that the observation of a short-lived unstable particle can be claimed when its predicted decay products have been observed with a significance of 5 sigma. However, using Fox's recent concepts of direct and indirect observation, this paper shows that unstable particles with a lifetime of less than 0.01 attosecond are fundamentally unobservable. This cognitive inaccessibility of parts of the subatomic world has far-reaching implications for physics, not the least of which is that the aforementioned convention is untenable: claims that such short-lived unstable particles have bee...

  12. Unobservability of short-lived unstable particles and its implications for observational claims and theories in physics

    E-print Network

    Marcoen J. T. F. Cabbolet

    2015-02-03

    The physics literature contains many claims that elementary particles have been observed: such observational claims are, of course, important for the development of existential knowledge. Regarding claimed observations of short-lived unstable particles in particular, the term `observation' is not used with reference to any particular concept of observation: physicists merely use the word `observation' based on the convention in physics that the observation of a short-lived unstable particle can be claimed when its predicted decay products have been observed with a significance of 5 sigma. However, using Fox's recent concepts of direct and indirect observation, this paper shows that unstable particles with a lifetime of less than 0.01 attosecond are fundamentally unobservable. This cognitive inaccessibility of parts of the subatomic world has far-reaching implications for physics, not the least of which is that the aforementioned convention is untenable: claims that such short-lived unstable particles have been observed will thus have to be retracted. The main implications are two incompleteness theorems for physics, respectively stating (i) that experiments cannot prove completeness of a physical theory predicting short-lived unstable particles, and (ii) that experiments cannot prove correctness of such a theory - one can at most test its empirical adequacy. On a general note, the conclusion is that the importance of philosophical arguments for particle physics is herewith demonstrated: it is, thus, a widespread misconception that philosophical arguments can be completely avoided.

  13. DENSITY ESTIMATION FOR PROJECTED EXOPLANET QUANTITIES

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Robert A., E-mail: rbrown@stsci.edu [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2011-05-20

    Exoplanet searches using radial velocity (RV) and microlensing (ML) produce samples of 'projected' mass and orbital radius, respectively. We present a new method for estimating the probability density distribution (density) of the unprojected quantity from such samples. For a sample of n data values, the method involves solving n simultaneous linear equations to determine the weights of delta functions for the raw, unsmoothed density of the unprojected quantity that cause the associated cumulative distribution function (CDF) of the projected quantity to exactly reproduce the empirical CDF of the sample at the locations of the n data values. We smooth the raw density using nonparametric kernel density estimation with a normal kernel of bandwidth {sigma}. We calibrate the dependence of {sigma} on n by Monte Carlo experiments performed on samples drawn from a theoretical density, in which the integrated square error is minimized. We scale this calibration to the ranges of real RV samples using the Normal Reference Rule. The resolution and amplitude accuracy of the estimated density improve with n. For typical RV and ML samples, we expect the fractional noise at the PDF peak to be approximately 80 n{sup -log2}. For illustrations, we apply the new method to 67 RV values given a similar treatment by Jorissen et al. in 2001, and to the 308 RV values listed at exoplanets.org on 2010 October 20. In addition to analyzing observational results, our methods can be used to develop measurement requirements-particularly on the minimum sample size n-for future programs, such as the microlensing survey of Earth-like exoplanets recommended by the Astro 2010 committee.

  14. 36 CFR 223.220 - Quantity determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER Special Forest Products § 223.220 Quantity determination...provide for determining the quantity of special forest products by scaling, measuring, weighing,...

  15. 36 CFR 223.220 - Quantity determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL PRODUCTS Special Forest Products § 223.220 Quantity determination...determining the quantity of special forest products by scaling, measuring,...

  16. 36 CFR 223.220 - Quantity determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL PRODUCTS Special Forest Products § 223.220 Quantity determination...determining the quantity of special forest products by scaling, measuring,...

  17. 36 CFR 223.220 - Quantity determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL PRODUCTS Special Forest Products § 223.220 Quantity determination...determining the quantity of special forest products by scaling, measuring,...

  18. 36 CFR 223.220 - Quantity determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL PRODUCTS Special Forest Products § 223.220 Quantity determination...determining the quantity of special forest products by scaling, measuring,...

  19. Observing physical education teachers' need-supportive interactions in classroom settings.

    PubMed

    Haerens, Leen; Aelterman, Nathalie; Van den Berghe, Lynn; De Meyer, Jotie; Soenens, Bart; Vansteenkiste, Maarten

    2013-02-01

    According to self-determination theory, teachers can motivate students by supporting their psychological needs for relatedness, competence, and autonomy. The present study complements extant research (most of which relied on self-report measures) by relying on observations of need-supportive teaching in the domain of physical education (PE), which allows for the identification of concrete, real-life examples of how teacher need support manifests in the classroom. Seventy-four different PE lessons were coded for 5-min intervals to assess the occurrence of 21 need-supportive teaching behaviors. Factor analyses provided evidence for four interpretable factors, namely, relatedness support, autonomy support, and two components of structure (structure before and during the activity). Reasonable evidence was obtained for convergence between observed and student perceived need support. Yet, the low interrater reliability for two of the four scales indicates that these scales need further improvement. PMID:23404876

  20. New Measurement of Synchronous Machine Quantities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroshi Kaminosono; Kiyotaka Uyeda

    1968-01-01

    Synchronous machine quantities are used in the various studies of power system behavior under both normal and abnormal conditions. Instead of the IEEE test code 115 [1] generally employed, this paper describes two approaches to measure synchronous machine quantities of each winding with the machine at standstill, namely, the indicial response method and the low-requency response method. These quantities are

  1. Quantity, Revisited: An Object-Oriented Reusable Class

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Funston, Monica Gayle; Gerstle, Walter; Panthaki, Malcolm

    1998-01-01

    "Quantity", a prototype implementation of an object-oriented class, was developed for two reasons: to help engineers and scientists manipulate the many types of quantities encountered during routine analysis, and to create a reusable software component to for large domain-specific applications. From being used as a stand-alone application to being incorporated into an existing computational mechanics toolkit, "Quantity" appears to be a useful and powerful object. "Quantity" has been designed to maintain the full engineering meaning of values with respect to units and coordinate systems. A value is a scalar, vector, tensor, or matrix, each of which is composed of Value Components, each of which may be an integer, floating point number, fuzzy number, etc., and its associated physical unit. Operations such as coordinate transformation and arithmetic operations are handled by member functions of "Quantity". The prototype has successfully tested such characteristics as maintaining a numeric value, an associated unit, and an annotation. In this paper we further explore the design of "Quantity", with particular attention to coordinate systems.

  2. Physical properties of individual coronal loops in a solar active region observed in the XUV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, C.-C.

    1980-06-01

    The physical properties of individual coronal loops in a solar active region observed in the XUV by the slitless objective grating spectroheliograph on board Skylab are investigated. Spectroheliograms of the normal active loop region McMath 12378 reveal three distinctive structural groups of loops in different temperature ranges, namely (1) small compact and smaller loops at temperatures of about 2,000,000 K observed in Fe XV and Fe XVI; (2) large Ne VII and Mg IX loops at temperatures from 500,000 to 1,000,000 K; and (3) chromospheric ribbons in He II and H alpha. The temperature of the active region is found to be uniform at about 2,000,000 K in the loops and background while loop density is found to be 3.5 x 10 to the 9th/cu cm in the loops and 2.5 x 10 to the 9th/cu cm in the surrounding background. Significant changes in the active region are observed in 24 h, although the gross temperature density structures of many loops do not show changes in 7 min. Gas pressure within the coronal loops is found to be about 40% greater than that of the background plasma. The observed loop parameters are noted to be consistent with flux-limited models of density enhancement in magnetic flux tubes and thus no esoteric heating function is required.

  3. Physical properties of individual coronal loops in a solar active region observed in the XUV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, C.-C.

    1980-01-01

    The physical properties of individual coronal loops in a solar active region observed in the XUV by the slitless objective grating spectroheliograph on board Skylab are investigated. Spectroheliograms of the normal active loop region McMath 12378 reveal three distinctive structural groups of loops in different temperature ranges, namely (1) small compact and smaller loops at temperatures of about 2,000,000 K observed in Fe XV and Fe XVI; (2) large Ne VII and Mg IX loops at temperatures from 500,000 to 1,000,000 K; and (3) chromospheric ribbons in He II and H alpha. The temperature of the active region is found to be uniform at about 2,000,000 K in the loops and background while loop density is found to be 3.5 x 10 to the 9th/cu cm in the loops and 2.5 x 10 to the 9th/cu cm in the surrounding background. Significant changes in the active region are observed in 24 h, although the gross temperature density structures of many loops do not show changes in 7 min. Gas pressure within the coronal loops is found to be about 40% greater than that of the background plasma. The observed loop parameters are noted to be consistent with flux-limited models of density enhancement in magnetic flux tubes and thus no esoteric heating function is required.

  4. IMOS National Reference Stations: A Continental-Wide Physical, Chemical and Biological Coastal Observing System

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Tim P.; Morello, Elisabetta B.; Evans, Karen; Richardson, Anthony J.; Rochester, Wayne; Steinberg, Craig R.; Roughan, Moninya; Thompson, Peter; Middleton, John F.; Feng, Ming; Sherrington, Robert; Brando, Vittorio; Tilbrook, Bronte; Ridgway, Ken; Allen, Simon; Doherty, Peter; Hill, Katherine; Moltmann, Tim C.

    2014-01-01

    Sustained observations allow for the tracking of change in oceanography and ecosystems, however, these are rare, particularly for the Southern Hemisphere. To address this in part, the Australian Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS) implemented a network of nine National Reference Stations (NRS). The network builds on one long-term location, where monthly water sampling has been sustained since the 1940s and two others that commenced in the 1950s. In-situ continuously moored sensors and an enhanced monthly water sampling regime now collect more than 50 data streams. Building on sampling for temperature, salinity and nutrients, the network now observes dissolved oxygen, carbon, turbidity, currents, chlorophyll a and both phytoplankton and zooplankton. Additional parameters for studies of ocean acidification and bio-optics are collected at a sub-set of sites and all data is made freely and publically available. Our preliminary results demonstrate increased utility to observe extreme events, such as marine heat waves and coastal flooding; rare events, such as plankton blooms; and have, for the first time, allowed for consistent continental scale sampling and analysis of coastal zooplankton and phytoplankton communities. Independent water sampling allows for cross validation of the deployed sensors for quality control of data that now continuously tracks daily, seasonal and annual variation. The NRS will provide multi-decadal time series, against which more spatially replicated short-term studies can be referenced, models and remote sensing products validated, and improvements made to our understanding of how large-scale, long-term change and variability in the global ocean are affecting Australia's coastal seas and ecosystems. The NRS network provides an example of how a continental scaled observing systems can be developed to collect observations that integrate across physics, chemistry and biology. PMID:25517905

  5. Use of Plot Scale Observations to gauge the applicability of Physically-Based Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kormos, P. R.; McNamara, J. P.; Marks, D. G.; Flores, A. N.; Marshall, H.; Boe, E.

    2011-12-01

    Catchment hydrologic modeling efforts should be initiated with a comparison between a perceptual model of how the basin functions, and what processes the numerical hydrologic model represents. The majority of recent attention in literature has been focused on using this process to inform conceptual model structures aimed at predicting streamflow from precipitation events. However, this method may also be used to assess the applicability of physically-based models when lumped parameter models are insufficient for research questions. Physically-based models are chosen over lumped parameter conceptual models for their ability to provide detailed spatial information on soil moisture, ephemeral streamflow, and differential snow melt. A plot scale study was conducted in a 0.02 km2 headwater catchment to build a perceptual model of the Tree Line (TL) Experimental Catchment within the Dry Creek Experimental Watershed (DCEW) in the semi-arid foothills north of Boise, ID. Overland flow, through flow, and radiation flux measurements were taken in addition to existing weather station variables (air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction, snow depth, and soil moisture) for the 2011 water year. The 2011 water year is typical of this study site and is characterized by a shallow snowpack that lasts from the late fall to early spring and includes several rain-on-snow events. A soil storage field capacity threshold in the upper highly conductive soil (approximately 145 mm) must be crossed before lateral flow is observed. The total soil storage threshold for lateral flow slowly increases from 253 mm during a December rain-on-snow event, to 269 mm during the spring melt event as deeper, less conductive soils wet up. Lateral flow primarily takes place as overland flow and as concentrated flow paths at the soil-bedrock interface, which are controlled by bedrock topography. Results suggest that the watershed models used in TL need to account for unsaturated soil storage, the development of a shallow hillslope saturated zone, and lateral flow at the soil-bedrock interface. Both the snowmelt model and the watershed model need to account for commonly observed aspect differences in vegetation and insolation. Future work will assess the applicability of the coupled physically-based snowmelt model (SNOBAL) and physically-based watershed model (PIHM) to the 26.9 km2 DCEW.

  6. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A 476 (2002) 758764 Observation of radiation induced latchup in the readout

    E-print Network

    Ramello, Luciano

    2002-01-01

    Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A 476 (2002) 758­764 Observation of radiation.80 Keywords: Latchup; Microelectronics; Nuclear electronics; Radiation tolerant electronics; Radiation effects of Physics and Nuclear Techniques, UMM, Cracow, Poland e Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Avanzate

  7. Physical and bio-optical observations of oceanic cyclones west of the island of Hawai’i

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tommy D. Dickey; Francesco Nencioli; Victor S. Kuwahara; Carrie Leonard; Wil Black; Yoshimi M. Rii; Robert R. Bidigare; Qin Zhang

    2008-01-01

    Interdisciplinary observations of mesoscale eddies were made to the west of the island of Hawai’i. A central goal of the studies is to improve our understanding of the coupling of physical, biological, and biogeochemical processes that occur within these eddies. A specific objective was to test the hypothesis that the physical mechanisms of mesoscale eddies result in increases in nutrient

  8. Virtual Observatories for Space Physics Observations and Simulations: New Routes to Efficient Access and Visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Aaron

    2005-01-01

    New tools for data access and visualization promise to make the analysis of space plasma data both more efficient and more powerful, especially for answering questions about the global structure and dynamics of the Sun-Earth system. We will show how new existing tools (particularly the Virtual Space Physics Observatory-VSPO-and the Visual System for Browsing, Analysis and Retrieval of Data-ViSBARD; look for the acronyms in Google) already provide rapid access to such information as spacecraft orbits, browse plots, and detailed data, as well as visualizations that can quickly unite our view of multispacecraft observations. We will show movies illustrating multispacecraft observations of the solar wind and magnetosphere during a magnetic storm, and of simulations of 3 0-spacecraft observations derived from MHD simulations of the magnetosphere sampled along likely trajectories of the spacecraft for the MagCon mission. An important issue remaining to be solved is how best to integrate simulation data and services into the Virtual Observatory environment, and this talk will hopefully stimulate further discussion along these lines.

  9. The physical conditions in IRDC clumps from Herschel HIFI observations of H2O

    E-print Network

    Shipman, Russell F; Wyrowski, Friedrich; Herpin, Fabrice; Frieswijk, Wilfred

    2014-01-01

    Context. The earliest phases of high-mass star formation are poorly understood. Aims. Our goal is to determine the physical conditions and kinematic structure of massive star-forming cloud clumps. Methods. We analyze H$_2$O 557 GHz line profiles observed with HIFI toward four positions in two infrared-dark cloud clumps . By comparison with ground-based C$^{17}$O, N$_2$H$^+$, CH$_3$OH and NH$_3$ line observations, we constrain the volume density and kinetic temperature of the gas and estimate the column density and abundance of H$_2$O and N$_2$H$^+$. Results. The observed water lines are complex with emission and absorption components. The absorption is red shifted and consistent with a cold envelope, while the emission is interpreted as resulting from protostellar outflows. The gas density in the clumps is $\\sim$ 10$^7$ cm$^{-3}$. The o-H2O outflow column density is 0.3 to 3.0 10$^{14}$ cm$^{-2}$, the o-H2O absorption column density is between 1.5 10$^{14}$ and 2.6 10$^{15}$ cm$^-2$ with cold o-H2O abundances...

  10. Assimilation of streamflow and soil moisture observations in a distributed physically-based hydrological model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trudel, M.; Leconte, R.; Paniconi, C.

    2012-04-01

    Data assimilation techniques not only enhance model simulations and predictions, they also give the opportunity to pose a diagnostic on both model and observations used in the assimilation process. The goal of this research is to assimilate streamflow and soil moisture in a distributed physically-based hydrological model, CATHY (CATchment HYdrology). The study site is the des Anglais Watershed, a 690-km2 river basin located in southern Québec, Canada. An ensemble Kalman filter was used to assimilate streamflow observations at the basin outlet and at interior locations, as well as soil moisture at different depths (15, 45, and 90 cm) measured with probes (6 stations) and surface soil moisture estimated from radar remote sensing. The use of a Latin hypercube sampling instead of the Monte Carlo method to generate the ensemble reduced the size of ensemble, and therefore the calculation time. An important issue in data assimilation is the estimation of error covariance matrices. Different post-assimilation diagnostics, based on innovations (observation-minus-background), analysis residuals (observation-minus-analysis) and analysis increments (analysis-minus-background) were used to evaluate assimilation optimality. A calibration approach was performed to determine the standard deviation of model parameters, forcing data and observations that lead to optimal assimilations. The analysis of innovations showed a lag between the model prediction and the observation during rainfall events. The assimilation of streamflow observations (outlet or interior locations) corrected this discrepancy. The assimilation of outlet streamflow observations improved the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiencies (NSE) at both outlet and interior point locations. The structure of the state vector used in this study allowed the assimilation of outlet streamflow observations to have an impact over streamflow simulations at interior point locations. Indeed, the state vector contains the outlet streamflow (Qout) and the incoming streamflow (Qin), since both these informations are used by the Muskingum-Cunge surface routing equation in CATHY. However, assimilation of streamflow observations increased systematically the soil moisture values simulated at 15 and 45 cm. The combined assimilation of outlet streamflow and soil moisture improved the NSE of streamflow without degrading the simulation of soil moisture. Moreover, the assimilation of streamflow and soil moisture observations from one station (at 45 cm depth) appeared to have a similar impact on soil moisture simulations compared to a combined assimilation of streamflow and soil moisture observations from five stations. Finally, it was found that the frequency of the assimilation of soil moisture observations has a greater impact on the results than the spatial coverage of the assimilation: assimilation of daily soil moisture measured with probes at six stations gives better results than the assimilation of surface soil moisture estimated from radar remote sensing 8 times over the course of a summer season.

  11. A physically insightful approach to the design and accuracy assessment of flux observers for field oriented induction machine drives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick L. Jansen; Robert D. Lorenz

    1994-01-01

    Rotor flux observers can provide an attractive means for achieving direct field oriented control of induction machines. This paper presents a physics-based design methodology and uses it to evaluate open-loop observers and to develop a new closed-loop flux observer. It is shown that the new flux observer is a straightforward structure with properties that combine the best features of known

  12. SuperIso v3.0, flavor physics observables calculations: extension to NMSSM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoudi, F.

    2009-09-01

    SuperIso v3.0 is a public program for evaluation of flavor physics observables in the minimal supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model (MSSM) and the next to minimal supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model (NMSSM). SuperIso v3.0 incorporates many flavor observables such as the inclusive branching ratio of B?X?, the isospin asymmetry of B?K?, the branching ratio of B???, the branching ratio of B???, the branching ratio of B?D??, the branching ratio of K??? and the branching ratios of D??? and D???. The calculation of the branching ratio of B?X? includes NNLO Standard Model contributions. The program also computes the muon anomalous magnetic moment (g-2). Seven sample models are included in the package, namely mSUGRA, NUHM, AMSB and GMSB for the MSSM, and CNMSSM, NGMSB and NNUHM for the NMSSM. SuperIso uses a SUSY Les Houches Accord file (SLHA1 or SLHA2) as input, which can be either generated automatically by the program via a call to external spectrum calculators (SOFTSUSY, ISAJET or NMSSMTools), or provided by the user. New version program summaryProgram title:SuperIso v3.0 Catalogue identifier: AEAN_v3_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEAN_v3_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GNU General Public Licence No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 6869 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 42 627 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C (C99 Standard compliant) Computer: 32- or 64-bit PC, Mac Operating system: Linux, MacOS RAM: less than 1 MB Classification: 11.6 External routines: ISASUGRA/ISAJET, SOFTSUSY and/or NMSSMTools Does the new version supersede the previous version?: Yes Nature of problem: Calculation of flavor physics observables as well as the muon anomalous magnetic moment in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model with minimal flavor violation and in the Next to Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model, in order to derive constraints on the supersymmetric parameter spaces. Solution method:SuperIso uses a SUSY Les Houches Accord (SLHA1 or SLHA2) file, which can be either generated automatically via a call to SOFTSUSY, ISAJET or NMSSMTools, or provided by the user. This file contains the masses, mixings and couplings of the supersymmetric particles. SuperIso then computes the most constraining flavor physics observables and the muon ( g-2). SuperIso is able to perform the calculations in different supersymmetry breaking scenarios, such as mSUGRA, NUHM, AMSB and GMSB, as well as constrained NMSSM scenarios such as CNMSSM, NNUHM and NGMSB. Reasons for new version:SuperIso has been extended to the next to minimal supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model (NMSSM). The implemented routines are therefore extensively modified. Summary of revisions:Improvement of the SLHA2 reader. Replacement of "float" variables by "double". Implementation of an interface with NMSSMTools. Extension of the calculation of flavor observables as well as the muon anomalous magnetic moment to NMSSM. Addition of three different NMSSM scenarios: CNMSSM, NGMSB and NNUHM. Three sample main programs have been added: cnmssm.c, ngmsb.c and nnuhm.c. Additional instructions to use them are given when running them without arguments. Unusual features: The code is very flexible, and new observables can be added easily. Running time: Less than 1 sec

  13. An Observational Perspective of Low-Mass Dense Cores I: Internal Physical and Chemical Properties

    E-print Network

    J. Di Francesco; N. J. Evans II; P. Caselli; P. C. Myers; Y. Shirley; A. Aikawa; M. Tafalla

    2006-02-17

    Low-mass dense cores represent the state of molecular gas associated with the earliest phases of low-mass star formation. Such cores are called "protostellar" or "starless," depending on whether they do or do not contain compact sources of luminosity. In this chapter, the first half of the review of low-mass dense cores, we describe the numerous inferences made about the nature of starless cores as a result of recent observations, since these reveal the initial conditions of star formation. We focus on the identification of isolated starless cores and their internal physical and chemical properties, including morphologies, densities, temperatures, kinematics, and molecular abundances. These objects display a wide range of properties since they are each at different points on evolutionary paths from ambient molecular cloud material to cold, contracting, and centrally concentrated configurations with significant molecular depletions and, in rare cases, enhancements.

  14. PHYSICS. Observation of phononic helical edge states in a mechanical topological insulator.

    PubMed

    Süsstrunk, Roman; Huber, Sebastian D

    2015-07-01

    A topological insulator, as originally proposed for electrons governed by quantum mechanics, is characterized by a dichotomy between the interior and the edge of a finite system: The bulk has an energy gap, and the edges sustain excitations traversing this gap. However, it has remained an open question whether the same physics can be observed for systems obeying Newton's equations of motion. We conducted experiments to characterize the collective behavior of mechanical oscillators exhibiting the phenomenology of the quantum spin Hall effect. The phononic edge modes are shown to be helical, and we demonstrate their topological protection via the stability of the edge states against imperfections. Our results may enable the design of topological acoustic metamaterials that can capitalize on the stability of the surface phonons as reliable wave guides. PMID:26138969

  15. The Harari-Shupe Observation without Preons - a Glimpse of Physics to Come?

    E-print Network

    Zenczykowski, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    We argue that one has to distinguish between the Harari-Shupe model (HSM) and the Harari-Shupe observation (HSO). The former - in which quarks and leptons are viewed as composite objects built from confined fermionic subparticles (`rishons') - is known to be beset with many difficulties. The latter may be roughly defined as this part of the HSM that really works. We recall that the phase-space Clifford-algebra approach leads to the HSO without any of the HSM problems and discuss in some detail how this is achieved. The light which the phase-space-based view sheds on the HSO sets then a new direction along which the connection between space and particle properties could be studied and offers a glimpse into weird physics that probably lurks much deeper than the field-theoretical approach of the Standard Model.

  16. The Harari-Shupe Observation without Preons - a Glimpse of Physics to Come?

    E-print Network

    Piotr Zenczykowski

    2015-01-06

    We argue that one has to distinguish between the Harari-Shupe model (HSM) and the Harari-Shupe observation (HSO). The former - in which quarks and leptons are viewed as composite objects built from confined fermionic subparticles (`rishons') - is known to be beset with many difficulties. The latter may be roughly defined as this part of the HSM that really works. We recall that the phase-space Clifford-algebra approach leads to the HSO without any of the HSM problems and discuss in some detail how this is achieved. The light which the phase-space-based view sheds on the HSO sets then a new direction along which the connection between space and particle properties could be studied and offers a glimpse into weird physics that probably lurks much deeper than the field-theoretical approach of the Standard Model.

  17. A comparison of protocols and observer precision for measuring physical stream attributes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitacre, H.W.; Roper, B.B.; Kershner, J.L.

    2007-01-01

    Stream monitoring programs commonly measure physical attributes to assess the effect of land management on stream habitat. Variability associated with the measurement of these attributes has been linked to a number of factors, but few studies have evaluated variability due to differences in protocols. We compared six protocols, five used by the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service and one by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, on six streams in Oregon and Idaho to determine whether differences in protocol affect values for 10 physical stream attributes. Results from Oregon and Idaho were combined for groups participating in both states, with significant differences in attribute means for 9 out of the 10 stream attributes. Significant differences occurred in 5 of 10 in Idaho, and 10 of 10 in Oregon. Coefficients of variation, signal-to-noise ratio, and root mean square error were used to evaluate measurement precision. There were differences among protocols for all attributes when states were analyzed separately and as a combined dataset. Measurement differences were influenced by choice of instruments, measurement method, measurement location, attribute definitions, and training approach. Comparison of data gathered by observers using different protocols will be difficult unless a core set of protocols for commonly measured stream attributes can be standardized among monitoring programs. ?? 2007 American Water Resources Association.

  18. WERA: an observational tool develop to investigate the physical risk factor associated with WMSDs.

    PubMed

    Abd Rahman, Mohd Nasrull; Abdul Rani, Mat Rebi; Rohani, Jafri Mohd

    2011-12-01

    This paper describes the development of the Workplace Ergonomic Risk Assessment (WERA) for investigating the physical risk factor associated with work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs). The initial development of WERA tool involved the following procedures: (1) first stage, development of WERA prototype from literature review, (2) second stage, evaluation of the psychometric properties including (a) validity trials and (b) reliability and usability trials. In the validity trials, the relationship of the individual WERA body part scores to the development of pain or discomfort is statistically significant for the wrist, shoulder and back regions. It shows that the WERA assessment provided a good indication of work-related musculoskeletal disorders which might be reported as pain, ache or discomfort in the relevant body regions. In the reliability trials, the results of inter-observer reliability shows that moderate agreement among the observers while from the feedback questionnaire survey about the usability of WERA tool, all participants including expert and management teams agreed that the prototype of WERA tool was easy and quick to use, applicable to workplace assessment for the wide range of job/task and valuable at work. It was confirmed that there was no need of training required to do WERA assessment. Therefore, the WERA assessment has been designed for easy and quick use, and for those who are trained to use it do not need previous skills in observation techniques although this would be an advantage. As WERA is a pen and paper technique that can be used without any special equipment, WERA assessment can be done in any space of workplaces without disruption to the task that have been observed. PMID:25665205

  19. A Physical Model to Estimate Snowfall over Land using AMSU-B Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Min-Jeong; Weinman, J. A.; Olson, W. S.; Chang, D.-E.; Skofronick-Jackson, G.; Wang, J. R.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we present an improved physical model to retrieve snowfall rate over land using brightness temperature observations from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Advanced Microwave Sounder Unit-B (AMSU-B) at 89 GHz, 150 GHz, 183.3 +/- 1 GHz, 183.3 +/- 3 GHz, and 183.3 +/- 7 GHz. The retrieval model is applied to the New England blizzard of March 5, 2001 which deposited about 75 cm of snow over much of Vermont, New Hampshire, and northern New York. In this improved physical model, prior retrieval assumptions about snowflake shape, particle size distributions, environmental conditions, and optimization methodology have been updated. Here, single scattering parameters for snow particles are calculated with the Discrete-Dipole Approximation (DDA) method instead of assuming spherical shapes. Five different snow particle models (hexagonal columns, hexagonal plates, and three different kinds of aggregates) are considered. Snow particle size distributions are assumed to vary with air temperature and to follow aircraft measurements described by previous studies. Brightness temperatures at AMSU-B frequencies for the New England blizzard are calculated using these DDA calculated single scattering parameters and particle size distributions. The vertical profiles of pressure, temperature, relative humidity and hydrometeors are provided by MM5 model simulations. These profiles are treated as the a priori data base in the Bayesian retrieval algorithm. In algorithm applications to the blizzard data, calculated brightness temperatures associated with selected database profiles agree with AMSU-B observations to within about +/- 5 K at all five frequencies. Retrieved snowfall rates compare favorably with the near-concurrent National Weather Service (NWS) radar reflectivity measurements. The relationships between the NWS radar measured reflectivities Z(sub e) and retrieved snowfall rate R for a given snow particle model are derived by a histogram matching technique. All of these Z(sub e)-R relationships fall in the range of previously established Z(sub e)-R relationships for snowfall. This suggests that the current physical model developed in this study can reliably estimate the snowfall rate over land using the AMSU-B measured brightness temperatures.

  20. Radar observations and a physical model of Asteroid 4660 Nereus, a prime space mission target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brozovic, Marina; Ostro, Steven J.; Benner, Lance A. M.; Giorgini, Jon D.; Jurgens, Raymond F.; Rose, Randy; Nolan, Michael C.; Hine, Alice A.; Magri, Christopher; Scheeres, Daniel J.; Margot, Jean-Luc

    2009-05-01

    Near-Earth Asteroid 4660 Nereus has been identified as a potential spacecraft target since its 1982 discovery because of the low delta-V required for a spacecraft rendezvous. However, surprisingly little is known about its physical characteristics. Here we report Arecibo (S-band, 2380-MHz, 13-cm) and Goldstone (X-band, 8560-MHz, 3.5-cm) radar observations of Nereus during its 2002 close approach. Analysis of an extensive dataset of delay-Doppler images and continuous wave (CW) spectra yields a model that resembles an ellipsoid with principal axis dimensions X=510±20 m, Y=330±20 m and Z=241-10+80 m. The pole direction is approximately located at ecliptic pole longitude and latitude of ?=+25°, ?=+80° with the uncertainty radius of 10°. Our modeling yields a refined rotation period of 15.16±0.04 h. Nereus has a circular polarization (SC/OC) ratio of 0.74±0.08, which implies substantial near-surface centimeter-to-decimeter scale roughness. Dynamical analysis of our model suggests that YORP alteration of the rotation period may become evident within a few years. Nereus has two stable synchronous orbits where natural material may remain in orbit, while most asteroids observed to date do not have such stable synchronous orbits. We also find that spacecraft orbits about Nereus are feasible.

  1. Physical model for the photovoltaic effects observed in Langmuir model membrane structures

    SciTech Connect

    Holoyda, J.

    1982-01-01

    The Langmuir-Blodgett structures consist primarily of built-up layers of N-(4-nitrobenzo)-2-oxa-1,3 diazole phosphatidyl ethanolamine. The organic molecular layers are sequentially deposited between aluminum electrodes. The visible spectrum has been employed for quantum stimulation. Electrical transport characteristics were first investigated and interpreted without light energy incident on the sample. The thin films generate a dark internal potential which has an upper limit of 1.37 volts; under monochromatic illumination a photo-e.m.f. of a few volts above the dark potential is observed in many samples. Light absorption properties and optoelectronic spectra were determined. The chromophore phospholipid material has been found to be p-type with holes being identified as the majority carriers. The principal conduction mechanism was determined to be of electronic origin. As a part of computer diagnostics, an excellent fit was found for the typical logarithmic dependence of photovoltage on illumination intensity. Data interpretation was carried out by developing a physical model involving the potential profile across the structure under steady-state monochromatic illumination. This model is employed to interpret the following experimental observations: existence of carotenoid channels, influences of additive doping levels, resonance effects, existence of internal potentials, and donor-acceptor charge transfer. Charge separation processes were found to influence the magnitude of the photo-e.m.f. The experimental results indicate that engineering on the molecular level is feasibile, and can be utilized to some extent in possible photo energy conversion applications.

  2. Physical and chemical structure of the IC 63 nebula. 1: Millimeter and far-infrared observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jansen, David J.; Van Dishoeck, Ewine F.; Black, John H.

    1994-01-01

    We present results of a (sub)millimeter and far-infrared study of the reflection/emission nebula IC 63, located close to the BO.5p star gamma Cas. The source has been mapped in the (12)CO 2 - 1 and 3 - 2, (13)CO 2 - 1, and CS 2 - 1 lines and shows a small molecular cloud less than 1'x 2' in extent, which coincides with the brightest optical nebulosity and IRAS 100 micrometer emission. IC 63 is therefore an excellent example of a nearby (d approximately = 230 pc), edge-on photon-dominated region (PDR). Various other molecules have been observed at the peak position through their rotational transitions, in order to probe the physical parameters and to derive abundances. The measured CO, HCO(+) HCN, CS and H2CO line ratios suggest that the cloud is warm, T approximately = 50 K, and dense, n (H2) approximately = 5 x 10(exp 4)/cu cm. Excitation of molecules by electrons may play a significant role in this PDR. On the basis of these physical conditions, column densities have been determined from the observed line strengths. Several different methods are discussed to constrain the H2 column density, including the use of measured submillimeter continuum fluxes. The resulting abundances of species such as CN and CS are similar to those found in cold, dark clouds like TMC-1 and L134N. However, the abundances of other simple molecules such as HNC, HCO(+) and possibly C2H are lower by factors of at least three, probably because of the enhanced photodissociation rates at a distance of 1.3 pc from a B star. Surprisingly, only the abundance of the H2S molecule appears enhanced. More complex, volatile molecules such as CH3OH CH3CN and HNCO, and the sulfur-oxides SO and SO2 have not been found in this cloud. Limited observations of molecules in the reflection nebulea NGC 2023 are presented as well, and the resulting molecular abundances are compared with those found for IC 63.

  3. Large quantity discrimination by North Island robins (Petroica longipes).

    PubMed

    Garland, Alexis; Low, Jason; Burns, Kevin C

    2012-11-01

    While numerosity-representation and enumeration of different numbers of objects-and quantity discrimination in particular have been studied in a wide range of species, very little is known about the numerical abilities of animals in the wild. This study examined spontaneous relative quantity judgments (RQJs) by wild North Island robins (Petroica longipes) of New Zealand. In Experiment 1, robins were tested on a range of numerical values of up to 14 versus 16 items, which were sequentially presented and hidden. In Experiment 2, the same numerical contrasts were tested on a different group of subjects but quantities were presented as whole visible sets. Experiment 3 involved whole visible sets that comprised of exceedingly large quantities of up to 56 versus 64 items. While robins shared with other species a ratio-based representation system for representing very large values, they also appeared to have developed an object indexing system with an extended upper limit (well beyond 4) that may be an evolutionary response to ecological challenges faced by scatter-hoarding birds. These results suggest that cognitive mechanism influencing an understanding of physical quantity may be deployed more flexibly in some contexts than previously thought, and are discussed in light of findings across other mammalian and avian species. PMID:22825034

  4. SuperIso Relic: A program for calculating relic density and flavor physics observables in Supersymmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arbey, A.; Mahmoudi, F.

    2010-07-01

    We describe SuperIso Relic, a public program for evaluation of relic density and flavor physics observables in the minimal supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model (MSSM). SuperIso Relic is an extension of the SuperIso program which adds to the flavor observables of SuperIso the computation of all possible annihilation and coannihilation processes of the LSP which are required for the relic density calculation. All amplitudes have been generated at the tree level with FeynArts/FormCalc, and widths of the Higgs bosons are computed with FeynHiggs at the two-loop level. SuperIso Relic also provides the possibility to modify the assumptions of the cosmological model, and to study their consequences on the relic density. Catalogue identifier: AEGD_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEGD_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: yes No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 2?274?720 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 6?735?649 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C (C99 Standard compliant) and Fortran Computer: 32- or 64-bit PC, Mac Operating system: Linux, MacOS RAM: 100 Mb Classification: 1.9, 11.6 External routines: ISASUGRA/ISAJET and/or SOFTSUSY, FeynHiggs Does the new version supersede the previous version?: No (AEAN_v2_0) Nature of problem: Calculation of the lightest supersymmetric particle relic density, as well as flavor physics observables, in order to derive constraints on the supersymmetric parameter space. Solution method: SuperIso Relic uses a SUSY Les Houches Accord file, which can be either generated automatically via a call to SOFTSUSY or ISAJET, or provided by the user. This file contains the masses and couplings of the supersymmetric particles. SuperIso Relic then computes the lightest supersymmetric particle relic density as well as the most constraining flavor physics observables. To do so, it calculates first the widths of the Higgs bosons with FeynHiggs, and then it evaluates the squared amplitudes of the diagrams needed for the relic density calculation. These thousands of diagrams have been previously generated with the FeynArts/FormCalc package. SuperIso Relic is able to perform the calculations in different supersymmetry breaking scenarios, such as mSUGRA, NUHM, AMSB and GMSB. Reasons for new version: This version incorporates the calculation of the relic density, which is often used to constrain Supersymmetry. Summary of revisions:Addition of the relic density calculationReplacement of "float" type by "double". Unusual features: SuperIso Relic includes the possibility of altering the underlying cosmological model and testing the influence of the cosmological assumptions. Additional comments: This program is closely associated with the "SuperIso" program - CPC Program Library, Catalogue Id. AEAN. Running time:Compilation time: a couple of hours for the statically linked version, a few minutes for the dynamically linked version. Running time: about 1 second, or a few seconds if libraries need to be compiled on the fly.

  5. Change in physical structure of a phenol-spiked sapric histosol observed by Differential Scanning Calorimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ondruch, Pavel; Kucerik, Jiri; Schaumann, Gabriele E.

    2014-05-01

    Interactions of pollutants with soil organic matter (SOM), their fate and transformation are crucial for understanding of soil functions and properties. In past, many papers dealing with sorption of organic and inorganic compounds have been published. However, their aim was almost exceptionally fo-cused on the pollutants themselves, determination of sorption isotherms and influence of external factors, while the change in SOM supramolecular structure was usually ignored. The SOM structure is, however, very important, since the adsorbed pollutant might have a significant influence on soil stability and functions. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) represents a technique, which has been successfully used to analyze the physical structure and physico-chemical aging of SOM. It has been found out that water molecules progressively stabilize SOM (water molecule bridge (WaMB)) (Schaumann & Bertmer 2008). Those bridges connect and stabilize SOM and can be disrupted at higher temperature (WaMB transition; (Kunhi Mouvenchery et al. 2013; Schaumann et al. 2013). In the same temperature region melting of aliphatic moieties can be observed (Hu et al. 2000; Chilom & Rice 2005; Kucerik et al. submitted 2013). In this work, we studied the effect of phenol on the physical structure of sapric histosol. Phenol was dissolved in various solvents (water, acetone, hexane, methanol) and added to soils. After the evaporation of solvents by air drying, the sample was equilibrated at 76% relative humidity for 3 weeks. Using DSC, we investigated the influence of phenol on histosol structure and time dependence of melting temperature of aliphatic moieties and WaMB transition. While addition of pure organic solvent only resulted in slightly increased transition temperatures, both melting temperature and WaMB transition temperature were significantly reduced in most cases if phenol was dissolved in these solvents. Water treatment caused a decrease in WaMB transition temperature but increased melting temperature. During the 150 days of physico-chemical aging, an increase in WaMB transition and melting temperature of aliphatic crystallites was was observed. Several types of treatments contrasting with this development were attributed to specific solvent -phenol interactions and will be discussed in this contribution. The results indicate that after introduction of phenol and during the consequent relaxation of the SOM structure, the re-formation of water molecule bridges is significantly reduced and decelerated. WaMB has been suggested as one SOM stabilizing mechanism (Schaumann & Bertmer 2008); the incorporation of phenol destabilizes the physical structure of SOM. It is assumed that phenol can penetrate into the WaMB hotspots, competes with water and/or disrupts WaMB or participate in WaMB formation. Simultaneously, phenol can penetrate and irreversibly change also the aliphatic crystallites, which are traditionally not considered being actively involved in sorption processes. It furthermore could compete with the organic matter for the hydration water. In this contribution, we will discuss these mechanisms. The results clearly demonstrate the potential of DSC to probe labile (physical) structures in soil organic matter and to elucidate interaction of organic chemicals with SOM moieties. References Chilom, G. & Rice, J.A. (2005). Glass transition and crystallite melting in natural organic matter. Organic Geochemistry, 36, 1339-1346. Hu, W.-G.; Mao, J.; Xing, B. & Schmidt-Rohr, K. (2000). Poly(methylene) crystallites in humic substances detected by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. Environmental Science and Technology, 34, 530-534. Kucerik, J.; Schwarz, J.; Jaeger, A.; Bertmer, M. & Schaumann, G. (submitted 2013). Character of transitions causing physicochemical aging of a sapric histosol. Kunhi Mouvenchery, Y.; Jaeger, A.; Aquino, A.J.A.; Tunega, D.; Diehl, D.; Bertmer, M. & Schaumann, G.E. (2013). Restructuring of a peat in interaction with multivalent cations: Effect of cation type and aging time. PLoS ONE, 8, e65359. Scha

  6. Nonparametric Predictive Inference for Bernoulli quantities: two examples

    E-print Network

    Coolen, Frank

    Nonparametric Predictive Inference for Bernoulli quantities: two examples Coolen, F.P.A. Durham.Schrijner@durham.ac.uk 1. Nonparametric Predictive Inference Coolen (1998) presented Nonparametric Predictive Inference direct predictive proba- bilities for future observations based on available data. The lower and upper

  7. Impact of corn residue quantity on yield of following crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have observed that crop growth can be suppressed in fields where high quantities of corn residue are present on the soil surface. To examine this perceived trend, we grew dry pea, spring wheat, and red clover in two levels of corn residues, achieved by growing corn at 21,000 and 30,000 plants/ac...

  8. Hans A. Bethe Prize: Astrophysical, observational and nuclear-physics aspects of r-process nucleosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kratz, Karl-Ludwig

    2014-03-01

    Guided by the Solar System (S.S.) abundance peaks at A ~= 130 and A ~= 195, the basic mechanisms for the rapid neutron-capture process (the r-process) have been known for over 50 years. However, even today, all proposed scenarios and sites face problems with astrophysical conditions as well as with the necessary nuclear-physics input. In my talk, I will describe efforts in experimental and theoretical nuclear-structure data for modeling today's three groups of r-process ``observables'', i.e. the bulk S.S. isotopic abundances, the elemental abundances in metal-poor halo stars, and peculiar isotopic patterns measured in certain cosmic stardust grains. To set a historical basis, I will briefly recall our site-independent ``waiting-point'' model, with superpositions of neutron-density components and the use of the first global, unified nuclear input based on the mass model FRDM(1992). This approach provided a considerable leap forward in the basic understanding of the required astrophysical conditions, as well as of specific shell-structure properties far from stability. Starting in the early millenium, the above simple model has been replaced by more realistic, dynamical parameter studies within the high-entropy wind scenario of core-collapse supernovae, now with superpositions of entropy (S) and electron-fraction (Ye) components. Furthermore, an improved, global set of nuclear-physics data is used today, based on the new mass model FRDM(2012). With this nuclear and astrophysics parameter combination, a new fit to the S.S. r-abundances will be shown, and its improvements and remaining deficiencies in terms of underlying shell structure will be discussed. Concerning the abundance patterns in metal-poor halo stars, an interpretation of the production of ``r-rich'' (e.g. CS 22892-052) and ``r-poor'' (e.g. HD 122563) stars in terms of different (Ye), S combinations will be presented. Finally, for the third group of ``r-observables'', a possible origin of the anomalous Xe-H pattern in presolar nanodiamonds by the ``main'' component of a ``cold'' r-process is suggested.

  9. Shielded radiation protection quantities beyond LEO

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. S. Clowdsley; J. W. Wilson; M. Y. Kim; B. M. Anderson; J. E. Nealy

    2004-01-01

    The National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) has recommended that the quantities used to evaluate health risk to astronauts due to radiation exposure be effective dose and gray-equivalent. The NCRP recommends that effective dose be the limiting quantity for prevention of stochastic effects. Effective dose is a measure of whole body exposure, a weighted average of dose equivalent

  10. Chemical and Physical Properties of Bulk Aerosols within Four Sectors Observed during TRACE-P

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, C. E.; Anderson, B. E.; Talbot, R. W.; Dibb, J. E.; Fuelberg, E.; Hudgins, C. H.; Kiley, C. M.; Russo, R.; Scheuer, E.; Seid, G.

    2003-01-01

    Chemical and physical aerosol data collected on the DC-8 during TRACE-P were grouped into four sectors based on back trajectories. The four sectors represent long-range transport from the west (WSW), regional circulation over the western Pacific and Southeast Asia (SE Asia), polluted transport from Northern Asia with substantial sea salt at low altitudes (NNW) and a substantial amount of dust (Channel). WSW has generally low mixing ratios at both middle and high altitudes, with the bulk of the aerosol mass due to non-sea-salt water-soluble inorganic species. Low altitude SE Asia also has low mean mixing ratios in general, with the majority of the aerosol mass comprised of non-sea-salts, however, soot is also relatively important m this region. "w had the highest mean sea salt mixing ratios, with the aerosol mass at low altitudes (a km) evenly divided between sea salts, mm-sea-salts, and dust. The highest mean mixing ratios of water-soluble ions and soot were observed at the lowest altitudes (a km) in the Channel sector. The bulk of the aerosol mass exported from Asia emanates h m Channel at both low and midaltitudes, due to the prevalence of dust compared to other sectors. Number densities show enhanced fine particles for Channel and NNW, while their volume distributions are enhanced due to sea salt and dust Low-altitude Channel exhibits the highest condensation nuclei ((34) number densities along with enhanced scattering coefficients, compared to the other sectors. At midaltitudes (2-7 km), low mean CN number densities coupled with a high proportion of nonvolatile particles (265%) observed in polluted sectors (Channel and NNW) are attributed to wet scavenging which removes hygroscopic CN particles. Low single scatter albedo m SE Asia reflects enhanced soot

  11. PHYSICAL CONDITIONS IN A CORONAL MASS EJECTION FROM HINODE, STEREO, AND SOHO OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Landi, E. [Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Raymond, J. C.; Miralles, M. P. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Hara, H. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2010-03-01

    In the present work, we analyze multiwavelength observations from Hinode, Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), and STEREO of the early phases of a coronal mass ejection (CME). We use Hinode/EIS and SOHO/UVCS high-resolution spectra to measure the physical properties of the CME ejecta as a function of time at 1.1 and 1.9 solar radii. Hinode/XRT images are used in combination with EIS spectra to constrain the high temperature plasma properties of the ejecta. SECCHI/EUVI, SECCHI/COR 1, SOHO/EIT, and SOHO/LASCO images are used to measure the CME trajectory, velocity, and acceleration. The combination of measurements of plane of the sky velocities from two different directions allows us to determine the total velocity of the CME plasma up to 5 solar radii. Plasma properties, dynamical status, thermal structure, and brightness distributions are used to constrain the energy content of the CME plasma and to determine the heating rate. We find that the heating is larger than the kinetic energy, and compare it to theoretical predictions from models of CME plasma heating and acceleration.

  12. Initial state of matter fields and trans-Planckian physics: Can CMB observations disentangle the two?

    SciTech Connect

    Sriramkumar, L.; Padmanabhan, T. [Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Chhatnag Road, Jhunsi, Allahabad 211 019 (India); IUCAA, Pune University Campus, Post Bag 4, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411 007 (India)

    2005-05-15

    The standard, scale-invariant, inflationary perturbation spectrum will be modified if the effects of trans-Planckian physics are incorporated into the dynamics of the matter field in a phenomenological manner, say, by the modification of the dispersion relation. The spectrum also changes if we retain the standard dynamics but modify the initial quantum state of the matter field. We show that, given any spectrum of perturbations, it is possible to choose a class of initial quantum states which can exactly reproduce this spectrum with the standard dynamics. We provide an explicit construction of the quantum state which will produce the given spectrum. We find that the various modified spectra that have been recently obtained from 'trans-Planckian considerations' can be constructed from suitable squeezed states above the Bunch-Davies vacuum in the standard theory. Hence, the CMB observations can, at most, be useful in determining the initial state of the matter field in the standard theory, but it can not help us to discriminate between the various Planck scale models of matter fields. We study the problem in the Schrodinger picture and determine the criterion for negligible back reaction due to modified initial conditions.

  13. Initial state of matter fields and trans-Planckian physics: Can CMB observations disentangle the two?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sriramkumar, L.; Padmanabhan, T.

    2005-05-01

    The standard, scale-invariant, inflationary perturbation spectrum will be modified if the effects of trans-Planckian physics are incorporated into the dynamics of the matter field in a phenomenological manner, say, by the modification of the dispersion relation. The spectrum also changes if we retain the standard dynamics but modify the initial quantum state of the matter field. We show that, given any spectrum of perturbations, it is possible to choose a class of initial quantum states which can exactly reproduce this spectrum with the standard dynamics. We provide an explicit construction of the quantum state which will produce the given spectrum. We find that the various modified spectra that have been recently obtained from “trans-Planckian considerations” can be constructed from suitable squeezed states above the Bunch-Davies vacuum in the standard theory. Hence, the CMB observations can, at most, be useful in determining the initial state of the matter field in the standard theory, but it can not help us to discriminate between the various Planck scale models of matter fields. We study the problem in the Schrodinger picture and determine the criterion for negligible back reaction due to modified initial conditions.

  14. Analysis of the physical state of one Arctic polar stratospheric cloud based on observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drdla, K.; Tabazadeh, A.; Turco, R. P.; Jacobson, M. Z.; Dye, J. E.; Twohy, C.; Baumgardner, D.

    1994-01-01

    During the Arctic Airborne Stratospheric Expedition (AASE) simultaneous measurements of aerosol size distribution and NO(y)(HN03 + NO + NO2 + 2(N205)) were made along ER-2 flight paths. The flow characteristics of the NO(y) instrument allow us to derive the condensed NO(y) amount (assumed to be HN03) present during polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) events. Analysis of the January 24th flight indicates that this condensed HN03 amount does not agree well with the aerosol volume if the observed PSCs are composed of solid nitric acid trihydrate (NAT), as is generally assumed. However, the composition agrees well with that predicted for liquid H2S04/HN03/H20 solution droplets using a new Aerosol Physical Chemistry Model (APCM). The agreement corresponds in detail to variations in temperature and humidity. The weight percentages of H2SO4, HN03, and H2O derived from the measurements all correspond to those predicted for ternary, liquid solutions.

  15. Direct Observation of Multi-Band Physics using Quantum Phase Diffusion in 3D Optical Lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Will, Sebastian; Best, Thorsten; Braun, Simon; Schneider, Ulrich; Hackermüller, Lucia; Lühmann, Dirk-Sören; Bloch, Immanuel

    2009-05-01

    In recent years ultracold atoms in optical lattices have shown their potential to simulate condensed matter quantum systems. A prominent example was the realization of the superfluid to Mott insulator transition, which has theoretically been described by a single-band Bose-Hubbard model. Recent theoretical studies, however, have emphasized, that interatomic interactions may bring multi-band effects into play and considerably modify the behaviour of ultracold atomic systems. In our experiment we have trapped a BEC of ^87Rb atoms in a 3D optical lattice with minimal underlying harmonic confinement. A rapid increase of the lattice depth allows us to follow the quantum phase diffusion of the macroscopic matterwave field, showing a continuous collapse and revival, whose period is determined by the onsite interaction energy. The observed dynamics give striking evidence of multi-band physics beyond the single-band Hubbard model, our data being in excellent agreement with numerical exact diagonalization. We have extended this experimental method to tunable ^87Rb-^40K Bose-Fermi mixtures and could elucidate distinct effects of interspecies interactions.

  16. From Gauging Accuracy of Quantity Estimates to Gauging Accuracy and Resolution of

    E-print Network

    Kreinovich, Vladik

    From Gauging Accuracy of Quantity Estimates to Gauging Accuracy and Resolution of Measuring Physical Fields Vladik Kreinovich1 and Irina Perfilieva2 1 University of Texas, El Paso, TX 79968, USA, or in the amount of water in an underground water layer. Since we cannot measure the corresponding quantity y

  17. From Gauging Accuracy of Quantity Estimates to Gauging Accuracy and Resolution of

    E-print Network

    Ward, Karen

    From Gauging Accuracy of Quantity Estimates to Gauging Accuracy and Resolution of Measuring Physical Fields Vladik Kreinovich1 and Irina Perfilieva2 1 University of Texas, El Paso, TX 79968, USA, or ­ in the amount of water in an underground water layer. Since we cannot measure the corresponding quantity y

  18. From Gauging Accuracy of Quantity Estimates to Gauging Accuracy and Resolution of

    E-print Network

    Ward, Karen

    From Gauging Accuracy of Quantity Estimates to Gauging Accuracy and Resolution of Measuring Physical Fields Vladik Kreinovich 1 and Irina Perfilieva 2 1 University of Texas, El Paso, TX 79968, USA of water in an underground water layer. Since we cannot measure the corresponding quantity y directly, we

  19. The physical conditions in IRDC clumps from Herschel/HIFI observations of H2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shipman, R. F.; van der Tak, F. F. S.; Wyrowski, F.; Herpin, F.; Frieswijk, W.

    2014-10-01

    Context. The earliest phases of high-mass star formation are poorly understood. Aims: Our goal is to determine the physical conditions and kinematic structure of massive starforming cloud clumps. Methods: We analyse H2O 557 GHz line profiles observed with HIFI toward four positions in two infrared-dark cloud clumps. By comparison with ground-based C17O, N2H+, CH3OH, and NH3 line observations, we constrain the volume density and kinetic temperature of the gas and estimate the column density and abundance of H2O and N2H+. Results: The observed water lines are complex with emission and absorption components. The absorption is redshifted and consistent with a cold envelope, while the emission is interpreted as resulting from proto-stellar outflows. The gas density in the clumps is ~107 cm-3. The o-H2O outflow column density is 0.3-3.0 × 1014 cm-2. The o-H2O absorption column density is between 1.5 × 1014 and 2.6 × 1015 cm-2 with cold o-H2O abundances between 1.5 × 10-9 and 3.1 × 10-8. Conclusions: All clumps have high gas densities (~107 cm-3) and display infalling gas. Three of the four clumps have outflows. The clumps form an evolutionary sequence as probed by H2O N2H+, NH3, and CH3OH. We find that G28-MM is the most evolved, followed by G11-MM and then G28-NH3. The least evolved clump is G11-NH3 which shows no signposts of starformation; G11-NH3 is a high-mass pre-stellar core. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia with important participation of NASA.Tables 4, 6, 8, 10, 11, and Appendix A are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgFinal Herschel and APEX data used in the paper (FITS files) are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/570/A51

  20. Western North Pacific Integrated Physical-Biogeochemical Ocean Observation Experiment: Summary of the Intensive Observation Around the Biogeochemical Mooring S1 (S1-INBOX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suga, T.; Inoue, R.; Kouketsu, S.; Hosoda, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Sato, K.; Nakajima, H.; Honda, M. C.; Fujiki, T.; Matsumoto, K.; Kawano, T.; Saino, T.

    2014-12-01

    The interdisciplinary project called the Western North Pacific Integrated Physical-Biogeochemical Experiment (INBOX) has been conducted since 2011. As the first phase of INBOX, more than 20 profiling floats with a dissolved oxygen sensor were deployed in late July 2011 within the 150-km square area centered at the biogeochemical mooring site S1 (30N, 145E) in the oligotrophic subtropics. The horizontal (30 km) and temporal (2 days) resolutions of the float array were set in order to capture relationship between biogeochemical phenomena and physical processes such as westward propagating eddies and atmospheric disturbances. The observations of large mass flux at 200 m, a high chlorophyll-a concentration in the deep chlorophyll maximum layer, large Fv/Fm ration and high dissolved oxygen concentration in the shallow oxygen maximum layer will be summarized and interpreted as biogeochemical responses to physical processes in and around mesoscale eddies including submesoscale motions, diapycnal mixing and surface wind forcing.

  1. Studying the Space Weather Features of the High-Latitude Ionosphere by Using a Physics-Based Data Assimilation Model and Observational Data from Ground Magnetometer Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, L.; Schunk, R. W.; Scherliess, L.; Sojka, J. J.; Eccles, J. V.

    2011-12-01

    The high-latitude ionosphere is a very dynamic region in the solar-terrestrial environment. Frequent disturbances in the region can adversely affect numerous military and civilian technologies. Accurate specifications and forecasts of the high-latitude electrodynamic and plasma structures have fundamental space weather importance for enabling mitigation of adverse effects. Presently, most of the space-weather models use limited observations and/or indices to define a set of empirical drivers for physical models to move forward in time. Since the empirical drivers have a "climatological" nature and there are significant physical inconsistencies among various empirical drivers due to independent statistical analysis of different observational data, the specifications of high-latitude space environment from these space weather models cannot truthfully reflect the weather features. In fact, unrealistic small- and large-scale structures could be produced in the specifications and forecasts from these models. We developed a data assimilation model for the high-latitude ionospheric plasma dynamics and electrodynamics to overcome these hurdles. With a set of physical models and an ensemble Kalman filter, the data assimilation model can determine the self-consistent structures of the high-latitude convection electric field, ionospheric conductivity, and the key drivers associated with these quantities by ingesting data from multiple observations. These ingested data include the magnetic perturbation from the ground-based magnetometers in the high-latitude regions, magnetic measurements of IRIDIUM satellites, SuperDARN line-of-sight velocity, and in-situ drift velocity measured by DMSP satellites. As a result, the assimilation model can capture the small- and large-scale plasma structures and sharp electrodynamic boundaries, thus, can provide a more accurate picture of the high-latitude space weather. In this presentation, we will first briefly describe the data-assimilation model of high-latitude electrodynamics and its strengths over the other space-weather models. Then we will present the space weather features produced by the model for quiet and storm periods constrained by the data from ground magnetometer arrays. This will demonstrate the dynamic variability of the high-latitude ionosphere. Finally, we will present high-resolution ionospheric modeling results of the time-evolution and spatial features of the high-latitude plasma structures to further demonstrate the model's capability in producing the space weather features in the high-latitude ionosphere. These results will illuminate the importance of real-time data availability and data assimilation models for accurate specification and forecasting of space weather.

  2. Jelly-fish back to life. (Project of physical variable stars observing)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Hájek

    1996-01-01

    B.R.N.O. - Brno Regional Network of Observers is group, which prefers observing of eclipsing binary stars. Now, inside the Brno Regional Network of Observers group, a team has been created that has got the name \\

  3. 7 CFR 760.1307 - Dairy operation payment quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Program § 760.1307 Dairy operation payment quantity. (a) A dairy operation's payment quantity (the quantity of milk on which the “operation...commercially marketed milk during the months of...payment quantity for which a dairy operation can...

  4. 7 CFR 760.1307 - Dairy operation payment quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Program § 760.1307 Dairy operation payment quantity. (a) A dairy operation's payment quantity (the quantity of milk on which the “operation...commercially marketed milk during the months of...payment quantity for which a dairy operation can...

  5. 7 CFR 760.1307 - Dairy operation payment quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Program § 760.1307 Dairy operation payment quantity. (a) A dairy operation's payment quantity (the quantity of milk on which the “operation...commercially marketed milk during the months of...payment quantity for which a dairy operation can...

  6. 7 CFR 760.1307 - Dairy operation payment quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Program § 760.1307 Dairy operation payment quantity. (a) A dairy operation's payment quantity (the quantity of milk on which the “operation...commercially marketed milk during the months of...payment quantity for which a dairy operation can...

  7. Average transverse momentum quantities approaching the lightfront

    E-print Network

    Daniel Boer

    2014-09-29

    In this contribution to Light Cone 2014, three average transverse momentum quantities are discussed: the Sivers shift, the dijet imbalance, and the $p_T$ broadening. The definitions of these quantities involve integrals over all transverse momenta that are overly sensitive to the region of large transverse momenta, which conveys little information about the transverse momentum distributions of quarks and gluons inside hadrons. TMD factorization naturally suggests alternative definitions of such integrated quantities, using Bessel-weighting and rapidity cut-offs, with the conventional definitions as limiting cases. The regularized quantities are given in terms of integrals over the TMDs of interest that are well-defined and moreover have the advantage of being amenable to lattice evaluations.

  8. 7 CFR 35.13 - Minimum quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS EXPORT GRAPES AND PLUMS Exemptions § 35.13 Minimum quantity...a shipment of 25 packages or less of vinifera species table grapes, either a single variety or a combination of two or more...

  9. Scaling laws for coupling quantities on EMP

    SciTech Connect

    Bernardin, M.P. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States))

    1988-02-01

    A set of scaling laws relating three potential electromagnetic coupling quantities to three electromagnetic pulse (EMP) characteristics is derived. The electromagnetic coupling quantities attempt to characterize in a very rough sense the ability of an electromagnetic wave to induce an electronic upset in an electric circuit. The coupling quantities used in this study are chosen based on voltage transients, power transients, and energy-induced overload as mechanisms for electronic upset. The independent quantities in the scaling laws are chosen to be the pulse rise time, peak field, and total energy density. Against these scaling laws, experimental data may be tested as a means of further enhancing the understanding of electronic upset from circuit exposure to electromagnetic waves.

  10. 7 CFR 35.13 - Minimum quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS EXPORT GRAPES AND PLUMS Exemptions § 35.13 Minimum quantity...a shipment of 25 packages or less of vinifera species table grapes, either a single variety or a combination of two or more...

  11. 7 CFR 35.13 - Minimum quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS EXPORT GRAPES AND PLUMS Exemptions § 35.13 Minimum quantity...a shipment of 25 packages or less of vinifera species table grapes, either a single variety or a combination of two or more...

  12. Zero-gravity quantity gaging system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The Zero-Gravity Quantity Gaging System program is a technology development effort funded by NASA-LeRC and contracted by NASA-JSC to develop and evaluate zero-gravity quantity gaging system concepts suitable for application to large, on-orbit cryogenic oxygen and hydrogen tankage. The contract effective date was 28 May 1985. During performance of the program, 18 potential quantity gaging approaches were investigated for their merit and suitability for gaging two-phase cryogenic oxygen and hydrogen in zero-gravity conditions. These approaches were subjected to a comprehensive trade study and selection process, which found that the RF modal quantity gaging approach was the most suitable for both liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen applications. This selection was made with NASA-JSC concurrence.

  13. Arsenic Treatment Residuals: Quantities, Characteristics and Disposal

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation provides information on the quantities, the characteristics and the disposal options for the common arsenic removal technologies. The technologies consist of adsorption media, iron removal, coagulation/filtration and ion exchange. The information for the prese...

  14. 7 CFR 985.12 - Salable quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ...ORDER REGULATING THE HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating...means the total quantity of each class of oil which handlers may purchase from, or...

  15. 7 CFR 985.12 - Salable quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ...ORDER REGULATING THE HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating...means the total quantity of each class of oil which handlers may purchase from, or...

  16. 7 CFR 985.12 - Salable quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ...ORDER REGULATING THE HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating...means the total quantity of each class of oil which handlers may purchase from, or...

  17. 7 CFR 985.12 - Salable quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ...ORDER REGULATING THE HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating...means the total quantity of each class of oil which handlers may purchase from, or...

  18. 7 CFR 985.12 - Salable quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ...ORDER REGULATING THE HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating...means the total quantity of each class of oil which handlers may purchase from, or...

  19. The Role of Physical Attractiveness in the Observation of Adult-Child Interactions: Eye of the Beholder or Behavioral Reality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritter, Jean M.; Langlois, Judith H.

    The susceptibility of observations of adult-child interactions to bias due to the physical attractiveness of target persons was examined. Facial features of target persons were occluded in one version of a videotape and unoccluded in another, otherwise identical version. Using a global rating system and a molecular coding strategy, 38 trained…

  20. Physical mechanism of strong negative storm eects in the daytime ionospheric F2 region observed with EISCAT

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Physical mechanism of strong negative storm eects in the daytime ionospheric F2 region observed mechanisms in the two cases. The negative F2- layer storm eect with an NmF2 decrease by a factor of 6.4 on 3 during similar polarization jet events. The other strong negative storm eect on 10 April 1990

  1. Solar Physics (2004) 224: 34 C Springer 2005 The topical issue of "Space Climate: Direct and Indirect Observations of

    E-print Network

    Usoskin, Ilya G.

    2004-01-01

    Solar Physics (2004) 224: 3­4 C Springer 2005 PREFACE The topical issue of "Space Climate: Direct and Indirect Observations of Long-Term Solar Activity" is based on contributions presented at the First of solar activity, and their effects in the near-Earth environment and technoculture. As an analogy

  2. A Computer-Based Observational Assessment of the Teaching Behaviours that Influence Motivational Climate in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Kevin; Sproule, John; Weigand, Daniel; Carpenter, Paul

    2005-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to use an established behavioural taxonomy (Ames, 1992b) as a computer-based observational coding system to assess the teaching behaviours that influence perceptions of the motivational climate in Physical Education (PE). The secondary purpose was to determine the degree of congruence between the behavioural…

  3. PHYSICAL REVIEW A 82, 043804 (2010) Schemes for the observation of photon correlation functions in circuit QED with linear detectors

    E-print Network

    Wallraff, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    of microwave photon fields generated using circuit quantum electrodynamics and propagating in superconducting measurements) are ubiquitous due to the difficulty of building reliable photon number detectors. This raisesPHYSICAL REVIEW A 82, 043804 (2010) Schemes for the observation of photon correlation functions

  4. Diurnal physical temperature at Sinus Iridum area retrieved from observations of Chinese Chang'E-1 microwave radiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Xiaohui; Jin, Ya-Qiu

    2012-04-01

    According to the incidence and azimuth angles of the Sun during observations of Chinese Chang'E-1 (CE-1) lunar satellite, brightness temperatures (Tb) at different lunar local time observed by the CE-1 multi-channel radiometers, especially at the Sinus Iridum (i.e. Bay of Rainbow) area, are collected from the transformation between the principal and local coordinates at the observed site, which demonstrates the Tb distribution and its diurnal variation. Based on a three-layer radiative transfer model of the lunar media, the CE-1 Tb data at 19.35 and 37.0 GHz channels are applied to invert the physical temperatures of both the dust and the regolith layer at Sinus Iridum area, where might be the CE-3 landing site, at different lunar local times. The physical temperature variations with the lunar local time and other geophysical parameters of lunar layered media are discussed.

  5. Present status of JADE's ??-physics analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Bartel; D. Cord; P. Dittmann; R. Eichler; R. Felst; D. Haidt; S. Kawabata; H. Krehbiel; B. Naroska; L. O'Neill; J. Olsson; P. Steffen; W. Yen; E. Elsen; M. Helm; K. Meier; A. Peterson; G. Weber; H. Drum; J. Heintze; G. Heinzelmann; R. Heuer; J. von Krogh; P. Lennert; H. Matsumura; T. Nozaki; H. Rieseberg; A. Wagner; D. Darvill; F. Foster; G. Hughes; H. Wriedt; J. Allison; J. Armitage; A. Ball; I. Duerdoth; J. Hassard; F. Loebinger; H. McCann; B. King; A. Macbeth; H. Mills; P. Murphy; H. Prosper; K. Stephens; C. Clark; M. Goddard; R. Marshall; G. Pearce; M. Imori; T. Kobayashi; S. Komamiya; M. Koshiba; M. Minowa; S. Orito; A. Sato; T. Suda; H. Takeda; Y. Totsuka; Y. Watanabe; S. Yamada; C. Yanagisawa

    The present status of the -physics analysis performed by the JADE-Collaboration is reported. The reaction ee ee is observed at beam-energies of 6 GeV and 15 GeV, and it is compared with predictions from QED. The reaction ee ee + hadrons is observed at 15 GeV beam-energy. Several distributions of physical quantities are shown.

  6. Fibre optic Sagnac interferometer as a sensor of physical quantities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaroszewicz, Leszek R.; Krajewski, Zbigniew; Marc, Pawel

    2004-06-01

    The fiber-optic Sagnac interferometer as an example of the point sensor is described in this paper. The described applications comprising a system for rotational tables' investigation, a system for measurement of vibrations with an amplitude of nanometer order of magnitude, devices for polarization parameters analysis and the rotational waves detector base on reciprocal condition of the Sagnac interferometer operation. Because the coherence phenomenon in this configuration occurs in any source of light, the polarization role in this configuration is emphasized. Basing on this approach the possibilities of practical use of the polarization influence on interference phenomenon for the mentioned above devices are mainly discussed.

  7. Maximal Holevo Quantity Based on Weak Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yao-Kun; Fei, Shao-Ming; Wang, Zhi-Xi; Cao, Jun-Peng; Fan, Heng

    2015-01-01

    The Holevo bound is a keystone in many applications of quantum information theory. We propose “ maximal Holevo quantity for weak measurements” as the generalization of the maximal Holevo quantity which is defined by the optimal projective measurements. The scenarios that weak measurements is necessary are that only the weak measurements can be performed because for example the system is macroscopic or that one intentionally tries to do so such that the disturbance on the measured system can be controlled for example in quantum key distribution protocols. We evaluate systematically the maximal Holevo quantity for weak measurements for Bell-diagonal states and find a series of results. Furthermore, we find that weak measurements can be realized by noise and project measurements. PMID:26090962

  8. Solar Physics manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor)

    E-print Network

    Ulrich, Roger K.

    Solar Physics manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor) Roger K. Ulrich ¢ John E. Boyden. For any observation of a feature or physical quantity on the apparent solar disk, standard methods CARRINGTON COORDINATES AND SOLAR MAPS December 27, 2005 Abstract Solar synoptic charts are normally displayed

  9. ``Observation, Experiment, and the Future of Physics'' John G. King's acceptance speech for the 2000 Oersted Medal presented by the American Association of Physics Teachers, 18 January 2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, John G.

    2001-01-01

    Looking at our built world, most physicists see order where many others see magic. This view of order should be available to all, and physics would flourish better in an appreciative society. Despite the remarkable developments in the teaching of physics in the last half century, too many people, whether they've had physics courses or not, don't have an inkling of the power and value of our subject, whose importance ranges from the practical to the psychological. We need to supplement people's experiences in ways that are applicable to different groups, from physics majors to people without formal education. I will describe and explain an ambitious program to stimulate scientific, engineering, and technological interest and understanding through direct observation of a wide range of phenomena and experimentation with them. For the very young: toys, playgrounds, kits, projects. For older students: indoor showcases, projects, and courses taught in intensive form. For all ages: more instructive everyday surroundings with outdoor showcases and large demonstrations.

  10. Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics 68 (2006) 539557 Ionogram heighttimeintensity observations of descending

    E-print Network

    Christakis, Nikolaos

    2006-01-01

    layers; Atmospheric tides ARTICLE IN PRESS www.elsevier.com/locate/jastp 1364-6826/$ - see front matter r;1. Introduction The mid-latitude sporadic E layers (Es), which are thin layers of metallic ion plasma that formJournal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics 68 (2006) 539­557 Ionogram height

  11. Recent advances in observing the physical oceanography of the western Mediterranean Sea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Uwe Send; Gerd Krahmann; Claude Millot; Monika Rhein; Joaquin Tintoref

    1999-01-01

    The Mediterranean Sea has been investigated intensively since the early nineties, using modern techniques and collaborative approaches. This overview summarizes some of the resulting advances that were made concerning the physical oceanography of the western Mediterranean. The water mass formation processes are now much better understood and have been quantified to a large extent. The boundary conditions of the system

  12. Fellowship training, workload, fatigue and physical stress: a prospective observational study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher S. Parshuram; Sonny Dhanani; Joel A. Kirsh; Peter N. Cox

    2004-01-01

    Background: Fatigue in physician trainees may compromise pa- tient safety and the well-being of the trainees and limit the ed- ucational opportunities provided by training programs. Anec- dotal evidence suggests that the on-call workload and physical demands experienced by trainees are significant despite duty- hour regulation and support from nursing staff, other trainees and staff physicians. Methods: We measured the

  13. Initial state of matter fields and trans-Planckian physics: Can CMB observations disentangle the two?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Sriramkumar; T. Padmanabhan

    2005-01-01

    The standard, scale-invariant, inflationary perturbation spectrum will be modified if the effects of trans-Planckian physics are incorporated into the dynamics of the matter field in a phenomenological manner, say, by the modification of the dispersion relation. The spectrum also changes if we retain the standard dynamics but modify the initial quantum state of the matter field. We show that, given

  14. "In Situ" Observation of a Soap-Film Catenoid--A Simple Educational Physics Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ito, Masato; Sato, Taku

    2010-01-01

    The solution to the Euler-Lagrange equation is an extremal functional. To understand that the functional is stationary at local extrema (maxima or minima), we propose a physics experiment that involves using a soap film to form a catenoid. A catenoid is a surface that is formed between two coaxial circular rings and is classified mathematically as…

  15. Active buildings: modelling physical activity and movement in office buildings. An observational study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Lee; Ucci, Marcella; Marmot, Alexi; Spinney, Richard; Laskowski, Marek; Sawyer, Alexia; Konstantatou, Marina; Hamer, Mark; Ambler, Gareth; Wardle, Jane; Fisher, Abigail

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Health benefits of regular participation in physical activity are well documented but population levels are low. Office layout, and in particular the number and location of office building destinations (eg, print and meeting rooms), may influence both walking time and characteristics of sitting time. No research to date has focused on the role that the layout of the indoor office environment plays in facilitating or inhibiting step counts and characteristics of sitting time. The primary aim of this study was to investigate associations between office layout and physical activity, as well as sitting time using objective measures. Methods and analysis Active buildings is a unique collaboration between public health, built environment and computer science researchers. The study involves objective monitoring complemented by a larger questionnaire arm. UK office buildings will be selected based on a variety of features, including office floor area and number of occupants. Questionnaires will include items on standard demographics, well-being, physical activity behaviour and putative socioecological correlates of workplace physical activity. Based on survey responses, approximately 30 participants will be recruited from each building into the objective monitoring arm. Participants will wear accelerometers (to monitor physical activity and sitting inside and outside the office) and a novel tracking device will be placed in the office (to record participant location) for five consecutive days. Data will be analysed using regression analyses, as well as novel agent-based modelling techniques. Ethics and dissemination The results of this study will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications and scientific presentations. Ethical approval was obtained through the University College London Research Ethics Committee (Reference number 4400/001). PMID:24227873

  16. 49 CFR 172.315 - Limited quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...when marked in accordance with the white square-on-point limited quantity marking...The width of the border forming the square-on-point must be at least 2 mm...2) The top and bottom portions of the square-on-point and the border forming...

  17. Infants Make Quantity Discriminations for Substances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hespos, Susan J.; Dora, Begum; Rips, Lance J.; Christie, Stella

    2012-01-01

    Infants can track small groups of solid objects, and infants can respond when these quantities change. But earlier work is equivocal about whether infants can track continuous substances, such as piles of sand. Experiment 1 ("N" = 88) used a habituation paradigm to show infants can register changes in the size of piles of sand that they see poured…

  18. Hypergraph topological quantities for tagged social networks.

    PubMed

    Zlati?, Vinko; Ghoshal, Gourab; Caldarelli, Guido

    2009-09-01

    Recent years have witnessed the emergence of a new class of social networks, which require us to move beyond previously employed representations of complex graph structures. A notable example is that of the folksonomy, an online process where users collaboratively employ tags to resources to impart structure to an otherwise undifferentiated database. In a recent paper, we proposed a mathematical model that represents these structures as tripartite hypergraphs and defined basic topological quantities of interest. In this paper, we extend our model by defining additional quantities such as edge distributions, vertex similarity and correlations as well as clustering. We then empirically measure these quantities on two real life folksonomies, the popular online photo sharing site Flickr and the bookmarking site CiteULike. We find that these systems share similar qualitative features with the majority of complex networks that have been previously studied. We propose that the quantities and methodology described here can be used as a standard tool in measuring the structure of tagged networks. PMID:19905191

  19. From Gauging Accuracy of Quantity Estimates

    E-print Network

    Kreinovich, Vladik

    From Gauging Accuracy of Quantity Estimates to Gauging Accuracy and Resolution of Measuring, Czech Republic Irina.Perfilieva@osu.cz 2 Department of Computer Science University of Texas at El Paso El Paso, Texas 79968, USA vladik@utep.edu Need for data processing. In many real-life situations, we

  20. Physical and chemical conditions in Perseus globules from NH3 and HC3N observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachiller, R.; Cernicharo, J.

    1986-11-01

    Ammonia observations of the globules L 1448 and L 1455 in Perseus show that their dense cores are fragmented in clumps of 1 - 20 M_sun;, which have central densities ? a few 104cm-3 and temperatures ?12K. HC3N observations, when compared to the NH3 observations, show that the ratio R = [NH3]/[HC3N] in the Perseus globules (L 1448, L 1455, and B 1) is ?80 - 90, i.e. about 10 times larger than in the Taurus cloudlets (TMC 1, HCL 2-A, B, C,...). The Perseus globules appear active in forming low mass stars.

  1. Observation of CP violation in $D^0 \\rightarrow K^- ?^+ $ as a smoking gun for New Physics

    E-print Network

    David Delepine; Gaber Faisel; Carlos A. Ramirez

    2012-12-27

    In this paper, we study the Cabibbo favored non-leptonic $D^0$ decays into $K^- \\pi^+$ decays. First we show that, within the Standard Model, the corresponding CP asymmetry is strongly suppressed and out of the experimental range even taking into account the large strong phases coming from final state Interactions. We show also that although new physics models with extra sequential generation can enhance the CP asymmetry by few orders of magnitude however the resulting CP asymmetry is still far from experimental range. The most sensitive New Physics Models to this CP asymmetry comes from no-manifest Left-Right models where a CP asymmetry up to 10% can be reached and general two Higgs models extension of SM where a CP asymmetry of order $10^{-2}$ can be obtained without being in contradiction with the experimental constraints on these models.

  2. The relationship between physical activity and low back pain outcomes: a systematic review of observational studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul HendrickS; S. Milosavljevic; L. Hale; D. A. Hurley; S. McDonough; B. Ryan; G. D. Baxter

    2011-01-01

    Although clinical guidelines advocate exercise and activity in the management of non-specific low back pain (NSLBP), the link\\u000a between levels of physical activity and outcomes is unclear. This systematic review investigated the relationships between\\u000a free living activity levels after onset of low back pain (LBP) and measures of pain, and disability in patients with NSLBP.\\u000a Cohort and cross-sectional studies were

  3. Method of 'optimum observables' and implementation of neural networks in physics investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Boos, E. E.; Bunichev, V. E.; Dudko, L. V.; Markina, A. A. [Moscow State University, Institute of Nuclear Physics (Russian Federation)

    2008-02-15

    A separation of a signal of various physics processes from an overwhelming background is one of the most important problems in contemporary high-energy physics. The application of various multivariate statistical methods, such as the neural-network method, has become one of the popular steps toward optimizing relevant analyses. The choice of optimum variables that would disclose distinctions between a signal and a background is one of the important elements in the application of neural networks. A universal method for determining an optimum set of such kinematical variables is described in the present article. The method is based on an analysis of Feynman diagrams contributing to signal and background processes. This method was successfully implemented in searches for single top-quark production with the D0 detector (Tevatron, Fermilab) in analyzing Run I and Run II data. Brief recommendations concerning an optimum implementation of the neural-network method in physics analysis are given on the basis of experience gained in searches for single top-quark production with the D0 detector.

  4. Model Aided Observational Study of Physical Processes in Fresh Water Reservoirs 

    E-print Network

    Al Senafi, Fahad

    2012-10-19

    data agree well for the three parameters, with the exception of some time periods, during which the model prediction differed from the observed. This was at times when the Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter measurements were at the noise level...

  5. 9 CFR 442.1 - Quantity of contents labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Quantity of contents labeling...and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT QUANTITY OF CONTENTS LABELING...WEIGHTS § 442.1 Quantity of contents...

  6. 48 CFR 14.212 - Economic purchase quantities (supplies).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Economic purchase quantities (supplies). ...BIDDING Solicitation of Bids 14.212 Economic purchase quantities (supplies). Contracting officers shall comply with the economic purchase quantity planning...

  7. 48 CFR 14.212 - Economic purchase quantities (supplies).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Economic purchase quantities (supplies). ...BIDDING Solicitation of Bids 14.212 Economic purchase quantities (supplies). Contracting officers shall comply with the economic purchase quantity planning...

  8. 48 CFR 14.212 - Economic purchase quantities (supplies).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Economic purchase quantities (supplies). ...BIDDING Solicitation of Bids 14.212 Economic purchase quantities (supplies). Contracting officers shall comply with the economic purchase quantity planning...

  9. 40 CFR 117.3 - Determination of reportable quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 2010-07-01 false Determination of reportable quantities...CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS DETERMINATION OF REPORTABLE QUANTITIES...Provisions § 117.3 Determination of reportable quantities...D 5,000 (2,270) Acetone cyanohydrin A 10...

  10. 27 CFR 25.183 - Determination of quantity transferred.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...quantity transferred. The shipping brewer shall determine the quantity of beer...the consignor brewery, and the receiving brewer shall determine the quantity of beer...receipt at the consignee brewery. The brewer shall equip the consignor and...

  11. 27 CFR 25.183 - Determination of quantity transferred.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...quantity transferred. The shipping brewer shall determine the quantity of beer...the consignor brewery, and the receiving brewer shall determine the quantity of beer...receipt at the consignee brewery. The brewer shall equip the consignor and...

  12. 27 CFR 25.183 - Determination of quantity transferred.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...quantity transferred. The shipping brewer shall determine the quantity of beer...the consignor brewery, and the receiving brewer shall determine the quantity of beer...receipt at the consignee brewery. The brewer shall equip the consignor and...

  13. 27 CFR 25.183 - Determination of quantity transferred.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...quantity transferred. The shipping brewer shall determine the quantity of beer...the consignor brewery, and the receiving brewer shall determine the quantity of beer...receipt at the consignee brewery. The brewer shall equip the consignor and...

  14. 27 CFR 25.183 - Determination of quantity transferred.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...quantity transferred. The shipping brewer shall determine the quantity of beer...the consignor brewery, and the receiving brewer shall determine the quantity of beer...receipt at the consignee brewery. The brewer shall equip the consignor and...

  15. Herschel observations of EXtra-Ordinary Sources (HEXOS): Methanol as a probe of physical conditions in Orion KL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, S.; Bergin, E. A.; Crockett, N. R.; Goldsmith, P. F.; Lis, D. C.; Pearson, J. C.; Schilke, P.; Bell, T. A.; Comito, C.; Blake, G. A.; Caux, E.; Ceccarelli, C.; Cernicharo, J.; Daniel, F.; Dubernet, M.-L.; Emprechtinger, M.; Encrenaz, P.; Gerin, M.; Giesen, T. F.; Goicoechea, J. R.; Gupta, H.; Herbst, E.; Joblin, C.; Johnstone, D.; Langer, W. D.; Latter, W. B.; Lord, S. D.; Maret, S.; Martin, P. G.; Melnick, G. J.; Menten, K. M.; Morris, P.; Müller, H. S. P.; Murphy, J. A.; Neufeld, D. A.; Ossenkopf, V.; Pérault, M.; Phillips, T. G.; Plume, R.; Qin, S.-L.; Schlemmer, S.; Stutzki, J.; Trappe, N.; van der Tak, F. F. S.; Vastel, C.; Yorke, H. W.; Yu, S.; Zmuidzinas, J.

    2011-03-01

    We have examined methanol emission from Orion KL withthe Herschel/HIFI instrument, and detected two methanol bands centered at 524 GHz and 1061 GHz. The 524 GHz methanol band (observed in HIFI band 1a) is dominated by the isolated ?J = 0, K = -4 ? -3, vt = 0 Q branch, and includes 25 E-type and 2 A-type transitions. The 1061 GHz methanol band (observed in HIFI band 4b) is dominated by the ?J = 0, K = 7 ? 6, vt = 0 Q branch transitions which are mostly blended. We have used the isolated E-type vt = 0 methanol transitions to explore the physical conditions in the molecular gas. With HIFI's high velocity resolution, the methanol emission contributed by different spatial components along the line of sight toward Orion KL (hot core, low velocity flow, and compact ridge) can be distinguished and studied separately. The isolated transitions detected in these bands cover a broad energy range (upper state energy ranging from 80 K to 900 K), which provides a unique probe of the thermal structure in each spatial component. The observations further show that the compact ridge is externally heated. These observations demonstrate the power of methanol lines as probes of the physical conditions in warm regions in close proximity to young stars. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  16. Our Sun IV: The Standard Model and Helioseismology: Consequences of Uncertainties in Input Physics and in Observed Solar Parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boothroyd, Arnold I.; Sackmann, I.-Juliana

    2001-01-01

    Helioseismic frequency observations provide an extremely accurate window into the solar interior; frequencies from the Michaelson Doppler Imager (MDI) on the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) spacecraft, enable the adiabatic sound speed and adiabatic index to be inferred with an accuracy of a few parts in 10(exp 4) and the density with an accuracy of a few parts in 10(exp 3). This has become a Serious challenge to theoretical models of the Sun. Therefore, we have undertaken a self-consistent, systematic study of the sources of uncertainties in the standard solar models. We found that the largest effect on the interior structure arises from the observational uncertainties in the photospheric abundances of the elements, which affect the sound speed profile at the level of 3 parts in 10(exp 3). The estimated 4% uncertainty in the OPAL opacities could lead to effects of 1 part in 10(exp 3); the approximately 5%, uncertainty in the basic pp nuclear reaction rate would have a similar effect, as would uncertainties of approximately 15% in the diffusion constants for the gravitational settling of helium. The approximately 50% uncertainties in diffusion constants for the heavier elements would have nearly as large an effect. Different observational methods for determining the solar radius yield results differing by as much as 7 parts in 10(exp 4); we found that this leads to uncertainties of a few parts in 10(exp 3) in the sound speed int the solar convective envelope, but has negligible effect on the interior. Our reference standard solar model yielded a convective envelope position of 0.7135 solar radius, in excellent agreement with the observed value of 0.713 +/- 0.001 solar radius and was significantly affected only by Z/X, the pp rate, and the uncertainties in helium diffusion constants. Our reference model also yielded envelope helium abundance of 0.2424, in good agreement with the approximate range of 0.24 to 0.25 inferred from helioseismic observations; only extreme Z/X values yielded envelope helium abundance outside this range. We found that other current uncertainties, namely, in the solar age and luminosity, in nuclear rates other than the pp reaction, in the low-temperature molecular opacities, and in the low-density equation of state, have no significant effect on the quantities that can be inferred from helioseismic observations. The predicted pre-main-sequence lithium depletion is uncertain by a factor of 2. The predicted neutrino capture rate is uncertain by approximately 30% for the Cl-27 experiment and by approximately 3% for Ga-71 experiments, while the B-8 neutrino flux is uncertain by approximately 30%.

  17. Environmental and social-motivational contextual factors related to youth physical activity: systematic observations of summer day camps

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Youth risk of obesity is high during the summer months. Summer day camps can be ideal settings for preventing obesity through reducing youth summer sedentary behaviors. However, with limited research on camp settings, the mechanisms by which these programs promote children’s physical activity (PA) remains largely unknown. The current study was designed to take a first step in addressing this gap in research through systematic observations of 4 summer day camps. Methods Systematic observations of 4 summer day camps was conducted using the System for Observing Play and Leisure Activity in Youth (SOPLAY) and a social-motivational climate supplemental observation tool founded on Self-Determination Theory and previous research developed by the authors. Teams of two coders observed daily activities for four days across two-week periods at each camp. On 15 minute intervals throughout each day, camps were assessed on level of youth PA (e.g., sedentary, moderate, vigorous), five physical features (e.g., equipment), eight staff interactions (e.g., encourage PA), and six social climate components (e.g., inclusive game). Results Across the sample, highly engaging games [F(1,329)?=?17.68, p?physical-environmental effects of temperature [F(1,328)?=?1.54, p?observations of the physical and social resources of summer day camps and contributes to our understanding of the strengths and needs of camps to effectively promote PA in both boys and girls during the summer months when risks for obesity are high. PMID:23688205

  18. Fate of Deepwater Horizon oil in Alabama's beach system: understanding physical evolution processes based on observational data.

    PubMed

    Hayworth, Joel S; Prabakhar Clement, T; John, Gerald F; Yin, Fang

    2015-01-15

    The impact of MC252 oil on northern Gulf of Mexico (GOM) beaches from the 2010 Deepwater Horizon (DWH) catastrophe was extensive along Alabama's beaches. While considerable amount of cleanup has occurred along these beaches, as of August 2014, DWH oil spill residues continue to be found as surface residual balls (SRBs), and also occasionally as submerged oil mats (SOMs). Four years of field observations informing the fate and transport of DWH SRBs in Alabama's beach system are presented here, along with a conceptual framework for describing their physical evolution processes. The observation data show that SRBs containing MC252 residues currently remain in Alabama's beach system, although their relationship to SOMs is not fully known. Based on our field observations we conclude that small DWH SRBs are likely to persist for several years along the Alabama shoreline. PMID:25496697

  19. Radiation Protection Quantities for Near Earth Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clowdsley, Martha S.; Wilson, John W.; Kim, Myung-Hee; Anderson, Brooke M.; Nealy, John E.

    2004-01-01

    As humans travel beyond the protection of the Earth's magnetic field and mission durations grow, risk due to radiation exposure will increase and may become the limiting factor for such missions. Here, the dosimetric quantities recommended by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) for the evaluation of health risk due to radiation exposure, effective dose and gray-equivalent to eyes, skin, and blood forming organs (BFO), are calculated for several near Earth environments. These radiation protection quantities are evaluated behind two different shielding materials, aluminum and polyethylene. Since exposure limits for missions beyond low Earth orbit (LEO) have not yet been defined, results are compared to limits recommended by the NCRP for LEO operations.

  20. Aircraft Observations of Sub-cloud Aerosol and Convective Cloud Physical Properties 

    E-print Network

    Axisa, Duncan

    2011-02-22

    This research focuses on aircraft observational studies of aerosol-cloud interactions in cumulus clouds. The data were collected in the summer of 2004, the spring of 2007 and the mid-winter and spring of 2008 in Texas, central Saudi Arabia...

  1. Physical Characterization of Warm Spitzer-observed Near-Earth Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Cristina A.; Emery, Joshua P.; Trilling, David E.; Delbo, Marco; Hora, Joseph L.; Mueller, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy of Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) connects diagnostic spectral features to specific surface mineralogies. The combination of spectroscopy with albedos and diameters derived from thermal infrared observations can increase the scientific return beyond that of the individual datasets. For instance, some taxonomic classes can be separated into distinct compositional groupings with albedo and different mineralogies with similar albedos can be distinguished with spectroscopy. To that end, we have completed a spectroscopic observing campaign to complement the ExploreNEOs Warm Spitzer program that obtained albedos and diameters of nearly 600 NEOs (Trilling et al., 2010). The spectroscopy campaign included visible and near-infrared observations of ExploreNEOs targets from various observatories. Here we present the results of observations using the low-resolution prism mode (approx. 0.7-2.5 microns) of the SpeX instrument on the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF). We also include near-infrared observations of Explore-NEOs targets from the MIT-UH-IRTF Joint Campaign for Spectral Reconnaissance. Our dataset includes near-infrared spectra of 187 ExploreNEOs targets (125 observations of 92 objects from our survey and 213 observations of 154 objects from the MIT survey). We identify a taxonomic class for each spectrum and use band parameter analysis to investigate the mineralogies for the S-, Q-, and V-complex objects. Our analysis suggests that for spectra that contain near-infrared data but lack the visible wavelength region, the Bus-DeMeo system misidentifies some S-types as Q-types. We find no correlation between spectral band parameters and ExploreNEOs albedos and diameters. We investigate the correlations of phase angle with band area ratio and near-infrared spectral slope. We find slightly negative Band Area Ratio (BAR) correlations with phase angle for Eros and Ivar, but a positive BAR correlation with phase angle for Ganymed.The results of our phase angle study are consistent with those of (Sanchez et al., 2012). We find evidence for spectral phase reddening for Eros, Ganymed, and Ivar. We identify the likely ordinary chondrite type analog for an appropriate subset of our sample. Our resulting proportions of H, L, and LL ordinary chondrites differ from those calculated for meteorite falls and in previous studies of ordinary chondrite-like NEOs.

  2. Mass quantity gauging by RF mode analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collier, R. S.; Ellerbruch, D.; Cruz, J. E.; Stokes, R. W.; Luft, P. E.; Peterson, R. G.; Hiester, A. E.

    1973-01-01

    Work done to date is reported concerning Radio Frequency Mass Quantity Gauging. Experimental apparatus has been designed and tested which measures the resonant frequencies of a tank in the time domain. These frequencies correspond to the total mass of fluid within the tank. Experimental results are discussed for nitrogen and hydrogen in normal gravity both in the supercritical state and also in the two phase (liquid-gas) region. Theoretical discussions for more general cases are given.

  3. Physical and observable characteristics of cloud-to-ground lightning over the Pearl River Delta region of South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yonglin; Chan, L. Y.; Lin, Qinhao; Feng, Wanxing; Bi, Xinhui; Chen, Jiahong; Tao, Hantao; Wang, Xinming; Chen, Duohong; Sheng, Guoying; Fu, Jiamo

    2014-05-01

    Cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning characteristic parameters deduced from the lightning location system (LLS) for five differing microenvironmental areas relative to megacity, city, municipal town, hilly suburban area, and mountainous rural area conditions were examined in our 2009-2011 Pearl River Delta (PRD) study. Our LLS data analysis showed that there were high variation of lightning characteristics and phenomenal changes among these areas. As a supplement to the usual study of physical characteristics, an observation-based methodology had been developed to study the lightning behavior, while the respective thunderstorms were traversing through these observation areas. Special features and phenomenal changes related to the lightning characteristic parameters, such as observable lightning stroke days (OLSDs) and observable lightning stroke frequency and density for an OLSD, were also addressed. Microenvironmental variation due to change in topography, degree of urbanization, urban effect, and thunderstorm strength was found to affect the spatial distribution of lightning stroke and the severity of lightning activities over the observation areas. This approach increases our understanding of lightning in subtropical China. It also tells us more about the behavior of lightning while the thunderstorm traverses through an observation area. This information is lacking in previous studies.

  4. The estimation of body mass index and physical attractiveness is dependent on the observer's own body mass index.

    PubMed

    Tovée, M J; Emery, J L; Cohen-Tovée, E M

    2000-10-01

    A disturbance in the evaluation of personal body mass and shape is a key feature of both anorexia and bulimia nervosa. However, it is uncertain whether overestimation is a causal factor in the development of these eating disorders or is merely a secondary effect of having a low body mass. Moreover, does this overestimation extend to the perception of other people's bodies? Since body mass is an important factor in the perception of physical attractiveness, we wanted to determine whether this putative overestimation of self body mass extended to include the perceived attractiveness of others. We asked 204 female observers (31 anorexic, 30 bulimic and 143 control) to estimate the body mass and rate the attractiveness of a set of 25 photographic images showing people of varying body mass index (BMI). BMI is a measure of weight scaled for height (kg m(- 2)). The observers also estimated their own BMI. Anorexic and bulimic observers systematically overestimated the body mass of both their own and other people's bodies, relative to controls, and they rated a significantly lower body mass to be optimally attractive. When the degree of overestimation is plotted against the BMI of the observer there is a strong correlation. Taken across all our observers, as the BMI of the observer declines, the overestimation of body mass increases. One possible explanation for this result is that the overestimation is a secondary effect caused by weight loss. Moreover, if the degree of body mass overestimation is taken into account, then there are no significant differences in the perceptions of attractiveness between anorexic and bulimic observers and control observers. Our results suggest a significant perceptual overestimation of BMI that is based on the observer's own BMI and not correlated with cognitive factors, and suggests that this overestimation in eating-disordered patients must be addressed directly in treatment regimes. PMID:11075712

  5. The estimation of body mass index and physical attractiveness is dependent on the observer's own body mass index.

    PubMed Central

    Tovée, M J; Emery, J L; Cohen-Tovée, E M

    2000-01-01

    A disturbance in the evaluation of personal body mass and shape is a key feature of both anorexia and bulimia nervosa. However, it is uncertain whether overestimation is a causal factor in the development of these eating disorders or is merely a secondary effect of having a low body mass. Moreover, does this overestimation extend to the perception of other people's bodies? Since body mass is an important factor in the perception of physical attractiveness, we wanted to determine whether this putative overestimation of self body mass extended to include the perceived attractiveness of others. We asked 204 female observers (31 anorexic, 30 bulimic and 143 control) to estimate the body mass and rate the attractiveness of a set of 25 photographic images showing people of varying body mass index (BMI). BMI is a measure of weight scaled for height (kg m(- 2)). The observers also estimated their own BMI. Anorexic and bulimic observers systematically overestimated the body mass of both their own and other people's bodies, relative to controls, and they rated a significantly lower body mass to be optimally attractive. When the degree of overestimation is plotted against the BMI of the observer there is a strong correlation. Taken across all our observers, as the BMI of the observer declines, the overestimation of body mass increases. One possible explanation for this result is that the overestimation is a secondary effect caused by weight loss. Moreover, if the degree of body mass overestimation is taken into account, then there are no significant differences in the perceptions of attractiveness between anorexic and bulimic observers and control observers. Our results suggest a significant perceptual overestimation of BMI that is based on the observer's own BMI and not correlated with cognitive factors, and suggests that this overestimation in eating-disordered patients must be addressed directly in treatment regimes. PMID:11075712

  6. FUSE Observations of LMC and SMC 03-4 Stars: Physical Parameters of the Hottest Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kudrtizki, Rolf-Peter

    2004-01-01

    The goal of the project is to analyze the spectra of the most massive stars in our neighbor Galaxies, to determine the physical parameters of temperature, mass, gravity, and Luminosity, together with the stellar wind properties. For this purpose, FUSE spectra, HST spectra (uv and optical) and high quality optical spectra obtained with ground-based telescopes need to be analyzed wing modern NLTE model atmosphere techniques. The combination of the use of spectra from different wavelength regions is a fundamental aspect of the project. Each spectral domain adds complementary important to the process of the spectral analysis. In this way the comparison of stellar properties between galaxies of different metallicity will become more significant.

  7. Observations in particle physics from two neutrinos to the standard model.

    PubMed

    Lederman, L M

    1989-05-12

    The two-neutrino experiment established a relationship between particles, muon and muon neutrino, electron and electron neutrino, which evolved into the standard model of particle physics. The theme of this article is a personal one, which reviews a series of experiments at the Columbia Synchrocyclotron, the Brookhaven Cosmotron, the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron, the CERN intersecting storage rings, the Fermilab 400-gigavolt proton synchrotron, and the Cornell electron storage rings, all of which were important in the evolution of the standard model. In some cases the fermion particles were discovered (the second neutrino vmicro, b quark); in other cases fields of research were opened (muon spin resonance, neutral kaons and charge-parity violation, dimuons and the Drell-Yan process), which led to further development of the standard model. Finally, the current ignorance about the properties of now three neutrinos is reviewed. PMID:17740338

  8. Physical and chemical structure of planet-forming disks probed by millimeter observations and modeling

    E-print Network

    Dutrey, Anne; Chapillon, Edwige; Gorti, Uma; Guilloteau, Stéphane; Hersant, Franck; Hogerheijde, Michiel; Hughes, Meredith; Meeus, Gwendolyn; Nomura, Hideko; Piétu, Vincent; Qi, Chunhua; Wakelam, Valentine

    2014-01-01

    Protoplanetary disks composed of dust and gas are ubiquitous around young stars and are commonly recognized as nurseries of planetary systems. Their lifetime, appearance, and structure are determined by an interplay between stellar radiation, gravity, thermal pressure, magnetic field, gas viscosity, turbulence, and rotation. Molecules and dust serve as major heating and cooling agents in disks. Dust grains dominate the disk opacities, reprocess most of the stellar radiation, and shield molecules from ionizing UV/X-ray photons. Disks also dynamically evolve by building up planetary systems which drastically change their gas and dust density structures. Over the past decade significant progress has been achieved in our understanding of disk chemical composition thanks to the upgrade or advent of new millimeter/Infrared facilities (SMA, PdBI, CARMA, Herschel, e-VLA, ALMA). Some major breakthroughs in our comprehension of the disk physics and chemistry have been done since PPV. This review will present and discus...

  9. Panchromatic observations of the textbook GRB 110205A: constraining physical mechanisms of prompt emission and afterglow

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Zheng; R. F. Shen; T. Sakamoto; A. P. Beardmore; M. Pasquale; X. F. Wu; J. Gorosabel; Y. Urata; S. Sugita; B. Zhang; A. Pozanenko; M. Nissinen; D. K. Sahu; M. Im; T. N. Ukwatta; M. Andreev; E. Klunko; A. Volnova; C. W. Akerlof; P. Anto; S. D. Barthelmy; A. Breeveld; U. Carsenty; S. Castillo-Carri'on; A. J. Castro-Tirado; M. M. Chester; C. J. Chuang; R. Cunniffe; A. Postigo; R. Duffard; H. Flewelling; N. Gehrels; T. Guver; S. Guziy; V. P. Hentunen; K. Y. Huang; M. Jelínek; T. S. Koch; P. Kub'anek; P. Kuin; T. A. McKay; S. Mottola; S. R. Oates; P. O'Brien; M. J. Page; S. B. Pandey; C. Pulgar; W. Rujopakarn; E. Rykoff; T. Salmi; R. S'anchez-Ramírez; B. E. Schaefer; A. Sergeev; E. Sonbas; A. Sota; J. C. Tello; K. Yamaoka; S. A. Yost; F. Yuan

    2011-01-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of a bright, long duration (T90 ~ 257 s) GRB 110205A at redshift z= 2.22. The optical prompt emission was detected by Swift\\/UVOT, ROTSE-IIIb and BOOTES telescopes when the GRB was still radiating in the gamma-ray band. Nearly 200 s of observations were obtained simultaneously from optical, X-ray to gamma-ray, which makes it one of

  10. From integrated observation of pre-earthquake signals towards physical-based forecasting: A prospective test experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouzounov, D.; Pulinets, S. A.; Tramutoli, V.; Lee, L.; Liu, J. G.; Hattori, K.; Kafatos, M.

    2013-12-01

    We are conducting an integrated study involving multi-parameter observations over different seismo- tectonics regions in our investigation of phenomena preceding major earthquakes. Our approach is based on a systematic analysis of several selected parameters namely: gas discharge; thermal infrared radiation; ionospheric electron concentration; and atmospheric temperature and humidity, which we suppose are associated with earthquake preparation phase. We intended to test in prospective mode the set of geophysical measurements for different regions of active earthquakes and volcanoes. In 2012-13 we established a collaborative framework with the leading projects PRE-EARTHQUAKE (EU) and iSTEP3 (Taiwan) for coordinate measurements and prospective validation over seven test regions: Southern California (USA), Eastern Honshu (Japan), Italy, Turkey, Greece, Taiwan (ROC), Kamchatka and Sakhalin (Russia). The current experiment provided a 'stress test' opportunity to validate the physical based approach in teal -time over regions of high seismicity. Our initial results are: (1) Prospective tests have shown the presence in real time of anomalies in the atmosphere before most of the significant (M>5.5) earthquakes in all regions; (2) False positive rate alarm is different for each region and varying between 50% (Italy, Kamchatka and California) to 25% (Taiwan and Japan) with a significant reduction of false positives when at least two parameters are contemporary used; (3) One of most complex problem, which is still open, was the systematic collection and real-time integration of pre-earthquake observations. Our findings suggest that the physical based short-term forecast is feasible and more tests are needed. We discus the physical concept we used, the future integration of data observations and related developments.

  11. Physical nature of anomalous peaks observed in extraordinary Hall effect measurement of exchange biased spin-valves with perpendicular anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiyagarajah, Naganivetha; Wan Joo, Ho; Lin, Lin; Bae, Seongtae

    2011-07-01

    We experimentally and theoretically demonstrate that the abrupt change in magnetostatic energy during the free and pinned [Co/Pd] layer reversal by an external magnetic field and the magnetic field dependent extraordinary Hall effect (EHE) coefficient are the main physical reasons for the anomalous peaks observed in EHE measurement of exchange biased [Pd/Co]/Cu/Co/[Pd/Co]/FeMn giant magnetoresistance spin-valves with perpendicular anisotropy (EBPA-SVs). The correlation of the anomalous EHE peaks to the extrinsic magnetic properties of EBPA-SVs paves a way to indirectly evaluate these properties.

  12. Panchromatic Observations of the Textbook GRB 110205A: Constraining Physical Mechanisms of Prompt Emission and Afterglow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, W.; Shen, R. F.; Sakamoto, T.; Beardmore, A. P.; De Pasquale, M.; Wu, X. F.; Gorosabel, J.; Urata, Y.; Sugita, S.; Zhang, B.; Pozanenko, A.; Nissinen, M.; Sahu, D. K.; Im, M.; Ukwatta, T. N.; Andreev, M.; Klunko, E.; Volnova, A.; Akerlof, C. W.; Anto, P.; Barthelmy, S. D.; Breeveld, A.; Carsenty, U.; Castillo-Carrión, S.; Castro-Tirado, A. J.; Chester, M. M.; Chuang, C. J.; Cunniffe, R.; De Ugarte Postigo, A.; Duffard, R.; Flewelling, H.; Gehrels, N.; Güver, T.; Guziy, S.; Hentunen, V. P.; Huang, K. Y.; Jelínek, M.; Koch, T. S.; Kubánek, P.; Kuin, P.; McKay, T. A.; Mottola, S.; Oates, S. R.; O'Brien, P.; Ohno, M.; Page, M. J.; Pandey, S. B.; Pérez del Pulgar, C.; Rujopakarn, W.; Rykoff, E.; Salmi, T.; Sánchez-Ramírez, R.; Schaefer, B. E.; Sergeev, A.; Sonbas, E.; Sota, A.; Tello, J. C.; Yamaoka, K.; Yost, S. A.; Yuan, F.

    2012-06-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of a bright, long-duration (T 90 ~ 257 s) GRB 110205A at redshift z = 2.22. The optical prompt emission was detected by Swift/UVOT, ROTSE-IIIb, and BOOTES telescopes when the gamma-ray burst (GRB) was still radiating in the ?-ray band, with optical light curve showing correlation with ?-ray data. Nearly 200 s of observations were obtained simultaneously from optical, X-ray, to ?-ray (1 eV to 5 MeV), which makes it one of the exceptional cases to study the broadband spectral energy distribution during the prompt emission phase. In particular, we clearly identify, for the first time, an interesting two-break energy spectrum, roughly consistent with the standard synchrotron emission model in the fast cooling regime. Shortly after prompt emission (~1100 s), a bright (R = 14.0) optical emission hump with very steep rise (? ~ 5.5) was observed, which we interpret as the reverse shock (RS) emission. It is the first time that the rising phase of an RS component has been closely observed. The full optical and X-ray afterglow light curves can be interpreted within the standard reverse shock (RS) + forward shock (FS) model. In general, the high-quality prompt and afterglow data allow us to apply the standard fireball model to extract valuable information, including the radiation mechanism (synchrotron), radius of prompt emission (R GRB ~ 3 × 1013 cm), initial Lorentz factor of the outflow (?0 ~ 250), the composition of the ejecta (mildly magnetized), the collimation angle, and the total energy budget.

  13. Panchromatic Observations of the Textbook GRB 110205A: Constraining Physical Mechanisms of Prompt Emission and Afterglow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zheng, W.; Shen, R. F.; Sakamoto, T.; Beardmore, A. P.; De Pasquale, M.; Wu, X. F.; Gorosabel, J.; Urata, Y.; Sugita, S.; Zhang, B.; Pozanenko, A.; Nissinen, M.; Sahu, D. K.; Im, M.; Ukwatta, T. N.; Andreev, M.; Klunko, E.; Volnova, A.; Akerlof, C. W.; Anto, P.; Barthelmy, S. D.; Breeveld, A.; Carsenty, U.; Gehrels, N.; Sonbas, E.

    2011-01-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of a bright, long duration (T(sub 90) approx. 257 s) GRB 110205A at redshift z = 2.22. The optical prompt emission was detected by Swift/UVOT, ROTSE-IIIb and BOOTES telescopes when the GRB was still radiating in the gamma-ray band. Thanks to its long duration, nearly 200 s of observations were obtained simultaneously from optical, X-ray to gamma-ray (1 eV - 5 MeV), which makes it one of the exceptional cases to study the broadband spectral energy distribution across 6 orders of magnitude in energy during the prompt emission phase. In particular, by fitting the time resolved prompt spectra, we clearly identify, for the first time, an interesting two-break energy spectrum, roughly consistent with the standard GRB synchrotron emission model in the fast cooling regime. Although the prompt optical emission is brighter than the extrapolation of the best fit X/ -ray spectra, it traces the -ray light curve shape, suggesting a relation to the prompt high energy emission. The synchrotron + synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) scenario is disfavored by the data, but the models invoking a pair of internal shocks or having two emission regions can interpret the data well. Shortly after prompt emission (approx. 1100 s), a bright (R = 14.0) optical emission hump with very steep rise ( alpha approx. 5.5) was observed which we interpret as the emission from the reverse shock. It is the first time that the rising phase of a reverse shock component has been closely observed.

  14. Physical performance and training response during Ramadan observance, with particular reference to protein metabolism.

    PubMed

    Shephard, Roy J

    2012-06-01

    This review examines information on the effects of Ramadan observance upon the metabolism, training and performance of athletes, with particular reference to proteins and amino acids. Increased gluconeogenesis and/or a reduced intake of protein could lead to a decrease of lean tissue, with adverse effects on muscular performance, and the lack of immediate protein ingestion could compromise responses to strength training. Actual responses vary quite widely, depending on culture and the individual's level and type of athletic involvement. In elite competitors, there is typically an increased fractional ingestion of protein with a small reduction in overall energy intake, and this may lead to small reductions of body and lean tissue mass. There are often small decreases of performance, particularly in activities requiring vigorous and/or repetitive muscular contraction. More information is needed on responses in situations where protein intake is likely to be inadequate (adolescent growth, those maintaining vegetarian diets or from poor countries and disciplines with very high overall energy needs) and when vigorous muscle training is in progress. However, in most of the situations studied to date, Ramadan observance has had only limited adverse consequences for either training or competitive performance. PMID:22554842

  15. Transit Timing Observations from Kepler: IV. Confirmation of 4 Multiple Planet Systems by Simple Physical Models

    SciTech Connect

    Fabrycky, Daniel C.; /UC, Santa Cruz; Ford, Eric B.; /Florida U.; Steffen, Jason H.; /Fermilab; Rowe, Jason F.; /SETI Inst., Mtn. View /NASA, Ames; Carter, Joshua A.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.; Moorhead, Althea V.; /Florida U.; Batalha, Natalie M.; /San Jose State U.; Borucki, William J.; /NASA, Ames; Bryson, Steve; /NASA, Ames; Buchhave, Lars A.; /Bohr Inst. /Copenhagen U.; Christiansen, Jessie L.; /SETI Inst., Mtn. View /NASA, Ames /Caltech

    2012-01-01

    Eighty planetary systems of two or more planets are known to orbit stars other than the Sun. For most, the data can be sufficiently explained by non-interacting Keplerian orbits, so the dynamical interactions of these systems have not been observed. Here we present 4 sets of lightcurves from the Kepler spacecraft, which each show multiple planets transiting the same star. Departure of the timing of these transits from strict periodicity indicates the planets are perturbing each other: the observed timing variations match the forcing frequency of the other planet. This confirms that these objects are in the same system. Next we limit their masses to the planetary regime by requiring the system remain stable for astronomical timescales. Finally, we report dynamical fits to the transit times, yielding possible values for the planets masses and eccentricities. As the timespan of timing data increases, dynamical fits may allow detailed constraints on the systems architectures, even in cases for which high-precision Doppler follow-up is impractical.

  16. Physical properties of individual coronal loops in a solar active region observed in the XUV

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, C.

    1980-06-01

    We studied the XUV observations of the active region McMath 12378 obtained with the NRL XUV spectroheliograph on Skylab. The XUV emission of the active region consists predominantly of loops which can be roughly divided into three distinctive structural groups according to their temperature of formation. The first group, observed in coronal ions such as Fe XV and Fe XVI, are mainly small and compact loops, which span directly across the photospheric magnetic neutral lines separating the two strong magnetic field regions with opposite polarity. The second group, with temperatures of 5 x 10/sup 5/ to 1 x 10/sup 6/ K, is typified by large Ne VII and Mg IX loops, which connect preferably the bipolar magnetic regions outside of the neutral line. The Ne VII loops are sharply defined while the Mg IX loops are more diffuse. The third group of emission structures is the chromospheric ribbons in He II, which are situated on each side of the magnetic neutral line. These He II ribbons are identified as the loci of the footpoints of the coronal Fe XV--XVI loops.

  17. 48 CFR 52.236-16 - Quantity Surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Quantity Surveys. 52.236-16 Section 52.236-16...and Clauses 52.236-16 Quantity Surveys. As prescribed in 36.516, the...items and for payment based on quantity surveys is contemplated: Quantity...

  18. A Cooperative Game Theory Model of Quantity Discounts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rajeev Kohli

    1989-01-01

    Quantity discounts offered by a monopolist are considered in the context of a bargaining problem in which the buyer and the seller negotiate over the order quantity and the average unit price. All-units and incremental quantity discounts that permit transaction at a negotiated outcome are described. The effects of risk sensitivity and bargaining power on quantity discounts are discussed for

  19. Learning to Rank for Quantity Consensus Queries Somnath Banerjee

    E-print Network

    Chakrabarti, Soumen

    Learning to Rank for Quantity Consensus Queries Somnath Banerjee HP Labs India Soumen Chakrabarti quantities, are very noisy. Our al- gorithms learn to score and rank quantity intervals directly, combining, Experimentation Keywords: Quantity search, Aggregating evidence from snippets, Learning to rank 1. INTRODUCTION 1

  20. 48 CFR 52.236-16 - Quantity Surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Quantity Surveys. 52.236-16 Section 52.236-16...and Clauses 52.236-16 Quantity Surveys. As prescribed in 36.516, the...items and for payment based on quantity surveys is contemplated: Quantity...

  1. 48 CFR 52.236-16 - Quantity Surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Quantity Surveys. 52.236-16 Section 52.236-16...and Clauses 52.236-16 Quantity Surveys. As prescribed in 36.516, the...items and for payment based on quantity surveys is contemplated: Quantity...

  2. 48 CFR 52.236-16 - Quantity Surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Quantity Surveys. 52.236-16 Section 52.236-16...and Clauses 52.236-16 Quantity Surveys. As prescribed in 36.516, the...items and for payment based on quantity surveys is contemplated: Quantity...

  3. 48 CFR 52.236-16 - Quantity Surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Quantity Surveys. 52.236-16 Section 52.236-16...and Clauses 52.236-16 Quantity Surveys. As prescribed in 36.516, the...items and for payment based on quantity surveys is contemplated: Quantity...

  4. Ship wake signatures in radar/optical images of the sea surface: observations and physical mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermakov, S.; Kapustin, I.; Lazareva, T.

    2014-10-01

    Ship wakes can be clearly seen in satellite radar and optical images of the sea surface, and understanding of physical mechanisms responsible for the wake signatures is very important to develop methods of ship detection/identification. The wake surface signatures at small and intermediate stages are characterized by a smooth centerline area where surface waves are depressed due to the vessel turbulence and by a pair of rough bands at the sides of the centerline wake. At large wake ages two slick bands (a "railroad track" wake) appear instead of the rough bands, while the smooth centerline band is practically absent. In this paper results of field studies of the mean flow structure near the wake are presented. It is shown that two mean circulating currents ("rolls") rotating in the opposite directions are formed at two sides of the median vertical plane of the wake. Near the water surface the rolls result in diverging horizontal flows, decreasing near the wake edges. Wind waves propagating against the diverging currents are amplified due to a wave straining mechanism thus increasing the surface roughness. Film sampling was carried out when crossing the wakes and analysis of films collected within the "railroad" slick bands and outside the bands has revealed enhanced surface wave damping, obviously due to accumulation of surfactants in the slick bands; the surfactant compression is explained by the action of the diverging currents. The diverging currents as part of the rolls and the surfactant transport to the water surface are supposed to be associated with air bubbles generated by ship propellers.

  5. Radar and optical observations and physical modeling of triple near-Earth Asteroid (136617) 1994 CC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brozovi?, Marina; Benner, Lance A. M.; Taylor, Patrick A.; Nolan, Michael C.; Howell, Ellen S.; Magri, Christopher; Scheeres, Daniel J.; Giorgini, Jon D.; Pollock, Joseph T.; Pravec, Petr; Galád, Adrián; Fang, Julia; Margot, Jean-Luc; Busch, Michael W.; Shepard, Michael K.; Reichart, Daniel E.; Ivarsen, Kevin M.; Haislip, Joshua B.; LaCluyze, Aaron P.; Jao, Joseph; Slade, Martin A.; Lawrence, Kenneth J.; Hicks, Michael D.

    2011-11-01

    We report radar, photometric, and spectroscopic observations of near-Earth Asteroid (136617) 1994 CC. The radar measurements were obtained at Goldstone (8560 MHz, 3.5 cm) and Arecibo (2380 MHz, 12.6 cm) on 9 days following the asteroid's approach within 0.0168 AU on June 10, 2009. 1994 CC was also observed with the Panchromatic Robotic Optical Monitoring and Polarimetry Telescopes (PROMPT) on May 21 and June 1-3. Visible-wavelength spectroscopy was obtained with the 5-m Hale telescope at Palomar on August 25. Delay-Doppler radar images reveal that 1994 CC is a triple system; along with (153591) 2001 SN263, this is only the second confirmed triple in the near-Earth population. Photometry obtained with PROMPT yields a rotation period for the primary P = 2.38860 ± 0.00009 h and a lightcurve amplitude of ˜0.1 mag suggesting a shape with low elongation. Hale telescope spectroscopy indicates that 1994 CC is an Sq-class object. Delay-Doppler radar images and shape modeling reveal that the primary has an effective diameter of 0.62 ± 0.06 km, low pole-on elongation, few obvious surface features, and a prominent equatorial ridge and sloped hemispheres that closely resemble those seen on the primary of binary near-Earth Asteroid (66391) 1999 KW4. Detailed orbit fitting reported separately by Fang et al. (Fang, J., Margot, J.-L., Brozovic, M., Nolan, M.C., Benner, L.A.M., Taylor, P.A. [2011]. Astron. J. 141, 154-168) gives a mass of the primary of 2.6 × 10 11 kg that, coupled with the effective diameter, yields a bulk density of 2.1 ± 0.6 g cm -3. The images constrain the diameters of the inner and outer satellites to be 113 ± 30 m and 80 ± 30 m, respectively. The inner satellite has a semimajor axis of ˜1.7 km (˜5.5 primary radii), an orbital period of ˜30 h, and its Doppler dispersion suggests relatively slow rotation, 26 ± 12 h, consistent with spin-orbit lock. The outer satellite has an orbital period of ˜9 days and a rotation period of 14 ± 7 h, establishing that the rotation is not spin-orbit locked. Among all binary and triple systems observed by radar, at least 25% (7/28) have a satellite that rotates more rapidly than its orbital period. This suggests that asynchronous configurations with Protation < Porbital are relatively common among multiple systems in the near-Earth population. 1994 CC's outer satellite has an observed maximum separation from the primary of ˜5.7 km (˜18.4 primary radii) that is the largest separation relative to primary radius seen to date among all 36 known binary and triple NEA systems. 1994 CC, (153591) 2001 SN263, and 1998 ST27 are the only triple and binary systems known with satellite separations >10 primary radii, suggesting either a detection bias, or that such widely-separated satellites are relatively uncommon in NEA multiple systems.

  6. EQUATION OF STATE AND NEUTRON STAR PROPERTIES CONSTRAINED BY NUCLEAR PHYSICS AND OBSERVATION

    SciTech Connect

    Hebeler, K. [Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Lattimer, J. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3800 (United States); Pethick, C. J. [The Niels Bohr International Academy, The Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100 Copenhagen O (Denmark); Schwenk, A. [ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI, GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2013-08-10

    Microscopic calculations of neutron matter based on nuclear interactions derived from chiral effective field theory, combined with the recent observation of a 1.97 {+-} 0.04 M{sub Sun} neutron star, constrain the equation of state of neutron-rich matter at sub- and supranuclear densities. We discuss in detail the allowed equations of state and the impact of our results on the structure of neutron stars, the crust-core transition density, and the nuclear symmetry energy. In particular, we show that the predicted range for neutron star radii is robust. For use in astrophysical simulations, we provide detailed numerical tables for a representative set of equations of state consistent with these constraints.

  7. Unitarity Triangle from CP invariant quantities

    E-print Network

    K. Kleinknecht; B. Renk

    2006-05-30

    We construct the CKM unitarity triangle from CP invariant quantities, using the coupling constant of weak decays with flavor change from b to u, and the particle - antiparticle mixing probability in the B_s and B_d systems. Also included are new measurements of the coupling V_us in Kaon decays. Of the two solutions, one agrees perfectly with the triangle constructed from CP violating processes in the K and B meson systems. The common solution yields a triangle with an area of J/2 = (1.51 +/- 0.09) x 10^{-5} and a CP violating phase gamma = 63.1^o +/- 4.0^o.

  8. Generating wind fields that honour point observations and physical conservation laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlabing, Dirk; Bárdossy, András

    2015-04-01

    Wind exhibits a strong spatial and temporal variability. In the application of lake modelling, these features are important for simulating water flows and stratification correctly, as mean and variance of wind speed determine the input of momentum into the lake. This makes a mere interpolation of point measurements an unsuitable method for producing model input. Additionally to concrete point measurements, more subtle aspects of wind fields are to be reproduced. It follows from the fact that wind vectors represent moving air that a wind field has to be divergency-free in order to be mass-conservative. Further, a temporal sequence of wind fields has to comply with the Navier-Stokes equation in order to conserve momentum. All these constraints can be met by representing the conditioned wind field as a linear combination of unconditioned, normally distributed random fields that individually possess the same spatial covariance structuref as observed wind fields. The aim of having the same covariance structure in the conditioned wind field is formulated as an optimization problem with respect to the weights used in the linear combination. With the help of Quadratic Programming (QP) and exploiting the convexity of the problem, feasible solutions can easily be found. In this QP problem, observations become linear constraints. Conservation laws can be incorporated by introducing control volumes in a similar fashion as they are used in fluid mechanics. Budgets of flows through these control volumes become integral conditions in the QP problem. The applicability of the approach will be shown using an artificial example and real-world data measured on shore and on a moving boat on Lake Constance.

  9. Physics

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    K-12 Outreach,

    Physics is the scientific study of the basic principles of the universe, including matter, energy, motion and force, and their interactions. Major topics include classical mechanics, thermodynamics, light and optics, electromagnetism and relativity.

  10. Seaglider observations of ocean physics and biology in the Northwest Weddell Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heywood, K. J.; Fielding, S.; Schmidtko, S.; Guihen, D.; Thompson, A. F.; Griffiths, G.

    2012-04-01

    The GENTOO project aims to show whether the potential for undersea gliders to survey the ocean in unprecedented temporal and spatial detail can answer several outstanding questions appertaining to the waters on the eastern Antarctic Peninsula. Variations in currents in this region have global significance for ocean circulation, climate and krill ecology. A Seaglider survey in January-February 2012 aims to provide temporal coverage over an extended period with complementary shipboard measurements and sample collection for validation. One Seaglider is equipped with new acoustic backscatter sensors to measure krill distributions; this capability will be critically assessed. The Seagliders are deployed to measure temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll fluorescence, acoustic backscatter and depth-averaged current in the upper 1000 m along sections across the Antarctic continental shelf and slope into the Weddell Sea. We expect to measure dense water spilling off the continental shelf, the strength and structure of the Antarctic Slope Front, as well as the variability of these two features. We present a preliminary analysis of the Seaglider data together with the supporting ship-based hydrographic and biological measurements, addressing questions including the spatial and temporal variability of the water mass properties, currents and krill distribution. As well as investigating these science issues, GENTOO hopes to develop and demonstrate the capability of ocean gliders to play a key role in future polar ocean observing systems.

  11. Physics of the weird solar minimum: New observations of the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zita, E.; Smith, C.; Ballou, C.; Friedman, B.; Showalter, C.; Rex, R.; Hurlburt, N.

    2010-10-01

    While solar physicists expected more sunspots, flares, and coronal mass ejections by now, the Sun has defied most predictions by persisting in a relatively quiet state for an unusually long time. Can we tell whether this solar minimum is likely to ease in the next decade, or if it may become a Maunder-type minimum? What evidence is there for mechanisms that might explain the observed delayed and low-amplitude magnetic activity? What effects could decreased solar activity have on Earth's climate? Evergreen undergraduates study the Sun with colleagues who built the new Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). Students analyzed flow velocities with respect to magnetic field tilts; analyzed waves of UV light in active regions; developed a software suite to enable the public to engage with solar dynamics; and cataloged movies of solar events for public release. We use data from the high-resolution HINODE satellite and from the new full-disk SDO. Zita studied the solar dynamo, and found that resistivity gradients can drive magnetic advection. We summarize our work and the light it may shed on questions such as those above.

  12. Soil moisture-precipitation coupling: observations from the Oklahoma Mesonet and underlying physical mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, T. W.; Rapp, A. D.; Quiring, S. M.; Blake, J.

    2015-03-01

    Interactions between soil moisture and the atmosphere are driven by the partitioning of sensible and latent heating, through which, soil moisture has been connected to atmospheric modification that could potentially lead to initiation of convective precipitation. The majority of previous studies linking the land surface to subsequent precipitation have used atmospheric reanalysis or model datasets. In this study, we link in situ observations of soil moisture from more than 100 stations in Oklahoma to subsequent unorganized afternoon convective precipitation. We use hourly, high resolution NEXRAD radar-derived precipitation to identify convective events, and then compare the location of precipitation initiation to underlying soil moisture anomalies the morning prior. Overall we find a statistically significant preference for convective precipitation initiation over drier than normal soils, with over 70% of events initiating over soil moisture below the long-term median. The significant preference for precipitation initiation over drier than normal soils is in contrast with previous studies using satellite-based precipitation products to identify the region of maximum precipitation accumulation. We sub-sample 19 convective events occurring near Lamont, Oklahoma, where soundings of the atmospheric profile at 06:00 and 12:00 LST are also available. For these events, soil moisture is strongly, negatively correlated with the level of free convection, planetary boundary layer height, and surface temperature changes from 06:00 to 12:00 LST. We also find strong, positive correlations between morning soil moisture and morning-to-afternoon changes in convective available potential energy and convective inhibition. In general, the results of this study demonstrate that both positive and negative soil moisture feedbacks to the atmosphere are relevant in this region of the United States.

  13. Present status of JADE's gammagamma-physics analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Bartel; D. Cord; P. Dittmann; R. Eichler; R. Felst; D. Haidt; S. Kawabata; H. Krehbiel; B. Naroska; L. H. O'Neill; J. Olsson; P. Steffen; W. L. Yen; E. Elsen; M. Helm; K. Meier; A. Peterson; G. Weber; H. Drum; J. Heintze; G. Heinzelmann; R. D.. Heuer; J. von Krogh; P. Lennert; H. Matsumura; T. Nozaki; H. Rieseberg; A. Wagner; D. C. Darvill; F. Foster; G. Hughes; H. Wriedt; J. Allison; J. Armitage; A. Ball; I. Duerdoth; J. Hassard; F. Loebinger; H. McCann; B. King; A. MacBeth; H. Mills; P. G. Murphy; H. Prosper; K. Stephens; C. Clark; M. C. Goddard; R. Marshall; G. F. Pearce; M. Imori; T. Kobayashi; S. Komamiya; M. Koshiba; M. Minowa; S. Orito; A. Sato; T. Suda; H. Takeda; Y. Totsuka; Y. Watanabe; S. Yamada; C. Yanagisawa

    1980-01-01

    The present status of the -physics analysis performed by the JADE-Collaboration is reported. The reaction ee ee is observed at beam-energies of 6 GeV and 15 GeV, and it is compared with predictions from QED. The reaction ee ee + hadrons is observed at 15 GeV beam-energy. Several distributions of physical quantities are shown.

  14. Ancient light from young cosmic cities: Physical and observational signatures of galaxy proto-clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Chiang, Yi-Kuan; Overzier, Roderik; Gebhardt, Karl [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C1400, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)

    2013-12-20

    A growing number of galaxy clusters at z = 1-2 is being discovered as part of deep optical, IR, X-ray, and Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect surveys. For a complete picture of cluster formation, however, it is important that we also start probing the much earlier epoch, between redshifts of about 2 and 7, during which these clusters and their galaxies first began to form. Because the study of these so-called proto-clusters is currently quite limited by small number statistics, widely varying selection techniques, and many assumptions, we have performed a large systematic study of cluster formation utilizing cosmological simulations. We use the Millennium Simulations to track the evolution of dark matter and galaxies in about 3000 clusters from the earliest times to z = 0. We define an effective radius R{sub e} for proto-clusters and characterize their growth in size and mass with cosmic time. We show that the progenitor regions of galaxy clusters (ranging in mass from ?10{sup 14} to a few times 10{sup 15} M {sub ?}) can already be identified in galaxy surveys at very early times (at least up to z ? 5), provided that the galaxy overdensities are measured on a sufficiently large scale (R{sub e} ? 5-10 Mpc comoving) and with sufficient statistics. We present the overdensities in matter, dark matter halos, and galaxies as functions of present-day cluster mass, redshift, bias, and window size that can be used to interpret the wide range of structures found in real surveys. We also derive the probability that a structure having a galaxy overdensity ?{sub gal}, defined by a set of observational selection criteria, is indeed a proto-cluster, and we show how their z = 0 masses can already be estimated long before virialization. We present overdensity profiles as a function of radius, and we further show how the projected surface overdensities of proto-clusters decrease as the uncertainties in redshift measurements increase. We provide a table of proto-cluster candidates selected from the literature and discuss their properties in light of our simulation predictions. This paper provides the general framework that will allow us to extend the study of cluster formation out to much higher redshifts using the large number of proto-clusters that are expected to be discovered in, e.g., the upcoming HETDEX and Hyper Suprime-Cam surveys.

  15. Physical modeling of triple near-Earth Asteroid (153591) 2001 SN263 from radar and optical light curve observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Tracy M.; Howell, Ellen S.; Nolan, Michael C.; Magri, Christopher; Pravec, Petr; Taylor, Patrick A.; Oey, Julian; Higgins, David; Világi, Jozef; Kornoš, Leonard; Galád, Adrián; Gajdoš, Štefan; Gaftonyuk, Ninel M.; Krugly, Yurij N.; Molotov, Igor E.; Hicks, Michael D.; Carbognani, Albino; Warner, Brian D.; Vachier, Frederic; Marchis, Franck; Pollock, Joseph T.

    2015-03-01

    We report radar observations (2380-MHz, 13-cm) by the Arecibo Observatory and optical light curves observed from eight different observatories and collected at the Ond?ejov Observatory of the triple near-Earth asteroid system (153591) 2001 SN263. The radar observations were obtained over the course of ten nights spanning February 12-26, 2008 and the light curve observations were made throughout January 12 - March 31, 2008. Both data sets include observations during the object's close approach of 0.06558 AU on February 20th, 2008. The delay-Doppler images revealed the asteroid to be comprised of three components, making it the first known triple near-Earth asteroid. Only one other object, (136617) 1994 CC is a confirmed triple near-Earth asteroid. We present physical models of the three components of the asteroid system. We constrain the primary's pole direction to an ecliptic longitude and latitude of (309 °, - 80 °) ± 15 ° . We find that the primary rotates with a period 3.4256 ± 0.0002 h and that the larger satellite has a rotation period of 13.43 ± 0.01 h , considerably shorter than its orbital period of approximately 6 days. We find that the rotation period of the smaller satellite is consistent with a tidally locked state and therefore rotates with a period of 0.686 ± 0.002 days (Fang et al. [2011]. Astron. J. 141, 154-168). The primary, the larger satellite, and the smaller satellite have equivalent diameters of 2.5 ± 0.3 km , 0.77 ± 0.12 km , 0.43 ± 0.14 km and densities of 1.1 ± 0.2 g /cm3, 1.0 ± 0.4 g /cm3, 2.3 ± 1.3 g /cm3 , respectively.

  16. Physical activity patterns of rural Senegalese adolescent girls during the dry and rainy seasons measured by movement registration and direct observation methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E Bénéfice; C Cames

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To study the physical activity patterns and daily estimates of energy expenditure (EE) of rural adolescent Senegalese girls.Design: Physical activity was monitored using a portable accelerometer during four consecutive days and within the same time, by direct observation during two consecutive days. Adolescent girls were followed during the dry season (June, n=40) and again during the rainy season (September,

  17. APPENDIX B FEDERAL TRAFFICKING PENALTIES DRUG/SCHEDULE QUANTITY PENALTIES QUANTITY PENALTIES

    E-print Network

    Subramanian, Venkat

    Tracking Penalties - Marijuana DRUG QUANTITY 1st OFFENSE 2nd OFFENSE Marijuana 1,000 kg or more mixture Marijuana 100 kg to 999 kg mixture; or 100 to 999 plants · Not less than 5 years, not more than 40 years an individual Marijuana more than 10 kgs hashish; 50 to 99 kg mixture more than 1 kg of hashish oil; 50 to 99

  18. ISO terminological analysis of the VIM3 concepts 'quantity' and 'kind-of-quantity'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dybkaer, René

    2010-06-01

    The recent third edition of the International Vocabulary of Metrology—Basic and General Concepts and Associated Terms (VIM3) (JCGM 200:2008 (Sèvres: BIPM); also ISO/IEC Guide 99:2007 3rd edn (Geneva: ISO)) has undergone important changes, not least by adhering to ISO International Standards on terminology work (ISO 704:2000 Terminology Work—Principles and Methods; ISO 1087-1:2000 Terminology Work—Vocabulary—Part 1: Theory and Application; ISO 10241:1992 International Terminology Standards—Preparation and Layout). A recent critique (Mari 2009 Metrologia 46 L11-L15)—based on Object-Oriented Analysis—centres on the meaning and relation of the two first and fundamental concepts 'quantity'Single quotation marks ('...') or bold type indicate a concept when necessary, double quotation marks ("...") a term or quotation. and the new entry 'kind-of-quantity'. This makes it timely to analyse the two concepts, their relation and their respective role in forming the generic hierarchical concept system of VIM3 from 'property' to individual quantities. It is suggested that 'kind-of-quantity' acts as a division criterionSynonyms are "criterion of subdivision", "type of characteristic(s)", see the annexe..

  19. SuperIso v3.0: A program for calculating flavor physics observables in 2HDM and supersymmetry

    E-print Network

    F. Mahmoudi

    2009-09-10

    We describe SuperIso v3.0 which is a public program for evaluation of flavor physics observables in the Standard Model (SM), general two-Higgs-doublet model (2HDM), minimal supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) and next to minimal supersymmetric Standard Model (NMSSM). SuperIso v3.0, in addition to the branching ratio of B -> X_s gamma and the isospin asymmetry of B -> K* gamma, incorporates other flavor observables such as the branching ratio of B_s -> mu+ mu-, the branching ratio of B -> tau nu_tau, the branching ratio of B -> D tau nu_tau, the branching ratio of K -> mu nu_mu and the branching ratios of D_s -> tau nu_tau and D_s -> mu nu_mu. The calculation of the branching ratio of B -> X_s gamma is also improved, as it includes NNLO Standard Model contributions. The program also computes the muon anomalous magnetic moment (g-2). Nine sample models are included in the package, namely SM, 2HDM, and mSUGRA, NUHM, AMSB and GMSB for the MSSM, and CNMSSM, NGMSB and NNUHM for the NMSSM. SuperIso uses a SUSY Les Houches Accord file (SLHA1 or SLHA2) as input, which can be either generated automatically by the program via a call to external spectrum calculators, or provided by the user. The calculation of the observables is detailed in the Appendices, where a suggestion for the allowed intervals for each observable is also provided.

  20. 21 CFR 316.36 - Insufficient quantities of orphan drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01...false Insufficient quantities of orphan drugs...Section 316.36 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS...36 Insufficient quantities of orphan...

  1. 7 CFR 760.1307 - Dairy operation payment quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF...payment quantity (the quantity of milk on which the “operation” can...by FSA, based on the pounds of production of commercially marketed milk during the months of...

  2. 14 CFR 23.1553 - Fuel quantity indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Fuel quantity indicator. 23.1553 Section 23.1553 Aeronautics...Placards § 23.1553 Fuel quantity indicator. A red radial line must be marked on each indicator at the calibrated zero reading, as...

  3. 7 CFR 61.102 - Determination of quantity index.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) COTTONSEED SOLD OR OFFERED FOR SALE FOR CRUSHING...CERTIFICATION) Standards for Grades of Cottonseed Sold or Offered for Sale for Crushing...quantity index. The quantity index of cottonseed shall be determined as follows:...

  4. 7 CFR 61.102 - Determination of quantity index.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) COTTONSEED SOLD OR OFFERED FOR SALE FOR CRUSHING...CERTIFICATION) Standards for Grades of Cottonseed Sold or Offered for Sale for Crushing...quantity index. The quantity index of cottonseed shall be determined as follows:...

  5. Category 3 threshold quantities for hazard categorization of nonreactor facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Mandigo, R.L.

    1996-02-13

    This document provides the information necessary to determine Hazard Category 3 threshold quantities for those isotopes of interest not listed in WHC-CM-4-46, Section 4, Table 1.''Threshold Quantities.''

  6. 7 CFR 1430.207 - Dairy operation payment quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...AND OTHER OPERATIONS DAIRY PRODUCTS Milk Income Loss Contract Program § 1430.207 Dairy operation payment quantity...based on the quantity of milk that was produced and commercially marketed by each dairy operation per fiscal...

  7. 7 CFR 1430.207 - Dairy operation payment quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...AND OTHER OPERATIONS DAIRY PRODUCTS Milk Income Loss Contract Program § 1430.207 Dairy operation payment quantity...based on the quantity of milk that was produced and commercially marketed by each dairy operation per fiscal...

  8. 7 CFR 1430.207 - Dairy operation payment quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...AND OTHER OPERATIONS DAIRY PRODUCTS Milk Income Loss Contract Program § 1430.207 Dairy operation payment quantity...based on the quantity of milk that was produced and commercially marketed by each dairy operation per fiscal...

  9. 7 CFR 1430.207 - Dairy operation payment quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...AND OTHER OPERATIONS DAIRY PRODUCTS Milk Income Loss Contract Program § 1430.207 Dairy operation payment quantity...based on the quantity of milk that was produced and commercially marketed by each dairy operation per fiscal...

  10. 7 CFR 1430.207 - Dairy operation payment quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...AND OTHER OPERATIONS DAIRY PRODUCTS Milk Income Loss Contract Program § 1430.207 Dairy operation payment quantity...based on the quantity of milk that was produced and commercially marketed by each dairy operation per fiscal...

  11. Social Support in Women with Fibromyalgia: Is Quality More Important than Quantity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franks, Heather M.; Cronan, Terry A.; Oliver, Karen

    2004-01-01

    The present study is an examination of the effects of quality and quantity of social support on the psychological and physical well-being of women with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). Participants were 568 women who were members of a health maintenance organization (HMO) with a confirmed diagnosis of FMS. Participants were administered a battery of…

  12. Variations in hospital waste quantities and generation rates.

    PubMed

    Hamoda, H M; El-Tomi, H N; Bahman, Q Y

    2005-01-01

    The relationship between public health and improper collection, handling, and disposal of solid wastes in general, and hospital wastes in particular, is quite clear. Hazardous and nonhazardous wastes generated from different divisions of two of the largest public hospitals (capacity of approximately 400 beds each) in Kuwait were quantified and generation rates were determined. The generation rates were related to some important factors such as the number of patients, number of beds, and the type of activity conducted in different sections of the hospitals. The relationship between the waste generation rate and the number of patients was more applicable than that expressed in terms of the number of beds. The rates observed were in the range of 4.89 to 5.4 kg/patient/day, which corresponds to 3.65 to 3.97 kg/bed/day, respectively. These generation rates were comparable with those reported in the literature for similar hospitals. Minimal waste quantities were collected in the weekends. The study indicated that the hospitals surveyed provide some segregation of hazardous and nonhazardous wastes. Hazardous wastes contributed about 53% of the total quantity of wastes generated at the hospitals. PMID:15717788

  13. Thermodynamical Quantities of Horava-Lifshitz Black Hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeghi, J.; Jafarzade, K.; Pourhassan, B.

    2012-12-01

    In this paper we consider Horava-Lifshitz black hole and obtain thermodynamical quantities. Such quantities already obtained for KS and LMP solutions of Horava-Lifshitz black hole in spherical space. Now, we calculate thermodynamical quantities of LMP solutions of Horava-Lifshitz black hole in arbitrary space with k=0 and k=±1. So, we can investigate effect of cosmological constant on thermodynamical quantities.

  14. 14 CFR 29.1551 - Oil quantity indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oil quantity indicator. 29.1551 Section 29.1551 Aeronautics...Markings and Placards § 29.1551 Oil quantity indicator. Each oil quantity indicator must be marked with enough increments to...

  15. 14 CFR 23.1551 - Oil quantity indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oil quantity indicator. 23.1551 Section 23.1551 Aeronautics...Markings and Placards § 23.1551 Oil quantity indicator. Each oil quantity indicator must be marked in sufficient increments to...

  16. 14 CFR 27.1551 - Oil quantity indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oil quantity indicator. 27.1551 Section 27.1551 Aeronautics...Markings and Placards § 27.1551 Oil quantity indicator. Each oil quantity indicator must be marked with enough increments to...

  17. 48 CFR 52.247-62 - Specific Quantities Unknown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Specific Quantities Unknown. 52.247-62 Section 52.247-62... 52.247-62 Specific Quantities Unknown. As prescribed in 47.305-16...of the contract. Specific Quantities Unknown (APR 1984) (a) For the purpose...

  18. 48 CFR 52.247-62 - Specific Quantities Unknown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Specific Quantities Unknown. 52.247-62 Section 52.247-62... 52.247-62 Specific Quantities Unknown. As prescribed in 47.305-16...of the contract. Specific Quantities Unknown (APR 1984) (a) For the purpose...

  19. 48 CFR 52.247-62 - Specific Quantities Unknown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Specific Quantities Unknown. 52.247-62 Section 52.247-62... 52.247-62 Specific Quantities Unknown. As prescribed in 47.305-16...of the contract. Specific Quantities Unknown (APR 1984) (a) For the purpose...

  20. 48 CFR 52.247-62 - Specific Quantities Unknown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Specific Quantities Unknown. 52.247-62 Section 52.247-62... 52.247-62 Specific Quantities Unknown. As prescribed in 47.305-16...of the contract. Specific Quantities Unknown (APR 1984) (a) For the purpose...

  1. 48 CFR 52.247-62 - Specific Quantities Unknown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Specific Quantities Unknown. 52.247-62 Section 52.247-62... 52.247-62 Specific Quantities Unknown. As prescribed in 47.305-16...of the contract. Specific Quantities Unknown (APR 1984) (a) For the purpose...

  2. Nurturing young writers: sustaining quality, not quantity.

    PubMed

    Looi, L M

    2009-11-01

    The exponential growth in scientific journals and advent of the electronic era have led to such information overload that the sustainability of credible and quality publications is more urgent than ever. Editors and academics who commit themselves to nurturing young writers need to reaffirm their focus on quality rather than quantity of papers. Bearing in mind that publications should firstly be founded on good science, there are several approaches in helping the uninitiated develop and hone writing skills. Academic journals faithfully publish instructions to guide potential authors on the preparation and submission of manuscripts. For those with a gift for writing, this may suffice to start them soaring in their writing career. Others find the hands-on approach of writing workshops more effective in clarifying the rules of the writing game and dispelling the fear of writing. Workshops are good at demonstrating the basics, but the forging of a good writer is a long process in which a mentor can play an invaluable role. A nurturing mentor-mentee relationship should not be a stifling one, but one that leads, grows and finally liberates an independent writer. It is inevitable that the nature of scientific publications will change over time. Nonetheless, the sustainability of quality journals will remain linked to the continual generation of writers who uphold scientific truth and good writing values. PMID:19960155

  3. FUSE Observations of the Magellanic Bridge Gas toward Two Early-Type Stars: Molecules, Physical Conditions, and Relative Abundance

    E-print Network

    N. Lehner

    2002-09-03

    We discuss FUSE observations of two early-type stars, DI1388 and DGIK975, in the low density and low metallicity gas of Magellanic Bridge (MB). Toward DI1388, the FUSE observations show molecular hydrogen, O VI, and numerous other atomic or ionic transitions in absorption, implying the presence of multiple gas phases in a complex arrangement. The relative abundance pattern in the MB is attributed to varying degrees of depletion onto dust similar to that of halo clouds. The N/O ratio is near solar, much higher than N/O in damped Ly-alpha systems, implying subsequent stellar processing to explain the origin of nitrogen in the MB. The diffuse molecular cloud in this direction has a low column density and low molecular fraction. H2 is observed in both the Magellanic Stream and the MB, yet massive stars form only in the MB, implying significantly different physical processes between them. In the MB some of the H2 could have been pulled out from the SMC via tidal interaction, but some also could have formed in situ in dense clouds where star formation might have taken place. Toward DGIK975, the presence of neutral, weakly and highly ionized species suggest that this sight line has also several complex gas phases. The highly ionized species of O VI, C IV, and Si IV toward both stars have very broad features, indicating that multiple components of hot gas at different velocities are present. Several sources (a combination of turbulent mixing layer, conductive heating, and cooling flows) may be contributing to the production of the highly ionized gas in the MB. Finally, this study has confirmed previous results that the high-velocity cloud HVC 291.5-41.2+80 is mainly ionized composed of weakly and highly ions. The high ion ratios are consistent with a radiatively cooling gas in a fountain flow model.

  4. Introductory Lecture: Basic quantities in model biomembranes

    E-print Network

    Nagle, John F.

    changes and different non-bilayer structures with different lipids. 1. Introduction I fondly recall chemical and physical information about biomembranes and there are valuable theoretical paradigms that have at a supramolecular level. This introductory lecture first critically reviews differences in reported numerical values

  5. Urban forms, physical activity and body mass index: a cross-city examination using ISS Earth Observation photographs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Ge

    2005-01-01

    Johnson Space Center has archived thousands of astronauts acquired Earth images. Some spectacular images have been widely used in news media and in k-12 class room, but their potential utilizations in health promotion and disease prevention have relatively untapped. The project uses daytime ISS photographs to define city forms and links them to city or metropolitan level health data in a multicity context. Road connectivity, landuse mix and Shannon's information indices were used in the classification of photographs. In contrast to previous remote-sensing studies, which tend to focus on a single city or a portion of a city, this project utilized photographs of 39 U.S. cities. And in contrast to previous health-promotion studies on the built environment, which tend to rely on survey respondents' responses to evaluate road connectivity or mixed land use for a single study site, the project examined the built environments of multiple cities based on ISS photos. It was found that road connectivity and landuse mix were not statistically significant by themselves, but the composite measure of the Shannon index was significantly associated with physical activity, but not BMI. Consequently, leisure-time physical activity seems to be positively associated with the urban complexity scale. It was also concluded that unless they are planned or designed in advance, photographs taken by astronauts generally are not appropriate for a study of a single-site built environment nor are they appropriate for a study of infectious diseases at a local scale. To link urban built environment with city-wide health indicators, both the traditional nadir view and oblique views should be emphasized in future astronauts' earth observation photographs.

  6. The IMPEx data model - a common metadata standard for the analysis of simulated and observational space plasma physics data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Ubaidi, Tarek

    The FP7-SPACE project IMPEx (http://impex-fp7.oeaw.ac.at/) was established to provide a web-based infrastructure to facilitate the inter-comparison and joint use of spacecraft in-situ measurements and computational models in the fields of planetary plasma science. Within this project several observational (CDAWeb, AMDA, CLWeb), as well as numerical simulation (FMI, LATMOS, SINP) databases provide datasets, which can be combined for further analysis and scientific investigation. The major goal of this project consists in providing an environment for the connection and joint operation of the different types of numerical and observational data sources in order to validate numerical simulations with spacecraft observations and vice versa. As an important milestone of IMPEx, a common metadata standard was developed for the description of the currently integrated simulation models and the archived datasets. This standard is called IMPEx Data Model (DM). It is based on the SPASE DM, which originates from the Heliospheric physics community, and which was developed for the description of observational data. A considerable part of the project effort is dedicated to the development of standardized (web service-) interfaces and protocols using the IMPEx DM as an extension of the standard SPASE DM for the communication between the different tools and databases of the IMPEx research infrastructure. For the visualization and analysis of the archived datasets available within IMPEx and beyond, several tools (AMDA, 3DView, ClWeb) were upgraded to be able to work with the newly developed metadata standards and protocols. To meet the requirement of extendibility, the IMPEx DM as well as the established communication protocols have been designed to be as compact as possible and yet general and powerful enough to integrate a wide range of data sets and to allow for simple procedures when attaching new components to the system. Furthermore the IMPEx DM has by now also been successfully applied outside the project’s core infrastructure: A prototype for UCLA MHD model description can be seen at LatHyS (LATMOS Hybrid Simulation Database). The so-called ‘IMPEx portal’, a dedicated entry point for all integrated services and tools, is currently being built up to leverage the advantages of the applied IMPEx standards and to provide efficient access to IMPEx services for the broad scientific community and general public. This presentation will give an insight on the technological challenges of distributed data infrastructures, the evident need of a common DM for interoperability between different data sources and their future in cloud-based environments.

  7. Losing Sleep over It: Daily Variation in Sleep Quantity and Quality in Canadian Students' First Semester of University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galambos, Nancy L.; Dalton, Andrea L.; Maggs, Jennifer L.

    2009-01-01

    Daily covariation of sleep quantity and quality with affective, stressful, academic, and social experiences were observed in a sample of Canadian 17-19-year-olds in their first year of university. Participants (N = 191) completed web-based checklists for 14 consecutive days during their first semester. Multilevel models predicting sleep quantity

  8. Law of genome evolution direction: Coding information quantity grows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Liao-Fu

    2009-06-01

    The problem of the directionality of genome evolution is studied. Based on the analysis of C-value paradox and the evolution of genome size, we propose that the function-coding information quantity of a genome always grows in the course of evolution through sequence duplication, expansion of code, and gene transfer from outside. The function-coding information quantity of a genome consists of two parts, p-coding information quantity that encodes functional protein and n-coding information quantity that encodes other functional elements. The evidences on the law of the evolutionary directionality are indicated. The needs of function are the motive force for the expansion of coding information quantity, and the information quantity expansion is the way to make functional innovation and extension for a species. Therefore, the increase of coding information quantity of a genome is a measure of the acquired new function, and it determines the directionality of genome evolution.

  9. An investigation of quantity discrimination in Clark's nutcrackers (Nucifraga columbiana).

    PubMed

    Tornick, Jan K; Callahan, Emily S; Gibson, Brett M

    2015-02-01

    We examined quantity discrimination in the Clark's nutcracker (Nucifraga columbiana), a corvid bird with a strong dependence upon caching and recovering nuts. We presented 2 sets of nuts simultaneously, in 21 different conditions, to see if the nutcrackers could choose the larger of the 2 quantities. The nutcrackers displayed a strong ability to discriminate quantities of nuts. Like other animals tested previously, the nutcrackers' performance decreased as the ratio of the 2 quantities approached 1. Interestingly, at constant distances, the nutcrackers did not have more difficulty with contrasts containing larger quantities. Thus, nutcrackers have a fine sensitivity for discriminating between 2 quantities. We review the relevant literature and explore the possibility that nutcrackers, like some other birds, may have developed a keen ability to discriminate quantities. This ability may have developed as an adaptive specialization to cope with their scatter-hoarding ecology, though the evidence for such a conclusion is mixed. PMID:25150963

  10. Combining physical galaxy models with radio observations to constrain the SFRs of high-z dusty star-forming galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo Faro, B.; Silva, L.; Franceschini, A.; Miller, N.; Efstathiou, A.

    2015-03-01

    We complement our previous analysis of a sample of z ˜ 1-2 luminous and ultraluminous infrared galaxies [(U)LIRGs], by adding deep Very Large Array radio observations at 1.4 GHz to a large data set from the far-UV to the submillimetre, including Spitzer and Herschel data. Given the relatively small number of (U)LIRGs in our sample with high signal-to-noise (S/N) radio data, and to extend our study to a different family of galaxies, we also include six well-sampled near-infrared (near-IR)-selected BzK galaxies at z ˜ 1.5. From our analysis based on the radtran spectral synthesis code GRASIL, we find that, while the IR luminosity may be a biased tracer of the star formation rate (SFR) depending on the age of stars dominating the dust heating, the inclusion of the radio flux offers significantly tighter constraints on SFR. Our predicted SFRs are in good agreement with the estimates based on rest-frame radio luminosity and the Bell calibration. The extensive spectrophotometric coverage of our sample allows us to set important constraints on the star formation (SF) history of individual objects. For essentially all galaxies, we find evidence for a rather continuous SFR and a peak epoch of SF preceding that of the observation by a few Gyr. This seems to correspond to a formation redshift of z ˜ 5-6. We finally show that our physical analysis may affect the interpretation of the SFR-M? diagram, by possibly shifting, with respect to previous works, the position of the most dust obscured objects to higher M? and lower SFRs.

  11. OSO-8 X-ray spectra of clusters of galaxies. 1. Observations of twenty clusters: Physical correlations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mushotzky, R. F.; Serlemitsos, P. J.; Smith, B. W.; Boldt, E. A.; Holt, S. S.

    1978-01-01

    OSO-8 X-ray spectra from 2 to 20 keV were analyzed for 26 clusters of galaxies. Temperature, emission integrals, iron abundances, and low energy absorption measurements are given. Eight clusters have positive iron emission line detections at the 90% confidence level, and all twenty cluster spectra are consistent with Fe/H=0.000014 by number with the possible exception of Virgo. Physical correlations between X-ray spectral parameters and other cluster properties are examined. It is found that: (1) the X-ray temperature is approximately proportional to the square of the velocity dispersion of the galaxies; (2) the emission integral and therefore the bolometric X-ray luminosity is a strong function of the X-ray temperature; (3) the X-ray temperature and emission integral are better correlated with cluster central galaxy density than with richness; (4) temperature and emission integral are separately correlated with Rood-Sastry type; and (5) the fraction of galaxies which are spirals is correlated with the observed ram pressure in the cluster core.

  12. Observations and Modeling of Long Negative Laboratory Discharges: Identifying the Physics Important to an Electrical Spark in Air

    SciTech Connect

    Biagi, C J; Uman, M A

    2011-12-13

    There are relatively few reports in the literature focusing on negative laboratory leaders. Most of the reports focus exclusively on the simpler positive laboratory leader that is more commonly encountered in high voltage engineering [Gorin et al., 1976; Les Renardieres Group, 1977; Gallimberti, 1979; Domens et al., 1994; Bazelyan and Raizer 1998]. The physics of the long, negative leader and its positive counterpart are similar; the two differ primarily in their extension mechanisms [Bazelyan and Raizer, 1998]. Long negative sparks extend primarily by an intermittent process termed a 'step' that requires the development of secondary leader channels separated in space from the primary leader channel. Long positive sparks typically extend continuously, although, under proper conditions, their extension can be temporarily halted and begun again, and this is sometimes viewed as a stepping process. However, it is emphasized that the nature of positive leader stepping is not like that of negative leader stepping. There are several key observational studies of the propagation of long, negative-polarity laboratory sparks in air that have aided in the understanding of the stepping mechanisms exhibited by such sparks [e.g., Gorin et al., 1976; Les Renardieres Group, 1981; Ortega et al., 1994; Reess et al., 1995; Bazelyan and Raizer, 1998; Gallimberti et al., 2002]. These reports are reviewed below in Section 2, with emphasis placed on the stepping mechanism (the space stem, pilot, and space leader). Then, in Section 3, reports pertaining to modeling of long negative leaders are summarized.

  13. A Qualitative Physics Confluences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johan De Kleer; John Seely Brown

    A qualitative physics predicts and explains the behavior of mechanisms in qualitative terms. The goals for the qualitative physics are (1) to be far simpler than the classical physics and yet retain all the important distinctions (e.g., state, oscillation, gain, momentum) without invoking the mathematics of continuously varying quantities and differential equations, (2) to produce causal accounts of physical mechanisms

  14. 40 CFR 266.108 - Small quantity on-site burner exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Small quantity on-site burner exemption. 266.108 Section 266...266.108 Small quantity on-site burner exemption. (a) Exempt quantities... Exempt Quantities for Small Quantity Burner Exemption Terrain-adjusted...

  15. Feasibility of a nuclear gauge for fuel quantity measurement aboard aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Signh, J. J.; Mall, G. H.; Sprinkle, D. R.; Chegini, H.

    1986-01-01

    Capacitance fuel gauges have served as the basis for fuel quantity indicating systems in aircraft for several decades. However, there have been persistent reports by the airlines that these gauges often give faulty indications due to microbial growth and other contaminants in the fuel tanks. This report describes the results of a feasibility study of using gamma ray attenuation as the basis for measuring fuel quantity in the tanks. Studies with a weak Am-241 59.5-keV radiation source indicate that it is possible to continuously monitor the fuel quantity in the tanks to an accuracy of better than 1 percent. These measurements also indicate that there are easily measurable differences in the physical properties and resultant attenuation characteristics of JP-4, JP-5, and Jet A fuels. The experimental results, along with a suggested source-detector geometrical configuration are described.

  16. Effects of Insemination Quantity on Honey Bee Queen Physiology

    PubMed Central

    Richard, Freddie-Jeanne; Tarpy, David R.; Grozinger, Christina M.

    2007-01-01

    Mating has profound effects on the physiology and behavior of female insects, and in honey bee (Apis mellifera) queens, these changes are permanent. Queens mate with multiple males during a brief period in their early adult lives, and shortly thereafter they initiate egg-laying. Furthermore, the pheromone profiles of mated queens differ from those of virgins, and these pheromones regulate many different aspects of worker behavior and colony organization. While it is clear that mating causes dramatic changes in queens, it is unclear if mating number has more subtle effects on queen physiology or queen-worker interactions; indeed, the effect of multiple matings on female insect physiology has not been broadly addressed. Because it is not possible to control the natural mating behavior of queens, we used instrumental insemination and compared queens inseminated with semen from either a single drone (single-drone inseminated, or SDI) or 10 drones (multi-drone inseminated, or MDI). We used observation hives to monitor attraction of workers to SDI or MDI queens in colonies, and cage studies to monitor the attraction of workers to virgin, SDI, and MDI queen mandibular gland extracts (the main source of queen pheromone). The chemical profiles of the mandibular glands of virgin, SDI, and MDI queens were characterized using GC-MS. Finally, we measured brain expression levels in SDI and MDI queens of a gene associated with phototaxis in worker honey bees (Amfor). Here, we demonstrate for the first time that insemination quantity significantly affects mandibular gland chemical profiles, queen-worker interactions, and brain gene expression. Further research will be necessary to elucidate the mechanistic bases for these effects: insemination volume, sperm and seminal protein quantity, and genetic diversity of the sperm may all be important factors contributing to this profound change in honey bee queen physiology, queen behavior, and social interactions in the colony. PMID:17912357

  17. Physical properties of the gamma-ray binary LS 5039 through low- and high-frequency radio observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcote, B.; Ribó, M.; Paredes, J. M.; Ishwara-Chandra, C. H.

    2015-07-01

    We have studied in detail the 0.15-15 GHz radio spectrum of the gamma-ray binary LS 5039 to look for a possible turnover and absorption mechanisms at low frequencies, and to constrain the physical properties of its emission. We have analysed two archival Very Large Array monitorings, all the available archival Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) data and a coordinated quasi-simultaneous observational campaign conducted in 2013 with Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope and Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope. The data show that the radio emission of LS 5039 is persistent on day, week and year time-scales, with a variability ? 25 per cent at all frequencies, and no signature of orbital modulation. The obtained spectra reveal a power-law shape with a curvature below 5 GHz and a turnover at ˜0.5GHz, which can be reproduced by a one-zone model with synchrotron self-absorption plus Razin effect. We obtain a coherent picture for the size of the emitting region of ˜0.85 mas, setting a magnetic field of B ˜ 20 mG, an electron density of ne ˜ 4 × 105 cm-3 and a mass-loss rate of dot{M}˜ 5× 10^{-8} M_{? yr^{-1}}. These values imply a significant mixing of the stellar wind with the relativistic plasma outflow from the compact companion. At particular epochs the Razin effect is negligible, implying changes in the injection and the electron density or magnetic field. The Razin effect is reported for the first time in a gamma-ray binary, giving further support to the young non-accreting pulsar scenario.

  18. Kinetic roughening, global quantities, and fluctuation-dissipation relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, Yen-Liang; Pleimling, Michel

    2012-07-01

    Growth processes and interface fluctuations can be studied through the properties of global quantities. We here discuss a global quantity that not only captures better the roughness of an interface than the widely studied surface width, but that is also directly conjugate to an experimentally accessible parameter, thereby allowing us to study in a consistent way the global response of the system to a global change of external conditions. Exploiting the full analyticity of the linear Edwards-Wilkinson and Mullins-Herring equations, we study in detail various two-time functions related to that quantity. This quantity fulfills the fluctuation-dissipation theorem when considering steady-state equilibrium fluctuations.

  19. Chemical and physical changes observed in poly(oxy-1,4 phenylsulfonyl-1,4 phenylene) following electrical stressing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Uttamlal; S. Falcoz; A. S. Holmes-Smith; D. M. Hepburn; B. G. Stewart; R. A. Fouracre

    2006-01-01

    High voltage insulation failure can arise because of the physical and chemical properties of the material and intrinsic changes through use, aging and weathering. Overall aging is believed to produce localised defects and structural points which eventually fail under electrical stressing. This paper will present FT-IR and AFM evidence to show some of the chemical and physical changes in the

  20. Convergent Validity of Four Accelerometer Cutpoints with Direct Observation of Preschool Children's Outdoor Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahan, David; Nicaise, Virginie; Reuben, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: More than one fifth of American preschool-aged children are classified as overweight/obese. Increasing physical activity is one means of slowing/reversing progression to overweight or obesity. Measurement of physical activity in this age group relies heavily on motion sensors such as accelerometers. Output is typically interpreted through…

  1. The effect of task structure, practice schedule, and model type on the learning of relative and absolute timing by physical and observational practice 

    E-print Network

    Black, Charles Beyer

    2004-11-15

    Three experiments compared learning of relative and absolute timing of a sequential key-pressing task by physical and observational practice. Experiment 1 compared a task with a complex internal structure (goal proportions of 22.2, 44.4, 33...

  2. PHYSICAL REVIEW B 89, 024102 (2014) Ultrafast surface strain dynamics in MnAs thin films observed with second harmonic generation

    E-print Network

    Van Driel, Henry M.

    2014-01-01

    PHYSICAL REVIEW B 89, 024102 (2014) Ultrafast surface strain dynamics in MnAs thin films observed strain in 150 and 190-nm thin films of MnAs grown epitaxially on GaAs(001). The p-polarized SHG signal the surface temperature by tens of degrees. For a film at -20 C the strain reaches a minimum value in 10 ps

  3. Finite difference approximation of hedging quantities in the Heston model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    in't Hout, Karel

    2012-09-01

    This note concerns the hedging quantities Delta and Gamma in the Heston model for European-style financial options. A modification of the discretization technique from In 't Hout & Foulon (2010) is proposed, which enables a fast and accurate approximation of these important quantities. Numerical experiments are given that illustrate the performance.

  4. 7 CFR 1427.170 - Quantity for loan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...OPERATIONS COTTON Recourse Seed Cotton Loans § 1427.170 Quantity...quantity of lint cotton in each lot of seed cotton tendered for loan shall be determined...the weight or estimated weight of seed cotton by the lint turnout factor...

  5. 7 CFR 1427.170 - Quantity for loan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...OPERATIONS COTTON Recourse Seed Cotton Loans § 1427.170 Quantity...quantity of lint cotton in each lot of seed cotton tendered for loan shall be determined...the weight or estimated weight of seed cotton by the lint turnout factor...

  6. 7 CFR 1427.170 - Quantity for loan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...OPERATIONS COTTON Recourse Seed Cotton Loans § 1427.170 Quantity...quantity of lint cotton in each lot of seed cotton tendered for loan shall be determined...the weight or estimated weight of seed cotton by the lint turnout factor...

  7. 7 CFR 1427.170 - Quantity for loan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...OPERATIONS COTTON Recourse Seed Cotton Loans § 1427.170 Quantity...quantity of lint cotton in each lot of seed cotton tendered for loan shall be determined...the weight or estimated weight of seed cotton by the lint turnout factor...

  8. 7 CFR 1427.170 - Quantity for loan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...OPERATIONS COTTON Recourse Seed Cotton Loans § 1427.170 Quantity...quantity of lint cotton in each lot of seed cotton tendered for loan shall be determined...the weight or estimated weight of seed cotton by the lint turnout factor...

  9. 16 CFR 1.23 - Quantity limit rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...23 Quantity limit rules. Quantity limit rules are authorized by section 2(a) of the Clayton Act, as amended by the Robinson-Patman Act. These rules have the force and effect of law. [32 FR 8444, June 13, 1967. Redesignated at 40 FR...

  10. 16 CFR 1.23 - Quantity limit rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...23 Quantity limit rules. Quantity limit rules are authorized by section 2(a) of the Clayton Act, as amended by the Robinson-Patman Act. These rules have the force and effect of law. [32 FR 8444, June 13, 1967. Redesignated at 40 FR...

  11. 16 CFR 1.23 - Quantity limit rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...23 Quantity limit rules. Quantity limit rules are authorized by section 2(a) of the Clayton Act, as amended by the Robinson-Patman Act. These rules have the force and effect of law. [32 FR 8444, June 13, 1967. Redesignated at 40 FR...

  12. 16 CFR 1.23 - Quantity limit rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...23 Quantity limit rules. Quantity limit rules are authorized by section 2(a) of the Clayton Act, as amended by the Robinson-Patman Act. These rules have the force and effect of law. [32 FR 8444, June 13, 1967. Redesignated at 40 FR...

  13. 16 CFR 1.23 - Quantity limit rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...23 Quantity limit rules. Quantity limit rules are authorized by section 2(a) of the Clayton Act, as amended by the Robinson-Patman Act. These rules have the force and effect of law. [32 FR 8444, June 13, 1967. Redesignated at 40 FR...

  14. Numerical Order and Quantity Processing in Number Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turconi, Eva; Campbell, Jamie I. D.; Seron, Xavier

    2006-01-01

    We investigated processing of numerical order information and its relation to mechanisms of numerical quantity processing. In two experiments, performance on a quantity-comparison task (e.g. 2 5; which is larger?) was compared with performance on a relative-order judgment task (e.g. 2 5; ascending or descending order?). The comparison task…

  15. Children's multiplicative transformations of discrete and continuous quantities

    E-print Network

    Handy, Todd C.

    transformations to analog magnitude repre- sentations of quantity may form a part of the toolkit that children use and children, use analog magnitude representations to compute the outcomes of additive operations over visuallyChildren's multiplicative transformations of discrete and continuous quantities Hilary Barth a

  16. 14 CFR 25.1553 - Fuel quantity indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Fuel quantity indicator. 25.1553 Section 25.1553 ...Placards § 25.1553 Fuel quantity indicator. If the unusable fuel supply for...greater, a red arc must be marked on its indicator extending from the calibrated zero...

  17. 14 CFR 27.1553 - Fuel quantity indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Fuel quantity indicator. 27.1553 Section 27.1553 ...Placards § 27.1553 Fuel quantity indicator. If the unusable fuel supply for...greater, a red arc must be marked on its indicator extending from the calibrated zero...

  18. 14 CFR 29.1553 - Fuel quantity indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Fuel quantity indicator. 29.1553 Section 29.1553 ...Placards § 29.1553 Fuel quantity indicator. If the unusable fuel supply for...greater, a red arc must be marked on its indicator extending from the calibrated zero...

  19. Judgments of Discrete and Continuous Quantity: An Illusory Stroop Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barth, Hilary C.

    2008-01-01

    Evidence from human cognitive neuroscience, animal neurophysiology, and behavioral research demonstrates that human adults, infants, and children share a common nonverbal quantity processing system with nonhuman animals. This system appears to represent both discrete and continuous quantity, but the proper characterization of the relationship…

  20. 46 CFR 108.433 - Quantity of CO2: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Quantity of CO2: General. 108.433 Section 108.433 Shipping...Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.433 Quantity of CO2: General. Each CO2 system must have enough gas to meet the...

  1. Effects of Quantity and Quality Instructions on Brainstorming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulus, Paul B.; Kohn, Nicholas W.; Arditti, Lauren E.

    2011-01-01

    One of the basic presumptions of brainstorming is that a focus on generating a large number of ideas enhances both the number of ideas generated and the number of good ideas (original and useful). Prior research has not clearly demonstrated the utility of such a quantity focus in comparison to a condition in which quantity is not emphasized. There…

  2. Analysis of supply chains with quantity based fixed incentives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abolhassan Halati; Yuanjie He

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the use of quantity based fixed incentives to coordinate inventory decisions in a decentralized supply chain. We consider a two stage supply chain of autonomous supplier and distributor and prove that the optimal ordering policy for the newsvendor distributor under fixed incentives is an (s,S) type policy. We further show that external and internal quantity based incentives

  3. A data quantity optimization algorithm in terrain visualization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yabin Li; Jianhua Gong

    2008-01-01

    In order to ascertain appropriate data quantity in terrain visualization for some certain computers, the relationship model of FPS and data quantity has been put forward in this paper. Regarding the model, the time of a whole terrain visualization cycle is divided into two parts: data unrelated time and data related time. Based on the relationship model, a data optimization

  4. Market informational inefficiency, risk aversion and quantity grid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-Paul Décamps

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we show that long run market informational inefficiency is perfectly compatible with standard rational sequential trade models. Our inefficiency result is obtained taking into account two features of actual financial markets: tradable quantities belong to a quantity grid and traders and market makers do not have the same degree of risk aversion. The implementation of our model

  5. Optimizing offspring: the quantity–quality tradeoff in agropastoral Kipsigis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Monique Borgerhoff Mulder

    2000-01-01

    The tradeoff between offspring quantity and offspring quality is at the heart of most evolutionary approaches to the fertility transition, as it is for demographers oriented towards economic explanations for this transition. To date, however, there have been few empirical tests of the key idea that humans trade offspring quantity for quality, and no strictly comparative work designed to identify

  6. 46 CFR 108.433 - Quantity of CO2: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Quantity of CO2: General. 108.433 Section 108.433 Shipping...Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.433 Quantity of CO2: General. Each CO2 system must have enough gas to meet the...

  7. Is physical practice necessary for parallel development of implicit and explicit sequence knowledge? Evidence from observational learning 

    E-print Network

    Zihlman, Kirk A.

    2006-08-16

    The present experiment evaluated Willingham & Goedert-EschmannÂ?s proposal (1999) that physical practice is required to support the parallel activation of explicit and implicit systems during practice of an SRT task. ...

  8. Beginning to edit physics

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, P.W.

    1995-02-01

    A physicist-turned-editor shows you the basics required for copyediting physics papers (physical quantities, symbols, units, scientific notation, the structure of mathematical expressions, the nature of graphs), and points the way to learning enough ``editorial physics`` to begin substantive editing.

  9. Observation and Analysis of N[subscript 2]O Rotation-Vibration Spectra: A Physical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Mark S.; Reeve, Scott W.; Burns, William A.

    2008-01-01

    The linear molecule N[subscript 2]O is presented as an alternative gas-phase species for the ubiquitous undergraduate physical chemistry rotation-vibration spectroscopy experiment. Utilizing a 0.5 cm[superscript -1] resolution teaching grade FTIR spectrometer, 15 vibrational bands, corresponding to 1229 rotation-vibration transitions, have been…

  10. Is physical practice necessary for parallel development of implicit and explicit sequence knowledge? Evidence from observational learning

    E-print Network

    Zihlman, Kirk A.

    2006-08-16

    addresses some of the predictions made by WillinghamÂ?s COBALT (1998). Furthermore, a subset of observers revealed no explicit knowledge of the 12-element sequence but performed well on the indirect test. Learning via the implicit system during observation...

  11. 7 CFR 1434.9 - Determination of quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...MARKETING ASSISTANCE LOAN AND LDP REGULATIONS FOR HONEY § 1434.9 Determination of quantity. ...and verified by the county office representative for honey on Form CCC-633 (Honey) that is eligible to be pledged as security...

  12. 7 CFR 1434.9 - Determination of quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...MARKETING ASSISTANCE LOAN AND LDP REGULATIONS FOR HONEY § 1434.9 Determination of quantity. ...and verified by the county office representative for honey on Form CCC-633 (Honey) that is eligible to be pledged as security...

  13. 7 CFR 1434.9 - Determination of quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...MARKETING ASSISTANCE LOAN AND LDP REGULATIONS FOR HONEY § 1434.9 Determination of quantity. ...and verified by the county office representative for honey on Form CCC-633 (Honey) that is eligible to be pledged as security...

  14. 7 CFR 1434.9 - Determination of quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...MARKETING ASSISTANCE LOAN AND LDP REGULATIONS FOR HONEY § 1434.9 Determination of quantity. ...and verified by the county office representative for honey on Form CCC-633 (Honey) that is eligible to be pledged as security...

  15. 7 CFR 1434.9 - Determination of quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...MARKETING ASSISTANCE LOAN AND LDP REGULATIONS FOR HONEY § 1434.9 Determination of quantity. ...and verified by the county office representative for honey on Form CCC-633 (Honey) that is eligible to be pledged as security...

  16. 19 CFR 351.409 - Differences in quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Calculation of Export Price, Constructed Export Price, Fair Value, and Normal Value § 351.409 Differences in quantities. (a...export price or constructed export price with normal value, the Secretary will make a reasonable...

  17. Effect of the boundary on thermodynamic quantities such as magnetization

    E-print Network

    Chen, Kuang-Ting

    In this paper, we investigate in general how thermodynamic quantities such as the polarization, magnetization, and the magnetoelectric tensor are affected by the boundaries. We show that when the calculation with periodic ...

  18. 26 CFR 50.6 - Ascertainment of quantity mined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...THE TAX IMPOSED WITH RESPECT TO CERTAIN HYDRAULIC MINING § 50.6 Ascertainment of quantity mined. Each person engaged in hydraulic mining operations within the scope...surveys of the premises on which such hydraulic mining operations are conducted...

  19. 7 CFR 983.53 - Testing of minimal quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Testing of minimal quantities. (a) Aflatoxin. Handlers who handle less than...the following methods for testing for aflatoxin: (1) The handler may have an inspector...of hulled and dried pistachios for the aflatoxin certification before further...

  20. Non-adiabatic theoretical observables in Delta Scuti stars

    E-print Network

    A. Moya; R. Garrido; M. A. Dupret

    2003-10-31

    Phase differences and amplitude ratios at different colour photometric bands are currently being used to discriminate pulsation modes in order to facilitate mode identification of kappa-driven non-radial pulsating stars. In addition to physical inputs (e.g., mass, T_eff, etc.), these quantities depend on the non-adiabatic treatment of the atmosphere. This paper presents theoretical results concerning Delta Scuti pulsating stars. The envelope of each of these stellar structures possesses a convection zone whose development is determined by various factors. An interacting pulsation-atmosphere physical treatment is introduced which supplies two basic non-adiabatic physical quantities: the relative effective temperature variation and the phase lag phi^T, defined as the angle between effective temperature variations and radial displacement. These quantities can be used to derive the phase differences and amplitude ratios. Numerical values for these quantities depend critically on the alpha MLT parameter used to calculate the convection in the envelope. The dependence on alpha was analized and it was found that the use of colour observations may be of considerable importance in testing the MLT. Finally, examples are given of how alpha introduces uncertainties in the theoretical predictions regarding phases and amplitudes of photometric variations in Delta Scuti pulsating stars.

  1. Integers do not automatically activate their quantity representation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dale J. Cohen

    2009-01-01

    Researchers have generally come to the conclusion that integers automatically activate the quantity they symbolize and that\\u000a this quantity dominates responding. I conducted a strong test of this hypothesis with two numerical same\\/different experiments.\\u000a On each trial, I presented the participant an integer between 1 and 9 and asked him or her to identify whether that symbol\\u000a was a 5.

  2. Effect of aquatic macrophytes on the quantity of bacterioplankton.

    PubMed

    Czeczuga, B; Chomutowska, H

    2000-01-01

    The authors investigated the effect of aquatic macrophytes on the quantity of bacterioplankton. Among the 7 species of aquatic macrophytes the most pronounced effect on bacterioplankton is exerted by Potamogeton crispus, causing a decrease in its quantity to 53.28%. Polygonum amphibium stimulates the growth of bacteria to 121.96%. Under the influence of macrophytes the spherical to cylindrical ratio changes from 1:1.31 (Lemna minor) to 1:2.07 (Potamogeton crispus). PMID:11712444

  3. Exponential Decay Properties of Wannier Functions and Related Quantities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lixin He; David Vanderbilt

    2001-01-01

    The spatial decay properties of Wannier functions and related quantities have been investigated using analytical and numerical methods. We find that the form of the decay is a power law times an exponential, with a particular power-law exponent that is universal for each kind of quantity. In one dimension we find an exponent of -3\\/4 for Wannier functions, -1\\/2 for

  4. Conserved quantities in Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leithes, Alexander; Malik, Karim A.

    2015-01-01

    We study linear perturbations to a Lemaître-Tolman-Bondi (LTB) background spacetime. Studying the transformation behaviour of the perturbations under gauge transformations, we construct gauge invariant quantities. We show, using the perturbed energy conservation equation, that there are conserved quantities in LTB, in particular a spatial metric trace perturbation, {{\\zeta }SMTP}, which is conserved on all scales. We then briefly extend our discussion to the Lemaître spacetime, and construct gauge-invariant perturbations in this extension of LTB spacetime.

  5. Conserved Quantities in Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi Cosmology

    E-print Network

    Leithes, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    We study linear perturbations to a Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi (LTB) background spacetime. Studying the transformation behaviour of the perturbations under gauge transformations, we construct gauge invariant quantities. We show, using the perturbed energy conservation equation, that there are conserved quantities in LTB, in particular a spatial metric trace perturbation, {\\zeta}, which is conserved on all scales. We then briefly extend our discussion to the Lemaitre spacetime, and construct gauge-invariant perturbations in this extension of LTB spacetime.

  6. Socioeconomic position and sleep quantity in UK adults

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Jean

    2006-01-01

    Study objective To investigate the association between markers of socioeconomic position (years of full time education, access to a car or van, and occupational social class) and mid?range sleep quantity (6.5 to 8.5?hours). Data source Office of National Statistics Omnibus Survey, May 1999. Participants 3000 households were randomly selected from the UK postcode address file and one person aged over 16 years from each household was randomly selected and invited to take part in the survey. All respondents aged 25 and over (n?=?1473) were included in the analyses where appropriate data were available. Main results Total sleep quantity was greater in more deprived women as measured by years in full time education. There was no linear association between total sleep quantity and any of the markers of socioeconomic position in men. Mid?range sleep quantity was more common in more educated women. Similar, non?significant, trends were seen in men. Conclusion There is little evidence that more socioeconomically deprived people obtain less sleep than more advantaged ones—indeed, the reverse may be true—but some evidence that more advantaged women are more likely to report mid?range sleep. Any hypothesis implicating sleep in socioeconomic inequalities in health should take into account mid?range, rather than total, sleep quantity. Further work should focus both on mid?range, or “healthy” sleep, quantity as well as sleep quality. PMID:16476759

  7. Ms : mb RELATIONSHIPS FOR SMALL MAGNITUDE EVENTS: OBSERVATIONS AND PHYSICAL BASIS FOR mb BASED ON REGIONAL PHASES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Howard J. Patton

    To address the challenge of small event monitoring for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), there is great interest to extend the successful teleseismic m b-Ms discriminant to regional-distance applica- tions. Among the outstanding issues are (1) how well can we expect the discriminant to perform for regional data as a function of source size and (2) what is the physical

  8. FRC edge physics using NIMROD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Necas, Ales; Milroy, Richard

    2012-10-01

    We have studied issues related to edge physics of the HPF regime FRC [1] using the NIMROD extended MHD code [2]. By modifying the end boundary conditions, we impose an electrostatic bias representing the experimentally applied bias voltage. The resulting self-consistent electric potential is a flux quantity (i.e. follows field lines along the machine) as observed experimentally. Further, we observe that the open plasma rotation is controlled by the magnitude of the applied boundary potential. We also observe the penetration of this edge rotation into the closed field FRC by viscosity. Transport is affected by the resulting sheared rotation. Various rotationally related modes are observed and discussed. [4pt] [1] M. Tuszewski, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 255008 (2012).[0pt] [2] C. R. Sovinec, et al., J. Comp. Phys. 195, 355 (2004).

  9. 1991 Urey Prize Lecture: Physical evolution in the solar system - Present observations as a key to the past

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Binzel, Richard P.

    1992-01-01

    The present evaluation of the use of new observational methods for exploring solar system evolutionary processes gives attention to illustrative cases from the constraining of near-earth asteroid sources and the discovery of main-belt asteroid fragments which indicate Vesta to be a source of basaltic achondrite meteorites. The coupling of observational constraints with numerical models clarifies cratering and collisional evolution for both main-belt and Trojan asteroids.

  10. How Mathematics Propels the Development of Physical Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Daniel L.; Martin, Taylor; Pfaffman, Jay

    2005-01-01

    Three studies examined whether mathematics can propel the development of physical understanding. In Experiment 1, 10-year-olds solved balance scale problems that used easy-to-count discrete quantities or hard-to-count continuous quantities. Discrete quantities led to age typical performances. Continuous quantities caused performances like those of…

  11. Seasonal Variations in Physical Characteristics of the South Australian Shelf Waters -Results from the Southern Australian Integrated Marine Observing System (SAIMOS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, C.; Luick, J.; Leterme, S. C.; Middleton, J.; Seuront, L.

    2009-04-01

    The Southern Australia Integrated Marine Observing System, or SAIMOS, is one of five nodes operating as part of the Australia-wide Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS). This is a collaborative program designed to observe Australia's oceans, both coastal and blue-water. Since February 2008 Physical Data has been collected for SAIMOS in both summer and winter months during 8 surveys. The data collected during summer are used to characterise the nature and dynamics of the Kangaroo Island-Eyre Peninsula upwelling system during a record upwelling event in February 2008. During this event a plume of very cool water was observed along the bottom from South of KI to the Eyre Peninsula. This plume dissipated rapidly after the end of upwelling favourable winds and by March 2008 had disappeared entirely from the observations. The data are also used to study the dense high salinity outflow from Spencer Gulf observed during the winter months. The dense plume result from surface cooling of high salinity waters at the head of Spencer Gulf. One striking result of these observations is that the outflow occurs during a series of strong pulses with a period of approximately 2 weeks and duration of 1-3 days. During these pulses bottom velocities at 100 m can exceed 1 m/s.

  12. Analysis of the hydrological response of a distributed physically-based model using post-assimilation (EnKF) diagnostics of streamflow and in situ soil moisture observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trudel, Mélanie; Leconte, Robert; Paniconi, Claudio

    2014-06-01

    Data assimilation techniques not only enhance model simulations and forecast, they also provide the opportunity to obtain a diagnostic of both the model and observations used in the assimilation process. In this research, an ensemble Kalman filter was used to assimilate streamflow observations at a basin outlet and at interior locations, as well as soil moisture at two different depths (15 and 45 cm). The simulation model is the distributed physically-based hydrological model CATHY (CATchment HYdrology) and the study site is the Des Anglais watershed, a 690 km2 river basin located in southern Quebec, Canada. Use of Latin hypercube sampling instead of a conventional Monte Carlo method to generate the ensemble reduced the size of the ensemble, and therefore the calculation time. Different post-assimilation diagnostics, based on innovations (observation minus background), analysis residuals (observation minus analysis), and analysis increments (analysis minus background), were used to evaluate assimilation optimality. An important issue in data assimilation is the estimation of error covariance matrices. These diagnostics were also used in a calibration exercise to determine the standard deviation of model parameters, forcing data, and observations that led to optimal assimilations. The analysis of innovations showed a lag between the model forecast and the observation during rainfall events. Assimilation of streamflow observations corrected this discrepancy. Assimilation of outlet streamflow observations improved the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiencies (NSE) between the model forecast (one day) and the observation at both outlet and interior point locations, owing to the structure of the state vector used. However, assimilation of streamflow observations systematically increased the simulated soil moisture values.

  13. The major upgrade of the MAGIC telescopes, Part II: The achieved physics performance using the Crab Nebula observations

    E-print Network

    Aleksic, J; Antonelli, L A; Antoranz, P; Babic, A; Bangale, P; Barcelo, M; Barrio, J A; Gonzalez, J Becerra; Bednarek, W; Bernardini, E; Biasuzzi, B; Biland, A; Bitossi, M; Blanch, O; Bonnefoy, S; Bonnoli, G; Borracci, F; Bretz, T; Carmona, E; Carosi, A; Cecchi, R; Colin, P; Colombo, E; Contreras, J L; Corti, D; Cortina, J; Covino, S; Da Vela, P; Dazzi, F; De Angelis, A; De Caneva, G; De Lotto, B; Wilhelmi, E de Ona; Mendez, C Delgado; Dettlaff, A; Prester, D Dominis; Dorner, D; Doro, M; Einecke, S; Eisenacher, D; Elsaesser, D; Fidalgo, D; Fink, D; Fonseca, M V; Font, L; Frantzen, K; Fruck, C; Galindo, D; Lopez, R J Garcia; Garczarczyk, M; Terrats, D Garrido; Gaug, M; Giavitto, G; Godinovic, N; Munoz, A Gonzalez; Gozzini, S R; Haberer, W; Hadasch, D; Hanabata, Y; Hayashida, M; Herrera, J; Hildebrand, D; Hose, J; Hrupec, D; Idec, W; Illa, J M; Kadenius, V; Kellermann, H; Knoetig, M L; Kodani, K; Konno, Y; Krause, J; Kubo, H; Kushida, J; La Barbera, A; Lelas, D; Lemus, J L; Lewandowska, N; Lindfors, E; Lombardi, S; Longo, F; Lopez, M; Lopez-Coto, R; Lopez-Oramas, A; Lorca, A; Lorenz, E; Lozano, I; Makariev, M; Mallot, K; Maneva, G; Mankuzhiyil, N; Mannheim, K; Maraschi, L; Marcote, B; Mariotti, M; Martinez, M; Mazin, D; Menzel, U; Miranda, J M; Mirzoyan, R; Moralejo, A; Munar-Adrover, P; Nakajima, D; Negrello, M; Neustroev, V; Niedzwiecki, A; Nilsson, K; Nishijima, K; Noda, K; Orito, R; Overkemping, A; Paiano, S; Palatiello, M; Paneque, D; Paoletti, R; Paredes, J M; Paredes-Fortuny, X; Persic, M; Poutanen, J; Moroni, P G Prada; Prandini, E; Puljak, I; Reinthal, R; Rhode, W; Ribo, M; Rico, J; Garcia, J Rodriguez; Rugamer, S; Saito, T; Saito, K; Satalecka, K; Scalzotto, V; Scapin, V; Schultz, C; Schlammer, J; Schmidl, S; Schweizer, T; Shore, S N; Sillanpaa, A; Sitarek, J; Snidaric, I; Sobczynska, D; Spanier, F; Stamerra, A; Steinbring, T; Storz, J; Strzys, M; Takalo, L; Takami, H; Tavecchio, F; Tejedor, L A; Temnikov, P; Terzic, T; Tescaro, D; Teshima, M; Thaele, J; Tibolla, O; Torres, D F; Toyama, T; Treves, A; Vogler, P; Wetteskind, H; Will, M; Zanin, R; IFAE,; UAB, Campus; Bellaterra, E-08193; Spain,; di Udine, Universita; Trieste, INFN; Udine, I-33100; Italy,; Astrophysics, INAF National Institute for; Rome, I-00136; di Siena, Universita; Pisa, INFN; Siena, I-53100; Institute, Rudjer Boskovic; Rijeka, University of; Split, University of; Zagreb, HR-10000; Croatia,; Physik, Max-Planck-Institut fur; Munchen, D-80805; Germany,; Complutense, Universidad; Madrid, E-28040; de Canarias, Inst de Astrofisica; La Laguna, E-38200; Tenerife,; Lodz, University of; Lodz, PL-90236; Poland,; Elektronen-Synchrotron, Deutsches; Zeuthen, D-15738; Zurich, ETH; Zurich, CH-8093; Switzerland,; Wurzburg, Universitat; Wurzburg, D-97074; Energeticas, Centro de Investigaciones; Tecnologicas, Medioambientales y; Sciences, Institute of Space; Barcelona, E-08193; di Padova, Universita; INFN,; Padova, I-35131; Dortmund, Technische Universitat; Dortmund, D-44221; Radiacions, Unitat de Fisica de les; de Fisica, Departament; CERES-IEEC,; de Barcelona, Universitat Autonoma; de Barcelona, Universitat; ICC,; IEEC-UB,; Barcelona, E-08028; Physics, Division of; Astronomy,; University, Kyoto; Japan,; Observatory, Tuorla; Turku, University of; Physics, Department of; Oulu, University of; Finland,; Research, Inst for Nucl; Energy, Nucl; Sofia, BG-1784; Bulgaria,; di Pisa, Universita; Pisa, I-56126; ICREA,; Insubria, Universita dell; Bicocca, INFN Milano; Como,; Como, I-22100; Observatory, European Gravitational; Macerata, I-56021 S Stefano a; Siena, INFN; at, now; :,; Center, NASA Goddard Space Flight; Greenbelt,; 20771, MD; USA,; Physics, Department of; Astronomy, Department of; Maryland, University of; Park, College; 20742, MD; de Lausanne, now at Ecole polytechnique federale; Lausanne,; Teilchenphysik, Now at Institut fur Astro- und; Innsbruck, Leopold-Franzens- Universitat; Innsbruck, A-6020; Austria,; deceased,; ESO, now at Finnish Centre for Astronomy with; Turku,; Division, now at Astrophysics Science; Centre, Bhabha Atomic Research; 400085, Mumbai; India,; INAF-Trieste, also at

    2014-01-01

    MAGIC is a system of two Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes located in the Canary island of La Palma, Spain. During summer 2011 and 2012 it underwent a series of upgrades, involving the exchange of the MAGIC-I camera and its trigger system, as well as the upgrade of the readout system of both telescopes. We use observations of the Crab Nebula taken at low and medium zenith angles to assess the key performance parameters of the MAGIC stereo system. For low zenith observations the trigger threshold of the MAGIC telescopes is about 50GeV. The integral sensitivity for sources with Crab Nebula-like spectrum above 220GeV is (0.66+/-0.03)% of Crab Nebula flux in 50 h of observations. The angular resolution at those energies is data taken with the MAGIC telescopes after the upgrade. We estimate that the systematic uncertainties can be divided in following components: < 15% in energy scale...

  14. Can One Take the Logarithm or the Sine of a Dimensioned Quantity or a Unit? Dimensional Analysis Involving Transcendental Functions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matta, Cherif F.; Massa, Lou; Gubskaya, Anna V.; Knoll, Eva

    2011-01-01

    The fate of dimensions of dimensioned quantities that are inserted into the argument of transcendental functions such as logarithms, exponentiation, trigonometric, and hyperbolic functions is discussed. Emphasis is placed on common misconceptions that are not often systematically examined in undergraduate courses of physical sciences. The argument…

  15. Observation of Infrared and Radio Lines of Molecules toward GL2591 and Comparison to Physical and Chemical Models

    E-print Network

    John S. Carr; Neal J. Evans II; J. H. Lacy; Shudong Zhou

    1995-05-24

    We have observed rovibrational transitions of acetylene and HCN near 13 microns in absorption toward GL2591. We also observed rotational lines of CS, HCN, H2CO, and HCO+. The combined data are analyzed in terms of models with a cloud envelope with density gradients and discrete regions of hot, dense gas, probably near the infrared source. The abundance of HCN is enhanced by a factor of 400 in the gas producing the infrared absorption, in agreement with chemical models which involve depletion of molecules onto grains and subsequent sublimation when temperatures are raised.

  16. Evaluation of Cloud Physical Properties of ECMWF Analysis and Re-Analysis (ERA-40 and ERA Interim) against CERES Tropical Deep Convective Cloud Object Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Kuan-Man

    2008-01-01

    This study presents an approach that converts the vertical profiles of grid-averaged cloud properties from large-scale models to probability density functions (pdfs) of subgrid-cell cloud physical properties measured at satellite footprints. Cloud physical and radiative properties, rather than just cloud and precipitation occurrences, of assimilated cloud systems by the European Center for Medium-range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) operational analysis (EOA) and ECMWF Re-Analyses (ERA-40 and ERA Interim) are validated against those obtained from Earth Observing System satellite cloud object data for January-August 1998 and March 2000 periods. These properties include ice water path (IWP), cloud-top height and temperature, cloud optical depth and solar and infrared radiative fluxes. Each cloud object, a contiguous region with similar cloud physical properties, is temporally and spatially matched with EOA and ERA-40 data. Results indicate that most pdfs of EOA and ERA-40 cloud physical and radiative properties agree with those of satellite observations of the tropical deep convective cloud-object type for the January-August 1998 period. There are, however, significant discrepancies in selected ranges of the cloud property pdfs such as the upper range of EOA cloud top height. A major discrepancy is that the dependence of the pdfs on the cloud object size for both EOA and ERA-40 is not as strong as in the observations. Modifications to the cloud parameterization in ECMWF that occurred in October 1999 eliminate the clouds near the tropopause but shift power of the pdf to lower cloud-top heights and greatly reduce the ranges of IWP and cloud optical depth pdfs. These features persist in ERA-40 due to the use of the same cloud parameterizations. The downgrade of data assimilation technique and the lack of snow water content information in ERA-40, not the coarser horizontal grid resolution, are also responsible for the disagreements with observed pdfs of cloud physical properties although the detection rates of cloud object occurrence are improved for small size categories. A possible improvement to the convective parameterization is to introduce a stronger dependence of updraft penetration heights with grid-cell dynamics. These conclusions will be rechecked using the ERA Interim data, due to recent changes in the ECMWF convective parameterization (Bechtold et al. 2004, 2008). Results from the ERA Interim will be presented at the meeting.

  17. SMA Observations of the W3(OH) Complex: Physical and Chemical Differentiation Between W3(H2O) and W3(OH)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Sheng-Li; Schilke, Peter; Wu, Jingwen; Wu, Yuefang; Liu, Tie; Liu, Ying; Sánchez-Monge, Álvaro

    2015-04-01

    We report on the Submillimeter Array (SMA) observations of molecular lines at 270 GHz toward the W3(OH) and W3(H2O) complex. Although previous observations already resolved the W3(H2O) into two or three sub-components, the physical and chemical properties of the two sources are not well constrained. Our SMA observations clearly resolved the W3(OH) and W3(H2O) continuum cores. Taking advantage of the line fitting tool XCLASS, we identified and modeled a rich molecular spectrum in this complex, including multiple CH3CN and CH3OH transitions in both cores. HDO, C2H5CN, O13CS, and vibrationally excited lines of HCN, CH3CN, and CH3OCHO were only detected in W3(H2O). We calculate gas temperatures and column densities for both cores. The results show that W3(H2O) has higher gas temperatures and larger column densities than W3(OH) as previously observed, suggesting physical and chemical differences between the two cores. We compare the molecular abundances in W3(H2O) to those in the Sgr B2(N) hot core, the Orion KL hot core, and the Orion Compact Ridge, and discuss the chemical origin of specific species. An east–west velocity gradient is seen in W3(H2O), and the extension is consistent with the bipolar outflow orientation traced by water masers and radio jets. A north–south velocity gradient across W3(OH) is also observed. However, with current observations we cannot be assured whether the velocity gradients are caused by rotation, outflow, or radial velocity differences of the sub-components of W3(OH).

  18. Physical studies of asteroids. XXIII - Photometric observations of the asteroids 6, 32, 196, 243, 416, 532 and 1580

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erikson, A.; Lagerkvist, C.-I.; Lindgren, M.; Cutispoto, G.; Debehogne, H.; Hahn, G.; Magnusson, P.

    1991-12-01

    Photometric studies of seven asteroids observed at the European Southern Observatory (La Sill a, Chile) with the 50 cm ESO telescope are presented. For these asteroids (6 Hebe, 32 Pomona, 196 Philomela, 243 Ida, 416 Vaticana, 532 Herculina and 1580 Betulia) composite lightcurves are presented. Mean colour indexes, calculated for some of the nights, are also given.

  19. Un/Covering: Female Religious Converts Learning the Problems and Pragmatics of Physical Observance in the Secular World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galman, Sally Campbell

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the experiences of three women who have chosen to move from secular, assimilated lives to lives characterized by the distinctive dress and practice associated with observant Islam, Orthodox Judaism, and Orthodox Christianity, respectively. All three relied upon informal, peer, and distance learning strategies for their…

  20. Trained Quantity Abilities in Horses (Equus caballus): A Preliminary Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Miletto Petrazzini, Maria Elena

    2014-01-01

    Once believed to be a human prerogative, the capacity to discriminate between quantities now has also been reported in several vertebrates. To date, only two studies investigated numerical abilities in horses (Equus caballus) but reported contrasting data. To assess whether horses can be trained to discriminate between quantities, I have set up a new experimental protocol using operant conditioning. One adult female was trained to discriminate between 1 and 4 (Test 1) in three different conditions: non-controlled continuous variables (numerical and continuous quantities that co-vary with number are simultaneously available), 50% controlled continuous variables (intermediate condition), and 100% controlled continuous variables (only numerical information available). The subject learned the discrimination in all conditions, showing the capacity to process numerical information. When presented with a higher numerical ratio (2 vs. 4, Test 2), the subject still discriminated between the quantities but its performance was statistically significant only in the non-controlled condition, suggesting that the subject used multiple cues in presence of a more difficult discrimination. On the whole, the results here reported encourage the use of this experimental protocol as a valid tool to investigate the capacity to process numerical and continuous quantities in horses in future research. PMID:25379278

  1. Trained Quantity Abilities in Horses (Equus caballus): A Preliminary Investigation.

    PubMed

    Miletto Petrazzini, Maria Elena

    2014-09-01

    Once believed to be a human prerogative, the capacity to discriminate between quantities now has also been reported in several vertebrates. To date, only two studies investigated numerical abilities in horses (Equus caballus) but reported contrasting data. To assess whether horses can be trained to discriminate between quantities, I have set up a new experimental protocol using operant conditioning. One adult female was trained to discriminate between 1 and 4 (Test 1) in three different conditions: non-controlled continuous variables (numerical and continuous quantities that co-vary with number are simultaneously available), 50% controlled continuous variables (intermediate condition), and 100% controlled continuous variables (only numerical information available). The subject learned the discrimination in all conditions, showing the capacity to process numerical information. When presented with a higher numerical ratio (2 vs. 4, Test 2), the subject still discriminated between the quantities but its performance was statistically significant only in the non-controlled condition, suggesting that the subject used multiple cues in presence of a more difficult discrimination. On the whole, the results here reported encourage the use of this experimental protocol as a valid tool to investigate the capacity to process numerical and continuous quantities in horses in future research. PMID:25379278

  2. Comparison of satellite derived dynamical quantities in the stratosphere of the Southern Hemisphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miles, Thomas (editor); Oneill, Alan (editor)

    1989-01-01

    The proceedings are summarized from a pre-MASH planning workshop on the intercomparison of Southern Hemisphere observations, analyses and derived dynamical quantities held in Williamsburg, Virginia during April 1986. The aims of this workshop were primarily twofold: (1) comparison of Southern Hemisphere dynamical quantities derived from various satellite data archives (e.g., from limb scanners and nadir sounders); and (2) assessing the impact of different base-level height information on such derived quantities. These tasks are viewed as especially important in the Southern Hemisphere because of the paucity of conventional measurements. A further strong impetus for the MASH program comes from the recent discovery of the springtime ozone hold over Antarctica. Insight gained from validation studies such as the one reported here will contribute to an improved understanding of the role of meteorology in the development and evolution of the hold, in its interannual variability, and in its interhemispheric differences. The dynamical quantities examined in this workshop included geopotential height, zonal wind, potential vorticity, eddy heat and momentum fluxes, and Eliassen-Palm fluxes. The time periods and data sources constituting the MASH comparisons are summarized.

  3. The effects of single-session music therapy interventions on the observed and self-reported levels of pain control, physical comfort, and relaxation of hospice patients.

    PubMed

    Krout, R E

    2001-01-01

    This article describes the process and results of a three-month music therapy clinical effectiveness study conducted with terminally ill patients. The purpose of this study was to quantify and evaluate the effectiveness of single-session music therapy interventions with hospice patients in three patient problem areas: pain control; physical comfort; and relaxation. Data from a total of 90 sessions conducted with a total of 80 subjects served by Hospice of Palm Beach County, Florida, were included in the study. Music therapy services were provided by five board-certified music therapists and one music therapist eligible for board certification. The subjects in this study were receiving regularly scheduled music therapy services from the hospice organization. The study used both behavioral observation and subject's self-reporting as methods of data reporting and recording. Subjects were observed for, or self-reported, their levels of pain control, physical comfort, and relaxation, both before and after each music therapy session. The subjects were served in the environments where music therapy services would normally be delivered (i.e., home, hospital, nursing home, or inpatient acute-care unit of the hospice organization). Music therapy services included live active and passive music-based experiences. These were designed to build and to establish rapport with patient or family, to facilitate family interaction and patient control, to provide support and comfort, to facilitate relaxation, to enable reminiscence and life review, to provide a frame-work for spiritual exploration and validation, and to encourage the identification and expression of feelings of anticipatory mourning and grief. A total of six hypotheses stated that there would be significant pre- to postsession differences in each of the three variables: pain control, physical comfort, and relaxation, as measured during two different session and data collection scenarios. These scenarios included the independent observation and recording of the three subject variables and the subject's self-report of each variable. Reliability correlation coefficients were calculated for each of the different session and data-collection scenarios to help assess the correlation between primary and reliability observers. Pearson product moment correlations indicated reliability agreement coefficients of r = .85 and r = .90. One-tailed t-tests were performed on the collected data for subject pain control, physical comfort, and relaxation. Results of the t-tests were significant at the p < or = .001 (for observed pain control, physical comfort, and relaxation) and p < or = 005 (for self-reported pain control, physical comfort, and relaxation) levels. These results suggest that single-session music therapy interventions appear to be effective in increasing subject pain control, physical comfort, and relaxation during both data collection scenarios. Based on the results of these tests of the analyzed data, the hypotheses were all accepted. Tables illustrate pre- to post-session changes in levels of all three variables from both session and data-collection scenarios. Copies of the data-collection forms are also included in the Appendix. The discussion section addresses limitations of this study and suggestions for future studies. PMID:11712719

  4. Quality control by a mobile molecular workshop: quality versus quantity

    E-print Network

    Ajeet K. Sharma; Debashish Chowdhury

    2010-09-27

    Ribosome is a molecular machine that moves on a mRNA track while, simultaneously, polymerizing a protein using the mRNA also as the corresponding template. We define, and analytically calculate, two different measures of the efficiency of this machine. However, we arugue that its performance is evaluated better in terms of the translational fidelity and the speed with which it polymerizes a protein. We define both these quantities and calculate these analytically. Fidelity is a measure of the quality of the products while the total quantity of products synthesized in a given interval depends on the speed of polymerization. We show that for synthesizing a large quantity of proteins, it is not necessary to sacrifice the quality. We also explore the effects of the quality control mechanism on the strength of mechano-chemical coupling. We suggest experiments for testing some of the ideas presented here.

  5. [Thinking on acupuncture finger force in the acupuncture quantity study].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ya-Jing; Liu, Jian; Fan, Xiao-Nong; Meng, Zhi-Hong; Wang, Shu

    2012-09-01

    As an important link during the whole operation process of acupuncture, it is very necessary to launch quantity study closely related to acupuncture finger force in the acupuncture quantity study. After retrieval of related literatures on finger force during acupuncture in recent 20 years, it was found out that although some exploration on acupuncture finger force had been made, it was scattered and had no deep research, which pointed out it was a weak link in the acupuncture quantity study. So study of finger force should be paid attention to in acupuncture-moxibustion field, the level of theoretical and experimental research and development of measuring instrument on acupuncture finger force should be strengthened, the application of instrument should be expanded in teaching and scientific research areas, which could promote the modernization and internationalization of acupuncture and moxibustion better and faster. PMID:23227685

  6. HIGH-PRESSURE PHYSICS. Direct observation of an abrupt insulator-to-metal transition in dense liquid deuterium.

    PubMed

    Knudson, M D; Desjarlais, M P; Becker, A; Lemke, R W; Cochrane, K R; Savage, M E; Bliss, D E; Mattsson, T R; Redmer, R

    2015-06-26

    Eighty years ago, it was proposed that solid hydrogen would become metallic at sufficiently high density. Despite numerous investigations, this transition has not yet been experimentally observed. More recently, there has been much interest in the analog of this predicted metallic transition in the dense liquid, due to its relevance to planetary science. Here, we show direct observation of an abrupt insulator-to-metal transition in dense liquid deuterium. Experimental determination of the location of this transition provides a much-needed benchmark for theory and may constrain the region of hydrogen-helium immiscibility and the boundary-layer pressure in standard models of the internal structure of gas-giant planets. PMID:26113719

  7. Conditional probabilities with Dirac observables and the problem of time in quantum gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Gambini, Rodolfo; Torterolo, Sebastian [Instituto de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Igua 4225, esq. Mataojo, Montevideo (Uruguay); Porto, Rafael A. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Pullin, Jorge [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803-4001 (United States)

    2009-02-15

    We combine the 'evolving constants' approach to the construction of observables in canonical quantum gravity with the Page-Wootters formulation of quantum mechanics with a relational time for generally covariant systems. This overcomes the objections levied by Kuchar against the latter formalism. The construction is formulated entirely in terms of Dirac observables, avoiding in all cases the physical observation of quantities that do not belong in the physical Hilbert space. We work out explicitly the example of the parametrized particle, including the calculation of the propagator. The resulting theory also predicts a fundamental mechanism of decoherence.

  8. Atmospheric coupling of Tsunami: observations from Tohoku and impact on tsunami physical properties and phase/group velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lognonne, P. H.; Kherani, E. A.; Coisson, P.; Astafyeva, E.; Occhipinti, G.; Rolland, L. M.; Yahagi, T.; Khelfi, K.; Sladen, A.; Hebert, H.; Makela, J. J.

    2012-12-01

    Tsunamis, through a dynamic coupling between the ocean and atmosphere, are generating atmospheric waves, detected in the ionosphere for tsunamis with amplitudes as much as 1 cm in the open ocean. Signals associated to the Tohoku tsunami have therefore been observed with huge signal to noise ratio, not only over Japan, but all over the Pacific, up to Chili. These signals have been moreover modelled, not only for the Total Electronic Contents perturbation signals, but also of the airglow detected for the first time over Hawaii and for the magnetic perturbations detected in Japan. We present in this paper the two sides of this coupling. The first side resumes the different observations and modelling of the Tohoku ionospheric signals observed by GEONET, by the GSI magnetic network and by Airglow cameras in Hawaii and Chili. Comparison between data and modelling are shown. The second side present the effects of the atmospheric coupling on the tsunami properties, i.e. amplitudes, phase/group velocities and excitation coefficients. By taking into account the coupling of tsunami with both the solid Earth and atmosphere, we show that specific resonances between the ocean and the atmosphere exist, enabling to understand the large and peaked signal spectrum. Local Time and geographical variations of this coupling is studied, as well as its dependence with the ocean depth. The impacts of atmospheric coupling on the propagation travel time of tsunamis is finally presented and discussed.

  9. A Shared System of Representation Governing Quantity Discrimination in Canids

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Joseph M.; Morath, Justice; Rodzon, Katrina S.; Jordan, Kerry E.

    2012-01-01

    One way to investigate the evolution of cognition is to compare the abilities of phylogenetically related species. The domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris), for example, still shares cognitive abilities with the coyote (Canis latrans). Both of these canids possess the ability to make psychophysical “less/more” discriminations of food based on quantity. Like many other species including humans, this ability is mediated by Weber’s Law: discrimination of continuous quantities is dependent on the ratio between the two quantities. As two simultaneously presented quantities of food become more similar, choice of the large or small option becomes random in both dogs and coyotes. It remains unknown, however, whether these closely related species within the same family – one domesticated, and one wild – make such quantitative comparisons with comparable accuracy. Has domestication honed or diminished this quantitative ability? Might different selective and ecological pressures facing coyotes drive them to be more or less able to accurately represent and discriminate food quantity than domesticated dogs? This study is an effort to elucidate this question concerning the evolution of non-verbal quantitative cognition. Here, we tested the quantitative discrimination ability of 16 domesticated dogs. Each animal was given nine trials in which two different quantities of food were simultaneously displayed to them. The domesticated dogs’ performance on this task was then compared directly to the data from 16 coyotes’ performance on this same task reported by Baker et al. (2011). The quantitative discrimination abilities between the two species were strikingly similar. Domesticated dogs demonstrated similar quantitative sensitivity as coyotes, suggesting that domestication may not have significantly altered the psychophysical discrimination abilities of canids. Instead, this study provides further evidence for similar non-verbal quantitative abilities across multiple species. PMID:23060847

  10. Skylab experiments. Volume 5: Astronomy and space physics. [Skylab observations of galactic radiation, solar energy, and interplanetary composition for high school level education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The astronomy and space physics investigations conducted in the Skylab program include over 20 experiments in four categories to explore space phenomena that cannot be observed from earth. The categories of space research are as follows: (1) phenomena within the solar system, such as the effect of solar energy on Earth's atmosphere, the composition of interplanetary space, the possibility of an inner planet, and the X-ray radiation from Jupiter, (2) analysis of energetic particles such as cosmic rays and neutrons in the near-earth space, (3) stellar and galactic astronomy, and (4) self-induced environment surrounding the Skylab spacecraft.

  11. GEM Plate Boundary Simulations for the Plate Boundary Observatory: A Program for Understanding the Physics of Earthquakes on Complex Fault Networks via Observations, Theory and Numerical Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rundle, J. B.; Rundle, P. B.; Klein, W.; de sa Martins, J.; Tiampo, K. F.; Donnellan, A.; Kellogg, L. H.

    The last five years have seen unprecedented growth in the amount and quality of geodetic data collected to characterize crustal deformation in earthquake-prone areas such as California and Japan. The installation of the Southern California Integrated Geodetic Network (SCIGN) and the Bay Area Regional Deformation (BARD) network are two examples. As part of the recently proposed Earthscope NSF/GEO/EAR/MRE initiative, the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) plans to place more than a thousand GPS, strainmeters, and deformation sensors along the active plate boundary of the western coast of the United States, Mexico and Canada (http://www.earthscope.org/pbo.com.html). The scientific goals of PBO include understanding how tectonic plates interact, together with an emphasis on understanding the physics of earthquakes. However, the problem of understanding the physics of earthquakes on complex fault networks through observations alone is complicated by our inability to study the problem in a manner familiar to laboratory scientists, by means of controlled, fully reproducible experiments. We have therefore been motivated to construct a numerical simulation technology that will allow us to study earthquake physics via numerical experiments. To be considered successful, the simulations must not only produce observables that are maximally similar to those seen by the PBO and other observing programs, but in addition the simulations must provide dynamical predictions that can be falsified by means of observations on the real fault networks. In general, the dynamical behavior of earthquakes on complex fault networks is a result of the interplay between the geometric structure of the fault network and the physics of the frictional sliding process. In constructing numerical simulations of a complex fault network, we will need to solve a variety of problems, including the development of analysis techniques (also called data mining), data assimilation, space-time pattern definition and analysis, and visualization needs. Using simulations of the network of the major strike-slip faults in southern California, we present a preliminary description of our methods and results, and comment upon the relative roles of fault network geometry and frictional sliding in determining the important dynamical modes of the system.

  12. The Statistical and Physical Properties of the Low Redshift Lyman Alpha Forest Observed with HST/STIS

    E-print Network

    Romeel Davé; Todd M. Tripp

    2001-06-26

    We examine the Ly-alpha absorber population at zquasar spectra drawn from a cosmological hydrodynamic simulation of a Lambda-CDM universe. We find very good agreement in the column density and b-parameter distributions, down to the smallest observable absorbers with N_HI\\approx 10^{12.3} cm^-2. The observed absorber population is complete for N_HI\\ga 10^{13} cm^-2, with a column density distribution slope of \\beta=2.04\\pm 0.23 and a median b-parameter of 21 km/s above this limit. The intergalactic gas giving rise to these weak absorbers is analogous to that at high redshift, located in diffuse large-scale structures that are highly photoionized by the metagalactic UV flux, though a greater number arise within shock-heated warm gas. The density, temperature, and column density of these absorbers follow similar relationships to those at high redshift, though with substantially larger scatter due to the shock-heated gas. The b-parameters typically have a significant contribution from thermal broadening, which facilitates a measurement of the low-z IGM temperature as traced by Ly-alpha absorbers. From our simulation we estimate T_IGM\\sim 5000 K, with an upper limit of 10^4 K, at the mean density. The agreement in predicted and observed amplitude of the column density distributions allows us to measure the HI photoionization rate at z=0.17 to be 10^{-13.3\\pm 0.7} s^{-1} (estimated modeling uncertainty), close to predictions based on quasar properties.

  13. Chemical and physical influences on aerosol activation in liquid clouds: an empirical study based on observations from the Jungfraujoch, Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyle, C. R.; Webster, C. S.; Rieder, H. E.; Hammer, E.; Gysel, M.; Bukowiecki, N.; Weingartner, E.; Steinbacher, M.; Baltensperger, U.

    2015-06-01

    A simple empirical model to predict the number of aerosols which activate to form cloud droplets in a warm, free tropospheric cloud has been established, based on data from four summertime Cloud and Aerosol Characterisation Experiments (CLACE) campaigns at the Jungfraujoch (JFJ). It is shown that 76% of the observed variance in droplet numbers can be represented by a model accounting only for the number of potential CCN (defined as number of particles larger than 90 nm in diameter), while the mean errors in the model representation may be reduced by the addition of further explanatory variables, such as the mixing ratios of O3, CO and the height of the measurements above cloud base. The model has similar ability to represent the observed droplet numbers in each of the individual years, as well as for the two predominant local wind directions at the JFJ (north west and south east). Given the central European location of the JFJ, with air masses in summer being representative of the free troposphere with regular boundary layer in-mixing via convection, we expect that this model is applicable to warm, free tropospheric clouds over the European continent.

  14. Ageing and endurance training effects on quantity and quality of pulmonary vascular bed in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Al Dandachi, Ghanima; Londner, Cécile; Caumont-Prim, Aurore; Plantier, Laurent; Chevalier-Bidaud, Brigitte; Toussaint, Jean-François; Desgorces, François-Denis; Delclaux, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    It has recently been demonstrated that in healthy individuals, peak oxygen consumption is associated with a greater pulmonary capillary blood volume and a more distensible pulmonary circulation. Our cross-sectional study suggests that, in healthy men aged 20 to 60 years (n?=?63), endurance sport practice (vigorous-intensity domain of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire) is associated with better quantity (pulmonary capillary blood volume) and quality (slope of increase in lung diffusion for carbon monoxide on exercise) of the pulmonary vascular bed, partly counterbalancing the deleterious effects of ageing, which remains to be demonstrated in a prospective longitudinal design. PMID:24460636

  15. Ageing and endurance training effects on quantity and quality of pulmonary vascular bed in healthy men

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    It has recently been demonstrated that in healthy individuals, peak oxygen consumption is associated with a greater pulmonary capillary blood volume and a more distensible pulmonary circulation. Our cross-sectional study suggests that, in healthy men aged 20 to 60 years (n?=?63), endurance sport practice (vigorous-intensity domain of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire) is associated with better quantity (pulmonary capillary blood volume) and quality (slope of increase in lung diffusion for carbon monoxide on exercise) of the pulmonary vascular bed, partly counterbalancing the deleterious effects of ageing, which remains to be demonstrated in a prospective longitudinal design. PMID:24460636

  16. Design of the Coordinate Transformation Function for Cylindrical Acoustic Cloaks with a Quantity of Discrete Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Li; Wen, Ji-Hong; Yu, Dian-Long; Lu, Zhi-Miao; Wen, Xi-Sen

    2014-09-01

    Acoustic cloak based on coordinate transformation is of great topical interest and has promise in potential applications such as sound transparency and insulation. The frequency response of acoustic cloaks with a quantity of discrete homogeneous layers is analyzed by the acoustic scattering theory. The effect of coordinate transformation function on the acoustic total scattering cross section is discussed to achieve low scattering with only a few layers of anisotropic metamaterials. Also, the physics of acoustic wave interaction with the interfaces between the discrete layers inside the cloak shell is discussed. These results provide a better way of designing a multilayered acoustic cloak with fewer layers.

  17. Approximate models for the study of exponential changed quantities: Application on the plasma waves growth rate or damping

    SciTech Connect

    Xaplanteris, C. L., E-mail: cxaplanteris@yahoo.com [Plasma Physics Laboratory, IMS, NCSR “Demokritos”, Athens, Greece and Hellenic Army Academy, Vari Attica (Greece); Xaplanteris, L. C. [School of Physics, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens (Greece)] [School of Physics, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens (Greece); Leousis, D. P. [Technical High School of Athens, Athens (Greece)] [Technical High School of Athens, Athens (Greece)

    2014-03-15

    Many physical phenomena that concern the research these days are basically complicated because of being multi-parametric. Thus, their study and understanding meets with big if not unsolved obstacles. Such complicated and multi-parametric is the plasmatic state as well, where the plasma and the physical quantities that appear along with it have chaotic behavior. Many of those physical quantities change exponentially and at most times they are stabilized by presenting wavy behavior. Mostly in the transitive state rather than the steady state, the exponentially changing quantities (Growth, Damping etc) depend on each other in most cases. Thus, it is difficult to distinguish the cause from the result. The present paper attempts to help this difficult study and understanding by proposing mathematical exponential models that could relate with the study and understanding of the plasmatic wavy instability behavior. Such instabilities are already detected, understood and presented in previous publications of our laboratory. In other words, our new contribution is the study of the already known plasmatic quantities by using mathematical models (modeling and simulation). These methods are both useful and applicable in the chaotic theory. In addition, our ambition is to also conduct a list of models useful for the study of chaotic problems, such as those that appear into the plasma, starting with this paper's examples.

  18. Anatomy of the AGN in NGC 5548. II. The spatial, temporal, and physical nature of the outflow from HST/COS Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arav, N.; Chamberlain, C.; Kriss, G. A.; Kaastra, J. S.; Cappi, M.; Mehdipour, M.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Steenbrugge, K. C.; Behar, E.; Bianchi, S.; Boissay, R.; Branduardi-Raymont, G.; Costantini, E.; Ely, J. C.; Ebrero, J.; di Gesu, L.; Harrison, F. A.; Kaspi, S.; Malzac, J.; De Marco, B.; Matt, G.; Nandra, K. P.; Paltani, S.; Peterson, B. M.; Pinto, C.; Ponti, G.; Pozo Nuñez, F.; De Rosa, A.; Seta, H.; Ursini, F.; de Vries, C. P.; Walton, D. J.; Whewell, M.

    2015-05-01

    Context. AGN outflows are thought to influence the evolution of their host galaxies and of super massive black holes. Our deep multiwavelength campaign on NGC 5548 has revealed a new, unusually strong X-ray obscuration, accompanied by broad UV absorption troughs observed for the first time in this object. The X-ray obscuration caused a dramatic decrease in the incident ionizing flux on the outflow that produces the long-studied narrow UV absorption lines in this AGN. The resulting data allowed us to construct a comprehensive physical, spatial, and temporal picture for this enduring AGN wind. Aims: We aim to determine the distance of the narrow UV outflow components from the central source, their total column-density, and the mechanism responsible for their observed absorption variability. Methods: We study the UV spectra acquired during the campaign, as well as from four previous epochs (1998-2011). Our main analysis tools are ionic column-density extraction techniques, photoionization models based on the code CLOUDY, and collisional excitation simulations. Results: A simple model based on a fixed total column-density absorber, reacting to changes in ionizing illumination, matches the very different ionization states seen in five spectroscopic epochs spanning 16 years. The main component of the enduring outflow is situated at 3.5 ± 1.1 pc from the central source, and its distance and number density are similar to those of the narrow-emitting-line region in this object. Three other components are situated between 5-70 pc and two are farther than 100 pc. The wealth of observational constraints and the anti-correlation between the observed X-ray and UV flux in the 2002 and 2013 epochs make our physical model a leading contender for interpreting trough variability data of quasar outflows. Conclusions: This campaign, in combination with prior UV and X-ray data, yields the first simple model that can explain the physical characteristics and the substantial variability observed in an AGN outflow. Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  19. Unraveling water quality and quantity effects of biofuels production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Developing a sustainable biofuels industry is crucial for several reasons, but what impact will it have on soil water quantity and quality? This popular press article for ISU alumni, teachers, middle/high school students and others is written to help them understand the complexity of this seemingly ...

  20. FORD WHITMAN HARRIS AND THE ECONOMIC ORDER QUANTITY MODEL

    E-print Network

    Rudowsky, Ira

    . The A. W. Shaw Company was the first publisher of the Harvard Business Review, under an agreement, A. W. Shaw, was closely associ- ated with the Harvard Business School during its early years order quantity (EOQ) provides a remarkable example of this kind of historical distortion. Other reviews

  1. Water Quality and Quantity Concerns Population growth, increasing water demands,

    E-print Network

    systems, private water well screening, and soil nutrient management. Water conservation programs of AgriWater Quality and Quantity Concerns Population growth, increasing water demands, contamination issues and drought have placed the state's water supply under tremendous stress. Water demand in Texas

  2. Quantity, Quality, and Satisfaction with Mentoring: What Matters Most?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Xiaohong; Payne, Stephanie C.

    2014-01-01

    According to Kram's mentor role theory, satisfaction with mentoring and mentorship quality are key indicators of effective and successful mentoring. We contribute to mentoring research by demonstrating the relative importance of mentorship quantity, mentorship quality, and satisfaction with mentoring to the prediction of job satisfaction,…

  3. 9 CFR 381.121 - Quantity of contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Quantity of contents. 381.121 Section 381.121 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...from other label information appearing to the left or right of the statement, by a space at least equal in...

  4. 9 CFR 381.121 - Quantity of contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Quantity of contents. 381.121 Section 381.121 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...from other label information appearing to the left or right of the statement, by a space at least equal in...

  5. 9 CFR 381.121 - Quantity of contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Quantity of contents. 381.121 Section 381.121 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...from other label information appearing to the left or right of the statement, by a space at least equal in...

  6. Narrative Speech in Aging: Quantity, Information Content, and Cohesion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juncos-Rabadan, Onesimo; Pereiro, Arturo X.; Rodriguez, Maria Soledad

    2005-01-01

    This study examined age-related changes in narrative speech of 79 adults aged 40-91 who told stories from their pictorial representations. Quantity, information content and cohesion of narratives were analysed using a detailed transcription and codification system. We carried out a LISREL analysis to study relationships between narrative…

  7. Prediction of turbulence quantities for swirling flow in conical diffusers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven W. Armfield; Nam-Hyo Cho; Clive A. J. Fletcher

    1990-01-01

    Turbulent swirling flow through 12 and 20 deg included angle diffusers, with moderate inlet swirl numbers sufficient to avoid wall flow separation, are predicted by a k-epsilon and an algebraic Reynolds stress turbulence model with a two-layer wall function. Good agreement with experimental data for the mean velocities and turbulence quantities is obtained by using an algebraic Reynolds stress turbulence

  8. Regulating water quantity and quality in irrigated agriculture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Dinar; A. Xepapadeas

    1998-01-01

    This paper largely applies the theoretical model formulated in an earlier paper by the authors, of an input based approach to control an agricultural non-point-source pollution. The empirical problem includes a groundwater aquifer being polluted by several agricultural producers. In order to prevent degradation of the quality and depletion of the quantity of the water in the aquifer, a regulatory

  9. NEW APPROACHES TO ESTIMATION OF SOLID WASTE QUANTITY AND COMPOSITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Efficient and statistically sound sampling protocols for estimating the quantity and composition of solid waste over a stated period of time in a given location, such as a landfill site or at a specific point in an industrial or commercial process, are essential to the design of ...

  10. 49 CFR 173.4a - Excepted quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Inner packaging limits . The maximum quantity of hazardous materials in each inner packaging is limited to: (1) For toxic material with a Division 6.1 primary or subsidiary hazard, PG I or II— (i) 1 g (0.04 ounce) for solids; or...

  11. RESEARCH ARTICLE Evidence for weed quantity as the major information

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    RESEARCH ARTICLE Evidence for weed quantity as the major information gathered by organic farmers for weed management Marion Casagrande & Nathalie Joly & Marie-Hélène Jeuffroy & Christine Bouchard has several drawbacks such as difficult weed management. Indeed weeds can reduce crop yields

  12. Research Article Impacts of data quantity on fisheries stock assessment

    E-print Network

    Chen, Yong

    Research Article Impacts of data quantity on fisheries stock assessment Yong Chen1, *, Liqiao Chen2 population dynamics of fish stocks is essential in developing optimal fisheries man- agement strategies. This is often obtained through fitting mathematical models to information/data collected from the fisheries

  13. Predictors of Sleep Quantity and Quality in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Eric S.

    2012-01-01

    Whereas sleep is often thought of as a common health issue among college students, few, if any, researchers have comprehensively evaluated correlates and predictors of sleep quality and quantity within this population. Most often, studies of this type are used by researchers to assess particular categories of correlates and predictors (e.g.,…

  14. Plotting Rates of Photosynthesis as a Function of Light Quantity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Rob L.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses methods for plotting rates of photosynthesis as a function of light quantity. Presents evidence that suggests that empirically derived conversion factors, which are used to convert foot candles to photon fluence rates, should be used with extreme caution. Suggests how rate data are best plotted when any kind of light meter is not…

  15. Food quantity affects the sensitivity of Daphnia to road salt.

    PubMed

    Brown, Arran H; Yan, Norman D

    2015-04-01

    Road deicing operations have raised chloride (Cl) levels in many temperate lakes in Europe and North America. These lakes vary widely in trophic status, but to date, no one has quantified the interaction between food quantity and road salt toxicity. We examined the effects of food quantity (particulate algal C concentration (C)) on the chronic toxicity of Cl to Daphnia in soft-water bioassays. There was a strong positive linear relationship (r(2) = 0.92 for NaCl and r(2) = 0.96 for CaCl2) between food quantity and Cl LC50. As food quantity increased from 0.2 to 1.0 mg C/L (levels characteristic of oligotrophic to eutrophic lakes, respectively), the chronic Cl LC50 increased from 55.7 to 284.8 mg Cl/L. Salt type (NaCl or CaCl2) did not affect the Cl LC50, Daphnia life history parameters, or the intrinsic rate of population increase (r). The life history parameter most sensitive to Cl was neonate production. Cl did not inhibit egg production, nor was the maternal lipid investment in eggs changed, but egg viability and the subsequent release of live neonates decreased as Cl levels increased and food decreased. Our results suggest the trophic status of lakes should be considered when assessing ecological threat from Cl. PMID:25751457

  16. Reengineering of construction project procurement process on bill of quantities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qi-jun Chen; Ji-feng Yang; Qi-hui Li

    2011-01-01

    The promulgation of The Code of Valuation with Bill of Quantities of Construction Works has resulted in a transformation and revolution in China construction industry. It's essential and crucial to perform BPR (Business Process Reengineering) for Chinese construction corporations to succeed, even survive. Managers must fundamentally rethink and radically redesign the structures of their organizations as well as the operating

  17. REGRESSION ANALYSIS OF QUANTITY DATA WITH EXACT ZEROES #

    E-print Network

    Smyth, Gordon K.

    distributions # is 0, 1, 2 and 3 respectively. Jørgensen (1987) gave a more general definition of a generalized for #. Those distributions with 1 Poisson mixtures of gamma distributions (Tweedie, 1984. The approach of this paper is to model quantity data using a family of exponential family distributions

  18. Regression Analysis of Quantity Data with Exact Zeroes

    E-print Network

    Smyth, Gordon K.

    distributions is 0, 1, 2 and 3 respectively. Jørgensen (1987) gave a more general definition of a generalized­580. Current contact: smyth@wehi.edu.au 1 #12;to be Poisson mixtures of gamma distributions (Tweedie, 1984, p. The approach of this paper is to model quantity data using a family of exponential family distributions

  19. The Effects of Meal Schedule and Quantity on Problematic Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wacker, David P.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Two case examples (a toddler with severe developmental delays and a 7-year old with severe mental retardation) illustrating effects of meal schedule and food quantity on displays of problematic behavior are offered. Brief functional analyses of aberrant behavior provided useful information for interpreting distinct patterns of behavior. (DB)

  20. Altering Rainfall Timing and Quantity in a Mesic Grassland

    E-print Network

    Blair, John

    Altering Rainfall Timing and Quantity in a Mesic Grassland Ecosystem: Design and Performance of Rainfall Manipulation Shelters Philip A. Fay,1 * Jonathan D. Carlisle,1 Alan K. Knapp,1 John M. Blair,1 ABSTRACT Global climate change is predicted to alter growing season rainfall patterns, potentially reducing

  1. Volcanoes triggered by dynamic and static stress changes in Chile: Observations, stress field changes and physical modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaete, Ayleen; Walter, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Evidence is increasing that subduction zone earthquakes may influence the volcanic activity along a volcanic arc. The processes of triggering, however, are not clear. In a commonly discussed concept, changes of the crustal stress field may affect intrusive bodies under volcano, open magma pathways and faults, and decompress a magma-fluid system. Other concepts focus on the dynamic passage of seismic waves, inducing bubble growth and ascent as well as fluid migration. Volcanoes in the south and central Andes have a century long documented history of earthquake - eruption interactions. Numerous subduction earthquakes were followed by more and unexpected volcano eruptions, which is why we here concentrate our research on this particular area. The most recent major subduction earthquake occurred on April 1st, 2014, close to the coast of northern Chile. During this event we had volcano monitoring stations located at several active volcanoes and fumarole sites, as well as at on of the largest geyser fields of the world, all located within 500 km distance to the earthquake epicenter. Here we present preliminary results describing if and how those monitored volcano sites showed activity level changes, which is an opportunity to study the influence of earthquakes over active and dormant volcanoes. After analysis of the date we computed the static strain and stress field in the overriding plate and at the sites of the volcanoes. In addition we design physical models that allow to study not only the effects of static stress changes and dilatation on fluid paths, but also the effect of dynamic processes. To this aim we simulate real seismic waveforms on a shaking table hosting an analogue volcano, and discuss under which situations magma paths and ascent rates are augmented and hindered by the subduction earthquake. Results are transferrable to other subduction related volcano-earthquake interactions and may allow better understanding of the processes of static and dynamic triggering.

  2. Plasma physical parameters along coronal-mass-ejection-driven shocks. I. Ultraviolet and white-light observations

    SciTech Connect

    Bemporad, A.; Susino, R. [Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica (INAF), Osservatorio Astronomico di Torino, Strada Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Torino (Italy); Lapenta, G., E-mail: bemporad@oato.inaf.it [Center for Plasma Astrophysics (CPA), KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200B, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2014-04-01

    In this work, UV and white-light (WL) coronagraphic data are combined to derive the full set of plasma physical parameters along the front of a shock driven by a coronal mass ejection. Pre-shock plasma density, shock compression ratio, speed, and inclination angle are estimated from WL data, while pre-shock plasma temperature and outflow velocity are derived from UV data. The Rankine-Hugoniot (RH) equations for the general case of an oblique shock are then applied at three points along the front located between 2.2 and 2.6 R {sub ?} at the shock nose and at the two flanks. Stronger field deflection (by ?46°), plasma compression (factor ?2.7), and heating (factor ?12) occur at the nose, while heating at the flanks is more moderate (factor 1.5-3.0). Starting from a pre-shock corona where protons and electrons have about the same temperature (T{sub p} ? T{sub e} ? 1.5 × 10{sup 6} K), temperature increases derived with RH equations could better represent the proton heating (by dissipation across the shock), while the temperature increase implied by adiabatic compression (factor ?2 at the nose, ?1.2-1.5 at the flanks) could be more representative of electron heating: the transit of the shock causes a decoupling between electron and proton temperatures. Derived magnetic field vector rotations imply a draping of field lines around the expanding flux rope. The shock turns out to be super-critical (sub-critical) at the nose (at the flanks), where derived post-shock plasma parameters can be very well approximated with those derived by assuming a parallel (perpendicular) shock.

  3. The OSIRIS-REx target asteroid (101955) Bennu: Constraints on its physical, geological, and dynamical nature from astronomical observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauretta, D. S.; Bartels, A. E.; Barucci, M. A.; Bierhaus, E. B.; Binzel, R. P.; Bottke, W. F.; Campins, H.; Chesley, S. R.; Clark, B. C.; Clark, B. E.; Cloutis, E. A.; Connolly, H. C.; Crombie, M. K.; Delbó, M.; Dworkin, J. P.; Emery, J. P.; Glavin, D. P.; Hamilton, V. E.; Hergenrother, C. W.; Johnson, C. L.; Keller, L. P.; Michel, P.; Nolan, M. C.; Sandford, S. A.; Scheeres, D. J.; Simon, A. A.; Sutter, B. M.; Vokrouhlický, D.; Walsh, K. J.

    2015-04-01

    We review the results of an extensive campaign to determine the physical, geological, and dynamical properties of asteroid (101955) Bennu. This investigation provides information on the orbit, shape, mass, rotation state, radar response, photometric, spectroscopic, thermal, regolith, and environmental properties of Bennu. We combine these data with cosmochemical and dynamical models to develop a hypothetical timeline for Bennu's formation and evolution. We infer that Bennu is an ancient object that has witnessed over 4.5 Gyr of solar system history. Its chemistry and mineralogy were established within the first 10 Myr of the solar system. It likely originated as a discrete asteroid in the inner Main Belt approximately 0.7-2 Gyr ago as a fragment from the catastrophic disruption of a large (approximately 100-km), carbonaceous asteroid. It was delivered to near-Earth space via a combination of Yarkovsky-induced drift and interaction with giant-planet resonances. During its journey, YORP processes and planetary close encounters modified Bennu's spin state, potentially reshaping and resurfacing the asteroid. We also review work on Bennu's future dynamical evolution and constrain its ultimate fate. It is one of the most Potentially Hazardous Asteroids with an approximately 1-in-2700 chance of impacting the Earth in the late 22nd century. It will most likely end its dynamical life by falling into the Sun. The highest probability for a planetary impact is with Venus, followed by the Earth. There is a chance that Bennu will be ejected from the inner solar system after a close encounter with Jupiter. OSIRIS-REx will return samples from the surface of this intriguing asteroid in September 2023.

  4. Simultaneous Ultraviolet and X-Ray Observations of the Seyfert Galaxy NGC 4151. II. Physical Conditions in the UV Absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraemer, S. B.; Crenshaw, D. M.; Gabel, J. R.; Kriss, G. A.; Netzer, H.; Peterson, B. M.; George, I. M.; Gull, T. R.; Hutchings, J. B.; Mushotzky, R. F.; Turner, T. J.

    2006-12-01

    We present a detailed analysis, including photoionization modeling, of the intrinsic absorption in the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 4151 using ultraviolet (UV) spectra from the Hubble Space Telescope Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph and the Far Ultraviolet Spectrographic Explorer obtained 2002 May as part of a set of contemporaneous observations that included Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer spectra. In our analysis of the Chandra spectra, we determined that the X-ray absorption was dominated by two components: a high-ionization absorber, revealed by the presence of H-like and He-like lines of Mg, Si, and S, and a lower ionization absorber, in which inner shell absorption lines from lower ionization species of these elements formed. We identified the latter as the source of the saturated UV lines of O VI, C IV, and N V associated with the absorption feature at a radial velocity of ~-500 km s-1, which we referred to as component D+E. In the present work, we have derived tighter constrains on the line-of-sight covering factors, densities, and radial distances of the absorbers. We confirm the presence of the three subcomponents of D+E described in our previous paper, with line-of-sight covering factors (Clos) ranging from ~0.5 to 0.9, and find evidence for a fourth component, D+Ed, characterized by low ionization and a Clos~0.2. The complexity of the UV absorption in NGC 4151 may be a consequence of the fact that we are viewing the black hole/accretion disk system at a relatively high inclination and, therefore, may be detecting the densest part of the flow. Our deconvolution of the underlying C IV emission indicates that D+E must lie outside the intermediate line region (ILR), hence at a radial distance of ~0.1 pc. We find that the equivalent widths (EWs) of the low-ionization lines associated with D+E varied over the period from 1999 July to 2002 May. Although over part of this time, the variations were correlated with changes in the UV continuum, the drop in the EWs of these lines between 2001 April and 2002 May are suggestive of bulk motion of gas out of our line of sight. Over this period, Clos for the low-ionization absorption lines dropped from ~0.7 to ~0.2. If these lines from these two epochs arose in the same subcomponent, the transverse velocity of the gas is ~2100 km s-1. This is similar to the constraint on transverse velocity derived from the drop in the X-ray absorbing column between 2000 March and 2002 May. Transverse velocities of this order are consistent with an origin in a rotating disk, at the roughly radial distance we derived for D+E. As we suggested in our previous study, it is likely that the absorption arises in a disk-driven wind. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555 these observations are associated with proposal GO-9272. Also based on observations made with the NASA-CNES-CSA Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer. FUSE is operated for NASA by Johns Hopkins University under NASA contract NAS5-32985.

  5. Visible light and ultraviolet observations of coronal structures: physical properties of an equatorial streamer and modelling of the F corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolei, S.; Spadaro, D.; Ventura, R.

    2015-05-01

    The present work studies the characteristics of an equatorial streamer visible above the east limb of the Sun on March 2008, during the most recent minimum of solar activity. We analysed the visible light coronagraphic images of SOHO/LASCO and the ultraviolet observations in the H I Ly? spectral line obtained by SOHO/UVCS, and exploited the Doppler dimming effect of the coronal Ly? line to derive the outflow velocity profile of the scattering neutral hydrogen atoms in the streamer region. Taking advantage of the synergy between visible light and ultraviolet observations, we were able to determine all the properties of the coronal structure. In particular, the actual extent of the streamer along the line of sight has been evaluated for the first time. In so doing, the solar wind outflow velocity turned out to be the only free parameter in the theoretical modelling of the Ly? intensity. We found nearly static conditions below 3.5 R? along the streamer axis, whereas the solar wind flows at velocities from 40 km s-1 to 140 km s-1 in the altitude range 2.5-5.0 R? along the southern boundary of the streamer. We also derived the intensity distribution of the F coronal component in the LASCO C2 field of view, by combining total and polarized brightness data. Finally, we investigated the dependence of the Ly? resonant scattering process on the kinetic temperature of the coronal neutral hydrogen atoms and found that the value of this temperature mostly affects the scattering process at low heliocentric distances, where the solar wind flows with low velocity.

  6. Trends and interactions of physical and bio-geo-chemical features in the Adriatic Sea as derived from satellite observations.

    PubMed

    Barale, Vittorio; Schiller, Christian; Tacchi, Ruggero; Marechal, Cecile

    2005-12-15

    Time series of satellite data, generated by the AVHRR (1981-1999), CZCS (1979-1985) and SeaWiFS (1998-2002), have been used to assess trends and interactions of physical and bio-geo-chemical features in the Adriatic Sea. The images were processed to estimate Sea Surface Temperature (SST) and Chlorophyll-like Pigment Concentration (CPC). Long-term composites and climatologies were derived, using fixed geographical grids and projections. The AVHRR data show an apparent warming trend, when plotting the sequence of seasonal cycles (monthly mean SST, averaged over the whole basin) against time, due to a steady rise of summer values. Considering 3 regions (north, central and south), split into east and west sections, the northern Adriatic shows high SST fluctuations (possibly associated with the cycle of winter cooling and summer warming, typical of the relatively shallow sub-basin), while the southern Adriatic exhibits a lower variability (possibly influenced by the periodic water incoming from, and outflowing to the Ionian Sea). During summer, an east-west gradient prevails, while during winter only a general north-south gradient can be found. The SeaWiFS-derived CPC values, distributions and trends appear to be consistent with the historical CZCS record. Persistent differences in the quantitative assessment of CPC for coastal waters is due to the use of improved algorithms, less influenced by the presence of dissolved organics and suspended sediments in the water column, for the processing of SeaWiFS data. Apparent incongruities of the space and time patterns in the SeaWiFS record with respect to the reference climatology, obtained by CZCS more than a decade before, occur chiefly when considering the spring bloom in the southern Adriatic and the summer development of the north Adriatic front. The comparison of the long-term times series of satellite data shows that there is a high correlation between patterns in the thermal field and in the colour field. This suggests that different surface waters, identified by the SST index, are also traced by different ecological features, identified by the CPC index. Both indices also show a high correlation with the classical cyclonic circulation scheme of the Adriatic Sea, proposing once again an intimate relationship between the water dynamics and its bio-geo-chemistry. PMID:16271746

  7. Observations and physical interpretations of the solar wind flow properties as obtained from white light coronagraph aboard SPARTAN 201-01

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guhathakurta, Madhulika; Fisher, Richard; Ofman, Leon

    1995-01-01

    The solar corona was observed with an externally occulted White Light Coronagraph (WLC) carried on the SPARTAN 201-1 spacecraft on 11-12 Apr. 1993. With observations from WLC and the ground based Mauna Loa White Light Coronagraph, a large number of polar plumes both in the north and south polar holes were traced from 1.16 to 5.5 Rs. Flow properties of the solar wind in coronal holes have been determined (Habbal et al., 1995) by using a two fluid model constrained by density profiles and scale height temperatures from the white light observations, and interplanetary measurements of the flow speed and proton mass flux from Ulysses' south polar passage. Provisions for acceleration by Alfven waves, as well as electron and proton heating, are included in the momentum and the energy equations respectively. The model computations fit remarkably well the empirical constraints of the two different density structures (plumes and coronal holes) for a range of input parameters. In this study we investigate the physical nature of the heating function used in the two-fluid model. Alfven waves have been suggested as the possible source of heating that accelerates the solar wind (Ofman and Davila, 1995). We utilize the density contrast observed in WLC data in the plume and ambient coronal hole region to estimate the Alfven wave frequencies responsible for heating these structures. The source heating function utilized in the two fluid model of the solar wind acceleration will be compared with the resonant Alfven wave heating function.

  8. Cardiac looping may be driven by compressive loads resulting from unequal growth of the heart and pericardial cavity. Observations on a physical simulation model

    PubMed Central

    Bayraktar, Meriç; Männer, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    The transformation of the straight embryonic heart tube into a helically wound loop is named cardiac looping. Such looping is regarded as an essential process in cardiac morphogenesis since it brings the building blocks of the developing heart into an approximation of their definitive topographical relationships. During the past two decades, a large number of genes have been identified which play important roles in cardiac looping. However, how genetic information is physically translated into the dynamic form changes of the looping heart is still poorly understood. The oldest hypothesis of cardiac looping mechanics attributes the form changes of the heart loop (ventral bending ? simple helical coiling ? complex helical coiling) to compressive loads resulting from growth differences between the heart and the pericardial cavity. In the present study, we have tested the physical plausibility of this hypothesis, which we call the growth-induced buckling hypothesis, for the first time. Using a physical simulation model, we show that growth-induced buckling of a straight elastic rod within the confined space of a hemispherical cavity can generate the same sequence of form changes as observed in the looping embryonic heart. Our simulation experiments have furthermore shown that, under bilaterally symmetric conditions, growth-induced buckling generates left- and right-handed helices (D-/L-loops) in a 1:1 ratio, while even subtle left- or rightward displacements of the caudal end of the elastic rod at the pre-buckling state are sufficient to direct the buckling process toward the generation of only D- or L-loops, respectively. Our data are discussed with respect to observations made in biological “models.” We conclude that compressive loads resulting from unequal growth of the heart and pericardial cavity play important roles in cardiac looping. Asymmetric positioning of the venous heart pole may direct these forces toward a biased generation of D- or L-loops. PMID:24772086

  9. Confidence limits of evolutionary synthesis models III. On time-integrated quantities

    E-print Network

    M. Cervino; M. A. Gomez-Flechoso; F. J. Castander; D. Schaerer; M. Molla; J. Knodlseder; V. Luridiana

    2001-07-19

    Evolutionary synthesis models are a fundamental tool to interpret the properties of observed stellar systems. In order to achieve a meaningful comparison between models and real data, it is necessary to calibrate the models themselves, i.e. to evaluate the dispersion due to the discreteness of star formation as well as the possible model errors. In this paper we show that linear interpolations in the log M - log t_k plane, that are customary in the evaluation of isochrones in evolutionary synthesis codes, produce unphysical results. We also show that some of the methods used in the calculation of time-integrated quantities (kinetic energy, and total ejected masses of different elements) may produce unrealistic results. We propose alternative solutions to solve both problems. Moreover, we have quantified the expected dispersion of these quantities due to stochastic effects in stellar populations. As a particular result, we show that the dispersion in the 14N/12C ratio increases with time.

  10. Improved quality and quantity of written feedback is associated with a structured feedback proforma

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Melisa J.; McKimm, Judy

    2012-01-01

    Facilitating the provision of detailed, deep and useful feedback is an important design feature of any educational programme. Here we evaluate feedback provided to medical students completing short transferable skills projects. Feedback quantity and depth were evaluated before and after a simple intervention to change the structure of the feedback-provision form from a blank free-text feedback form to a structured proforma that asked a pair of short questions for each of the six domains being assessed. Each pair of questions consisted of asking the marker 'what was done well?' and 'what changes would improve the assignment?' Changing the form was associated with a significant increase in the quantity of the feedback and in the amount and quality of feedback provided to students. We also observed that, for these double-marked projects, the marker designated as 'marker 1' consistently wrote more feedback than the marker designated 'marker 2'. PMID:22916317

  11. Improved quality and quantity of written feedback is associated with a structured feedback proforma.

    PubMed

    Newton, Philip M; Wallace, Melisa J; McKimm, Judy

    2012-01-01

    Facilitating the provision of detailed, deep and useful feedback is an important design feature of any educational programme. Here we evaluate feedback provided to medical students completing short transferable skills projects. Feedback quantity and depth were evaluated before and after a simple intervention to change the structure of the feedback-provision form from a blank free-text feedback form to a structured proforma that asked a pair of short questions for each of the six domains being assessed. Each pair of questions consisted of asking the marker 'what was done well?' and 'what changes would improve the assignment?' Changing the form was associated with a significant increase in the quantity of the feedback and in the amount and quality of feedback provided to students. We also observed that, for these double-marked projects, the marker designated as 'marker 1' consistently wrote more feedback than the marker designated 'marker 2'. PMID:22916317

  12. Atomic Carbon in M82 Physical conditions derived from simultaneous observations of the [CI] fine structure submillimeter wave transitions

    E-print Network

    Stutzki, J; Haas, S W; Honingh, C E; Hottgenroth, D; Jacobs, K; Schieder, R; Simon, R; Staguhn, J G; Winnewisser, G; Martin, R N; Peters, W L; McMullin, J P

    1996-01-01

    We report the first extragalactic detection of the neutral carbon [CI] 3P2-3P1 fine structure line at 809 GHz. The line was observed towards M82 simultaneously with the 3P1-3P0 line at 492 GHz, providing a precise measurement of the J=2-1/J=1-0 integrated line ratio of 0.96 (on a [K km s^-1] -scale). This ratio constrains the [CI] emitting gas to have a temperature of at least 50 K and a density of at least 10^4 cm^-3. Already at this minimum temperature and density, the beam averaged CI-column density is large, 2.1 10^18 cm^-2, confirming the high CI/CO abundance ratio of approximately 0.5 estimated earlier from the 492 GHz line alone. We argue that the [CI] emission from M82 most likely arises in clouds of linear size around a few pc with a density of about 10^4 cm^-3 or slightly higher and temperatures of 50 K up to about 100 K.

  13. Atomic Carbon in M82: Physical conditions derived from simultaneous observations of the [CI] fine structure submillimeter wave transitions

    E-print Network

    J. Stutzki; U. U. Graf; S. Haas; C. E. Honingh; D. Hottgenroth; K. Jacobs; R. Schieder; R. Simon; J. Staguhn; G. Winnewisser; R. N. Martin; W. L. Peters; J. P. McMullin

    1996-12-12

    We report the first extragalactic detection of the neutral carbon [CI] 3P2-3P1 fine structure line at 809 GHz. The line was observed towards M82 simultaneously with the 3P1-3P0 line at 492 GHz, providing a precise measurement of the J=2-1/J=1-0 integrated line ratio of 0.96 (on a [K km s^-1] -scale). This ratio constrains the [CI] emitting gas to have a temperature of at least 50 K and a density of at least 10^4 cm^-3. Already at this minimum temperature and density, the beam averaged CI-column density is large, 2.1 10^18 cm^-2, confirming the high CI/CO abundance ratio of approximately 0.5 estimated earlier from the 492 GHz line alone. We argue that the [CI] emission from M82 most likely arises in clouds of linear size around a few pc with a density of about 10^4 cm^-3 or slightly higher and temperatures of 50 K up to about 100 K.

  14. 48 CFR 245.7309-8 - Variations in quantity or weight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Variations in quantity or weight. When property is sold on a “unit price” basis, the Contractor reserves...percent the quantity or weight listed in the Invitation...unit price and on the basis of the quantity or weight...

  15. 48 CFR 52.207-4 - Economic Purchase Quantity-Supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Economic Purchase Quantity-Supplies. 52...Provisions and Clauses 52.207-4 Economic Purchase Quantity—Supplies. As...203, insert the following provision: Economic Purchase Quantity—Supplies (AUG...

  16. 48 CFR 52.207-4 - Economic Purchase Quantity-Supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Economic Purchase Quantity-Supplies. 52...Provisions and Clauses 52.207-4 Economic Purchase Quantity—Supplies. As...203, insert the following provision: Economic Purchase Quantity—Supplies (AUG...

  17. 48 CFR 52.207-4 - Economic Purchase Quantity-Supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Economic Purchase Quantity-Supplies. 52...Provisions and Clauses 52.207-4 Economic Purchase Quantity—Supplies. As...203, insert the following provision: Economic Purchase Quantity—Supplies (AUG...

  18. 48 CFR 52.207-4 - Economic Purchase Quantity-Supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Economic Purchase Quantity-Supplies. 52...Provisions and Clauses 52.207-4 Economic Purchase Quantity—Supplies. As...203, insert the following provision: Economic Purchase Quantity—Supplies (AUG...

  19. Provider-client interactions and quantity of health care use.

    PubMed

    Lien, Hsien-Ming; Albert Ma, Ching-To; McGuire, Thomas G

    2004-11-01

    This paper considers three types of provider-client interactions that influence quantity of health care use: rationing, effort, and persuasion. By rationing, we refer to a quantity limit set by a provider; effort, the productive inputs supplied by a provider to increase a client's demand; persuasion, the unproductive inputs used by a provider to induce a client's demand. We construct a theoretical model incorporating all three mechanisms as special cases. When the general model is specialized into one of three mechanisms, a set of empirical implications emerges. We test for the presence of each mechanism using data of patients receiving outpatient treatment for alcohol abuse in the Maine Addiction Treatment System. We find evidence for rationing and persuasion, but not effort. PMID:15556245

  20. A data quantity optimization algorithm in terrain visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yabin; Gong, Jianhua

    2008-10-01

    In order to ascertain appropriate data quantity in terrain visualization for some certain computers, the relationship model of FPS and data quantity has been put forward in this paper. Regarding the model, the time of a whole terrain visualization cycle is divided into two parts: data unrelated time and data related time. Based on the relationship model, a data optimization algorithm is developed, and the influences of timer error and data reading error are considered in terms of the algorithm. The algorithm is tested in a terrain visualization system developed with C++, FLTK and OpenGL. The results of experiment shows that the algorithm can evaluate and quantify computer's visualization performance, and calculate the precise triangle amount quickly, thus the rendering rate of terrain visualization system can be controlled accurately.

  1. Type Selection & Quantity Optimization of Logistics Equipment in Logistics Park

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cheng Yao-rong; Zhang Ming; Liang Bo

    2009-01-01

    In order to select and allocate correct equipment for the logistics park, firstly the goods information matter-elements and equipment matter-elements were established by the matter-elements theory, the matching rule and the model between goods & logistics equipment were built. Secondly the formula to compute the quantity of logistics equipment was given out. Thirdly according the theory of life cycle cost

  2. Method of intercalating large quantities of fibrous structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, James R. (inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A method of intercalating large quantities of fibrous structures uses a rotatable reaction chamber containing a liquid phase intercalate. The intercalate liquid phase is controlled by appropriately heating, cooling, or pressurizing the reaction. Rotation of the chamber containing the fiber sample enables total submergence of the fiber during intercalation. Intercalated graphite fibers having metal-like resistivities are achieved and are conceivably useful as electrical conductors.

  3. The Quantity Flexibility Contract and Supplier-Customer Incentives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andy A. Tsay

    1999-01-01

    Consider a supply chain consisting of two independent agents, a supplier (e.g., a manufacturer) and its customer (e.g., a retailer), the latter in turn serving an uncertain market demand. To reconcile manufacturing\\/procurement time lags with a need for timely response to the market, such supply chains often must commit resources to production quantities based on forecasted rather than realized demand.

  4. Radio frequency tank eigenmode sensor for propellant quantity gauging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerli, Gregory A. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A method for measuring the quantity of fluid in a tank may include the steps of selecting a match between a measured set of electromagnetic eigenfrequencies and a simulated plurality of sets of electromagnetic eigenfrequencies using a matching algorithm, wherein the match is one simulated set of electromagnetic eigenfrequencies from the simulated plurality of sets of electromagnetic eigenfrequencies, and determining the fill level of the tank based upon the match.

  5. Alfred Marshall and the quantity theory of money

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas M. Humphrey

    2004-01-01

    Marshall made at least four contributions to the classical quantity theory. He endowed it with his Cambridge cash-balance money-supply-and-demand framework to explain how the nominal money supply relative to real money demand determines the price level. He combined it with the assumption of purchasing power parity to explain (i) the international distribution of world money under metallic standards and fixed

  6. Discrete Approximations with Additional Conserved Quantities: Deterministic and Statistical Behavior

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rafail V. Abramov; Andrew J. Majda

    2003-01-01

    Discrete numerical approximations with additional conserved quantities\\u000aare developed here both for barotropic geophysical flows generalizing\\u000athe 2D incompressible fluid equations and suitable discretizations of\\u000athe Burgers-Hopf equation. Mathematical, numerical, and statistical\\u000aproperties of these approximations are studied below in various different\\u000acontexts through the symbiotic interaction of mathematical theory and\\u000ascientific computing. The new contributions include an explicit concrete

  7. Planning a School Physics Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blasiak, Wladyslaw

    1986-01-01

    Presents a model for planning the measurement of physical quantities. Provides two examples of optimizing the conditions of indirect measurement for laboratory experiments which involve measurements of acceleration due to gravity and of viscosity by means of Stokes' formula. (ML)

  8. Synchrotron radiation shielding design and ICRP radiological protection quantities.

    PubMed

    Bassey, Bassey; Moreno, Beatriz; Chapman, Dean

    2015-06-01

    Protection and operational quantities as defined by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) are the two sets of quantities recommended for use in radiological protection for external radiation. Since the '80s, the protection quantities have evolved from the concept of dose equivalent to effective dose equivalent to effective dose, and the associated conversion coefficients have undergone changes. In this work, the influence of three different versions of ICRP photon dose conversion coefficients in the synchrotron radiation shielding calculations of an experimental enclosure has been examined. The versions are effective dose equivalent (ICRP Publication 51), effective dose (ICRP Publication 74), and effective dose (ICRP Publication 116) conversion coefficients. The sources of the synchrotron radiation white beam into the enclosure were a bending magnet, an undulator and a wiggler. The ranges of photons energy from these sources were 10-200?keV for the bending magnet and undulator, and 10-500?keV for the wiggler. The design criterion aimed a radiation leakage less than 0.5?µSv?h(-1) from the enclosure. As expected, larger conversion coefficients in ICRP Publication 51 lead to higher calculated dose rates. However, the percentage differences among the calculated dose rates get smaller once shielding is added, and the choice of conversion coefficients set did not affect the final shielding decision. PMID:25906251

  9. Quality and quantity of leachate in aerobic pilot-scale landfills.

    PubMed

    Bilgili, Memmet Sinan; Demir, Ahmet; Ozkaya, Bestamin

    2006-08-01

    In this study, two pilot-scale aerobic landfill reactors with (A1) and without (A2) leachate recirculation are used to obtain detailed information on the quantity and quality of leachate in aerobic landfills. The observed parameters of leachate quality are pH, chloride (Cl-), chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N), and nitrate (NO3(-)-N). pH values of the leachate increased to 7 after 50 days in reactor A1 and after 70 days in reactor A2. Cl- concentrations increased rapidly to 6100 (A1) and 6900 (A2) mg/L after 80 days, from initial values of 3000 and 2800 mg/L, respectively. COD and BOD values decreased rapidly in the A1 landfill reactor, indicating the rapid oxidation of organic matter. The BOD/COD ratio indicates that leachate recirculation slightly increases the degradation of solid waste in aerobic landfills. NH3-N concentrations decreased as a result of the nitrification process. Denitrification occurred in parts of the reactors as a result of intermittent aeration; this process causes a decrease in NO3(-) concentrations. There is a marked difference between the A1 and A2 reactors in terms of leachate quantity. Recirculated leachate made up 53.3% of the leachate generated from the A1 reactor during the experiment, while leachate quantity decreased by 47.3% with recirculation when compared with the aerobic dry landfill reactor. PMID:16788857

  10. Perceptual Image Compression Prototype NASA missions have and will continue to generate immense quantities of image data. For

    E-print Network

    Perceptual Image Compression Prototype NASA missions have and will continue to generate immense quantities of image data. For example, the Earth Observing System (EOS) is expected to generate in excess of one terabyte/day. NASA confronts a major technical challenge in managing this great flow of imagery

  11. Propagule quantity and quality in traditional Makushi farming of cassava (Manihot esculenta): A case study for understanding domestication and

    E-print Network

    -1 Propagule quantity and quality in traditional Makushi farming of cassava (Manihot esculenta March 2005; accepted in revised form 5 August 2005 Key words: Cassava, Domestication, Human selection conducted observations, interviews and experiments to study this interaction in cassava grown by Makushi

  12. Analysis of the sensitivity of thermal infrared nadir satellite observations to the chemical and micro-physical properties of upper tropospheric-lower stratospheric sulphate aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sellitto, Pasquale; Sèze, Geneviève; Legras, Bernard

    2015-04-01

    Secondary sulphate aerosols are the predominant typology of aerosols in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UTLS), and can have an important impact on radiative transfer and climate, cirrus formation and chemistry in the UTLS. Despite their importance, the satellite observation at the regional scale of sulphate aerosols in the UTLS is limited. In this work, we address the sensitivity of the thermal infrared satellite observations to secondary sulphate aerosols in the UTLS. The absorption properties of sulphuric acid/water droplets, for different sulphuric acid mixing ratios and temperatures, are systematically analysed. The absorption coefficients are derived by means of a Mie code, using refractive indexes taken from the GEISA (Gestion et Etude des Informations Spectroscopiques Atmosphériques : Management and Study of Spectroscopic Information) spectroscopic database and log-normal size distributions with different effective radii and number concentrations. IASI (Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer) and SEVIRI (Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager) pseudo-observations are generated using forward radiative transfer calculations performed with the 4A (Automatized Atmospheric Absorption Atlas) radiative transfer model, to estimate the impact of the absorption of idealized aerosol layers, at typical UTLS conditions, on the radiance spectra observed by these simulated satellite instruments. We found a marked spectral signature of these aerosol layers between 700 and 1200 cm-1, due to the absorption bands of the sulphate and bi-sulphate ions and the undissociated sulphuric acid, with absorption peaks at 1170 and 905 cm-1. Micro-windows with a sensitivity to chemical and micro-physical properties of the sulphate aerosol layer are identified, and the role of interfering species, and temperature and water vapour profile is discussed.

  13. ENGI 3423 Discrete Random Quantities; Expectation Page 6-01 A random quantity [r.q.] maps an outcome to a number.

    E-print Network

    George, Glyn

    ;ENGI 3423 Discrete Random Quantities; Expectation Page 6-02 A set D is discrete if n(D) is finite OR n is discrete if its set of possible values is a discrete set. Each value of a random quantity has some probability of occurring. The set of probabilities for all values of the random quantity defines a function p

  14. Physics 343 Observational Radio Astronomy

    E-print Network

    Baker, Andrew J.

    telescopes, interferometry + science: stars, planets, interstellar medium, active galactic nuclei, cosmic microwave background #12; Last lecture: student choice April 30th = last day of class: Prof. Baker?) #5: millimeter interferometry of an external galaxy #6: class visit to Green Bank, West Virginia

  15. Physics 343 Observational Radio Astronomy

    E-print Network

    Baker, Andrew J.

    , interferometry + science: stars, planets, interstellar medium, active galactic nuclei, cosmic microwave interferometry of an external galaxy #6: class visit to Green Bank, West Virginia, or a final project

  16. Physics 343 Observational Radio Astronomy

    E-print Network

    Baker, Andrew J.

    , but also about radio astronomy in general: + techniques: singledish telescopes, interferometry + science: planets, interstellar medium, compact objects, cosmic microwave background #12; Last lecture: student the thickness of the Milky Way's disk #4: measuring the Milky Way's rotation curve #5: millimeter interferometry

  17. Reasoning about Intensive Quantities in Whole-Number Multiplication? A Possible Basis for Ratio Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Martin A.; Placa, Nicora

    2012-01-01

    One of the challenges of learning ratio concepts is that it involves intensive quantities, a type of quantity that is more conceptually demanding than those that are evaluated by counting or measuring (extensive quantities). In this paper, we engage in an exploration of the possibility of developing reasoning about intensive quantities during the…

  18. The Quantities of Vitamin A Required by Growing Chicks.

    E-print Network

    Sherwood, R. M. (Ross Madison); Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

    1936-01-01

    fed the hen Effect of vitamin A in the feed upon the mart-ality, health, and ,gain in weight of chicks from eggs high in vitamin A .---_---------. Summary References TIN NO. 528 SEPTEMBER, 19 3 6 THE QUANTITIES OF VITAMIN A REQUIRED BY GROWING... in Bulletins 493 and 514. Mr. Ray Treiehler was in charge of this estima- tion. In the 1933 experiments, each lot of chicks numbered from 30 to 42; in the 1934 experiments, 3 lots of 25 to 26 chicks each were placed on each vitamin level; and in the 1935...

  19. Expanded uncertainty regions for complex quantities in polar coordinates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, B. D.

    2015-04-01

    The expanded measurement uncertainty of a complex quantity is a region in the complex plane surrounding the measured value. When an estimate is expressed in polar coordinates, simultaneous intervals expressing the uncertainty in the radial and angular coordinates define an annular sector. The performance of annular sectors as uncertainty regions is assessed when the respective uncertainty interval calculations follow the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement. That approach is found to be satisfactory provided the measurand is far from the origin and an appropriate coverage factor is used. An alternative, more conservative, method is investigated that achieves no less than nominal coverage probability for any measurand.

  20. Documentation and analysis for packaging limited quantity ice chests

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, P.M.

    1995-01-31

    The purpose of this Documentation and Analysis for Packaging (DAP) is to document that ice chests meet the intent of the International Air Transport Association (IATA) and the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) Code of Federal Regulations as strong, tight containers for the packaging of limited quantities for transport. This DAP also outlines the packaging method used to protect the sample bottles from breakage. Because the ice chests meet the DOT requirements, they can be used to ship LTD QTY on the Hanford Site.

  1. Regularization of Kerr-NUT spacetimes and their thermodynamical quantities

    E-print Network

    Nashed, G G L

    2015-01-01

    In the context of the teleparallel equivalent of general relativity (TEGR) theory, continues calculations of the total energy and momentum for Kerr-NUT spacetimes using three different methods, the gravitational energy-momentum, the Riemannian connection 1-form, ${\\widetilde{\\Gamma}_\\alpha}^\\beta$ and the Euclidean continuation method, have been achieved. Many local Lorentz transformations, that play the role of regularizing tool, are given to get the commonly known form of energy and momentum. We calculate the thermodynamic quantities of Kerr-NUT spacetime. We also investigate the first law of thermodynamics and quantum statistical relation.

  2. Regularization of Kerr-NUT spacetimes and their thermodynamical quantities

    E-print Network

    G. G. L. Nashed

    2015-04-27

    In the context of the teleparallel equivalent of general relativity (TEGR) theory, continues calculations of the total energy and momentum for Kerr-NUT spacetimes using three different methods, the gravitational energy-momentum, the Riemannian connection 1-form, ${\\widetilde{\\Gamma}_\\alpha}^\\beta$ and the Euclidean continuation method, have been achieved. Many local Lorentz transformations, that play the role of regularizing tool, are given to get the commonly known form of energy and momentum. We calculate the thermodynamic quantities of Kerr-NUT spacetime. We also investigate the first law of thermodynamics and quantum statistical relation.

  3. Craig, S. D., VanLehn, K., & Chi. M.T.H. (2008). Promoting learning by observing deep-level reasoning questions on quantitative physics problem solving with Andes. In K. McFerrin, R. Weber, R. Weber, R.

    E-print Network

    VanLehn, Kurt

    2008-01-01

    Craig, S. D., VanLehn, K., & Chi. M.T.H. (2008). Promoting learning by observing deep learning by observing deep-level reasoning questions on quantitative physics problem solving with Andes narrative of a multimedia environment improves learning over both a narrative description without the deep

  4. Adjoint sensitivity analysis of time averaged quantities for unsteady flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qiqi

    2011-11-01

    Sensitivity analysis is an essential gradient for data assimilation, aerodynamic design, uncertainty quantification and optimal flow control. In particular. the adjoint sensitivity analysis method has been shown to solve very high dimensional optimization problems typically found these applications. This talk focuses on recent developments in extending adjoint sensitivity analysis to unsteady flows. The adjoint equation of unsteady flows must be integrated backwards in time. Each backward time step must use the flow solution at the corresponding time. As a result, the entire time history of the flow solution must be either stored or recalculated. The invention of checkpointing schemes provides an economic solution to this challenge. In particular, the dynamic checkpointing scheme makes this solution more practical for computational fluid dynamics problems. In unsteady flows, the quantities of interest are often long time averages. We demonstrate that sensitivity analysis of these long time averaged quantities poses significant new challenge. A novel windowing scheme is developed to compute correct sensitivity for periodic unsteady flows, such as in laminar vortex shedding. Initial investigation of sensitivity analysis of chaotic unsteady flows, i.e., transitional and turbulent flows, is also discussed. This work is supported by a subcontract of PSAAP program at Stanford awarded to MIT.

  5. Bulky waste quantities and treatment methods in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Anna W; Petersen, Claus; Christensen, Thomas H

    2012-02-01

    Bulky waste is a significant and increasing waste stream in Denmark. However, only little research has been done on its composition and treatment. In the present study, data about collection methods, waste quantities and treatment methods for bulky waste were obtained from two municipalities. In addition a sorting analysis was conducted on combustible waste, which is a major fraction of bulky waste in Denmark. The generation of bulky waste was found to be 150-250 kg capita(-1) year(-1), and 90% of the waste was collected at recycling centres; the rest through kerbside collection. Twelve main fractions were identified of which ten were recyclable and constituted 50-60% of the total quantity. The others were combustible waste for incineration (30-40%) and non-combustible waste for landfilling (10%). The largest fractions by mass were combustible waste, bricks and tile, concrete, non-combustible waste, wood, and metal scrap, which together made up more than 90% of the total waste amounts. The amount of combustible waste could be significantly reduced through better sorting. Many of the waste fractions consisted of composite products that underwent thorough separation before being recycled. The recyclable materials were in many cases exported to other countries which made it difficult to track their destination and further treatment. PMID:21890876

  6. Maternal food quantity affects offspring feeding rate in Daphnia magna

    PubMed Central

    Garbutt, Jennie S.; Little, Tom J.

    2014-01-01

    Maternal effects have wide-ranging effects on life-history traits. Here, using the crustacean Daphnia magna, we document a new effect: maternal food quantity affects offspring feeding rate, with low quantities of food triggering mothers to produce slow-feeding offspring. Such a change in the rate of resource acquisition has broad implications for population growth or dynamics and for interactions with, for instance, predators and parasites. This maternal effect can also explain the previously puzzling situation that the offspring of well-fed mothers, despite being smaller, grow and reproduce better than the offspring of food-starved mothers. As an additional source of variation in resource acquisition, this maternal effect may also influence relationships between life-history traits, i.e. trade-offs, and thus constraints on adaptation. Maternal nutrition has long-lasting effects on health and particularly diet-related traits in humans; finding an effect of maternal nutrition on offspring feeding rate in Daphnia highlights the utility of this organism as a powerful experimental model for exploring the relationship between maternal diet and offspring fitness. PMID:25030044

  7. Statistically relevant conserved quantities for truncated quasigeostrophic flow

    PubMed Central

    Abramov, Rafail V.; Majda, Andrew J.

    2003-01-01

    Systematic applications of ideas from equilibrium statistical mechanics lead to promising strategies for assessing the unresolved scales of motion in many problems in science and engineering. A scientific debate over more than the last 25 years involves which conserved quantities among the formally infinite list are statistically relevant for the large-scale equilibrium statistical behavior. Here this important issue is addressed by using suitable discrete numerical approximations for geophysical flows with many conserved quantities as a numerical laboratory. The results of numerical experiments are presented here for these truncated geophysical flows with topography in a suitable regime. These experiments establish that the integrated third power of potential vorticity besides the familiar constraints of energy, circulation, and enstrophy (the integrated second power) is statistically relevant in this regime for the coarse-grained equilibrium statistical behavior at large scales. Furthermore, the integrated higher powers of potential vorticity larger than three are statistically irrelevant for the large-scale equilibrium statistical behavior in the examples studied here. PMID:12642678

  8. Identification of external quantities using redistribution of optical power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skapa, Jan; Siska, Petr; Vasinek, Vladimír; Vanda, Jan

    2008-04-01

    At the present time there are a lot of optical fibers used by telecommunication companies for the data transmission. For the long-distance communications the single-mode fibers are being used for their promising values of parameters like attenuation and dispersion. These types of fibers are designed for the purpose of data transmission. The transmitted signal should not be affected by the external quantities. On the other side there are many types of optical fibers used as sensors. There are used in biomedicine, aerospace etc. The sensor types of optical fibers can not be used for data transmission because of their unappropriate values of attenuation and dispersion. The key idea of our research is to integrate both types of fibers into one fiber. The principle of sensing is based on redistribution of the optical power between individual modes around the cross-section of the end fiber-face. These fiber should preserve the significant parameters of telecommunication fibers and it should be able to measure some external quantities at he same time. This article shows the fundamental steps which must be done to operate the fiber as a sensor and the communication environment at the same time.

  9. Nobiletin: efficient and large quantity isolation from orange peel extract.

    PubMed

    Li, Shiming; Yu, Haiqing; Ho, Chi-Tang

    2006-01-01

    It is known that nobiletin possesses anticancer, antiviral and anti-inflammatory activities. Recently, the demand for nobiletin in large quantities and high purity has increased. However, conventional normal-phase silica gel chromatography and C(18)-reverse-phase separation methods cannot satisfy the requirement of pure and gram scale nobiletin in a timely manner. In exploring the composition and the biological activities of polymethoxyflavones from sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) peel, we developed an efficient isolation method for nobiletin. By employing this methodology, pure nobiletin, in gram quantities, was obtained in only one purification cycle. The orange peel extract was loaded onto a silica gel flash column and eluted by a mixed solvent system of ethyl acetate and hexanes, and the fractions collected. Upon combination of the eluted fractions, mainly containing nobiletin and 5,6,7,4'-tetramethoxyflavone, and concentration under reduced pressure, the resultant residue was loaded onto a Regis chiral column. Gram amounts of nobiletin and 5,6,7,4'-tetramethoxyflavone were then eluted with ethanol and hexanes, respectively. PMID:15999338

  10. Ulysses observations of magnetic waves due to newborn interstellar pickup ions. I. New observations and linear analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Cannon, Bradford E. [Physics Department, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL (United States); Smith, Charles W.; Isenberg, Philip A.; Vasquez, Bernard J. [Physics Department and Space Science Center, Institute for the Study of Earth, Oceans, and Space, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States); Murphy, Neil [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Mail Stop 180-600, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA (United States); Nuno, Raquel G., E-mail: bc13h@my.fsu.edu, E-mail: Charles.Smith@unh.edu, E-mail: Phil.Isenberg@unh.edu, E-mail: Bernie.Vasquez@unh.edu, E-mail: Neil.Murphy@jpl.nasa.gov, E-mail: raquel.nuno@asu.edu [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ (United States)

    2014-04-01

    We have examined Ulysses magnetic field data using dynamic spectrogram techniques that compute wave amplitude, polarization, and direction of propagation over a broad range of frequencies and time. Events were identified that showed a strong polarization signature and an enhancement of power above the local proton gyrofrequency. We perform a statistical study of 502 wave events in an effort to determine when, where, and why they are observed. Most notably, we find that waves arising from newborn interstellar pickup ions are relatively rare and difficult to find. The quantities normally employed in theories of wave growth are neutral atom density and quantities related to their ionization and the subsequent dynamics such as wind speed, solar wind flux, and magnetic field orientation. We find the observations of waves to be largely uncorrelated to these quantities except for mean field direction where quasi-radial magnetic fields are favored and solar wind proton flux where wave observations appear to be favored by low flux conditions which runs contrary to theoretical expectations of wave generation. It would appear that an explanation based on source physics and instability growth rates alone is not adequate to account for the times when these waves are seen.

  11. How do I convert the numbers stored in the files to physical quantities?

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-12-08

    ... by a scale factor to obtain radiance in units of Watts/square meters/steradian/micrometer. These band-by-band scale factors are stored ... The conversion from scaled radiance to radiance (Watts/square meters/steradian/micrometer) requires multiplication by a scale factor. ...

  12. A Physical Mechanism to Explain the Delivery of Chemical Penetration Enhancers into Skin during Transdermal Sonophoresis - Insight into the Observed Synergism

    PubMed Central

    Polat, Baris E.; Deen, William M.; Langer, Robert; Blankschtein, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The synergism between low-frequency sonophoresis (LFS) and chemical penetration enhancers (CPEs), especially surfactants, in transdermal enhancement has been investigated extensively since this phenomenon was first observed over a decade ago. In spite of the identifying that the origin of this synergism is the increased penetration and subsequent dispersion of CPEs in the skin in response to LFS treatment, to date, no mechanism has been directly proposed to explain how LFS induces the observed increased transport of CPEs. In this study, we propose a plausible physical mechanism by which the transport of all CPEs is expected to have significantly increased flux into the localized-transport regions (LTRs) of LFS-treated skin. Specifically, the collapse of acoustic cavitation microjets within LTRs induces a convective flux. In addition, because amphiphilic molecules preferentially adsorb onto the gas/water interface of cavitation bubbles, amphiphiles have an additional adsorptive flux. In this sense, the cavitation bubbles effectively act as carriers for amphiphilic molecules, delivering surfactants directly into the skin when they collapse at the skin surface as cavitation microjets. The flux equations derived for CPE delivery into the LTRs and non-LTRs during LFS treatment, compared to that for untreated skin, explain why the transport of all CPEs, and to an even greater extent amphiphilic CPEs, is increased during LFS treatment. The flux model is tested with a non-amphiphilic CPE (propylene glycol) and both nonionic and ionic amphiphilic CPEs (octyl glucoside and sodium lauryl sulfate, respectively), by measuring the flux of each CPE into untreated skin and the LTRs and non-LTRs of LFS-treated skin. The resulting data shows very good agreement with the proposed flux model. PMID:22100440

  13. Cognition versus Constitution of Objects: From Kant to Modern Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittelstaedt, Peter

    2009-07-01

    Classical mechanics in phase space as well as quantum mechanics in Hilbert space lead to states and observables but not to objects that may be considered as carriers of observable quantities. However, in both cases objects can be constituted as new entities by means of invariance properties of the theories in question. We show, that this way of reasoning has a long history in physics and philosophy and that it can be traced back to the transcendental arguments in Kant’s critique of pure reason.

  14. New applications boost VCSEL quantities: recent developments at Philips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabherr, Martin

    2015-03-01

    Besides the mature and steadily growing datacom market for which VCSELs are key components in Transceivers, Active Optical Cables (AOC), Mid Board Optical Modules (MBOM) or Embedded Optical Modules (EOM), VCSELs have proven to be key components also for other volume applications. Laser mice emerged 2004, just after the burst of the dotcom bubble and the related downturn in the Datacom industry, and dominated the shipped quantities for some years, accompanied by various smaller applications like atomic clock, oxygen sensing, encoders, and many more. Over the past years, two other major applications came into focus: optical interconnects in high performance computers or datacenters and smart sensors for mobile devices. In addition, VCSELs are penetrating into more and more power applications, primarily for illumination or IR heating. We present recent developments in technology, products, and addressed market segments that will have a major impact on the VCSEL industry.

  15. Conserved quantities on asymptotically hyperbolic initial data sets

    E-print Network

    Po-Ning Chen; Mu-Tao Wang; Shing-Tung Yau

    2014-09-05

    In this article, we consider the limit of quasi-local conserved quantities [31,9] at the infinity of an asymptotically hyperbolic initial data set in general relativity. These give notions of total energy-momentum, angular momentum, and center of mass. Our assumption on the asymptotics is less stringent than any previous ones to validate a Bondi-type mass loss formula. The Lorentz group acts on the asymptotic infinity through the exchange of foliations by coordinate spheres. For foliations aligning with the total energy-momentum vector, we prove that the limits of quasi-local center of mass and angular momentum are finite, and evaluate the limits in terms of the expansion coefficients of the metric and the second fundamental form.

  16. How Do Our Actions Affect Water Quantity and Quality?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jessica Gordon

    2008-02-01

    Water is an essential resource for all living things. How we live on our watershed can impact water quantity and quality. It is important to recognize how humans alter watershed dynamics, but students often find it challenging to visualize watershed processes and understand how decisions that they make as individuals and together as a community can affect water resources. Hydrogeology models can provide students with the opportunity to see firsthand how ground cover affects surface runoff and groundwater recharge and how pollution travels through creeks, streams, and aquifers. In the lab experiment described here, students interact with hydrogeology models to help them gain a deeper understanding of scientific processes while engaging in the activities of a scientist.

  17. Conserved quantities in non-abelian monopole fields

    E-print Network

    P. A. Horvathy; J. -P. Ngome

    2009-02-19

    Van Holten's covariant Hamiltonian framework is used to find conserved quantities for an isospin-carrying particle in a non-Abelian monopole-like field. For a Wu-Yang monopole we find the most general scalar potential such that the combined system admits a conserved Runge-Lenz vector. It generalizes the fine-tuned inverse-square plus Coulomb potential, found before by McIntosh and Cisneros, and by Zwanziger, for a charged particle in the field of a Dirac monopole. Following Feh\\'er, the result is interpreted as describing motion in the asymptotic field of a self-dual Prasad-Sommerfield monopole. In the effective non-Abelian field for nuclear motion in a diatomic molecule due to Moody, Shapere and Wilczek, a conserved angular momentum is constructed, despite the non-conservation of the electric charge. No Runge-Lenz vector has been found.

  18. A pilot study to evaluate runoff quantity from green roofs.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ju Young; Lee, Min Jung; Han, Mooyoung

    2015-04-01

    The use of green roofs is gaining increased recognition in many countries as a solution that can be used to improve environmental quality and reduce runoff quantity. To achieve these goals, pilot-scale green roof assemblies have been constructed and operated in an urban setting. From a stormwater management perspective, green roofs are 42.8-60.8% effective in reducing runoff for 200 mm soil depth and 13.8-34.4% effective in reducing runoff for 150 mm soil depth. By using Spearman rank correlation analysis, high rainfall intensity was shown to have a negative relationship with delayed occurrence time, demonstrating that the soil media in green roofs do not efficiently retain rainwater. Increasing the number of antecedent dry days can help to improve water retention capacity and delay occurrence time. From the viewpoint of runoff water quality, green roofs are regarded as the best management practice by filtration and adsorption through growth media (soil). PMID:25666437

  19. Thinking involving very large and very small quantities

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Bob Korn

    2005-01-01

    Intuitively a million is a lot more like a billion than ten is like one hundred, because our intuition has some grasp of ten and one hundred, but we have little grasp of what millions and billions involve. Fortunately, there is often a way to make intelligent decisions involving big quantities. Use arithmetic! Typically we don't need more than multiplication and division to put things into terms we can deal with. If we are unwilling or unable to do the calculations, we should at least recognize that our intuitive judgement might be way off the mark. Subheadings are dvided among large numbers, small numbers and both, and include these topics national finances, terrorism, airplane crashes and lotteries among others.

  20. Perspective in statements of quantity, with implications for consumer psychology.

    PubMed

    Sanford, Anthony J; Fay, Nicolas; Stewart, Andrew; Moxey, Linda

    2002-03-01

    We demonstrate that presentation of information about quantities, whether expressed in natural language or by using numbers, induces a perspective that influences subsequent processing. Experiment 1 shows this to be true for natural language quantifiers, with negative and positive expressions inducing different perspectives. In Experiment 2, we examined the application of this idea to the specific case of perspectives induced by describing products as containing x% fat or as being x% fat free. We found that the percentage-fat description appears to induce a perspective that is sensitive to the level offat being depicted, with products being judged as less healthy at higher amounts of fat. However, this effect was lessened (Experiment 2) or eliminated (Experiment 3) with the percentage-fat-free description. The experiments suggest the fat-free perspective blocks access to assumptions about healthy fat levels. PMID:11933996

  1. Physics and Plasticine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JOHN MACNAMARA; GEOFF AUSTIN

    1993-01-01

    We argue that children's failure on one of Jean Piaget's best known tasks, conservation of solid quantity, reflects ignorance of physical properties rather than inadequate reasoning ability. Basing himself on the result of this and similar tests, Piaget claimed that certain sorts of reasoning are not usually possible before certain ages. The educational and, to a lesser extent today, the

  2. Importance of protein quality versus quantity in alternative host plants for a leaf-feeding insect.

    PubMed

    Barbehenn, Raymond V; Niewiadomski, Julie; Kochmanski, Joseph

    2013-09-01

    The nutritional value of alternative host plants for leaf-feeding insects such as caterpillars is commonly measured in terms of protein quantity. However, nutritional value might also depend on the quality of the foliar protein [i.e., the composition of essential amino acids (EAAs)]. A lack of comparative work on the EAA compositions of herbivores and their host plants has hampered the testing of this hypothesis. We tested the "protein quality hypothesis" using the tree-feeding caterpillars of Lymantria dispar (gypsy moth) and two taxonomically unrelated host plants, red oak (Quercus rubra) and sugar maple (Acer saccharum). Because L. dispar has higher fitness on oak than on maple, support for the hypothesis would be found if protein were of higher quality from oak than from maple. The whole-body EAA composition of L. dispar larvae was measured to estimate its optimum dietary protein composition, which was compared with the EAA compositions of oak and maple leaves. Contrary to the protein quality hypothesis, the EAA compositions of oak and maple were not significantly different in the spring. The growth-limiting EAAs in both tree species were histidine and methionine. Similar results were observed in the summer, with the exception that the histidine composition of oak was between 10 and 15 % greater than in maple leaves. The two main factors that affected the nutritional value of protein from the tree species were the quantities of EAAs, which were consistently higher in oak, and the efficiency of EAA utilization, which decreased from 80 % in May to <50 % in August. We conclude that the relative nutritional value of red oak and sugar maple for L. dispar is more strongly affected by protein quantity than quality. Surveys of many wild herbaceous species also suggest that leaf-feeding insects would be unlikely to specialize on plants based on protein quality. PMID:23297046

  3. Observation of strong VHF-radar echoes from the E-region at 69°N and 54°N: Echo properties, relation to sporadic layers, and physical mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapp, Markus; Leitert, Lasse; Latteck, Ralph; Zecha, Marius; Hoffmann, Peter; Höffner, Josef; Hoppe, Ulf-Peter; La Hoz, Cesar

    For more than ten years the Leibniz-Institute of Atmospheric Physics at Rostock University in Kühlungsborn has been operating two VHF-radars (53.5 MHz) at the Arctic location Andenes (69N, 16E) as well as the mid-latitude site Kühlungsborn (54.1N 11.8E). Both radars have primarily been used for the study of strong radar echoes from the summer mesopause region known as (polar) mesosphere summer echoes or (P)MSE. PMSE occur from mid May until mid August in an altitude range from 80 -90 km, i.e., at the time of year and in the altitude range where the atmosphere is supersaturated with respect to ice such that ice particles may form, modify the D-region plasma, and lead to spectacular radar echoes. The existence of echoes from above this altitude range has generally been deemed impossible since refractive index fluctuations arising from neutral dynamics such as turbulence are effectively destroyed at these altitudes owing to the exponential increase of viscosity with height. Also, plasma instabilities which occur between 90 -110 km height produce field aligned irregularities and should not lead to detectable echoes for vertically sounding radars at polar latitudes where the magnetic field lines are essentially perpendicular to the surface. It hence comes as a surprise that our recent observations in the altitude range from 90 -115 km reveals the presence of strong radar echoes both at 69N as well as 54N. These echoes have a typical duration of less than 1 hour and extend over less than 1 km in height. They occur in the entire altitude range from 90 to 115 km with a pronounced maximum at 100 km. The seasonal variation is marked by a pronounced maximum during the summer months. This paper describes the morphology and statistics of these echoes, discusses its relation to sporadic E-layers and sporadic metal layers, and closes with an initial attempt to identify a physical mechanism responsible for these structures.

  4. 21 CFR 161.30 - Declaration of quantity of contents on labels for canned oysters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...false Declaration of quantity of contents on labels...Section 161.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION...OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION...30 Declaration of quantity of contents on...

  5. 48 CFR 1552.217-74 - Option for increased quantity-cost-plus-award-fee contract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Option for increased quantity-cost-plus-award-fee contract. 1552.217-74...Option for increased quantity—cost-plus-award-fee contract. As prescribed...insert this contract clause in cost-plus-award-fee term contracts when...

  6. 48 CFR 1552.217-74 - Option for increased quantity-cost-plus-award-fee contract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Option for increased quantity-cost-plus-award-fee contract. 1552.217-74...Option for increased quantity—cost-plus-award-fee contract. As prescribed...insert this contract clause in cost-plus-award-fee term contracts when...

  7. 48 CFR 1552.217-74 - Option for increased quantity-cost-plus-award-fee contract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Option for increased quantity-cost-plus-award-fee contract. 1552.217-74...Option for increased quantity—cost-plus-award-fee contract. As prescribed...insert this contract clause in cost-plus-award-fee term contracts when...

  8. 48 CFR 1552.217-74 - Option for increased quantity-cost-plus-award-fee contract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...Option for increased quantity-cost-plus-award-fee contract. 1552.217-74...Option for increased quantity—cost-plus-award-fee contract. As prescribed...insert this contract clause in cost-plus-award-fee term contracts when...

  9. 48 CFR 1552.217-74 - Option for increased quantity-cost-plus-award-fee contract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Option for increased quantity-cost-plus-award-fee contract. 1552.217-74...Option for increased quantity—cost-plus-award-fee contract. As prescribed...insert this contract clause in cost-plus-award-fee term contracts when...

  10. 41 CFR 101-25.101-4 - Supply through indefinite quantity requirement contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...quantity requirements contracts— (1) Advantage to the Government is greater than...overall economy to the Government, rather than one...quantity requirements contracts. (2) Acute competitive bidding problems exist because...

  11. 41 CFR 101-25.101-4 - Supply through indefinite quantity requirement contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...quantity requirements contracts— (1) Advantage to the Government is greater than...overall economy to the Government, rather than one...quantity requirements contracts. (2) Acute competitive bidding problems exist because...

  12. 41 CFR 101-25.101-4 - Supply through indefinite quantity requirement contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...quantity requirements contracts— (1) Advantage to the Government is greater than...overall economy to the Government, rather than one...quantity requirements contracts. (2) Acute competitive bidding problems exist because...

  13. 41 CFR 101-25.101-4 - Supply through indefinite quantity requirement contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...quantity requirements contracts— (1) Advantage to the Government is greater than...overall economy to the Government, rather than one...quantity requirements contracts. (2) Acute competitive bidding problems exist because...

  14. 41 CFR 101-25.101-4 - Supply through indefinite quantity requirement contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...quantity requirements contracts— (1) Advantage to the Government is greater than...overall economy to the Government, rather than one...quantity requirements contracts. (2) Acute competitive bidding problems exist because...

  15. 49 CFR 173.4 - Small quantities for highway and rail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Small quantities for highway and rail. 173.4 Section 173.4...General § 173.4 Small quantities for highway and rail. (a) When transported domestically by highway or rail in conformance with this...

  16. 49 CFR 173.4 - Small quantities for highway and rail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Small quantities for highway and rail. 173.4 Section 173.4...General § 173.4 Small quantities for highway and rail. (a) When transported domestically by highway or rail in conformance with this...

  17. 49 CFR 173.4 - Small quantities for highway and rail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Small quantities for highway and rail. 173.4 Section 173.4...General § 173.4 Small quantities for highway and rail. (a) When transported domestically by highway or rail in conformance with this...

  18. 49 CFR 173.4 - Small quantities for highway and rail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Small quantities for highway and rail. 173.4 Section 173.4...General § 173.4 Small quantities for highway and rail. (a) When transported domestically by highway or rail in conformance with this...

  19. 49 CFR 173.4 - Small quantities for highway and rail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Small quantities for highway and rail. 173.4 Section 173.4...General § 173.4 Small quantities for highway and rail. (a) When transported domestically by highway or rail in conformance with this...

  20. 30 CFR 250.458 - What quantities of drilling fluids are required?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false What quantities of drilling fluids are required? 250.458 Section 250...Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Drilling Fluid Requirements § 250.458 What quantities of drilling fluids are required? (a) You must...

  1. 30 CFR 250.458 - What quantities of drilling fluids are required?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false What quantities of drilling fluids are required? 250.458 Section 250...Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Drilling Fluid Requirements § 250.458 What quantities of drilling fluids are required? (a) You must...

  2. 30 CFR 250.458 - What quantities of drilling fluids are required?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false What quantities of drilling fluids are required? 250.458 Section 250...Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Drilling Fluid Requirements § 250.458 What quantities of drilling fluids are required? (a) You must...

  3. 30 CFR 250.458 - What quantities of drilling fluids are required?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false What quantities of drilling fluids are required? 250.458 Section 250...and Gas Drilling Operations Drilling Fluid Requirements § 250.458 What quantities of drilling fluids are required? (a) You must...

  4. 30 CFR 250.458 - What quantities of drilling fluids are required?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false What quantities of drilling fluids are required? 250.458 Section 250...Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Drilling Fluid Requirements § 250.458 What quantities of drilling fluids are required? (a) You must...

  5. 48 CFR 847.305-70 - Potential destinations known but quantities unknown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Potential destinations known but quantities unknown. 847.305-70 Section 847.305-70 Federal Acquisition...847.305-70 Potential destinations known but quantities unknown. When the VA National Acquisition Center contracts with...

  6. 48 CFR 847.305-70 - Potential destinations known but quantities unknown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Potential destinations known but quantities unknown. 847.305-70 Section 847.305-70 Federal Acquisition...847.305-70 Potential destinations known but quantities unknown. When the VA National Acquisition Center contracts with...

  7. 48 CFR 847.305-70 - Potential destinations known but quantities unknown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Potential destinations known but quantities unknown. 847.305-70 Section 847.305-70 Federal Acquisition...847.305-70 Potential destinations known but quantities unknown. When the VA National Acquisition Center contracts with...

  8. 48 CFR 847.305-70 - Potential destinations known but quantities unknown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Potential destinations known but quantities unknown. 847.305-70 Section 847.305-70 Federal Acquisition...847.305-70 Potential destinations known but quantities unknown. When the VA National Acquisition Center contracts with...

  9. 48 CFR 847.305-70 - Potential destinations known but quantities unknown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Potential destinations known but quantities unknown. 847.305-70 Section 847.305-70 Federal Acquisition...847.305-70 Potential destinations known but quantities unknown. When the VA National Acquisition Center contracts with...

  10. A-posteriori estimation and adaptive control of the error in the solution quantity of interest

    E-print Network

    Datta, Dibyendu Kumar, Dd 1973-

    1997-01-01

    The engineers are primarily interested in quantities like stresses and displacements in the critical regions, the stress intensity factor at the crack-tip of an initiated crack, etc., and the error in these quantities. The majority of the existing...

  11. A-posteriori estimation and adaptive control of the error in the solution quantity of interest 

    E-print Network

    Datta, Dibyendu Kumar, Dd 1973-

    1997-01-01

    The engineers are primarily interested in quantities like stresses and displacements in the critical regions, the stress intensity factor at the crack-tip of an initiated crack, etc., and the error in these quantities. The ...

  12. 46 CFR 153.1600 - Equipment required for conducting the stripping quantity test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...conducting the stripping quantity test. 153.1600 Section 153...GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK...COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Test and Calculation Procedures...conducting the stripping quantity test. The operator shall...

  13. 46 CFR 153.1604 - Determining the stripping quantity from the test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...the stripping quantity from the test results. 153.1604 Section...GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK...COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Test and Calculation Procedures...stripping quantity from the test results. (a) For a...

  14. 46 CFR 153.1604 - Determining the stripping quantity from the test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...the stripping quantity from the test results. 153.1604 Section...GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK...COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Test and Calculation Procedures...stripping quantity from the test results. (a) For a...

  15. 46 CFR 153.1604 - Determining the stripping quantity from the test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...the stripping quantity from the test results. 153.1604 Section...GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK...COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Test and Calculation Procedures...stripping quantity from the test results. (a) For a...

  16. 46 CFR 153.1600 - Equipment required for conducting the stripping quantity test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...conducting the stripping quantity test. 153.1600 Section 153...GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK...COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Test and Calculation Procedures...conducting the stripping quantity test. The operator shall...

  17. 46 CFR 153.1604 - Determining the stripping quantity from the test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...the stripping quantity from the test results. 153.1604 Section...GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK...COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Test and Calculation Procedures...stripping quantity from the test results. (a) For a...

  18. 46 CFR 153.1600 - Equipment required for conducting the stripping quantity test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...conducting the stripping quantity test. 153.1600 Section 153...GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK...COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Test and Calculation Procedures...conducting the stripping quantity test. The operator shall...

  19. 46 CFR 153.1600 - Equipment required for conducting the stripping quantity test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...conducting the stripping quantity test. 153.1600 Section 153...GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK...COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Test and Calculation Procedures...conducting the stripping quantity test. The operator shall...

  20. 46 CFR 153.1604 - Determining the stripping quantity from the test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...the stripping quantity from the test results. 153.1604 Section...GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK...COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Test and Calculation Procedures...stripping quantity from the test results. (a) For a...