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1

Estimating physical quantities for an observed galactic microlensing event  

E-print Network

For a given spatial distribution of the lenses and distribution of the transverse velocity of the lens relative to the line-of-sight, a probability distribution for the lens mass for a single observed event is derived. In addition, similar probability distributions are derived for the Einstein radius and the separation of the lens objects and their rotation period for a binary lens. These probability distributions are distinct from the distributions for the lens population, as investigated e.g. by the mass moment method of De Rujula, Jetzer, and Masso (1991). However, it is shown that the expectation value for the mass from the probability distribution coincides with the value from the mass moment method applied to a single observed event. The special cases of a Maxwellian velocity distribution and of a constant velocity are discussed in detail. For a rudimentary model of the Galactic halo, the probability distributions are shown and the relations between the expectation values of the physical quantities and the event timescale are given. For this model, it is shown that within a 95.4%-interval around the expectation value, the mass varies by a factor of 800.

M. Dominik

1997-01-08

2

Measurements, Physical Quantities, and Units.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains the significance of the mole as a unit of measure by showing the relationship between physical quantities and their mathematical representations. Offers a summary of the principles of metrology that make creation of physical quantities and units seem reasonable. A table of base physical quantities and units is included. (RT)

Wilson, Laurence E.

1988-01-01

3

Observable quantities for electrodiffusion processes in membranes.  

PubMed

Electrically driven ion transport processes in a membrane system are analyzed in terms of observable quantities, such as the apparent volume flow, the time dependence of the electrolyte concentration in one cell compartment, and the electrical potential difference between the electrodes. The relations between the fluxes and these observable quantities are rigorously deduced from balances for constituent mass and solution volume. These relations improve the results for the transport coefficients up to 25% with respect to those obtained using simplified expressions common in the literature. Given the practical importance of ionic transport numbers and the solvent transference number in the phenomenological description of electrically driven processes, the transport equations are presented using the electrolyte concentration difference and the electric current as the drivers of the different constituents. Because various electric potential differences can be used in this traditional irreversible thermodynamics approach, the advantages of the formulation of the transport equations in terms of concentration difference and electric current are emphasized. PMID:18284224

Garrido, Javier

2008-03-13

4

On the Representation of Physical Quantities in Natural Language Text  

E-print Network

language. Our focus is on physical quantities found in descriptions of physical processes that water will eventually boil if you heat it on a stove, that a ball placed at the top of a steep ramp continuous properties can appear in written natural language. Our focus is on physical quantities found

Forbus, Kenneth D.

5

Average observational quantities in the timescape cosmology  

SciTech Connect

We examine the properties of a recently proposed observationally viable alternative to homogeneous cosmology with smooth dark energy, the timescape cosmology. In the timescape model cosmic acceleration is realized as an apparent effect related to the calibration of clocks and rods of observers in bound systems relative to volume-average observers in an inhomogeneous geometry in ordinary general relativity. The model is based on an exact solution to a Buchert average of the Einstein equations with backreaction. The present paper examines a number of observational tests which will enable the timescape model to be distinguished from homogeneous cosmologies with a cosmological constant or other smooth dark energy, in current and future generations of dark energy experiments. Predictions are presented for comoving distance measures; H(z); the equivalent of the dark energy equation of state, w(z); the Om(z) measure of Sahni, Shafieloo, and Starobinsky; the Alcock-Paczynski test; the baryon acoustic oscillation measure, D{sub V}; the inhomogeneity test of Clarkson, Bassett, and Lu; and the time drift of cosmological redshifts. Where possible, the predictions are compared to recent independent studies of similar measures in homogeneous cosmologies with dark energy. Three separate tests with indications of results in possible tension with the {lambda}CDM model are found to be consistent with the expectations of the timescape cosmology.

Wiltshire, David L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8140, New Zealand, and International Center for Relativistic Astrophysics Network (ICRANet), Piazzale le della Repubblica 10, Pescara 65121 (Italy)

2009-12-15

6

Can the Lorenz-Gauge Potentials Be Considered Physical Quantities?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two results support the idea that the scalar and vector potentials in the Lorenz gauge can be considered to be physical quantities: (i) they separately satisfy the properties of causality and propagation at the speed of light and do not imply spurious terms and (ii) they can naturally be written in a manifestly covariant form. In this paper we…

Heras, Jose A.; Fernandez-Anaya, Guillermo

2010-01-01

7

WHAT PHYSICAL QUANTITIES MAKE SENSE IN NONEQUILIBRIUM STATISTICAL MECHANICS?  

E-print Network

WHAT PHYSICAL QUANTITIES MAKE SENSE IN NONEQUILIBRIUM STATISTICAL MECHANICS? by David Ruelle*. Abstract. Statistical mechanics away from equilibrium is in a formative stage, where general concepts: ruelle@ihes.fr 1 #12; 1 Introduction. Statistical mechanics, as seen by Boltzmann, is an attempt

Ruelle, David

8

WHAT PHYSICAL QUANTITIES MAKE SENSE IN NONEQUILIBRIUM STATISTICAL MECHANICS?  

E-print Network

WHAT PHYSICAL QUANTITIES MAKE SENSE IN NONEQUILIBRIUM STATISTICAL MECHANICS? by David Ruelle*. Abstract. Statistical mechanics away from equilibrium is in a formative stage, where general concepts;1 Introduction. Statistical mechanics, as seen by Boltzmann, is an attempt to understand the bulk properties

Ruelle, David

9

Substance-like physical quantities in special relativity  

E-print Network

Handling substance-like physical quantities in the limits of special relativity theory we should make a net distinction between those which present a proper (rest) magnitude and those which have not. We show how the theory relates them via relativistic transformation equations.

Bernhard Rothenstein

2005-05-26

10

Eight Types of Symmetrically Distinct Vectorlike Physical Quantities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Letter draws the attention to the spatiotemporal symmetry of various vectorlike physical quantities. The symmetry is specified by their invariance under the action of symmetry operations of the nonrelativistic space-time rotation group O(3)×{1,1'}=O'(3), where 1' is a time-reversal operation, the symbol×stands for the group direct product, and O(3) is a group of proper and improper rotations. It is argued that along with the canonical polar vector, there are another seven symmetrically distinct classes of stationary physical quantities, which can be—and often are—denoted as standard three-component vectors, even though they do not transform as a static polar vector under all operations of O'(3). The octet of symmetrically distinct "directional quantities" can be exemplified by two kinds of polar vectors (electric dipole moment P and magnetic toroidal moment T), two kinds of axial vectors (magnetization M and electric toroidal moment G), two kinds of chiral "bidirectors" C and F (associated with the so-called true and false chirality, respectively) and still another two bidirectors N and L, achiral ones, transforming as the nematic liquid crystal order parameter and as the antiferromagnetic order parameter of the hematite crystal ?-Fe2O3, respectively.

Hlinka, J.

2014-10-01

11

Do Speakers and Listeners Observe the Gricean Maxim of Quantity?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Gricean Maxim of Quantity is believed to govern linguistic performance. Speakers are assumed to provide as much information as required for referent identification and no more, and listeners are believed to expect unambiguous but concise descriptions. In three experiments we examined the extent to which naive participants are sensitive to the…

Engelhardt, Paul E.; Bailey, Karl G. D.; Ferreira, Fernanda

2006-01-01

12

Nonanalyticity of the perturbation series for a physical quantity  

SciTech Connect

Using the obvious constraint that jet or particle fractions add up to one, we derive a simple relation between the scheme invariants characterizing these quantities in a general renormalizable field theory. This relation provides surprisingly direct evidence that the corresponding perturbation series are nonanalytic. Approximating this relation can generate corrections to all orders, given one-loop and tree-level coefficients. This is applied to estimate the as-yet-uncalculated {ital O}({alpha}{sub {ital s}}{sup 3}) corrections to {ital e}{sup +}{ital e{minus}} two-, three-, and four-jet fractions.

Barclay, D.T.; Maxwell, C.J. (Centre for Particle Theory, University of Durham, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom))

1992-03-01

13

Technical activities 1980 center for absolute physical quantities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research projects, measurement method development, calibration and data evaluation activities are summarized. These activities fall in the areas of quantum metrology, measurements and standards for electrical units, temperature and pressure, length and mass, time and frequency, and quantum physics.

Kressler, K. G.

1980-10-01

14

Technical activities 1980 center for absolute physical quantities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research projects, measurement method development, calibration and data evaluation activities are summarized. These activities fall in the areas of quantum metrology, measurements and standards for electrical units, temperature and pressure, length and mass, time and frequency, and quantum physics. Bibtex entry for this abstract Preferred format for this abstract (see Preferences) Find Similar Abstracts: Use: Authors Title Keywords (in text

K. G. Kressler

1980-01-01

15

10 CFR 37.79 - Requirements for physical protection of category 1 and category 2 quantities of radioactive...  

...category 1 and category 2 quantities of radioactive material during shipment. 37.79...CATEGORY 1 AND CATEGORY 2 QUANTITIES OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL Physical Protection in Transit...category 1 and category 2 quantities of radioactive material during shipment. (a)...

2014-01-01

16

10 CFR 37.73 - Applicability of physical protection of category 1 and category 2 quantities of radioactive...  

...category 1 and category 2 quantities of radioactive material during transit. 37.73...CATEGORY 1 AND CATEGORY 2 QUANTITIES OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL Physical Protection in Transit...category 1 and category 2 quantities of radioactive material during transit. (a)...

2014-01-01

17

W, F, and I : Three quantities basic to radiation physics.  

SciTech Connect

The W value is an index of the mean number of ions produced in a gas subjected to ionizing radiation. Formally, it is defined as the radiation energy absorbed (usually expressed in units of eV) ''per ion pair of either sign produced'', or, in a simpler language, ''per electron liberated''. The basic knowledge up to 1961 is eloquently articulated in a classic essay by Platzman [1], which Professor Doke loves to cite. The theme of Platzman was to explain from the point of view of basic physics the magnitude and characteristics of the ratio W/I, where I is the (first) ionization threshold energy. In summary, major characteristics are as follows. (1) The W value for a given gas depends weakly on the properties of the radiation such as the mass and charge of particles or initial energies (provided they are sufficiently high). This makes the ionization measurement useful as a method of dosimetry, viz., the determination of the absorbed energy. (2) The ratio W/I is always greater than unity because a part of the absorbed energy must be used in nonionizing events such as discrete excitation or molecular dissociation into neutral fragments and also in producing subexcitation electrons, viz., electrons with kinetic energies too low to cause electronic excitation or ionization [2]. (3) The ratio W/I is 1.7-1.8 for rare gases, and 2.1-2.6 for gases of common molecules (depending on the electronic structure, going from ''hard'' to ''soft''). Calculation of the W value is possible from three approaches: (i) the energy balance of Platzman, heuristic for general understanding and appropriate for an estimate; (ii) the Fowler equation [3] for the direct evaluation of the mean number of ions produced; and (iii) the method of Spencer and Fano [4] through the degradation spectra (or the track length distributions) of charged particles, most importantly of electrons, present in the medium. The Fowler method is good for obtaining the mean number of ions or excited states resulting from the incidence of particles of relatively low energies, while the Spencer-Fano method is good for the incidence of high-energy particles.

Inokuti, M.

1998-11-11

18

The Scientific Method and Physical Quantities Covers Chapters 1.11.2  

E-print Network

The Scientific Method and Physical Quantities Covers Chapters 1.1­1.2 The scientific method on the scientific method is called science. Physics is the science that seeks to discover the basic ways in which was one of the founder of this method. The process of building up a body of knowledge based

Cinabro, David

19

The CMEA Standard 1052-78 'Metrology - Units of physical quantities' and its characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper deals with a CMEA Standard introduced in the USSR on January 1, 1980 in order to facilitate programming of design and construction projects by unifying the various denominations and definitions currently used for one and the same physical quantity. The standard makes it possible to differentiate between the concepts of mass and weight, and correct interpretation and use

G. N. Kostenko

1980-01-01

20

Quantity and Quality of Practice: Interrelationships between Task Organization and Student Skill Level in Physical Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In terms of planning and achieving student learning in physical education, important variables that influence this goal include task organization, quantity and quality of practice, task structure, communication with students or feedback, appropriateness of the skills, and motivational climate. With respect to the construct of quality practice…

Hastie, Peter A.; Calderon, Antonio; Palao, Jose; Ortega, Enrique

2011-01-01

21

The role of macroinstrument and microinstrument and of observable quantities in the new conception of thermodynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the first part of the paper, we introduce the concept of observable quantities associated with a macroinstrument measuring the density and temperature and with a microinstrument determining the radius of a molecule and its free path length, and also the relationship between these observable quantities. The concept of the number of degrees of freedom, which relates the observable quantities listed above, is generalized to the case of low temperatures. An analogy between the creation and annihilation operators for pairs (dimers) and the creation and annihilation operators for particles (molecules) is carried out. A generalization of the concept of a Bose condensate is introduced for classical molecules as an analog of an ideal liquid (without attraction). The negative pressure in the liquid is treated as holes (of exciton type) in the density of the Bose condensate. The phase transition gas-liquid is calculated for an ideal gas (without attraction). A comparison with experimental data is carried out. In the other part of the paper, we introduce the concept of new observable quantity, namely, of a pair (a dimer), as a result of attraction between nearest neighbors. We treat in a new way the concepts of Boyle temperature T B (as the temperature above which the dimers disappear) and of the critical temperature T c (below which the trimers and clusters are formed). The equation for the Zeno line is interpreted as the relation describing the dependence of the temperature on the density at which the dimers disappear. We calculate the maximal density of the liquid and also the maximal density of the holes. The law of corresponding states is derived as a result of an observation by a macrodevice which cannot distinguish between molecules of distinct gases, and a comparison of theoretical and experimental data is carried out.

Maslov, V. P.

2013-03-01

22

The CMEA Standard 1052-78 'Metrology - Units of physical quantities' and its characteristics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper deals with a CMEA Standard introduced in the USSR on January 1, 1980 in order to facilitate programming of design and construction projects by unifying the various denominations and definitions currently used for one and the same physical quantity. The standard makes it possible to differentiate between the concepts of mass and weight, and correct interpretation and use of coupling equations of various type.

Kostenko, G. N.

1980-02-01

23

Effects of a curriculum and inservice program on the quantity and quality of elementary physical education classes.  

PubMed

The primary responsibility for engaging children in opportunities to be physically active and learn physical skills rests with school physical education. This study evaluated the effects of a combined health-related curriculum and inservice program on the quantity and quality of elementary school physical education lessons. Seven schools (N = 28 fourth-grade classes) in one district were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: 10 classes were taught in their usual manner by classroom teachers (Control [CO]); 10 classes were taught by trained classroom teachers (TT) who received inservice training and follow-up consultations; and 8 classes were taught by physical education specialists (PES) hired by the research project. Student activity level, curriculum context, and teacher behavior were directly observed and coded during a sample of 112 lessons over an 8-month period. Results indicated significant differences in both the frequency and mean length of classes (PES, 26.7 min; TT, 23.4 min; CO, 18.9 min). Additionally, the curriculum and inservice program equipped trained classroom teachers to provide significantly better classes than were provided by controls in terms of student activity engagement, lesson context, and active instructional behavior, though their classes did not match the quality of those taught by the physical education specialists. This study is unique in its use of direct observation of lessons to assess a curriculum and inservice intervention. PMID:8341841

McKenzie, T L; Sallis, J F; Faucette, N; Roby, J J; Kolody, B

1993-06-01

24

A Systematic Review of Mapping Strategies for the Sonification of Physical Quantities  

PubMed Central

The field of sonification has progressed greatly over the past twenty years and currently constitutes an established area of research. This article aims at exploiting and organizing the knowledge accumulated in previous experimental studies to build a foundation for future sonification works. A systematic review of these studies may reveal trends in sonification design, and therefore support the development of design guidelines. To this end, we have reviewed and analyzed 179 scientific publications related to sonification of physical quantities. Using a bottom-up approach, we set up a list of conceptual dimensions belonging to both physical and auditory domains. Mappings used in the reviewed works were identified, forming a database of 495 entries. Frequency of use was analyzed among these conceptual dimensions as well as higher-level categories. Results confirm two hypotheses formulated in a preliminary study: pitch is by far the most used auditory dimension in sonification applications, and spatial auditory dimensions are almost exclusively used to sonify kinematic quantities. To detect successful as well as unsuccessful sonification strategies, assessment of mapping efficiency conducted in the reviewed works was considered. Results show that a proper evaluation of sonification mappings is performed only in a marginal proportion of publications. Additional aspects of the publication database were investigated: historical distribution of sonification works is presented, projects are classified according to their primary function, and the sonic material used in the auditory display is discussed. Finally, a mapping-based approach for characterizing sonification is proposed. PMID:24358192

Dubus, Gael; Bresin, Roberto

2013-01-01

25

Physics 343 Observational Radio Astronomy  

E-print Network

401, once a week, M 10:2011:40 Labs: Serin 403b, times TBD (you will have assigned slots) In general: one week will be "observation" week, one week will be "analysis" week. During analysis weeks, one, interferometry + science: stars, planets, interstellar medium, active galactic nuclei, cosmic microwave

Baker, Andrew J.

26

The Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS): Detecting the Fingerprints of Global Change in Geodetic Quantities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern geodetic observations from a wide range of space and terrestrial technologies contribute to our knowledge of the solid Earth, atmosphere, ocean, cryosphere, and land water storage. These geodetic observations record the \\

Hans-Peter Plag; Chris Rizos; Markus Rothacher; Ruth Neilan

27

Evaluations of low-energy physical quantities in QCD with IR freezing of the coupling  

E-print Network

MSbar-like schemes in QCD have in general the running coupling which contains Landau singularities, i.e., singularities outside the timelike semi-axis, at low squared momenta. As a consequence, evaluation of the spacelike quantities, such as current correlators, in terms of (powers of) such a coupling then results in quantities which contradict the basic principles of Quantum Field Theories. On the other hand, in those QCD frameworks where the running coupling remains finite at low squared momenta (IR freezing), the coupling usually does not have Landau singularities in the complex plane of the squared momenta. I argue that in such QCD frameworks the spacelike quantities should not be evaluated as a power series, but rather as a series in derivatives of the coupling with respect to the logarithm of the squared momenta. Such series show considerably better convergence properties. Moreover, Pade-related resummations of such logarithmic derivative series give convergent series, thus eliminating the practical problem of series divergence due to renormalons.

Gorazd Cveti?

2013-11-29

28

The physical observer II: Gauge and diff anomalies  

E-print Network

In a companion paper we studied field theory in the presence of a physical observer with quantum dynamics. Here we describe the most striking consequence of this assumption: new gauge and diff anomalies arise. The relevant cocycles depend on the observer's spacetime trajectory and can hence not appear in QFT, where this quantity is never introduced. Diff anomalies necessarily arise in every locally nontrivial, non-holographic theory of quantum gravity. Cancellation of the divergent parts of the anomalies only works if spacetime has four dimensions.

T. A. Larsson

2008-11-06

29

Status of women in physics in China-Taipei from the view of quantity and quality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Working Group for Women in Physics in Taiwan was registered to the Physical Society of the Republic of China (PSROC) in December 1999 and was formally announced at the 2001 annual assembly of PSROC. In 2003 the group became a formal committee under PSROC. The current committee includes seven female and two male members. In the last 10 years, many milestones were achieved. In particular, the percentage of female physics faculties in universities and research institutes has increased to 12% from 8% within the last 10 years. In this paper we will present the results of our survey on the changes of the percentage of female physics faculties/students within the last 10 years and express our need to improve the working environment for female faculties in Taiwan in the future.

Lin, Jauyn Grace; Ho, Mon-Shu; Lin, Keng-Ching; Chen, Yi-Chun; Chiu, Ya-Ping; Hu, Shu-Fen; Hsiung, Yee Bob; Chang, Yuan-Huei; Chang, Ching Ray

2013-03-01

30

A comparison of water vapor quantities from model short-range forecasts and ARM observations  

SciTech Connect

Model evolution and improvement is complicated by the lack of high quality observational data. To address a major limitation of these measurements the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program was formed. For the second quarter ARM metric we will make use of new water vapor data that has become available, and called the 'Merged-sounding' value added product (referred to as OBS, within the text) at three sites: the North Slope of Alaska (NSA), Darwin Australia (DAR) and the Southern Great Plains (SGP) and compare these observations to model forecast data. Two time periods will be analyzed March 2000 for the SGP and October 2004 for both DAR and NSA. The merged-sounding data have been interpolated to 37 pressure levels (e.g., from 1000hPa to 100hPa at 25hPa increments) and time averaged to 3 hourly data for direct comparison to our model output.

Hnilo, J J

2006-03-17

31

PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL, AND BIOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS IN  

E-print Network

conditions, temperature, salinity, density, thermosteric anomaly, dynamic height anomaly, dissolved oxygen, and dynamic height anomaly 11 Inorganic phosphorus 11 Dissolved oxygen 11 Submarine daylight 11 Incident solar345; PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL, AND BIOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS IN THE EASTERN TROPICAL PACIFIC OCEAN SCOT

32

The Built Environment Predicts Observed Physical Activity  

PubMed Central

Background: In order to improve our understanding of the relationship between the built environment and physical activity, it is important to identify associations between specific geographic characteristics and physical activity behaviors. Purpose: Examine relationships between observed physical activity behavior and measures of the built environment collected on 291 street segments in Indianapolis and St. Louis. Methods: Street segments were selected using a stratified geographic sampling design to ensure representation of neighborhoods with different land use and socioeconomic characteristics. Characteristics of the built environment on-street segments were audited using two methods: in-person field audits and audits based on interpretation of Google Street View imagery with each method blinded to results from the other. Segments were dichotomized as having a particular characteristic (e.g., sidewalk present or not) based on the two auditing methods separately. Counts of individuals engaged in different forms of physical activity on each segment were assessed using direct observation. Non-parametric statistics were used to compare counts of physically active individuals on each segment with built environment characteristic. Results: Counts of individuals engaged in physical activity were significantly higher on segments with mixed land use or all non-residential land use, and on segments with pedestrian infrastructure (e.g., crosswalks and sidewalks) and public transit. Conclusion: Several micro-level built environment characteristics were associated with physical activity. These data provide support for theories that suggest changing the built environment and related policies may encourage more physical activity. PMID:24904916

Kelly, Cheryl; Wilson, Jeffrey S.; Schootman, Mario; Clennin, Morgan; Baker, Elizabeth A.; Miller, Douglas K.

2014-01-01

33

Draft revision of IEEE STD 1139-1988 standard definitions of physical quantities for fundamental, frequency and time metrology-random instabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a draft revision of IEEE Std 1139-1988 Standard Definitions of Physical Quantities for Fundamental Frequency and Time Metrology. This draft standard covers the fundamental metrology for describing random instabilities of importance to frequency and time metrology. Quantities covered include frequency, amplitude, and phase instabilities; spectral densities of frequency, amplitude, and phase fluctuations; variances of frequency and phase fluctuations;

E. S. Ferre-Pikal; J. R. Vig; J. C. Camparo; L. S. Cutler; L. Maleki; W. J. Riley; S. R. Stein; C. Thomas; F. L. Walls; J. D. Whiteg

1997-01-01

34

Quantity and Quality of Physical Activity Are Influenced by Outdoor Temperature in People with Knee Osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Purpose: Environmental factors are known to influence physical activity (PA) levels of healthy people, but little work has explored these factors in people with osteoarthritis (OA). The purpose of this study was to explore the influence of outdoor temperature on PA in people with knee OA. Methods: A total of 38 people with knee OA (10 women; mean age 54 y) wore an accelerometer around their waist for 7 consecutive days. Dependent variables from the accelerometers were three PA measures: (1) activity counts/day and time spent at or above moderate levels of PA with (2) a cut-point of 1,041 activity counts/minute (MVPA1041) and (3) a cut-point of 1,952 activity counts/minute (MVPA1952). Independent variables were age, sex, body mass index (BMI), and maximum daily outdoor temperature. Three linear regression analyses were conducted using the three PA dependent variables and independent variables. Results: After controlling for age, sex, and BMI, maximum daily outdoor temperature explained 9% of the variance in activity counts/day (p=0.042), 10% of variance in MVPA1041 (p=0.032), and 14% of variance in MVPA1952 (p=0.016). Participants who engaged in more PA were younger and were exposed to warmer temperatures. Conclusions: Outdoor temperature and age influence the PA levels of people with knee OA. These factors should be considered when designing PA programmes. PMID:24403695

Jones, Gareth R.; Birmingham, Trevor B.; Maly, Monica R.

2013-01-01

35

X ray timing observations and gravitational physics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Photon-rich x ray observations on bright compact galactic sources will make it possible to detect many fast processes that may occur in these systems on millisecond and submillisecond timescales. Many of these processes are of direct relevance to gravitational physics because they arise in regions of strong gravity near neutron stars and black holes where the dynamical timescales for compact objects of stellar mass are milliseconds. To date, such observations have been limited by the detector area and telemetry rates available. However, instruments such as the proposed X ray Large Array (XLA) would achieve collecting areas of about 100 sq m. This instrument has been described elsewhere (Wood and Michelson 1988) and was the subject of a recent prephase A feasibility study at Marshall Space Flight Center. Observations with an XLA class instrument will directly impact five primary areas of astrophysics research: the attempt to detect gravitational radiation, the study of black holes, the physics of mass accretion onto compact objects, the structure of neutron stars and nuclear matter, and the characterization of dark matter in the universe. Those observations are discussed that are most directly relevant to gravitational physics: the search for millisecond x ray pulsars that are potential sources of continuous gravitational radiation; and the use of x ray timing observations to probe the physical conditions in extreme relativistic regions of space near black holes, both stellar-sized and supermassive.

Michelson, Peter F.; Wood, Kent S.

1989-01-01

36

Physical observations and taxonomy of asteroids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Physical asteroid observations are summarized and the classification scheme to describe asteroid surfaces in relation to mineralogical composition is detailed. The principle classes, distinguished on the basis of a number of parameters involving albedo and color, are called C, S, and M.

Morrison, D.

1978-01-01

37

Evidence for Direct Retrieval of Relative Quantity Information in a Quantity Judgment Task: Decimals, Integers, and the Role of Physical Similarity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Participants' reaction times (RTs) in numerical judgment tasks in which one must determine which of 2 numbers is greater generally follow a monotonically decreasing function of the numerical distance between the two presented numbers. Here, I present 3 experiments in which the relative influences of numerical distance and physical similarity are assessed in just such a task using integers and

Dale J. Cohen

2010-01-01

38

A Holoinformational Model of the Physical Observer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The author proposes a holoinformational view of the observer based, on the holonomic theory of brain/mind function and quantum brain dynamics developed by Karl Pribram, Sir John Eccles, R.L. Amoroso, Hameroff, Jibu and Yasue, and in the quantumholographic and holomovement theory of David Bohm. This conceptual framework is integrated with nonlocal information properties of the Quantum Field Theory of Umesawa, with the concept of negentropy, order, and organization developed by Shannon, Wiener, Szilard and Brillouin, and to the theories of self-organization and complexity of Prigogine, Atlan, Jantsch and Kauffman. Wheeler's "it from bit" concept of a participatory universe, and the developments of the physics of information made by Zureck and others with the concepts of statistical entropy and algorithmic entropy, related to the number of bits being processed in the mind of the observer are also considered. This new synthesis gives a self-organizing quantum nonlocal informational basis for a new model of awareness in a participatory universe. In this synthesis, awareness is conceived as meaningful quantum nonlocal information interconnecting the brain and the cosmos, by a holoinformational unified field (integrating nonlocal holistic (quantum) and local (Newtonian). We propose that the cosmology of the physical observer is this unified nonlocal quantum-holographic cosmos manifesting itself through awareness, interconnected in a participatory holistic and indivisible way the human mind-brain to all levels of the self-organizing holographic anthropic multiverse.

Biase, Francisco Di

2013-09-01

39

Scalings between Physical and their Observationally related Quantities of Merger Remnants  

E-print Network

We present scaling relations between the virial velocity (V) and the one-dimensional central velocity dispersion (Sig0); the gravitational radius (Rv) and the effective radius (Re); and the total mass (M) and the luminous mass (ML) found in N-body simulations of binary mergers of spiral galaxies. These scalings are of the form V^2 ~ Sig0^alpha, Rv ~ Re^beta and M ~ ML^gamma. The particlar values obtained for (alpha,beta,gamma) depend on the method of fitting used [ordinary least-squares (ols) or orthogonal distance regression (odr)], the assumed profile [de Vaucouleurs (deV) or Sersic (S)], and the size of the radial interval where the fit is done. The alpha and gamma indexes turn out more sensitive to the fitting procedure, obtaining for the ols a mean alpha_ols=1.51 and gamma_ols=0.69, while for the odr alpha_odr=2.35 and gamma_odr=0.76. The beta index depends more on the adopted type of profile, with beta_deV=0.13 and beta_S=0.27. We conclude that dissipationless formed remnants of mergers have a strong breaking of structural and kinematical homology.

H. Aceves; H. Velazquez

2005-09-07

40

If physics is an information science, what is an observer?  

E-print Network

Interpretations of quantum theory have traditionally assumed a "Galilean" observer, a bare "point of view" implemented physically by a quantum system. This paper investigates the consequences of replacing such an informationally-impoverished observer with an observer that satisfies the requirements of classical automata theory, i.e. an observer that encodes sufficient prior information to identify the system being observed and recognize its acceptable states. It shows that with reasonable assumptions about the physical dynamics of information channels, the observations recorded by such an observer will display the typical characteristics predicted by quantum theory, without requiring any specific assumptions about the observer's physical implementation.

Chris Fields

2011-08-24

41

The Observers' Paradox: Apparent Computational Complexity in Physical Systems  

E-print Network

The Observers' Paradox: Apparent Computational Complexity in Physical Systems John F. Kolen to these descriptions and then argue that neither type can be an intrinsic property of the underlying physical system of physical phenomena, up to and including cognition. #12;The Observers' Paradox 3 The daily warmth we

Pollack, Jordan B.

42

The Observers' Paradox: Apparent Computational Complexity in Physical Systems  

E-print Network

The Observers' Paradox: Apparent Computational Complexity in Physical Systems John F. Kolen to these descriptions and then argue that neither type can be an intrinsic property of the underlying physical system of physical phenomena, up to and including cognition. #12; The Observers' Paradox 3 The daily warmth we

Pollack, Jordan B.

43

Quantities, Units, and Symbols.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet provides a reference to the quantities, units, and their symbols which are used in physical science. It is a revision of a 1969 report and takes account of the progress which has been made in obtaining international agreement on the definitions, names, and symbols for units and on the rules for the expression of relations involving…

Royal Society, London (England).

44

Observable physical modes of modified gravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At linear order in cosmological perturbations, departures from the growth in the cosmological standard model can be quantified in terms of two functions of redshift z and Fourier number k. Previous studies have performed principal component forecasts for several choices of these two functions based on expected capabilities of upcoming large structure surveys. It is typically found that there will be many well-constrained degrees of freedom. However, not all and probably most of these degrees of freedom were physical if the parametrization had allowed for an arbitrary k dependence. In this paper, we restrict the k dependence to that allowed in local theories of gravity under the quasistatic approximation, i.e. ratios of polynomials in k, and identify the best constrained features in the (z ,k) dependence of the commonly considered functions ? and ? as measured by a Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST)-like weak lensing survey. We estimate the uncertainty in the measurements of the eigenmodes of modified growth. We find that imposing the theoretical prior on k dependence reduces the number of degrees of freedom and the covariance between parameters. On the other hand, imaging surveys like LSST are not as sensitive to the z dependence as they are to the k dependence of the modified growth functions. This trade-off provides us with, more or less, the same number of well-constrained eigenmodes (with respect to our prior) as found before, but now these modes are physical.

Hojjati, Alireza; Pogosian, Levon; Silvestri, Alessandra; Zhao, Gong-Bo

2014-04-01

45

Observable physical modes of modified gravity  

E-print Network

At linear order in cosmological perturbations, departures from the growth in the cosmological standard model can be quantified in terms of two functions of redshift $z$ and Fourier number $k$. Previous studies have performed principal component forecasts for several choices of these two functions, based on expected capabilities of upcoming large structure surveys. It is typically found that there will be many well-constrained degrees of freedom. However, not all and, probably most, of these degrees of freedom were physical if the parametrization had allowed for an arbitrary $k$-dependence. In this paper, we restrict the $k$-dependence to that allowed in local theories of gravity under the quasi-static approximation, i.e. ratios of polynomials in $k$, and identify the best constrained features in the ($z$,$k$)-dependence of the commonly considered functions $\\mu$ and $\\gamma$ as measured by an LSST-like weak lensing survey. We estimate the uncertainty in the measurements of the eigenmodes of modified growth. We find that imposing the theoretical prior on $k$-dependence reduces the number of degrees of freedom and the covariance between parameters. On the other hand, imaging surveys like LSST are not as sensitive to the $z$-dependence as they are to the $k$-dependence of the modified growth functions. This trade off provides us with, more or less, the same number of well-constrained eigenmodes (with respect to our prior) as found before, but now these modes are physical.

Alireza Hojjati; Levon Pogosian; Alessandra Silvestri; Gong-Bo Zhao

2013-12-18

46

Ubicon: Observing Social and Physical Activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The connection of ubiquitous and social computing is an emerging research\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009area which is combining two prominent areas of computer science.\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009In this paper, we tackle this topic from different angles: We describe\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009data mining methods for ubiquitous and social data, specifically\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009focusing on physical and social activities, and provide exemplary\\u000d\\u000a\\u0009analysis results. Furthermore, we give an overview on the

Martin Atzmueller; Martin Becker; Stephan Doerfel; Mark Kibanov; Andreas Hotho; Björn-Elmar Macek; Folke Mitzlaff; Juergen Mueller; Christoph Scholz; Gerd Stumme

2012-01-01

47

(Astro)Physics 343 Observational Radio Astronomy  

E-print Network

Lectures: Serin 401, once a week, M 10:2011:40 Labs: Serin 403b, times TBD (you will have assigned slots) In general: one week will be "observation" week, one week will be "analysis" week. During analysis weeks telescopes, interferometry + science: stars, planets, interstellar medium, active galactic nuclei, cosmic

Baker, Andrew J.

48

Observable physical modes of modified gravity  

E-print Network

At linear order in cosmological perturbations, departures from the growth in the cosmological standard model can be quantified in terms of two functions of redshift z and Fourier number k. Previous studies have performed principal component forecasts for several choices of these two functions, based on expected capabilities of upcoming large structure surveys. It is typically found that there will be many well-constrained degrees of freedom. However, not all and, probably most, of these degrees of freedom were physical if the parametrization had allowed for an arbitrary k-dependence. In this paper, we restrict the k-dependence to that allowed in local theories of gravity under the quasi-static approximation, i.e. ratios of polynomials in k, and identify the best constrained features in the (z,k)-dependence of the commonly considered functions $\\mu$ and $\\gamma$ as measured by an LSST-like weak lensing survey. We find that about 10 eigenmodes of modified growth can be constrained with a better than a percent a...

Hojjati, Alireza; Silvestri, Alessandra; Zhao, Gong-Bo

2013-01-01

49

Physics 229 Lecture 1 1 Spring 2008 Lecture 1 -Introduction and Review: Newton's Laws, Conserved Quantities and N-  

E-print Network

Physics 229 Lecture 1 1 Spring 2008 Lecture 1 - Introduction and Review: Newton's Laws, Conserved of Sir Isaac Newton. Newton's first law of motion states that, if the vector sum of the forces acting of vectors and vector analysis (as discussed in Lectures 6 ­ 9 and 12 ­ 13 of Phys 227 & 228). The second

Ellis, Steve

50

Combining electric field and aurora observations from DE 1 and 2 with ground magnetometer records to estimate ionospheric electromagnetic quantities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Global distribution of electric fields and currents in the high-latitude ionosphere was estimated using data from the ground-based network of magnetometers and from nearly simultaneous observations with DE 1 and DE 2 satellites. The electric field and current distributions at high altitudes were calculated from instantaneous ionospheric conductivity (estimated from the DE 1 auroral data), using the Kamide et al. (1981) magnetogram inversion technique; an optimum conductivity was then chosen iteratively so that the resultant electric fields would become consistent with electric field deduced from ion drifts measured along the DE-2 orbit. It is demonstrated that, when analyzing the large-scale electrodynamics of individual substorms, statistical conductivity models are not fully adequate for use with the magnetogram inversion technique.

Kamide, Y.; Ishihara, Y.; Killeen, T. L.; Craven, J. D.; Frank, L. A.

1989-01-01

51

Physics Input from Multiwavelength Observations of AGN  

E-print Network

The current status of leptonic jet models for blazars is reviewed. Differences between the quasar and BL-Lac subclasses of blazars may be understood in terms of the dominance of different radiation mechanisms in the gamma-ray regime. Spectral variability patterns of different blazar subclasses appear to be significantly different and require different intrinsic mechanisms causing gamma-ray flares. As examples, recent results of long-term multiwavelength monitoring of PKS 0528+134, 3C 279, and Mrk 501 are interpreted in the framework of leptonic jet models. Short-term variability patterns give important additional clues about the source geometry and the relevant radiation mechanisms in blazars. Challenges for future observational efforts are discussed.

M. Boettcher

2001-05-31

52

THREE-DIMENSIONAL SIMULATIONS OF MAGNETIZED SUPERBUBBLES: NEW INSIGHTS INTO THE IMPORTANCE OF MHD EFFECTS ON OBSERVED QUANTITIES  

SciTech Connect

We present three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of superbubbles, to study the importance of MHD effects in the interpretation of images from recent surveys of the Galactic plane. These simulations focus mainly on atmospheres defined by an exponential density distribution and the Dickey and Lockman density distribution. In each case, the magnetic field is parallel to the Galactic plane and we investigate cases with either infinite scale height (constant magnetic field) or a constant ratio of gas pressure to magnetic pressure. The three-dimensional structure of superbubbles in these simulations is discussed with emphasis on the axial ratio of the cavity as a function of magnetic field strength and the age of the bubble. We investigate systematic errors in the age of the bubble and scale height of the surrounding medium that may be introduced by modeling the data with purely hydrodynamic models. Age estimates derived with symmetric hydrodynamic models fitted to an asymmetric magnetized superbubble can differ by up to a factor of 4, depending on the direction of the line of sight. The scale height of the surrounding medium based on the Kompaneets model may be up to 50% lower than the actual scale height. We also present the first ever predictions of Faraday rotation by a magnetized superbubble based on three-dimensional MHD simulations. We emphasize the importance of MHD effects in the interpretation of observations of superbubbles.

Stil, Jeroen; Wityk, Nicole; Ouyed, Rachid; Taylor, A. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta, T2N 1N4 (Canada)

2009-08-10

53

Capturing the Content of Physics: Systems, Observables, and Experiments  

E-print Network

research, education and applica- tion. Scientific Method The Testing/ Experiment Predictions Theory by an infrastructure for the princi- pal concepts of physics: observables, physical systems, and experiments currently investigated in the community will eventually change scientific practice and that they will have

Kohlhase, Michael

54

PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL, AND BIOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS IN THE EASTERN TROPICAL  

E-print Network

, thermosteric anomaly, and dynamic height anomaly . . 6 Dissolved oxygen 6 Inorganic phosphorus 6 Total, thermosteric anomaly, dynamic height anomaly, dissolved oxygen concen- tration, inorganic phosphorus420 PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL, AND BIOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS IN THE EASTERN TROPICAL PACIFIC OCEAN: THREE

55

Observed and physical properties of type II plateau supernovae  

E-print Network

I use photometry and spectroscopy data for 24 Type II plateau supernovae to examine their observed and physical properties. This dataset shows that these objects encompass a wide range in their observed properties (plateau luminosities, tail luminosities, and expansion velocities) and their physical parameters (explosion energies, ejected masses, initial radii, and 56Ni yields). Several regularities emerge within this diversity, which reveal (1) a continuum in the properties of Type II plateau supernovae, (2) a one parameter family (at least to first order), (3) evidence that stellar mass plays a central role in the physics of core collapse and the fate of massive stars.

Mario Hamuy

2003-10-01

56

Determination of the physical processes underlying observed slab dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparison of slab dynamics from 2D numerical models to a suite of observations has allowed us to determine the physical processes underlying the observed correlations between slab dip, buoyancy, and convergence ki- nematics. We find that stiff slabs, with viscosity 5-6 orders of magnitude greater than the asthenosphere, experi - ence three stages of evolution. Initially the slab is stiff

G. Hirth; P. Kelemen; M. Billen

57

(abstract) Physical Properties of 253 Mathilde from Groundbased Observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The only physical observations which predate the identifications of 253 Mathilde as a potential flyby target of NEAR were measurements of its absolute magnitude in reflected light and thermal radiometry by IRAS. Mathilde has been revealed to be an unusual object, of a class not previously visited by a spacecraft.

Harris, Alan W.

1996-01-01

58

Colliding Bose-Einstein Condensates to Observe Efimov Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We explore the manifestation of Efimov physics through the collision energy dependence of the three-body scattering observables and propose that it can be measured by observing atom loss in collisions of Bose-Einstein condensates. Our study shows that log-periodic Efimov features in the scattering observables extend beyond the usual threshold regime to nonzero collision energies and result from two interfering pathways. Further, these oscillations have a one-to-one connection with the scattering length oscillations at zero energy and thus to Efimov states themselves.

Wang, Yujun; D'Incao, J. P.; Nägerl, H.-C.; Esry, B. D.

2010-03-01

59

Colliding Bose-Einstein Condensates to Observe Efimov Physics  

SciTech Connect

We explore the manifestation of Efimov physics through the collision energy dependence of the three-body scattering observables and propose that it can be measured by observing atom loss in collisions of Bose-Einstein condensates. Our study shows that log-periodic Efimov features in the scattering observables extend beyond the usual threshold regime to nonzero collision energies and result from two interfering pathways. Further, these oscillations have a one-to-one connection with the scattering length oscillations at zero energy and thus to Efimov states themselves.

Wang Yujun; Esry, B. D. [Department of Physics, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas, 66506 (United States); D'Incao, J. P. [JILA, University of Colorado and NIST, Boulder, Colorado, 80309-0440 (United States); Naegerl, H.-C. [Institut fuer Experimentalphysik und Zentrum fuer Quantenphysik, Universitaet Innsbruck, Technikerstrasse 25, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)

2010-03-19

60

Colliding Bose-Einstein condensates to observe Efimov physics.  

PubMed

We explore the manifestation of Efimov physics through the collision energy dependence of the three-body scattering observables and propose that it can be measured by observing atom loss in collisions of Bose-Einstein condensates. Our study shows that log-periodic Efimov features in the scattering observables extend beyond the usual threshold regime to nonzero collision energies and result from two interfering pathways. Further, these oscillations have a one-to-one connection with the scattering length oscillations at zero energy and thus to Efimov states themselves. PMID:20366473

Wang, Yujun; D'Incao, J P; Nägerl, H-C; Esry, B D

2010-03-19

61

Polarized top quarks from new physics: Signals and observables  

SciTech Connect

Top quarks may be produced in large numbers in association with new physics at the LHC. The polarization of these top quarks probes the chiral structure of the new physics. We discuss several kinematic distributions which are sensitive to the polarization of single top quarks and can be used without full event reconstruction. For collimated tops we construct polarization-sensitive observables for both hadronic and leptonic decay modes and plot their distributions. We compute the observable polarization signals from top quarks produced in the on-shell cascade decay of a stop squark into a top quark and a neutralino, as well as top quarks produced in the analogous decay chain in same-spin partner models.

Shelton, Jessie [NHETC, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854-8019 (United States)

2009-01-01

62

Short Gamma-ray Bursts: Observations and Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of the workshop, which will be held at the scenic Ringberg castle, is supposed to bring together astrophysicists, physicists, and astronomers from different fields in order to discuss recent observational and theoretical discoveries and developments on short gamma-ray bursts. In particular, we plan to address the following topics: * recent short GRB observations * environments and host galaxies of short GRBs * is there a 3rd class of GRBs? * modeling GRB engines and jet outflows * rate and redshift predictions for short GRBs * the fireball model and short GRBs * gravitational-wave signals from short GRBs * neutrino signals from short GRBs * microphysics needed for modeling short GRBs and their engines Scientific and Local organizing committee members: H.-Thomas Janka (Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics, Garching), Miguel Aloy (University of Valencia), Jochen Greiner (Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics), Sandra Savaglio (Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics), Shri Kulkarni (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena)

Janka, H.-Thomas

2007-04-01

63

Quantity Stickiness versus Stackelberg Leadership  

SciTech Connect

We study the endogenous Stackelberg relations in a dynamic market. We analyze a twice-repeated duopoly where, in the beginning, each firm chooses either a quantity-sticky production mode or a quantity-flexible production mode. The size of the market becomes observable after the first period. In the second period, a firm can adjust its quantity if, and only if, it has adopted the flexible mode. Hence, if one firm chooses the sticky mode whilst the other chooses the flexible mode, then they respectively play the roles of a Stackelberg leader and a Stackelberg follower in the second marketing period. We compute the supply quantities at equilibrium and the corresponding expected profits of the firms. We also analyze the effect of the slope parameter of the demand curve on the expected supply quantities and on the profits.

Ferreira, F. A. [ESEIG, Instituto Politecnico do Porto, Rua D. Sancho I, 981, 4480-876 Vila do Conde (Portugal)

2008-10-30

64

Chromospheric Explosions: Linking Observations Toward a Physical Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bright points are observed routinely in every layer of the Sun. One type of bright point, called sequential chromospheric brightening (SCB), is coincident with flares and is thought to represent a chromospheric foot-point of a magnetic field line that extends into the corona. These field lines are energized during a CME-causing eruption leading to the brightening we observe. We extract physical measurements of chromospheric flares and SCBs using an automated feature detection suite. Correlating these results with complementary data from the corona, we identify the spatio-temporal relationship between coronal loops and SCBs. We explore a coronal origin for SCBs and put forth an explicatory model.

Kirk, Michael S.; Balasubramaniam, K. S.; Jackiewicz, J.; McAteer, R. T. J.; McNamara, B. J.

2012-01-01

65

Physics of the inner heliosphere: Mechanisms, models and observational signatures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Selected problems concerned with the important physical processes that occur in the corona and solar wind acceleration region, particularly time dependent phenomena were studied. Both the physics of the phenomena and the resultant effects on observational signatures, particularly spectroscopic signatures were also studied. Phenomena under study include: wave motions, particularly Alfven and fast mode waves; the formation of standing shocks in the inner heliosphere as a result of momentum and/or heat addition to the wind; and coronal transient phenomena where momentum and/or heat are deposited in the corona to produce transient plasma heating and/or mass ejection. The development of theoretical models for the inner heliosphere, the theoretical investigation of spectroscopic plasma diagnostics for this region, and the analysis of existing skylab and other relevant data are also included.

Withbroe, George L.

1987-01-01

66

The Algebra of Physical Observables in Nonlinearly Realized Gauge Theories  

E-print Network

We classify the physical observables in spontaneously broken nonlinearly realized gauge theories in the recently proposed loopwise expansion governed by the Weak Power-Counting (WPC) and the Local Functional Equation. The latter controls the non-trivial quantum deformation of the classical nonlinearly realized gauge symmetry, to all orders in the loop expansion. The Batalin-Vilkovisky (BV) formalism is used. We show that the dependence of the vertex functional on the Goldstone fields is obtained via a canonical transformation w.r.t. the BV bracket associated with the BRST symmetry of the model. We also compare the WPC with strict power-counting renormalizability in linearly realized gauge theories. In the case of the electroweak group we find that the tree-level Weinberg relation still holds if power-counting renormalizability is weakened to the WPC condition.

Andrea Quadri

2010-07-23

67

Physics of the inner heliosphere: Mechanisms, models and observational signatures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The physics of the solar wind acceleration phenomena (e.g. effect of transient momentum deposition on the temporal and spatial variation of the temperature, density and flow speed of the solar wind, formation of shocks, etc.) and the resultant effects on observational signatures, particularly spectroscopic signature are studied. Phenomena under study include: (1) wave motions, particularly spectroscopic signatures are studied. Phenomena under study include:(1) wave motions, particularly Alfven and fast mode waves, (2) the formation of standing shocks in the inner heliosphere as a result of momentum and/or heat addition to the wind and (3) coronal transient phenomena where momentum and/or heat are deposited in the corona to produce transient plasma heating and/or mass ejections. Also included are the theoretical investigation of spectroscopic plasma diagnostics for the inner heliosphere and the analysis of existing Skylab and other relevant data.

Withbroe, G. L.

1985-01-01

68

Directly Observed Physical Activity Levels in Preschool Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Millions of young children attend preschools and other structured child development programs, but little is known about their physical activity levels while in those settings. The purpose of this study was to describe the physical activity levels and demographic and school-related correlates of physical activity in children attending…

Pate, Russell R.; McIver, Kerry; Dowda, Marsha; Brown, William H.; Addy, Cheryl

2008-01-01

69

Exploratory Observations of Physical Processes in the upper Sulu Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sulu Sea extends roughly 600 km in all directions, is up to 5 km deep, and is connected to the Pacific Ocean, but only via surrounding seas through several straits of varying width and depth. The Dipolog Strait between the Philippine islands of Mindanao and Negros connects the Sulu to the Bohol Sea. Straits between the islands of Panay, Palawan and Borneo connect the Sulu to the South China Sea. Straits between Borneo and Mindanao connect the Sulu to the Sulawesi Sea. External interactions with the Sulu Sea include strait currents, monsoon wind stress, tides and internal waves propagating into the sea from the perimeter. Mooring observations indicate large intraseasonal signals in currents through the Dipolog Strait and the Cuyo East Passage, west of Panay. Known impacts on the Sulu thus have timescales ranging from a day to a year. Currents through the boundary straits reverse direction with depth and so have a complex interaction with the Sulu Sea. To explore physical processes in the Sulu Sea, four in situ surveys were conducted between June 2007 and March 2009 during the Philippines Straits Dynamics Experiment (PhilEx). Observations collected include current from hull-mounted Doppler sonar and temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen and fluorescence from station casts and underway surface measurements. Horizontal shear dominates the surface current pattern. The shear’s horizontal scales are small compared to the Sulu Sea’s dimensions. The surface water also has significant density fronts at scales similar to the horizontal shear. This horizontal structure is described by viewing observed properties on maps and as a function of along-track position. Horizontal structure is quantified by computing basic statistics along-track and through spectral and wavelet analysis. A topic investigated is the relative role of boundary strait current variability and wind forcing in generating the observed horizontal shear and density fronts. When currents directed into the Sulu are stronger, more energy could be available for eddies in the sea and these eddies could have sizes related to strait dimensions. Sulu Sea water is traced to sources in boundary straits. One example is relatively warm and fresh surface water which appears to come from the Balabac Strait between Palawan and Borneo. A broader horizontal picture of the Sulu Sea is established by using remote sensing and numerical model output.

Martin, J. P.; Gordon, A. L.

2010-12-01

70

Synoptic Observations for Physical Characterization of Fast Rotator NEOs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NEOs can be studied not only dynamically, to learn about their impact hazard, but also physically, to establish various properties important both to better address their potential hazard and also to understand what they can tell us about the origin of the solar system and its ongoing processes.Taking advantage of the two-meter-class telescopes around Tucson, we plan to observe NEOs synoptically using telescopes at three different locations: VATT (Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope) at Mount Graham (longitude: -109.8719, latitude: 32.7016, elevation: 10469 feet), Bok 2.3 m at Kitt Peak (longitude: -111.6004, latitude: 31.9629, elevation: 6795 feet) and Kuiper 1.5-m at Mount Bigelow (longitude: -110.7345, latitude: 32.4165, elevation: 8235 feet). All three telescopes will aim simultaneously at the same object, each with a different instrument. The three telescopes will be part of the Arizona Robotic Telescope (ART) network, a University of Arizona initiative to provide near real-time observations of Target of Opportunity objects across the visible and near-infrared wavelengths. The VATT-4K optical imager mounted on the VATT has already been used for photometry. In the future we plan to utilize the BCSpec (Boller & Chivens Spectrograph) for visible spectroscopy on Bok 2.3 meter and a near-infrared instrument on Kuiper 1.5 meter. We report here the preliminary results of several NEOs whose rotation rate and color have been estimated using photometry with images recorded with VATT-4K. 2009 SQ104 has a rotation rate of 6.85+/- 0.03 h, 2014 AY28 has a rotation rate of 0.91 +/- 0.02 h, 2014 EC of 0.54 +/-0.04 h, 2014 FA44 of 3.45 +/- 0.05 h, and 2014 KS40 of 1.11 +/- 0.06 h.

Kikwaya Eluo, Jean-Baptiste; Hergenrother, Carl W.

2014-11-01

71

Physical influences on phytoplankton ecology : models and observations  

E-print Network

The physical environment in the oceans dictates not only how phytoplankton cells are dispersed and their populations intermingled, but also mediates the supply of nutrients to the surface mixed layer. In this thesis I ...

Clayton, Sophie A

2013-01-01

72

Physical Signs of Malnutrition Observed in Rural Villages of Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three Army dietitians deployed to Thailand in May 1997 in support of Cobra Gold, an annual military training exercise. Hie dietitians were members of military medical teams with the goal of promoting long-term public health improvements in rural Thai villages, Practicing in the absence of laboratory data made it necessary for dietitians to rely on their physical nutrition assessment skills.

R. L. Podojil; T. M. Kemmer; L. E. Sweet

1999-01-01

73

Physical Characterization of Tropical Oceanic Convection Observed in KWAJEX  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Kwajalein Experiment (KWAJEX) was designed to obtain an empirical physical characterization of precipitating convective clouds over the tropical ocean. Coordinated datasets were collected by three aircraft, one ship, five upper-air sounding sites, and a variety of continuously recording remote and in situ surface-based sensors, including scanning Doppler radars, profilers, disdrometers, and rain gauges. This

Sandra E. Yuter; ROBERT A. HOUZE JR; Eric A. Smith; Thomas T. Wilheit; Edward Zipser

2005-01-01

74

Learning physically-instantiated game play through visual observation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an integrated vision and robotic sys- tem that plays, and learns to play, simple physically-instantiated board games that are variants of TIC TAC TOE and HEXA- PAWN. We employ novel custom vision and robotic hardware designed specifically for this learning task. The game rules can be parametrically specified. Two independent computational agents alternate playing the two opponents with

Andrei Barbu; Siddharth Narayanaswamy; Jeffrey Mark Siskind

2010-01-01

75

Characteristics of cloud microphysical properties observed at the Cloud Physical Observation System (CPOS) site in Korea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Cloud Physics Observation Site (CPOS) site was established in 2004 over the mountainous area in the eastern part of Korea to collect cloud physics data on a long term basis. The instruments installed included a Micro Rain Radar (MRR), a Forward Scattering Spectrometer Probe (FSSP), a Microwave radiometer (MWR), and a disdrometer. This study mainly focuses on the bright band and raindrop size distribution (RDSD) characteristics of precipitating clouds measured at the CPOS site for the three year period of 2004-2006. As a comparison we also analyzed the MRR data measured at a western coastal site in Korea, Hae-Nam, HN. First we classified the vertical equivalent reflectivity factor profiles from MRR into three types, low level rain (Type 1), rain with a distinct bright band (Type 2), and convective rain (Type 3). It was found that the mountainous site (CPOS) had more proportion of Types 1 and 2 profiles while Type 3 covered 51% of the coastal site (HN) precipitation, suggesting the prevalence of orographically induced stratiform precipitation at the CPOS and convective precipitation at HN. Furthermore, the bright band appeared to be thicker but the sharpness of the band is weaker for the CPOS Type 2 profiles than those of HN. It was argued that the contrast was due to the dominant growth and melting of unrimed snow particles at HN and the prevailing rimmed ice crystals with the supercooled drops at the CPOS in stratiform precipitation. Preliminary analysis showed that on average the RDSD of HN is larger than those of the CPOS. The difference in RDSD was prominent for the diameter greater than 2.5 mm, where the RDSD of HN was definitely larger than those of the CPOS. As discussed above, these results might be due to the differences in geographical settings between the CPOS and HN; HN was generally affected by convective precipitation and the CPOS has more occurrence of straitform precipitation. Further analyses of the date from other instruments will be presented at the conference

Cha, J.; Yum, S.; Chang, K.

2007-12-01

76

Accuracy of physical activity assessment during pregnancy: an observational study  

PubMed Central

Background Prenatal physical activity may improve maternal and infant health and lower future disease risk for both mother and baby; however, very few physical activity assessment methods have been validated for use during pregnancy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of a subjective physical activity record (PAR) and an objective activity monitor, against a reference standard to quantify moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in pregnant women. The reference standard was based on participant interviews to determine if a woman was an exerciser and confirmed with information obtained from the PAR and a heart rate monitor. Methods Fifty-two pregnant women completed a physical activity record (PAR) and wore a SenseWear® Mini Armband (SWA) activity monitor over a 7-day period at 18 weeks gestation. Total minutes spent in MVPA were totaled from both modalities and evaluated against the reference standard using contingency analysis and Pearson's chi-square test to evaluate the number of women meeting minimum prenatal physical activity recommendations (at least 3, 30 minute sessions of exercise per week). Both modalities were also tested individually and collectively to assess their ability as indicators of activity using empirically determined cut-offs as indicated by receiver-operator characteristic curves. These experimentally-derived criteria were also tested with Pearson's chi-square test. Results According to the reference standard, 13 of 52 participants (25%) met the criterion of 3, 30 minute sessions of volitional, moderate-intensity activity. When compared to the reference standard, both the PAR and SWA overestimated exercise status; 42 (81%) and 52 (100%) participants, respectively, achieved 90 minutes of MVPA (P < 0.0001 for both comparisons). Single-modality predictors of MVPA did not show a significant correlation. A composite predictor of MVPA offered the most favorable option for sensitivity and specificity (true positives, n = 8 and true negatives, n = 36) using cut-offs of 280 and 385 minutes/week for the PAR and SWA, respectively. Conclusion Compared to the reference standard, time spent in MVPA obtained from the PAR or SWA overestimated the prevalence of women meeting prenatal exercise recommendations. The most accurate predictor of women meeting current prenatal exercise guidelines was identified by using the PAR and SWA collectively. PMID:22039863

2011-01-01

77

The physical observer I: Absolute and relative fields  

E-print Network

Quantum Jet Theory (QJT) is a deformation of QFT where also the quantum dynamics of the observer is taken into account. This is achieved by introducing relative fields, labelled by locations measured by rods relative to the observer's position. In the Hamiltonian formalism, the observer's momentum is modified: p_i \\to p_i - P_i, where P_i is the momentum carried by the field quanta. The free scalar field, free electromagnetism and gravity are treated as examples. Standard QFT results are recovered in the limit that the observer's mass M \\to \\infty and its charge e \\to 0. This limit is well defined except for gravity, because e = M in that case (heavy mass equals inert mass). In a companion paper we describe how QJT also leads to new observer-dependent gauge and diff anomalies, which can not be formulated within QFT proper.

T. A. Larsson

2008-11-06

78

The physics and modes of star cluster formation: observations.  

PubMed

Stellar clusters are born in cold and dusty molecular clouds and the youngest clusters are embedded to various degrees in a dusty dark molecular material. Such embedded clusters can be considered protocluster systems. The most deeply buried examples are so heavily obscured by dust that they are only visible at infrared wavelengths. These embedded protoclusters constitute the nearest laboratories for a direct astronomical investigation of the physical processes of cluster formation and early evolution. I review the present state of empirical knowledge concerning embedded-cluster systems and discuss the implications for understanding their formation and subsequent evolution to produce bound stellar clusters. PMID:20083503

Lada, Charles J

2010-02-28

79

The JMU Mineral Museum - Observing Physical Properties of Minerals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Mineral museums provide a resourse for students to explore beautiful examples of minerals. During the exploration process, they can also apply or reinforce visual observation skills they have learned in lab. The James Madison University Mineral Museum (http://csm.jmu.edu/minerals/) provides educational opportunities for both introductory geology and earth science courses as well as advanced major. In this exercise, students have possibly their first opportunity to enjoy the wonderous world of minerals in an exhilerating display. During the exploration process, students are provided a reinforcment of visual observation skills previously experienced in lab and an introduction to mineral names and classifications.

Kearns, Cynthia A.

80

Loop Quantum Gravity Phenomenology: Linking Loops to Observational Physics  

E-print Network

Research during the last decade demonstrates that effects originating on the Planck scale are currently being tested in multiple observational contexts. In this review we discuss quantum gravity phenomenological models and their possible links to loop quantum gravity. Particle frameworks, including kinematic models, broken and deformed Poincar\\'e symmetry, non-commutative geometry, relative locality and generalized uncertainty principle, and field theory frameworks, including Lorentz violating operators in effective field theory and non-commutative field theory, are discussed. The arguments relating loop quantum gravity to models with modified dispersion relations are reviewed, as well as, arguments supporting the preservation of local Lorentz invariance. The phenomenology related to loop quantum cosmology is briefly reviewed, with a focus on possible effects that might be tested in the near future. As the discussion makes clear, there remains much interesting work to do in establishing the connection between the fundamental theory of loop quantum gravity and these specific phenomenological models, in determining observational consequences of the characteristic aspects of loop quantum gravity, and in further refining current observations. Open problems related to these developments are highlighted. characteristic aspects of loop quantum gravity, and in further refining current observations. Open problems related to these developments are highlighted.

Florian Girelli; Franz Hinterleitner; Seth A. Major

2012-10-04

81

Directly Observed Physical Activity among 3-Year-Olds in Finnish Childcare  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main purpose of the study was to determine 3-year-olds' physical activity levels and how these vary across season, gender, time of day, location, and the physical and social environment in childcare settings in Finland. A modified version of the Observational System for Recording Physical Activity in Children-Preschool (OSRAC-P) was used…

Soini, Anne; Villberg, Jari; Sääkslahti, Arja; Gubbels, Jessica; Mehtälä, Anette; Kettunen, Tarja; Poskiparta, Marita

2014-01-01

82

Giacobini-Zinner comet: Polarimetric and physical observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of observations of the Giacobini-Zinner comet on 25 and 31 October 1959 are presented. The magnitude of the comet was measured photoelectrically in two spectral regions. The radius is on the order of one kilometer. The photoelectric measurements of comets 1959b and 1957c were used to measure the abundances of the CN and C2 radicals and of solid particles in the heads.

Martel, M. T.; Maines, P.; Grudzinska, S.; Stawikowski, A.

1984-01-01

83

Learning Physics from the Real World by Direct Observation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is axiomatic that hands-on experience provides many learning opportunities, which lectures and textbooks cannot match. Moreover, experiments involving the real world are beneficial in helping students to gain a level of understanding that they might not otherwise achieve. One practical limitation with the real world is that simplifications and approximations are sometimes necessary to make the material accessible; however, these types of adjustments can be viewed with misgiving when they appear arbitrary and/or convenience-based. The present work describes a very familiar feature of everyday life, whose underlying physics is examined without modifications to mitigate difficulties from the lack of control in a non-laboratory environment. In the absence of any immediate formula to process results, students are encouraged to reach ab initio answers with guidance provided by a structured series of worksheets. Many of the latter can be completed as homework assignments prior to activity in the field. This approach promotes thinking and inquiry as valuable attributes instead of unquestioningly following a prescribed path.

Shaibani, Saami J.

2012-03-01

84

Calculation of surface and top of atmosphere radiative fluxes from physical quantities based on ISCCP data sets. 2: Validation and first results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We use global, multiyear observations of the properties of clouds, the atmosphere, and the surface to calculate global shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) fluxes at the top of the atmosphere and at the surface at a resolution of 280 km and 3 hours for every third month from April 1985 to January 1989. Our validation studies suggest that the specification of cloud effects is no longer the dominant uncertainty in reconstructing the radiative fluxes at the top of atmosphere and at the surface. Rather cloud property uncertainties are now roughly equal contributors to the flux uncertainty, along with surface and atmospheric properties. The resulting SW and LW flux data sets suggest the following conclusions: (1) The net SW heating of Earth appears predominantly at the surface, whereas the net LW cooling arises predominantly from the atmosphere. The net cooling effect of clouds on top of atmospheric radiation appears primarily at the surface rather than in the atmosphere. (2) Clouds have almost no net effect on the global mean radiation balance of the atmosphere, but they enhance the latitudinal gradient in the LW cooling and reinforce the radiative forcing for the mean atmospheric circulation. Clouds act to mute seasonal contrasts however. (3) Clouds enhance the land-ocean contrasts of the atmospheric cooling, reinforcing the growth of standing eddy motions; but reduce land-ocean contrasts of the surface heating.

Rossow, W. B.; Zhang, Y.-C.

1995-01-01

85

Observations of Umbral Dots and their Physical Models  

E-print Network

The Hinode satellite opens a new era to the sunspots research, because of its high spatial resolution and temporal stability. Fine scale structures in sunspots, called umbral dots (UDs), have become one of the hottest topics in terms of the close observation of the magnetoconvection. In this paper, a brief review of observed properties of UDs is given based on the recent literature. UDs born in the periphery of the umbra exhibit inward migration, and their speeds are positively correlated with the magnetic field inclination. Longer-lasting UDs are tend to be larger and brighter, while lifetimes of UDs show no relation with their background magnetic field strength. UDs tend to disappear or stop its proper motion by colliding with the locally strong field region. The spatial distribution of UD is not uniform over an umbra but is preferably located at boundaries of cellular patterns. From our 2-dimensional correlation analysis, we measured the characteristic width of the cell boundaries (~0.5") and the size of t...

Watanabe, Hiroko

2014-01-01

86

Physical Oceanography of the Caribbean Sea: Some Recent Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent oceanographic observations in the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico (the Intra-Americas Sea) have contributed to our understanding of IAS circulation, the dynamics forcing the circulation, and the role of the IAS in hemispheric ocean processes. Specifically, recent results from several programs will be presented and discussed: The Windward Islands Passages Program, designed to measure upper ocean transport and water mass properties of the exchange between the Atlantic Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, is entering its tenth year of observations. Mean transport estimates based on 10 to 20 sections now exist for the major passages between Trinidad and the Virgin Islands. Approximately 19 of the estimated 32 Sv in the Florida Straits enter through these passages, of which approximately 12 enter south of Dominica, 6 in the Grenada Passage. The Caribbean Inflow Variability Experiment is designed to continuously monitor the transport through the Grenada Passage. Plans are in place to monitor a submarine telephone cable between Grenada and Trinidad to estimate transport; at present several shipboard velocity sections and year-long pressure gauge records are available as part of the program. Dominant low-frequency signals in the cross-passage pressure difference are 30 - 60 days. The NOPP Year of the Ocean Drifting Buoy Program placed over 150 WOCE-style surface drifting buoys in the IAS during 1998 - 2000. Analysis of drifter tracks shows the best picture to date of IAS surface currents, including well-resolved gyres in the SW Caribbean (Panama-Colombia) region. Monitoring of Florida Straits transport via submarine cable is once again active, complemented by quarterly CD and transport cruises. Analyses of historical transport data (Baringer & Larson, 2001) have shown correlations between low frequency transport variability and climate indices (e. g., NAO). Additionally, full-depth velocity profiles across the straits are available weekly from the 38 kHz ADCP mounted on the Explorer of the Seas cruise ship. Availability of these and other observational resources, its semi-enclosed and well-bounded geography, and its significance to downstream North American oceanic and atmospheric conditions make the IAS an excellent region for model development and validation.

Wilson, D.; Johns, W. E.

2001-12-01

87

Ionosphere TEC disturbances before strong earthquakes: observations, physics, modeling (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The phenomenon of the pre-earthquake ionospheric disturbances is discussed. A number of typical TEC (Total Electron Content) relative disturbances is presented for several recent strong earthquakes occurred in different ionospheric conditions. Stable typical TEC deviations from quiet background state are observed few days before the strong seismic events in the vicinity of the earthquake epicenter and treated as ionospheric earthquake precursors. They don't move away from the source in contrast to the disturbances related with geomagnetic activity. Sunlit ionosphere approach leads to reduction of the disturbances up to their full disappearance, and effects regenerate at night. The TEC disturbances often observed in the magnetically conjugated areas as well. At low latitudes they accompany with equatorial anomaly modifications. The hypothesis about the electromagnetic channel of the pre-earthquake ionospheric disturbances' creation is discussed. The lithosphere and ionosphere are coupled by the vertical external electric currents as a result of ionization of the near-Earth air layer and vertical transport of the charged particles through the atmosphere over the fault. The external electric current densities exceeding the regular fair-weather electric currents by several orders are required to produce stable long-living seismogenic electric fields such as observed by onboard measurements of the 'Intercosmos-Bulgaria 1300' satellite over the seismic active zones. The numerical calculation results using the Upper Atmosphere Model demonstrate the ability of the external electric currents with the densities of 10-8-10-9 A/m2 to produce such electric fields. The sumulations reproduce the basic features of typical pre-earthquake TEC relative disturbances. It is shown that the plasma ExB drift under the action of the seismogenic electric field leads to the changes of the F2 region electron number density and TEC. The upward drift velocity component enhances NmF2 and TEC and the downward component decreases it, while horizontal components redistribute plasma in the horizontal plane around the source. The UAM calculations also show that the external electric currents of the seismic origin generate the small disturbances of the neutral atmosphere with the characteristics of the internal gravity waves but they don't influence noticeably on the relative pre-earthquake TEC disturbances.

Namgaladze, A. A.

2013-12-01

88

Ancient Chinese Observations of Physical Phenomena Attending Solar Eclipses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The realization that solar activity probably undergoes changes in qualitative character on time scales greater than the 11 or 22 year cycle but short compared to the duration of recorded history gives renewed importance to historical documents describing the state of solar activity. Modern eclipse observation reveal the presence of solar activity through the appearance of coronal structures and prominences. It has been widely remarked that eclipse records prior to the 18th century are uniformly silent on these conspicuous solar eclipse features, raising the possibility, however unlikely, that a change in solar activity has occurred which rendered them only recently noticeable. We present here material from ancient Chinese sources, primarily astrological, that describe phenomena attending solar eclipses that are almost certainly coronal structures and prominences. Thus, these aspects of the present character of solar activity have apparently occurred at other times in history, if not continuously.

Wang, P. K.; Siscoe, G. L.

1980-05-01

89

The physics and observational signatures of galaxy cluster mergers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structure of galaxy clusters has long been thought to scale with the system mass. However, recent X-ray observations by Chandra and XMM-Newton have revealed that cluster structure depends weakly on the mass. In this thesis, we study whether the departure from scale-free structure introduces a mass-dependence to the growth of clusters by collisions with similar systems, called mergers. We have compiled a library of 156 simulations of binary cluster mergers, the Simulation Library of Astrophysical galaxy cluster Mergers (SLAM) database, that covers an unprecedented parameter space volume. The structures of our initial models are in excellent agreement with recent X-ray observations. We utilize one million particles to resolve the more massive of the clusters, each composed of dark matter and gas. We conduct our simulations with the TreeSPH simulation code Gadget-2. Our simulations are fully converged. We compare the evolution of mergers across the parameter space covered by our simulations and find evidence that the merging process is not self-similar, due to differences in the initial cluster structures. All remnants experience mass loss that depends on the merger configuration, and has a different dependence on the initial mass ratio for the gas and dark matter. Equal-mass mergers lead to substantial dark matter loss, due to violent relaxation. Gas mass loss is more significant for high mass ratios, due to ram pressure variability during the merger. The properties of the gas core depend sensitively on the initial merger parameters. However, beyond the core the cluster structure is independent of the remnant's merger history. We quantify substructure in X-ray images, and find that it is not intimately linked to the dynamical state of the cluster. However, substructure may survive in X-ray images for up to 5 Gyr complicating the interpretation of X-ray images. We conclude that substructure seen in low-redshift images of X-ray faint clusters may be due to high-redshift mergers.

Chatzikos, Marios

90

On the History of Quantity Calculus and the International System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A brief presentation is given of the most important developments in the history of quantity calculus. Starting with the early introduction of the concept "physical quantity" by Maxwell in his work on electricity and magnetism, attention is focused in particular on the foundations of the calculus with physical quantities given by Wallot in the 1920s. For illustration and better understanding of the praxis of quantity calculus, special attention is paid to the three- and four-dimensional systems of physical quantities used for theoretical description in the fields of electricity and magnetism. Special emphasis is placed on understanding controversies and confusion caused by differences in interpretation of the concepts "quantity" and "unit" in physical language and in the mathematical description of physical phenomena. A short presentation is given of the further development of various studies on the algebraic structure and the axiomatic foundation of the calculus with physical quantities developed by Landolt, Stille, Fleischmann and others. Quantity calculus constituted the basis for obtaining consensus on the introduction of the International System of Units (SI) and allowed the formulation of international standards on definitions and symbols for quantities and units by the various international scientific and standardizing organizations.

de Boer, J.

1995-01-01

91

Nonclassical transport processes in geologic media: Review of field and laboratory observations and basic physical concepts  

SciTech Connect

We present an overview of the problem of solute transport in unsaturated heterogeneous media. We first review field and laboratory observations that demonstrate nonclassical flow and transport behavior. The main physical principles causing anomalous transport regimes in fractured rock media are identified. The basic factors and physical concepts needed to describe anomalous transport in saturated and unsaturated fractured rock are discussed in detail.

Bolshov, L.; Kondratenko, P.; Pruess, K.; Semenov, V.

2008-09-01

92

Physical Therapy Observation and Assessment in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents the elements of the Observation and Assessment section of the Infant Care Path for Physical Therapy in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). The types of physical therapy assessments presented in this path are evidence-based and the suggested timing of these assessments is primarily based on practice knowledge from expert…

Byrne, Eilish; Campbell, Suzann K.

2013-01-01

93

Student performance of the general physical examination in internal medicine: an observational study  

PubMed Central

Background Many practicing physicians lack skills in physical examination. It is not known whether physical examination skills already show deficiencies after an early phase of clinical training. At the end of the internal medicine clerkship students are expected to be able to perform a general physical examination in every new patient encounter. In a previous study, the basic physical examination items that should standardly be performed were set by consensus. The aim of the current observational study was to assess whether medical students were able to correctly perform a general physical examination regarding completeness as well as technique at the end of the clerkship internal medicine. Methods One hundred students who had just finished their clerkship internal medicine were asked to perform a general physical examination on a standardized patient as they had learned during the clerkship. They were recorded on camera. Frequency of performance of each component of the physical examination was counted. Adequacy of performance was determined as either correct or incorrect or not assessable using a checklist of short descriptions of each physical examination component. A reliability analysis was performed by calculation of the intra class correlation coefficient for total scores of five physical examinations rated by three trained physicians and for their agreement on performance of all items. Results Approximately 40% of the agreed standard physical examination items were not performed by the students. Students put the most emphasis on examination of general parameters, heart, lungs and abdomen. Many components of the physical examination were not performed as was taught during precourses. Intra-class correlation was high for total scores of the physical examinations 0.91 (p <0.001) and for agreement on performance of the five physical examinations (0.79-0.92 p <0.001). Conclusions In conclusion, performance of the general physical examination was already below expectation at the end of the internal medicine clerkship. Possible causes and suggestions for improvement are discussed. PMID:24712683

2014-01-01

94

Features and amenities of school playgrounds: A direct observation study of utilization and physical activity levels outside of school time  

PubMed Central

Background A significant amount of research has examined whether park or playground availability is associated with physical activity. However, little research has examined whether specific features or amenities of parks or playgrounds, such as the number of unique types of playground equipment or the safety of the equipment is associated with utilization of the facility or physical activity levels while at the facility. There are no studies that use direct observation and a detailed park assessment to examine these associations. Methods Twenty urban schoolyards in the Midwest, ten of which were renovated, were included in this study. Using a detailed environmental assessment tool (i.e., Environmental Assessment of Public Recreation Spaces), information on a variety of playground attributes was collected. Using direct observation (i.e., System for Observing Play and Leisure Activity in Youth), the number of adults, girls and boys attending each schoolyard and their physical activity levels were recorded. Each schoolyard was observed ten times for 90 minutes each time outside of school hours. Clustered multivariable negative binomial regressions and linear regressions were completed to examine the association between playground attributes and utilization of the schoolyard and the proportion active on the playground, respectively. Effect modification by renovation status was also examined. Results At renovated schoolyards, the total number of play features was significantly associated with greater utilization in adults and girls; overall cleanliness was significantly associated with less utilization in girls and boys; and coverage/shade for resting features was significantly associated with greater utilization in adults and boys. At unrenovated schoolyards, overall safety was significantly associated with greater utilization in boys. No playground attribute was associated with the proportion active on the playground after adjusting for all other significant playground attributes. Conclusions Having a large quantity of play features and shade at renovated playgrounds were positively associated with utilization of the schoolyard. Modifying playgrounds to have these features may increase the utilization of these facilities outside of school time. Additional research should explore what features and amenities are associated with increased physical activity levels of children and adults who utilize the facilities. PMID:21492455

2011-01-01

95

Viewing Student Affect and Learning through Classroom Observation and Physical Sensors  

E-print Network

Viewing Student Affect and Learning through Classroom Observation and Physical Sensors Toby Dragon are linked to student learning. This involves quantitative field observations in the classroom in which agents on both affective and motivational outcomes based factors (e.g., gender, ethnicity). Lack

Burleson, Winslow S.

96

Lunatics in Introductory Physics: Using Collectivized Student Moon Position Observations To Teach Basic Orbital Mechanics In Calculus Based Introductory Physics.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A large (74 student) calculus based physics class was required to make observations of the moon over two lunar cycles using a small telescope equipped with mechanical setting circles. The data was collectivized and then analyzed in the laboratory to determine the period of the moon and to search for evidence of the eccentricity of the moon's orbit. These results were used in conjunction with the simple pendulum experiment in which the students inferred the acceleration due to gravity. The student inferred lunar orbital period and acceleration due to gravity (augmented with the radius of the Earth) enabled the students to infer the average Earth to moon distance. Class lectures, activities, and homework on gravitation and orbits were tailored to this observational activity thereby forming a learning module. A basic physics and orbital mechanics knowledge questionnaire was administered before and after the learning module. The resulting learning gains are reported here.

Bottorff, Mark

2012-01-01

97

Leisure-Time Physical Activity in School Environments: An Observational Study Using SOPLAY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Schools provide settings for physical activity (PA), but objective tools for measuring PA are lacking. We assessed an instrument to directly observe group PA and measured the leisure-time PA of adolescents throughout the school day.Methods. Leisure-time PA was studied by direct observation in 24 middle schools in Southern California using SOPLAY (System for Observing Play and Leisure Activity in

Thomas L. McKenzie; Simon J. Marshall; James F. Sallis; Terry L. Conway

2000-01-01

98

In situ observations of aerosol physical and optical properties in northern India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The southern Asia, including India, is exposed to substantial quantities of particulate air pollution originating mainly from fossil fuel combustion and biomass burning. Besides serious adverse health effects, these aerosols cause a large reduction of solar radiation at the surface accompanied by a substantial atmospheric heating, which is expected to have significant influences on the air temperature, crop yields, livestock and water resources over the southern Asia. The various influences by aerosols in this region depend crucially on the development of aerosol emissions from household, industrial, transportation and biomass burning sectors. The main purpose of this study is to investigate several measured aerosol optical and physical properties. We take advantage of observations from two measurement stations which have been established by the Finnish Meteorological Institute and The Energy and Resources Institute. Another station is on the foothills of Himalayas, in Mukteshwar, about 350 km east of New Delhi at elevation about 2 km ASL. This site is considered as a rural background site. Measurements of aerosol size distribution (7-500 nm), PM10, PM2.5, aerosol scattering and absorption coefficients and weather parameters have been conducted since 2006. Another station is located at the outskirts of New Delhi, in Gual Pahari, about 35 km south of city centre. It is considered as an urban background site. Measurements of aerosol size distribution (7 nm- 10 ?m), PM10, PM2.5, aerosol scattering and absorption coefficients, aerosol optical depth, aerosol vertical distribution (LIDAR), aerosol filter sampling for chemical characterization and weather parameters were conducted between 2008 and 2010. On the overall average PM10 and PM2.5 values were about 3-4 times higher in Gual Pahari than in Mukteshwar as expected, 216 and 126 ?g m^-3, respectively. However, difference depended much on the season, so that during winter time PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations were about 9 and 6 times higher in Gual Pahari than in Mukteshwar. During the pre-monsoon the concentrations in Gual Pahari were only twofold compared to Mukteshwar. The monsoon cleans the atmosphere from particulate matter so that PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations reduced to more than half compared to pre-monsoon values. We also found a very clear diurnal cycle on both station, except during the monsoon season. However the phase of the cycle was different between stations. This annual and diurnal variation is controlled besides emissions by evolution of boundary layer and transport of aerosols from Indo- Gangetic plains to the background site in Mukteshwar. Basically all measured aerosol properties behaved similarly. We also analyzed the data to observe the so called elevated heat pump hypothesis and trends in long term aerosol properties, although six years of data is not enough to make solid conclusions.

Lihavainen, H.; Hyvarinen, A.; Hooda, R. K.; Raatikainen, T. E.; Sharma, V.; Komppula, M.

2012-12-01

99

Integers do not automatically activate their quantity representation.  

PubMed

Researchers have generally come to the conclusion that integers automatically activate the quantity they symbolize and that this quantity dominates responding. I conducted a strong test of this hypothesis with two numerical same/different experiments. On each trial, I presented the participant an integer between 1 and 9 and asked him or her to identify whether that symbol was a 5. If quantity information dominates responding, participants' reaction times (RTs) should be a function of the numerical distance between the target and the distractor. If quantity information is not activated, the integer is merely a shape, and participants' RTs should be a function of the physical similarity of the target and the distractor. The data from Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrate that quantity information exerts no control and that physical similarity is the primary controlling factor. These findings demonstrate that integers maintain a level of independence from their quantity representations. PMID:19293103

Cohen, Dale J

2009-04-01

100

Channel Coordination and Quantity Discounts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a model for analyzing the impact of joint decision policies on channel coordination in a system consisting of a supplier and a group of homogeneous buyers. The joint decision policy characterized by the unit selling price and the order quantity is coordinated through quantity discounts and franchise fees. Both the annual demand rate and the operating cost---including

Z. Kevin Weng

1995-01-01

101

Physical characterisation of near-Earth asteroid (1620) Geographos. Reconciling radar and thermal-infrared observations  

E-print Network

The Yarkovsky (orbital drift) and YORP (spin state change) effects play important roles in the dynamical and physical evolution of asteroids. Thermophysical modelling of these observed effects, and of thermal-infrared observations, allows a detailed physical characterisation of an individual asteroid to be performed. We perform a detailed physical characterisation of near-Earth asteroid (1620) Geographos, a potential meteor stream source and former spacecraft target, using the same techniques as previously used in Rozitis et al. (2013) for (1862) Apollo. We use the advanced thermophysical model (ATPM) on published light-curve, radar, and thermal-infrared observations to constrain the thermophysical properties of Geographos. The derived properties are used to make detailed predictions of the Yarkovsky orbital drift and YORP rotational acceleration, which are then compared against published measurements to determine Geographos's bulk density. We find that Geographos has a thermal inertia of 340 +140/-100 J m-2 ...

Rozitis, Ben

2014-01-01

102

Eyes on the Block: Measuring Urban Physical Disorder Through In-Person Observation  

PubMed Central

In this paper, we present results from measuring physical disorder in Los Angeles neighborhoods. Disorder measures came from structured observations conducted by trained field interviewers. We examine inter-rater reliability of disorder measures in depth. We assess the effects of observation conditions on the reliability of reporting. Finally, we examine the relationships between disorder, other indicators of neighborhood status, and selected individual outcomes. Our results indicate that there is considerable variation in the level of agreement among independent observations across items, although overall agreement is moderate to high. Durable indicators of disorder provide the most reliable measures of neighborhood conditions. Circumstances of observation have statistically significant effects on the observers’ perceived level of disorder. Physical disorder is significantly related to other indicators of neighborhood status, and to children’s reading and behavior development. This result suggests a need for further research into the effects of neighborhood disorder on children. PMID:21643484

Pebley, Anne R.; Sastry, Narayan

2011-01-01

103

Physical vs. Observational Properties of Clouds in Turbulent Molecular Cloud Models  

E-print Network

We examine how well the physical properties of clumps in turbulent molecular clouds can be determined by measurements of observed clump structures. We compare simulated observations of three-dimensional numerical models of isothermal, magnetized, supersonic turbulence to the actual physical structure of the models. We determine how changing the parameters of turbulence changes the structure of the simulations. Stronger driving produces greater density fluctuations, and longer wavelength driving produces larger structures. Magnetic fields have a less pronounced effect on structure, and one that is not monotonic with field strength. Aligned structures are seen only with low-density tracers, and when the intensity of the field is large. Comparing different regions with the same tracers (or the same region with different tracers) can give information about physical conditions: different density tracers can help determine the size of the density fluctuations and thus the strength of the driving. Nevertheless, velocity superposition of multiple physical clumps can fully obscure the physical properties of those clumps, and short wavelength driving worsens this effect. Regarding Larson's relationships, we confirm previous claims that the mean density-size relationship is an artifact of the observations; and the velocity dispersion-size relationship, is consistent with observations. Regarding the mass spectra, we show that, when we look for clumps with high enough resolution, they converge to a log-normal function, rather than the power-law obtained in the literature.

Javier Ballesteros-Paredes; Mordecai-M. Mac Low

2001-08-08

104

Viking landing sites, remote-sensing observations, and physical properties of Martian surface materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Consideration is given to the relations between the physical properties of the surface materials at Viking landing sites, the physical properties of other Martian surfaces inferred from radar observations from earth and thermal observations from orbit, and the geological processes that formed the materials and shaped the surfaces. The radar and thermal remote-sensing signatures of the landing site surface materials are estimated and compared with the thermal and radar measurements for the entire planet. It is shown that the surface materials at the landing sites are good analogs for the materials in most of the Martian equatorial regions.

Moore, Henry J.; Jakosky, Bruce M.

1989-01-01

105

On the complete characterization of the physical observables of radio emissions from arbitrary sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Like all forms of electromagnetic radiation, radio emissions of cosmic origin contain a diversity of physical observables that are constants of motion. Each of these observables carry unique information about the physics of the source(s) from which the radiation emanates and the medium through which it propagates. While the electromagnetic observables used in present-day radio and radar studies of space are limited to the energy (radiometry) and the linear momentum (radio astronomy, space radio and radar applications), the angular momentum and the boost momentum of the radiation are typically discarded and thereby important information wasted. We show how all electromagnetic observables can be measured and analysed, yielding information about vorticity and other topological properties as well as turbulence of radio sources and propagation media. Both theoretical predictions and experimental results confirming these predictions will be presented.

Thidé, Bo; Tamburini, Fabrizio

2014-05-01

106

SuperIso Relic: A program for calculating relic density and flavor physics observables in Supersymmetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe SuperIso Relic, a public program for evaluation of relic density and flavor physics observables in the minimal supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model (MSSM). SuperIso Relic is an extension of the SuperIso program which adds to the flavor observables of SuperIso the computation of all possible annihilation and coannihilation processes of the LSP which are required for the

A. Arbey; F. Mahmoudi

2010-01-01

107

Observational (Physical) Meaning of NonStandard (Non#Additive) Probabilities  

E-print Network

Observational (Physical) Meaning of Non­Standard (Non­#­Additive) Probabilities from Algebraic that the well­ defined events whose probabilities are 0 never occur. For example, the conclusion that in a potentially infinite sequence of identical experiments with probability 0.5 (like coin tossing), the frequency

Kreinovich, Vladik

108

Observational (Physical) Meaning of Non-Standard (Non--Additive) Probabilities  

E-print Network

Observational (Physical) Meaning of Non-Standard (Non--Additive) Probabilities from Algebraic that the well- defined events whose probabilities are 0 never occur. For example, the conclusion that in a potentially infinite sequence of identical experiments with probability 0.5 (like coin tossing), the frequency

Kreinovich, Vladik

109

2009 C. H. McCloy Lecture. Seeing Is Believing: Observing Physical Activity and Its Contexts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Direct (systematic) observation has been a mainstay of my research for over three decades. I believe it is an important tool for assessing physical activity, because it can simultaneously provide contextually rich data on the setting in which the activity occurs. It is particularly useful for those interested in using ecological and…

McKenzie, Thomas L.

2010-01-01

110

An Observational Assessment of Physical Activity Levels and Social Behaviour during Elementary School Recess  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The purpose of the present study was to assess children's physical activity, social play behaviour, activity type and social interactions during elementary school recess using a pre-validated systematic observation system. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Two elementary schools located in Merseyside, England. Method: Fifty-six…

Roberts, Simon J.; Fairclough, Stuart J.; Ridgers, Nicola D.; Porteous, Conor

2013-01-01

111

Strategies for Estimating Discrete Quantities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the benchmark and decomposition-recomposition estimation strategies and presents five techniques to develop students' estimation ability. Suggests situations involving quantities of candy and popcorn in which the teacher can model those strategies for the students. (MDH)

Crites, Terry W.

1993-01-01

112

Tri-Axial Accelerometry and Heart Rate Telemetry: Relation and Agreement with Behavioral Observation in Elementary Physical Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relation and agreement of tri-axial accelerometry and heart rate telemetry in measuring moderate to vigorous physical activity were examined in association to behavioral observation during 1st- and 2nd-grade physical education. In Study 1, physical activity measures of heart rate and behavioral observation were collected on 346 participants…

Scruggs, Philip W.; Beveridge, Sandy K.; Clocksin, Brian D.

2005-01-01

113

The system for observing fitness instruction time (SOFIT) as a measure of energy expenditure during classroom based physical activity  

E-print Network

The aim of this investigation was to develop an equation to estimate physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) during a 10-min physically active academic lesson using The System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time ...

Honas, Jeffery J.; Washburn, Richard A.; Smith, Bryan K.; Greene, Leon; Cook-Wiens, Galen; Donnelly, Joseph E.

2008-01-01

114

A comparison of cloud microphysical quantities with forecasts from cloud prediction models  

SciTech Connect

Numerical weather prediction models (ECMWF, NCEP) are evaluated using ARM observational data collected at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. Cloud forecasts generated by the models are compared with cloud microphysical quantities, retrieved using a variety of parameterizations. Information gained from this comparison will be utilized during the FASTER project, as models are evaluated for their ability to reproduce fast physical processes detected in the observations. Here the model performance is quantified against the observations through a statistical analysis. Observations from remote sensing instruments (radar, lidar, radiometer and radiosonde) are used to derive the cloud microphysical quantities: ice water content, liquid water content, ice effective radius and liquid effective radius. Unfortunately, discrepancies in the derived quantities arise when different retrieval schemes are applied to the observations. The uncertainty inherent in retrieving the microphysical quantities using various retrievals is estimated from the range of output microphysical values. ARM microphysical retrieval schemes (Microbase, Mace) are examined along with the CloudNet retrieval processing of data from the ARM sites for this purpose. Through the interfacing of CloudNet and “ARM” processing schemes an ARMNET product is produced and employed as accepted observations in the assessment of cloud model predictions.

Dunn, M.; Jensen, M.; Hogan, R.; O’Connor, E.; Huang, D.

2010-03-15

115

Physical therapy observation and assessment in the neonatal intensive care unit.  

PubMed

This article presents the elements of the Observation and Assessment section of the Infant Care Path for Physical Therapy in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). The types of physical therapy assessments presented in this path are evidence-based and the suggested timing of these assessments is primarily based on practice knowledge from expert therapists, with supporting evidence cited. Assessment in the NICU begins with a thorough review of the health care record. Assessment proceeds by using the least invasive methods of gathering the behavioral, developmental, physiologic, and musculoskeletal information needed to implement a physical therapy plan of care. As the neonate matures and can better tolerate handling, assessment methods include lengthier standardized tests with the psychometric properties needed for informing diagnosis and intervention planning. Standardized tests and measures for screening, diagnosis, and developmental assessment are appraised and special considerations for assessment of neonates in the NICU are discussed. PMID:23311522

Byrne, Eilish; Campbell, Suzann K

2013-02-01

116

Observations Of General Learning Patterns In An Upper-Level Thermal Physics Course  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I discuss some observations from using interactive-engagement instructional methods in an upper-level thermal physics course over a two-year period. From the standpoint of the subject matter knowledge of the upper-level students, there was a striking persistence of common learning difficulties previously observed in students enrolled in the introductory course, accompanied, however, by some notable contrasts between the groups. More broadly, I comment on comparisons and contrasts regarding general pedagogical issues among different student sub-populations, for example: differences in the receptivity of lower- and upper-level students to diagrammatic representations; varying receptivity to tutorial-style instructional approach within the upper-level population; and contrasting approaches to learning among physics and engineering sub-populations in the upper-level course with regard to use of symbolic notation, mathematical equations, and readiness to employ verbal explanations.

Meltzer, David E.

2009-11-01

117

Observations of General Learning Patterns in an Upper-Level Thermal Physics Course  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

I discuss some observations from using interactive-engagement instructional methods in an upper-level thermal physics course over a two-year period. From the standpoint of the subject matter knowledge of the upper-level students, there was a striking persistence of common learning difficulties previously observed in students enrolled in the introductory course, accompanied, however, by some notable contrasts between the groups. More broadly, I comment on comparisons and contrasts regarding general pedagogical issues among different student sub-populations, for example: differences in the receptivity of lower- and upper-level students to diagrammatic representations; varying receptivity to tutorial-style instructional approach within the upper-level population; and contrasting approaches to learning among physics and engineering sub-populations in the upper-level course with regard to use of symbolic notation, mathematical equations, and readiness to employ verbal explanations.

Meltzer, David E.

2010-03-11

118

Control-Rod Interference Effects Observed during Reactor Physics Experiments with Nuclear Ship “MUTSU”  

Microsoft Academic Search

The control rods in the reactor of the nuclear ship MUTSU are classified into four groups: groups G1 and G2 are located in the central part of the core, while groups G3 and G4 are in the peripheral zone of the core. Several types of mutual interference effects among these control-rod groups were observed during reactor physics experiments with this

Masafumi ITAGAKI; Yoshinori MIYOSHI; Kazuhiko GAKUHARI; Noboru OKADA; Tomohiro SAKAI

1993-01-01

119

Observations of Asteroid 2577 Litva with Analysis of Physical Properties Through Bayesian Interence Based Modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations of asteroid 2577 Litva, a known multiple system, were taken from Robinson Observatory at the University of Central Florida spanning several weeks from late 2013 to early 2014. This work outlines a modified Bayesian Inference methodology for determining periodicities within the data as well as correcting for orbital effects with pole determination, and compares our results with previously published works. For the primary object, Litva, we find the most probable period to be 2.812186±5x10 ? 6 hours, the most probable for the pole direction to be at 26.96 ± 2 , 298.8 ± 11 degrees latitude and longitude. The secondary system does not appear to eclipse the primary object, most likely due orbital geometries. For the third object we find the most probable rotation period to be 5.68389 ± 0.0005 hours. We discuss how to extend this work to determine the direction of the rotation axis for the third body, as well as the pole direction for the eclipsing satellite. This methodology is a novel tool for generating probability distributions for each measured quantity handling low signal-to-noise observations, working with widely spaced data, and detecting periodicities.

Lust, Nathaniel B.; Britt, Daniel

2014-11-01

120

Physical parameters in long-decay coronal enhancements. [from Skylab X ray observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Four well-observed long-decay X-ray enhancements (LDEs) are examined which were associated with filament eruptions, white-light transients, and loop prominence systems. In each case the physical parameters of the X-ray-emitting plasma are determined, including the spatial distribution and temporal evolution of temperature and density. The results and recent analyses of other aspects of the four LDEs are compared with current models of loop prominence systems. It is concluded that only a magnetic-reconnection model, such as that proposed by Kopp and Pneuman (1976) is consistent with the observations.

Maccombie, W. J.; Rust, D. M.

1979-01-01

121

Physical properties (particle size, rock abundance) from thermal infrared remote observations: Implications for Mars landing sites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Critical to the assessment of potential sites for the 1997 Pathfinder landing is estimation of general physical properties of the martian surface. Surface properties have been studied using a variety of spacecraft and earth-based remote sensing observations, plus in situ studies at the Viking lander sites. Because of their value in identifying landing hazards and defining scientific objectives, we focus this discussion on thermal inertia and rock abundance derived from middle-infrared (6 to 30 microns) observations. Used in conjunction with other datasets, particularly albedo and Viking orbiter images, thermal inertia and rock abundance provide clues about the properties of potential Mars landing sites.

Christensen, P. R.; Edgett, Kenneth S.

1994-01-01

122

The optimum quantity of debt  

Microsoft Academic Search

We find that the welfare gains to being at the optimum quantity of debt rather than the current US level are small, and, therefore, concerns regarding the high level of debt in the US economy may be misplaced. This finding is based on a model of a large number of infinitely lived households whose saving behavior is influenced by precautionary

S. Rao Aiyagari; Ellen R. McGrattan

1998-01-01

123

Cool atmosphere models and observations: liability and limits of brown dwarfs and exoplanets physical parameters determination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of cool atmospheres is currently a fruitful field of interaction between theorists developing better atmosphere models and observers discovering new cool objects and analysing their emission spectrum. Save for a few close binaries with known parallax and a dynamical mass determination, comparison of spectra to models is the only method available to observers to derive the fundamental physical parameters of a substellar object, such as mass, temperature, age or metallicity. Most of our knowledge of key substellar parameters thus rests upon theoretical models reliability. This issue is particularly acute for the newly imaged exoplanets, whose parameter range of youth and extreme low-mass has not been probed before, but we show that model reliability remains problematic even for field L and T dwarfs, whose observed spectra have guided the model development over the past fifteen years. We present several models-to-observations comparisons, which remind that even the last-generation atmosphere models keep having trouble quantitatively reproducing overall spectral parameters such as absorption band strength measured through spectral indices and broad band absolute magnitudes. These tests confirm that the models cannot yet be used at face value to read off physical parameters, and need empirical calibration on well constrained benchmarks. While the models are sufficiently predictive to produce useful differential measurements over limited parameter ranges, using them without empirical rescaling and anchoring generally leads to significantly inaccurate results.

Delorme, P.; Weidner, C.

2010-10-01

124

Child Endowments, and the Quantity and Quality of Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper brings together and integrates social interactions and the special relation between quantity and quality. We are able to show that the observed quality income elasticity would be relatively high and the quantity elasticity relatively low and sometimes negative, even if the true \\

Gary S. Becker; Nigel Tomes

1976-01-01

125

Review on the Observed and Physical Properties of Core Collapse Supernovae  

E-print Network

This paper summarizes observed and physical properties of all types of core collapse supernovae. Despite the great diversity displayed by these objects, several regularities emerge which suggest that 1) there is a continuum in the properties of these objects, 2) the mass of the envelope is one of the driving parameters of the explosion, or it is correlated with some other property of the core, with the latter determining the outcome of the explosion, and 3) the physics of the core and explosion mechanism of all core collapse supernovae are not be fundamentally different, regardless of the external appearance of the supernova. Far above in energy scale and 56Ni production lies SN 1998bw, the only supernova firmly associated with a gamma-ray burst.

Mario Hamuy

2003-01-01

126

Assessing agreement of self-reported and observed physical exposures of the upper extremity  

PubMed Central

Assessment of workplace physical exposures by self-reported questionnaires has logistical advantages in population studies but is subject to exposure misclassification. This study measured agreement between eight self-reported and observer-rated physical exposures to the hands and wrists, and evaluated predictors of inter-method agreement. Workers (n=341) from three occupational categories (clerical/technical, construction, and service) completed self-administered questionnaires and worksite assessments. Analyses compared self-reported and observed ratings using a weighted kappa coefficient. Personal and psychosocial factors, presence of upper extremity symptoms and job type were evaluated as predictors of agreement. Weighted kappa values were substantial for lifting (0.67) and holding vibrating tools (0.61), moderate for forceful grip (0.58) and fair to poor for all other exposures. Upper extremity symptoms did not predict greater disagreement between self-reported and observed exposures. Occupational category was the only significant predictor of inter-method agreement. Self-reported exposures may provide a useful estimate of some work exposures for population studies. PMID:20166314

Dale, Ann Marie; Strickland, Jaime; Gardner, Bethany; Symanzik, Jurgen; Evanoff, Bradley

2012-01-01

127

Test for entanglement using physically observable witness operators and positive maps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Motivated by the Peres-Horodecki criterion and the realignment criterion we develop a more powerful method to identify entangled states for any bipartite system through a universal construction of the witness operator. The method also gives a new family of positive but noncompletely positive maps of arbitrary high dimensions, which provide a much better test than the witness operators themselves. Moreover, we find that there are two types of positive maps that can detect 2×N and 4×N bound entangled states. Since entanglement witnesses are physical observables and may be measured locally our construction could be of great significance for future experiments.

Chen, Kai; Wu, Ling-An

2004-02-01

128

Physical Conditions in a CME from Hinode, STEREO, and SOHO Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present work we analyze multiwavelength observations from Hinode, SOHO, and STEREO of the early phases of a CME. We use EIS, UVCS, and XRT to measure the physical properties of the CME ejecta as a function of time at 1.1 and 1.9 Rsun. EUVI, COR 1, EIT, and LASCO images are used to measure the CME trajectory, velocity, and acceleration in 3D up to 5 Rsun. The diagnostic results are used to determine the energy budget of the CME plasma and the heating rate, and to compare it to theoretical predictions.

Landi, E.; Raymond, J. C.; Miralles, M. P.; Hara, H.

2010-06-01

129

Physical Oceanography (Program Description)  

NSF Publications Database

... of Ocean Sciences Physical Oceanography Description The Physical Oceanography Program supports ... various quantities, with the way the ocean's physical structure interacts with the biological and ...

130

Physical Parameters of a Blowout Jet Observed by HINODE and STEREO/EUVI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present work aims at identifying a typical blowout jet and inferring its physical parameters. To this end, we present a preliminary multi-instrument analysis of the bright X-ray jet that occurred in the north polar coronal hole on Nov. 3, 2007, at 11:50 UT. The jet shows the typical characteristics of “blowout jets'' (Moore et al. 2010), and was observed by Hinode/X-Ray Telescope (XRT) and by Stereo/Extreme UltraViolett Imager (EUVI) and COR1. Temperatures and Emission Measures (EMs) of the jet have been derived from the EUVI A data via the filter ratio technique in the pre-event, near maximum and in the post-maximum phases. Temperatures and EMs inferred from EUVI data are then used to calculate the predicted XRT Al-poly intensity: predicted values are compared with observed values and found to be consistent.

Pucci, S.; Poletto, G.; Sterling, A.; Romoli, M.

2012-05-01

131

Observing physical education teachers' need-supportive interactions in classroom settings.  

PubMed

According to self-determination theory, teachers can motivate students by supporting their psychological needs for relatedness, competence, and autonomy. The present study complements extant research (most of which relied on self-report measures) by relying on observations of need-supportive teaching in the domain of physical education (PE), which allows for the identification of concrete, real-life examples of how teacher need support manifests in the classroom. Seventy-four different PE lessons were coded for 5-min intervals to assess the occurrence of 21 need-supportive teaching behaviors. Factor analyses provided evidence for four interpretable factors, namely, relatedness support, autonomy support, and two components of structure (structure before and during the activity). Reasonable evidence was obtained for convergence between observed and student perceived need support. Yet, the low interrater reliability for two of the four scales indicates that these scales need further improvement. PMID:23404876

Haerens, Leen; Aelterman, Nathalie; Van den Berghe, Lynn; De Meyer, Jotie; Soenens, Bart; Vansteenkiste, Maarten

2013-02-01

132

General Relativity: Geometry Meets Physics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Observing the relationship of general relativity and the geometry of space-time, the author questions whether the rest of physics has geometrical explanations. As a partial answer he discusses current research on subatomic particles employing geometric transformations, and cites the existence of geometrical definitions of physical quantities such…

Thomsen, Dietrick E.

1975-01-01

133

Invariant quantities in shear flow  

E-print Network

The dynamics of systems out of thermal equilibrium is usually treated on a case-by-case basis without knowledge of fundamental and universal principles. We address this problem for a class of driven steady states, namely those mechanically driven at the boundaries such as complex fluids under shear. From a nonequilibrium counterpart to detailed balance (NCDB) we derive a remarkably simple set of invariant quantities which remain unchanged when the system is driven. These new nonequilibrium relations are both exact and valid arbitrarily far from equilibrium. Furthermore, they enable the systematic calculation of transition rates in driven systems with state-spaces of arbitrary connectivity.

A. Baule; R. M. L. Evans

2008-08-08

134

Computer simulating observations of the Lunar physical libration for the Japanese Lunar project ILOM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the frame of the second stage of the Japanese space mission SELENE-2 (Hanada et al. 2009) the project ILOM (In-situ Lunar Orientation Measurement) planned after 2017years is a kind of instrument for positioning on the Moon. It will be set near the lunar pole and will determine parameters of lunar physical libration by positioning of several tens of stars in the field of view regularly for longer than one year. Presented work is dedicated to analyses of computer simulating future observations. It's proposed that for every star crossing lunar prime meridian its polar distance will be to measure. The methods of optimal star observation are being developed for the future experiment. The equations are constructed to determine libration angles ? (t),?(t),?(t)- on the basis of observed polar distances pobs: (| f1(?,?,I?,pobs) = 0 |{ f2(?,?,I?,pobs) = 0 | f3(?,?,I?,pobs) = 0 |( or f(X) = 0, where ; f = ? f1 ? | f2 | |? f3 |? X = ? ? ? | ? | |? I? |? (1) At the present stage we have developed the software for selection of stars for these future polar observations. Stars were taken from various stellar catalogues, such as the UCAC2-BSS, Hipparcos, Tycho and FK6. The software reduces ICRS coordinates of star to selenographical system at the epoch of observation (Petrova et al., 2009). For example, to the epochs 2017 - 2018 more than 50 stars brighter than m = 12 were selected for the northern pole. In total, these stars give about 600 crossings of the prime meridian during one year. Nevertheless, only a few stars (2-5) may be observed in a vicinity of the one moment. This is not enough to have sufficient sample to exclude various kind of errors. The software includes programmes which can determine the moment of transition of star across the meridian and theoretical values of libration angles at this moments. A serious problem arises when we try to solve equations (1) with the purpose to determine libration angles on the basis of simulated pobs.. Polar distances are calculated using the analytical theory of physical libration Petrova et al. (2008; 2009). We cannot use Newton's method for solution of the equation, because the Jacobian | | || ??fx11 ??fx12 ??f1x3-|| || ??fx2 ??fx2 ??f2x-|| J(X ) = || ?f13 ?f23 ?3f3-|| = 0. || ?x1 ?x2 ?x3 || We transformed equations to the iteration form xi = ?i(X). Used iteration methods have unsatisfactory convergence: inaccuracy in polar distance of 1 milliseconds of arc causes inaccuracy of 0.01arcsec in ? and in I?, and 0.1 arcsec in ?. Results of our computer simulating showed It's necessary to carry out measuring of polar distances of stars in several meridians simultaneously to increase sample of stars. It's necessary to find additional links (relations) between observed parameters and libration angles to have stable mathematical methods to receive solutions for lunar rotation with high accuracy. The research was supported by the Russian-Japanese grant RFFI-JSPS 09-02-92113, (2009-2010) References: Hanada H., Noda H., Kikuchi F. et al., 2009. Different kind of observations of lunar rotation and gravity for SELENE-2. Proc of conf. Astrokazan-2009, August 19 - 26, Kazan, Russia. p. 172-175 Petrova N., Gusev A., Kawano N., Hanada H., 2008. Free librations of the two-layer Moon and the possibilities of their detection. Advances in Space Res., v 42, p. 1398-1404 Petrova N., Gusev A., Hanada H., Ivanova T., Akutina V., 2009. Application of the analytical theory of Lunar physical libration for simulating observations of stars for the future Japanese project ILOM. Proc of conf. Astrokazan-2009, August 19 - 26, Kazan, Russia. p.197 - 201.

Petrova, Natalia; Hanada, Hideo

2010-05-01

135

Physical Characteristics of Faint Meteors by Light Curve and High-resolution Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The physical structure of a meteoroid may be inferred from optical observations, particularly the light curve, of a meteor. For example: a classically shaped (late peaked) light curve is seen as evidence of a solid single body, whereas a symmetric light curve may indicate a dustball structure. High-resolution optical observations show how the meteoroid fragments: continuously, leaving a long wake, or discretely, leaving several distinct pieces. Calculating the orbit of the meteoroid using two station data then allows the object to be associated with asteroidal or cometary parent bodies. Optical observations thus provide simultaneous information on meteoroid structure, fragmentation mode, and origin.CAMO (the Canadian Automated Meteor Observatory) has been continuously collecting faint (masses < 10-4 kg) two station optical meteors with image-intensified narrow field (with a resolution of up to 3 meters per pixel) and wide field (26 by 19 degrees) cameras since 2010. The narrow field, telescopic cameras allow the meteor fragmentation to be studied using a pair of mirrors to track the meteor. The wide-field cameras provide the light curve and trajectory solution.We present preliminary results from classifying light curves and high-resolution optical observations for 3000 faint meteors recorded since 2010. We find that most meteors (both asteroidal and cometary) show long trails, while meteors with short trails are the second most common morphology. It is expected that meteoroids that experience negligible fragmentation have the shortest trails, so our results imply that the majority of small meteoroids fragment during ablation. A surprising observation is that almost equal fractions of asteroidal and cometary meteors fragment (showing long trails), implying a similar structure for both types of meteoroids.

Subasinghe, Dilini; Campbell-Brown, Margaret D.; Stokan, Edward

2014-11-01

136

The Role of Physical Attractiveness in the Observation of Adult-Child Interactions: Eye of the Beholder or Behavioral Reality?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies of the susceptibility of observations of adult-child interactions to bias because of the physical attractiveness of target persons indicated that when making global ratings observers were significantly and favorably biased toward attractive women. No bias was obtained when observers used a molecular coding strategy. (RH)

Ritter, Jean M.; Langlois, Judith H.

1988-01-01

137

Discerning new physics in toverline t production using top spin observables at hadron colliders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Copious production of top-anti top quark pairs at hadron colliders has enabled various probes into the properties and interactions of top quarks. Among the various presently measured observables, the forward-backward asymmetry (FBA) in toverline t production measured at the Tevatron significantly deviates from the standard model predictions, and many models of new physics have been invented to explain the puzzle. We consider the consistency of the simplified single-resonance models containing a color octet axial-vector ("axigluon"), color triplet or sextet weak singlet scalars, weak isodoublet scalar, flavor-changing neutral Z ', or charged W ' vector boson with existing toverline t production measurements. Among the considered models only an axigluon can reproduce all Tevatron observables, without being in severe tension with the recent LHC results on toverline t production cross section, charge asymmetry and top-spin correlations. The LHC charge asymmetry measurements exclude the W ' and Z ' explanations of the Tevatron FBA anomaly. On the other hand, all scalar models predict notable deviations in several top spin observables, and the recent top spin correlation measurement using the "helicity" spin quantization axis by ATLAS already provides a significant constraint on possible explanations of the Tevatron FBA anomaly. Future precise measurements of top spin correlations and especially top polarization could differentiate between scalar t-channel models, while they are less sensitive to pure axigluon contributions.

Fajfer, Svjetlana; Kamenik, Jernej F.; Meli?, Blaženka

2012-08-01

138

Virtual Observatories for Space Physics Observations and Simulations: New Routes to Efficient Access and Visualization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New tools for data access and visualization promise to make the analysis of space plasma data both more efficient and more powerful, especially for answering questions about the global structure and dynamics of the Sun-Earth system. We will show how new existing tools (particularly the Virtual Space Physics Observatory-VSPO-and the Visual System for Browsing, Analysis and Retrieval of Data-ViSBARD; look for the acronyms in Google) already provide rapid access to such information as spacecraft orbits, browse plots, and detailed data, as well as visualizations that can quickly unite our view of multispacecraft observations. We will show movies illustrating multispacecraft observations of the solar wind and magnetosphere during a magnetic storm, and of simulations of 3 0-spacecraft observations derived from MHD simulations of the magnetosphere sampled along likely trajectories of the spacecraft for the MagCon mission. An important issue remaining to be solved is how best to integrate simulation data and services into the Virtual Observatory environment, and this talk will hopefully stimulate further discussion along these lines.

Roberts, Aaron

2005-01-01

139

Observation and Identification of Zonal Flows in a Basic Plasma Physics Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The role of self-generated zonal flows (ZF) in transport regulation in magnetic confinement devices via its shear is a potent concept and a physics issue [1]. A basic physics experimental study of zonal flows associated with ITG (ion temperature gradient) drift modes has been performed in the Columbia Linear Machine [2]. The difficult problem of detection of ZF has been solved via a novel diagnostic using the paradigm of FM (frequency modulation) in radio transmission. Using this and Discrete Short Time Fourier Transform, we find a power spectrum peak at ITG (‘carrier’) frequency of ˜120kHz and FM sidebands at frequency of ˜2kHz . We have definitively identified ZF with azimuthal (poloidal) and axial (toroidal) symmetry (k? 0, k 0 ) and radially inhomogeneous (kr!=0 ) flow structures in cylindrical plasmas. However, the stabilizing effect of ZF shear appears to be small and no significant isotopic effects are observed. The dependence of amplitude of ZF versus presumed damping ratio ?ii is also reported. Collaborators: X.Wei and A.K.Sen, Plasma Research Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027. [1] P.H. Diamond, S-I Itoh, K.Itoh and T.S.Hahm, Plasma Phys.Controlled Fusion 47, R35 (2005). [2] V. Sokolov and A. K. Sen, Nucl. Fusion 45, 439 (2005).

Sokolov, Vladimir

2006-10-01

140

A comparison of protocols and observer precision for measuring physical stream attributes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Stream monitoring programs commonly measure physical attributes to assess the effect of land management on stream habitat. Variability associated with the measurement of these attributes has been linked to a number of factors, but few studies have evaluated variability due to differences in protocols. We compared six protocols, five used by the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service and one by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, on six streams in Oregon and Idaho to determine whether differences in protocol affect values for 10 physical stream attributes. Results from Oregon and Idaho were combined for groups participating in both states, with significant differences in attribute means for 9 out of the 10 stream attributes. Significant differences occurred in 5 of 10 in Idaho, and 10 of 10 in Oregon. Coefficients of variation, signal-to-noise ratio, and root mean square error were used to evaluate measurement precision. There were differences among protocols for all attributes when states were analyzed separately and as a combined dataset. Measurement differences were influenced by choice of instruments, measurement method, measurement location, attribute definitions, and training approach. Comparison of data gathered by observers using different protocols will be difficult unless a core set of protocols for commonly measured stream attributes can be standardized among monitoring programs. ?? 2007 American Water Resources Association.

Whitacre, H.W.; Roper, B.B.; Kershner, J.L.

2007-01-01

141

Assimilation of streamflow and soil moisture observations in a distributed physically-based hydrological model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data assimilation techniques not only enhance model simulations and predictions, they also give the opportunity to pose a diagnostic on both model and observations used in the assimilation process. The goal of this research is to assimilate streamflow and soil moisture in a distributed physically-based hydrological model, CATHY (CATchment HYdrology). The study site is the des Anglais Watershed, a 690-km2 river basin located in southern Québec, Canada. An ensemble Kalman filter was used to assimilate streamflow observations at the basin outlet and at interior locations, as well as soil moisture at different depths (15, 45, and 90 cm) measured with probes (6 stations) and surface soil moisture estimated from radar remote sensing. The use of a Latin hypercube sampling instead of the Monte Carlo method to generate the ensemble reduced the size of ensemble, and therefore the calculation time. An important issue in data assimilation is the estimation of error covariance matrices. Different post-assimilation diagnostics, based on innovations (observation-minus-background), analysis residuals (observation-minus-analysis) and analysis increments (analysis-minus-background) were used to evaluate assimilation optimality. A calibration approach was performed to determine the standard deviation of model parameters, forcing data and observations that lead to optimal assimilations. The analysis of innovations showed a lag between the model prediction and the observation during rainfall events. The assimilation of streamflow observations (outlet or interior locations) corrected this discrepancy. The assimilation of outlet streamflow observations improved the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiencies (NSE) at both outlet and interior point locations. The structure of the state vector used in this study allowed the assimilation of outlet streamflow observations to have an impact over streamflow simulations at interior point locations. Indeed, the state vector contains the outlet streamflow (Qout) and the incoming streamflow (Qin), since both these informations are used by the Muskingum-Cunge surface routing equation in CATHY. However, assimilation of streamflow observations increased systematically the soil moisture values simulated at 15 and 45 cm. The combined assimilation of outlet streamflow and soil moisture improved the NSE of streamflow without degrading the simulation of soil moisture. Moreover, the assimilation of streamflow and soil moisture observations from one station (at 45 cm depth) appeared to have a similar impact on soil moisture simulations compared to a combined assimilation of streamflow and soil moisture observations from five stations. Finally, it was found that the frequency of the assimilation of soil moisture observations has a greater impact on the results than the spatial coverage of the assimilation: assimilation of daily soil moisture measured with probes at six stations gives better results than the assimilation of surface soil moisture estimated from radar remote sensing 8 times over the course of a summer season.

Trudel, M.; Leconte, R.; Paniconi, C.

2012-04-01

142

An Observational Perspective of Low-Mass Dense Cores I: Internal Physical and Chemical Properties  

E-print Network

Low-mass dense cores represent the state of molecular gas associated with the earliest phases of low-mass star formation. Such cores are called "protostellar" or "starless," depending on whether they do or do not contain compact sources of luminosity. In this chapter, the first half of the review of low-mass dense cores, we describe the numerous inferences made about the nature of starless cores as a result of recent observations, since these reveal the initial conditions of star formation. We focus on the identification of isolated starless cores and their internal physical and chemical properties, including morphologies, densities, temperatures, kinematics, and molecular abundances. These objects display a wide range of properties since they are each at different points on evolutionary paths from ambient molecular cloud material to cold, contracting, and centrally concentrated configurations with significant molecular depletions and, in rare cases, enhancements.

J. Di Francesco; N. J. Evans II; P. Caselli; P. C. Myers; Y. Shirley; A. Aikawa; M. Tafalla

2006-02-17

143

Balancing Teacher Quality and Quantity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The world is facing a shortage of trained teachers. According to the 2010 Global Monitoring Report approximately 10.3 million teachers will be needed globally to staff classrooms from Bangkok to Canada. The situation is worse in Sub-Saharan Africa. Estimates suggest that approximately 1.2 million new teachers will be needed in Sub-Saharan Africa alone to achieve universal primary education goals by 2015. Increases in primary school enrollments, drought, and HIV-AIDS have exacerbated the need for well trained teachers. Despite the need, the focus is on balancing quality with quantity. An effective teacher is deemed a critical element, although not the only one, in a student's success in the classroom. This paper focuses on the dilemma of meeting universal primary education goals in Sub-Saharan Africa, while maintaining teacher quality in fragile contexts.

Bond, Helen

144

Shape Quantities for Relational Quadrilateralland  

E-print Network

I investigate useful shape quantities for the classical and quantum mechanics of the relational quadrilateral in 2-d. This is relational in the sense that only relative times, relative ratios of separations and relative angles are significant. Relational particle mechanics models such as this paper's have many analogies with the geometrodynamical formulation of general relativity. This renders them suitable as toy models for 1) studying Problem of Time in Quantum Gravity strategies, in particular timeless, semiclassical and histories theory approaches and combinations of these. 2) For consideration of various other quantum-cosmological issues, such as structure formation/inhomogeneity and notions of uniform states and their significance. The relational quadrilateral is more useful in these respects than previously investigated simpler RPM's due to simultaneously possessing linear constraints, nontrivial subsystems and nontrivial complex-projective mathematics. Such shape have been found to be useful in simpler relational models such as the relational triangle and in 1-d.

Edward Anderson

2010-09-11

145

Using MSG-SEVIRI Cloud Physical Properties and Weather Radar Observations for the Detection of Cb/TCu Clouds  

E-print Network

Using MSG-SEVIRI Cloud Physical Properties and Weather Radar Observations for the Detection of Cb (SEVIRI) on board Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellites and weather radar reflectivity factors/TCu clouds for the collection of pixels that pass the CCM. In this model, MSG-SEVIRI cloud physical

Schmeits, Maurice

146

Physical Representation and Observational Constraint of Convection, Clouds and Radiation Processes in the Global Climate Simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Convection, cloud, radiation and precipitation processes are key components of the global water and energy cycle and operate on a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. Water exists in three phases (vapor, liquid and solid) in the atmosphere. The formation and growth of clouds and precipitation are associated with water phase changes. Convection affects thermodynamics, large-scale circulations and wave disturbances through the release of latent heat and redistribution of heat, moisture and momentum; especially precipitation. The vertical and horizontal distributions of clouds influence the atmospheric radiation budgets and the radiative heating/cooling rates through the reflection, absorption and emission of solar and terrestrial radiation. Since solar radiation is the key factor driving the water cycle, and the interaction of water vapor and clouds with radiation modulates the transformation of energy, the energy cycle is closely coupled with the water cycle. However, the uncertainty in the parameterization of convection and clouds limits the success in reproducing observations. With horizontal resolutions of several hundred kilometers in GCMs, the parameterization of cloud vertical overlap and horizontal inhomogeneity has been a challenge problem for improving radiation schemes. Most GCMs have to use unrealistic cloud amount and/or cloud liquid and ice water contents in order to maintain the global radiation budget closer to satellite observations. The increasing satellite observations of clouds and radiation impose a strong constraint on the formulation of convection, cloud and radiation processes in GCMs. Observational and process studies produced several modifications to the convection closure assumption, deep convection trigger condition, convective momentum transport and treatment of subgrid cloud variability for the radiation scheme in a GCM. Consequently, the representations of convective processes, vertical distribution and subgrid horizontal variability of clouds are more physically consistent, and the climate simulations of precipitation frequency and diurnal cycle, clouds and radiation are affected and improved.

Wu, X.

2013-12-01

147

A Physical Model to Estimate Snowfall over Land using AMSU-B Observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this study, we present an improved physical model to retrieve snowfall rate over land using brightness temperature observations from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Advanced Microwave Sounder Unit-B (AMSU-B) at 89 GHz, 150 GHz, 183.3 +/- 1 GHz, 183.3 +/- 3 GHz, and 183.3 +/- 7 GHz. The retrieval model is applied to the New England blizzard of March 5, 2001 which deposited about 75 cm of snow over much of Vermont, New Hampshire, and northern New York. In this improved physical model, prior retrieval assumptions about snowflake shape, particle size distributions, environmental conditions, and optimization methodology have been updated. Here, single scattering parameters for snow particles are calculated with the Discrete-Dipole Approximation (DDA) method instead of assuming spherical shapes. Five different snow particle models (hexagonal columns, hexagonal plates, and three different kinds of aggregates) are considered. Snow particle size distributions are assumed to vary with air temperature and to follow aircraft measurements described by previous studies. Brightness temperatures at AMSU-B frequencies for the New England blizzard are calculated using these DDA calculated single scattering parameters and particle size distributions. The vertical profiles of pressure, temperature, relative humidity and hydrometeors are provided by MM5 model simulations. These profiles are treated as the a priori data base in the Bayesian retrieval algorithm. In algorithm applications to the blizzard data, calculated brightness temperatures associated with selected database profiles agree with AMSU-B observations to within about +/- 5 K at all five frequencies. Retrieved snowfall rates compare favorably with the near-concurrent National Weather Service (NWS) radar reflectivity measurements. The relationships between the NWS radar measured reflectivities Z(sub e) and retrieved snowfall rate R for a given snow particle model are derived by a histogram matching technique. All of these Z(sub e)-R relationships fall in the range of previously established Z(sub e)-R relationships for snowfall. This suggests that the current physical model developed in this study can reliably estimate the snowfall rate over land using the AMSU-B measured brightness temperatures.

Kim, Min-Jeong; Weinman, J. A.; Olson, W. S.; Chang, D.-E.; Skofronick-Jackson, G.; Wang, J. R.

2008-01-01

148

Physical retrieval of precipitation cell parameters using passive 118-GHz observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Physical retrieval of precipitation parameters from 118-GHz spectra is investigated using an iterative planar-stratified numerical radiative-transfer model. Liquid and frozen hydrometeors are modeled as spherical Marshall-Palmer and Sekhon-Srivastava (SS) distributed Mie-scattering polydispersions, respectively, with Henyey-Greenstein phase functions. A comparison of 118-GHz rain-cell spectral perturbations observed during Cohmex with model calculations based on coincident radar data yields + or - 10 percent agreement over the convective core region, although a mean ice size 50 percent larger than that given by the SS distribution is required for agreement over the anvil region. A rain-cell model parameterized by top-altitude and total water density suggests that the dominant 118-GHz spectral modes can be used to retrieve top-layer altitude with rms errors of about 1-1.5 km, consistent with statistical retrieval results. Model calculations also suggest that cell density is not observable using 118-GHz spectra alone.

Gasiewski, A. J.; Staelin, D. H.

1989-01-01

149

Transformative Relation of Kinematical Descriptive Quantities Defined by Different Spatial Referential Frame, Its Property and Application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantitative transformations between corresponding kinetic quantities defined by any two spatial referential frames, whose relative kinematics relations (purely rotational and translational movement) are known, are presented based on necessarily descriptive definitions of the fundamental concepts (instant, time, spatial referential frame that distinguishes from Maths. Coordination, physical point) had being clarified by directly empirical observation with artificially descriptive purpose. Inductive investigation of the transformation reveals that all physical quantities such as charge, temperature, time, volume, length, temporal rate of the quantities and relations like temporal relation between signal source and observer as such are independent to spatial frames transformation except above kinematical quantities transformations, kinematics related dynamics such as Newton ’ s second law existing only in inertial frames and exchange of kinetic energy of mass being valid only in a selected inertial frame. From above bas is, we demonstrate a series of inferences and applications such as phase velocity of light being direct respect to medium (including vacuum) rather than to the frame, using spatial referential frame to describe any measurable field (electric field, magnetic field, gravitational field) and the field ’ s variation; and have tables to contrast and evaluate all aspects of those hypotheses related with spacetime such as distorted spacetime around massive stellar, four dimension spacetime, gravitational time dilation and non - Euclid geometry with new one. The demonstration strongly suggests all the hypotheses are invalid in capable tested concepts ’ meaning and relations. The conventional work on frame transformation and its property, hypothesized by Voigt, Heaviside, Lorentz, Poincare and Einstein a century ago with some mathematical speculation lacking rigorous definition of the fundamental concepts such as instant, time, spatial reference, straight line, plane area, merely good in building up patchwork to do self p referred explanation by making up derivative concepts or accumulating new hypothesis, has disturbed people to describe the physical nature by setting up the sound basis of concept and relations with capable tested method, it’s time to be replaced by empirically effective alternative.

Luo, Ji

2012-08-01

150

Physical and chemical structure of the IC 63 nebula. 1: Millimeter and far-infrared observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present results of a (sub)millimeter and far-infrared study of the reflection/emission nebula IC 63, located close to the BO.5p star gamma Cas. The source has been mapped in the (12)CO 2 - 1 and 3 - 2, (13)CO 2 - 1, and CS 2 - 1 lines and shows a small molecular cloud less than 1'x 2' in extent, which coincides with the brightest optical nebulosity and IRAS 100 micrometer emission. IC 63 is therefore an excellent example of a nearby (d approximately = 230 pc), edge-on photon-dominated region (PDR). Various other molecules have been observed at the peak position through their rotational transitions, in order to probe the physical parameters and to derive abundances. The measured CO, HCO(+) HCN, CS and H2CO line ratios suggest that the cloud is warm, T approximately = 50 K, and dense, n (H2) approximately = 5 x 10(exp 4)/cu cm. Excitation of molecules by electrons may play a significant role in this PDR. On the basis of these physical conditions, column densities have been determined from the observed line strengths. Several different methods are discussed to constrain the H2 column density, including the use of measured submillimeter continuum fluxes. The resulting abundances of species such as CN and CS are similar to those found in cold, dark clouds like TMC-1 and L134N. However, the abundances of other simple molecules such as HNC, HCO(+) and possibly C2H are lower by factors of at least three, probably because of the enhanced photodissociation rates at a distance of 1.3 pc from a B star. Surprisingly, only the abundance of the H2S molecule appears enhanced. More complex, volatile molecules such as CH3OH CH3CN and HNCO, and the sulfur-oxides SO and SO2 have not been found in this cloud. Limited observations of molecules in the reflection nebulea NGC 2023 are presented as well, and the resulting molecular abundances are compared with those found for IC 63.

Jansen, David J.; Van Dishoeck, Ewine F.; Black, John H.

1994-01-01

151

Some Mineral Physics Observations Pertinent to the Rheological Properties of Super-Earths  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Both orbital and thermal evolution of recently discovered super-Earths (terrestrial planets whit mass exceeding that of Earth) depends critically on the rheological properties of their mantle. Although direct experimental studies on rheological properties are unavailable under the conditions equivalent to the deep mantles of these planets (~1 TPa and ~5000 K), a review of key materials science observations suggests that the deep mantle of these planets have much lower viscosity than most of the shallower regions of these planets. The key observations are: (i) phase transformations likely occur under these conditions including the B1 to B2 transition in MgO (1) and the dissociation of MgSiO3 into two oxides (MgO and SiO2) (2), (ii) the systematics in high-temperature creep show that materials with NaCl (B1) structures have much smaller viscosity than other oxides compared at the same normalized conditions (3), and (iii) diffusion coefficients in most of materials have a minimum at certain pressure and above that pressure it increases with pressure (due to mechanism transition) (4). In addition, a review of existing studies also shows that the ionic solids with B2 (CsCl) structure have larger diffusion coefficients than their B1 counter parts. Furthermore, if metallization transition occurs in any of these materials, delocalized electrons will further weaken the material. All of these observations or concepts suggest that even though the viscosity of a planet (below the asthenosphere) increases with depth in the relatively shallow regions, viscosity likely starts to decrease with depth below some critical depth (>~2000 km). The inferred low viscosity of super-Earths implies a large tidal dissipation and relatively rapid orbital evolution. Also such a rheological properties likely promote a layered mantle convection that enhances a weak deep mantle and retards the thermal evolution. 1. A. R. Oganov, M. J. Gillan, G. D. Price, Journal of Chemical Physics 118, 10174 (2003). 2. K. Umemoto, R. M. Wentzcovitch, P. B. Allen, Science 311, 983 (2006). 3. S. Karato, Physics of Earth and Planetary Interiors 55, 234 (1989). 4. S. Karato, Programme and Abstracts, The Seismological Society of Japan 1, 216 (1978).

Karato, S.

2010-12-01

152

Observations of physical effects from tsunamis of December 30, 2002 at Stromboli volcano, southern Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On December 30, 2002, following an intense period of activity of Stromboli volcano (south Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy), complex mass failures occurred on the northwest slope of the mountain which also involved the underwater portion of the volcanic edifice for a total volume of about 2-3×107 m3. Two main landslides occurred within a time separation of 7 min, and both set tsunami waves in motion that hit the coasts of Stromboli causing injuries to three people and severe damage to buildings and structures. The tsunamis also caused damage on the island of Panarea, some 20 km to the SSE from the source. They were observed all over the Aeolian archipelago, at the island of Ustica to the west, along the northern Sicily coasts to the south as well as along the Tyrrhenian coasts of Calabria to the east and in Campania to the north. This paper presents field observations that were made in the days and weeks immediately following the events. The results of the quantitative investigations undertaken in the most affected places, namely along the coasts of Stromboli and on the island of Panarea, are reported in order to highlight the dynamics of the attacking waves and their impact on the physical environment, on the coastal structures and on the coastal residential zone. In Stromboli, the tsunami waves were most violent along the northern and northeastern coastal belt between Punta Frontone and the village of Scari, with maximum runup heights of about 11 m measured on the beach of Spiaggia Longa. Measured runups were observed to decay rapidly with distance from the source, typical of tsunami waves generated by limited-area sources such as landslides.

Tinti, Stefano; Maramai, Alessandra; Armigliato, Alberto; Graziani, Laura; Manucci, Anna; Pagnoni, Gianluca; Zaniboni, Filippo

2006-04-01

153

Physically Consistent Responses of the Global Atmospheric Hydrological Cycle in Models and Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Robust and physically understandable responses of the global atmospheric water cycle to a warming climate are presented. By considering interannual responses to changes in surface temperature ( T), observations and AMIP5 simulations agree on an increase in column integrated water vapor at the rate 7 %/K (in line with the Clausius-Clapeyron equation) and of precipitation at the rate 2-3 %/K (in line with energetic constraints). Using simple and complex climate models, we demonstrate that radiative forcing by greenhouse gases is currently suppressing global precipitation ( P) at ˜-0.15 %/decade. Along with natural variability, this can explain why observed trends in global P over the period 1988-2008 are close to zero. Regional responses in the global water cycle are strongly constrained by changes in moisture fluxes. Model simulations show an increased moisture flux into the tropical wet region at 900 hPa and an enhanced outflow (of smaller magnitude) at around 600 hPa with warming. Moisture transport explains an increase in P in the wet tropical regions and small or negative changes in the dry regions of the subtropics in CMIP5 simulations of a warming climate. For AMIP5 simulations and satellite observations, the heaviest 5-day rainfall totals increase in intensity at ˜15 %/K over the ocean with reductions at all percentiles over land. The climate change response in CMIP5 simulations shows consistent increases in P over ocean and land for the highest intensities, close to the Clausius-Clapeyron scaling of 7 %/K, while P declines for the lowest percentiles, indicating that interannual variability over land may not be a good proxy for climate change. The local changes in precipitation and its extremes are highly dependent upon small shifts in the large-scale atmospheric circulation and regional feedbacks.

Allan, Richard P.; Liu, Chunlei; Zahn, Matthias; Lavers, David A.; Koukouvagias, Evgenios; Bodas-Salcedo, Alejandro

2014-05-01

154

DENSITY ESTIMATION FOR PROJECTED EXOPLANET QUANTITIES  

SciTech Connect

Exoplanet searches using radial velocity (RV) and microlensing (ML) produce samples of 'projected' mass and orbital radius, respectively. We present a new method for estimating the probability density distribution (density) of the unprojected quantity from such samples. For a sample of n data values, the method involves solving n simultaneous linear equations to determine the weights of delta functions for the raw, unsmoothed density of the unprojected quantity that cause the associated cumulative distribution function (CDF) of the projected quantity to exactly reproduce the empirical CDF of the sample at the locations of the n data values. We smooth the raw density using nonparametric kernel density estimation with a normal kernel of bandwidth {sigma}. We calibrate the dependence of {sigma} on n by Monte Carlo experiments performed on samples drawn from a theoretical density, in which the integrated square error is minimized. We scale this calibration to the ranges of real RV samples using the Normal Reference Rule. The resolution and amplitude accuracy of the estimated density improve with n. For typical RV and ML samples, we expect the fractional noise at the PDF peak to be approximately 80 n{sup -log2}. For illustrations, we apply the new method to 67 RV values given a similar treatment by Jorissen et al. in 2001, and to the 308 RV values listed at exoplanets.org on 2010 October 20. In addition to analyzing observational results, our methods can be used to develop measurement requirements-particularly on the minimum sample size n-for future programs, such as the microlensing survey of Earth-like exoplanets recommended by the Astro 2010 committee.

Brown, Robert A., E-mail: rbrown@stsci.edu [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

2011-05-20

155

40 CFR 201.21 - Quantities measured.  

...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS NOISE EMISSION STANDARDS FOR TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT; INTERSTATE RAIL CARRIERS Measurement Criteria § 201.21 Quantities measured. The quantities to be measured under the test...

2014-07-01

156

The Choice of Names and Symbols for Quantities in Chemistry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussed are some of the issues which were considered when the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry revised its guide to notation in physical chemistry. Included are the choice between SI and non-SI units and choosing sensible names and symbols for quantities. (CW)

Mills, Ian M.

1989-01-01

157

Green space and physical activity: An observational study using Health Survey for England data  

PubMed Central

Past studies have suggested that a link between health outcomes and green space is due to increased levels of physical activity of individuals living in areas with more green space. We found a positive association between green space and physical activity levels. The odds of achieving the recommended amount of physical activity was 1.27 (95% CI: 1.13–1.44) for people living in the greenest quintile in England compared to those living in the least green quintile, after controlling for individual and environmental factors. However, no association was found between green space and types of physical activity normally associated with green space. An association was found with other types of physical activity (gardening and do-it-yourself, and occupational physical activity). These findings suggest that although there is a positive association between physical activity and green space it may not be explained by individuals using green space for recreation. PMID:22795498

Mytton, Oliver T; Townsend, Nick; Rutter, Harry; Foster, Charlie

2012-01-01

158

PHYSICAL CONDITIONS IN A CORONAL MASS EJECTION FROM HINODE, STEREO, AND SOHO OBSERVATIONS  

SciTech Connect

In the present work, we analyze multiwavelength observations from Hinode, Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), and STEREO of the early phases of a coronal mass ejection (CME). We use Hinode/EIS and SOHO/UVCS high-resolution spectra to measure the physical properties of the CME ejecta as a function of time at 1.1 and 1.9 solar radii. Hinode/XRT images are used in combination with EIS spectra to constrain the high temperature plasma properties of the ejecta. SECCHI/EUVI, SECCHI/COR 1, SOHO/EIT, and SOHO/LASCO images are used to measure the CME trajectory, velocity, and acceleration. The combination of measurements of plane of the sky velocities from two different directions allows us to determine the total velocity of the CME plasma up to 5 solar radii. Plasma properties, dynamical status, thermal structure, and brightness distributions are used to constrain the energy content of the CME plasma and to determine the heating rate. We find that the heating is larger than the kinetic energy, and compare it to theoretical predictions from models of CME plasma heating and acceleration.

Landi, E. [Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Raymond, J. C.; Miralles, M. P. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Hara, H. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

2010-03-01

159

Observation of a physical matrix effect during cold vapour generation measurement of mercury in emissions samples.  

PubMed

The observation of a physical matrix effect during the cold vapour generation-atomic fluorescence measurement of mercury in emissions samples is reported. The effect is as a result of the different efficiencies of liberation of reduced mercury from solution as the matrix of the solution under test varies. The result of this is that peak area to peak height ratios decease as matrix concentration increases, passing through a minimum, before the ratio then increases as matrix concentration further increases. In the test matrices examined - acidified potassium dichromate and sodium chloride solutions - the possible biases caused by differences between the calibration standard matrix and the test sample matrix were as large as 2.8% (relative) representing peak area to peak height ratios for calibration standards and matrix samples of 45 and 43.75, respectively. For the system considered there is a good correlation between the density of the matrix and point of optimum liberation of dissolved mercury for both matrix types. Several methods employing matrix matching and mathematical correction to overcome the bias are presented and their relative merits discussed; the most promising being the use of peak area, rather than peak height, for quantification. PMID:24746349

Brown, Richard J C; Webb, William R; Goddard, Sharon L

2014-05-01

160

Quantity, Revisited: An Object-Oriented Reusable Class  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

"Quantity", a prototype implementation of an object-oriented class, was developed for two reasons: to help engineers and scientists manipulate the many types of quantities encountered during routine analysis, and to create a reusable software component to for large domain-specific applications. From being used as a stand-alone application to being incorporated into an existing computational mechanics toolkit, "Quantity" appears to be a useful and powerful object. "Quantity" has been designed to maintain the full engineering meaning of values with respect to units and coordinate systems. A value is a scalar, vector, tensor, or matrix, each of which is composed of Value Components, each of which may be an integer, floating point number, fuzzy number, etc., and its associated physical unit. Operations such as coordinate transformation and arithmetic operations are handled by member functions of "Quantity". The prototype has successfully tested such characteristics as maintaining a numeric value, an associated unit, and an annotation. In this paper we further explore the design of "Quantity", with particular attention to coordinate systems.

Funston, Monica Gayle; Gerstle, Walter; Panthaki, Malcolm

1998-01-01

161

The physical conditions in IRDC clumps from Herschel/HIFI observations of H2O  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. The earliest phases of high-mass star formation are poorly understood. Aims: Our goal is to determine the physical conditions and kinematic structure of massive starforming cloud clumps. Methods: We analyse H2O 557 GHz line profiles observed with HIFI toward four positions in two infrared-dark cloud clumps. By comparison with ground-based C17O, N2H+, CH3OH, and NH3 line observations, we constrain the volume density and kinetic temperature of the gas and estimate the column density and abundance of H2O and N2H+. Results: The observed water lines are complex with emission and absorption components. The absorption is redshifted and consistent with a cold envelope, while the emission is interpreted as resulting from proto-stellar outflows. The gas density in the clumps is ~107 cm-3. The o-H2O outflow column density is 0.3-3.0 × 1014 cm-2. The o-H2O absorption column density is between 1.5 × 1014 and 2.6 × 1015 cm-2 with cold o-H2O abundances between 1.5 × 10-9 and 3.1 × 10-8. Conclusions: All clumps have high gas densities (~107 cm-3) and display infalling gas. Three of the four clumps have outflows. The clumps form an evolutionary sequence as probed by H2O N2H+, NH3, and CH3OH. We find that G28-MM is the most evolved, followed by G11-MM and then G28-NH3. The least evolved clump is G11-NH3 which shows no signposts of starformation; G11-NH3 is a high-mass pre-stellar core. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia with important participation of NASA.Tables 4, 6, 8, 10, 11, and Appendix A are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgFinal Herschel and APEX data used in the paper (FITS files) are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/570/A51

Shipman, R. F.; van der Tak, F. F. S.; Wyrowski, F.; Herpin, F.; Frieswijk, W.

2014-10-01

162

Arctic daily temperature and precipitation extremes: Observed and simulated physical behavior  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Simulations using a six-member ensemble of Pan-Arctic WRF (PAW) were produced on two Arctic domains with 50-km resolution to analyze precipitation and temperature extremes for various periods. The first study used a domain developed for the Regional Arctic Climate Model (RACM). Initial simulations revealed deep atmospheric circulation biases over the northern Pacific Ocean, manifested in pressure, geopotential height, and temperature fields. Possible remedies to correct these large biases, such as modifying the physical domain or using different initial/boundary conditions, were unsuccessful. Spectral (interior) nudging was introduced as a way of constraining the model to be more consistent with observed behavior. However, such control over numerical model behavior raises concerns over how much nudging may affect unforced variability and extremes. Strong nudging may reduce or filter out extreme events, since the nudging pushes the model toward a relatively smooth, large-scale state. The question then becomes---what is the minimum spectral nudging needed to correct biases while not limiting the simulation of extreme events? To determine this, we use varying degrees of spectral nudging, using WRF's standard nudging as a reference point during January and July 2007. Results suggest that there is a marked lack of sensitivity to varying degrees of nudging. Moreover, given that nudging is an artificial forcing applied in the model, an important outcome of this work is that nudging strength apparently can be considerably smaller than WRF's standard strength and still produce reliable simulations. In the remaining studies, we used the same PAW setup to analyze daily precipitation extremes simulated over a 19-year period on the CORDEX Arctic domain for winter and summer. We defined these seasons as the three-month period leading up to and including the climatological sea ice maximum and minimum, respectively. Analysis focused on four North American regions defined using climatological records, regional weather patterns, and geographical/topographical features. We compared simulated extremes with those occurring at corresponding observing stations in the U.S. National Climate Data Center's (NCDC's) Global Summary of the Day. Our analysis focused on variations in features of the extremes such as magnitudes, spatial scales, and temporal regimes. Using composites of extreme events, we also analyzed the processes producing these extremes, comparing circulation, pressure, temperature and humidity fields from the ERA-Interim reanalysis and the model output. The analysis revealed the importance of atmospheric convection in the Arctic for some extreme precipitation events and the overall importance of topographic precipitation. The analysis established the physical credibility of the simulations for extreme behavior, laying a foundation for examining projected changes in extreme precipitation. It also highlighted the utility of the model for extracting behavior that one cannot discern directly from the observations, such as summer convective precipitation.

Glisan, Justin Michael

163

HST/STIS observations of the RW Aurigae bipolar jet: mapping the physical parameters close to the source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context: We present the results of new spectral diagnostic investigations applied to high-resolution long-slit spectra obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (HST/STIS) of the jet from the T Tauri star RW Aur. Aims: Our primary goal is to determine basic physical parameters (electron density ne and electron temperature Te, hydrogen ionisation fraction xe, total hydrogen density nH, radial velocity vr and the mass outflow rate dot Mj) along both the red- and blueshifted lobes of the RW Aur jet. Methods: The input dataset consists of seven long-slit spectra, of 0.1 arcsec spatial resolution, taken with the STIS slit parallel to the jet, and stepped across it. We use the Bacciotti & Eislöffel (1999, A&A, 342, 717) method to analyse the forbidden doublets [O I]??6300,6363, [S II]?? 6716,6731, and [N II]?? 6548,6583 Å to extract n_e, T_e, x_e, and n_H. Results: We were able to extract the parameters as far as 3.9 arcsec in the red- and 2.1 arcsec in the blueshifted beam. The electron density at the base of both lobes is close to the critical density for [S II] emission but then it decreases gradually with distance from the source. The range of electron temperatures derived for this jet (Te = 10^4-2×104 K) is similar to those generally found in other outflows from young stars. The ionisation fraction xe varies between 0.04 and 0.4, increasing within the first few arcseconds and then decreasing in both lobes. The total hydrogen density, derived as nH = ne / x_e, is on average 3.2×104 cm-3 and shows a gradual decrease along the beam. Variations of the above quantities along the jet lobes appear to be correlated with the position of knots. Combining the derived parameters with vr measured from the HST spectra and other characteristics available for this jet, we estimate dot Mj following two different procedures. The mass-outflow rate dot Mj is moderate and similar in the two lobes, despite the fact that the well-known asymmetry in the radial velocity persists close to the source. Using the results of the BE diagnostics we find averages along the first 2.1 arcsec of both flows (a region presumably not yet affected by interaction with the jet environment) of 2.6×10-9 M_? yr-1 for the red lobe and 2.0×10-9 M_? yr-1 for the blueshifted flow, with an uncertainty of ± log M_? = 1.6. Conclusions: The fact that the derived mass outflow rate is similar in the two lobes appears to indicate that the central engine is constrained on the two sides of the system and that the observed asymmetries are due to environmental conditions. Possible suggestions for the origin of the differences are discussed. The RW Aur jet appears to be the second densest outflow from a T Tauri star studied so far, but its other properties are quite similar to those found in other jets from young stars, suggesting that a common acceleration mechanism operates in these sources. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

Melnikov, S. Yu; Eislöffel, J.; Bacciotti, F.; Woitas, J.; Ray, T. P.

2009-11-01

164

Physical State of the ``Bright'' South Seasonal Polar Cap From OMEGA Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The composition, physical state and texture of the South Seasonal Polar Cap (SSPC) have important consequences on energy balance. The imaging spectrometer OMEGA on board Mars Express has acquired the most comprehensive set of observations to date in the near-infrared (0.93-5.1 microns) on the SSPC from mid-winter solstice (Ls=110° , December 2004) to the end of the recession at Ls=320° (November 2005) [1]. The time resolution is 3 days to one month and the spatial resolution ranges from 700m to 10 km/pixel. [1] showed that during southern spring and summer, there is a very complex evolution in terms of effective grain size of CO2 ice and contamination by dust or H2O ice. H2O ice does not play a significant role except close to the end of the recession. [2] systematically segmented the South Seasonal Polar Cap into different spectral units and tested diverse surface representations by the modeling of spectral end-members and average unit spectra. Here we focus on the “bright” part of the SSPC corresponding to spectral unit SSPC1 (I.b of [1]). Regions belonging to this unit have a very bright albedo (? 0.6-0.8) associated with strong CO2 ice absorption features. According to [1] such characteristics are compatible with granular CO2 deposits with grain size in the range of 5 cm implying an extremely low contamination by dust and water ice. Furthermore, from their study of a representative region at 34° E, 76° S, the albedo increases from Ls=223° up to a maximum at Ls=240° and then decreases until total disappearance of the ice. The albedo increase would require a decrease of grain size if the granular model is really relevant. However the mean free path within CO2 ice as well as its thermodynamic behavior would rather favor a porous CO2 slab model [3]. Then photometric effects could be expected that could explain the brightening. In this paper we propose to further study the physical state of the “bright” part of the SSPC and its evolution by monitoring two reference regions from Ls 223° to 260° of martian year 27. We remove the aerosol effects on the spectra using radiative properties and maps of total column optical depth evaluated by [4] for the aerosols over large portions of the SSPC. Spectral modeling suggests that the upper 1 to 4 centimeters of the CO2 deposits form a slab of very compact ice. The slab thickness increases with time until CO2 ice demise. Increase of albedo due to a decreasing dust contamination first comes with this evolution, before the appearance of ice-free patches within the pixels that reverses the trend. Existence of the slab implies photometric and radiative effects. We have not be able to detect unambiguously the former, likely because the range of phase angles covered by our selected observations is too limited and the sun illumination is rather diffuse. [1] Langevin, Y., et al., 2007, J. Geophys. Res., 112, [2] Douté, S., et al., 2008, in LPSC Abstracts, vol. 39, 1736-+.[3] Eluszkiewicz, et al., 2005, Icarus, 174, 524. [4] Vincendon, et al., 2008, Icarus 196, 488.

Doute, S.; Schmidt, F.; Schmitt, B.; Vincendon, M.; Langevin, Y.; Gondet, B.; Bibring, J.

2009-12-01

165

An Observational Study on Physical Properties of the Molecular Gas in External Galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To study the physical properties of the molecular gas in luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs), this thesis presents the preliminary results of a small local sample, a case study on a distant LIRG IRAS F10214+4724 at z=2.286 and another case study on a local LIRG ARP 302. The molecular gas in Perseus A, the cD galaxy in the center of the Perseus Cluster, is presented in high angular resolution observation to study the gas distribution and its kinematics. A small sample of 5 LIRGs was observed and the CO (J=3?2) mapping results reveal the gas distribution concentrated in the galactic centers or the centers of mergers and their overlapping regions. For NGC 3256, the maps in the CO (J=3?2), CO (J=4?3) and CO (J=7?6) transitions are obtained. Together with the measurements in the lower transitions from literatures, the peak of the spectral energy distribution (SED) of CO line was found between CO (J=5?4) and CO (J=6?5). With the radiation transfer model and the CO ladder, the gas density is constrained to n(H2)=103.7~104.1 cm-3 for a kinematic temperature T kin=40~45 K adopted from the literature. Local LIRG NGC 3256 shows the similar excitation conditions as the submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) in the early universe, further supporting the view that the SMGs are the same type of the local LIRGs, but only at the early epoch. The CI (3P2?3P1), CO (J=3?2), CO (J=4?3), CO (J=6?5) and CO (J=7?6) transitions as well as the dust continuum at 3 mm and 1 mm were detected towards the distant LIRG IRAS F10214+4724 at z=2.286. IRAS F10214+4724 now belongs to a sample of only 3 extragalactic sources at any redshift where both of the carbon fine structure lines have been detected. The source is spatially resolved by our CI (3P2?3P1) observation and we detect a velocity gradient along the east-west direction. The CI line ratio allows us to derive a carbon excitation temperature of 42+12-9 K. The carbon excitation in conjunction with the CO ladder and the dust continuum constrains the gas density to n(H2)=103.6~104.0 cm-3 and the kinematic temperature to Tkin=45~80 K, similar to the excitation conditions found in nearby starburst galaxies. The rest-frame 360 ?m dust continuum morphology is more compact than the line emitting region. This supports previous findings that the far infrared (FIR) luminosity arises from regions closer to the AGN. High angular resolution observation in CO (J=2?1) was carried out towards ARP 302N, the northern galaxy of the early merging system ARP 302, revealing the extended spatial distribution of the molecular gas in ARP 302N. The molecular gas was shown as a very asymmetric distribution with two strong concentrations on both sides of the center together with a weaker one offset by about 8 kpc to the north. The molecular gas distribution is also found to be consistent with that from the hot dust as traced by the 24 ?m continuum emission observed by Spitzer. For an observed line ratio of CO (J=2?1/1?0), excitation analysis suggests that the gas density is low, less than 103 cm-3, over the entire galaxy. By fitting the SED of ARP 302N in the FIR band, we obtain a dust temperature of Td=26~36 K and a dust mass of M dust=2.0~3.6×10^8 M?. The good spatial correspondence among the 3.6 cm radio continuum emission, the Spitzer 8 & 24?m data and the high resolution CO (J=2?1) observation from the SMA (submillimeter array) shows that there are asymmetrical star forming activities in ARP 302N. The molecular gas in Perseus A (Per A) has been imaged in CO (J=2?1) at a spatial resolution of ~1 kpc over a central region of radius ~10 kpc. Per A is known to contain ~1.3×10^10 M? of molecular gas, which has been proposed to be captured from mergers or ram-pressure stripping of gas-rich galaxies, or accreted from an X-ray cooling flow. For the first time, the molecular gas detected in our images can be seen to be concentrated in three radial filaments with lengths ranging from 1.1 kpc to 2.4 kpc. These all lie in the east-west directions, spanning from the center of the galaxy to radii of

Ao, Y. P.

2011-01-01

166

38 CFR 17.41 - Persons eligible for hospital observation and physical examination.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...obscure disorder. (c) Employees of the Department of Veterans Affairs when necessary to determine their mental or physical fitness to perform official duties. (d) Claimants or beneficiaries of other Federal agencies: (1) Department of...

2013-07-01

167

38 CFR 17.41 - Persons eligible for hospital observation and physical examination.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...obscure disorder. (c) Employees of the Department of Veterans Affairs when necessary to determine their mental or physical fitness to perform official duties. (d) Claimants or beneficiaries of other Federal agencies: (1) Department of...

2012-07-01

168

38 CFR 17.41 - Persons eligible for hospital observation and physical examination.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...obscure disorder. (c) Employees of the Department of Veterans Affairs when necessary to determine their mental or physical fitness to perform official duties. (d) Claimants or beneficiaries of other Federal agencies: (1) Department of...

2010-07-01

169

38 CFR 17.41 - Persons eligible for hospital observation and physical examination.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...obscure disorder. (c) Employees of the Department of Veterans Affairs when necessary to determine their mental or physical fitness to perform official duties. (d) Claimants or beneficiaries of other Federal agencies: (1) Department of...

2011-07-01

170

Physical activity monitoring based on accelerometry: validation and comparison with video observation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this feasibility study is to evaluate the use of the ‘Physilog’ device, an ambulatory physical-activity recorder\\u000a based on acceleration measurement, for the monitoring of daily physical activities. Accelerations measured at the level of\\u000a the chest and the thigh are recorded by Physilog over a period of 1 h in five normal subjects. A specially designed studio-like\\u000a room

K. Aminian; Ph. Robert; E. E. Buchser; B. Rutschmann; D. Hayoz; M. Depairon

1999-01-01

171

Search for New Physics in Rare Top Decays: $t \\bar t$ Spin Correlations and Other Observables  

E-print Network

In this paper we study new-physics contributions to the top-quark decay $t \\to b \\bar b c$. We search for ways of detecting such new physics via measurements at the LHC. As top quarks are mainly produced at the LHC in $t \\bar t$ production via gluon fusion, we analyze the process $gg \\to t \\bar t \\to (b \\bar b c) (\\bar b \\ell \\bar \

Ken Kiers; Pratishruti Saha; Alejandro Szynkman; David London; Samuel Judge; Jordan Melendez

2014-07-07

172

Studying the Space Weather Features of the High-Latitude Ionosphere by Using a Physics-Based Data Assimilation Model and Observational Data from Ground Magnetometer Arrays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The high-latitude ionosphere is a very dynamic region in the solar-terrestrial environment. Frequent disturbances in the region can adversely affect numerous military and civilian technologies. Accurate specifications and forecasts of the high-latitude electrodynamic and plasma structures have fundamental space weather importance for enabling mitigation of adverse effects. Presently, most of the space-weather models use limited observations and/or indices to define a set of empirical drivers for physical models to move forward in time. Since the empirical drivers have a "climatological" nature and there are significant physical inconsistencies among various empirical drivers due to independent statistical analysis of different observational data, the specifications of high-latitude space environment from these space weather models cannot truthfully reflect the weather features. In fact, unrealistic small- and large-scale structures could be produced in the specifications and forecasts from these models. We developed a data assimilation model for the high-latitude ionospheric plasma dynamics and electrodynamics to overcome these hurdles. With a set of physical models and an ensemble Kalman filter, the data assimilation model can determine the self-consistent structures of the high-latitude convection electric field, ionospheric conductivity, and the key drivers associated with these quantities by ingesting data from multiple observations. These ingested data include the magnetic perturbation from the ground-based magnetometers in the high-latitude regions, magnetic measurements of IRIDIUM satellites, SuperDARN line-of-sight velocity, and in-situ drift velocity measured by DMSP satellites. As a result, the assimilation model can capture the small- and large-scale plasma structures and sharp electrodynamic boundaries, thus, can provide a more accurate picture of the high-latitude space weather. In this presentation, we will first briefly describe the data-assimilation model of high-latitude electrodynamics and its strengths over the other space-weather models. Then we will present the space weather features produced by the model for quiet and storm periods constrained by the data from ground magnetometer arrays. This will demonstrate the dynamic variability of the high-latitude ionosphere. Finally, we will present high-resolution ionospheric modeling results of the time-evolution and spatial features of the high-latitude plasma structures to further demonstrate the model's capability in producing the space weather features in the high-latitude ionosphere. These results will illuminate the importance of real-time data availability and data assimilation models for accurate specification and forecasting of space weather.

Zhu, L.; Schunk, R. W.; Scherliess, L.; Sojka, J. J.; Eccles, J. V.

2011-12-01

173

A computer-based observational assessment of the teaching behaviours that influence motivational climate in Physical Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary purpose of this study was to use an established behavioural taxonomy (Ames, 1992b) as a computer-based observational coding system to assess the teaching behaviours that influence perceptions of the motivational climate in Physical Education (PE). The secondary purpose was to determine the degree of congruence between the behavioural assessment and pupils' and teachers' subjective perceptions of the climate.

Kevin Morgan; John Sproule; Daniel Weigand; Paul Carpenter

2005-01-01

174

Physics is the study of matter and energy and their inter-actions. Based on observations, hypotheses and testing,  

E-print Network

(radiation, applied lasers) · energy (power grids, instrumentation, green and clean energy systems, etc and optics (telecommunications, optometry, holography, etc.) · nuclear power (reactor design, containmentPhysics is the study of matter and energy and their inter- actions. Based on observations

Saldin, Dilano

175

Solar Physics (2004) 224: 34 C Springer 2005 The topical issue of "Space Climate: Direct and Indirect Observations of  

E-print Network

Solar Physics (2004) 224: 3­4 C Springer 2005 PREFACE The topical issue of "Space Climate: Direct and Indirect Observations of Long-Term Solar Activity" is based on contributions presented at the First of solar activity, and their effects in the near-Earth environment and technoculture. As an analogy

Usoskin, Ilya G.

176

Observational Analysis of Student Activity Modes, Lesson Contexts and Teacher Interactions during Games Classes in High School (11-16 Years) Physical Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This purpose of this study was to examine student activity, lesson contexts and teacher interactions during secondary school physical education, using a recently validated systematic observation instrument termed the System for Observing the Teaching of Games in Physical Education (SOTG-PE). Thirty, single-gender high school (11-16 years) physical

Roberts, Simon; Fairclough, Stuart

2011-01-01

177

Rethinking Intensive Quantities via Guided Mediated Abduction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some intensive quantities, such as slope, velocity, or likelihood, are perceptually privileged in the sense that they are experienced as holistic, irreducible sensations. However, the formal expression of these quantities uses "a/b" analytic metrics; for example, the slope of a line is the quotient of its rise and run. Thus, whereas students'…

Abrahamson, Dor

2012-01-01

178

Shielded radiation protection quantities beyond LEO  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) has recommended that the quantities used to evaluate health risk to astronauts due to radiation exposure be effective dose and gray-equivalent. The NCRP recommends that effective dose be the limiting quantity for prevention of stochastic effects. Effective dose is a measure of whole body exposure, a weighted average of dose equivalent

M. S. Clowdsley; J. W. Wilson; M. Y. Kim; B. M. Anderson; J. E. Nealy

2004-01-01

179

Modeling ice streams: Derived quantities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The model addressed is a finite-element, map-plane, time-dependent, column-averaged continuity equation solver. The key to the fitting process involves the balance between ice motion dominated by flow in internal layers, and ice motion dominated by sliding at the bed. The fitting process involves an iterative process carried out in the time domain. Beginning with the portion of the ice sheet being modeled identical to the present ice sheet with uniform flow, sliding, and fraction specified at nominal values, the model monitors each nodal point surface elevation. As the calculated surface elevation deviates from the present surface, a correction proportional to the difference is applied to selected parameter sets. This correction is in a sense that would tend to improve the fit at the particular nodal point. A calculated surface elevation that was higher than the present surface would result in an increased fraction, which would tend to lower the calculated surface (if the flow or sliding constant were being used as the fitting parameter, they would be lowered to improve the fit). This process is allowed to proceed as long as is necessary for the situation to stabilize. Typically, this takes tens of thousands of model years, but the rate is dependent on other external forcings such as the accumulation rate. The primary result is that while a typical sample of ice streams from around Antarctica can be fitted quite reasonably using only the fraction of the velocity due to sliding, a different mechanism seems to be in play along the Siple Coast, where reduced sliding constants are required to attain a reasonable fit. Flow is more strongly channelized in this region, and velocities are, in general, higher than are observed in other regions. It is unlikely that the mechanism that controls the ice movement along the Siple Coast is exactly similar to the mechanisms in the other ice streams. The concept of deformable sediments and their contribution to the fast flow along the Siple Coast may have limited applicability to other Antarctic ice streams.

Fastook, James

1993-01-01

180

"In Situ" Observation of a Soap-Film Catenoid--A Simple Educational Physics Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The solution to the Euler-Lagrange equation is an extremal functional. To understand that the functional is stationary at local extrema (maxima or minima), we propose a physics experiment that involves using a soap film to form a catenoid. A catenoid is a surface that is formed between two coaxial circular rings and is classified mathematically as…

Ito, Masato; Sato, Taku

2010-01-01

181

Physical Attractiveness and Public Intimacy of Married Couples: An Observational Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Findings indicated that physically attractive couples were more likely to show public intimacy. Younger couples displayed more intimacy than older couples. Couples who were similar in age interacted more than couples who differed in age. Husband-wife attractiveness did not significantly influence intimacy. (Author/BEF)

Harrell, W. Andrew

1979-01-01

182

The physical role of gravitational and gauge degrees of freedom in general relativity II: Dirac versus Bergmann observables and the objectivity of space-time  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is the second of a couple of papers in which we aim to show the peculiar capability of the Hamiltonian ADM formulation of metric gravity to grasp a series of conceptual and technical problems that appear to have not been directly discussed so far. In this paper we also propose new viewpoints about issues that, being deeply rooted into the foundational level of Einstein theory, seem particularly worth of clarification in connection with the alternative programs of string theory and loop quantum gravity. The achievements of the present work include: (1) the analysis of the so-called Hole phenomenology in strict connection with the Hamiltonian treatment of the initial value problem. The work is carried through in metric gravity for the class of spatially non-compact Christoudoulou-Klainermann space-times, in which the temporal evolution is ruled by the weak ADM energy. It is crucial to our analysis the re-interpretation of active diffeomorphisms as passive and metric-dependent dynamical symmetries of Einstein's equations, a re-interpretation which enables to disclose their (nearly unknown) connection to gauge transformations on-shell; this is expounded in the first paper (gr-qc/0403081); (2) the utilization of the Bergmann-Komar intrinsic pseudo-coordinates, defined as suitable functionals of the Weyl curvature scalars, as tools for a specific gauge-fixing to the super-hamiltonian and super-momentum constraints; (3) the consequent construction of a physical atlas of 4-coordinate systems for the 4-dimensional mathematical manifold, in terms of the highly non-local degrees of freedom of the gravitational field (its four independent Dirac observables). Such construction embodies the physical individuation of the points of space-time as point-events, both in absence and presence of matter, and associates a non-commutative structure to each gauge fixing or 4-dimensional coordinate system; (4) a clarification of the multiple definition given by Peter Bergmann of the concept of (Bergmann) observable in general relativity. This clarification leads to the proposal of a main conjecture asserting the existence of: i) special Dirac's observables which are also Bergmann's observables, ii) gauge variables that are coordinate independent (namely they behave like the tetradic scalar fields of the Newman-Penrose formalism). A by-product of this achievements is the falsification of a recently advanced argument asserting the absence of (any kind of) change in the observable quantities of general relativity; (5) a proposal showing how the physical individuation of point-events could in principle be implemented as an experimental setup and protocol leading to a standard of space-time more or less like atomic clocks define standards of time. In the end, against the well-known Einstein's assertion according to which general covariance takes away from space and time the last remnant of physical objectivity, we conclude that point-events maintain a peculiar sort of objectivity. Also, besides being operationally essential for building measuring apparatuses for the gravitational field, the role of matter in the non-vacuum gravitational case is also that of participating directly in the individuation process, being involved in the determination of the Dirac observables. Finally, some hints following from our approach for the quantum gravity programme are suggested.

Lusanna, Luca; Pauri, Massimo

2006-02-01

183

Active buildings: modelling physical activity and movement in office buildings. An observational study protocol  

PubMed Central

Introduction Health benefits of regular participation in physical activity are well documented but population levels are low. Office layout, and in particular the number and location of office building destinations (eg, print and meeting rooms), may influence both walking time and characteristics of sitting time. No research to date has focused on the role that the layout of the indoor office environment plays in facilitating or inhibiting step counts and characteristics of sitting time. The primary aim of this study was to investigate associations between office layout and physical activity, as well as sitting time using objective measures. Methods and analysis Active buildings is a unique collaboration between public health, built environment and computer science researchers. The study involves objective monitoring complemented by a larger questionnaire arm. UK office buildings will be selected based on a variety of features, including office floor area and number of occupants. Questionnaires will include items on standard demographics, well-being, physical activity behaviour and putative socioecological correlates of workplace physical activity. Based on survey responses, approximately 30 participants will be recruited from each building into the objective monitoring arm. Participants will wear accelerometers (to monitor physical activity and sitting inside and outside the office) and a novel tracking device will be placed in the office (to record participant location) for five consecutive days. Data will be analysed using regression analyses, as well as novel agent-based modelling techniques. Ethics and dissemination The results of this study will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications and scientific presentations. Ethical approval was obtained through the University College London Research Ethics Committee (Reference number 4400/001). PMID:24227873

Smith, Lee; Ucci, Marcella; Marmot, Alexi; Spinney, Richard; Laskowski, Marek; Sawyer, Alexia; Konstantatou, Marina; Hamer, Mark; Ambler, Gareth; Wardle, Jane; Fisher, Abigail

2013-01-01

184

Number versus Continuous Quantity in Numerosity Judgments by Fish  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In quantity discrimination tasks, adults, infants and animals have been sometimes observed to process number only after all continuous variables, such as area or density, have been controlled for. This has been taken as evidence that processing number may be more cognitively demanding than processing continuous variables. We tested this hypothesis…

Agrillo, Christian; Piffer, Laura; Bisazza, Angelo

2011-01-01

185

Physical Units  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page, authored by Rod Nave at Georgia State University, describes units of measurement, unit conversions, dimensional analysis and basic mechanical quantities. Length, Mass and Time link to separate pages that go into more detail on the physical quantities and their definitions. Also included is a link to a page that does unit conversions for the user.

Nave, Rod

2010-01-14

186

48 CFR 1352.215-73 - Evaluation quantities-indefinite quantity contract.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...215-73 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 1352.215-73 Evaluation quantities—indefinite quantity...

2011-10-01

187

48 CFR 1352.215-73 - Evaluation quantities-indefinite quantity contract.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...215-73 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 1352.215-73 Evaluation quantities—indefinite quantity...

2012-10-01

188

48 CFR 1352.215-73 - Evaluation quantities-indefinite quantity contract.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...215-73 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 1352.215-73 Evaluation quantities—indefinite quantity...

2010-10-01

189

48 CFR 1352.215-73 - Evaluation quantities-indefinite quantity contract.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...215-73 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 1352.215-73 Evaluation quantities—indefinite quantity...

2013-10-01

190

Observation of CP violation in $D^0 \\rightarrow K^- ?^+ $ as a smoking gun for New Physics  

E-print Network

In this paper, we study the Cabibbo favored non-leptonic $D^0$ decays into $K^- \\pi^+$ decays. First we show that, within the Standard Model, the corresponding CP asymmetry is strongly suppressed and out of the experimental range even taking into account the large strong phases coming from final state Interactions. We show also that although new physics models with extra sequential generation can enhance the CP asymmetry by few orders of magnitude however the resulting CP asymmetry is still far from experimental range. The most sensitive New Physics Models to this CP asymmetry comes from no-manifest Left-Right models where a CP asymmetry up to 10% can be reached and general two Higgs models extension of SM where a CP asymmetry of order $10^{-2}$ can be obtained without being in contradiction with the experimental constraints on these models.

David Delepine; Gaber Faisel; Carlos A. Ramirez

2012-12-27

191

An observational study of nutrition and physical activity behaviours, knowledge, and advice in pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Background Maternal obesity, excess weight gain and lifestyle behaviours during pregnancy have been associated with future overweight and other adverse health outcomes for mothers and babies. This study compared the nutrition and physical activity behaviours of Australian healthy (BMI ? 25 k/m2) and overweight (BMI ? 25?kg/m2) pregnant women and described their knowledge and receipt of health professional advice early in pregnancy. Methods Pregnant women (n=58) aged 29±5 (mean±s.d.) years were recruited at 16±2 weeks gestation from an Australian metropolitan hospital. Height and weight were measured using standard procedures and women completed a self administered semi-quantitative survey. Results Healthy and overweight women had very similar levels of knowledge, behaviour and levels of advice provided except where specifically mentioned. Only 8% and 36% of participants knew the correct recommended daily number of fruit and vegetable serves respectively. Four percent of participants ate the recommended 5 serves/day of vegetables. Overweight women were less likely than healthy weight women to achieve the recommended fruit intake (4% vs. 8%, p=0.05), and more likely to consume soft drinks or cordial (55% vs 43%, p=0.005) and take away foods (37% vs. 25%, p=0.002) once a week or more. Less than half of all women achieved sufficient physical activity. Despite 80% of women saying they would have liked education about nutrition, physical activity and weight gain, particularly at the beginning of pregnancy, less than 50% were given appropriate advice regarding healthy eating and physical activity. Conclusion Healthy pregnancy behaviour recommendations were not being met, with overweight women less likely to meet some of the recommendations. Knowledge of dietary recommendations was poor and health care professional advice was limited. There are opportunities to improve the health care practices and education pregnant women received to improve knowledge and behaviours. Pregnant women appear to want this. PMID:23688111

2013-01-01

192

Running head: INFANTS SUBSTANCES AND QUANTITIES Infants' Representations for Substance Quantities  

E-print Network

Running head: INFANTS SUBSTANCES AND QUANTITIES Infants' Representations for Substance Quantities In this paper we sought to characterize infants' ability to represent substance quantities. We asked whether 10 with substances, but positive results with solid objects. The present perspective suggests that infants can track

Hespos, Susan J.

193

Physics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author presents the argument that the past few years, in terms of new discoveries, insights, and questions raised, have been among the most productive in the history of physics. Selected for discussion are some of the most important new developments in physics research. (Author/SA)

Bromley, D. Allan

1980-01-01

194

Physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear, plasma, elementary particle, and atomic and molecular physics are surveyed along with the physics of condensed matter and relativistic astrophysics. Attention is given to the discovery of quarks, psi particles, bosons and nuclear quantum states, the role of group theory and the search for a unified field theory. Also considered are magnetic and inertial confinement regarding fusion power, and

D. A. Bromley

1980-01-01

195

Asteroids' physical models from combined dense and sparse photometry and scaling of the YORP effect by the observed obliquity distribution  

E-print Network

The larger number of models of asteroid shapes and their rotational states derived by the lightcurve inversion give us better insight into both the nature of individual objects and the whole asteroid population. With a larger statistical sample we can study the physical properties of asteroid populations, such as main-belt asteroids or individual asteroid families, in more detail. Shape models can also be used in combination with other types of observational data (IR, adaptive optics images, stellar occultations), e.g., to determine sizes and thermal properties. We use all available photometric data of asteroids to derive their physical models by the lightcurve inversion method and compare the observed pole latitude distributions of all asteroids with known convex shape models with the simulated pole latitude distributions. We used classical dense photometric lightcurves from several sources and sparse-in-time photometry from the U.S. Naval Observatory in Flagstaff, Catalina Sky Survey, and La Palma surveys (...

Hanuš, J; Brož, M; Marciniak, A; Warner, B D; Pilcher, F; Stephens, R; Behrend, R; Carry, B; ?apek, D; Antonini, P; Audejean, M; Augustesen, K; Barbotin, E; Baudouin, P; Bayol, A; Bernasconi, L; Borczyk, W; Bosch, J -G; Brochard, E; Brunetto, L; Casulli, S; Cazenave, A; Charbonnel, S; Christophe, B; Colas, F; Coloma, J; Conjat, M; Cooney, W; Correira, H; Cotrez, V; Coupier, A; Crippa, R; Cristofanelli, M; Dalmas, Ch; Danavaro, C; Demeautis, C; Droege, T; Durkee, R; Esseiva, N; Esteban, M; Fagas, M; Farroni, G; Fauvaud, M; Fauvaud, S; Del Freo, F; Garcia, L; Geier, S; Godon, C; Grangeon, K; Hamanowa, H; Hamanowa, H; Heck, N; Hellmich, S; Higgins, D; Hirsch, R; Husarik, M; Itkonen, T; Jade, O; Kami?ski, K; Kankiewicz, P; Klotz, A; Koff, R A; Kryszczy?ska, A; Kwiatkowski, T; Laffont, A; Leroy, A; Lecacheux, J; Leonie, Y; Leyrat, C; Manzini, F; Martin, A; Masi, G; Matter, D; Micha?owski, J; Micha?owski, M J; Micha?owski, T; Michelet, J; Michelsen, R; Morelle, E; Mottola, S; Naves, R; Nomen, J; Oey, J; Ogloza, W; Oksanen, A; Oszkiewicz, D; Pääkkönen, P; Paiella, M; Pallares, H; Paulo, J; Pavic, M; Payet, B; Poli?ska, M; Polishook, D; Poncy, R; Revaz, Y; Rinner, C; Rocca, M; Roche, A; Romeuf, D; Roy, R; Saguin, H; Salom, P A; Sanchez, S; Santacana, G; Santana-Ros, T; Sareyan, J -P; Sobkowiak, K; Sposetti, S; Starkey, D; Stoss, R; Strajnic, J; Teng, J -P; Tregon, B; Vagnozzi, A; Velichko, F P; Waelchli, N; Wagrez, K; Wücher, H

2013-01-01

196

Model Aided Observational Study of Physical Processes in Fresh Water Reservoirs  

E-print Network

energy, turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate and velocity variances). The combined observational and simulated results show a change in stratification levels that consequently leads to variations in turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate...

Al Senafi, Fahad

2012-10-19

197

Decadal Challenges in Ground-Based Observations for Solar and Space Physics (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ground-based observations of the sun and near-Earth space have long provided the fundamental information needed to achieve a better understanding of the coupled Sun-Earth system and the processes responsible for solar activity and its effects on Earth's magnetosphere, ionosphere, and atmosphere. Observations based on both active and passive radio wave and optical techniques provide measurements throughout Earth's atmosphere, geospace, the heliosphere, and the Sun. Although the number of observing instruments, the capabilities of the instruments, and the variety of ground-based assets continue to open new frontiers and enable scientific discoveries, gaps still exist, not only in terms of the spatial coverage of the measurements, but also in the properties of the system that are observed and the cadence and frequency of the observations. Fortunately, new technologies have provided the tools by which these challenges can be overcome. This is an opportune time to develop an integrated strategy for development, deployment, operation, and data analysis of ground-based assets. These include, for example, advanced networking technologies, crowd-sourced data acquisition, and multi-use observational platforms. Ground-based observations can also be optimized through the development of smart sensors, that operate at low power and are easily deployable, reconfigurable, and remotely operable. Furthermore, the data from ground-based observations will be collected, archived, and disseminated in ways that will enable effective and productive data mining, image and pattern recognition, cross-correlation among diverse data sets, and broadly-based collaborative research. These capabilities are especially important as we attempt to understand the system aspects of the solar-terrestrial environment. The next decade will undoubtedly see new understanding and discoveries resulting from improved and expanded ground-based instruments, as well as in their strategic deployment and operation.

Robinson, R. M.

2013-12-01

198

Observational analysis of student activity modes, lesson contexts and teacher interactions during games classes in high school (11—16 years) physical education  

Microsoft Academic Search

This purpose of this study was to examine student activity, lesson contexts and teacher interactions during secondary school physical education, using a recently validated systematic observation instrument termed the System for Observing the Teaching of Games in Physical Education (SOTG-PE). Thirty, single-gender high school (11—16 years) physical education games lessons were systematically observed and recorded using SOTG-PE. Results showed the

Simon Roberts; Stuart Fairclough

2011-01-01

199

7 CFR 35.13 - Minimum quantity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS EXPORT GRAPES AND PLUMS Exemptions § 35.13 Minimum quantity...a shipment of 25 packages or less of vinifera species table grapes, either a single variety or a combination of two or more...

2011-01-01

200

7 CFR 35.13 - Minimum quantity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS EXPORT GRAPES AND PLUMS Exemptions § 35.13 Minimum quantity...a shipment of 25 packages or less of vinifera species table grapes, either a single variety or a combination of two or more...

2010-01-01

201

Average transverse momentum quantities approaching the lightfront  

E-print Network

In this contribution to Light Cone 2014, three average transverse momentum quantities are discussed: the Sivers shift, the dijet imbalance, and the $p_T$ broadening. The definitions of these quantities involve integrals over all transverse momenta that are overly sensitive to the region of large transverse momenta, which conveys little information about the transverse momentum distributions of quarks and gluons inside hadrons. TMD factorization naturally suggests alternative definitions of such integrated quantities, using Bessel-weighting and rapidity cut-offs, with the conventional definitions as limiting cases. The regularized quantities are given in terms of integrals over the TMDs of interest that are well-defined and moreover have the advantage of being amenable to lattice evaluations.

Boer, Daniel

2014-01-01

202

Lighting Quantity and Quality in Educational Facilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses educational facility lighting management, and examines how light quantity, distribution, and quality-enhancement strategies can improve the indoor environment while reducing lighting costs. Informational tables provide lighting pattern, color, and illuminance data. (GR)

Elwazanim, Salim A.

1998-01-01

203

7 CFR 985.12 - Salable quantity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MARKETING ORDER REGULATING THE HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 985.12 Salable quantity. Salable...

2010-01-01

204

7 CFR 985.12 - Salable quantity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MARKETING ORDER REGULATING THE HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 985.12 Salable quantity. Salable...

2013-01-01

205

7 CFR 985.12 - Salable quantity.  

...AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MARKETING ORDER REGULATING THE HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 985.12 Salable quantity. Salable...

2014-01-01

206

7 CFR 985.12 - Salable quantity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MARKETING ORDER REGULATING THE HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 985.12 Salable quantity. Salable...

2011-01-01

207

7 CFR 985.12 - Salable quantity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MARKETING ORDER REGULATING THE HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 985.12 Salable quantity. Salable...

2012-01-01

208

7 CFR 966.53 - Minimum quantities.  

... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating Handling Regulation § 966.53 Minimum quantities. The committee, with the...

2014-01-01

209

7 CFR 966.53 - Minimum quantities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating Handling Regulation § 966.53 Minimum quantities. The committee, with the...

2011-01-01

210

Zero-gravity quantity gaging system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Zero-Gravity Quantity Gaging System program is a technology development effort funded by NASA-LeRC and contracted by NASA-JSC to develop and evaluate zero-gravity quantity gaging system concepts suitable for application to large, on-orbit cryogenic oxygen and hydrogen tankage. The contract effective date was 28 May 1985. During performance of the program, 18 potential quantity gaging approaches were investigated for their merit and suitability for gaging two-phase cryogenic oxygen and hydrogen in zero-gravity conditions. These approaches were subjected to a comprehensive trade study and selection process, which found that the RF modal quantity gaging approach was the most suitable for both liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen applications. This selection was made with NASA-JSC concurrence.

1989-01-01

211

40 CFR 201.21 - Quantities measured.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...measured. The quantities to be measured under the test conditions described below, are the A-weighted sound levels for “fast” or “slow” meter response as defined in the American National Standard...

2011-07-01

212

7 CFR 966.53 - Minimum quantities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating Handling Regulation § 966.53 Minimum quantities. The committee, with...

2012-01-01

213

Observed variations of methane on Mars unexplained by known atmospheric chemistry and physics.  

PubMed

The detection of methane on Mars has revived the possibility of past or extant life on this planet, despite the fact that an abiogenic origin is thought to be equally plausible. An intriguing aspect of the recent observations of methane on Mars is that methane concentrations appear to be locally enhanced and change with the seasons. However, methane has a photochemical lifetime of several centuries, and is therefore expected to have a spatially uniform distribution on the planet. Here we use a global climate model of Mars with coupled chemistry to examine the implications of the recently observed variations of Martian methane for our understanding of the chemistry of methane. We find that photochemistry as currently understood does not produce measurable variations in methane concentrations, even in the case of a current, local and episodic methane release. In contrast, we find that the condensation-sublimation cycle of Mars' carbon dioxide atmosphere can generate large-scale methane variations differing from those observed. In order to reproduce local methane enhancements similar to those recently reported, we show that an atmospheric lifetime of less than 200 days is necessary, even if a local source of methane is only active around the time of the observation itself. This implies an unidentified methane loss process that is 600 times faster than predicted by standard photochemistry. The existence of such a fast loss in the Martian atmosphere is difficult to reconcile with the observed distribution of other trace gas species. In the case of a destruction mechanism only active at the surface of Mars, destruction of methane must occur with an even shorter timescale of the order of approximately 1 hour to explain the observations. If recent observations of spatial and temporal variations of methane are confirmed, this would suggest an extraordinarily harsh environment for the survival of organics on the planet. PMID:19661912

Lefèvre, Franck; Forget, François

2009-08-01

214

An injection quantity sensor for automotive applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

For a further optimization of the internal combustion process of automobiles, a miniaturized injection quantity sensor based on the electro-thermal measurement principle was developed. It consists of a thin film metallization of titanium\\/platinum on a low temperature cofired ceramics (LTCC) substrate. For high-precision fuel quantity measurements, the sensor chip was integrated into a finished common rail diesel injection nozzle. The

U. Schmid; H. Seidel

2005-01-01

215

Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nuclear, plasma, elementary particle, and atomic and molecular physics are surveyed along with the physics of condensed matter and relativistic astrophysics. Attention is given to the discovery of quarks, psi particles, bosons and nuclear quantum states, the role of group theory and the search for a unified field theory. Also considered are magnetic and inertial confinement regarding fusion power, and the use of tunable lasers and microwave spectroscopy to study Rydberg states. In addition, surface physics, amorphous solids, superfluidity and gravitational collapse are discussed.

Bromley, D. A.

1980-07-01

216

16 CFR 500.19 - Conversion of SI metric quantities to inch/pound quantities and inch/pound quantities to SI...  

...2014-01-01 false Conversion of SI metric quantities to inch/pound quantities and inch/pound quantities to SI metric quantities. 500.19 Section 500...ACT § 500.19 Conversion of SI metric quantities to inch/pound...

2014-01-01

217

16 CFR 500.19 - Conversion of SI metric quantities to inch/pound quantities and inch/pound quantities to SI...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Conversion of SI metric quantities to inch/pound quantities and inch/pound quantities to SI metric quantities. 500.19 Section 500...ACT § 500.19 Conversion of SI metric quantities to inch/pound...

2011-01-01

218

16 CFR 500.19 - Conversion of SI metric quantities to inch/pound quantities and inch/pound quantities to SI...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Conversion of SI metric quantities to inch/pound quantities and inch/pound quantities to SI metric quantities. 500.19 Section 500...ACT § 500.19 Conversion of SI metric quantities to inch/pound...

2013-01-01

219

16 CFR 500.19 - Conversion of SI metric quantities to inch/pound quantities and inch/pound quantities to SI...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Conversion of SI metric quantities to inch/pound quantities and inch/pound quantities to SI metric quantities. 500.19 Section 500...ACT § 500.19 Conversion of SI metric quantities to inch/pound...

2012-01-01

220

16 CFR 500.19 - Conversion of SI metric quantities to inch/pound quantities and inch/pound quantities to SI...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Conversion of SI metric quantities to inch/pound quantities and inch/pound quantities to SI metric quantities. 500.19 Section 500...ACT § 500.19 Conversion of SI metric quantities to inch/pound...

2010-01-01

221

Evidence that women meeting physical activity guidelines do not sit less: An observational inclinometry study  

PubMed Central

Background The inactivity physiology paradigm proposes that sedentary behaviors, including sitting too much, are independent of the type of physical activity delineated for health in the Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. Thus, we hypothesized that, when accounting for behaviors across the entire day, variability in the amount of time spent sitting would be independent of the inter-and intra-individual time engaged in sustained moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Methods Ninety-one healthy women, aged 40–75 years, completed a demographic questionnaire and assessment of height and weight. Participants wore the activPAL activity monitor for one week and time (minutes/day) spent sitting, standing, stepping, and in sustained bouts (bouts ?10 minutes) of MVPA were quantified. The women were then stratified into groups based on weekly sustained MVPA. Additionally, each day of data collection for each participant was classified as either a “sufficient” MVPA day (? 30 min of MVPA) or an “insufficient” MVPA day for within-participant analyses. Results Time spent sitting, standing, and in incidental non-exercise stepping averaged 64, 28, and 11 hrs/week, respectively, and did not differ between groups with individuals meeting/exceeding the current exercise recommendation of 150 min/week of sustained MVPA in ?10 minutes bouts (M = 294 min/week, SD = 22) compared to those with none or minimal levels (M= 20min/week, SD = 4). Time spent sitting (M = 9.1 hr/day, SD = 0.19 vs. M = 8.8 hr/day, SD = 0.22), standing (M = 3.9 hr/day, SD = 0.16 vs. M = 3.9 hr/day, SD = 0.15), and in intermittent stepping (M = 1.6 hr/day, SD = 0.07 vs. M = 1.6 hr/day, SD = 0.06) did not differ between days with (~55 min/day) and without recommended MVPA. Conclusions This study provides the first objective evidence that participation in sustained MVPA is unrelated to daily sitting duration in relatively healthy, middle and older-aged women. More research is needed to extend these findings to other populations and to inform distinct behavioral recommendations focused on sedentary time. PMID:23034100

2012-01-01

222

Physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Physics is the scientific study of the basic principles of the universe, including matter, energy, motion and force, and their interactions. Major topics include classical mechanics, thermodynamics, light and optics, electromagnetism and relativity.

K-12 Outreach,

223

Physical and chemical structure of planet-forming disks probed by millimeter observations and modeling  

E-print Network

Protoplanetary disks composed of dust and gas are ubiquitous around young stars and are commonly recognized as nurseries of planetary systems. Their lifetime, appearance, and structure are determined by an interplay between stellar radiation, gravity, thermal pressure, magnetic field, gas viscosity, turbulence, and rotation. Molecules and dust serve as major heating and cooling agents in disks. Dust grains dominate the disk opacities, reprocess most of the stellar radiation, and shield molecules from ionizing UV/X-ray photons. Disks also dynamically evolve by building up planetary systems which drastically change their gas and dust density structures. Over the past decade significant progress has been achieved in our understanding of disk chemical composition thanks to the upgrade or advent of new millimeter/Infrared facilities (SMA, PdBI, CARMA, Herschel, e-VLA, ALMA). Some major breakthroughs in our comprehension of the disk physics and chemistry have been done since PPV. This review will present and discus...

Dutrey, Anne; Chapillon, Edwige; Gorti, Uma; Guilloteau, Stéphane; Hersant, Franck; Hogerheijde, Michiel; Hughes, Meredith; Meeus, Gwendolyn; Nomura, Hideko; Piétu, Vincent; Qi, Chunhua; Wakelam, Valentine

2014-01-01

224

Physical and anthropogenic effects on observed long-term nutrient changes in the Irish Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The trend in Irish Sea nutrient concentrations over the last four decades has been considered to reflect changes in anthropogenic loading. Comparison of a long-term database for the Menai Strait, North Wales, with an established historic data set for the Cypris station, Isle of Man, indicates that climate also has a significant influence on observations of nutrient concentrations. Data are presented detailing long-term shifts in nitrate, phosphate and silicate measurements since the 1960s at these two fixed sampling sites in the Irish Sea. Broad systematic changes observed in all three nutrients over the decades show a rise from the 1960s through to the 1980s, followed generally by an overall decline in the 1990s. Decadal-scale salinity changes occur in the opposite sense to nutrient changes. Anthropogenic inputs from freshwater cannot fully account for observed nutrient trends, neither is there evidence for shifts in nutrient concentrations in oceanic waters over the past four decades. Climatically forced movement in the geographical position of the freshwater/seawater mixing zone over a decadal time scale could, however, give rise to the observed shifts in nutrient concentration and salinity. This cannot alter nutrient concentration and salinity per se, but causes the measurements taken at fixed sampling sites to fluctuate inversely over this time scale. It is concluded that there is complex interplay between anthropogenic loading and climate affecting the distribution of nutrients in the Irish Sea.

Evans, G. L.; le B. Williams, P. J.; Mitchelson-Jacob, E. G.

2003-08-01

225

Aircraft Observations of Sub-cloud Aerosol and Convective Cloud Physical Properties  

E-print Network

This research focuses on aircraft observational studies of aerosol-cloud interactions in cumulus clouds. The data were collected in the summer of 2004, the spring of 2007 and the mid-winter and spring of 2008 in Texas, central Saudi Arabia...

Axisa, Duncan

2011-02-22

226

Physical Characterization of Warm Spitzer-observed Near-Earth Objects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Near-infrared spectroscopy of Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) connects diagnostic spectral features to specific surface mineralogies. The combination of spectroscopy with albedos and diameters derived from thermal infrared observations can increase the scientific return beyond that of the individual datasets. For instance, some taxonomic classes can be separated into distinct compositional groupings with albedo and different mineralogies with similar albedos can be distinguished with spectroscopy. To that end, we have completed a spectroscopic observing campaign to complement the ExploreNEOs Warm Spitzer program that obtained albedos and diameters of nearly 600 NEOs (Trilling et al., 2010). The spectroscopy campaign included visible and near-infrared observations of ExploreNEOs targets from various observatories. Here we present the results of observations using the low-resolution prism mode (approx. 0.7-2.5 microns) of the SpeX instrument on the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF). We also include near-infrared observations of Explore-NEOs targets from the MIT-UH-IRTF Joint Campaign for Spectral Reconnaissance. Our dataset includes near-infrared spectra of 187 ExploreNEOs targets (125 observations of 92 objects from our survey and 213 observations of 154 objects from the MIT survey). We identify a taxonomic class for each spectrum and use band parameter analysis to investigate the mineralogies for the S-, Q-, and V-complex objects. Our analysis suggests that for spectra that contain near-infrared data but lack the visible wavelength region, the Bus-DeMeo system misidentifies some S-types as Q-types. We find no correlation between spectral band parameters and ExploreNEOs albedos and diameters. We investigate the correlations of phase angle with band area ratio and near-infrared spectral slope. We find slightly negative Band Area Ratio (BAR) correlations with phase angle for Eros and Ivar, but a positive BAR correlation with phase angle for Ganymed.The results of our phase angle study are consistent with those of (Sanchez et al., 2012). We find evidence for spectral phase reddening for Eros, Ganymed, and Ivar. We identify the likely ordinary chondrite type analog for an appropriate subset of our sample. Our resulting proportions of H, L, and LL ordinary chondrites differ from those calculated for meteorite falls and in previous studies of ordinary chondrite-like NEOs.

Thomas, Cristina A.; Emery, Joshua P.; Trilling, David E.; Delbo, Marco; Hora, Joseph L.; Mueller, Michael

2014-01-01

227

A quantity discount lot size model with disposals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two types of quantity discounts are treated in the literature, namely, 'all units' discounts and incremental quantity discounts. In the all units quantity discounts model, the discount applies to every unit purchased. As a result, the total purchase cost is a discontinuous function of the quantity ordered. In other words, the cost of purchasing a quantity below a quantity for

SURESH P. SETHI

1984-01-01

228

Geoethics: IPCC disgraced by violation of observational facts and physical laws in their sea level scenario  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sea level may rise due to glacier melting, heat expansion of the oceanic water column, and redistribution of the waster masses - all these factors can be handled as to rates and amplitudes (provided one knows what one is talking about). In key areas over the entire Indian Ocean and in many Pacific Islands there are no traces of and sea level rise over the last 40-50 years. This is also the case for test-areas like Venice and the North Sea coasts. In the Kattegatt Sea one can fix the sea level factor to a maximum rise of 1.0-0.9 mm/year over the last century. The 204 tide gauges selected by NOAA for their global sea level monitoring provide a strong and sharp maximum (of 182 sites) in the range of 0.0-2.0 mm/yr. Satellite altimetry is said to give a rise of 3.2 mm/yr; this, however, is a value achieved after a quite subjective and surely erroneous "correction". The IPCC is talking about exceptionally much higher rates, and even worse are some "boy scouts" desperate try to launce real horror ratios. Physical laws set the frames of the rate and amount of ice melting, and so do records of events in the past (i.e. the geological records). During the Last Ice Age so much ice was accumulated on land, that the sea level dropped by about 120 m. When the process was reversed and ice melted under exceptionally strong climate forcing, sea level rose at a maximum rate of about 10 mm/yr (a meter per century). This can never happen under today's climate conditions. Even with IPCC's hypothetical scenarios, the true sea rise must be far less. When people like Rahmstorf (claiming 1 m or more by 2100) and Hansen (claiming a 4 m rise from 2080 to 2100) give their values, they exceed what is possible according to physical laws and accumulated geological knowledge. The expansion of the oceanic water column may reach amounts of sea level rise in the order of a few centimetres, at the most a decimetre. Old temperature measurements may record a temperature rise over the last 50 years in the order of 0.4o C. The improved ARGO measurements starting 2004 give virtually no change, however. The physically possible amount of expansion decreases, of course, with the decreasing water columns towards the coasts, and at the coasts it is zero (±0.0 mm). The redistribution of water masses in response to the Earth's rotation, surface current beat, wind stress, air pressure, etc. is an important factor. It gives local to regional changes, cancelled out on the global scale, however. From a geoethical point of view, it is of course quite blameworthy that IPCC excels in spreading these horror scenarios of a rapid, even accelerating, sea level rise. Besides, modern understanding of the planetary-solar-terrestrial interaction shows that we are now on our way into grand solar minimum with severely colder climate - that is just the opposite to IPCC's talk about an accelerating warming. In science we should debate - but we should not dictate (as IPCC insist upon), and it is here the perspectives of geoethics comes into the picture.

Mörner, Nils-Axel

2014-05-01

229

Multi-physics simulations of Van Allen Probes observations of November 14, 2012  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On November 14th, 2012 the Van Allen Probes observed significant ion and electron flux dropouts at ring current and radiation belt energies. These dropouts appear to be lobe crossings with the magnetic field in very stretched 'tail-like' configuration. Such a conclusion is quite extraordinary given the fact that the satellite position would indicate it is in the inner magnetosphere and on the dawn side. We have simulated this event using the fully coupled CRCM+BATSRUS model of the magnetosphere ring current system in a variety of configurations. The coupling of the bounce averaged kinetic model of the ring current (CRCM) with the global MHD model of the magnetosphere (BATSRUS) represented a comprehensive and consistent treatment of the inner and outer magnetosphere. The model was setup with no feedback of the ring current pressure and density to the magnetosphere (one-way coupling), with feedback (two-way coupling), and using both isotropic and anisotropic MHD to represent the effects of pitch-angle variation in the global magnetosphere. Moreover, the simulated magnetic field and ring current ion fluxes were extracted along the Van Allen Probes trajectories for direct comparison with the observations. We found that ring current feedback is essential to capturing the observed dropouts, and that the dropouts become more pronounced when pitch-angle anisotropy is included in the representation of the magnetosphere. Complete simulation results and comparisons with data are presented.

Glocer, A.; Buzulukova, N.; Fok, M. H.; Sibeck, D. G.; Chen, S.

2013-12-01

230

Present status of JADE's ??-physics analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present status of the -physics analysis performed by the JADE-Collaboration is reported. The reaction ee ee is observed at beam-energies of 6 GeV and 15 GeV, and it is compared with predictions from QED. The reaction ee ee + hadrons is observed at 15 GeV beam-energy. Several distributions of physical quantities are shown.

W. Bartel; D. Cord; P. Dittmann; R. Eichler; R. Felst; D. Haidt; S. Kawabata; H. Krehbiel; B. Naroska; L. O'Neill; J. Olsson; P. Steffen; W. Yen; E. Elsen; M. Helm; K. Meier; A. Peterson; G. Weber; H. Drum; J. Heintze; G. Heinzelmann; R. Heuer; J. von Krogh; P. Lennert; H. Matsumura; T. Nozaki; H. Rieseberg; A. Wagner; D. Darvill; F. Foster; G. Hughes; H. Wriedt; J. Allison; J. Armitage; A. Ball; I. Duerdoth; J. Hassard; F. Loebinger; H. McCann; B. King; A. Macbeth; H. Mills; P. Murphy; H. Prosper; K. Stephens; C. Clark; M. Goddard; R. Marshall; G. Pearce; M. Imori; T. Kobayashi; S. Komamiya; M. Koshiba; M. Minowa; S. Orito; A. Sato; T. Suda; H. Takeda; Y. Totsuka; Y. Watanabe; S. Yamada; C. Yanagisawa

231

The Laboratory and Observational Study of 2-BUTANONE as a Test for Organic Chemical Complexity in Various Interstellar Physical Environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have undertaken a combined laboratory, observational, and modeling research program in an attempt to more fully understand the effects that physical environment has on the chemical composition of astronomical sources. To this end, deep millimeter and submillimeter spectral line surveys of multiple interstellar sources with varied physical conditions have been collected. These sources cover a range of physical environments, including hot cores, shocked regions, low-mass star forming regions, and stellar outflows. We have conducted broadband spectral line surveys at ? =1.3 mm of 10 sources at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO). These are forerunner observations to our Herschel OT1 program to continue these line surveys at higher frequencies. Only a fraction of the lines observed in the CSO spectra can be assigned to known molecules. Laboratory spectra of many additional candidates for interstellar detection must therefore be collected before these spectral line surveys can be fully-analyzed. One such molecular target is 2-butanone [also known as methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), CH_3COCH_2CH_3], which contains similar functional groups to other known interstellar molecules and is therefore a likely product of interstellar organic chemistry. The microwave spectrum for MEK was collected with the chirped-pulse waveguide Fourier Transform Microwave (FTMW) spectrometer at New College Florida, and the millimeter and submillimeter spectrum was collected using the direct absorption flow cell spectrometer at Emory University. We will report here both on the laboratory characterization of MEK and the analysis of the observational line surveys in the context of the identification of new, complex organic molecules in the ISM.

Kroll, Jay A.; Weaver, Susanna L. Widicus; Shipman, Steven T.

2011-06-01

232

Plasma physical parameters along Coronal Mass Ejection-driven shocks: I observations  

E-print Network

In this work UV and white light (WL) coronagraphic data are combined to derive the full set of plasma physical parameters along the front of a shock driven by a Coronal Mass Ejection. Pre-shock plasma density, shock compression ratio, speed and inclination angle are estimated from WL data, while pre-shock plasma temperature and outflow velocity are derived from UV data. The Rankine-Hugoniot (RH) equations for the general case of an oblique shock are then applied at three points along the front located between $2.2-2.6$ R$_\\odot$ at the shock nose and at the two flanks. Stronger field deflection (by $\\sim 46^\\circ$), plasma compression (factor $\\sim 2.7$) and heating (factor $\\sim 12$) occur at the nose, while heating at the flanks is more moderate (factor $1.5-3.0$). Starting from a pre-shock corona where protons and electrons have about the same temperature ($T_p \\sim T_e \\sim 1.5 \\cdot 10^6$ K), temperature increases derived with RH equations could better represent the protons heating (by dissipation across...

Bemporad, A; Lapenta, G

2014-01-01

233

Monthly Deaths Number And Concomitant Environmental Physical Activity: 192 Months Observation (1990-2005)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human life and health state are dependent on many endogenous and exogenous influence factors. The aim of this study is to check the possible links between monthly deaths distribution and concomitant activity of three groups of cosmophysical factors: solar (SA), geomagnetic (GMA) and cosmic ray (CRA) activities. 192 months death number in years 1990-2005 (n=674004) at the Republic of Lithuania were analyzed. Total and both gender data were considered. In addition to the total death numbers, groups of ischemic heart disease (IHD), stroke (CVA), non-cardiovascular (NCV), accident, traffic accident and suicide-related deaths were studied. Sunspot number and solar radio flux (for SA), Ap, Cp and Am indices (for GMA) and neutron activity on the Earth s surface (for CRA) were the environmental physical activity parameters used in this study. Yearly and monthly deaths distributions were also studied. Pearson correlation coefficients (r) and their probabilities (p) were calculated. Multivariate analysis was conducted. Results revealed: 1) significant correlation of monthly deaths number with CRA (total, stroke, NCV and suicides) and inverse with SA and GMA; 2) significant correlation of monthly number of traffic accidents number with SA and GMA, and inverse with CRA; 3) a strong negative relationship between year and IHD/CVA victims number (an evidence for growing role of stroke in cardiovascular mortality); 4) significant links of rising cardiovascular deaths number at the beginning of the year and traffic accidents victims at the end of the year. It is concluded that CRA is related to monthly deaths distribution.

Stoupel, E.; Kalediene, R.; Petrauskiene, J.; Starkuviene, S.; Abramson, E.; Israelevich, P.; Sulkes, J.

2007-12-01

234

PANCHROMATIC OBSERVATIONS OF THE TEXTBOOK GRB 110205A: CONSTRAINING PHYSICAL MECHANISMS OF PROMPT EMISSION AND AFTERGLOW  

SciTech Connect

We present a comprehensive analysis of a bright, long-duration (T{sub 90} {approx} 257 s) GRB 110205A at redshift z = 2.22. The optical prompt emission was detected by Swift/UVOT, ROTSE-IIIb, and BOOTES telescopes when the gamma-ray burst (GRB) was still radiating in the {gamma}-ray band, with optical light curve showing correlation with {gamma}-ray data. Nearly 200 s of observations were obtained simultaneously from optical, X-ray, to {gamma}-ray (1 eV to 5 MeV), which makes it one of the exceptional cases to study the broadband spectral energy distribution during the prompt emission phase. In particular, we clearly identify, for the first time, an interesting two-break energy spectrum, roughly consistent with the standard synchrotron emission model in the fast cooling regime. Shortly after prompt emission ({approx}1100 s), a bright (R = 14.0) optical emission hump with very steep rise ({alpha} {approx} 5.5) was observed, which we interpret as the reverse shock (RS) emission. It is the first time that the rising phase of an RS component has been closely observed. The full optical and X-ray afterglow light curves can be interpreted within the standard reverse shock (RS) + forward shock (FS) model. In general, the high-quality prompt and afterglow data allow us to apply the standard fireball model to extract valuable information, including the radiation mechanism (synchrotron), radius of prompt emission (R{sub GRB} {approx} 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 13} cm), initial Lorentz factor of the outflow ({Gamma}{sub 0} {approx} 250), the composition of the ejecta (mildly magnetized), the collimation angle, and the total energy budget.

Zheng, W. [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, 450 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Shen, R. F. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3H4 (Canada); Sakamoto, T. [Center for Research and Exploration in Space Science and Technology (CRESST), NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Beardmore, A. P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); De Pasquale, M. [Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, Holmbury Road, Holmbury St. Mary, Dorking RH5 6NT (United Kingdom); Wu, X. F.; Zhang, B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nevada Las Vegas, Las Vegas, NV 89154 (United States); Gorosabel, J. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia (IAA-CSIC), 18008 Granada (Spain); Urata, Y. [Institute of Astronomy, National Central University, Chung-Li 32054, Taiwan (China); Sugita, S. [EcoTopia Science Institute, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, chikusa, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Pozanenko, A. [Space Research Institute (IKI), 84/32 Profsoyuznaya St., Moscow 117997 (Russian Federation); Nissinen, M. [Taurus Hill Observatory, Haerkaemaeentie 88, 79480 Kangaslampi (Finland); Sahu, D. K. [CREST, Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Koramangala, Bangalore 560034 (India); Im, M. [Center for the Exploration of the Origin of the Universe, Department of Physics and Astronomy, FPRD, Seoul National University, Shillim-dong, San 56-1, Kwanak-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ukwatta, T. N. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Andreev, M. [Terskol Branch of Institute of Astronomy of RAS, Kabardino-Balkaria Republic 361605 (Russian Federation); Klunko, E., E-mail: zwk@umich.edu, E-mail: rfshen@astro.utoronto.ca, E-mail: zhang@physics.unlv.edu [Institute of Solar-Terrestrial Physics, Lermontov St., 126a, Irkutsk 664033 (Russian Federation); and others

2012-06-01

235

Transit Timing Observations from Kepler: IV. Confirmation of 4 Multiple Planet Systems by Simple Physical Models  

SciTech Connect

Eighty planetary systems of two or more planets are known to orbit stars other than the Sun. For most, the data can be sufficiently explained by non-interacting Keplerian orbits, so the dynamical interactions of these systems have not been observed. Here we present 4 sets of lightcurves from the Kepler spacecraft, which each show multiple planets transiting the same star. Departure of the timing of these transits from strict periodicity indicates the planets are perturbing each other: the observed timing variations match the forcing frequency of the other planet. This confirms that these objects are in the same system. Next we limit their masses to the planetary regime by requiring the system remain stable for astronomical timescales. Finally, we report dynamical fits to the transit times, yielding possible values for the planets masses and eccentricities. As the timespan of timing data increases, dynamical fits may allow detailed constraints on the systems architectures, even in cases for which high-precision Doppler follow-up is impractical.

Fabrycky, Daniel C.; /UC, Santa Cruz; Ford, Eric B.; /Florida U.; Steffen, Jason H.; /Fermilab; Rowe, Jason F.; /SETI Inst., Mtn. View /NASA, Ames; Carter, Joshua A.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.; Moorhead, Althea V.; /Florida U.; Batalha, Natalie M.; /San Jose State U.; Borucki, William J.; /NASA, Ames; Bryson, Steve; /NASA, Ames; Buchhave, Lars A.; /Bohr Inst. /Copenhagen U.; Christiansen, Jessie L.; /SETI Inst., Mtn. View /NASA, Ames /Caltech

2012-01-01

236

Physical performance and training response during Ramadan observance, with particular reference to protein metabolism.  

PubMed

This review examines information on the effects of Ramadan observance upon the metabolism, training and performance of athletes, with particular reference to proteins and amino acids. Increased gluconeogenesis and/or a reduced intake of protein could lead to a decrease of lean tissue, with adverse effects on muscular performance, and the lack of immediate protein ingestion could compromise responses to strength training. Actual responses vary quite widely, depending on culture and the individual's level and type of athletic involvement. In elite competitors, there is typically an increased fractional ingestion of protein with a small reduction in overall energy intake, and this may lead to small reductions of body and lean tissue mass. There are often small decreases of performance, particularly in activities requiring vigorous and/or repetitive muscular contraction. More information is needed on responses in situations where protein intake is likely to be inadequate (adolescent growth, those maintaining vegetarian diets or from poor countries and disciplines with very high overall energy needs) and when vigorous muscle training is in progress. However, in most of the situations studied to date, Ramadan observance has had only limited adverse consequences for either training or competitive performance. PMID:22554842

Shephard, Roy J

2012-06-01

237

Erosion and Gully formation in the Ethiopian Highlands: physical observations and community perspectives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aims of this investigation are to analyze spatio-temporal variations in sediment transport to waterways in a small agricultural watershed by: (i) locating sediment sources using modeling and bio-physical scientific approaches, (ii) locating sediment sources and erosion processes through age- and gender-differentiated focus group discussions and transect walks, and (iii) linking sediment sources to changes in soil nutrient concentrations. The collected field measurements, modeling results, and community perceptions have been gathered on an area encompassing a previous study site (14 ha) on a currently larger scale (95 ha) in the Debre Mewi watershed to develop a fuller picture of the social and environmental conditions that are leading to induced or controlled erosion and gully formation. Farmers provided their perspectives on erosion processes and these were complemented by and compared to soil and water field measurements during the rainy season. Sixteen sites were selected for monitoring and measuring groundwater, soil nutrient changes, and soil depth change on the 95 ha study area, based on land use and slope angle -- half represent grazing or fallow land and half are located on cultivated land. A set of stable gullies and actively forming gullies were monitored and measured simultaneously along hillslope locations in the top, middle and bottom areas. In addition, sediment concentration samples were collected at 4 weir locations in the 95 ha watershed and also at the final outlet to this watershed. Modeling efforts emphasize steep cropland as most vulnerable, whereas community members pointed out waterlogged black soils and lower areas as vulnerable. The data demonstrate that saturated pathways in the landscape provide areas for the development and widening of gullies and that flat cropland areas experience deposition rather than erosion, while soil nutrient concentrations are decreasing upslope and increasing downslope.

Guzman, C. D.; Admassu, S.; Derebe, A.; Yitaferu, B.; Steenhuis, T. S.

2013-12-01

238

The 2008 Eruption of Kasatochi Volcano, Central Aleutian Islands, Alaska: Reconnaissance Observations and Preliminary Physical Volcanology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The August 7, 2008 eruption of Kasatochi volcano was the first documented historical eruption of this small (3 x 3 km) island volcano with a 1 km2 lake filled crater in the central Aleutian Islands of Alaska. Reports of previous Kasatochi eruptions are unconfirmed and lacking in detail and little is known about the eruptive history. Three explosively-generated ash plumes reaching altitudes of 15 to 20 km were observed in satellite data and were preceded by some of the most intense seismicity yet recorded by the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) seismic network. Eruptive products on Kasatochi Island observed on August 22 and 23 consist of pumice-bearing, lithic-rich pyroclastic-flow deposits overlain by a 1-2 m thick sequence of fine- grained pyroclastic-surge, and -fall deposits all exposed at the coastline. These deposits completely blanket Kasatochi Island to a depth of many meters. Pyroclastic flows entered the sea and extended the coastline 300-400 m beyond prominent wave cut cliffs and sea stacks. Tide gauge data from Adak Island, 80 km to the west, indicate a small tsunami with maximum water amplitude of 20 cm, was initiated during the eruption. Kasatochi volcano lacks a real-time seismic monitoring network. Seismic activity was detected by AVO instruments on Great Sitkin Island 40 km to the west, and thus the timing of eruptive events is approximate. The eruption began explosively at 2201 UTC on August 7, and was followed by at least two additional strong eruptive bursts at 0150 UTC and 0435 UTC, August 8. Satellite data show a significant ash cloud associated with the 0435 UTC event followed by at least 14 hours of continuous ash emission. The lack of a strong ash signature in satellite data suggest that the first two plumes were ash poor. Satellite data also show a large emission of SO2 that entered the stratosphere. Correlation of eruptive periods with deposits on the island is not yet possible, but it appears that pyroclastic flows were emplaced during all three explosive events and the surge and fall deposits accumulated during the continuous phase of the third event only. The role of external water is under investigation, and observations on August 22 and 23 indicated several streams flowing from the base of the crater walls into a shallow lake in the bottom of the 1 km2 crater. The surge and fall deposits exposed on Kasatochi Island contain abundant accretionary lapilli indicating water involvement during the emplacement of these deposits. Tephra deposits observed on islands southwest of Kasatochi range in thickness from 6 cm, 30 km from the volcano, to minor amounts on eastern Adak Island, 80 km to the southwest. A fishing boat about 13 km southwest of Kasatochi received about 12 cm of coarse ash to medium lapilli tephra fall. Tephra deposits observed at 5 locations southwest of Kasatochi consist of single beds of normally graded medium to coarse lapilli tephra fall. The lack of recognizable stratigraphic breaks in the tephra deposits suggests that they were the products of a single fall event, likely the third explosion that produced the most ash rich plume.

Waythomas, C. F.; Schneider, D. J.; Prejean, S. G.

2008-12-01

239

The effect of the action observation physical training on the upper extremity function in children with cerebral palsy  

PubMed Central

The purpose this study was to investigate the effect of action observation physical training (AOPT) on the functioning of the upper extremities in children with cerebral palsy (CP), using an evaluation framework based on that of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). The subjects were divided into an AOPT group and a physical training (PT) group. AOPT group practiced repeatedly the actions they observed on video clips, in which normal child performed an action with their upper extremities. PT group performed the same actions as the AOPT group did after observing landscape photographs. The subjects participated in twelve 30-min sessions, 3 days a week, for 4 weeks. Evaluation of upper extremity function using the following: the power of grasp and Modified Ashworth Scale for body functions and structures, a Box and Block test, an ABILHAND-Kids questionnaire, and the WeeFIM scale for activity and participation. Measurements were performed before and after the training, and 2 weeks after the end of training. The results of this study showed that, in comparison with the PT group, the functioning of the upper extremities in the AOPT group was significantly improved in body functions and activity and participation according to the ICF framework. This study demonstrates that AOPT has a positive influence on the functioning of the upper extremities in children with CP. It is suggested that this alternative approach for functioning of the upper extremities could be an effective method for rehabilitation in children with CP. PMID:25061598

Kim, Jin-young; Kim, Jong-man; Ko, Eun-young

2014-01-01

240

The effect of the action observation physical training on the upper extremity function in children with cerebral palsy.  

PubMed

The purpose this study was to investigate the effect of action observation physical training (AOPT) on the functioning of the upper extremities in children with cerebral palsy (CP), using an evaluation framework based on that of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). The subjects were divided into an AOPT group and a physical training (PT) group. AOPT group practiced repeatedly the actions they observed on video clips, in which normal child performed an action with their upper extremities. PT group performed the same actions as the AOPT group did after observing landscape photographs. The subjects participated in twelve 30-min sessions, 3 days a week, for 4 weeks. Evaluation of upper extremity function using the following: the power of grasp and Modified Ashworth Scale for body functions and structures, a Box and Block test, an ABILHAND-Kids questionnaire, and the WeeFIM scale for activity and participation. Measurements were performed before and after the training, and 2 weeks after the end of training. The results of this study showed that, in comparison with the PT group, the functioning of the upper extremities in the AOPT group was significantly improved in body functions and activity and participation according to the ICF framework. This study demonstrates that AOPT has a positive influence on the functioning of the upper extremities in children with CP. It is suggested that this alternative approach for functioning of the upper extremities could be an effective method for rehabilitation in children with CP. PMID:25061598

Kim, Jin-Young; Kim, Jong-Man; Ko, Eun-Young

2014-06-01

241

EQUATION OF STATE AND NEUTRON STAR PROPERTIES CONSTRAINED BY NUCLEAR PHYSICS AND OBSERVATION  

SciTech Connect

Microscopic calculations of neutron matter based on nuclear interactions derived from chiral effective field theory, combined with the recent observation of a 1.97 {+-} 0.04 M{sub Sun} neutron star, constrain the equation of state of neutron-rich matter at sub- and supranuclear densities. We discuss in detail the allowed equations of state and the impact of our results on the structure of neutron stars, the crust-core transition density, and the nuclear symmetry energy. In particular, we show that the predicted range for neutron star radii is robust. For use in astrophysical simulations, we provide detailed numerical tables for a representative set of equations of state consistent with these constraints.

Hebeler, K. [Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Lattimer, J. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3800 (United States); Pethick, C. J. [The Niels Bohr International Academy, The Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100 Copenhagen O (Denmark); Schwenk, A. [ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI, GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany)

2013-08-10

242

Ionospheric total electron content variations observed before earthquakes: Possible physical mechanism and modeling  

E-print Network

The GPS derived anomalous TEC disturbances before earthquakes were discovered in the last years using global and regional TEC maps, measurements over individual stations as well as measurements along individual GPS satellite passes. For strong mid-latitudinal earthquakes the seismo-ionospheric anomalies look like local TEC enhancements or decreases located in the vicinity of the forthcoming earthquake epicenter In case of strong low-latitudinal earthquakes there are effects related with the modification of the equatorial F2-region anomaly: deepening or filling of the ionospheric electron density trough over the magnetic equator. We consider that the most probable reason of the NmF2 and TEC disturbances observed before the earthquakes is the vertical drift of the F2-region ionospheric plasma under the influence of the zonal electric field of seismic origin. To check this hypothesis, the model calculations have been carried out with the use of the Upper Atmosphere Model. The electric potential distribution at t...

Namgaladze, A A; Zakharenkova, I E; Shagimuratov, I I; Martynenko, O V

2009-01-01

243

From integrated observation of pre-earthquake signals towards physical-based forecasting: A prospective test experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are conducting an integrated study involving multi-parameter observations over different seismo- tectonics regions in our investigation of phenomena preceding major earthquakes. Our approach is based on a systematic analysis of several selected parameters namely: gas discharge; thermal infrared radiation; ionospheric electron concentration; and atmospheric temperature and humidity, which we suppose are associated with earthquake preparation phase. We intended to test in prospective mode the set of geophysical measurements for different regions of active earthquakes and volcanoes. In 2012-13 we established a collaborative framework with the leading projects PRE-EARTHQUAKE (EU) and iSTEP3 (Taiwan) for coordinate measurements and prospective validation over seven test regions: Southern California (USA), Eastern Honshu (Japan), Italy, Turkey, Greece, Taiwan (ROC), Kamchatka and Sakhalin (Russia). The current experiment provided a 'stress test' opportunity to validate the physical based approach in teal -time over regions of high seismicity. Our initial results are: (1) Prospective tests have shown the presence in real time of anomalies in the atmosphere before most of the significant (M>5.5) earthquakes in all regions; (2) False positive rate alarm is different for each region and varying between 50% (Italy, Kamchatka and California) to 25% (Taiwan and Japan) with a significant reduction of false positives when at least two parameters are contemporary used; (3) One of most complex problem, which is still open, was the systematic collection and real-time integration of pre-earthquake observations. Our findings suggest that the physical based short-term forecast is feasible and more tests are needed. We discus the physical concept we used, the future integration of data observations and related developments.

Ouzounov, D.; Pulinets, S. A.; Tramutoli, V.; Lee, L.; Liu, J. G.; Hattori, K.; Kafatos, M.

2013-12-01

244

Testing conceptual and physically based soil hydrology schemes against observations for the Amazon Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study analyzes the performance of the two soil hydrology schemes of the land surface model ORCHIDEE in estimating Amazonian hydrology and phenology for five major sub-basins (Xingu, Tapajós, Madeira, Solimões and Negro), during the 29-year period 1980-2008. A simple 2-layer scheme with a bucket topped by an evaporative layer is compared to an 11-layer diffusion scheme. The soil schemes are coupled with a river routing module and a process model of plant physiology, phenology and carbon dynamics. The simulated water budget and vegetation functioning components are compared with several data sets at sub-basin scale. The use of the 11-layer soil diffusion scheme does not significantly change the Amazonian water budget simulation when compared to the 2-layer soil scheme (+3.1 and -3.0% in evapotranspiration and river discharge, respectively). However, the higher water-holding capacity of the soil and the physically based representation of runoff and drainage in the 11-layer soil diffusion scheme result in more dynamic soil water storage variation and improved simulation of the total terrestrial water storage when compared to GRACE satellite estimates. The greater soil water storage within the 11-layer scheme also results in increased dry-season evapotranspiration (+0.5 mm d-1, +17%) and improves river discharge simulation in the southeastern sub-basins such as the Xingu. Evapotranspiration over this sub-basin is sustained during the whole dry season with the 11-layer soil diffusion scheme, whereas the 2-layer scheme limits it after only 2 dry months. Lower plant drought stress simulated by the 11-layer soil diffusion scheme leads to better simulation of the seasonal cycle of photosynthesis (GPP) when compared to a GPP data-driven model based on eddy covariance and satellite greenness measurements. A dry-season length between 4 and 7 months over the entire Amazon Basin is found to be critical in distinguishing differences in hydrological feedbacks between the soil and the vegetation cover simulated by the two soil schemes. On average, the multilayer soil diffusion scheme provides little improvement in simulated hydrology over the wet tropical Amazonian sub-basins, but a more significant improvement is found over the drier sub-basins. The use of a multilayer soil diffusion scheme might become critical for assessments of future hydrological changes, especially in southern regions of the Amazon Basin where longer dry seasons and more severe droughts are expected in the next century.

Guimberteau, M.; Ducharne, A.; Ciais, P.; Boisier, J. P.; Peng, S.; De Weirdt, M.; Verbeeck, H.

2014-06-01

245

Nonuniversal quantities from dual renormalization group transformations.  

PubMed

Using a simplified version of the renormalization group (RG) transformation of Dyson's hierarchical model, we show that one can calculate all the nonuniversal quantities entering into the scaling laws by combining an expansion about the high-temperature fixed point with a dual expansion about the critical point. The magnetic susceptibility is expressed in terms of two dual quantities transforming covariantly under an RG transformation and has a smooth behavior in the high-temperature limit. Using the analogy with Hamiltonian mechanics, the simplified example discussed here is similar to the anharmonic oscillator, while more realistic examples can be thought of as coupled oscillators, allowing resonance phenomena. PMID:11970062

Meurice, Y; Niermann, S

1999-09-01

246

The Nature of Crustal Seismic Anisotropy: Constraints From Field and Rock Physics Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Compared with mantle seismic anisotropy studies, which have been active for almost five decades, anisotropy of the crystalline crust has been only rarely studied. Seismic anisotropy within continental tectonic provinces is however important because it provides earth scientists with a powerful tool for measuring and quantifying deformation within the crust. Preferred mineral alignment observed in metamorphic terranes produced during metamorphism by recrystallization is associated with planar structures such as slaty cleavage, schistosity, and gneissic layering. These structures are often pervasive for tens to hundreds of kilometers in major collision zones and produce significant compressional wave seismic anisotropy as well as shear wave splitting. Observations of crustal anisotropy within (1) slates of the chlorite subzone of the Haast schist terrane of South Island, New Zealand, (2) prehnite-pumpellite to lower greenschist facies slates and phyllites of the Taiwan Slate Belt, (3) greenschist faces phyllites and metagraywackes of the Valdez Group Chugach terrane in southern Alaska, and (4) amphibolite facies quartzofeldspathic gneisses, approaching granulite grade, within the Nanga Parbat-Haramosh massif demonstrate that crustal anisotropy is not limited to rocks of any particular metamorphic grade and thus can be present at all crustal levels. Laboratory studies of compressional and shear wave velocities provide important constraints on the magnitudes and symmetries of anisotropies at various crustal levels within these orogenic zones. Although compositional layering can produce anisotropy, preferred mineral orientation of highly anisotropic single crystals, resulting from metamorphic recrystallization, is the major contributor. Most metamorphic rocks show significant compressional and shear wave anisotropy. Anisotropy is a particularly important parameter in low grade pelitic rocks such as phyllite and slate and can be as high as 20%. For the medium grade metamorphic rocks tonalitic gneiss, quartz mica schist and amphibolite anisotropy is also high. High grade mafic granulite and crustal eclogite are relatively low in anisotropy, however lower crustal restites are highly anisotropic. Symmetries of these rocks are often treated to a first approximation as hexagonal, although most are actually of orthorhombic or lower symmetry due to lineations present on foliation surfaces. Thus a complete understanding of wave propagation in anisotropic crustal rocks often requires laboratory measurements of nine or more independent elastic constants. At present only a few crustal rocks have been studied in this detail. These measurements will become increasingly critical in the interpretations of future crustal anisotropy field investigations

Christensen, N. I.; Okaya, D.; Meltzer, A.

2006-12-01

247

ON THE TRANSITIONAL DISK CLASS: LINKING OBSERVATIONS OF T TAURI STARS AND PHYSICAL DISK MODELS  

SciTech Connect

Two decades ago 'transitional disks' (TDs) described spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of T Tauri stars with small near-IR excesses, but significant mid- and far-IR excesses. Many inferred this indicated dust-free holes in disks possibly cleared by planets. Recently, this term has been applied disparately to objects whose Spitzer SEDs diverge from the expectations for a typical full disk (FD). Here, we use irradiated accretion disk models to fit the SEDs of 15 such disks in NGC 2068 and IC 348. One group has a 'dip' in infrared emission while the others' continuum emission decreases steadily at all wavelengths. We find that the former have an inner disk hole or gap at intermediate radii in the disk and we call these objects 'transitional disks' and 'pre-transitional disks' (PTDs), respectively. For the latter group, we can fit these SEDs with FD models and find that millimeter data are necessary to break the degeneracy between dust settling and disk mass. We suggest that the term 'transitional' only be applied to objects that display evidence for a radical change in the disk's radial structure. Using this definition, we find that TDs and PTDs tend to have lower mass accretion rates than FDs and that TDs have lower accretion rates than PTDs. These reduced accretion rates onto the star could be linked to forming planets. Future observations of TDs and PTDs will allow us to better quantify the signatures of planet formation in young disks.

Espaillat, C.; Andrews, S.; Qi, C.; Wilner, D. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS-78, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Ingleby, L.; Calvet, N. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 830 Dennison Building, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Hernandez, J. [Centro de Investigaciones de Astronomia (CIDA), Merida 5101-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Furlan, E. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); D'Alessio, P. [Centro de Radioastronomia y Astrofisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, 58089 Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Muzerolle, J., E-mail: cespaillat@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: sandrews@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: cqi@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: dwilner@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: lingleby@umich.edu, E-mail: ncalvet@umich.edu, E-mail: jesush@cida.ve, E-mail: Elise.Furlan@jpl.nasa.gov, E-mail: p.dalessio@crya.unam.mx, E-mail: muzerol@stsci.edu [Space Telescope Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

2012-03-10

248

Asteroid (2867) Steins: Shape, topography and global physical properties from OSIRIS observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Rosetta spacecraft flew by Asteroid (2867) Steins on 5 September 2008, allowing the onboard OSIRIS cameras to collect the first images of an E-type asteroid. We implemented several three-dimensional reconstruction techniques to retrieve its shape. Limb profiles, combined with stereo control points, were used to reconstruct an approximate shape model. This model was refined using a stereophotoclinometry technique to accurately retrieve the topography of the hemisphere observed by OSIRIS. The unseen part of the surface was constrained by the technique of light curves inversion. The global shape resembles a top with dimensions along the principal axes of inertia of 6.83 × 5.70 × 4.42 km. It is conspicuously more regular than other small asteroids like (233) Eros and (25143) Itokawa. Its mean radius is Rm = 2.70 km and its equivalent radius (radius of a sphere of equivalent volume) is Rv = 2.63 km. The north pole is oriented at RA = 99 ± 5° and Dec = -59 ± 5°, which implies a very large obliquity of 172° and a retrograde rotation. Maps of the gravitational field and slopes were calculated for the well-imaged part of the asteroid. Together with the shape, they helped characterizing the most prominent topographic features identified at the surface of (2867) Steins: an equatorial ridge restricted to the extremities of the long axis, a large crater having dimensions of 2100 × 1800 m in the southern hemisphere, and an elongated hill in the northern hemisphere. We conjecture that the equatorial ridge was formed by centrifugal acceleration as the asteroid was spun up by the Yarkovsky-O’Keefe-Radzievskii-Paddack effect.

Jorda, L.; Lamy, P. L.; Gaskell, R. W.; Kaasalainen, M.; Groussin, O.; Besse, S.; Faury, G.

2012-11-01

249

Thermodynamic Partial Derivatives and Experimentally Measurable Quantities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proposed is a flow-chart and related formulas to obtain expressions for the derivatives of the old thermodynamic function in terms of new variables, the new function and its derivatives, and derivatives of the old function, involving only measurable quantities. (CW)

Estevez, Gentil A.; And Others

1989-01-01

250

Radiation Protection Quantities for Near Earth Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

As humans travel beyond the protection of the Earth's magnetic field and mission durations grow, risk due to radiation exposure will increase and may become the limiting factor for such missions. Here, the dosimetric quantities recommended by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) for the evaluation of health risk due to radiation exposure, effective dose and gray-equivalent

Martha S. Clowdsley; John W. Wilson; Myung-Hee Kim; Brooke M. Anderson; John E. Nealy

251

Quantity, Quality, Children's Characteristics, and Vocabulary Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This review of literature shows that how often a child is read to is related to subsequent gains in vocabulary. Not only do adults differ in the frequency with which they read to children (quantity), they also vary in reading style (quality). Several studies have proposed that the cognitive demand level of questions children are asked may be…

Walsh, Bridget A.

2008-01-01

252

Statistical Ensembles with Fluctuating Extensive Quantities  

E-print Network

We suggest an extension of the standard concept of statistical ensembles. Namely, we introduce a class of ensembles with extensive quantities fluctuating according to an externally given distribution. As an example the influence of energy fluctuations on multiplicity fluctuations in limited segments of momentum space for a classical ultra-relativistic gas is considered.

M. I. Gorenstein; M. Hauer

2008-01-28

253

Package Sizes, Tariffs, Quantity Discount and Premium  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyze nonlinear pricing problem under monopoly using two hidden types of agents with linear demands and fully characterize all possible optimal solutions for both ordered and non-ordered demands. We show that both optimal packages can either contain Pareto-efficient quantities or one package can be undersized or oversized. All these effects are non- degenerate and are expected to hold for

Babu Nahata; Serguei Kokovin; Evgeny Zhelobodko

2003-01-01

254

Ancient Light from Young Cosmic Cities: Physical and Observational Signatures of Galaxy Proto-clusters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A growing number of galaxy clusters at z = 1-2 is being discovered as part of deep optical, IR, X-ray, and Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect surveys. For a complete picture of cluster formation, however, it is important that we also start probing the much earlier epoch, between redshifts of about 2 and 7, during which these clusters and their galaxies first began to form. Because the study of these so-called proto-clusters is currently quite limited by small number statistics, widely varying selection techniques, and many assumptions, we have performed a large systematic study of cluster formation utilizing cosmological simulations. We use the Millennium Simulations to track the evolution of dark matter and galaxies in about 3000 clusters from the earliest times to z = 0. We define an effective radius Re for proto-clusters and characterize their growth in size and mass with cosmic time. We show that the progenitor regions of galaxy clusters (ranging in mass from ~1014 to a few times 1015 M ?) can already be identified in galaxy surveys at very early times (at least up to z ~ 5), provided that the galaxy overdensities are measured on a sufficiently large scale (Re ~ 5-10 Mpc comoving) and with sufficient statistics. We present the overdensities in matter, dark matter halos, and galaxies as functions of present-day cluster mass, redshift, bias, and window size that can be used to interpret the wide range of structures found in real surveys. We also derive the probability that a structure having a galaxy overdensity ?gal, defined by a set of observational selection criteria, is indeed a proto-cluster, and we show how their z = 0 masses can already be estimated long before virialization. We present overdensity profiles as a function of radius, and we further show how the projected surface overdensities of proto-clusters decrease as the uncertainties in redshift measurements increase. We provide a table of proto-cluster candidates selected from the literature and discuss their properties in light of our simulation predictions. This paper provides the general framework that will allow us to extend the study of cluster formation out to much higher redshifts using the large number of proto-clusters that are expected to be discovered in, e.g., the upcoming HETDEX and Hyper Suprime-Cam surveys.

Chiang, Yi-Kuan; Overzier, Roderik; Gebhardt, Karl

2013-12-01

255

Physical characteristics of the meteoroids by the results of combined radar and optical observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes a method determining of the light and ionization curves by the results of combined radio - TV observations meteors in 1978-1980 in Hissar Astronomical Observatory of the Institute of Astrophysics of Sciences of Tajikistan, the calculation results of photographic and radar meteoroid mass and analysis of the shape of light curves of meteors within the theory of evaporation and the theory of the quasi-continuous fragmentation. The photographic meteoroid mass from the light curve were defined: a) by the value of maximum luminescence intensity at the height hm and b) by the integration light curve. It is based on analysis of the data of the mass were obtained correction factor that takes into account the effect of fragmentation and other factors to determine the mass of meteoroids first method. Average value of the mass of meteoroids calculated by the light curve for meteors with magnitude M?1 is 19.10-3 g, and the average value of the mass found on magnitude of the luminescence intensity at the height the maximum brightness consist 18.2.10-3 that is in satisfactory agreement. The meteoroid’s masses was calculated also radio method by value of maximum linear electron density at the height of maximum ionization (n). The framework of the classical theory and the theory quasi-continuous fragmentation, the shape of the light curves of simultaneous radio - optical meteors were analyzed. It is shown that the main mechanism of ablation 60% of simultaneous radio - optical meteors is a quasi-continuous fragmentation. The bulk density and porosity of showers and sporadic meteoroids were determined. Found that the Geminids meteoroids and ?-Aquariids have the largest bulk densities (?o = 3.6 g/cm3). A meteoroids of the showers Orionids and Leonids have the lowest bulk density (?o ? 0.6 g/cm3), and the highest value of the porosity (60 ? K ? 80%). The mass fragments of flow and sporadic meteoroids lie in the range of 5.10-8÷10-5g.

Mirhusen, Narziev

256

Changes in mouse cognition and hippocampal gene expression observed in a mild physical- and blast-traumatic brain injury  

PubMed Central

Warfare has long been associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI) in militarized zones. Common forms of TBI can be caused by a physical insult to the head-brain or by the effects of a high velocity blast shock wave generated by the detonation of an explosive device. While both forms of trauma are distinctly different regarding the mechanism of trauma induction, there are striking similarities in the cognitive and emotional status of survivors. Presently, proven effective therapeutics for the treatment of either form of TBI are unavailable. To be able to develop efficacious therapies, studies involving animal models of physical- and blast-TBI are required to identify possible novel or existing medicines that may be of value in the management of clinical events. We examined indices of cognition and anxiety-like behavior and the hippocampal gene transcriptome of mice subjected to both forms of TBI. We identified common behavioral deficits and gene expression regulations, in addition to unique injury-specific forms of gene regulation. Molecular pathways presented a pattern similar to that seen in gene expression. Interestingly, pathways connected to Alzheimer’s disease displayed a markedly different form of regulation depending on the type of TBI. While these data highlight similarities in behavioral outcomes after trauma, the divergence in hippocampal transcriptome observed between models suggests that, at the molecular level, the TBIs are quite different. These models may provide tools to help define therapeutic approaches for the treatment of physical- and blast-TBIs. Based upon observations of increasing numbers of personnel displaying TBI related emotional and behavioral changes in militarized zones, the development of efficacious therapies will become a national if not a global priority. PMID:23454194

Tweedie, David; Rachmany, Lital; Rubovitch, Vardit; Zhang, Yongqing; Becker, Kevin G.; Perez, Evelyn; Hoffer, Barry J.; Pick, Chaim G.; Greig, Nigel H.

2013-01-01

257

16 CFR 500.25 - Net quantity, average quantity, permitted variations.  

...statement shall declare the net quantity of the contents that will be expelled when the instructions for use are followed. The propellant is included in the net quantity statement. (b) Variations from the stated weight or mass or measure shall be...

2014-01-01

258

16 CFR 500.25 - Net quantity, average quantity, permitted variations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...statement shall declare the net quantity of the contents that will be expelled when the instructions for use are followed. The propellant is included in the net quantity statement. (b) Variations from the stated weight or mass or measure shall be...

2010-01-01

259

Running Head: Quantity discrimination for substances Infants make quantity discriminations for substances  

E-print Network

Running Head: Quantity discrimination for substances Infants make quantity discriminations for substances Susan J. Hespos Begum Dora Lance J. Rips Stella Christie Northwestern University Corresponding substances, such as piles of sand. Experiment 1 used a habituation paradigm to show that 3-, 7- and 10-month

Hespos, Susan J.

260

Running Head: Quantity discrimination for substances Infants make quantity discriminations for substances  

E-print Network

Running Head: Quantity discrimination for substances Infants make quantity discriminations for substances Susan J. Hespos Begum Dora Lance J. Rips Stella Christie Northwestern University Corresponding is equivocal about whether infants can track continuous substances, such as piles of sand. Experiment 1 used

Hespos, Susan J.

261

Approximation of the observed motion of bolides by the analytical solution of the equations of meteor physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A great volume of data has been accumulated thus far related to the photoregistration of the paths of meteor bodies in the terrestrial atmosphere. Most images have been obtained by four bolide networks, which operate in the USA, Canada, Europe, and Spain in different time periods. The approximation of the actual data using theoretical models makes it possible to achieve additional estimates, which do not directly follow from the observations. In the present study, we suggest an algorithm to find such parameters of the theoretical relationship between the height and the velocity of the bolide motion that help to fit observations along the luminous part of the trajectories in the best way. The main difference from previous studies is that the given observations are approximated using the analytical solution of the equations of meteor physics. The model presented in this study was applied to a number of bright meteors observed by the Canadian camera network and by the US Prairie network and to the Benésov bolide, which is one of the largest fireballs registered by the European network. The correct mathematical modeling of meteor events in the atmosphere is necessary for further estimates of the key parameters, including the extra-atmospheric mass, the ablation coefficient, and the effective enthalpy of evaporation of entering bodies. In turn, this information is needed by some applications, namely, those aimed at studying the problems of asteroid and comet security, to develop measures of planetary defense, and to determine the bodies that can reach Earth’s surface.

Gritsevich, M. I.

2007-12-01

262

Observed and modeled bio-optical, bioluminescent, and physical properties during a coastal upwelling event in Monterey Bay, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During spring and summer time, coastal upwelling influences circulation and ecosystem dynamics of the Monterey Bay, California, which is recognized as a National Marine Sanctuary. Observations of physical, bio-optical properties (including bioluminescence) together with results from dynamical biochemical and bioluminescence models are used to interpret the development of the upwelling event during August 2003 in Monterey Bay, California. Observations and the biochemical model show the development of a phytoplankton bloom in the southern portion of Monterey Bay. Model results show an increase of nutrients in the southern portion of the bay, where nutrient-rich water masses are brought in by the southward flow and cyclonic circulation inside the bay. This increase in nutrients together with the sluggish circulation in the southern portion of the bay provides favorable conditions for phytoplankton growth. Our observations and models suggest that with the development of upwelling the offshore water masses with the subsurface layer of bioluminescent zooplankton were replaced by water masses advected from the northern coast of the bay with a relatively high presence of mostly nonbioluminescent phytoplankton. Inshore observations from autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) show consistent coincidence of chlorophyll, backscatter, and bioluminescence maxima during upwelling development. Offshore AUV observations (taken at the entrance to the bay) show a deeper bioluminescence maximum below the surface layers of high chlorophyll and backscatter values during the earlier stages of upwelling development. Later, the observed deep offshore bioluminescence maximum disappeared and became a shallower and much weaker signal, coinciding with high chlorophyll and backscatter values offshore. Based on the biochemical and bioluminescence models, a methodology for estimating the nighttime water-leaving radiance due to stimulated bioluminescence is demonstrated and evaluated.

Shulman, Igor; Moline, Mark A.; Penta, Bradley; Anderson, Stephanie; Oliver, Matthew; Haddock, Steven H. D.

2011-01-01

263

The atmospheric component of the Mediterranean Sea water budget in a WRF multi-physics ensemble and observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of high resolution atmosphere-ocean coupled regional climate models to study possible future climate changes in the Mediterranean Sea requires an accurate simulation of the atmospheric component of the water budget (i.e., evaporation, precipitation and runoff). A specific configuration of the version 3.1 of the weather research and forecasting (WRF) regional climate model was shown to systematically overestimate the Mediterranean Sea water budget mainly due to an excess of evaporation (~1,450 mm yr-1) compared with observed estimations (~1,150 mm yr-1). In this article, a 70-member multi-physics ensemble is used to try to understand the relative importance of various sub-grid scale processes in the Mediterranean Sea water budget and to evaluate its representation by comparing simulated results with observed-based estimates. The physics ensemble was constructed by performing 70 1-year long simulations using version 3.3 of the WRF model by combining six cumulus, four surface/planetary boundary layer and three radiation schemes. Results show that evaporation variability across the multi-physics ensemble (˜10 % of the mean evaporation) is dominated by the choice of the surface layer scheme that explains more than ˜70 % of the total variance and that the overestimation of evaporation in WRF simulations is generally related with an overestimation of surface exchange coefficients due to too large values of the surface roughness parameter and/or the simulation of too unstable surface conditions. Although the influence of radiation schemes on evaporation variability is small (˜13 % of the total variance), radiation schemes strongly influence exchange coefficients and vertical humidity gradients near the surface due to modifications of temperature lapse rates. The precipitation variability across the physics ensemble (˜35 % of the mean precipitation) is dominated by the choice of both cumulus (˜55 % of the total variance) and planetary boundary layer (˜32 % of the total variance) schemes with a strong regional dependence. Most members of the ensemble underestimate total precipitation amounts with biases as large as 250 mm yr-1 over the whole Mediterranean Sea compared with ERA Interim reanalysis mainly due to an underestimation of the number of wet days. The larger number of dry days in simulations is associated with a deficit in the activation of cumulus schemes. Both radiation and planetary boundary layer schemes influence precipitation through modifications on the available water vapor in the boundary layer generally tied with changes in evaporation.

Di Luca, Alejandro; Flaounas, Emmanouil; Drobinski, Philippe; Brossier, Cindy Lebeaupin

2014-11-01

264

62 FR 9826 - Food Labeling; Net Quantity of Contents; Compliance  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Parts 101, 161, and 501 Food Labeling: Net Quantity of Contents; Compliance; Proposed...Docket No. 92P-0441] Food Labeling; Net Quantity of Contents; Compliance AGENCY...regulations that pertain to declarations of net quantity of contents on food...

1997-03-04

265

Radiation Protection Quantities for Near Earth Environments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As humans travel beyond the protection of the Earth's magnetic field and mission durations grow, risk due to radiation exposure will increase and may become the limiting factor for such missions. Here, the dosimetric quantities recommended by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) for the evaluation of health risk due to radiation exposure, effective dose and gray-equivalent to eyes, skin, and blood forming organs (BFO), are calculated for several near Earth environments. These radiation protection quantities are evaluated behind two different shielding materials, aluminum and polyethylene. Since exposure limits for missions beyond low Earth orbit (LEO) have not yet been defined, results are compared to limits recommended by the NCRP for LEO operations.

Clowdsley, Martha S.; Wilson, John W.; Kim, Myung-Hee; Anderson, Brooke M.; Nealy, John E.

2004-01-01

266

Shielded radiation protection quantities beyond LEO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) has recommended that the quantities used to evaluate health risk to astronauts due to radiation exposure be effective dose and gray-equivalent. The NCRP recommends that effective dose be the limiting quantity for prevention of stochastic effects. Effective dose is a measure of whole body exposure, a weighted average of dose equivalent to a number body tissues for which the NCRP has adopted tissue weighting factors recommended by the International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP). For deterministic effects, the NCRP has recommended that gray-equivalent be used. Gray-equivalent is evaluated for specific critical organs and is the weighted sum of absorbed dose from field components to that organ using the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) number for that field component. RBE numbers recommended by the NCRP are used. The NCRP has provided effective dose limits as well as limits for gray-equivalent to eyes, skin, and blood forming organs (BFO) for astronauts in low earth orbit (LEO). As yet, no such limits have been defined for astronaut operations beyond LEO. In this study, the radiation protection quantities, effective dose and gray-equivalent to the eyes, skin, and BFO, are calculated for several environments beyond LEO. The lunar surface and Martian environments are included. For each environment, these radiation protection quantities are calculated behind varying amounts of various types of shielding materials. The results are compared to the exposure limits for LEO, since limits have not yet been defined for interplanetary missions. The benefits of using shielding material containing hydrogen and choosing optimal mission times are discussed.

Clowdsley, M. S.; Wilson, J. W.; Kim, M. Y.; Anderson, B. M.; Nealy, J. E.

267

Physics of climate  

SciTech Connect

Physics of Climate is a suitable text for at least part of a general circulation course. The quantity and quality of information in this book are such that anyone involved in the study of the atmosphere or climate will wish to have it handy. In particular, anyone working with a general circulation model will want to see how his model compares with the observed world. Eight chapters are the core of the text. They cover: data description; observed states of the atmosphere, ocean, and cryosphere; exchanges between the atmosphere and the surface; and the budgets of water, angular momentum, and energy.

Peixoto, J.P.; Oort, A.H.

1992-01-01

268

Liquid-top mixed-phase cloud detection from shortwave-infrared satellite radiometer observations: A physical basis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

clouds often exist in the liquid phase at temperatures below 0°C. Traditionally, satellite-derived information on cloud phase comes from narrow bands in the shortwave and thermal infrared, with sensitivity biased strongly toward cloud top. In situ observations suggest an abundance of clouds having supercooled liquid water at their tops but a predominantly ice phase residing below. Satellites may report these clouds simply as supercooled liquid, with no further information regarding the presence of a subcloud top ice phase. Here we describe a physical basis for the detection of liquid-top mixed-phase clouds from passive satellite radiometer observations. The algorithm makes use of reflected sunlight in narrow bands at 1.6 and 2.25 µm to optically probe below liquid-topped clouds and determine phase. Detection is predicated on differential absorption properties between liquid and ice particles, accounting for varying Sun/sensor geometry and cloud optical properties. When tested on numerical weather prediction model simulated cloud fields, the algorithm provided threat scores in the 0.6-0.8 range and false alarm rates in the 0.1-0.2 range. A case study based on surface and satellite observations of liquid-top mixed-phase clouds in northern Alaska was also examined. Preliminary results indicate promising potential for distinction between supercooled liquid-top phase clouds with and without an underlying mixed-phase component.

Miller, Steven D.; Noh, Yoo-Jeong; Heidinger, Andrew K.

2014-07-01

269

Physical Properties of Spicules from Simultaneous Spectro-Polarimetric Observations of He I and Ca II Lines  

E-print Network

We present full Stokes observations from SPINOR in the \\ion{Ca}{2} infrared triplet and the \\ion{He}{1} multiplet at 1083 nm from which some properties of spicules have been derived. There are important advantages in multi-line observations, particularly from different elements. We find that the orientation of the plane of polarization is very different for the Ca and He lines, which provides the first direct model-independent evidence for magnetic fields in spicules. Our data shows that the Ca and He lines have almost identical widths. Since the Ca atom is 10 times heavier than He, we are able to conclude that most of the broadening is non-thermal ($\\simeq$16 km s$^{-1}$) and to set an upper limit of 13 kK to the spicular temperatures. The bisectors of the lines span a velocity range of over 15 km s$^{-1}$ for the He line and 30 km s$^{-1}$ for the Ca ones. The vertical gradient of line-of-sight velocities is also very different for both elements. We obtain 2.8 km s$^{-1}$ Mm$^{-1}$ from He versus 6.4 km s$^{-1}$ Mm$^{-1}$ from Ca. These properties, and others from similar observations, should be taken into account in future physical models of spicules.

H. Socas-Navarro; D. Ellmore

2004-10-23

270

Quantity Discrimination in Wolves (Canis lupus).  

PubMed

Quantity discrimination has been studied extensively in different non-human animal species. In the current study, we tested 11 hand-raised wolves (Canis lupus) in a two-way choice task. We placed a number of food items (one to four) sequentially into two opaque cans and asked the wolves to choose the larger amount. Moreover, we conducted two additional control conditions to rule out non-numerical properties of the presentation that the animals might have used to make the correct choice. Our results showed that wolves are able to make quantitative judgments at the group, but also at the individual level even when alternative strategies such as paying attention to the surface area or time and total amount are ruled out. In contrast to previous canine studies on dogs (Canis familiaris) and coyotes (Canis latrans), our wolves' performance did not improve with decreasing ratio, referred to as Weber's law. However, further studies using larger quantities than we used in the current set-up are still needed to determine whether and when wolves' quantity discrimination conforms to Weber's law. PMID:23181044

Utrata, Ewelina; Virányi, Zsófia; Range, Friederike

2012-01-01

271

Quantity Discrimination in Wolves (Canis lupus)  

PubMed Central

Quantity discrimination has been studied extensively in different non-human animal species. In the current study, we tested 11 hand-raised wolves (Canis lupus) in a two-way choice task. We placed a number of food items (one to four) sequentially into two opaque cans and asked the wolves to choose the larger amount. Moreover, we conducted two additional control conditions to rule out non-numerical properties of the presentation that the animals might have used to make the correct choice. Our results showed that wolves are able to make quantitative judgments at the group, but also at the individual level even when alternative strategies such as paying attention to the surface area or time and total amount are ruled out. In contrast to previous canine studies on dogs (Canis familiaris) and coyotes (Canis latrans), our wolves’ performance did not improve with decreasing ratio, referred to as Weber’s law. However, further studies using larger quantities than we used in the current set-up are still needed to determine whether and when wolves’ quantity discrimination conforms to Weber’s law. PMID:23181044

Utrata, Ewelina; Viranyi, Zsofia; Range, Friederike

2012-01-01

272

Pool boiling on a single-crystal sapphire surface -- A measuring method of quantities upon liquid-solid contacts  

SciTech Connect

In this study, a novel method for measuring the fundamental quantities upon liquid-solid contact in pool boiling is developed to obtain a better understanding of the mechanism of high-heat-flux nucleate boiling, the critical heat flux (CHF) point and transition boiling. The method consists of dynamic observations of liquid-solid contact and an image-processing technique. The liquid-solid contact situation was observed from below the heat-transfer surface and by a high-speed video camera. A single-crystal sapphire plate was chosen as the heat-transfer surface because of its high transparency and good thermal diffusivity. In dry areas on the surface, total reflections would occur, but not in wetted areas. Therefore, the authors could clearly distinguish between dry and wetted areas on the surface. Then, using an image-processing technique, the fundamental quantities on liquid-solid contact in pool boiling, as listed below, were obtained as a function of wall superheats: (i) the wetted-area fraction, (ii) nucleation-site density (the number density of dry areas), and (iii) the size and time scales of the fundamental macroscopic structure in boiling. These quantities may serve as important information to establish the physical models of nucleate boiling, CHF, and transition boiling.

Nagai, Niroh; Nishio, Shigefumi

1995-12-31

273

Physical properties of the OMC-2 and OMC-3 cores from CS and C(18)O observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have investigated the properties of the OMC-2 and OMC-3 cores in the Orion giant molecular cloud using high spatial spectral resolution observations of several transitions of the (13)CO, C(18)O, C(S-32) and C(S-34) molecules taken with the SEST telescope. The OMC-2 core consists of one clump (22 solar mass) with a radius of 0.11 pc surrounded by a cluster of 11 discrete infrared sources. The H2 column density and volume density in the center of this clump are 2 x 10(exp 22)/sq cm and 9 x 10(exp 5)/cu cm respectively. From a comparison between physical parameters derived from C(18)O and C(S-32) observations we conclude that the molecular envelope around the core has been completely removed by these sources and that only the very dense gas is left. OMC-3 shows a more complex elongated structure in C(18)O and CS than OMC-2. The C(S-32) and C(S-34) maps show that the denser region can be separated into at least sub-cores of roughly equal sizes (radius approximately equals 0.13 pc), with n(H2) = 6 x 10(exp 5)/cu cm, and a mass of 10 solar mass (from C(S-32)). The very different masses obtained for the central core from C(18)O and C(S-32) (55 and 12 solar mass respectively) indicate that a massive envelope is still present around the very dense sub-cores. We report the first detection of several molecular outflows in OMC-3. The presence of an IRAS source and the first detection of these outflows confirm that star formation is going on in OMC-3. Based on the different physical properties of these regions compared with OMC-1, OMC-2 appears to be in an intermediate evolutionary stage between OMC-1 and OMC-3.

Castets, A.; Langer, W. D.

1995-01-01

274

Physical conditions in high-redshift GRB-DLA absorbers observed with VLT/UVES: implications for molecular hydrogen searches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aims: We aim to understand the nature of the absorbing neutral gas in the galaxies hosting high-redshift long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and to determine their physical conditions. Methods: A detailed analysis of high-quality VLT/UVES spectra of the optical afterglow of GRB 050730 and other Swift-era bursts is presented. Results: We report the detection of a significant number of previously unidentified allowed transition lines of Fe^+, involving the fine structure of the ground term ( ^6D{7/2}, ^6D{5/2}, ^6D{3/2}, ^6D{1/2}) and that of other excited levels (^4F{9/2}, ^4F{7/2}, ^4F{5/2}, ^4F{3/2}, ^4D{7/2}, ^4D{5/2}), from the zabs = 3.969, log N(H^0) = 22.10, damped Lyman-? (DLA) system located in the host galaxy of GRB 050730. No molecular hydrogen (H2) is detected down to a molecular fraction of log f < -8.0. We derive accurate metal abundances for Fe^+, S^+, N^0, Ni^+, and, for the first time in this system, Si+ and Ar^0. The absorption lines are best-fit as a single narrow velocity component at zabs = 3.96857. The time-dependent evolution of the observed Fe+ energy-level populations is modelled by assuming the excitation mechanism is fluorescence following excitation by ultraviolet photons emitted by the afterglow of GRB 050730. This UV pumping model successfully reproduces the observations, yielding a total Fe+ column density of log N = 15.49±0.03, a burst/cloud distance (defined to the near-side of the cloud) of d = 440±30 pc, and a linear cloud size of l = 520^+240-190 pc. This application of our photo-excitation code demonstrates that burst/DLA distances can be determined without strong constraints on absorption-line variability provided enough energy levels are detected. From the cloud size, we infer a particle density of nH ? 5-15 cm-3. Conclusions: We discuss these results in the context of no detections of H2 and C i lines (with log N(C^0)/N(S^+) < -3) in a sample of seven z > 1.8 GRB host galaxies observed with VLT/UVES. We show that the lack of H2 can be explained by the low metallicities, [X/H] < -1, low depletion factors, and, at most, moderate particle densities of the systems. This points to a picture where GRB-DLAs typically exhibiting very high H0 column densities are diffuse metal-poor atomic clouds with high kinetic temperatures, Tkin ? 1000 K, and large physical extents, l ? 100 pc. The properties of GRB-DLAs observed at high spectral resolution towards bright GRB afterglows differ markedly from the high metal and dust contents of GRB-DLAs observed at lower resolution. This difference likely results from the effect of a bias, against systems of high metallicity and/or close to the GRB, due to dust obscuration in the magnitude-limited GRB afterglow samples observed with high-resolution spectrographs. Based on Target-Of-Opportunity observations carried out in service mode under progs. ID 075.A-0603, P.I. Fiore, and 075.A-0385, 077.D-0661, 080.D-0526, and 081.A-0856, P.I. Vreeswijk, with the Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph (UVES) installed at the Nasmyth-B focus of the Very Large Telescope (VLT), Unit 2 - Kueyen, operated by the European Southern Observatory (ESO) on Cerro Paranal in Chile.

Ledoux, C.; Vreeswijk, P. M.; Smette, A.; Fox, A. J.; Petitjean, P.; Ellison, S. L.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Savaglio, S.

2009-11-01

275

Consumer-Resource Dynamics: Quantity, Quality, and Allocation  

PubMed Central

Background The dominant paradigm for modeling the complexities of interacting populations and food webs is a system of coupled ordinary differential equations in which the state of each species, population, or functional trophic group is represented by an aggregated numbers-density or biomass-density variable. Here, using the metaphysiological approach to model consumer-resource interactions, we formulate a two-state paradigm that represents each population or group in a food web in terms of both its quantity and quality. Methodology and Principal Findings The formulation includes an allocation function controlling the relative proportion of extracted resources to increasing quantity versus elevating quality. Since lower quality individuals senesce more rapidly than higher quality individuals, an optimal allocation proportion exists and we derive an expression for how this proportion depends on population parameters that determine the senescence rate, the per-capita mortality rate, and the effects of these rates on the dynamics of the quality variable. We demonstrate that oscillations do not arise in our model from quantity-quality interactions alone, but require consumer-resource interactions across trophic levels that can be stabilized through judicious resource allocation strategies. Analysis and simulations provide compelling arguments for the necessity of populations to evolve quality-related dynamics in the form of maternal effects, storage or other appropriate structures. They also indicate that resource allocation switching between investments in abundance versus quality provide a powerful mechanism for promoting the stability of consumer-resource interactions in seasonally forcing environments. Conclusions/Significance Our simulations show that physiological inefficiencies associated with this switching can be favored by selection due to the diminished exposure of inefficient consumers to strong oscillations associated with the well-known paradox of enrichment. Also our results demonstrate how allocation switching can explain observed growth patterns in experimental microbial cultures and discuss how our formulation can address questions that cannot be answered using the quantity-only paradigms that currently predominate. PMID:21283752

Getz, Wayne M.; Owen-Smith, Norman

2011-01-01

276

Combined effects of physics and physiology explain the observed pattern of nitrate uptake kinetics in the ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent trait-based modeling of nutrient uptake by microorganisms (Aksnes & Cao. Marine Ecology Progress Series 440, p. 41-51, 2011; Fiksen et al. Limnology and Oceanography 58, p. 193-202, 2013) has advanced our understanding of how the nutrient uptake kinetics should depend on cell size and extracellular diffusion of nutrient molecules. This has provided a basis for better understanding observed patterns in terms of traits and fundamental physical processes, and for formulating more realistic models of plankton ecosystems. Here we extend the trait-based models using the principle of optimality subject to a physiological trade-off between the maximum uptake rate vs. the number of uptake sites. Then we test the predictions of each model, with and without the trade-off, against observed patterns for kinetic parameters describing the rate of nitrate uptake by natural assemblages of oceanic plankton as measured by ship-board experiments. The new model is able to reproduce: 1) the tendency of half-saturation constants to increase with nitrate concentration in the ocean, in terms of the trade-off, and 2) the wide variability in measured half-saturation constants, in terms of a realistic range of cell sizes for oceanic phytoplankton. We finally present a coherent explanation for the observed pattern in terms of both adaptation of physiology to environmental nutrient concentrations, which results in greater half- saturation constants for cells of any size adapted to higher vs. lower nutrient concentrations, and cell size, which tends to increase with ambient nutrient concentration. This provides a basis for modeling size as an adaptive trait in planktonic ecosystem models.

Smith, S. L.; Hohn, S.; Brandt, G.; Merico, A.; Yoshikawa, C.

2013-12-01

277

48 CFR 52.236-16 - Quantity Surveys.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Quantity Surveys. 52.236-16 Section 52.236-16...and Clauses 52.236-16 Quantity Surveys. As prescribed in 36.516, the...items and for payment based on quantity surveys is contemplated: Quantity...

2010-10-01

278

48 CFR 52.236-16 - Quantity Surveys.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Quantity Surveys. 52.236-16 Section 52.236-16...and Clauses 52.236-16 Quantity Surveys. As prescribed in 36.516, the...items and for payment based on quantity surveys is contemplated: Quantity...

2011-10-01

279

Urban forms, physical activity and body mass index: a cross-city examination using ISS Earth Observation photographs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Johnson Space Center has archived thousands of astronauts acquired Earth images. Some spectacular images have been widely used in news media and in k-12 class room, but their potential utilizations in health promotion and disease prevention have relatively untapped. The project uses daytime ISS photographs to define city forms and links them to city or metropolitan level health data in a multicity context. Road connectivity, landuse mix and Shannon's information indices were used in the classification of photographs. In contrast to previous remote-sensing studies, which tend to focus on a single city or a portion of a city, this project utilized photographs of 39 U.S. cities. And in contrast to previous health-promotion studies on the built environment, which tend to rely on survey respondents' responses to evaluate road connectivity or mixed land use for a single study site, the project examined the built environments of multiple cities based on ISS photos. It was found that road connectivity and landuse mix were not statistically significant by themselves, but the composite measure of the Shannon index was significantly associated with physical activity, but not BMI. Consequently, leisure-time physical activity seems to be positively associated with the urban complexity scale. It was also concluded that unless they are planned or designed in advance, photographs taken by astronauts generally are not appropriate for a study of a single-site built environment nor are they appropriate for a study of infectious diseases at a local scale. To link urban built environment with city-wide health indicators, both the traditional nadir view and oblique views should be emphasized in future astronauts' earth observation photographs.

Lin, Ge

2005-01-01

280

Methods for empirical justice analysis: Part 1. Framework, models, and quantities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of empirical justice analysis is fourfold: (i) to obtain numerical approximations of the quantities and relations\\u000a identified by justice theory; (ii) to gauge the extent of interindividual and intergroup variation in the quantities and relations;\\u000a (iii) to explain their etiology, including the effects of social structure and of the observer’s position in the stratification\\u000a structure; and (iv) to

Guillermina Jasso; Bernd Wegener

1997-01-01

281

How to define physical properties of unstable particles  

E-print Network

In the framework of effective quantum field theory we address the definition of physical quantities characterizing unstable particles. With the aid of a one-loop calculation, we study this issue in terms of the charge and the magnetic moment of a spin-1/2 resonance. By appealing to the invariance of physical observables under field redefinitions we demonstrate that physical properties of unstable particles should be extracted from the residues at complex (double) poles of the corresponding S-matrix.

J. Gegelia; S. Scherer

2009-10-22

282

Effective dose: a radiation protection quantity.  

PubMed

Modern radiation protection is based on the principles of justification, limitation, and optimisation. Assessment of radiation risks for individuals or groups of individuals is, however, not a primary objective of radiological protection. The implementation of the principles of limitation and optimisation requires an appropriate quantification of radiation exposure. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has introduced effective dose as the principal radiological protection quantity to be used for setting and controlling dose limits for stochastic effects in the regulatory context, and for the practical implementation of the optimisation principle. Effective dose is the tissue weighted sum of radiation weighted organ and tissue doses of a reference person from exposure to external irradiations and internal emitters. The specific normalised values of tissue weighting factors are defined by ICRP for individual tissues, and used as an approximate age- and sex-averaged representation of the relative contribution of each tissue to the radiation detriment of stochastic effects from whole-body low-linear energy transfer irradiations. The rounded values of tissue and radiation weighting factors are chosen by ICRP on the basis of available scientific data from radiation epidemiology and radiation biology, and they are therefore subject to adjustment as new scientific information becomes available. Effective dose is a single, risk-related dosimetric quantity, used prospectively for planning and optimisation purposes, and retrospectively for demonstrating compliance with dose limits and constraints. In practical radiation protection, it has proven to be extremely useful. PMID:23089010

Menzel, H-G; Harrison, J

2012-01-01

283

Nutrition and Physical Activity in Child Care Centers: the Impact of a Wellness Policy Initiative on Environment and Policy Assessment and Observation Outcomes, 2011  

PubMed Central

Introduction The child care environment has emerged as an ideal setting in which to implement policies that promote healthy body weight of children. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of a wellness policy and training program on the physical activity and nutrition environment in 24 child care centers in Georgia. Methods We used the Environment and Policy Assessment and Observation instrument to identify changes to foods served, staff behaviors, and physical activity opportunities. Observations were performed over 1 day, beginning with breakfast and concluding when the program ended for the day. Observations were conducted from February 2010 through April 2011 for a total of 2 observations in each center. Changes to nutrition and physical activity in centers were assessed on the basis of changes in scores related to the physical activity and nutrition environment documented in the observations. Paired t test analyses were performed to determine significance of changes. Results Significant improvements to total nutrition (P < .001) and physical activity scores (P < .001) were observed. Results indicate that centers significantly improved the physical activity environments of centers by enhancing active play (P = .02), the sedentary environment (P = .005), the portable environment (P = .002), staff behavior (P = .004), and physical activity training and education (P < .001). Significant improvements were found for the nutrition environment (P < .001), and nutrition training and education (P < .001). Conclusion Findings from this study suggest that implementing wellness policies and training caregivers in best practices for physical activity and nutrition can promote healthy weight for young children in child care settings. PMID:23701720

Maalouf, Joyce; Evers, Sarah; Davis, Justin; Griffin, Monica

2013-01-01

284

Quantity judgments and individuation: evidence that mass nouns count.  

PubMed

Three experiments explored the semantics of the mass-count distinction in young children and adults. In Experiments 1 and 2, the quantity judgments of participants provided evidence that some mass nouns refer to individuals, as such. Participants judged one large portion of stuff to be "more" than three tiny portions for substance-mass nouns (e.g. mustard, ketchup), but chose according to number for count nouns (e.g. shoes, candles) and object-mass nouns (e.g. furniture, jewelry). These results suggest that some mass nouns quantify over individuals, and that therefore reference to individuals does not distinguish count nouns from mass nouns. Thus, Experiments 1 and 2 failed to support the hypothesis that there exist one-to-one mappings between mass-count syntax and semantics for either adults or young children. In Experiment 3, it was found that for mass-count flexible terms (e.g. string, stone) participants based quantity judgments on number when the terms were used with count syntax, but on total amount of stuff when used with mass syntax. Apparently, the presence of discrete physical objects in a scene (e.g. stones) is not sufficient to permit quantity judgments based on number. It is proposed that object-mass nouns (e.g. furniture) can be used to refer to individuals due to lexically specified grammatical features that normally occur in count syntax. Also, we suggest that children learning language parse words that refer to individuals as count nouns unless given morpho-syntactic and referential evidence to the contrary, in which case object-mass nouns are acquired. PMID:16139586

Barner, David; Snedeker, Jesse

2005-08-01

285

Evaluation of Specific Absorption Rate as a Dosimetric Quantity for Electromagnetic Fields Bioeffects  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluate SAR as a dosimetric quantity for EMF bioeffects, and identify ways for increasing the precision in EMF dosimetry and bioactivity assessment. Methods We discuss the interaction of man-made electromagnetic waves with biological matter and calculate the energy transferred to a single free ion within a cell. We analyze the physics and biology of SAR and evaluate the methods of its estimation. We discuss the experimentally observed non-linearity between electromagnetic exposure and biological effect. Results We find that: a) The energy absorbed by living matter during exposure to environmentally accounted EMFs is normally well below the thermal level. b) All existing methods for SAR estimation, especially those based upon tissue conductivity and internal electric field, have serious deficiencies. c) The only method to estimate SAR without large error is by measuring temperature increases within biological tissue, which normally are negligible for environmental EMF intensities, and thus cannot be measured. Conclusions SAR actually refers to thermal effects, while the vast majority of the recorded biological effects from man-made non-ionizing environmental radiation are non-thermal. Even if SAR could be accurately estimated for a whole tissue, organ, or body, the biological/health effect is determined by tiny amounts of energy/power absorbed by specific biomolecules, which cannot be calculated. Moreover, it depends upon field parameters not taken into account in SAR calculation. Thus, SAR should not be used as the primary dosimetric quantity, but used only as a complementary measure, always reporting the estimating method and the corresponding error. Radiation/field intensity along with additional physical parameters (such as frequency, modulation etc) which can be directly and in any case more accurately measured on the surface of biological tissues, should constitute the primary measure for EMF exposures, in spite of similar uncertainty to predict the biological effect due to non-linearity. PMID:23750202

Panagopoulos, Dimitris J.; Johansson, Olle; Carlo, George L.

2013-01-01

286

The IMPEx data model - a common metadata standard for the analysis of simulated and observational space plasma physics data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The FP7-SPACE project IMPEx (http://impex-fp7.oeaw.ac.at/) was established to provide a web-based infrastructure to facilitate the inter-comparison and joint use of spacecraft in-situ measurements and computational models in the fields of planetary plasma science. Within this project several observational (CDAWeb, AMDA, CLWeb), as well as numerical simulation (FMI, LATMOS, SINP) databases provide datasets, which can be combined for further analysis and scientific investigation. The major goal of this project consists in providing an environment for the connection and joint operation of the different types of numerical and observational data sources in order to validate numerical simulations with spacecraft observations and vice versa. As an important milestone of IMPEx, a common metadata standard was developed for the description of the currently integrated simulation models and the archived datasets. This standard is called IMPEx Data Model (DM). It is based on the SPASE DM, which originates from the Heliospheric physics community, and which was developed for the description of observational data. A considerable part of the project effort is dedicated to the development of standardized (web service-) interfaces and protocols using the IMPEx DM as an extension of the standard SPASE DM for the communication between the different tools and databases of the IMPEx research infrastructure. For the visualization and analysis of the archived datasets available within IMPEx and beyond, several tools (AMDA, 3DView, ClWeb) were upgraded to be able to work with the newly developed metadata standards and protocols. To meet the requirement of extendibility, the IMPEx DM as well as the established communication protocols have been designed to be as compact as possible and yet general and powerful enough to integrate a wide range of data sets and to allow for simple procedures when attaching new components to the system. Furthermore the IMPEx DM has by now also been successfully applied outside the project’s core infrastructure: A prototype for UCLA MHD model description can be seen at LatHyS (LATMOS Hybrid Simulation Database). The so-called ‘IMPEx portal’, a dedicated entry point for all integrated services and tools, is currently being built up to leverage the advantages of the applied IMPEx standards and to provide efficient access to IMPEx services for the broad scientific community and general public. This presentation will give an insight on the technological challenges of distributed data infrastructures, the evident need of a common DM for interoperability between different data sources and their future in cloud-based environments.

Al-Ubaidi, Tarek

287

European Marine Observation and DataNetwork (EMODNET)- physical parameters: A support to marine science and operational oceanography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The overall objectives of EMODNET - physical parameters is to provide access to archived and real-time data on physical conditions in Europe's seas and oceans and to determine how well the data meet the needs of users. In particular it will contribute towards the definition of an operational European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet) and contribute to developing the definition of the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) marine core service. Access to data and metadata will consider measurements from fixed stations that will cover at least: 1. wave height and period; 2. temperature of the water column; 3. wind speed and direction; 4. salinity of the water column; 5. horizontal velocity of the water column ; 6. light attenuation; 7. sea level. A first running prototype of the portal active from the end of 2011, the final release of the EMODnet PP is due by half June 2012. Then there are 6 months for testing and users' feedback acquisition and management. The project finishes 16th December 2013 after one year of maintenance. Compliance with INSPIRE framework and temporal and geographical data coverage are ensured under the requirements contained in the several Commission Regulations issued from 2008 until 2010. The metadata are based upon the ISO 19115 standard and are compliant with the INSPIRE directive and regulations. This assures also a minimum metadata content in both systems that will facilitate the setting up of a portal that can provide information on data and access to them, depending on the internal data policy of potential contributors. Data coverage: There are three pillars sustaining EMODnet PP: EuroGOOS ROOSs (the EuroGOOS regional Operational Systems), MyOcean and SeaDataNet. MyOcean and EuroGOOS have agreed in EuroGOOS general assemblies (2008-2009-2010) to share their efforts to set up a common infrastructure for real-time data integration for operational oceanography needs extending the global and regional portals set up by MyOcean to handle additional variables and observation providers. SeaDataNet is a Pan-European infrastructure for oceans and marine data management, that provides access to archived data residing in distributed information systems. EMODNet Physics held three workshops with institutions working in operational data collection in the Baltin, North Sea, East Atlantic, Mediterranean and Black Sea. They allowed to list most of the existing fixed stations in the seas of European interest. The workshops and the follow up are constructing a common collaborative framework within EuroGOOS ROOSs. Behind the ROOSs there is a wide number of institutions, scientists and technicians, whose participation to EMODnet PP will be acknowledged and made visible through the web pages, newsletters, and EuroGOOS publications. This common collaborative framework is producing an important network of data centres that can support GMES for the years to come.

Dahlin, Hans; Gies, Tobias; Giordano, Marco; Gorringe, Patrick; Manzella, Giuseppe; Maudire, Gilbert; Novellino, Antonio; Pagnani, Maureen; Petersson, Sian; Pouliquen, Sylvie; Rickards, Lesley; Schaap, Dick; Tijsse, Peter; van der Horste, Serge

2013-04-01

288

OSO 8 X-ray spectra of clusters of galaxies. I - Observations of twenty clusters: Physical correlations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

OSO 8 X-ray spectra from 2 to 20 keV have been analyzed for 26 clusters of galaxies. For 20 clusters temperatures, emission integrals, iron abundances, and low-energy absorption measurements are presented. The data give, in general, better fits to thermal bremsstrahlung than to power-law models. Eight clusters have positive iron emission-line detections at the 90% confidence level, and all 20 cluster spectra are consistent with Fe/H = 0.000014 by number with the possible exception of Virgo. Thus it is confirmed that X-ray emission in this energy band is predominantly thermal radiation from hot intracluster gas rather than inverse Compton radiation. Physical correlations between X-ray spectral parameters and other cluster properties are examined. It is found that (1) the X-ray temperature is approximately proportional to the square of the velocity dispersion of the galaxies; (2) the emission integral is a strong function of the X-ray temperature; (3) the X-ray temperature and emission integral are better correlated with cluster central-galaxy density than with richness; and (4) the fraction of galaxies which are spirals is correlated with the observed ram pressure in the cluster core.

Mushotzky, R. F.; Serlemitsos, P. J.; Boldt, E. A.; Holt, S. S.; Smith, B. W.

1978-01-01

289

Change in levels of physical activity after diagnosis of type 2 diabetes: an observational analysis from the NAVIGATOR study.  

PubMed

Increased physical activity is known to be beneficial in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), but it is not known whether individuals change their activity levels after T2DM diagnosis. The present Nateglinide and Valsartan in Impaired Glucose Tolerance Outcomes Research (NAVIGATOR) trial, conducted in participants with impaired glucose tolerance at high cardiovascular risk, assessed ambulatory activity annually using research-grade pedometers. Oral glucose tolerance tests were performed annually and repeated to confirm T2DM diagnosis. This observational analysis used general linear models to compare step counts before and after T2DM diagnosis in the 2816 participants with the requisite data. Participants were relatively inactive at baseline, taking a median (interquartile range) of 5488 (3258-8361) steps/day, which decreased after T2DM diagnosis by a mean (s.e.) of 258 (64) steps/day (p < 0.0001); however, after adjusting for background trend for activity, step count after T2DM diagnosis was unchanged [mean (s.e.) of 103 (87) fewer steps/day; p = 0.23]. Awareness of T2DM diagnosis had no impact on the trajectory of activity established before the diagnosis. PMID:24861892

Preiss, D; Haffner, S M; Thomas, L E; Sun, J-L; Sattar, N; Yates, T; J Davies, M; McMurray, J J; Holman, R R; Califf, R M; Kraus, W E

2014-12-01

290

OSO-8 X-ray spectra of clusters of galaxies. 1. Observations of twenty clusters: Physical correlations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

OSO-8 X-ray spectra from 2 to 20 keV were analyzed for 26 clusters of galaxies. Temperature, emission integrals, iron abundances, and low energy absorption measurements are given. Eight clusters have positive iron emission line detections at the 90% confidence level, and all twenty cluster spectra are consistent with Fe/H=0.000014 by number with the possible exception of Virgo. Physical correlations between X-ray spectral parameters and other cluster properties are examined. It is found that: (1) the X-ray temperature is approximately proportional to the square of the velocity dispersion of the galaxies; (2) the emission integral and therefore the bolometric X-ray luminosity is a strong function of the X-ray temperature; (3) the X-ray temperature and emission integral are better correlated with cluster central galaxy density than with richness; (4) temperature and emission integral are separately correlated with Rood-Sastry type; and (5) the fraction of galaxies which are spirals is correlated with the observed ram pressure in the cluster core.

Mushotzky, R. F.; Serlemitsos, P. J.; Smith, B. W.; Boldt, E. A.; Holt, S. S.

1978-01-01

291

Observations and Modeling of Long Negative Laboratory Discharges: Identifying the Physics Important to an Electrical Spark in Air  

SciTech Connect

There are relatively few reports in the literature focusing on negative laboratory leaders. Most of the reports focus exclusively on the simpler positive laboratory leader that is more commonly encountered in high voltage engineering [Gorin et al., 1976; Les Renardieres Group, 1977; Gallimberti, 1979; Domens et al., 1994; Bazelyan and Raizer 1998]. The physics of the long, negative leader and its positive counterpart are similar; the two differ primarily in their extension mechanisms [Bazelyan and Raizer, 1998]. Long negative sparks extend primarily by an intermittent process termed a 'step' that requires the development of secondary leader channels separated in space from the primary leader channel. Long positive sparks typically extend continuously, although, under proper conditions, their extension can be temporarily halted and begun again, and this is sometimes viewed as a stepping process. However, it is emphasized that the nature of positive leader stepping is not like that of negative leader stepping. There are several key observational studies of the propagation of long, negative-polarity laboratory sparks in air that have aided in the understanding of the stepping mechanisms exhibited by such sparks [e.g., Gorin et al., 1976; Les Renardieres Group, 1981; Ortega et al., 1994; Reess et al., 1995; Bazelyan and Raizer, 1998; Gallimberti et al., 2002]. These reports are reviewed below in Section 2, with emphasis placed on the stepping mechanism (the space stem, pilot, and space leader). Then, in Section 3, reports pertaining to modeling of long negative leaders are summarized.

Biagi, C J; Uman, M A

2011-12-13

292

Quantity without numbers and numbers without quantity in the parietal cortex.  

PubMed

A dominant view in numerical cognition is that processing the quantity indicated by numbers (e.g. deciding the larger between two numbers such as '12.07' or '15.02') relies on the intraparietal regions (IPS) of the cerebral cortex. However, it remains unclear whether the IPS could play a more general role in numerical cognition, for example in (1) quantity processing even with non-numerical stimuli (e.g. choosing the larger of 'bikini' and 'coat'); and/or (2) conceptual tasks involving numbers beyond those requiring quantity processing (e.g. attributing a summer date to either '12.07' or '15.02'). In this study we applied fMRI-guided TMS to the left and right IPS, while independently manipulating stimulus and task. Our results showed that IPS involvement in numerical cognition is neither stimulus-specific nor specific for conceptual tasks. Thus, quantity judgments with numerical and non-numerical stimuli were equally affected by IPS-TMS, as well as a number conceptual task not requiring quantity comparisons. However, IPS-TMS showed no impairment for perceptual decisions on numbers without any conceptual processing (i.e. colour judgment), nor for conceptual decisions that did not involve quantity or number stimuli (e.g. summer object: 'bikini' or 'coat'?). These results are consistent with proposals that the parietal areas are engaged in the conceptual representation of numbers but they challenge the most common view that number processing is so automatic that the simple presentation of numbers activates the IPS and a sense of magnitude. Rather, our results show that the IPS is only necessary when conceptual operations need to be explicitly oriented to numerical concepts. PMID:19236924

Cappelletti, Marinella; Muggleton, Neil; Walsh, Vincent

2009-06-01

293

Present status of JADE's gammagamma-physics analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present status of the -physics analysis performed by the JADE-Collaboration is reported. The reaction ee ee is observed at beam-energies of 6 GeV and 15 GeV, and it is compared with predictions from QED. The reaction ee ee + hadrons is observed at 15 GeV beam-energy. Several distributions of physical quantities are shown.

W. Bartel; D. Cord; P. Dittmann; R. Eichler; R. Felst; D. Haidt; S. Kawabata; H. Krehbiel; B. Naroska; L. H. O'Neill; J. Olsson; P. Steffen; W. L. Yen; E. Elsen; M. Helm; K. Meier; A. Peterson; G. Weber; H. Drum; J. Heintze; G. Heinzelmann; R. D.. Heuer; J. von Krogh; P. Lennert; H. Matsumura; T. Nozaki; H. Rieseberg; A. Wagner; D. C. Darvill; F. Foster; G. Hughes; H. Wriedt; J. Allison; J. Armitage; A. Ball; I. Duerdoth; J. Hassard; F. Loebinger; H. McCann; B. King; A. MacBeth; H. Mills; P. G. Murphy; H. Prosper; K. Stephens; C. Clark; M. C. Goddard; R. Marshall; G. F. Pearce; M. Imori; T. Kobayashi; S. Komamiya; M. Koshiba; M. Minowa; S. Orito; A. Sato; T. Suda; H. Takeda; Y. Totsuka; Y. Watanabe; S. Yamada; C. Yanagisawa

1980-01-01

294

Assessing Characteristics of Drought and Its physical mechanism over Ethiopia using Observational and RegCM4 Driven Indices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study focuses on the analysis of dryness/wetness over Ethiopia from 1982 to 2009 using Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI), which are derived from observational and RegCM4 dataset over Ethiopia. Trend empirical orthogonal function (TEOF), regression and wavelet analysis are used to investigate the long term change, frequency and intra-annual variability of drought over Ethiopia. All method analysis of PDSI and SPI are consistent and showed, the southern regions to be more drought-prone than other regions of Ethiopia and statistically significant dry trend are dominated in particular during the recent decade. By contrast, the likelihood of drought occurrence of northern regions is considerably less and dominated by low frequency signals. Both indices indicated that the North and Northwest regions experienced frequent and worst drought conditions centered at the year 1983/1984 and similar conditions centered at the year 2007-2009 over the southern and southwestern regions have been identified. The first two most dominant trend principal components (TPCs) of observational driven PDSI and SPI-12 with corresponding RegCM4 driven TPCs of PDSI and SPI-12 indicates significant correlations (correlation exceeding ~0.8). In addition, the corresponding patterns (TEOFs) of RegCM4 and observational driven drought indices are so similar. Generally, the RegCM4 shows a good performance in simulating the multi-scale spatial and temporal variability of drought occurrence over Ethiopia. The correlation pattern of trend principal components (TPCs) of PDSI and SPI-12 with raw sea surface temperature (SST) indicates that the possible association of the observed variability of drought. The equatorial pacific, the northern and equatorial Atlantic are correlated significantly with first dominant TPC of drought indices, whereas ENSO, Indian and Atlantic Ocean significantly correlated with the second dominant TPC of drought indices. In addition we observe the association between ocean basin and drought indices is highly seasonal dependant with the strongest association in the spring. The physical mechanisms responsible for such linkage in the atmosphere are examined using both ERA-Interim (ERIM) and RegCM4 dataset. Moreover, it was found that droughts occurred in events of strong El Niño years mainly severe and wider areal coverage. During events of negative values of Indian Ocean dipole (-IOD) the southern and west border regions of the country hit by severe drought. The northern and some part of Ethiopia during events of negative anomaly SST of North Atlantic suffered at a significant level by drought conditions. Overall, the common power variance, phase, frequency and confidence of the time-lagged relationships between oceanic basin TPC and drought indices TPCs indicate that oceanic parameters can be used as indicators of drought occurrence in Ethiopia.

Zeleke, T. T.; Tsidu, G. M.; Giorgi, F.; Diro, G. T.

2012-12-01

295

LTU Physlet: Vector Quantities in Simple Kinematics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This applet is an animation of an object moving with a constant acceleration in one dimension. It shows the velocity and acceleration vectors on the animation in real-time, as well as the position, velocity, and acceleration graphs as a function of time. The applet offers four distinct scenarios with different accelerations and initial positions and velocities. Standard controls allow the user to start, pause, step, and reset the animation. This is part of a large collection of Physlet-based (Physics Java Applet) illustrations and tutorials covering introductory physics.

Schneider, Scott

2006-09-02

296

Analysis of observational cases measured by MRR and PARSIVEL disdrometer for understanding the physical characteristics of precipitation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The methods measuring the precipitation drop size distribution(hereafter referred to as DSD) at Cloud Physics Observation System (CPOS) in Daegwallyeong are to use PARSIVEL (PARticle SIze and VELocity) disdrometer (hereafter referred to as PARSIVEL) and Micro Rain Radar (hereafter referred to as MRR). First of all, PARSIVEL and MRR give good correlation coefficients between their rain rates and those of rain gage: R2= 0.93 and 0.91, respectively. For the DSD, the rain rates are classified in 3 categories (Category 1: rr (Rain Rate) ? 0.5 mm h-1, Category 2: 0.5 mm h-1< rr <4.0 mm h-1, Category 3: rr ? 4 mm h-1). The shapes of PARSIVEL and MRR DSD are relatively most similar in category 2. In addition, we retrieve the vertical rain rate and liquid water content from MRR under melting layer, calculated by Cha et al’s method, in Daegwallyeong (37°41' N,128°45' E, 843 m ASL, mountain area) and Haenam (34°33' N,126°34' E, 4.6 m ASL, coast area). The vertical variations of rain rate and liquid water content in Daegwallyeong are smaller than those in Haenam. We think that this different vertical rain rate characteristic for both sites is due to the vertical different cloud type (convective and stratiform cloud seem dominant at Haenam and Daegwallyeong, respectively). This suggests that the statistical precipitation DSD model for the application of weather radar and numerical simulation of precipitation processes be considered differently for the region, which will be performed in near future.

Cha, J.; Chang, K.; Jeoung, J.; Bae, J.; Choi, Y.; Kim, Y.; Hydrometeo. Resource Res. Team

2010-12-01

297

(Super)^n-Energy for arbitrary fields and its interchange: Conserved quantities  

E-print Network

Inspired by classical work of Bel and Robinson, a natural purely algebraic construction of super-energy tensors for arbitrary fields is presented, having good mathematical and physical properties. Remarkably, there appear quantities with mathematical characteristics of energy densities satisfying the dominant property, which provides super-energy estimates useful for global results and helpful in other matters. For physical fields, higher order (super)^n-energy tensors involving the field and its derivatives arise. In Special Relativity, they provide infinitely many conserved quantities. The interchange of super-energy between different fields is shown. The discontinuity propagation law in Einstein-Maxwell fields is related to super-energy tensors, providing quantities conserved along null hypersurfaces. Finally, conserved super-energy currents are found for any minimally coupled scalar field whenever there is a Killing vector.

J. M. M. Senovilla

1999-05-17

298

41 CFR 101-27.102 - Economic order quantity principle.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 27-INVENTORY MANAGEMENT 27.1-Stock...Economic order quantity principle. The economic order quantity (EOQ) principle is a means for achieving...economical inventory management. Application of the EOQ principle reduces total...

2010-07-01

299

7 CFR 760.1307 - Dairy operation payment quantity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Dairy operation payment quantity. 760.1307...PROGRAMS INDEMNITY PAYMENT PROGRAMS Dairy Economic Loss Assistance Payment Program § 760.1307 Dairy operation payment quantity....

2013-01-01

300

7 CFR 1430.207 - Dairy operation payment quantity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dairy operation payment quantity. 1430.207...LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS DAIRY PRODUCTS Milk Income Loss Contract Program § 1430.207 Dairy operation payment quantity....

2010-01-01

301

7 CFR 760.1307 - Dairy operation payment quantity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Dairy operation payment quantity. 760.1307...PROGRAMS INDEMNITY PAYMENT PROGRAMS Dairy Economic Loss Assistance Payment Program § 760.1307 Dairy operation payment quantity....

2011-01-01

302

7 CFR 1430.207 - Dairy operation payment quantity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Dairy operation payment quantity. 1430.207...LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS DAIRY PRODUCTS Milk Income Loss Contract Program § 1430.207 Dairy operation payment quantity....

2013-01-01

303

7 CFR 760.1307 - Dairy operation payment quantity.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Dairy operation payment quantity. 760.1307...PROGRAMS INDEMNITY PAYMENT PROGRAMS Dairy Economic Loss Assistance Payment Program § 760.1307 Dairy operation payment quantity....

2014-01-01

304

7 CFR 760.1307 - Dairy operation payment quantity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Dairy operation payment quantity. 760.1307...PROGRAMS INDEMNITY PAYMENT PROGRAMS Dairy Economic Loss Assistance Payment Program § 760.1307 Dairy operation payment quantity....

2012-01-01

305

7 CFR 1430.207 - Dairy operation payment quantity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Dairy operation payment quantity. 1430.207...LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS DAIRY PRODUCTS Milk Income Loss Contract Program § 1430.207 Dairy operation payment quantity....

2012-01-01

306

7 CFR 760.1307 - Dairy operation payment quantity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dairy operation payment quantity. 760.1307...PROGRAMS INDEMNITY PAYMENT PROGRAMS Dairy Economic Loss Assistance Payment Program § 760.1307 Dairy operation payment quantity....

2010-01-01

307

7 CFR 1430.207 - Dairy operation payment quantity.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Dairy operation payment quantity. 1430.207...LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS DAIRY PRODUCTS Milk Income Loss Contract Program § 1430.207 Dairy operation payment quantity....

2014-01-01

308

7 CFR 1430.207 - Dairy operation payment quantity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Dairy operation payment quantity. 1430.207...LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS DAIRY PRODUCTS Milk Income Loss Contract Program § 1430.207 Dairy operation payment quantity....

2011-01-01

309

REGULAR ARTICLE The effects of substrate composition, quantity, and diversity  

E-print Network

that while composition, quantity, and diversity of inputs to microbial communities all affect microbial. Keywords Carbon . Extracellular enzyme activity. Microbial respiration . Nitrogen . Soil microorganismsREGULAR ARTICLE The effects of substrate composition, quantity, and diversity on microbial activity

Minnesota, University of

310

48 CFR 16.504 - Indefinite-quantity contracts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...within stated limits, of supplies or services during...stated minimum quantity of supplies or services. In addition...maximum quantity based on market research, trends on recent contracts for similar supplies or services, survey...

2010-10-01

311

49 CFR 224.105 - Sheeting dimensions and quantity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sheeting dimensions and quantity. 224.105 Section 224.105 Transportation...Maintenance of Retroreflective Material § 224.105 Sheeting dimensions and quantity. Retroreflective sheeting shall be...

2011-10-01

312

49 CFR 224.105 - Sheeting dimensions and quantity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sheeting dimensions and quantity. 224.105 Section 224.105 Transportation...Maintenance of Retroreflective Material § 224.105 Sheeting dimensions and quantity. Retroreflective sheeting shall be...

2010-10-01

313

27 CFR 555.213 - Quantity and storage restrictions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Quantity and storage restrictions. 555.213 Section 555.213...JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Storage § 555.213 Quantity and storage restrictions. (a) Explosive...

2010-04-01

314

Plant size and reproductive state affect the quantity and quality of rewards to animal mutualists  

E-print Network

to changes in ant occupancy and identity across plant sizes and reproductive states. 5. Synthesis. This study has focused on physical or chemical defences (e.g. Ohnmeiss & Baldwin 2000). In addition, ontoPlant size and reproductive state affect the quantity and quality of rewards to animal mutualists

Miller, Tom

315

Linkages between forest soils and water quality and quantity Daniel G. Neary a,  

E-print Network

the stability of soil aggregates. Stable aggregates prevent soil crusting by reducing detachment of small soil ecosystems. The biological, chemical, and physical characteristics of forest soils are particularly wellLinkages between forest soils and water quality and quantity Daniel G. Neary a, *, George G. Ice b

316

A horizontal mobile measuring system for atmospheric quantities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fully automatic Horizontal Mobile Measuring System (HMMS) for atmospheric quantities has been developed. The HMMS is based on the drive mechanism of a garden railway system and can be installed at any location and with any measuring track. In addition to meteorological quantities (temperature, humidity and short/long-wave down/upwelling radiation), HMMS also measures trace gas concentrations (carbon dioxide and ozone). While sufficient spatial resolution is a problem even for measurements on distributed towers, this could be easily achieved with the HMMS, which has been specifically developed to obtain higher information density about horizontal gradients in a heterogeneous forest ecosystem. There, horizontal gradients of meteorological quantities and trace gases could be immense, particularly at the transition from a dense forest to an open clearing, with large impact on meteorological parameters and exchange processes. Consequently, HMMS was firstly applied during EGER IOP3 project (ExchanGE processes in mountainous Regions - Intense Observation Period 3) in the Fichtelgebirge Mountains (SE Germany) during summer 2011. At a constant 1 m above ground, the measuring track of the HMMS consisted of a straight line perpendicular to the forest edge, starting in the dense spruce forest and leading 75 m into an open clearing. Tags with bar codes, mounted every meter on the wooden substructure, allowed (a) keeping the speed of the HMMS constant (approx. 0.5 m s-1) and (b) operation of the HMMS in a continuous back and forth running mode. During EGER IOP3, HMMS was operational for almost 250 h. Results show that - due to considerably long response times (between 4 s and 20 s) of commercial temperature, humidity and the radiation sensors - true spatial variations of the meteorological quantities could not be adequately captured (mainly at the forest edge). Corresponding dynamical (spatial) errors of the measurement values were corrected on the basis of well defined individual response times of the sensors and application of a linear correction algorithm. Due to the very short response times (? 1 s) of the applied commercial CO2 and O3 analysers, dynamical errors for the trace gas data were negligible and no corrections were done.

Hübner, J.; Olesch, J.; Falke, H.; Meixner, F. X.; Foken, T.

2014-05-01

317

A horizontal mobile measuring system for atmospheric quantities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fully automatic horizontal mobile measuring system (HMMS) for atmospheric quantities has been developed. The HMMS is based on the drive mechanism of a garden railway system and can be installed at any location and along any measuring track. In addition to meteorological quantities (temperature, humidity and short-/long-wave down/upwelling radiation), HMMS also measures trace gas concentrations (carbon dioxide and ozone). While sufficient spatial resolution is a problem even for measurements on distributed towers, this could be easily achieved with the HMMS, which has been specifically developed to obtain higher information density about horizontal gradients in a heterogeneous forest ecosystem. There, horizontal gradients of meteorological quantities and trace gases could be immense, particularly at the transition from a dense forest to an open clearing, with large impact on meteorological parameters and exchange processes. Consequently, HMMS was firstly applied during the EGER IOP3 project (ExchanGE processes in mountainous Regions - Intense Observation Period 3) in the Fichtelgebirge Mountains (SE Germany) during summer 2011. At a constant 1 m above ground, the measuring track of the HMMS consisted of a straight line perpendicular to the forest edge, starting in the dense spruce forest and leading 75 m into an open clearing. Tags with bar codes, mounted every metre on the wooden substructure, allowed (a) keeping the speed of the HMMS constant (approx. 0.5 m s-1) and (b) operation of the HMMS in a continuous back and forth running mode. During EGER IOP3, HMMS was operational for almost 250 h. Results show that - due to considerably long response times (between 4 and 20 s) of commercial temperature, humidity and the radiation sensors - true spatial variations of the meteorological quantities could not be adequately captured (mainly at the forest edge). Corresponding dynamical (spatial) errors of the measurement values were corrected on the basis of well-defined individual response times of the sensors and application of a linear correction algorithm. Due to the very short response times (? 1 s) of the applied commercial CO2 and O3 analysers, dynamical errors for the trace gas data were negligible and no corrections were done.

Hübner, J.; Olesch, J.; Falke, H.; Meixner, F. X.; Foken, T.

2014-09-01

318

Intensive Quantities: Why They Matter to Developmental Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A distinction can be drawn between extensive and intensive quantities. Extensive quantities (e.g., volume, distance), which have been the focus of developmental research, depend upon additive combination. Intensive quantities (e.g., density, speed), which have been relatively neglected, derive from proportional relations between variables. Thus,…

Howe, Christine; Nunes, Terezinha; Bryant, Peter

2010-01-01

319

29 CFR 780.814 - “Grown in commercial quantities.”  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false âGrown in commercial quantities.â 780.814 Section 780...15) County Where Cotton Is Grown in Commercial Quantities § 780.814 “Grown in commercial quantities.” Cotton must be...

2012-07-01

320

29 CFR 780.814 - “Grown in commercial quantities.”  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false âGrown in commercial quantities.â 780.814 Section 780...15) County Where Cotton Is Grown in Commercial Quantities § 780.814 “Grown in commercial quantities.” Cotton must be...

2011-07-01

321

29 CFR 780.814 - “Grown in commercial quantities.”  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false âGrown in commercial quantities.â 780.814 Section 780...15) County Where Cotton Is Grown in Commercial Quantities § 780.814 “Grown in commercial quantities.” Cotton must be...

2013-07-01

322

29 CFR 780.814 - “Grown in commercial quantities.”  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false âGrown in commercial quantities.â 780.814 Section 780...15) County Where Cotton Is Grown in Commercial Quantities § 780.814 “Grown in commercial quantities.” Cotton must be...

2010-07-01

323

Las Leyes de Indias : observations of its influence on the physical space in the Latin American colonial cities  

E-print Network

This Thesis involves an analysis and a description of the structure of physical space of the Latin America Colonial Cities. The section of the document known as Leyes de Indias which deals with the urbanistic norms and the ...

Frontado Saavedra, Jose Guillermo

1980-01-01

324

APPENDIX B FEDERAL TRAFFICKING PENALTIES DRUG/SCHEDULE QUANTITY PENALTIES QUANTITY PENALTIES  

E-print Network

Tracking Penalties - Marijuana DRUG QUANTITY 1st OFFENSE 2nd OFFENSE Marijuana 1,000 kg or more mixture Marijuana 100 kg to 999 kg mixture; or 100 to 999 plants · Not less than 5 years, not more than 40 years an individual Marijuana more than 10 kgs hashish; 50 to 99 kg mixture more than 1 kg of hashish oil; 50 to 99

Subramanian, Venkat

325

Biologically Weighted Quantities in Radiotherapy: an EMRP Joint Research Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Funded within the European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP) [1], the joint research project "Biologically weighted quantities in radiotherapy" (BioQuaRT) [2] aims to develop measurement and simulation techniques for determining the physical properties of ionising particle tracks on different length scales (about 2 nm to 10 ?m), and to investigate the correlation of these track structure characteristics with the biological effects of radiation at the cellular level. Work package 1 develops micro-calorimeter prototypes for the direct measurement of lineal energy and will characterise their response for different ion beams by experiment and modelling. Work package 2 develops techniques to measure particle track structure on different length scales in the nanometre range as well as a measurement device integrating a silicon microdosimeter and a nanodosimeter. Work package 3 investigates the indirect effects of radiation based on probes for quantifying particular radical and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Work package 4 focuses on the biological aspects of radiation damage and will produce data on initial DNA damage and late effects for radiotherapy beams of different qualities. Work package 5 provides evaluated data sets of DNA cross-sections and develops a multi-scale model to address microscopic and nanometric track structure properties. The project consortium includes three linked researchers holding so-called Researcher Excellence Grants, who carry out ancillary investigations such as developing and benchmarking a new biophysical model for induction of early radiation damage and developing methods for the translation of quantities derived from particle track structure to clinical applications in ion beam therapy.

Rabus, Hans; Palmans, Hugo; Hilgers, Gerhard; Sharpe, Peter; Pinto, Massimo; Villagrasa, Carmen; Nettelbeck, Heidi; Moro, Davide; Pola, Andrea; Pszona, Stanislaw; Teles, Pedro

2014-08-01

326

Gauge invariant computable quantities in timelike Liouville theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Timelike Liouville theory admits the sphere {{mathbb{S}}^2} as a real saddle point, about which quantum fluctuations can occur. An issue occurs when computing the expectation values of specific types of quantities, like the distance between points. The problem being that the gauge redundancy of the path integral over metrics is not completely fixed even after fixing to conformal gauge by imposing {g_{{? ? }}}={e^{{2widehat{b}? }}}{{widetilde{g}}_{{? ? }}}, where ? is the Liouville field and {{widetilde{g}}_{{? ? }}} is a reference metric. The physical metric {g_{{? ? }}}, and therefore the path integral over metrics still possesses a gauge redundancy due to invariance under SL 2(mathbb{C}) coordinate transformations of the reference coordinates. This zero mode of the action must be dealt with before a perturbative analysis can be made. This paper shows that after fixing to conformal gauge, the remaining zero mode of the linearized Liouville action due to SL 2(mathbb{C}) coordinate transformations can be dealt with by using standard Fadeev-Popov methods. Employing the gauge condition that the "dipole" of the reference coordinate system is a fixed vector, and then integrating over all values of this dipole vector. The "dipole" vector referring to how coordinate area is concentrated about the sphere; assuming the sphere is embedded in {{mathbb{R}}^3} and centered at the origin, and the coordinate area is thought of as a charge density on the sphere. The vector points along the ray from the origin of {{mathbb{R}}^3} to the direction of greatest coordinate area. A Green's function is obtained and used to compute the expectation value of the geodesic length between two points on the {{mathbb{S}}^2} to second order in the Timelike Liouville coupling widehat{b}. This quantity doesn't suffer from any power law or logarithmic divergences as a na¨?ve power counting argument might suggest.

Maltz, Jonathan

2013-01-01

327

Build Intelligence from the Physical World Microsoft Research Asia  

E-print Network

systems #12;ContextandSensors Sensor: a device that measures a physical quantity and converts it into a signal which can be read by an observer or by an instrument (from Wiki) Device time Device location GPS, Wi-Fi, cell-tower, Bluetooth Device movement Accelerometer, gyroscope Digital compass Environment

Narasayya, Vivek

328

People's Physics book Ch 26-1 The Big Idea  

E-print Network

People's Physics book Ch 26-1 The Big Idea: The observed global warming on Earth is a manifestation radiation and the exhaust heat (terrestrial radiation) largely determine the operating temperature (global and oscillations in characteristics of the Earth's orbit The quantity of exhaust heat, terrestrial radiation

California at Santa Cruz, University of

329

Comparing Physically Abusive, Neglectful, and Non-Maltreating Parents during Interactions with Their Children: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To clarify the nature and extent of differences in the ways that physically abusive, neglectful, and non-maltreating parents communicate during interactions with their children. Method: A meta-analysis was conducted of 33 observational studies comparing parent-child interactions in families where parents have a documented history of…

Wilson, Steven R.; Rack, Jessica J.; Shi, Xiaowei; Norris, Alda M.

2008-01-01

330

PHYSICAL REVIEW B 89, 024102 (2014) Ultrafast surface strain dynamics in MnAs thin films observed with second harmonic generation  

E-print Network

PHYSICAL REVIEW B 89, 024102 (2014) Ultrafast surface strain dynamics in MnAs thin films observed strain in 150 and 190-nm thin films of MnAs grown epitaxially on GaAs(001). The p-polarized SHG signal the surface temperature by tens of degrees. For a film at -20 C the strain reaches a minimum value in 10 ps

Van Driel, Henry M.

331

Estimating historical landfill quantities to predict methane emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are no observations for methane emissions from landfill waste in Ireland. Methane emissions are imputed from waste data. There are intermittent data on waste sent to landfill. We compare two alternative ways to impute the missing waste "data" and evaluate the impact on methane emissions. We estimate Irish historical landfill quantities from 1960-2008 and Irish methane emissions from 1968-2006. A model is constructed in which waste generation is a function of income, price of waste disposal and, household economies of scale. A transformation ratio of waste to methane is also included in the methane emissions model. Our results contrast significantly with the Irish Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) figures due to the differences in the underlying assumptions. The EPA's waste generation and methane emission figures are larger than our estimates from the early 1990s onwards. Projections of the distance to target show that the EPA overestimates the required policy effort.

Lyons, Seán; Murphy, Liam; Tol, Richard S. J.

2010-10-01

332

Verbal and physical violence towards hospital- and community-based physicians in the Negev: an observational study  

PubMed Central

Background Over recent years there has been an increasing prevalence of verbal and physical violence in Israel, including in the work place. Physicians are exposed to violence in hospitals and in the community. The objective was to characterize acts of verbal and physical violence towards hospital- and community-based physicians. Methods A convenience sample of physicians working in the hospital and community completed an anonymous questionnaire about their experience with violence. Data collection took place between November 2001 and July 2002. One hundred seventy seven physicians participated in the study, 95 from the hospital and 82 from community clinics. The community sample included general physicians, pediatricians, specialists and residents. Results Ninety-nine physicians (56%) reported at least one act of verbal violence and 16 physicians (9%) reported exposure to at least one act of physical violence during the previous year. Fifty-one hospital physicians (53.7%) were exposed to verbal violence and 9 (9.5%) to physical violence. Forty-eight community physicians (58.5%) were exposed to verbal violence and 7 (8.5%) to physical violence. Seventeen community physicians (36.2%) compared to eleven hospital physicians (17.2%) said that the violence had a negative impact on their family and on their quality of life (p < 0.05). The most common causes of violence were long waiting time (46.2%), dissatisfaction with treatment (15.4%), and disagreement with the physician (10.3%). Conclusion Verbal and/or physical violence against physicians is common in both the hospital and in community clinics. The impatience that accompanies waiting times may have a cultural element. Shortening waiting times and providing more information to patients and families could reduce the rate of violence, but a cultural change may also be required. PMID:16102174

Carmi-Iluz, Tal; Peleg, Roni; Freud, Tami; Shvartzman, Pesach

2005-01-01

333

Preliminary observations on the effects of milk fortification and heating on microstructure and physical properties of stirred yogurt  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work was to study how milk fortification and heating affect yogurt microstructure (micellar characteristics, protein network) and physical properties (viscosity, water-holding capacity (WHC), and graininess). Milk was fortified with skim milk powder (control), whey protein concentrate (WPC), caseinate, or a mixture of caseinate and whey protein. Two heat treatments were applied, giving average whey protein denaturation

F Remeuf; S Mohammed; I Sodini; J. P Tissier

2003-01-01

334

Physical Properties of the Deep Impact Target Comet 9P\\/Tempel 1 from Spitzer and Hubble Space Telescope Observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comet 9P\\/Tempel 1 is the target of the Deep Impact mission to be launched at the end of this year. Accurate knowledge of the physical properties of the comet's nucleus is important for mission success. Current published size estimates for the nucleus are uncertain by 50% [Fernandez et al. 2003] and the current best rotational solutions have periods of 22

C. M. Lisse; M. F. A'Hearn; M. J. S. Belton; Y. R. Fernandez; O. Groussin; P. Lamy; K. J. Meech; I. Toth; H. A. Weaver

2004-01-01

335

Is physical practice necessary for parallel development of implicit and explicit sequence knowledge? Evidence from observational learning  

E-print Network

addresses some of the predictions made by WillinghamÂ?s COBALT (1998). Furthermore, a subset of observers revealed no explicit knowledge of the 12-element sequence but performed well on the indirect test. Learning via the implicit system during observation...

Zihlman, Kirk A.

2006-08-16

336

Feasibility of a nuclear gauge for fuel quantity measurement aboard aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Capacitance fuel gauges have served as the basis for fuel quantity indicating systems in aircraft for several decades. However, there have been persistent reports by the airlines that these gauges often give faulty indications due to microbial growth and other contaminants in the fuel tanks. This report describes the results of a feasibility study of using gamma ray attenuation as the basis for measuring fuel quantity in the tanks. Studies with a weak Am-241 59.5-keV radiation source indicate that it is possible to continuously monitor the fuel quantity in the tanks to an accuracy of better than 1 percent. These measurements also indicate that there are easily measurable differences in the physical properties and resultant attenuation characteristics of JP-4, JP-5, and Jet A fuels. The experimental results, along with a suggested source-detector geometrical configuration are described.

Signh, J. J.; Mall, G. H.; Sprinkle, D. R.; Chegini, H.

1986-01-01

337

HST\\/STIS observations of the RW Aurigae bipolar jet: mapping the physical parameters close to the source  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context: We present the results of new spectral diagnostic investigations applied to high-resolution long-slit spectra obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (HST\\/STIS) of the jet from the T Tauri star RW Aur. Aims: Our primary goal is to determine basic physical parameters (electron density ne and electron temperature Te, hydrogen ionisation fraction xe, total hydrogen density nH, radial

S. Yu Melnikov; Jochen Eislöffel; Francesca Bacciotti; Jens Woitas; T. P. Ray

2009-01-01

338

Evolution of physical observables and entropy in laser process studied on the basis of Kraus-form solution of laser's master equation  

E-print Network

Though laser physics began at 1960s, its entropy evolution has not been touched until very recently the Kraus-form solution of laser's master equation is reported (Ann. Phys. 334 (2013)). We study the new physics based on the discovery in this paper. We analyze time evolution of physical observables and quantum optical properties in the laser process with arbitrary initial states, such as the photon number, the second degree of coherence, etc. The evolution of entropy of these states is also studied. Our results well conform with the known behaviour of laser, which confirms that the master equation describes laser suitably, and the Kraus-form operator solution is correct, elegant and useful.

Jun-Hua Chen; Hong-Yi Fan

2013-11-07

339

Scaling Laws in Particle Physics and Astrophysics  

E-print Network

Disclosure of scaling relationship between observable quantities gives direct information about dynamics of natural phenomenon. This is the main reason why scaling plays a key role in the methodology of natural sciences. In this talk, Part I will consider several diverse scaling laws in particle physics. Part II is dedicated to the to the extension of Chew-Frautschi hadronic spin/mass scaling relation to the realm of astronomical objects.

Rudolf Muradyan

2011-06-07

340

Beginning to edit physics  

SciTech Connect

A physicist-turned-editor shows you the basics required for copyediting physics papers (physical quantities, symbols, units, scientific notation, the structure of mathematical expressions, the nature of graphs), and points the way to learning enough ``editorial physics`` to begin substantive editing.

Murphy, P.W.

1995-02-01

341

Tracking of food quantity by coyotes (Canis latrans).  

PubMed

Previous studies have demonstrated that Weber's Law mediates quantitative discrimination abilities across various species. Here, we tested coyotes' (Canis latrans) ability to discriminate between various quantities of food and investigated whether this ability conforms to predictions of Weber's Law. We demonstrate herein that coyotes are capable of reliably discriminating large versus small quantities of discrete food items. As predicted by Weber's Law, coyotes' quantitative discrimination abilities are mediated by the ratio between the large and small quantities of food and exhibit scalar variability. Furthermore, in this task coyotes were not discriminating large versus small quantities based on olfactory cues alone. PMID:21856389

Baker, Joseph M; Shivik, John; Jordan, Kerry E

2011-10-01

342

Putting the elephant back in the herd: elephant relative quantity judgments match those of other species.  

PubMed

The ability to discriminate between quantities has been observed in many species. Typically, when an animal is given a choice between two sets of food, accurate performance (i.e., choosing the larger amount) decreases as the ratio between two quantities increases. A recent study reported that elephants did not exhibit ratio effects, suggesting that elephants may process quantitative information in a qualitatively different way from all other nonhuman species that have been tested (Irie-Sugimoto et al. in Anim Cogn 12:193-199, 2009). However, the results of this study were confounded by several methodological issues. We tested two African elephants (Loxodonta africana) to more thoroughly investigate relative quantity judgment in this species. In contrast to the previous study, we found evidence of ratio effects for visible and nonvisible sequentially presented sets of food. Thus, elephants appear to represent and compare quantities in much the same way as other species, including humans when they are prevented from counting. Performance supports an accumulator model in which quantities are represented as analog magnitudes. Furthermore, we found no effect of absolute magnitude on performance, providing support against an object-file model explanation of quantity judgment. PMID:22692435

Perdue, Bonnie M; Talbot, Catherine F; Stone, Adam M; Beran, Michael J

2012-09-01

343

Simultaneous Assimilation of Physical and Biological Observations into a 3D Coupled Marine Ecosystem Model Using Joint and Dual Kalman Filtering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two assimilation systems based on a suboptimal extended Kalman filter have been developed to simultaneously assimilate physical and biochemical data into a complex ecosystem model of the Eastern Mediterranean. The three-dimensional ecosystem model is composed of two on-line coupled sub-models: the Princeton Ocean Model (POM) and the European Regional Seas Ecosystem Model (ERSEM). The filter is a variant of the extended Kalman filter which operates with low-rank error covariance matrices to reduce computational burden. Two different approaches have been considered: the "joint approach" and the "dual approach". In the first approach, one filter is used in which the state vector of the filter is composed of all prognostic variables of POM and ERSEM models. Basically, the numerical models are integrated forward in time to produce the (physical and biochemical) forecasts. The observations are then assimilated jointly to correct all forecast variables using the cross-correlations between all physical and biochemical forecast errors, which simultaneously provides the analyses for the physics and for the ecology. The dual approach consists of two filters, operating separately on the physics and on the ecology. We describe the two assimilation systems and discuss results of assimilation experiments.

Hoteit, I.; Korres, G.; Triantafyllou, G.

2007-05-01

344

1991 Urey Prize Lecture: Physical evolution in the solar system - Present observations as a key to the past  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present evaluation of the use of new observational methods for exploring solar system evolutionary processes gives attention to illustrative cases from the constraining of near-earth asteroid sources and the discovery of main-belt asteroid fragments which indicate Vesta to be a source of basaltic achondrite meteorites. The coupling of observational constraints with numerical models clarifies cratering and collisional evolution for both main-belt and Trojan asteroids.

Binzel, Richard P.

1992-01-01

345

Changes in time-segment specific physical activity between ages 10 and 14 years: a longitudinal observational study  

E-print Network

Chasmors Ltd., Leicester, UK) and weight was measure to the nearest 0.1kg using a non-segmental 3 bio-impedance scale (Tanita, type TBF-300A, Tokyo, Japan) with children dressed in light clothing 4 without shoes. Body mass index (BMI) (kg/m2... issues, levels and recent time trends. Br J Sports Med 2011; 45(11):859-5 865. 6 3. Nader, PR, Bradley, RH, Houts, RM, et al., Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity from ages 9 7 to 15 years. JAMA 2008; 300(3):295-305. 8 4. Metcalf, B, Henley, W...

Brooke, Hannah L.; Atkin, Andrew J.; Corder, Kirsten; Ekelund, Ulf; van Sluijs, Esther M. F .

2014-10-16

346

Finite difference approximation of hedging quantities in the Heston model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This note concerns the hedging quantities Delta and Gamma in the Heston model for European-style financial options. A modification of the discretization technique from In 't Hout & Foulon (2010) is proposed, which enables a fast and accurate approximation of these important quantities. Numerical experiments are given that illustrate the performance.

in't Hout, Karel

2012-09-01

347

Optimizing offspring: the quantity–quality tradeoff in agropastoral Kipsigis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tradeoff between offspring quantity and offspring quality is at the heart of most evolutionary approaches to the fertility transition, as it is for demographers oriented towards economic explanations for this transition. To date, however, there have been few empirical tests of the key idea that humans trade offspring quantity for quality, and no strictly comparative work designed to identify

Monique Borgerhoff Mulder

2000-01-01

348

46 CFR 108.433 - Quantity of CO2: General.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Quantity of CO2: General. 108.433 Section 108.433 Shipping...Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.433 Quantity of CO2 : General. Each CO2 system must have enough gas to meet the...

2012-10-01

349

46 CFR 108.433 - Quantity of CO2: General.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Quantity of CO2: General. 108.433 Section 108.433 Shipping...Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.433 Quantity of CO2: General. Each CO2 system must have enough gas to meet the...

2010-10-01

350

46 CFR 108.433 - Quantity of CO2: General.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Quantity of CO2: General. 108.433 Section 108.433 Shipping...Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.433 Quantity of CO2 : General. Each CO2 system must have enough gas to meet the...

2013-10-01

351

46 CFR 108.433 - Quantity of CO2: General.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Quantity of CO2: General. 108.433 Section 108.433 Shipping...Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.433 Quantity of CO2: General. Each CO2 system must have enough gas to meet the...

2011-10-01

352

Effects of Quantity and Quality Instructions on Brainstorming  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the basic presumptions of brainstorming is that a focus on generating a large number of ideas enhances both the number of ideas generated and the number of good ideas (original and useful). Prior research has not clearly demonstrated the utility of such a quantity focus in comparison to a condition in which quantity is not emphasized. There…

Paulus, Paul B.; Kohn, Nicholas W.; Arditti, Lauren E.

2011-01-01

353

Quantity Food Production Instructor: Jim Vernere Teaching Assistant  

E-print Network

to incorporate food/recipe composition, flavor, color, texture, temperature, shape and form. 6. DevelopQuantity Food Production 11:709:344 Instructor: Jim Vernere Teaching Assistant: Department 2:15- 3:35 Davison 122 Course website: sakai.rutgers.edu (Quantity Foods Spring 2014) Textbook: None

Chen, Kuang-Yu

354

48 CFR 14.212 - Economic purchase quantities (supplies).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

Contracting officers shall comply with the economic purchase quantity planning requirements for supplies in subpart 7.2. See 7.203 for instructions regarding use of the provision at 52.207-4, Economic Purchase Quantity—Supplies, and 7.204 for guidance on handling responses to that...

2010-10-01

355

Tracking of food quantity by coyotes ( Canis latrans)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have demonstrated that Weber's Law mediates quantitative discrimination abilities across various species. Here, we tested coyotes’ (Canis latrans) ability to discriminate between various quantities of food and investigated whether this ability conforms to predictions of Weber's Law. We demonstrate herein that coyotes are capable of reliably discriminating large versus small quantities of discrete food items. As predicted by

Joseph M. Baker; John Shivik; Kerry E. Jordan

2011-01-01

356

Numerical Order and Quantity Processing in Number Comparison  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigated processing of numerical order information and its relation to mechanisms of numerical quantity processing. In two experiments, performance on a quantity-comparison task (e.g. 2 5; which is larger?) was compared with performance on a relative-order judgment task (e.g. 2 5; ascending or descending order?). The comparison task…

Turconi, Eva; Campbell, Jamie I. D.; Seron, Xavier

2006-01-01

357

Quantity Concept Development in Individuals with Cerebral Palsy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated order of quantity concept development on a range of quantity conservation tasks. Subjects were 15 adults and children having spastic cerebral palsy from birth and attending the same special school or day unit. Found a sequence of development similar to that in children without the handicap, and scalogram analysis supported similarity…

Lister, Caroline; Juniper, Kirsten

1995-01-01

358

27 CFR 25.183 - Determination of quantity transferred.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Removals Without Payment of Tax Transfer...shipping brewer shall determine the quantity of beer shipped at the time of removal from the...receiving brewer shall determine the quantity of beer received at the time of receipt at...

2013-04-01

359

Judgments of Discrete and Continuous Quantity: An Illusory Stroop Effect  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evidence from human cognitive neuroscience, animal neurophysiology, and behavioral research demonstrates that human adults, infants, and children share a common nonverbal quantity processing system with nonhuman animals. This system appears to represent both discrete and continuous quantity, but the proper characterization of the relationship…

Barth, Hilary C.

2008-01-01

360

FISH &SHELLFISH BUYING GUIDE and QUANTITY RECIPES for  

E-print Network

with School Lunch Division Consumer and Marketing Service ancl Human Nutrition Research Division Agriculture. Introduction to Fish and Shellfish Buying Guide and Quantity Recipes for Type A School Lunches A-I The Type BUYING GUIDE and QUANTITY RECIPES FOR TYPE A SCHOOL LUNCHES General Information A- I This publication

361

Physical structure of the photodissociation regions in NGC 7023. Observations of gas and dust emission with Herschel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. The determination of the physical conditions in molecular clouds is a key step towards our understanding of their formation and evolution of associated star formation. We investigate the density, temperature, and column density of both dust and gas in the photodissociation regions (PDRs) located at the interface between the atomic and cold molecular gas of the NGC 7023 reflection nebula. We study how young stars affect the gas and dust in their environment. Aims: Several Herschel Space Telescope programs provide a wealth of spatial and spectral information of dust and gas in the heart of PDRs. We focus our study on Spectral and Photometric Image Receiver (SPIRE) Fourier-Transform Spectrometer (FTS) fully sampled maps that allow us for the first time to study the bulk of cool/warm dust and warm molecular gas (CO) together. In particular, we investigate if these populations spatially coincide, if and how the medium is structured, and if strong density and temperature gradients occur, within the limits of the spatial resolution obtained with Herschel. Methods: The SPIRE FTS fully sampled maps at different wavelengths are analysed towards the northwest (NW) and the east (E) PDRs in NGC 7023. We study the spatial and spectral energy distribution of a wealth of intermediate rotational 12CO 4 ? Ju ? 13 and 13CO 5 ? Ju ? 10 lines. A radiative transfer code is used to assess the gas kinetic temperature, density, and column density at different positions in the cloud. The dust continuum emission including Spitzer, the Photoconductor Array Camera and Spectrometer (PACS), and SPIRE photometric and the Institute for Radio Astronomy in the Millimeter Range (IRAM) telescope data is also analysed. Using a single modified black body and a radiative transfer model, we derive the dust temperature, density, and column density. Results: The cloud is highly inhomogeneous, containing several irradiated dense structures. Excited 12CO and 13CO lines and warm dust grains localised at the edge of the dense structures reveal high column densities of warm/cool dense matter. Both tracers give a good agreement in the local density, column density, and physical extent, leading to the conclusion that they trace the same regions. The derived density profiles show a steep gradient at the cloud edge reaching a maximum gas density of 105-106 cm-3 in the PDR NGC 7023 NW and 104-105 cm-3 in the PDR NGC 7023 E and a subsequent decrease inside the cloud. Close to the PDR edges, the dust temperature (30 K and 20 K for the NW and E PDRs, respectively) is lower than the gas temperature derived from CO lines (65-130 K and 45-55 K, respectively). Further inside the cloud, the dust and gas temperatures are similar. The derived thermal pressure is about 10 times higher in NGC 7023 NW than in NGC 7023 E. Comparing the physical conditions to the positions of known young stellar object candidates in NGC 7023 NW, we find that protostars seem to be spatially correlated with the dense structures. Conclusions: Our approach combining both dust and gas delivers strong constraints on the physical conditions of the PDRs. We find dense and warm molecular gas of high column density in the PDRs. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

Köhler, M.; Habart, E.; Arab, H.; Bernard-Salas, J.; Ayasso, H.; Abergel, A.; Zavagno, A.; Polehampton, E.; van der Wiel, M. H. D.; Naylor, D. A.; Makiwa, G.; Dassas, K.; Joblin, C.; Pilleri, P.; Berné, O.; Fuente, A.; Gerin, M.; Goicoechea, J. R.; Teyssier, D.

2014-09-01

362

Chemical and physical observations in Golfo Dulce, an anoxic basin on the Pacific coast of Costa Rica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Golfo Duke is an embayment containing small concentrations of hydrogen sulfide near the bottom due to sulfate reduction. The processes of denitrification, nitrate reduction, and organic decomposition are also evident. Hydrographic data t,&en 8 days apart indicated an influx of ocean water into the basin. It appears from past observations in the eastern tropical Pacific that the basin erratically receives

FRANCIS A. RICHARDS; JAMES J. ANDERSON; JOEL D. CLINE

1971-01-01

363

Physical studies of asteroids. XXIII - Photometric observations of the asteroids 6, 32, 196, 243, 416, 532 and 1580  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photometric studies of seven asteroids observed at the European Southern Observatory (La Sill a, Chile) with the 50 cm ESO telescope are presented. For these asteroids (6 Hebe, 32 Pomona, 196 Philomela, 243 Ida, 416 Vaticana, 532 Herculina and 1580 Betulia) composite lightcurves are presented. Mean colour indexes, calculated for some of the nights, are also given.

Erikson, A.; Lagerkvist, C.-I.; Lindgren, M.; Cutispoto, G.; Debehogne, H.; Hahn, G.; Magnusson, P.

1991-12-01

364

WHAT IS PHYSICS? Physics is the study of the structure and properties of matter from the subnuclear to the dimensions of the universe. The student who is interested in observing and  

E-print Network

WHAT IS PHYSICS? Physics is the study of the structure and properties of matter from the subnuclear will enjoy the study of Physics. CAREERS IN PHYSICS. A Physics education opens the doors to careers in the fields of physics, biophysics, engineering, applied physics, astrophysics and geophysics, as well

Seldin, Jonathan P.

365

A Balance Method for Comparison of Quantities of Radium and Some of its Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A balance method is described for accurately comparing quantities of radium by their ?-radiation, in which the ionisation due to the ?-rays is balanced against the constant ionisation due to uranium oxide. By observing the distance of the radium preparation from the ionisation chamber when a balance is obtained, the relative ?-ray activities of the two preparations can be determined

E. Rutherford; J. Chadwick

1911-01-01

366

Physical conditions of molecular gas in the Circinus galaxy: Multi-J CO and CI 1-0 observations  

E-print Network

We report mapping observations of the $^{12}$CO $J=3-2$, $4-3$, $6-5$, and $7-6$ transitions and the CI 492 GHz transition toward the central 40$''\\times$40$''$ region of the Circinus galaxy, using the Atacama Pathfinder EXperiment (APEX) telescope. We also detected $^{13}$CO $J=3-2$ at the central position of Circinus. These observations are to date the highest CO transitions reported in Circinus. With large velocity gradient (LVG) modeling and likelihood analysis we try to obtain density, temperature, and column density of the molecular gas in three regions: the nuclear region ($Daverage condition of $n_{\\rm H_2} \\sim 10^{3.2}$cm$^{-3}$, $T_{\\rm kin}$ $\\sim$ 200 K, and d$v$/d$r \\sim$ 3 km s$^{-1}$pc$^{-1}$. In the entire 45$''$ region, two excitation components are needed wi...

Zhang, Zhi-Yu; Gao, Yu; Guesten, Rolf; Menten, Karl; Papadopoulos, Padelis; Zhao, Yinghe; Ao, Yiping; Kaminski, Tomasz

2014-01-01

367

The major upgrade of the MAGIC telescopes, Part II: The achieved physics performance using the Crab Nebula observations  

E-print Network

MAGIC is a system of two Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes located in the Canary island of La Palma, Spain. During summer 2011 and 2012 it underwent a series of upgrades, involving the exchange of the MAGIC-I camera and its trigger system, as well as the upgrade of the readout system of both telescopes. We use observations of the Crab Nebula taken at low and medium zenith angles to assess the key performance parameters of the MAGIC stereo system. For low zenith observations the trigger threshold of the MAGIC telescopes is about 50GeV. The integral sensitivity for sources with Crab Nebula-like spectrum above 220GeV is (0.66+/-0.03)% of Crab Nebula flux in 50 h of observations. The angular resolution at those energies is < 0.07 degree, while the energy resolution is 16%. We also re-evaluate the effect of the systematic uncertainty on the data taken with the MAGIC telescopes after the upgrade. We estimate that the systematic uncertainties can be divided in following components: < 15% in energy scale...

Aleksic, J; Antonelli, L A; Antoranz, P; Babic, A; Bangale, P; Barcelo, M; Barrio, J A; Gonzalez, J Becerra; Bednarek, W; Bernardini, E; Biasuzzi, B; Biland, A; Bitossi, M; Blanch, O; Bonnefoy, S; Bonnoli, G; Borracci, F; Bretz, T; Carmona, E; Carosi, A; Cecchi, R; Colin, P; Colombo, E; Contreras, J L; Corti, D; Cortina, J; Covino, S; Da Vela, P; Dazzi, F; De Angelis, A; De Caneva, G; De Lotto, B; Wilhelmi, E de Ona; Mendez, C Delgado; Dettlaff, A; Prester, D Dominis; Dorner, D; Doro, M; Einecke, S; Eisenacher, D; Elsaesser, D; Fidalgo, D; Fink, D; Fonseca, M V; Font, L; Frantzen, K; Fruck, C; Galindo, D; Lopez, R J Garcia; Garczarczyk, M; Terrats, D Garrido; Gaug, M; Giavitto, G; Godinovic, N; Munoz, A Gonzalez; Gozzini, S R; Haberer, W; Hadasch, D; Hanabata, Y; Hayashida, M; Herrera, J; Hildebrand, D; Hose, J; Hrupec, D; Idec, W; Illa, J M; Kadenius, V; Kellermann, H; Knoetig, M L; Kodani, K; Konno, Y; Krause, J; Kubo, H; Kushida, J; La Barbera, A; Lelas, D; Lemus, J L; Lewandowska, N; Lindfors, E; Lombardi, S; Longo, F; Lopez, M; Lopez-Coto, R; Lopez-Oramas, A; Lorca, A; Lorenz, E; Lozano, I; Makariev, M; Mallot, K; Maneva, G; Mankuzhiyil, N; Mannheim, K; Maraschi, L; Marcote, B; Mariotti, M; Martinez, M; Mazin, D; Menzel, U; Miranda, J M; Mirzoyan, R; Moralejo, A; Munar-Adrover, P; Nakajima, D; Negrello, M; Neustroev, V; Niedzwiecki, A; Nilsson, K; Nishijima, K; Noda, K; Orito, R; Overkemping, A; Paiano, S; Palatiello, M; Paneque, D; Paoletti, R; Paredes, J M; Paredes-Fortuny, X; Persic, M; Poutanen, J; Moroni, P G Prada; Prandini, E; Puljak, I; Reinthal, R; Rhode, W; Ribo, M; Rico, J; Garcia, J Rodriguez; Rugamer, S; Saito, T; Saito, K; Satalecka, K; Scalzotto, V; Scapin, V; Schultz, C; Schlammer, J; Schmidl, S; Schweizer, T; Shore, S N; Sillanpaa, A; Sitarek, J; Snidaric, I; Sobczynska, D; Spanier, F; Stamerra, A; Steinbring, T; Storz, J; Strzys, M; Takalo, L; Takami, H; Tavecchio, F; Tejedor, L A; Temnikov, P; Terzic, T; Tescaro, D; Teshima, M; Thaele, J; Tibolla, O; Torres, D F; Toyama, T; Treves, A; Vogler, P; Wetteskind, H; Will, M; Zanin, R; IFAE,; UAB, Campus; Bellaterra, E-08193; Spain,; di Udine, Universita; Trieste, INFN; Udine, I-33100; Italy,; Astrophysics, INAF National Institute for; Rome, I-00136; Italy,; di Siena, Universita; Pisa, INFN; Siena, I-53100; Italy,; Institute, Rudjer Boskovic; Rijeka, University of; Split, University of; Zagreb, HR-10000; Croatia,; Physik, Max-Planck-Institut fur; Munchen, D-80805; Germany,; Complutense, Universidad; Madrid, E-28040; Spain,; de Canarias, Inst de Astrofisica; La Laguna, E-38200; Tenerife,; Spain,; Lodz, University of; Lodz, PL-90236; Poland,; Elektronen-Synchrotron, Deutsches; Zeuthen, D-15738; Germany,; Zurich, ETH; Zurich, CH-8093; Switzerland,; Wurzburg, Universitat; Wurzburg, D-97074; Germany,; Energeticas, Centro de Investigaciones; Tecnologicas, Medioambientales y; Madrid, E-28040; Spain,; Sciences, Institute of Space; Barcelona, E-08193; Spain,; di Padova, Universita; INFN,; Padova, I-35131; Italy,; Dortmund, Technische Universitat; Dortmund, D-44221; Germany,; Radiacions, Unitat de Fisica de les; de Fisica, Departament; CERES-IEEC,; de Barcelona, Universitat Autonoma; Bellaterra, E-08193; Spain,; de Barcelona, Universitat; ICC,; IEEC-UB,; Barcelona, E-08028; Spain,; Physics, Division of; Astronomy,; University, Kyoto; Japan,; Observatory, Tuorla; Turku, University of; Physics, Department of; Oulu, University of; Finland,; Research, Inst for Nucl; Energy, Nucl; Sofia, BG-1784; Bulgaria,; di Pisa, Universita; Pisa, INFN; Pisa, I-56126; Italy,; ICREA,; Sciences, Institute of Space; Barcelona, E-08193; Spain,; Insubria, Universita dell; Bicocca, INFN Milano; Como,; Como, I-22100; Italy,; Observatory, European Gravitational; Macerata, I-56021 S Stefano a; Italy,; di Siena, Universita; Siena, INFN; Siena, I-53100; Italy,; at, now; :,; Center, NASA Goddard Space Flight; Greenbelt,; 20771, MD; USA,; Physics, Department of; Astronomy, Department of; Maryland, University of; Park, College; 20742, MD; USA,; de Lausanne, now at Ecole polytechnique federale; Lausanne,; Switzerland,; Teilchenphysik, Now at Institut fur Astro- und; Innsbruck, Leopold-Franzens- Universitat; Innsbruck, A-6020; Austria,; deceased,; ESO, now at Finnish Centre for Astronomy with; Turku,; Finland,; Division, now at Astrophysics Science; Centre, Bhabha Atomic Research; 400085, Mumbai; India,; INAF-Trieste, also at

2014-01-01

368

Physical activity measured using global positioning system tracking in non-small cell lung cancer: an observational study.  

PubMed

Introduction. Increasingly physical activity (PA) is being recognized as an important outcome in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We investigated PA using novel global positioning system (GPS) tracking individuals with NSCLC and a group of similar-aged healthy individuals. Methods. A prospective cross-sectional multicenter study. Fifty individuals with NSCLC from 3 Australian tertiary hospitals and 35 similar-aged healthy individuals without cancer were included. Individuals with NSCLC were assessed pretreatment. Primary measures were triaxial accelerometery (steps/day) and GPS tracking (outdoor PA behavior). Secondary measures were questionnaires assessing depression, motivation to exercise, and environmental barriers to PA. Between-group comparisons were analyzed using analysis of covariance. Results. Individuals with NSCLC engaged in significantly less PA than similar-aged healthy individuals (mean difference 2363 steps/day, P = .007) and had higher levels of depression (P = .027) and lower motivation to exercise (P = .001). Daily outdoor walking time (P = .874) and distance travelled away from home (P = .883) were not different between groups. Individuals with NSCLC spent less time outdoors in their local neighborhood area (P < .001). A greater number of steps per day was seen in patients who were less depressed (r = .39) or had better access to nonresidential destinations such as shopping centers (r = .25). Conclusion. Global positioning system tracking appears to be a feasible methodology for adult cancer patients and holds promise for use in future studies investigating PA and or lifestyle behaviors. PMID:25006040

Granger, Catherine L; Denehy, Linda; McDonald, Christine F; Irving, Louis; Clark, Ross A

2014-11-01

369

Deep and wide photometry of the two open clusters NGC 1245 and NGC 2506: CCD observation and physical properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have conducted VI CCD photometry of the two open clusters NGC 1245 and NGC 2506 using the CFH12K CCD camera. Our photometry covers a sky area of 84 × 82 and 42 × 81 arcmin2 for the two clusters, respectively, and reaches down to V ? 23. We derived the physical parameters using detailed theoretical isochrone fittings using ?2 minimization. The derived cluster parameters are E(B - V) = 0.24 ± 0.05 and 0.03 ± 0.04, (V - MV)0 = 12.25 ± 0.12 and 12.47 ± 0.08, age (Gyr) = 1.08 ± 0.09 and 2.31 ± 0.16, and [Fe/H] = -0.08 ± 0.06 and -0.24 ± 0.06, respectively, for NGC 1245 and NGC 2506. We present the luminosity functions of the two clusters, which reach down to MV ? 10, and derive mass functions with slopes of ? = -1.29 for NGC 1245 and ? = -1.26 for NGC 2506. The slopes are slightly shallower than that of the solar neighbourhood, implying the existence of dynamical evolution that drives the evaporation of the low-mass stars in the clusters.

Lee, S. H.; Kang, Y.-W.; Ann, H. B.

2012-09-01

370

Simulating AIA observations of a flux rope ejection  

E-print Network

Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) images from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board the Solar Dynamic Observatory (SDO) are providing new insights into the early phase of CME evolution. Observations now show the ejection of magnetic flux ropes from the solar corona and how they evolve into CMEs. These observations are difficult to interpret in terms of basic physical mechanisms and quantities. To fully understand CMEs we need to compare equivalent quantities derived from both observations and theoretical models. To this end we aim to produce synthesised AIA observations from simluations of a flux rope ejection. To carry this out we include the role of thermal conduction and radiative losses, both of which are important for determining the temperature distribution of the solar corona during a CME. We perform a simulation where a flux rope is ejected from the solar corona. From the density and temperature of the plasma in the simulation we synthesise AIA observations. The emission is then integrated along the...

Pagano, Paolo; Poedts, Stefaan

2014-01-01

371

Observer based current control of single-phase inverter in DQ rotating frame  

Microsoft Academic Search

A modified current control scheme in D-Q rotating frame for single-phase inverters is presented in this paper to provide zero steady state error at fundamental frequency as well as waveform fidelity. The new procedure uses tuned observers to transform the physical quantities like \\

B. Saritha; P. A. Jankiraman

2006-01-01

372

An innovative physical scheme to retrieve simultaneously surface temperature and emissivities using high spectral infrared observations from IASI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Retrieving atmospheric temperature and water vapor profiles from infrared satellite observations over continental surfaces is a complex problem because of the heterogeneity of land surfaces and the difficulty of modeling their interaction with the radiation. This results in the surface-sensitive observations from sounding instruments over land usually not being assimilated into numerical prediction systems at meteorological operational centers. Correct characterization of the interaction between the atmosphere and the surface would allow considering the information contained in those channels. This requires accurate estimates of the surface emissivities at the spectral resolution of recent instruments such as Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) or Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS). An emissivity interpolator is developed in this study to estimate the land surface emissivities at a high spectral resolution compatible with IASI or AIRS instrument channels. It is based on Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) retrieved emissivities. This surface emissivity is used as a first guess in an innovative surface parameter inversion scheme that simultaneously retrieves the surface emissivity and temperature. Radiative transfer calculations with the resulting surface information show a significantly better agreement with the observations (root mean square error of 1.7 K on average over bands 1 and 2 of the IASI spectrum), as compared to calculations using the first guess information (root mean square error of 3.5 K). The retrieved surface skin temperatures are compared to the Land Surface Analysis Satellite Applications Facility (LSA SAF) estimates derived from Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) measurements, and the root mean square difference is below 2 K.

Paul, M.; Aires, F.; Prigent, C.; Trigo, I. F.; Bernardo, F.

2012-06-01

373

Conceptual Model of Quantities, Units, Dimensions, and Values  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

JPL collaborated with experts from industry and other organizations to develop a conceptual model of quantities, units, dimensions, and values based on the current work of the ISO 80000 committee revising the International System of Units & Quantities based on the International Vocabulary of Metrology (VIM). By providing support for ISO 80000 in SysML via the International Vocabulary of Metrology (VIM), this conceptual model provides, for the first time, a standard-based approach for addressing issues of unit coherence and dimensional analysis into the practice of systems engineering with SysML-based tools. This conceptual model provides support for two kinds of analyses specified in the International Vocabulary of Metrology (VIM): coherence of units as well as of systems of units, and dimension analysis of systems of quantities. To provide a solid and stable foundation, the model for defining quantities, units, dimensions, and values in SysML is explicitly based on the concepts defined in VIM. At the same time, the model library is designed in such a way that extensions to the ISQ (International System of Quantities) and SI Units (Systeme International d Unites) can be represented, as well as any alternative systems of quantities and units. The model library can be used to support SysML user models in various ways. A simple approach is to define and document libraries of reusable systems of units and quantities for reuse across multiple projects, and to link units and quantity kinds from these libraries to Unit and QuantityKind stereotypes defined in SysML user models.

Rouquette, Nicolas F.; DeKoenig, Hans-Peter; Burkhart, Roger; Espinoza, Huascar

2011-01-01

374

TRANSIT TIMING OBSERVATIONS FROM KEPLER. IV. CONFIRMATION OF FOUR MULTIPLE-PLANET SYSTEMS BY SIMPLE PHYSICAL MODELS  

SciTech Connect

Eighty planetary systems of two or more planets are known to orbit stars other than the Sun. For most, the data can be sufficiently explained by non-interacting Keplerian orbits, so the dynamical interactions of these systems have not been observed. Here we present four sets of light curves from the Kepler spacecraft, each which of shows multiple planets transiting the same star. Departure of the timing of these transits from strict periodicity indicates that the planets are perturbing each other: the observed timing variations match the forcing frequency of the other planet. This confirms that these objects are in the same system. Next we limit their masses to the planetary regime by requiring the system remain stable for astronomical timescales. Finally, we report dynamical fits to the transit times, yielding possible values for the planets' masses and eccentricities. As the timespan of timing data increases, dynamical fits may allow detailed constraints on the systems' architectures, even in cases for which high-precision Doppler follow-up is impractical.

Fabrycky, Daniel C. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Ford, Eric B.; Moorhead, Althea V. [Astronomy Department, University of Florida, 211 Bryant Space Sciences Center, Gainesville, FL 32111 (United States); Steffen, Jason H. [Fermilab Center for Particle Astrophysics, P.O. Box 500, MS 127, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Rowe, Jason F.; Christiansen, Jessie L. [SETI Institute, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States); Carter, Joshua A.; Fressin, Francois; Geary, John [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Batalha, Natalie M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, San Jose State University, San Jose, CA 95192 (United States); Borucki, William J.; Bryson, Steve; Haas, Michael R. [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA, 94035 (United States); Buchhave, Lars A. [Department of Astrophysics and Planetary Science, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Ciardi, David R. [NASA Exoplanet Science Institute/Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91126 (United States); Cochran, William D.; Endl, Michael [McDonald Observatory, The University of Texas, Austin TX 78730 (United States); Fanelli, Michael N. [Bay Area Environmental Research Institute/NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Fischer, Debra [Astronomy Department, Yale University, New Haven, CT (United States); Hall, Jennifer R., E-mail: daniel.fabrycky@gmail.com [Orbital Sciences Corporation/NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); and others

2012-05-10

375

Plasma Physical Parameters along Coronal-mass-ejection-driven Shocks. I. Ultraviolet and White-light Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, UV and white-light (WL) coronagraphic data are combined to derive the full set of plasma physical parameters along the front of a shock driven by a coronal mass ejection. Pre-shock plasma density, shock compression ratio, speed, and inclination angle are estimated from WL data, while pre-shock plasma temperature and outflow velocity are derived from UV data. The Rankine-Hugoniot (RH) equations for the general case of an oblique shock are then applied at three points along the front located between 2.2 and 2.6 R ? at the shock nose and at the two flanks. Stronger field deflection (by ~46°), plasma compression (factor ~2.7), and heating (factor ~12) occur at the nose, while heating at the flanks is more moderate (factor 1.5-3.0). Starting from a pre-shock corona where protons and electrons have about the same temperature (Tp ~ Te ~ 1.5 × 106 K), temperature increases derived with RH equations could better represent the proton heating (by dissipation across the shock), while the temperature increase implied by adiabatic compression (factor ~2 at the nose, ~1.2-1.5 at the flanks) could be more representative of electron heating: the transit of the shock causes a decoupling between electron and proton temperatures. Derived magnetic field vector rotations imply a draping of field lines around the expanding flux rope. The shock turns out to be super-critical (sub-critical) at the nose (at the flanks), where derived post-shock plasma parameters can be very well approximated with those derived by assuming a parallel (perpendicular) shock.

Bemporad, A.; Susino, R.; Lapenta, G.

2014-04-01

376

The OSIRIS-REx target asteroid (101955) Bennu: Constraints on its physical, geological, and dynamical nature from astronomical observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review the results of an extensive campaign to determine the physical, geological, and dynamical properties of asteroid (101955) Bennu. This investigation provides information on the orbit, shape, mass, rotation state, radar response, photometric, spectroscopic, thermal, regolith, and environmental properties of Bennu. We combine these data with cosmochemical and dynamical models to develop a hypothetical timeline for Bennu's formation and evolution. We infer that Bennu is an ancient object that has witnessed over 4.5 Gyr of solar system history. Its chemistry and mineralogy were established within the first 10 Myr of the solar system. It likely originated as a discrete asteroid in the inner Main Belt approximately 0.7-2 Gyr ago as a fragment from the catastrophic disruption of a large (approximately 100-km), carbonaceous asteroid. It was delivered to near-Earth space via a combination of Yarkovsky-induced drift and interaction with giant-planet resonances. During its journey, YORP processes and planetary close encounters modified Bennu's spin state, potentially reshaping and resurfacing the asteroid. We also review work on Bennu's future dynamical evolution and constrain its ultimate fate. It is one of the most Potentially Hazardous Asteroids with an approximately 1-in-2700 chance of impacting the Earth in the late 22nd century. It will most likely end its dynamical life by falling into the Sun. The highest probability for a planetary impact is with Venus, followed by the Earth. There is a chance that Bennu will be ejected from the inner solar system after a close encounter with Jupiter. OSIRIS-REx will return samples from the surface of this intriguing asteroid in September 2023.

Lauretta, D. S.; Bartels, A. E.; Barucci, M. A.; Bierhaus, E. B.; Binzel, R. P.; Bottke, W. F.; Campins, H.; Chesley, S. R.; Clark, B. C.; Clark, B. E.; Cloutis, E. A.; Connolly, H. C.; Crombie, M. K.; Delbó, M.; Dworkin, J. P.; Emery, J. P.; Glavin, D. P.; Hamilton, V. E.; Hergenrother, C. W.; Johnson, C. L.; Keller, L. P.; Michel, P.; Nolan, M. C.; Sandford, S. A.; Scheeres, D. J.; Simon, A. A.; Sutter, B. M.; Vokrouhlický, D.; Walsh, K. J.

2014-11-01

377

Unraveling ICM Physics and AGN Feedback with Deep Chandra X-ray Observations of the Galaxy Group NGC 5813  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results from deep (650 ks) Chandra X-ray observations of the galaxy group NGC 5813. This system shows three pairs of colinear cavities, with each pair associated with an elliptical AGN outburst shock. Due to the relatively regular morphology of this system, and the unique unambiguous detection of three distinct AGN outburst shocks, it is particularly well-suited for the study of kinetic mode AGN feedback and the AGN outburst history. Topics presented include results on the role of shock heating in AGN feedback, feedback as a solution to the cooling flow problem, the variability of the AGN outburst power over long timescales, and constraints on the microphysics of the ICM.

Randall, Scott W.; Nulsen, Paul; Clarke, Tracy E.; Forman, William R.; Jones, Christine; Kraft, Ralph P.; Blanton, Elizabeth L.

2014-06-01

378

HYBRID {gamma} DORADUS-{delta} SCUTI PULSATORS: NEW INSIGHTS INTO THE PHYSICS OF THE OSCILLATIONS FROM KEPLER OBSERVATIONS  

SciTech Connect

Observations of the pulsations of stars can be used to infer their interior structure and test theoretical models. The main-sequence {gamma} Doradus (Dor) and {delta} Scuti (Sct) stars with masses 1.2-2.5 M {sub sun} are particularly useful for these studies. The {gamma} Dor stars pulsate in high-order g-modes with periods of order 1 day, driven by convective blocking at the base of their envelope convection zone. The {delta} Sct stars pulsate in low-order g- and p-modes with periods of order 2 hr, driven by the {kappa} mechanism operating in the He II ionization zone. Theory predicts an overlap region in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram between instability regions, where 'hybrid' stars pulsating in both types of modes should exist. The two types of modes with properties governed by different portions of the stellar interior provide complementary model constraints. Among the known {gamma} Dor and {delta} Sct stars, only four have been confirmed as hybrids. Now, analysis of combined Quarter 0 and Quarter 1 Kepler data for hundreds of variable stars shows that the frequency spectra are so rich that there are practically no pure {delta} Sct or {gamma} Dor pulsators, i.e., essentially all of the stars show frequencies in both the {delta} Sct and the {gamma} Dor frequency range. A new observational classification scheme is proposed that takes into account the amplitude as well as the frequency and is applied to categorize 234 stars as {delta} Sct, {gamma} Dor, {delta} Sct/{gamma} Dor or {gamma} Dor/{delta} Sct hybrids.

Grigahcene, A.; Monteiro, M. J. P. F. G. [Centro de Astrofisica, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade do Porto, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto (Portugal); Antoci, V.; Handler, G.; Houdek, G. [Institut fuer Astronomie, Tuerkenschanzstr. 17, A-1180 Wien (Austria); Balona, L. [South African Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 9, Observatory 7935 (South Africa); Catanzaro, G. [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, Via S. Sofia 78, 95123 Catania (Italy); Daszynska-Daszkiewicz, J. [Instytut Astronomiczny, Uniwersytet Wroclawski, Kopernika 11, 51-622 Wroclaw (Poland); Guzik, J. A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, X-2 MS T-086, Los Alamos, NM 87545-2345 (United States); Kurtz, D. W. [Jeremiah Horrocks Institute of Astrophysics, University of Central Lancashire, Preston PR1 2HE (United Kingdom); Marconi, M.; Ripepi, V. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, Via Moiariello 16, 80131 Naples (Italy); Moya, A. [Laboratorio de Astrofisica Estelar y Exoplanetas, LAEX-CAB (INTA-CSIC), P.O. Box 78, 28691 Villanueva de la Canada, Madrid (Spain); Suarez, J.-C. [Instituto de Astrofisica de AndalucIa (CSIC), CP3004, Granada (Spain); Uytterhoeven, K. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM CNRS-Universite Paris Diderot, IRFU/SAp, Centre de Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Borucki, W. J. [NASA Ames Research Center, MS 244-30, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Brown, T. M. [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope, Goleta, CA 93117 (United States); Christensen-Dalsgaard, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Gilliland, R. L. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Jenkins, J. M. [SETI Institute/NASA Ames Research Center, MS 244-30, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States)] (and others)

2010-04-20

379

Construct validity of the Chelsea critical care physical assessment tool: an observational study of recovery from critical illness  

PubMed Central

Introduction Intensive care unit-acquired weakness (ICU-AW) is common in survivors of critical illness, resulting in global weakness and functional deficit. Although ICU-AW is well described subjectively in the literature, the value of objective measures has yet to be established. This project aimed to evaluate the construct validity of the Chelsea Critical Care Physical Assessment tool (CPAx) by analyzing the association between CPAx scores and hospital-discharge location, as a measure of functional outcome. Methods The CPAx was integrated into practice as a service-improvement initiative in an 11-bed intensive care unit (ICU). For patients admitted for more than 48 hours, between 10 May 2010 and 13 November 2013, the last CPAx score within 24 hours of step down from the ICU or death was recorded (n?=?499). At hospital discharge, patients were separated into seven categories, based on continued rehabilitation and care needs. Descriptive statistics were used to explore the association between ICU discharge CPAx score and hospital-discharge location. Results Of the 499 patients, 171 (34.3%) returned home with no ongoing rehabilitation or care input; 131 (26.2%) required community support; 28 (5.6%) went to inpatient rehabilitation for <6 weeks; and 25 (5.0%) went to inpatient rehabilitation for >6 weeks; 27 (5.4%) required nursing home level of care; 80 (16.0%) died in the ICU, and 37 (7.4%) died in hospital. A significant difference was found in the median CPAx score between groups (P?

2014-01-01

380

Skylab experiments. Volume 5: Astronomy and space physics. [Skylab observations of galactic radiation, solar energy, and interplanetary composition for high school level education  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The astronomy and space physics investigations conducted in the Skylab program include over 20 experiments in four categories to explore space phenomena that cannot be observed from earth. The categories of space research are as follows: (1) phenomena within the solar system, such as the effect of solar energy on Earth's atmosphere, the composition of interplanetary space, the possibility of an inner planet, and the X-ray radiation from Jupiter, (2) analysis of energetic particles such as cosmic rays and neutrons in the near-earth space, (3) stellar and galactic astronomy, and (4) self-induced environment surrounding the Skylab spacecraft.

1973-01-01

381

26 CFR 50.6 - Ascertainment of quantity mined.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...THE TAX IMPOSED WITH RESPECT TO CERTAIN HYDRAULIC MINING § 50.6 Ascertainment of quantity mined. Each person engaged in hydraulic mining operations within the scope...surveys of the premises on which such hydraulic mining operations are conducted...

2010-04-01

382

49 CFR 173.4a - Excepted quantities.  

...UN2803 (Gallium) and UN2809 (Mercury); and (9) Class 9, except for UN1845 (Carbon dioxide, solid or Dry ice), and lithium batteries and cells. (c) Inner packaging limits. The maximum quantity of hazardous materials in each inner...

2014-10-01

383

7 CFR 983.53 - Testing of minimal quantities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Testing of minimal quantities. (a) Aflatoxin. Handlers who handle less than...the following methods for testing for aflatoxin: (1) The handler may have an inspector...of hulled and dried pistachios for the aflatoxin certification before further...

2010-01-01

384

19 CFR 351.409 - Differences in quantities.  

...unless the Secretary is satisfied that the effect on price comparability of differences in quantities has been identified and established separately from the effect on price comparability of differences in the levels of...

2014-04-01

385

Integrated quality and quantity modeling of a production line  

E-print Network

The interaction of quantity and quality performance in a factory is clearly of great economic importance. However, there is very little quantitative analytical literature in this area. This thesis is an essential early ...

Kim, Jongyoon, 1974-

2005-01-01

386

19 CFR 159.21 - Quantity upon which duties based.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...shall be based upon the quantity of such merchandise at the time of its importation, except in the following cases: (a) Manipulation in warehouse. If any merchandise covered by a warehouse entry has been cleaned, sorted, repacked, or...

2011-04-01

387

7 CFR 1434.9 - Determination of quantity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...MARKETING ASSISTANCE LOAN AND LDP REGULATIONS FOR HONEY § 1434.9 Determination of quantity. ...and verified by the county office representative for honey on Form CCC-633 (Honey) that is eligible to be pledged as security...

2010-01-01

388

Atomic Carbon in M82: Physical conditions derived from simultaneous observations of the [CI] fine structure submillimeter wave transitions  

E-print Network

We report the first extragalactic detection of the neutral carbon [CI] 3P2-3P1 fine structure line at 809 GHz. The line was observed towards M82 simultaneously with the 3P1-3P0 line at 492 GHz, providing a precise measurement of the J=2-1/J=1-0 integrated line ratio of 0.96 (on a [K km s^-1] -scale). This ratio constrains the [CI] emitting gas to have a temperature of at least 50 K and a density of at least 10^4 cm^-3. Already at this minimum temperature and density, the beam averaged CI-column density is large, 2.1 10^18 cm^-2, confirming the high CI/CO abundance ratio of approximately 0.5 estimated earlier from the 492 GHz line alone. We argue that the [CI] emission from M82 most likely arises in clouds of linear size around a few pc with a density of about 10^4 cm^-3 or slightly higher and temperatures of 50 K up to about 100 K.

J. Stutzki; U. U. Graf; S. Haas; C. E. Honingh; D. Hottgenroth; K. Jacobs; R. Schieder; R. Simon; J. Staguhn; G. Winnewisser; R. N. Martin; W. L. Peters; J. P. McMullin

1996-12-11

389

A UNIFIED EMPIRICAL MODEL FOR INFRARED GALAXY COUNTS BASED ON THE OBSERVED PHYSICAL EVOLUTION OF DISTANT GALAXIES  

SciTech Connect

We reproduce the mid-infrared to radio galaxy counts with a new empirical model based on our current understanding of the evolution of main-sequence (MS) and starburst (SB) galaxies. We rely on a simple spectral energy distribution (SED) library based on Herschel observations: a single SED for the MS and another one for SB, getting warmer with redshift. Our model is able to reproduce recent measurements of galaxy counts performed with Herschel, including counts per redshift slice. This agreement demonstrates the power of our 2-Star-Formation Modes (2SFM) decomposition in describing the statistical properties of infrared sources and their evolution with cosmic time. We discuss the relative contribution of MS and SB galaxies to the number counts at various wavelengths and flux densities. We also show that MS galaxies are responsible for a bump in the 1.4 GHz radio counts around 50 {mu}Jy. Material of the model (predictions, SED library, mock catalogs, etc.) is available online.

Bethermin, Matthieu; Daddi, Emanuele; Sargent, Mark T.; Elbaz, David; Mullaney, James; Pannella, Maurilio [Laboratoire AIM-Paris-Saclay, CEA/DSM/Irfu - CNRS - Universite Paris Diderot, CEA-Saclay, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Magdis, Georgios [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Keble Road, Oxford, OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Hezaveh, Yashar [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 Rue University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 2T8 (Canada); Le Borgne, Damien [UPMC Univ. Paris 06, UMR7095, Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, F-75014 Paris (France); Buat, Veronique [Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille, OAMP, Universite Aix-Marseille, CNRS, 38 rue Frederic Joliot-Curie, F-13388 Marseille Cedex 13 (France); Charmandaris, Vassilis [Department of Physics and Institute of Theoretical and Computation Physics, University of Crete, 71003 Heraklion (Greece); Lagache, Guilaine [Institut d'Astrophysique Spatiale (IAS), batiment 121, Universite Paris-Sud 11 and CNRS (UMR 8617), F-91405 Orsay (France); Scott, Douglas, E-mail: matthieu.bethermin@cea.fr [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada)

2012-10-01

390

A New Ground-Based Network for Synoptic Solar Observations: The Solar Physics Research Integrated Network Group (SPRING)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SPRING is a project to develop a geographically distributed network of instrumentation to obtain synoptic solar observations. Building on the demonstrated success of networks to provide nearly-continuous long-term data for helioseismology, SPRING will provide data for a wide range of solar research areas. Scientific objectives include internal solar dynamics and structure; wave transport in the solar atmosphere; the evolution of the magnetic field over the activity cycle; irradiance fluctuations; and space weather origins. Anticipated data products include simultaneous full-disk multi-wavelength Doppler and vector magnetic field images; filtergrams in H-Alpha, CaK, and white light; and PSPT-type irradiance support. The data will be obtained with a duty cycle of around 90% and at a cadence no slower than one minute. The current concept is a multi-instrument platform installed in at least six locations, and which will also provide context information for large-aperture solar telescopes such as EST and the DKIST. There is wide support for the idea within the EU and the US solar research communities. The project is in the early planning stages, and we are open to and looking for participants in the science and instrument definition.

Hill, Frank; Roth, Markus; Thompson, Michael; Gusain, Sanjay

2014-06-01

391

Partial molar quantity of an intensive mother function.  

PubMed

A new formal definition is given to the partial molar quantity of a component i for an intensive mother function. We perturb the entire system by increasing the amount of the target component by ?n(i) keeping others constant and measure the response of the system in terms of an intensive mother function, ?, ??. We then define its partial molar quantity of the ith component, ?(i), as ?(i) = [???{?n(i)?(N + ?n(i))

Koga, Yoshikata

2012-09-28

392

Effect of aquatic macrophytes on the quantity of bacterioplankton.  

PubMed

The authors investigated the effect of aquatic macrophytes on the quantity of bacterioplankton. Among the 7 species of aquatic macrophytes the most pronounced effect on bacterioplankton is exerted by Potamogeton crispus, causing a decrease in its quantity to 53.28%. Polygonum amphibium stimulates the growth of bacteria to 121.96%. Under the influence of macrophytes the spherical to cylindrical ratio changes from 1:1.31 (Lemna minor) to 1:2.07 (Potamogeton crispus). PMID:11712444

Czeczuga, B; Chomutowska, H

2000-01-01

393

Pollution prevention tool kits for small quantity generators  

SciTech Connect

Pollution prevention is considered as the principal means for true waste reduction in rural areas since traditional waste minimization activities such as reuse, recycling and recovery are not easily implemented in such areas. This presentation will focus on the final products resulting from the development of a pollution prevention educational program for small quantity hazardous waste generators within the EPA Regions VII and VIII. The principal goal of the educational program is to provide additional incentives for true hazardous waste prevention through source reduction in commercial businesses (small quantity generators) such as vehicle maintenance, dry cleaning operations, agricultural cooperatives, pesticide applicators, and others. The presentation will center on results of development of waste prevention tool kits which will be targeted for use by small quantity generators. These tool kits will be made available to small quantity generators which in turn can be used in the implementation of waste prevention programs within their facilities. The tool kits consist of self assessment and self help how to documents and checklists that can be used by individual small quantity generators. Five different types of tool kits will be presented, each for a different type of hazardous waste small quantity generator.

Woldt, W.E.; Dahab, M.F.; Hygnstrom, J. [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States). Dept. of Biological Systems Engineering

1994-12-31

394

Probing viscoelastic surfaces with bimodal tapping-mode atomic force microscopy: Underlying physics and observables for a standard linear solid model  

PubMed Central

Summary This paper presents computational simulations of single-mode and bimodal atomic force microscopy (AFM) with particular focus on the viscoelastic interactions occurring during tip–sample impact. The surface is modeled by using a standard linear solid model, which is the simplest system that can reproduce creep compliance and stress relaxation, which are fundamental behaviors exhibited by viscoelastic surfaces. The relaxation of the surface in combination with the complexities of bimodal tip–sample impacts gives rise to unique dynamic behaviors that have important consequences with regards to the acquisition of quantitative relationships between the sample properties and the AFM observables. The physics of the tip–sample interactions and its effect on the observables are illustrated and discussed, and a brief research outlook on viscoelasticity measurement with intermittent-contact AFM is provided. PMID:25383277

2014-01-01

395

Surface sealing as a modulating mechanism of water content variability: Physically based modeling and field observations at the hillslope scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the mechanisms underlying temporal and spatial water content variability at the hillslope and catchment scales remains a current challenge in hydrology. Currently, only few models are validated against flux measurements within the catchment scale, thus offering reliable information regarding internal catchment processes. In arid and semi-arid areas, these include the formation of surface seal that directly affects infiltration and evaporation fluxes but is often disregarded. At the LTER Lehavim site, in the center of Israel (31020' N, 34045' E), a typical hillslope (0.115 Km2) was chosen offering different aspects and a classic geomorphologic banding. Annual rainfall is 290 mm, the soils are brown lithosols and arid brown loess, prone to soil sealing. The vegetation is characterized by scattered dwarf shrubs (dominant species Sarcopoterium spinosum). An extensive spatial database of soil hydraulic and topographical parameters was measured in the field and interpolated to continuous maps using geostatistical techniques. Hydraulic properties of the seal layer at the soil surface were modeled following Mualem and Assouline (1989). This spatio-temporal database was used to characterize 8240 cells (3X3 m2) serving as an input to a numeric model solving the flow equations to predict soil water content at all temporal scales. Predictions were verified (R2=0.89) by sampling root zone gravimetric water content at 82 random locations within the hillsope, during ten consecutive field campaigns in the 2010-11 rainy season (for a total of 2450 samples). Accounting for surface sealing was found to improve water content predictions. Furthermore, extensive synthetic modeling found the sealed layer to be a highly efficient mechanism reducing temporal water content variability, compared to an unsealed domain (a reduction of 54% in variability at the 0-50 soil depth). It was found that reduced evaporation in the sealed domain compensates for the loss in infiltrated water due to runoff. A threshold was found, controlled by rainfall intensity and the soil profile depth, shifting the seal layer from being a positive feedback mechanism mainly conserving water through suppressing evaporation, to a negative feedback preventing infiltration and promoting loss of water through runoff. Thus, the sealing process affects substantially water budgets on all observed scales in the experimental site.

Sela, S.; Svoray, T.; Assouline, S.

2011-12-01

396

Cardiac looping may be driven by compressive loads resulting from unequal growth of the heart and pericardial cavity. Observations on a physical simulation model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The transformation of the straight embryonic heart tube into a helically wound loop is named cardiac looping. Such looping is regarded as an essential process in cardiac morphogenesis since it brings the building blocks of the developing heart into an approximation of their definitive topographical relationships. During the past two decades, a large number of genes have been identified which play important roles in cardiac looping. However, how genetic information is physically translated into the dynamic form changes of the looping heart is still poorly understood. The oldest hypothesis of cardiac looping mechanics attributes the form changes of the heart loop (ventral bending ? simple helical coiling ? complex helical coiling) to compressive loads resulting from growth differences between the heart and the pericardial cavity. In the present study, we have tested the physical plausibility of this hypothesis, which we call the growth-induced buckling hypothesis, for the first time. Using a physical simulation model, we show that growth-induced buckling of a straight elastic rod within the confined space of a hemispherical cavity can generate the same sequence of form changes as observed in the looping embryonic heart. Our simulation experiments have furthermore shown that, under bilaterally symmetric conditions, growth-induced buckling generates left- and right-handed helices (D-/L-loops) in a 1:1 ratio, while even subtle left- or rightward displacements of the caudal end of the elastic rod at the pre-buckling state are sufficient to direct the buckling process towards the generation of only D-loops or L-loops, respectively. Our data are discussed with respect to observations made in biological ‘models’. We conclude that compressive loads resulting from unequal growth of the heart and pericardial cavity play important roles in cardiac looping. Asymmetric positioning of the venous heart pole may direct these forces towards a biased generation of D- or L-loops.

Männer, Jörg; Bayraktar, Meric

2014-04-01

397

Cardiac looping may be driven by compressive loads resulting from unequal growth of the heart and pericardial cavity. Observations on a physical simulation model  

PubMed Central

The transformation of the straight embryonic heart tube into a helically wound loop is named cardiac looping. Such looping is regarded as an essential process in cardiac morphogenesis since it brings the building blocks of the developing heart into an approximation of their definitive topographical relationships. During the past two decades, a large number of genes have been identified which play important roles in cardiac looping. However, how genetic information is physically translated into the dynamic form changes of the looping heart is still poorly understood. The oldest hypothesis of cardiac looping mechanics attributes the form changes of the heart loop (ventral bending ? simple helical coiling ? complex helical coiling) to compressive loads resulting from growth differences between the heart and the pericardial cavity. In the present study, we have tested the physical plausibility of this hypothesis, which we call the growth-induced buckling hypothesis, for the first time. Using a physical simulation model, we show that growth-induced buckling of a straight elastic rod within the confined space of a hemispherical cavity can generate the same sequence of form changes as observed in the looping embryonic heart. Our simulation experiments have furthermore shown that, under bilaterally symmetric conditions, growth-induced buckling generates left- and right-handed helices (D-/L-loops) in a 1:1 ratio, while even subtle left- or rightward displacements of the caudal end of the elastic rod at the pre-buckling state are sufficient to direct the buckling process toward the generation of only D- or L-loops, respectively. Our data are discussed with respect to observations made in biological “models.” We conclude that compressive loads resulting from unequal growth of the heart and pericardial cavity play important roles in cardiac looping. Asymmetric positioning of the venous heart pole may direct these forces toward a biased generation of D- or L-loops. PMID:24772086

Bayraktar, Meric; Manner, Jorg

2014-01-01

398

Cardiac looping may be driven by compressive loads resulting from unequal growth of the heart and pericardial cavity. Observations on a physical simulation model.  

PubMed

The transformation of the straight embryonic heart tube into a helically wound loop is named cardiac looping. Such looping is regarded as an essential process in cardiac morphogenesis since it brings the building blocks of the developing heart into an approximation of their definitive topographical relationships. During the past two decades, a large number of genes have been identified which play important roles in cardiac looping. However, how genetic information is physically translated into the dynamic form changes of the looping heart is still poorly understood. The oldest hypothesis of cardiac looping mechanics attributes the form changes of the heart loop (ventral bending ? simple helical coiling ? complex helical coiling) to compressive loads resulting from growth differences between the heart and the pericardial cavity. In the present study, we have tested the physical plausibility of this hypothesis, which we call the growth-induced buckling hypothesis, for the first time. Using a physical simulation model, we show that growth-induced buckling of a straight elastic rod within the confined space of a hemispherical cavity can generate the same sequence of form changes as observed in the looping embryonic heart. Our simulation experiments have furthermore shown that, under bilaterally symmetric conditions, growth-induced buckling generates left- and right-handed helices (D-/L-loops) in a 1:1 ratio, while even subtle left- or rightward displacements of the caudal end of the elastic rod at the pre-buckling state are sufficient to direct the buckling process toward the generation of only D- or L-loops, respectively. Our data are discussed with respect to observations made in biological "models." We conclude that compressive loads resulting from unequal growth of the heart and pericardial cavity play important roles in cardiac looping. Asymmetric positioning of the venous heart pole may direct these forces toward a biased generation of D- or L-loops. PMID:24772086

Bayraktar, Meriç; Männer, Jörg

2014-01-01

399

Eur. Phys. J. B 13, 715-721 (2000) The European Physical Journal B  

E-print Network

that in nature critical behav- ior is often observed, although nature cannot "fine-tune parameters" (see [3 of the probability distributions of certain physical quantities which characterize the system in both space and time probabilities, height correlations, number of steady state configurations, etc. [6­9]. However, much less

Lübeck, Sven

400

Observations and physical interpretations of the solar wind flow properties as obtained from white light coronagraph aboard SPARTAN 201-01  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The solar corona was observed with an externally occulted White Light Coronagraph (WLC) carried on the SPARTAN 201-1 spacecraft on 11-12 Apr. 1993. With observations from WLC and the ground based Mauna Loa White Light Coronagraph, a large number of polar plumes both in the north and south polar holes were traced from 1.16 to 5.5 Rs. Flow properties of the solar wind in coronal holes have been determined (Habbal et al., 1995) by using a two fluid model constrained by density profiles and scale height temperatures from the white light observations, and interplanetary measurements of the flow speed and proton mass flux from Ulysses' south polar passage. Provisions for acceleration by Alfven waves, as well as electron and proton heating, are included in the momentum and the energy equations respectively. The model computations fit remarkably well the empirical constraints of the two different density structures (plumes and coronal holes) for a range of input parameters. In this study we investigate the physical nature of the heating function used in the two-fluid model. Alfven waves have been suggested as the possible source of heating that accelerates the solar wind (Ofman and Davila, 1995). We utilize the density contrast observed in WLC data in the plume and ambient coronal hole region to estimate the Alfven wave frequencies responsible for heating these structures. The source heating function utilized in the two fluid model of the solar wind acceleration will be compared with the resonant Alfven wave heating function.

Guhathakurta, Madhulika; Fisher, Richard; Ofman, Leon

1995-01-01

401

Quantity Effect of Radial Cracks on the Cracking Propagation Behavior and the Crack Morphology  

PubMed Central

In this letter, the quantity effect of radial cracks on the cracking propagation behavior as well as the circular crack generation on the impacted glass plate within the sandwiched glass sheets are experimentally investigated via high-speed photography system. Results show that the radial crack velocity on the backing glass layer decreases with the crack number under the same impact conditions during large quantities of repeated experiments. Thus, the “energy conversion factor” is suggested to elucidate the physical relation between the cracking number and the crack propagation speed. Besides, the number of radial crack also takes the determinative effect in the crack morphology of the impacted glass plate. This study may shed lights on understanding the cracking and propagation mechanism in laminated glass structures and provide useful tool to explore the impact information on the cracking debris. PMID:25048684

Chen, Jingjing; Xu, Jun; Liu, Bohan; Yao, Xuefeng; Li, Yibing

2014-01-01

402

Trained Quantity Abilities in Horses (Equus caballus): A Preliminary Investigation  

PubMed Central

Once believed to be a human prerogative, the capacity to discriminate between quantities now has also been reported in several vertebrates. To date, only two studies investigated numerical abilities in horses (Equus caballus) but reported contrasting data. To assess whether horses can be trained to discriminate between quantities, I have set up a new experimental protocol using operant conditioning. One adult female was trained to discriminate between 1 and 4 (Test 1) in three different conditions: non-controlled continuous variables (numerical and continuous quantities that co-vary with number are simultaneously available), 50% controlled continuous variables (intermediate condition), and 100% controlled continuous variables (only numerical information available). The subject learned the discrimination in all conditions, showing the capacity to process numerical information. When presented with a higher numerical ratio (2 vs. 4, Test 2), the subject still discriminated between the quantities but its performance was statistically significant only in the non-controlled condition, suggesting that the subject used multiple cues in presence of a more difficult discrimination. On the whole, the results here reported encourage the use of this experimental protocol as a valid tool to investigate the capacity to process numerical and continuous quantities in horses in future research. PMID:25379278

Miletto Petrazzini, Maria Elena

2014-01-01

403

Processing Ordinality and Quantity: The Case of Developmental Dyscalculia  

PubMed Central

In contrast to quantity processing, up to date, the nature of ordinality has received little attention from researchers despite the fact that both quantity and ordinality are embodied in numerical information. Here we ask if there are two separate core systems that lie at the foundations of numerical cognition: (1) the traditionally and well accepted numerical magnitude system but also (2) core system for representing ordinal information. We report two novel experiments of ordinal processing that explored the relation between ordinal and numerical information processing in typically developing adults and adults with developmental dyscalculia (DD). Participants made “ordered” or “non-ordered” judgments about 3 groups of dots (non-symbolic numerical stimuli; in Experiment 1) and 3 numbers (symbolic task: Experiment 2). In contrast to previous findings and arguments about quantity deficit in DD participants, when quantity and ordinality are dissociated (as in the current tasks), DD participants exhibited a normal ratio effect in the non-symbolic ordinal task. They did not show, however, the ordinality effect. Ordinality effect in DD appeared only when area and density were randomized, but only in the descending direction. In the symbolic task, the ordinality effect was modulated by ratio and direction in both groups. These findings suggest that there might be two separate cognitive representations of ordinal and quantity information and that linguistic knowledge may facilitate estimation of ordinal information. PMID:21935374

Rubinsten, Orly; Sury, Dana

2011-01-01

404

Can One Take the Logarithm or the Sine of a Dimensioned Quantity or a Unit? Dimensional Analysis Involving Transcendental Functions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The fate of dimensions of dimensioned quantities that are inserted into the argument of transcendental functions such as logarithms, exponentiation, trigonometric, and hyperbolic functions is discussed. Emphasis is placed on common misconceptions that are not often systematically examined in undergraduate courses of physical sciences. The argument…

Matta, Cherif F.; Massa, Lou; Gubskaya, Anna V.; Knoll, Eva

2011-01-01

405

Exact calculations of first-passage quantities on recursive networks.  

PubMed

We present general methods to exactly calculate mean first-passage quantities on self-similar networks defined recursively. In particular, we calculate the mean first-passage time and the splitting probabilities associated to a source and one or several targets; averaged quantities over a given set of sources (e.g., same-connectivity nodes) are also derived. The exact estimate of such quantities highlights the dependency of first-passage processes with respect to the source-target distance, which has recently revealed to be a key parameter in characterizing transport in complex media. We explicitly perform calculations for different classes of recursive networks [finitely ramified fractals, scale-free (trans)fractals, nonfractals, mixtures between fractals and nonfractals, nondecimable hierarchical graphs] of arbitrary size. Our approach unifies and significantly extends the available results in the field. PMID:22463285

Meyer, B; Agliari, E; Bénichou, O; Voituriez, R

2012-02-01

406

Physical Properties of OSIRIS-REx Target Asteroid (101955) 1999 RQ36 derived from Herschel, ESO-VISIR and Spitzer observations  

E-print Network

In September 2011, the Herschel Space Observatory performed an observation campaign with the PACS photometer observing the asteroid (101955) 1999 RQ36 in the far infrared. The Herschel observations were analysed, together with ESO VLT-VISIR and Spitzer-IRS data, by means of a thermophysical model in order to derive the physical properties of 1999 RQ36. We find the asteroid has an effective diameter in the range 480 to 511 m, a slightly elongated shape with a semi-major axis ratio of a/b=1.04, a geometric albedo of 0.045 +0.015/-0.012, and a retrograde rotation with a spin vector between -70 and -90 deg ecliptic latitude. The thermal emission at wavelengths below 12 micron -originating in the hot sub-solar region- shows that there may be large variations in roughness on the surface along the equatorial zone of 1999 RQ36, but further measurements are required for final proof. We determine that the asteroid has a disk-averaged thermal inertia of Gamma = 650 Jm-2s-0.5K-1 with a 3-sigma confidence range of 350 to ...

Mueller, T G; Barucci, A M; Pal, A; Kiss, C; Zeidler, P; Altieri, B; Gonzalez-Garcia, B M; Kueppers, M

2012-01-01

407

A shared system of representation governing quantity discrimination in canids.  

PubMed

One way to investigate the evolution of cognition is to compare the abilities of phylogenetically related species. The domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris), for example, still shares cognitive abilities with the coyote (Canis latrans). Both of these canids possess the ability to make psychophysical "less/more" discriminations of food based on quantity. Like many other species including humans, this ability is mediated by Weber's Law: discrimination of continuous quantities is dependent on the ratio between the two quantities. As two simultaneously presented quantities of food become more similar, choice of the large or small option becomes random in both dogs and coyotes. It remains unknown, however, whether these closely related species within the same family - one domesticated, and one wild - make such quantitative comparisons with comparable accuracy. Has domestication honed or diminished this quantitative ability? Might different selective and ecological pressures facing coyotes drive them to be more or less able to accurately represent and discriminate food quantity than domesticated dogs? This study is an effort to elucidate this question concerning the evolution of non-verbal quantitative cognition. Here, we tested the quantitative discrimination ability of 16 domesticated dogs. Each animal was given nine trials in which two different quantities of food were simultaneously displayed to them. The domesticated dogs' performance on this task was then compared directly to the data from 16 coyotes' performance on this same task reported by Baker et al. (2011). The quantitative discrimination abilities between the two species were strikingly similar. Domesticated dogs demonstrated similar quantitative sensitivity as coyotes, suggesting that domestication may not have significantly altered the psychophysical discrimination abilities of canids. Instead, this study provides further evidence for similar non-verbal quantitative abilities across multiple species. PMID:23060847

Baker, Joseph M; Morath, Justice; Rodzon, Katrina S; Jordan, Kerry E

2012-01-01

408

(Non)Invariance of dynamical quantities for orbit equivalent flows  

E-print Network

We study how dynamical quantities such as Lyapunov exponents, metric entropy, topological pressure, recurrence rates, and dimension-like characteristics change under a time reparameterization of a dynamical system. These quantities are shown to either remain invariant, transform according to a multiplicative factor or transform through a convoluted dependence that may take the form of an integral over the initial local values. We discuss the significance of these results for the apparent non-invariance of chaos in general relativity and explore applications to the synchronization of equilibrium states and the elimination of expansions.

Katrin Gelfert; Adilson E. Motter

2010-10-08

409

AKARI OBSERVATIONS OF BROWN DWARFS. III. CO, CO{sub 2}, AND CH{sub 4} FUNDAMENTAL BANDS AND PHYSICAL PARAMETERS  

SciTech Connect

We investigate variations in the strengths of three molecular bands, CH{sub 4} at 3.3 {mu}m, CO at 4.6 {mu}m, and CO{sub 2} at 4.2 {mu}m, in 16 brown dwarf spectra obtained by AKARI. Spectral features are examined along the sequence of source classes from L1 to T8. We find that the CH{sub 4} 3.3 {mu}m band is present in the spectra of brown dwarfs later than L5, and the CO 4.6 {mu}m band appears in all spectral types. The CO{sub 2} absorption band at 4.2 {mu}m is detected in late-L and T-type dwarfs. To better understand brown dwarf atmospheres, we analyze the observed spectra using the Unified Cloudy Model. The physical parameters of the AKARI sample, i.e., atmospheric effective temperature T {sub eff}, surface gravity log g, and critical temperature T {sub cr}, are derived. We also model IRTF/SpeX and UKIRT/CGS4 spectra in addition to the AKARI data in order to derive the most probable physical parameters. Correlations between the spectral type and the modeled parameters are examined. We confirm that the spectral-type sequence of late-L dwarfs is not related to T {sub eff}, but instead originates as a result of the effect of dust.

Sorahana, S. [Department of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Yamamura, I., E-mail: sorahana@ir.isas.jaxa.jp [Department of Space Astronomy and Astrophysics, Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS), Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan)

2012-12-01

410

Goddard Laboratory for Atmospheric Sciences physical retrieval system for remote determination of weather and climate parameter from HIRS2 and MSU observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

At the Goddard Laboratory for Atmospheric Sciences (GLAS) a physically based satellite temperature sounding retrieval system, involving the simultaneous analysis of HIRS2 and MSU sounding data, was developed for determining atmospheric and surface conditions which are consistent with the observed radiances. In addition to determining accurate atmospheric temperature profiles even in the presence of cloud contamination, the system provides global estimates of day and night sea or land surface temperatures, snow and ice cover, and parameters related to cloud cover. Details of the system are described elsewhere. A brief overview of the system is presented, as well as recent improvements and previously unpublished results, relating to the sea-surface intercomparison workshop, the diurnal variation of ground temperatures, and forecast impact tests.

Susskind, J.

1984-01-01

411

Comparison of satellite derived dynamical quantities in the stratosphere of the Southern Hemisphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The proceedings are summarized from a pre-MASH planning workshop on the intercomparison of Southern Hemisphere observations, analyses and derived dynamical quantities held in Williamsburg, Virginia during April 1986. The aims of this workshop were primarily twofold: (1) comparison of Southern Hemisphere dynamical quantities derived from various satellite data archives (e.g., from limb scanners and nadir sounders); and (2) assessing the impact of different base-level height information on such derived quantities. These tasks are viewed as especially important in the Southern Hemisphere because of the paucity of conventional measurements. A further strong impetus for the MASH program comes from the recent discovery of the springtime ozone hold over Antarctica. Insight gained from validation studies such as the one reported here will contribute to an improved understanding of the role of meteorology in the development and evolution of the hold, in its interannual variability, and in its interhemispheric differences. The dynamical quantities examined in this workshop included geopotential height, zonal wind, potential vorticity, eddy heat and momentum fluxes, and Eliassen-Palm fluxes. The time periods and data sources constituting the MASH comparisons are summarized.

Miles, Thomas (editor); Oneill, Alan (editor)

1989-01-01

412

Bulk-Quantity Synthesis and Conductive Properties of Comb-Like Dendritic ZnO Nanostructures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adopting a simple low-temperature (~500 degrees C) vapour process, we have synthesized bulk quantity comb-like dendritic ZnO nanostructures in large area. An atomic force microscope equipped with Au-coated probes was employed to elucidate the current-voltage characteristic of the individual ZnO nanocomb. The connection electrodes were defined by depositing Pt wires using focused ion beam (FIB). A rectification effect was observed,

Zhi-Min Liao; Hong-Zhou Zhang; Jun Xu; Da-Peng Yu

2005-01-01

413

Are quantum systems physical objects with physical properties?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite its power as the conceptual basis for a huge range of physical phenomena in atomic and subatomic physics, quantum mechanics still suffers from a lack of clarity regarding the physical meaning of its fundamental theoretical concepts, such as those of quantum state and of quantum theoretical quantities or variables, dealt with by the known mathematical-theoretical rules. These concepts have

Michel Paty

1999-01-01

414

10 CFR 73.45 - Performance capabilities for fixed site physical protection systems.  

...achieve this capability the physical protection system shall...which specify the authorized properties and quantities of material...to identify and confirm the properties and quantities of material...achieve this capability the physical protection system...

2014-01-01

415

10 CFR 73.45 - Performance capabilities for fixed site physical protection systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...achieve this capability the physical protection system shall...which specify the authorized properties and quantities of material...to identify and confirm the properties and quantities of material...achieve this capability the physical protection system...

2013-01-01

416

10 CFR 73.45 - Performance capabilities for fixed site physical protection systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...achieve this capability the physical protection system shall...which specify the authorized properties and quantities of material...to identify and confirm the properties and quantities of material...achieve this capability the physical protection system...

2012-01-01

417

10 CFR 73.45 - Performance capabilities for fixed site physical protection systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...achieve this capability the physical protection system shall...which specify the authorized properties and quantities of material...to identify and confirm the properties and quantities of material...achieve this capability the physical protection system...

2011-01-01

418

10 CFR 73.45 - Performance capabilities for fixed site physical protection systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...achieve this capability the physical protection system shall...which specify the authorized properties and quantities of material...to identify and confirm the properties and quantities of material...achieve this capability the physical protection system...

2010-01-01

419

Physics for Physical Sciences: Graphing Motion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This introductory tutorial provides examples and visualizations for beginners in the fundamentals of graphing Velocity vs. Time and Position vs. Time. Physical quantities are related to graphical features, such as the relationship between slope and velocity. Images and Flash animations are used to present the material, along with examples that demonstrate problem-solving using formulas relating to displacement and constant velocity.

Dicker, Jason; Love, Ed

420

Simulation of quantity and quality control in mine ventilation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The provisions of The Federal Coal Mine Health and Safety Act of 1969 have placed greater emphasis on mine ventilation systems. Besides, larger complex mines with more difficult natural conditions require a greater quantity of air and more efficient distribution. It has long since become evident that better planning and more efficient projections, resulting from greater mechanization and sophistication of

A. Owili-Eger; R. Stefanko; R. V. Ramani

1973-01-01

421

Predictors of Sleep Quantity and Quality in College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Whereas sleep is often thought of as a common health issue among college students, few, if any, researchers have comprehensively evaluated correlates and predictors of sleep quality and quantity within this population. Most often, studies of this type are used by researchers to assess particular categories of correlates and predictors (e.g.,…

Davidson, Eric S.

2012-01-01

422

9 CFR 381.121 - Quantity of contents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Quantity of contents. 381.121 Section 381.121 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...from other label information appearing to the left or right of the statement, by a space at least equal in...

2010-01-01

423

9 CFR 381.121 - Quantity of contents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Quantity of contents. 381.121 Section 381.121 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...from other label information appearing to the left or right of the statement, by a space at least equal in...

2013-01-01

424

9 CFR 381.121 - Quantity of contents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Quantity of contents. 381.121 Section 381.121 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...from other label information appearing to the left or right of the statement, by a space at least equal in...

2011-01-01

425

9 CFR 381.121 - Quantity of contents.  

...Quantity of contents. 381.121 Section 381.121 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...from other label information appearing to the left or right of the statement, by a space at least equal in...

2014-01-01

426

9 CFR 381.121 - Quantity of contents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Quantity of contents. 381.121 Section 381.121 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...from other label information appearing to the left or right of the statement, by a space at least equal in...

2012-01-01

427

A note on the optimum quantity of money  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a model where agents use money to offset uninsurable idiosyncratic income fluctuation, Bewley (1983) has shown that it may be impossible to satiate the demand for money as recommended by the literature on the optimum quantity of money (Friedman, 1969). This note shows, by means of an example, that even when it is possible to implement the traditional optimum

Perry Mehrling

1995-01-01

428

FORD WHITMAN HARRIS AND THE ECONOMIC ORDER QUANTITY MODEL  

E-print Network

. The A. W. Shaw Company was the first publisher of the Harvard Business Review, under an agreement, A. W. Shaw, was closely associ- ated with the Harvard Business School during its early years order quantity (EOQ) provides a remarkable example of this kind of historical distortion. Other reviews

Rudowsky, Ira

429

Separating Effects of Frequency, Quantity, Disruptive, and Problematic Substance Use.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is widespread concern about the use and abuse of alcohol and other drugs by adolescents and young adults. It has yet to be determined whether drug use in itself is invariably associated with disruptive or problem use of drugs. Additionally, drug use may vary by frequency and quantity of ingestion which may be differentially related to…

Stein, Judith A.; And Others

430

The Recovery of Trace Thorium from Large Quantities of Uranium  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work describes the chromatographic separation of trace amounts of Thorium (mg or less) from large quantities of Uranium (g or kg). The separation method employs extraction chromatographic materials containing tetra(n?octyl)diglycolamide (TODGA) and quaternary amine extractants. Applications of this separation include isolation of Th from U and Th from U. Th could be a useful radiotracer, providing a continuous supply

E. Philip Horwitz; Daniel R. McAlister

2009-01-01

431

IRRIGATION MANAGEMENT AFFECTING QUALITY AND QUANTITY OF RETURN FLOW  

EPA Science Inventory

Management practices for control of quality and quantity of return subsurface flow were studied theoretically, in the laboratory, and full scale in the field. Field water management studies using waters of different qualities and different leaching fractions showed that the soil ...

432

41 CFR 109-27.102 - Economic order quantity principle.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

41 ? Public Contracts and Property Management ? 3 ? 2010-07-01 ? 2010-07-01 ? false ? Economic order quantity principle. ? 109-27.102 ? Section 109-27.102 ? Public Contracts and Property Management ? Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) ? DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY...

2010-07-01

433

49 CFR 173.306 - Limited quantities of compressed gases.  

...transportation by aircraft must conform to...packaging quantity limits and closure...transported by aircraft or vessel, and...as ORM-D-AIR material and...and with a pressure not exceeding 970...for transport by aircraft, such aerosols...The pressure limit may be...

2014-10-01

434

Online Quantity Flexibility contract model and its competitive analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The literatures related to online quantity flexibility contract model (or various applications) is quite extensive. The common denominator of all previous theoretical work on the subject is based on the traditional ldquoaverage case analysisrdquo. In other word, analyses are typically made under the assumption that the market demand function follows a particular stochastic process that may or may not be

Chun-lin Xin; Wei-min Ma; Bin Liu

2008-01-01

435

What explains the quantity and quality of local inventive activity?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors geocode a data set of patents and their citation counts, including citations from abroad. This allows them to examine both the quantity and quality of local inventions. They also refine their data on local academic R&D to explore effects from different fields of science and sources of R&D funding. Finally, they incorporate data on congressional earmarks of funds

Gerald Carlino; Robert Hunt