Science.gov

Sample records for observable physical quantities

  1. Measurements, Physical Quantities, and Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Laurence E.

    1988-01-01

    Explains the significance of the mole as a unit of measure by showing the relationship between physical quantities and their mathematical representations. Offers a summary of the principles of metrology that make creation of physical quantities and units seem reasonable. A table of base physical quantities and units is included. (RT)

  2. Observable quantities for electrodiffusion processes in membranes.

    PubMed

    Garrido, Javier

    2008-03-13

    Electrically driven ion transport processes in a membrane system are analyzed in terms of observable quantities, such as the apparent volume flow, the time dependence of the electrolyte concentration in one cell compartment, and the electrical potential difference between the electrodes. The relations between the fluxes and these observable quantities are rigorously deduced from balances for constituent mass and solution volume. These relations improve the results for the transport coefficients up to 25% with respect to those obtained using simplified expressions common in the literature. Given the practical importance of ionic transport numbers and the solvent transference number in the phenomenological description of electrically driven processes, the transport equations are presented using the electrolyte concentration difference and the electric current as the drivers of the different constituents. Because various electric potential differences can be used in this traditional irreversible thermodynamics approach, the advantages of the formulation of the transport equations in terms of concentration difference and electric current are emphasized. PMID:18284224

  3. Physical Quantities Obtained from the Restored Images of Yohkoh SXT

    E-print Network

    Shin, Junho

    Physical Quantities Obtained from the Restored Images of Yohkoh SXT Junho Shin and Takashi Sakurai (NAOJ) Abstract Some results of the restoration of the observed images of Yohkoh SXT has been presented and discussed. Undersampling effect included in both observed images and the PSF produces mathematical artefacts

  4. Average observational quantities in the timescape cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiltshire, David L.

    2009-12-01

    We examine the properties of a recently proposed observationally viable alternative to homogeneous cosmology with smooth dark energy, the timescape cosmology. In the timescape model cosmic acceleration is realized as an apparent effect related to the calibration of clocks and rods of observers in bound systems relative to volume-average observers in an inhomogeneous geometry in ordinary general relativity. The model is based on an exact solution to a Buchert average of the Einstein equations with backreaction. The present paper examines a number of observational tests which will enable the timescape model to be distinguished from homogeneous cosmologies with a cosmological constant or other smooth dark energy, in current and future generations of dark energy experiments. Predictions are presented for comoving distance measures; H(z); the equivalent of the dark energy equation of state, w(z); the Om(z) measure of Sahni, Shafieloo, and Starobinsky; the Alcock-Paczy?ski test; the baryon acoustic oscillation measure, DV; the inhomogeneity test of Clarkson, Bassett, and Lu; and the time drift of cosmological redshifts. Where possible, the predictions are compared to recent independent studies of similar measures in homogeneous cosmologies with dark energy. Three separate tests with indications of results in possible tension with the ?CDM model are found to be consistent with the expectations of the timescape cosmology.

  5. Average observational quantities in the timescape cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Wiltshire, David L.

    2009-12-15

    We examine the properties of a recently proposed observationally viable alternative to homogeneous cosmology with smooth dark energy, the timescape cosmology. In the timescape model cosmic acceleration is realized as an apparent effect related to the calibration of clocks and rods of observers in bound systems relative to volume-average observers in an inhomogeneous geometry in ordinary general relativity. The model is based on an exact solution to a Buchert average of the Einstein equations with backreaction. The present paper examines a number of observational tests which will enable the timescape model to be distinguished from homogeneous cosmologies with a cosmological constant or other smooth dark energy, in current and future generations of dark energy experiments. Predictions are presented for comoving distance measures; H(z); the equivalent of the dark energy equation of state, w(z); the Om(z) measure of Sahni, Shafieloo, and Starobinsky; the Alcock-Paczynski test; the baryon acoustic oscillation measure, D{sub V}; the inhomogeneity test of Clarkson, Bassett, and Lu; and the time drift of cosmological redshifts. Where possible, the predictions are compared to recent independent studies of similar measures in homogeneous cosmologies with dark energy. Three separate tests with indications of results in possible tension with the {lambda}CDM model are found to be consistent with the expectations of the timescape cosmology.

  6. On the Representation of Physical Quantities in Natural Language Text

    E-print Network

    Forbus, Kenneth D.

    language. Our focus is on physical quantities found in descriptions of physical processes that water will eventually boil if you heat it on a stove, that a ball placed at the top of a steep ramp continuous properties can appear in written natural language. Our focus is on physical quantities found

  7. Extracting three-body observables from finite-volume quantities

    E-print Network

    Maxwell T. Hansen

    2015-11-15

    Scattering and transition amplitudes with three-hadron final states play an important role in nuclear and particle physics. However, predicting such quantities using numerical Lattice QCD is very difficult, in part because of the effects of Euclidean time and finite volume. In this review we highlight recent formal developments that work towards overcoming these issues. We organize the presentation into three parts: large volume expansions, non-relativistic nonperturbative analyses, and nonperturbative studies based in relativistic field theory. In the first part we discuss results for ground state energies and matrix elements given by expanding in inverse box length, $1/L$. We describe complications that arise at $\\mathcal O(1/L^6)$ and include a table summarizing the results of different calculations. In the second part we summarize three recent non-relativistic non-perturbative studies and highlight the main conclusions of these works. This includes demonstrating that the three-particle finite-volume spectrum is determined, up to exponentially suppressed effects, by on-shell amplitudes, as well as recovering a finite-volume quantization condition for scattering a stable particle off a two-particle bound state. In this part we also highlight recent work concerning a three-particle bound state in a finite volume. In the third and final part, we review recent work based in non-perturbative relativistic field theory. Here the finite-volume spectrum has been related to an intermediate infinite-volume quantity which itself is related via a known integral equation to the relativistic, model-independent three-particle scattering amplitude. We motivate the appearance of the intermediate quantity, explain how it is related to the standard amplitude, and discuss prospects for using the result to constrain three-particle observables.

  8. Two-Higgs-doublet model in terms of observable quantities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginzburg, I. F.; Kanishev, K. A.

    2015-07-01

    We found a minimal and a comprehensive set of directly measurable quantities defining the most general two-Higgs-doublet model (2HDM); we call these quantities observables. The potential parameters of the model are expressed explicitly via these observables (plus nonphysical parameters which are similar to gauge parameters). The model with arbitrary values of these observables can, in principle, be realized (up to general enough limitations). Our results open the door for the study of Higgs models in terms of measurable quantities only. The experimental limitations can be implemented here directly, without complex, often model-dependent, analysis of the Lagrangian coefficients. The principal opportunity to determine all parameters of the 2HDM from the (future) data meets strong practical limitation. It is the problem for a very long time. Apart from this construction per se, we also obtain some by-products. Among them are the following: a simple criterium for charge parity symmetry (C P ) conservation in the 2HDM, a new sum rules for Higgs couplings, a clear possibility of the coexistence of relatively light Higgses with the strong interaction in the Higgs sector, and a simple expression for the triple Higgs vertex g (hahaha) , useful for the analysis of future h h h coupling measurements.

  9. Can the Lorenz-Gauge Potentials Be Considered Physical Quantities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heras, Jose A.; Fernandez-Anaya, Guillermo

    2010-01-01

    Two results support the idea that the scalar and vector potentials in the Lorenz gauge can be considered to be physical quantities: (i) they separately satisfy the properties of causality and propagation at the speed of light and do not imply spurious terms and (ii) they can naturally be written in a manifestly covariant form. In this paper we…

  10. Extracting three-body observables from finite-volume quantities

    E-print Network

    Hansen, Maxwell T

    2015-01-01

    Scattering and transition amplitudes with three-hadron final states play an important role in nuclear and particle physics. However, predicting such quantities using numerical Lattice QCD is very difficult, in part because of the effects of Euclidean time and finite volume. In this review we highlight recent formal developments that work towards overcoming these issues. We organize the presentation into three parts: large volume expansions, non-relativistic nonperturbative analyses, and nonperturbative studies based in relativistic field theory. In the first part we discuss results for ground state energies and matrix elements given by expanding in inverse box length, $1/L$. We describe complications that arise at $\\mathcal O(1/L^6)$ and include a table summarizing the results of different calculations. In the second part we summarize three recent non-relativistic non-perturbative studies and highlight the main conclusions of these works. This includes demonstrating that the three-particle finite-volume spect...

  11. WHAT PHYSICAL QUANTITIES MAKE SENSE IN NONEQUILIBRIUM STATISTICAL MECHANICS?

    E-print Network

    Ruelle, David

    increases. There is a great variety of nonequilibrium phenomena, including chemical reactions, and the so, are operationally definable. One can associate with equilibrium states some quantities, notably temperature level. In nonequilibrium thermodynamics "things happen": heat is transferred, temperature may depend

  12. Heisenberg uncertainty principle and economic analogues of basic physical quantities

    E-print Network

    Soloviev, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    From positions, attained by modern theoretical physics in understanding of the universe bases, the methodological and philosophical analysis of fundamental physical concepts and their formal and informal connections with the real economic measurings is carried out. Procedures for heterogeneous economic time determination, normalized economic coordinates and economic mass are offered, based on the analysis of time series, the concept of economic Plank's constant has been proposed. The theory has been approved on the real economic dynamic's time series, including stock indices, Forex and spot prices, the achieved results are open for discussion.

  13. Heisenberg uncertainty principle and economic analogues of basic physical quantities

    E-print Network

    Vladimir Soloviev; Vladimir Saptsin

    2011-11-10

    From positions, attained by modern theoretical physics in understanding of the universe bases, the methodological and philosophical analysis of fundamental physical concepts and their formal and informal connections with the real economic measurings is carried out. Procedures for heterogeneous economic time determination, normalized economic coordinates and economic mass are offered, based on the analysis of time series, the concept of economic Plank's constant has been proposed. The theory has been approved on the real economic dynamic's time series, including stock indices, Forex and spot prices, the achieved results are open for discussion.

  14. W, F, and I : Three quantities basic to radiation physics.

    SciTech Connect

    Inokuti, M.

    1998-11-11

    The W value is an index of the mean number of ions produced in a gas subjected to ionizing radiation. Formally, it is defined as the radiation energy absorbed (usually expressed in units of eV) ''per ion pair of either sign produced'', or, in a simpler language, ''per electron liberated''. The basic knowledge up to 1961 is eloquently articulated in a classic essay by Platzman [1], which Professor Doke loves to cite. The theme of Platzman was to explain from the point of view of basic physics the magnitude and characteristics of the ratio W/I, where I is the (first) ionization threshold energy. In summary, major characteristics are as follows. (1) The W value for a given gas depends weakly on the properties of the radiation such as the mass and charge of particles or initial energies (provided they are sufficiently high). This makes the ionization measurement useful as a method of dosimetry, viz., the determination of the absorbed energy. (2) The ratio W/I is always greater than unity because a part of the absorbed energy must be used in nonionizing events such as discrete excitation or molecular dissociation into neutral fragments and also in producing subexcitation electrons, viz., electrons with kinetic energies too low to cause electronic excitation or ionization [2]. (3) The ratio W/I is 1.7-1.8 for rare gases, and 2.1-2.6 for gases of common molecules (depending on the electronic structure, going from ''hard'' to ''soft''). Calculation of the W value is possible from three approaches: (i) the energy balance of Platzman, heuristic for general understanding and appropriate for an estimate; (ii) the Fowler equation [3] for the direct evaluation of the mean number of ions produced; and (iii) the method of Spencer and Fano [4] through the degradation spectra (or the track length distributions) of charged particles, most importantly of electrons, present in the medium. The Fowler method is good for obtaining the mean number of ions or excited states resulting from the incidence of particles of relatively low energies, while the Spencer-Fano method is good for the incidence of high-energy particles.

  15. Calculation of ex-core physical quantities using the 3D importance functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trakas, Christos; De Laubiere, Xavier

    2014-06-01

    Diverse physical quantities are calculated in engineering studies with penalizing hypotheses to assure the required operation margins for each reactor. Today, these physical quantities are obtained by direct calculations from deterministic or Monte Carlo codes. The related states are critical or sub-critical. The current physical quantities are for example: the SRD counting rates (source range detector) in the sub-critical state, the IRD (intermediary range detector) and PRD (power range detector) counting rates (neutron particles only), the deposited energy in the reflector (neutron + photon particles), the fluence or the DPA (displacement per atom) in the reactor vessel (neutron particles only). The reliability of the proposed methodology is tested in the EPR reactor. The main advantage of the new methodology is the simplicity to obtain the physical quantities by an easy matrix calculation importance linked to nuclear power sources for all the cycles of the reactor. This method also allows to by-pass the direct calculations of the physical quantity of irradiated cores by Monte Carlo Codes, these calculations being impossible today (too many isotopic concentrations / MCNP5 limit). This paper presents the first feasibility study for the physical quantities calculation outside of the core by the importance method instead of the direct calculations used currently by AREVA.

  16. The Scientific Method and Physical Quantities Covers Chapters 1.11.2

    E-print Network

    Cinabro, David

    The Scientific Method and Physical Quantities Covers Chapters 1.1­1.2 The scientific method on the scientific method is called science. Physics is the science that seeks to discover the basic ways in which was one of the founder of this method. The process of building up a body of knowledge based

  17. Physical quantities in the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formalisms for systems with constraints

    SciTech Connect

    Chaichian, M. Centre de Physique Theorique, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Luminy, Case 907, 13288 Marseille ); Martinez, D.L. Grupo de Fisica Teorica, Instituto de Cibernetica, Matematica y Fisica, Academia de Ciencias de Cuba, Calle E, No. 309, Vedado, Habana 4 )

    1992-08-15

    The conditions a function must obey to be considered as a physical quantity are studied in the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formalisms. A proof of the equivalence of these conditions is given for the systems having primary and secondary first-class Hamiltonian constraints.

  18. Quantity and Quality of Practice: Interrelationships between Task Organization and Student Skill Level in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastie, Peter A.; Calderon, Antonio; Palao, Jose; Ortega, Enrique

    2011-01-01

    In terms of planning and achieving student learning in physical education, important variables that influence this goal include task organization, quantity and quality of practice, task structure, communication with students or feedback, appropriateness of the skills, and motivational climate. With respect to the construct of quality practice…

  19. Physics 343 Observational Radio Astronomy

    E-print Network

    Gustafsson, Torgny

    Physics 343 Observational Radio Astronomy course number = 01:750:343 web page = http Textbook: none. Three useful books will be placed on reserve, and an online "Essential Radio Astronomy; Lectures We'll talk about material relevant to the labs, but also about radio astronomy in general

  20. Space and time dependent scaling of numbers in mathematical structures: Effects on physical and geometric quantities

    E-print Network

    Paul Benioff

    2015-08-07

    The relationship between the foundations of mathematics and physics is a topic of of much interest. This paper continues this exploration by examination of the effect of space and time dependent number scaling on theoretical descriptions of some physical and geometric quantities. Fiber bundles provide a good framework to introduce a space and time or space time dependent number scaling field. The effect of the scaling field on a few nonlocal physical and geometric quantities is described. The effect on gauge theories is to introduce a new complex scalar field into the derivatives appearing in Lagrangians. U(1) invariance of Lagrangian terms does not affect the real part of the scaling field. For this field, any mass is possible. The scaling field is also shown to affect quantum wave packets and path lengths, and geodesic equations even on flat space. Scalar fields described so far in physics, are possible candidates for the scaling field. The lack of direct evidence for the field in physics restricts the scaling field in that the gradient of the field must be close to zero in a local region of cosmological space and time. There are no restrictions outside the region. It is also seen that the scaling field does not affect comparisons of computation or measurements outputs with one another. However it does affect the assignment of numerical values to the outputs of computations or measurements. These are needed because theory predictions are in terms of numerical values.

  1. Nature of the Physical Observer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osoroma, Drahcir S.

    2010-12-01

    The nature of the observer has long plagued physical science. Here we review the current status of cognitive science in the context of a cosmology of mind in an Anthropic Multiverse. The concept of an élan vital or life force has long been considered the elementary action principle driving the evolution of living-systems by theologically minded scientists and individuals. Sufficiently extending Einstein's original model of a Static Universe, to a Holographic Anthropic Multiverse (HAM), provides a context for solving this centuries old problem for introducing this type of teleological principle into Physics, Biology, Medicine and Psychology. This means the contemporary framework of biological mechanism should no longer be considered the formal philosophical basis for describing living systems and contemporary allopathic (scientific) medicine. The new noetic action principle has far reaching implications for medicine and transpersonal psychology.

  2. The $p?n$ fractal decomposition: Nontrivial partitions of conserved physical quantities

    E-print Network

    Vladimir Garcia-Morales

    2015-11-20

    A mathematical method for constructing fractal curves and surfaces, termed the $p\\lambda n$ fractal decomposition, is presented. It allows any function to be split into a finite set of fractal discontinuous functions whose sum is equal everywhere to the original function. Thus, the method is specially suited for constructing families of fractal objects arising from a conserved physical quantity, the decomposition yielding an exact partition of the quantity in question. Most prominent classes of examples are provided by Hamiltonians and partition functions of statistical ensembles: By using this method, any such function can be decomposed in the ordinary sum of a specified number of terms (generally fractal functions), the decomposition being both exact and valid everywhere on the domain of the function.

  3. THE QUANTITY OF INTRACLUSTER LIGHT: COMPARING THEORETICAL AND OBSERVATIONAL MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUES USING SIMULATED CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Rudick, Craig S.; Mihos, J. Christopher; McBride, Cameron K.

    2011-05-01

    Using a suite of N-body simulations of galaxy clusters specifically tailored to studying the intracluster light (ICL) component, we measure the quantity of ICL using a number of different methods previously employed in the literature for both observational and simulation data sets. By measuring the ICL of the clusters using multiple techniques, we are able to identify systematic differences in how each detection method identifies the ICL. We find that techniques which define the ICL solely based on the current position of the cluster luminosity, such as a surface brightness or local density threshold, tend to find less ICL than methods utilizing time or velocity information, including stellar particles' density history or binding energy. The range of ICL fractions (the fraction of the clusters' total luminosity found in the ICL component) we measure at z = 0 across all our clusters using any definition spans the range 9%-36%, and even within a single cluster different methods can change the measured ICL fraction by up to a factor of two. Separating the cluster's central galaxy from the surrounding ICL component is a challenge for all ICL techniques, and because the ICL is centrally concentrated within the cluster, the differences in the measured ICL quantity between techniques are largely a consequence of this central galaxy/ICL separation. We thoroughly explore the free parameters involved with each measurement method, and find that adjusting these parameters can change the measured ICL fraction by up to a factor of two. The choice of ICL definition does not strongly affect the ICL's ability to trace the major features of the cluster's dynamical evolution. While for all definitions the quantity of ICL tends to increase with time, the ICL fraction does not grow at a uniform rate, nor even monotonically under some definitions. Thus, the ICL can be used as a rough indicator of dynamical age, where more dynamically advanced clusters will on average have higher ICL fractions.

  4. A Systematic Review of Mapping Strategies for the Sonification of Physical Quantities

    PubMed Central

    Dubus, Gaël; Bresin, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    The field of sonification has progressed greatly over the past twenty years and currently constitutes an established area of research. This article aims at exploiting and organizing the knowledge accumulated in previous experimental studies to build a foundation for future sonification works. A systematic review of these studies may reveal trends in sonification design, and therefore support the development of design guidelines. To this end, we have reviewed and analyzed 179 scientific publications related to sonification of physical quantities. Using a bottom-up approach, we set up a list of conceptual dimensions belonging to both physical and auditory domains. Mappings used in the reviewed works were identified, forming a database of 495 entries. Frequency of use was analyzed among these conceptual dimensions as well as higher-level categories. Results confirm two hypotheses formulated in a preliminary study: pitch is by far the most used auditory dimension in sonification applications, and spatial auditory dimensions are almost exclusively used to sonify kinematic quantities. To detect successful as well as unsuccessful sonification strategies, assessment of mapping efficiency conducted in the reviewed works was considered. Results show that a proper evaluation of sonification mappings is performed only in a marginal proportion of publications. Additional aspects of the publication database were investigated: historical distribution of sonification works is presented, projects are classified according to their primary function, and the sonic material used in the auditory display is discussed. Finally, a mapping-based approach for characterizing sonification is proposed. PMID:24358192

  5. Quantity and quantity value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mari, Luca; Giordani, Alessandro

    2012-12-01

    The concept system around ‘quantity’ and ‘quantity value’ is fundamental for measurement science, but some very basic issues are still open on such concepts and their relation. This paper argues that quantity values are in fact individual quantities, and that a complementarity exists between measurands and quantity values. This proposal is grounded on the analysis of three basic ‘equality’ relations: (i) between quantities, (ii) between quantity values and (iii) between quantities and quantity values. A consistent characterization of such concepts is obtained, which is then generalized to ‘property’ and ‘property value’. This analysis also throws some light on the elusive concept of magnitude. A preliminary version of this paper was presented and discussed at the Joint International IMEKO TC1, TC7 & TC13 Symposium, 31 August to 2 September 2011, Jena, Germany.

  6. 10 CFR 37.73 - Applicability of physical protection of category 1 and category 2 quantities of radioactive...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... category 2 quantities of radioactive material during transit. 37.73 Section 37.73 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY... Protection in Transit § 37.73 Applicability of physical protection of category 1 and category 2 quantities of radioactive material during transit. (a) For shipments of category 1 quantities of radioactive material,...

  7. Magnetars: the physics behind observations

    E-print Network

    Turolla, Roberto; Watts, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Magnetars are the strongest magnets in the present universe and the combination of extreme magnetic field, gravity and density makes them unique laboratories to probe current physical theories (from quantum electrodynamics to general relativity) in the strong field limit. Magnetars are observed as peculiar, burst--active X-ray pulsars, the Anomalous X-ray Pulsars (AXPs) and the Soft Gamma Repeaters (SGRs); the latter emitted also three "giant flares," extremely powerful events during which luminosities can reach up to 10^47 erg/s for about one second. The last five years have witnessed an explosion in magnetar research which has led, among other things, to the discovery of transient, or "outbursting," and "low-field" magnetars. Substantial progress has been made also on the theoretical side. Quite detailed models for explaining the magnetars' persistent X-ray emission, the properties of the bursts, the flux evolution in transient sources have been developed and confronted with observations. New insight on neu...

  8. Evidence for direct retrieval of relative quantity information in a quantity judgment task: Decimals, integers, and the role of physical similarity

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Dale J.

    2010-01-01

    Participants' reaction times in numerical judgment tasks in which one must determine which of two numbers are greater generally follow a monotonically decreasing function of the numerical distance between the two presented numbers. Here, I present three experiments that assess the relative influences of numerical distance and physical similarity in just such a task using integers and decimals as stimuli. The data reveal that numerical distance is the primary feature controlling participants' RTs when integers are presented. However, the physical similarity between the decade place of the standard and the probe is the primary feature controlling participants' RTs when decimals are presented. I conclude that the unique qualities of decimals do not lend themselves to share the place coding representation of integers, thus a direct retrieval mechanism for judging the relative quantity of decimals has developed. PMID:20804282

  9. Observational physics of mirror world

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khlopov, M. YA.; Beskin, G. M.; Bochkarev, N. E.; Pustilnik, L. A.; Pustilnik, S. A.

    1989-01-01

    The existence of the whole world of shadow particles, interacting with each other and having no mutual interactions with ordinary particles except gravity is a specific feature of modern superstring models, being considered as models of the theory of everything. The presence of shadow particles is the necessary condition in the superstring models, providing compensation of the asymmetry of left and right chirality states of ordinary particles. If compactification of additional dimensions retains the symmetry of left and right states, shadow world turns to be the mirror one, with particles and fields having properties strictly symmetrical to the ones of corresponding ordinary particles and fields. Owing to the strict symmetry of physical laws for ordinary and mirror particles, the analysis of cosmological evolution of mirror matter provides rather definite conclusions on possible effects of mirror particles in the universe. A general qualitative discussion of possible astronomical impact of mirror matter is given, in order to make as wide as possible astronomical observational searches for the effects of mirror world, being the unique way to test the existence of mirror partners of ordinary particles in the Nature.

  10. A wireless interrogation system exploiting narrowband acoustic resonator for remote physical quantity measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedt, J.-M.; Droit, C.; Martin, G.; Ballandras, S.

    2010-01-01

    Monitoring physical quantities using acoustic wave devices can be advantageously achieved using the wave characteristic dependence to various parametric perturbations (temperature, stress, and pressure). Surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonators are particularly well suited to such applications as their resonance frequency is directly influenced by these perturbations, modifying both the phase velocity and resonance conditions. Moreover, the intrinsic radio frequency (rf) nature of these devices makes them ideal for wireless applications, mainly exploiting antennas reciprocity and piezoelectric reversibility. In this paper, we present a wireless SAW sensor interrogation unit operating in the 434 MHz centered ISM band—selected as a tradeoff between antenna dimensions and electromagnetic wave penetration in dielectric media—based on the principles of a frequency sweep network analyzer. We particularly focus on the compliance with the ISM standard which reveals complicated by the need for switching from emission to reception modes similarly to radar operation. In this matter, we propose a fully digital rf synthesis chain to develop various interrogation strategies to overcome the corresponding difficulties and comply with the above-mentioned standard. We finally assess the reader interrogation range, accuracy, and dynamics.

  11. A wireless interrogation system exploiting narrowband acoustic resonator for remote physical quantity measurement.

    PubMed

    Friedt, J-M; Droit, C; Martin, G; Ballandras, S

    2010-01-01

    Monitoring physical quantities using acoustic wave devices can be advantageously achieved using the wave characteristic dependence to various parametric perturbations (temperature, stress, and pressure). Surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonators are particularly well suited to such applications as their resonance frequency is directly influenced by these perturbations, modifying both the phase velocity and resonance conditions. Moreover, the intrinsic radio frequency (rf) nature of these devices makes them ideal for wireless applications, mainly exploiting antennas reciprocity and piezoelectric reversibility. In this paper, we present a wireless SAW sensor interrogation unit operating in the 434 MHz centered ISM band--selected as a tradeoff between antenna dimensions and electromagnetic wave penetration in dielectric media--based on the principles of a frequency sweep network analyzer. We particularly focus on the compliance with the ISM standard which reveals complicated by the need for switching from emission to reception modes similarly to radar operation. In this matter, we propose a fully digital rf synthesis chain to develop various interrogation strategies to overcome the corresponding difficulties and comply with the above-mentioned standard. We finally assess the reader interrogation range, accuracy, and dynamics. PMID:20113119

  12. The composition of a quad of buildings sector energy: Physical, economic, and environmental quantities

    SciTech Connect

    Secrest, T.J.; Nicholls, A.K.

    1990-07-01

    In an analysis conducted for the US Department of Energy Office of Building Technologies (OBT), the Pacific Northwest Laboratory examined the fuel type composition of energy consumed in the US buildings sector. Numerical estimates were developed for the physical quantities of fuel consumed, as well as of the fossil fuel emissions (carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides) and nuclear spent fuel byproducts associated with that consumption. Electric generating requirements and the economic values associated with energy consumption also were quantified. These variables were quantified for a generic quad (1 quadrillion Btu) of primary energy for the years 1987 and 2010, to illustrate the impacts of a fuel-neutral reduction in buildings sector energy use, and for specific fuel types, to enable meaningful comparisons of benefits achievable through various OBT research projects or technology developments. Two examples are provided to illustrate how these conversion factors may be used to quantify the impacts of energy savings potentially achievable through OBT building energy conservation efforts. 18 refs., 6 figs., 16 tabs.

  13. A wireless interrogation system exploiting narrowband acoustic resonator for remote physical quantity measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Friedt, J.-M; Droit, C.; Martin, G.; Ballandras, S.

    2010-01-15

    Monitoring physical quantities using acoustic wave devices can be advantageously achieved using the wave characteristic dependence to various parametric perturbations (temperature, stress, and pressure). Surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonators are particularly well suited to such applications as their resonance frequency is directly influenced by these perturbations, modifying both the phase velocity and resonance conditions. Moreover, the intrinsic radio frequency (rf) nature of these devices makes them ideal for wireless applications, mainly exploiting antennas reciprocity and piezoelectric reversibility. In this paper, we present a wireless SAW sensor interrogation unit operating in the 434 MHz centered ISM band--selected as a tradeoff between antenna dimensions and electromagnetic wave penetration in dielectric media--based on the principles of a frequency sweep network analyzer. We particularly focus on the compliance with the ISM standard which reveals complicated by the need for switching from emission to reception modes similarly to radar operation. In this matter, we propose a fully digital rf synthesis chain to develop various interrogation strategies to overcome the corresponding difficulties and comply with the above-mentioned standard. We finally assess the reader interrogation range, accuracy, and dynamics.

  14. A comparison of water vapor quantities from model short-range forecasts and ARM observations

    SciTech Connect

    Hnilo, J J

    2006-03-17

    Model evolution and improvement is complicated by the lack of high quality observational data. To address a major limitation of these measurements the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program was formed. For the second quarter ARM metric we will make use of new water vapor data that has become available, and called the 'Merged-sounding' value added product (referred to as OBS, within the text) at three sites: the North Slope of Alaska (NSA), Darwin Australia (DAR) and the Southern Great Plains (SGP) and compare these observations to model forecast data. Two time periods will be analyzed March 2000 for the SGP and October 2004 for both DAR and NSA. The merged-sounding data have been interpolated to 37 pressure levels (e.g., from 1000hPa to 100hPa at 25hPa increments) and time averaged to 3 hourly data for direct comparison to our model output.

  15. Variational symmetries, conserved quantities and identities for several equations of mathematical physics

    SciTech Connect

    Donchev, Veliko

    2014-03-15

    We find variational symmetries, conserved quantities and identities for several equations: envelope equation, Böcher equation, the propagation of sound waves with losses, flow of a gas with losses, and the nonlinear Schrödinger equation with losses or gains, and an electro-magnetic interaction. Most of these equations do not have a variational description with the classical variational principle and we find such a description with the generalized variational principle of Herglotz.

  16. Evaluations of Low-Energy Physical Quantities in QCD with IR Freezing of the Coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cveti?, Gorazd

    2014-06-01

    The -like schemes in QCD have in general the running coupling which contains Landau singularities, i.e., singularities outside the timelike semi-axis, at low squared momenta. As a consequence, evaluation of the spacelike quantities, such as current correlators, in terms of (powers of) such a coupling then results in quantities which contradict the basic principles of quantum field theories. On the other hand, in those QCD frameworks where the running coupling remains finite at low squared momenta (IR freezing), the coupling usually does not have Landau singularities in the complex plane of the squared momenta. I argue that in such QCD frameworks the spacelike quantities should not be evaluated as a power series, but rather as a series in derivatives of the coupling with respect to the logarithm of the squared momenta. Such series show considerably better convergence properties. Moreover, Padé-related resummations of such logarithmic derivative series give convergent series, thus eliminating the practical problem of series divergence due to renormalons.

  17. The Ubiquitous Quantities: Explorations That Inform the Design of Instruction on the Physical Properties of Matter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klopfer, L. E.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Explores high school student's postinstructional knowledge about mass, volume, weight, and density in terms of what students need to know to successfully solve academic physical science problems. Presents definitions of the concepts, discusses hypothesized knowledge deficiencies, and suggests implications for instructional design. (Contains 31…

  18. Solar Physics / Stellar Physics Comparison of observed and synthetic

    E-print Network

    Solar Physics / Stellar Physics Comparison of observed and synthetic solar granulation properties M on the simulations. Figure 1: Synthetic emergent intensity at l6708 š A (undegraded) for different heliocentric con­ trast as derived from the model (solid line) and as ob­ served (diamonds). For l 8000 š A

  19. The Built Environment Predicts Observed Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Cheryl; Wilson, Jeffrey S.; Schootman, Mario; Clennin, Morgan; Baker, Elizabeth A.; Miller, Douglas K.

    2014-01-01

    Background: In order to improve our understanding of the relationship between the built environment and physical activity, it is important to identify associations between specific geographic characteristics and physical activity behaviors. Purpose: Examine relationships between observed physical activity behavior and measures of the built environment collected on 291 street segments in Indianapolis and St. Louis. Methods: Street segments were selected using a stratified geographic sampling design to ensure representation of neighborhoods with different land use and socioeconomic characteristics. Characteristics of the built environment on-street segments were audited using two methods: in-person field audits and audits based on interpretation of Google Street View imagery with each method blinded to results from the other. Segments were dichotomized as having a particular characteristic (e.g., sidewalk present or not) based on the two auditing methods separately. Counts of individuals engaged in different forms of physical activity on each segment were assessed using direct observation. Non-parametric statistics were used to compare counts of physically active individuals on each segment with built environment characteristic. Results: Counts of individuals engaged in physical activity were significantly higher on segments with mixed land use or all non-residential land use, and on segments with pedestrian infrastructure (e.g., crosswalks and sidewalks) and public transit. Conclusion: Several micro-level built environment characteristics were associated with physical activity. These data provide support for theories that suggest changing the built environment and related policies may encourage more physical activity. PMID:24904916

  20. X ray timing observations and gravitational physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michelson, Peter F.; Wood, Kent S.

    1989-01-01

    Photon-rich x ray observations on bright compact galactic sources will make it possible to detect many fast processes that may occur in these systems on millisecond and submillisecond timescales. Many of these processes are of direct relevance to gravitational physics because they arise in regions of strong gravity near neutron stars and black holes where the dynamical timescales for compact objects of stellar mass are milliseconds. To date, such observations have been limited by the detector area and telemetry rates available. However, instruments such as the proposed X ray Large Array (XLA) would achieve collecting areas of about 100 sq m. This instrument has been described elsewhere (Wood and Michelson 1988) and was the subject of a recent prephase A feasibility study at Marshall Space Flight Center. Observations with an XLA class instrument will directly impact five primary areas of astrophysics research: the attempt to detect gravitational radiation, the study of black holes, the physics of mass accretion onto compact objects, the structure of neutron stars and nuclear matter, and the characterization of dark matter in the universe. Those observations are discussed that are most directly relevant to gravitational physics: the search for millisecond x ray pulsars that are potential sources of continuous gravitational radiation; and the use of x ray timing observations to probe the physical conditions in extreme relativistic regions of space near black holes, both stellar-sized and supermassive.

  1. The trinucleons: Physical observables and model properties

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, B.F.

    1992-01-01

    Our progress in understanding the properties of {sup 3}H and {sup 3}He in terms of a nonrelativistic Hamiltonian picture employing realistic nuclear forces is reviewed. Trinucleon model properties are summarized for a number of contemporary force models, and predictions for physical observables are presented. Disagreement between theoretical model results and experimental results are highlighted.

  2. Physical observations and taxonomy of asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, D.

    1978-01-01

    Physical asteroid observations are summarized and the classification scheme to describe asteroid surfaces in relation to mineralogical composition is detailed. The principle classes, distinguished on the basis of a number of parameters involving albedo and color, are called C, S, and M.

  3. European Marine Observation Data Network - EMODnet Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzella, Giuseppe M. R.; Novellino, Antonio; D'Angelo, Paolo; Gorringe, Patrick; Schaap, Dick; Pouliquen, Sylvie; Loubrieu, Thomas; Rickards, Lesley

    2015-04-01

    The EMODnet-Physics portal (www.emodnet-physics.eu) makes layers of physical data and their metadata available for use and contributes towards the definition of an operational European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet). It is based on a strong collaboration between EuroGOOS associates and its regional operational systems (ROOSs), and it is bringing together two very different marine communities: the "real time" ocean observing institute/centers and the National Oceanographic Data Centres (NODCs) that are in charge of ocean data validation, quality check and update for marine environmental monitoring. The EMODnet-Physics is a Marine Observation and Data Information System that provides a single point of access to near real time and historical achieved data (www.emodnet-physics.eu/map) it is built on existing infrastructure by adding value and avoiding any unless complexity, it provides data access to users, it is aimed at attracting new data holders, better and more data. With a long-term vision for a pan European Ocean Observation System sustainability, the EMODnet-Physics is supporting the coordination of the EuroGOOS Regional components and the empowerment and improvement of their data management infrastructure. In turn, EMODnet-Physics already implemented high-level interoperability features (WMS, Web catalogue, web services, etc…) to facilitate connection and data exchange with the ROOS and the Institutes within the ROOSs (www.emodnet-physics.eu/services). The on-going EMODnet-Physics structure delivers environmental marine physical data from the whole Europe (wave height and period, temperature of the water column, wind speed and direction, salinity of the water column, horizontal velocity of the water column, light attenuation, and sea level) as monitored by fixed stations, ARGO floats, drifting buoys, gliders, and ferry-boxes. It does provide discovering of data sets (both NRT - near real time - and Historical data sets), visualization and free download of data from more than 1500 platforms. The portal is composed mainly of three sections: the Map, the Selection List and the Station Info Panel. The Map is the core of the EMODnet-Physics system: here the user can access all available data, customize the map visualization and set different display layers. It is also possible to interact with all the information on the map using the filters provided by the service that can be used to select the stations of interest depending on the type, physical parameters measured, the time period of the observations in the database of the system, country of origin, the water basin of reference. It is also possible to browse the data in time by means of the slider in the lower part of the page that allows the user to view the stations that recorded data in a particular time period. Finally, it is possible to change the standard map view with different layers that provide additional visual information on the status of the waters. The Station Info panel available from the main map by clicking on a single platform provides information on the measurements carried out by the station. Moreover, the system provides full interoperability with third-party software through WMS service, Web Service and Web catalogue in order to exchange data and products according to the most recent interop standards. Further developments will ensure the compatibility to the OGS-SWE (Sensor Web Enablement) standard for the description of sensors and related observations using OpenGIS specifications (SensorML, O&M, SOS). The full list of services is available at www.emodnet-physics.eu/services. The result is an excellent example of innovative technologies for providing open and free access to geo-referenced data for the creation of new advanced (operational) oceanography services.

  4. A Holoinformational Model of the Physical Observer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biase, Francisco Di

    2013-09-01

    The author proposes a holoinformational view of the observer based, on the holonomic theory of brain/mind function and quantum brain dynamics developed by Karl Pribram, Sir John Eccles, R.L. Amoroso, Hameroff, Jibu and Yasue, and in the quantumholographic and holomovement theory of David Bohm. This conceptual framework is integrated with nonlocal information properties of the Quantum Field Theory of Umesawa, with the concept of negentropy, order, and organization developed by Shannon, Wiener, Szilard and Brillouin, and to the theories of self-organization and complexity of Prigogine, Atlan, Jantsch and Kauffman. Wheeler's "it from bit" concept of a participatory universe, and the developments of the physics of information made by Zureck and others with the concepts of statistical entropy and algorithmic entropy, related to the number of bits being processed in the mind of the observer are also considered. This new synthesis gives a self-organizing quantum nonlocal informational basis for a new model of awareness in a participatory universe. In this synthesis, awareness is conceived as meaningful quantum nonlocal information interconnecting the brain and the cosmos, by a holoinformational unified field (integrating nonlocal holistic (quantum) and local (Newtonian). We propose that the cosmology of the physical observer is this unified nonlocal quantum-holographic cosmos manifesting itself through awareness, interconnected in a participatory holistic and indivisible way the human mind-brain to all levels of the self-organizing holographic anthropic multiverse.

  5. Equilibration time scales of physically relevant observables

    E-print Network

    Luis Pedro García-Pintos; Noah Linden; Artur S. L. Malabarba; Anthony J. Short; Andreas Winter

    2015-09-18

    We address the problem of understanding from first principles the conditions under which a closed quantum system equilibrates rapidly with respect to a concrete observable. Previously known general upper bounds on the time scales of equilibration were extremely long, with times scaling linearly with the dimension of the Hilbert space. Moreover, these bounds proved to be tight, since particular constructions of observables scaling in this way were found. In this paper we provide a new upper bound on the equilibration time scales which shows, in fact, equilibration is much faster under some physically reasonable conditions. In particular, we apply this result to give bounds on the time scales of equilibration for a system interacting with a thermal bath which do not scale with the size of the bath.

  6. Magnetars: the physics behind observations. A review.

    PubMed

    Turolla, R; Zane, S; Watts, A L

    2015-11-01

    Magnetars are the strongest magnets in the present universe and the combination of extreme magnetic field, gravity and density makes them unique laboratories to probe current physical theories (from quantum electrodynamics to general relativity) in the strong field limit. Magnetars are observed as peculiar, burst-active x-ray pulsars, the anomalous x-ray pulsars (AXPs) and the soft gamma repeaters (SGRs); the latter emitted also three 'giant flares', extremely powerful events during which luminosities can reach up to 10(47)erg s(-1) for about one second. The last five years have witnessed an explosion in magnetar research which has led, among other things, to the discovery of transient, or 'outbursting', and 'low-field' magnetars. Substantial progress has been made also on the theoretical side. Quite detailed models for explaining the magnetars' persistent x-ray emission, the properties of the bursts, the flux evolution in transient sources have been developed and confronted with observations. New insight on neutron star asteroseismology has been gained through improved models of magnetar oscillations. The long-debated issue of magnetic field decay in neutron stars has been addressed, and its importance recognized in relation to the evolution of magnetars and to the links among magnetars and other families of isolated neutron stars. The aim of this paper is to present a comprehensive overview in which the observational results are discussed in the light of the most up-to-date theoretical models and their implications. This addresses not only the particular case of magnetar sources, but the more fundamental issue of how physics in strong magnetic fields can be constrained by the observations of these unique sources. PMID:26473534

  7. Magnetars: the physics behind observations. A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turolla, R.; Zane, S.; Watts, A. L.

    2015-11-01

    Magnetars are the strongest magnets in the present universe and the combination of extreme magnetic field, gravity and density makes them unique laboratories to probe current physical theories (from quantum electrodynamics to general relativity) in the strong field limit. Magnetars are observed as peculiar, burst–active x-ray pulsars, the anomalous x-ray pulsars (AXPs) and the soft gamma repeaters (SGRs); the latter emitted also three ‘giant flares’, extremely powerful events during which luminosities can reach up to 1047erg s?1 for about one second. The last five years have witnessed an explosion in magnetar research which has led, among other things, to the discovery of transient, or ‘outbursting’, and ‘low-field’ magnetars. Substantial progress has been made also on the theoretical side. Quite detailed models for explaining the magnetars’ persistent x-ray emission, the properties of the bursts, the flux evolution in transient sources have been developed and confronted with observations. New insight on neutron star asteroseismology has been gained through improved models of magnetar oscillations. The long-debated issue of magnetic field decay in neutron stars has been addressed, and its importance recognized in relation to the evolution of magnetars and to the links among magnetars and other families of isolated neutron stars. The aim of this paper is to present a comprehensive overview in which the observational results are discussed in the light of the most up-to-date theoretical models and their implications. This addresses not only the particular case of magnetar sources, but the more fundamental issue of how physics in strong magnetic fields can be constrained by the observations of these unique sources.

  8. If physics is an information science, what is an observer?

    E-print Network

    Chris Fields

    2012-02-11

    Interpretations of quantum theory have traditionally assumed a "Galilean" observer, a bare "point of view" implemented physically by a quantum system. This paper investigates the consequences of replacing such an informationally-impoverished observer with an observer that satisfies the requirements of classical automata theory, i.e. an observer that encodes sufficient prior information to identify the system being observed and recognize its acceptable states. It shows that with reasonable assumptions about the physical dynamics of information channels, the observations recorded by such an observer will display the typical characteristics predicted by quantum theory, without requiring any specific assumptions about the observer's physical implementation.

  9. PHYSICAL REVIEW E 91, 022207 (2015) Statistics of conserved quantities in mechanically stable packings of frictionless disks above jamming

    E-print Network

    Teitel, Stephen L.

    2015-01-01

    packings of frictionless disks above jamming Yegang Wu and S. Teitel Department of Physics and Astronomy in two dimensions, above the jamming packing fraction J . For configurations with a fixed isotropic of jammed packings. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.91.022207 PACS number(s): 45.70.-n, 05.40.-a, 46.65.+g I

  10. Black hole physics entering a new observational era

    E-print Network

    Gourgoulhon, Eric

    Black hole physics entering a new observational era ´Eric Gourgoulhon Laboratoire Univers et Th´eorique Tours, 29 November 2012 ´Eric Gourgoulhon (LUTH) Black holes physics entering a new observational era FDP, Tours, 29 November 2012 1 / 58 #12;Outline 1 Part 1 What is a black hole ? Overview of the black

  11. Black hole physics: recent developments and observational perspectives

    E-print Network

    Gourgoulhon, Eric

    Black hole physics: recent developments and observational perspectives ´Eric Gourgoulhon'Astrophysique Fran¸caise Montpellier, France 5 May 2013 ´Eric Gourgoulhon (LUTH) Black hole physics: new perspectives SF2A, Montpellier, 5 May 2013 1 / 45 #12;Outline 1 The current observational status of black holes

  12. An efficient algorithm for prioritizing NEA physical observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortese, M.; Perozzi, E.; Borgia, B.; Micheli, M.; D'Abramo, G.; Dotto, E.; Mazzotta Epifani, E.; Ieva, S.; Barucci, M. A.; Perna, D.

    2015-10-01

    The present NEA discovery rate has overcome 1500 objects per year thus calling for extensive observation campaigns devoted to physical characterization. A tool is presented which, through a prioritization algorithm, aims to optimize the planning and the execution of NEA physical observations.

  13. Millikan award lecture: Students of physics—Listeners, observers, or collaborative participants in physics scientific practices?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etkina, Eugenia

    2015-08-01

    This article is a written version of my acceptance speech upon receiving the Millikan Medal at the 2014 Summer AAPT meeting. In the talk I shared an approach to learning and teaching physics that engages students learning introductory physics in the processes that physicists use to construct physics concepts, physical quantities, and equations, as well as to solve problems. This article describes the origins of the method, its characteristic features, research on its implementation, and available resources.

  14. Physical fitness training reference manual for security force personnel at fuel cycle facilities possessing formula quantities of special nuclear materials

    SciTech Connect

    Arzino, P.A.; Caplan, C.S.; Goold, R.E. . Foundation)

    1991-09-01

    The recommendations contained throughout this NUREG are being provided to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) as a reference manual which can be used by licensee management as they develop a program plan for the safe participation of guards, Tactical Response Team members (TRTs), and all other armed response personnel in physical fitness training and in physical performance standards testing. The information provided in this NUREG will help licensees to determine if guards, TRTs, and other armed response personnel can effectively perform their normal and emergency duties without undue hazard to themselves, to fellow employees, to the plant site, and to the general public. The recommendations in this NUREG are similar in part to those contained within the Department of Energy (DOE) Medical and Fitness Implementation Guide which was published in March 1991. The guidelines contained in this NUREG are not requirements, and compliance is not required. 25 refs.

  15. Observable quantities in satellite gradiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermeer, Martin

    1990-12-01

    It is shown that, even in the presence of small attitude uncertainties, the gravitational gradient tensor actually has three independent invariants, instead of the two found by Sacerdote and Sanso (1989) and Holota (1988). It is also shown that the influence of angular rotation on gradiometric measurements can be eliminated by using the first differences of the measurement time series obtained. This also reauires the extraction of the angular acceleration rate from the sensor measurements. The adaptation of this technique to the planar sensor array proposed for Aristoteles is examined.

  16. Physical observables in the decay ?b ? ?c(? ? + ?) + ?? + ?¯?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habyl, N.; Gutsche, Thomas; Ivanov, Mikhail A.; Körner, Jürgen G.; Lyubovitskij, Valery E.; Santorelli, Pietro

    2015-11-01

    We analyze the tauonic semileptonic baryon decays ?b0 ? ? c+ + ?? + ?¯ ? with particular emphasis on the lepton helicity flip contributions which vanish for zero lepton masses. We calculate the total rate, differential decay distributions, the longitudinal and transverse polarization components of the ?c+ and the ??, and the lepton-side forward-backward asymmetries. We use the covariant confined quark model to provide numerical results on these observables.

  17. Urban Mining: Quality and quantity of recyclable and recoverable material mechanically and physically extractable from residual waste

    SciTech Connect

    Di Maria, Francesco Micale, Caterina; Sordi, Alessio; Cirulli, Giuseppe; Marionni, Moreno

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • Material recycling and recovery from residual waste by physical and mechanical process has been investigated. • About 6% of recyclable can be extracted by NIR and 2-3Dimension selector. • Another 2% of construction materials can be extracted by adopting modified soil washing process. • Extracted material quality is quite high even some residual heavy metal have been detected by leaching test. - Abstract: The mechanically sorted dry fraction (MSDF) and Fines (<20 mm) arising from the mechanical biological treatment of residual municipal solid waste (RMSW) contains respectively about 11% w/w each of recyclable and recoverable materials. Processing a large sample of MSDF in an existing full-scale mechanical sorting facility equipped with near infrared and 2-3 dimensional selectors led to the extraction of about 6% w/w of recyclables with respect to the RMSW weight. Maximum selection efficiency was achieved for metals, about 98% w/w, whereas it was lower for Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE), about 2% w/w. After a simulated lab scale soil washing treatment it was possible to extract about 2% w/w of inert exploitable substances recoverable as construction materials, with respect to the amount of RMSW. The passing curve showed that inert materials were mainly sand with a particle size ranging from 0.063 to 2 mm. Leaching tests showed quite low heavy metal concentrations with the exception of the particles retained by the 0.5 mm sieve. A minimum pollutant concentration was in the leachate from the 10 and 20 mm particle size fractions.

  18. 19. Detail of southeast corner of physical plant showing observation ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Detail of southeast corner of physical plant showing observation lookout (view is looking northwest) - Skinner Meat Packing Plant, Main Plant, 6006 South Twenty-seventh Street, Omaha, Douglas County, NE

  19. Quantities, Units, and Symbols.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Royal Society, London (England).

    This booklet provides a reference to the quantities, units, and their symbols which are used in physical science. It is a revision of a 1969 report and takes account of the progress which has been made in obtaining international agreement on the definitions, names, and symbols for units and on the rules for the expression of relations involving…

  20. 38 CFR 17.41 - Persons eligible for hospital observation and physical examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...eligible for hospital observation and physical examination. Hospitalization for observation and physical (including mental) examination...necessary to determine their mental or physical fitness to perform official duties....

  1. 38 CFR 17.41 - Persons eligible for hospital observation and physical examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...eligible for hospital observation and physical examination. Hospitalization for observation and physical (including mental) examination...necessary to determine their mental or physical fitness to perform official duties....

  2. Observed and physical properties of type II plateau supernovae

    E-print Network

    Mario Hamuy

    2003-10-01

    I use photometry and spectroscopy data for 24 Type II plateau supernovae to examine their observed and physical properties. This dataset shows that these objects encompass a wide range in their observed properties (plateau luminosities, tail luminosities, and expansion velocities) and their physical parameters (explosion energies, ejected masses, initial radii, and 56Ni yields). Several regularities emerge within this diversity, which reveal (1) a continuum in the properties of Type II plateau supernovae, (2) a one parameter family (at least to first order), (3) evidence that stellar mass plays a central role in the physics of core collapse and the fate of massive stars.

  3. Information-Based Physics: An Observer-Centric Foundation

    E-print Network

    Kevin H. Knuth

    2013-10-07

    It is generally believed that physical laws, reflecting an inherent order in the universe, are ordained by nature. However, in modern physics the observer plays a central role raising questions about how an observer-centric physics can result in laws apparently worthy of a universal nature-centric physics. Over the last decade, we have found that the consistent apt quantification of algebraic and order-theoretic structures results in calculi that possess constraint equations taking the form of what are often considered to be physical laws. I review recent derivations of the formal relations among relevant variables central to special relativity, probability theory and quantum mechanics in this context by considering a problem where two observers form consistent descriptions of and make optimal inferences about a free particle that simply influences them. I show that this approach to describing such a particle based only on available information leads to the mathematics of relativistic quantum mechanics as well as a description of a free particle that reproduces many of the basic properties of a fermion. The result is an approach to foundational physics where laws derive from both consistent descriptions and optimal information-based inferences made by embedded observers.

  4. Search for physics beyond the Standard Model using jet observables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kousouris, Konstantinos

    2015-11-01

    Jet observables have been exploited extensively during the LHC Run 1 to search for physics beyond the Standard Model. In this article, the most recent results from the ATLAS and CMS collaborations are summarized. Data from proton-proton collisions at 7 and 8 TeV center-of-mass energy have been analyzed to study monojet, dijet, and multijet final states, searching for a variety of new physics signals that include colored resonances, contact interactions, extra dimensions, and supersymmetric particles. The exhaustive searches with jets in Run 1 did not reveal any signal, and the results were used to put stringent exclusion limits on the new physics models.

  5. Panel discussion on chiral extrapolation of physical observables

    E-print Network

    Claude Bernard; Shoji Hashimoto; Derek B. Leinweber; Peter Lepage; Elisabetta Pallante; Stephen R. Sharpe; Hartmut Wittig

    2002-09-06

    This is an approximate reconstruction of the panel discussion on chiral extrapolation of physical observables. The session consisted of brief presentations from panelists, followed by responses from the panel, and concluded with questions and comments from the floor with answers from panelists. In the following, the panelists have summarized their statements, and the ensuing discussion has been approximately reconstructed from notes.

  6. (abstract) Physical Properties of 253 Mathilde from Groundbased Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Alan W.

    1996-01-01

    The only physical observations which predate the identifications of 253 Mathilde as a potential flyby target of NEAR were measurements of its absolute magnitude in reflected light and thermal radiometry by IRAS. Mathilde has been revealed to be an unusual object, of a class not previously visited by a spacecraft.

  7. The Impact of Transit Observations on Planetary Physics

    E-print Network

    Jonathan J. Fortney

    2008-01-31

    We highlight the importance of transit observations on understanding the physics of planetary atmospheres and interiors. Transmission spectra and emission spectra allow us to characterize this exotic atmospheres, which possess TiO, VO, H2O, CO, Na, and K, as principal absorbers. We calculate mass-radius relations for water-rock-iron and gas giant planets and examine these relations in light of current and future transit observations. A brief review is given of mechanisms that could lead to the large radii observed for some transiting planets.

  8. Colliding Bose-Einstein Condensates to Observe Efimov Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Yujun; Esry, B. D.; D'Incao, J. P.; Naegerl, H.-C.

    2010-03-19

    We explore the manifestation of Efimov physics through the collision energy dependence of the three-body scattering observables and propose that it can be measured by observing atom loss in collisions of Bose-Einstein condensates. Our study shows that log-periodic Efimov features in the scattering observables extend beyond the usual threshold regime to nonzero collision energies and result from two interfering pathways. Further, these oscillations have a one-to-one connection with the scattering length oscillations at zero energy and thus to Efimov states themselves.

  9. On Whether People Have the Capacity to Make Observations of Mutually Exclusive Physical Phenomena Simultaneously

    E-print Network

    D. M. Snyder

    2001-08-12

    It has been shown by Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen that in quantum mechanics either one of two different wave functions predicting specific values for quantities represented by non-commuting Hermitian operators can characterize the same physical existent, without a physical interaction responsible for which wave function occurs. This result means that one can make predictions regarding mutually exclusive features of a physical existent. It is important to ask whether people have the capacity to make observations of mutually exclusive phenomena. Our everyday experience informs us that a human observer is capable of observing only one set of physical circumstances at a time. Evidence from psychology, though, indicates that people may have the capacity to make observations of mutually exclusive physical phenomena, even though this capacity is not generally recognized. Working independently, Sigmund Freud and William James provided some of this evidence. How the nature of the quantum mechanical wave function is associated with the problem posed by Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen is addressed at the end of the paper.

  10. Using modern stellar observables to constrain stellar parameters and the physics of the stellar interior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Saders, Jennifer L.

    2014-05-01

    The current state and future evolution of a star is, in principle, specified by a only a few physical quantities: the mass, age, hydrogen, helium, and metal abundance. These same fundamental quantities are crucial for reconstructing the history of stellar systems ranging in scale from planetary systems to galaxies. However, the fundamental parameters are rarely directly observable, and we are forced to use proxies that are not always sensitive or unique functions of the stellar parameters we wish to determine. Imprecise or inaccurate determinations of the fundamental parameters often limit our ability to draw inferences about a given system. As new technologies, instruments, and observing techniques become available, the list of viable stellar observables increases, and we can explore new links between the observables and fundamental quantities in an effort to better characterize stellar systems. In the era of missions such as Kepler, time-domain observables such as the stellar rotation period and stellar oscillations are now available for an unprecedented number of stars, and future missions promise to further expand the sample. Furthermore, despite the successes of stellar evolution models, the processes and detailed structure of the deep stellar interior remains uncertain. Even in the case of well-measured, well understood stellar observables, the link to the underlying parameters contains uncertainties due to our imperfect understanding of stellar interiors. Model uncertainties arise from sources such as the treatment of turbulent convection, transport of angular momentum and mixing, and assumptions about the physical conditions of stellar matter. By carefully examining the sensitivity of stellar observables to physical processes operating within the star and model assumptions, we can design observational tests for the theory of stellar interiors. I propose a series of tools based on new or revisited stellar observables that can be used both to constrain stellar parameters and the physics of the interior. I examine how the acoustic signature of the location of the base of stellar convective envelopes can be used as an absolute abundance indicator, and describe a novel 3He-burning instability in low mass stars along with the observational signatures of such a process. Finally, I examine the manner in which stellar rotation, observed in a population of objects, can be used as a means to distinguish between different evolutionary states, masses, and ages. I emphasize that rotation periods can be used as age indicators (as often discussed in the literature), but that the interpretation of rotation periods must be made within the context of the full stellar population to arrive at accurate results.

  11. [The influence of movement's observation on recuperation after physical fatigue].

    PubMed

    Aleksandrov, A A; De?nekina, T S; Mattiasen, S É; Lyskov, E B

    2014-01-01

    The study aim was to investigate effects of mental activity, accompanied by mu-rhythm depression, on recuperation after physical fatigue. In a study participants performed 11 one minute bouts of static hand grip intermitted by 2 minutes restpauses. During pauses participants watched video with either dynamic hand grips (biological movements) or deformation of geometric figure (control). Obtained data showed there was a significant depression of mu-rhythm during biological movement's observation. There was significant fatigue of subjects in an exercise with physical activity, but there was no reliable influence of performed mental activity on recovery after fatigue. PMID:25710069

  12. A novel algorithm for the calculation of physical and biological irradiation quantities in scanned ion beam therapy: the beamlet superposition approach.

    PubMed

    Russo, G; Attili, A; Battistoni, G; Bertrand, D; Bourhaleb, F; Cappucci, F; Ciocca, M; Mairani, A; Milian, F M; Molinelli, S; Morone, M C; Muraro, S; Orts, T; Patera, V; Sala, P; Schmitt, E; Vivaldo, G; Marchetto, F

    2016-01-01

    The calculation algorithm of a modern treatment planning system for ion-beam radiotherapy should ideally be able to deal with different ion species (e.g. protons and carbon ions), to provide relative biological effectiveness (RBE) evaluations and to describe different beam lines. In this work we propose a new approach for ion irradiation outcomes computations, the beamlet superposition (BS) model, which satisfies these requirements. This model applies and extends the concepts of previous fluence-weighted pencil-beam algorithms to quantities of radiobiological interest other than dose, i.e. RBE- and LET-related quantities. It describes an ion beam through a beam-line specific, weighted superposition of universal beamlets. The universal physical and radiobiological irradiation effect of the beamlets on a representative set of water-like tissues is evaluated once, coupling the per-track information derived from FLUKA Monte Carlo simulations with the radiobiological effectiveness provided by the microdosimetric kinetic model and the local effect model. Thanks to an extension of the superposition concept, the beamlet irradiation action superposition is applicable for the evaluation of dose, RBE and LET distributions. The weight function for the beamlets superposition is derived from the beam phase space density at the patient entrance. A general beam model commissioning procedure is proposed, which has successfully been tested on the CNAO beam line. The BS model provides the evaluation of different irradiation quantities for different ions, the adaptability permitted by weight functions and the evaluation speed of analitical approaches. Benchmarking plans in simple geometries and clinical plans are shown to demonstrate the model capabilities. PMID:26630246

  13. Recognizing Prefixes in Scientific Quantities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sokolowski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Although recognizing prefixes in physical quantities is inherent for practitioners, it might not be inherent for students, who do not use prefixes in their everyday life experiences. This deficiency surfaces in AP Physics exams. For example, readers of an AP Physics exam reported "a common mistake of incorrectly converting nanometers to…

  14. The s Process: Nuclear Physics, Stellar Models, Observations

    E-print Network

    Kaeppeler, Franz; Bisterzo, Sara; Aoki, Wako

    2010-01-01

    Nucleosynthesis in the s process takes place in the He burning layers of low mass AGB stars and during the He and C burning phases of massive stars. The s process contributes about half of the element abundances between Cu and Bi in solar system material. Depending on stellar mass and metallicity the resulting s-abundance patterns exhibit characteristic features, which provide comprehensive information for our understanding of the stellar life cycle and for the chemical evolution of galaxies. The rapidly growing body of detailed abundance observations, in particular for AGB and post-AGB stars, for objects in binary systems, and for the very faint metal-poor population represents exciting challenges and constraints for stellar model calculations. Based on updated and improved nuclear physics data for the s-process reaction network, current models are aiming at ab initio solution for the stellar physics related to convection and mixing processes. Progress in the intimately related areas of observations, nuclear...

  15. Investigation of physical parameters in stellar flares observed by GINGA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, Robert A.

    1994-01-01

    This program involves analysis and interpretation of results from GINGA Large Area Counter (LAC) observations from a group of large stellar X-ray flares. All LAC data are re-extracted using the standard Hayashida method of LAC background subtraction and analyzed using various models available with the XSPEC spectral fitting program.Temperature-emission measure histories are available for a total of 5 flares observed by GINGA. These will be used to compare physical parameters of these flares with solar and stellar flare models.

  16. Investigation of physical parameters in stellar flares observed by GINGA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, Robert A.

    1994-01-01

    This program involves analysis and interpretation of results from GINGA Large Area Counter (LAC) observations from a group of large stellar x-ray flares. All LAC data are re-extracted using the standard Hayashida method of LAC background subtraction and analyzed using various models available with the XSPEC spectral fitting program. Temperature-emission measure histories are available for a total of 5 flares observed by GINGA. These will be used to compare physical parameters of these flares with solar and stellar flare models.

  17. Determination of meteoroid physical properties from tristatic radar observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kero, J.; Szasz, C.; Pellinen-Wannberg, A.; Wannberg, G.; Westman, A.; Meisel, D. D.

    2008-08-01

    In this work we give a review of the meteor head echo observations carried out with the tristatic 930 MHz EISCAT UHF radar system during four 24 h runs between 2002 and 2005 and compare these with earlier observations. A total number of 410 tristatic meteors were observed. We describe a method to determine the position of a compact radar target in the common volume monitored by the three receivers and demonstrate its applicability for meteor studies. The inferred positions of the meteor targets have been utilized to estimate their velocities, decelerations and directions of arrival as well as their radar cross sections with unprecedented accuracy. The velocity distribution of the meteoroids is bimodal with peaks at 35 40 km/s and 55 60 km/s, and ranges from 19 70 km/s. The estimated masses are between 10-9 10-5.5 kg. There are very few detections below 30 km/s. The observations are clearly biased to high-velocity meteoroids, but not so biased against slow meteoroids as has been presumed from previous tristatic measurements. Finally, we discuss how the radial deceleration observed with a monostatic radar depends on the meteoroid velocity and the angle between the trajectory and the beam. The finite beamwidth leads to underestimated meteoroid masses if radial velocity and deceleration of meteoroids approaching the radar are used as estimates of the true quantities in a momentum equation of motion.

  18. "Continuum versus Discrete" Physics: brief note on Endo- and exo-observer of a physical system

    E-print Network

    David Vernette; Michele Caponigro

    2007-01-15

    We argue about the following concepts:(i)introduction of endo and exo-observer of a physical system (ii) possible relation between endo, exo-observer and continuum/discrete nature of the same system (iii)the distinction about two categories of observers do not help to solve the basic nature(continuum/discrete)of the system considered. We argue that discrete math tool utilized to describe behavior of a physical system is to ascribe to the exo-observer description. In other words, discreteness nature of a system is due at the presence of an external observer description, the observation act. Vice versa, we retain, that endo-observer description give us a continuum nature of the system but only in a Platonic realm. Finally, we retain that a real theory of the state of matter could to build a real independence from the observer. These brief considerations open a discussion on the foundations of discrete math tools and their relation with the observation act, included the possible extension to foundations of the quantum mechanics.

  19. Report on Physics of Channelization: Theory, Experiment, and Observation

    SciTech Connect

    Kudrolli, Arshad

    2014-05-19

    The project involved a study of physical processes that create eroded channel and drainage networks. A particular focus was on how the shape of the channels and the network depended on the nature of the fluid flow. Our approach was to combine theoretical, experimental, and observational studies in close collaboration with Professor Daniel Rothman of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Laboratory -scaled experiments were developed and quantitative data on the shape of the pattern and erosion dynamics are obtained with a laser-aided topography technique and fluorescent optical imaging techniques.

  20. Physical models of ten asteroids from an observers' collaboration network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ?urech, J.; Kaasalainen, M.; Marciniak, A.; Allen, W. H.; Behrend, R.; Bembrick, C.; Bennett, T.; Bernasconi, L.; Berthier, J.; Bolt, G.; Boroumand, S.; Crespo da Silva, L.; Crippa, R.; Crow, M.; Durkee, R.; Dymock, R.; Fagas, M.; Fauerbach, M.; Fauvaud, S.; Frey, M.; Gonçalves, R.; Hirsch, R.; Jardine, D.; Kami?ski, K.; Koff, R.; Kwiatkowski, T.; López, A.; Manzini, F.; Micha?owski, T.; Pacheco, R.; Pan, M.; Pilcher, F.; Poncy, R.; Pray, D.; Pych, W.; Roy, R.; Santacana, G.; Slivan, S.; Sposetti, S.; Stephens, R.; Warner, B.; Wolf, M.

    2007-04-01

    Aims:We present physical models of ten asteroids obtained by means of lightcurve inversion. A substantial part of the photometric data was observed by amateur astronomers. We emphasize the importance of a coordinated network of observers that will be of extreme importance for future all-sky asteroid photometric surveys. Methods: The lightcurve inversion method was used to derive spin states and shape models of the asteroids. Results: We derived spin states and shape model for ten new asteroids: (110) Lydia, (125) Liberatrix, (130) Elektra, (165) Loreley, (196) Philomela, (218) Bianca, (306) Unitas, (423) Diotima, (776) Berbericia, and (944) Hidalgo. This increases the number of asteroid models up to nearly one hundred. Tables [see full text]-[see full text] are only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  1. Recognizing Prefixes in Scientific Quantities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolowski, Andrzej

    2015-09-01

    Although recognizing prefixes in physical quantities is inherent for practitioners, it might not be inherent for students, who do not use prefixes in their everyday life experiences. This deficiency surfaces in AP Physics exams. For example, readers of an AP Physics exam reported "a common mistake of incorrectly converting nanometers to meters." Similar students' mistakes were reported also by AP Chemistry readers "as in previous years, students still had difficulty converting kJ to J." While traditional teaching focuses on memorizing the symbols of prefixes, little attention is given to helping learners recognize a prefix in a given quantity. I noticed in my teaching practice that by making the processes of identifying prefixes more explicit, students make fewer mistakes on unit conversion. Thus, this paper presents an outline of a lesson that focuses on prefix recognition. It is designed for a first-year college physics class; however, its key points can be addressed to any group of physics students.

  2. Synoptic Observations for Physical Characterization of Fast Rotator NEOs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikwaya Eluo, Jean-Baptiste; Hergenrother, Carl W.

    2014-11-01

    NEOs can be studied not only dynamically, to learn about their impact hazard, but also physically, to establish various properties important both to better address their potential hazard and also to understand what they can tell us about the origin of the solar system and its ongoing processes.Taking advantage of the two-meter-class telescopes around Tucson, we plan to observe NEOs synoptically using telescopes at three different locations: VATT (Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope) at Mount Graham (longitude: -109.8719, latitude: 32.7016, elevation: 10469 feet), Bok 2.3 m at Kitt Peak (longitude: -111.6004, latitude: 31.9629, elevation: 6795 feet) and Kuiper 1.5-m at Mount Bigelow (longitude: -110.7345, latitude: 32.4165, elevation: 8235 feet). All three telescopes will aim simultaneously at the same object, each with a different instrument. The three telescopes will be part of the Arizona Robotic Telescope (ART) network, a University of Arizona initiative to provide near real-time observations of Target of Opportunity objects across the visible and near-infrared wavelengths. The VATT-4K optical imager mounted on the VATT has already been used for photometry. In the future we plan to utilize the BCSpec (Boller & Chivens Spectrograph) for visible spectroscopy on Bok 2.3 meter and a near-infrared instrument on Kuiper 1.5 meter. We report here the preliminary results of several NEOs whose rotation rate and color have been estimated using photometry with images recorded with VATT-4K. 2009 SQ104 has a rotation rate of 6.85+/- 0.03 h, 2014 AY28 has a rotation rate of 0.91 +/- 0.02 h, 2014 EC of 0.54 +/-0.04 h, 2014 FA44 of 3.45 +/- 0.05 h, and 2014 KS40 of 1.11 +/- 0.06 h.

  3. Observations and Inferred Physical Characteristics of Compact Intracloud Discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Argo, P.E.; Eack, K.B.; Holden, D.N.; Massey, R.S.; Shao, X.; Smith, D.A.; Wiens, K.C.

    1999-02-01

    Compact intracloud discharges (CIDS) represent a distinct class of electrical discharges that occur within intense regions of thunderstorms. They are singular discharges that produce brief (typically 3 µs in duration) broadband RF emissions that are 20 to 30 dB more powerful than radiation from all other recorded lightning processes in the HF and VHF radio spectrum. Far field electric field change recordings of CIDS consist of a single, large-amplitude bipolar pulse that begins to rise during the RF-producing phase of the CID and typically lasts for 20 µs. During the summer of 1998 we operated a 4-station array of electric field change meters in New Mexico to support FORTE satellite observations of transient RF and optical sources and to learn more about the phenomenology and physical characteristics of CIDS. Over 800 CIDS were detected and located during the campaign. The events were identified on the basis of their unique field change waveforms. CID source heights determined using the relative delays of ionospherically reflected source emissions were typically between 4 and 11 km above ground level. Events of both positive and negative polarity were observed with events' of initially- negative polarity (indicative of discharges occurring between underlying positive and overlying negative charge) occurring at slightly higher altitudes. Within CID field change waveforms the CID pulse was often followed within a few ms by one or more smaller-amplitude pulses. We associate these subsequent pulses with the initial activity of a "normal" intracloud flash, the inference being that some fraction of the time, a CID initiates an intracloud lightning flash.

  4. Image quality in CT: From physical measurements to model observers.

    PubMed

    Verdun, F R; Racine, D; Ott, J G; Tapiovaara, M J; Toroi, P; Bochud, F O; Veldkamp, W J H; Schegerer, A; Bouwman, R W; Giron, I Hernandez; Marshall, N W; Edyvean, S

    2015-12-01

    Evaluation of image quality (IQ) in Computed Tomography (CT) is important to ensure that diagnostic questions are correctly answered, whilst keeping radiation dose to the patient as low as is reasonably possible. The assessment of individual aspects of IQ is already a key component of routine quality control of medical x-ray devices. These values together with standard dose indicators can be used to give rise to 'figures of merit' (FOM) to characterise the dose efficiency of the CT scanners operating in certain modes. The demand for clinically relevant IQ characterisation has naturally increased with the development of CT technology (detectors efficiency, image reconstruction and processing), resulting in the adaptation and evolution of assessment methods. The purpose of this review is to present the spectrum of various methods that have been used to characterise image quality in CT: from objective measurements of physical parameters to clinically task-based approaches (i.e. model observer (MO) approach) including pure human observer approach. When combined together with a dose indicator, a generalised dose efficiency index can be explored in a framework of system and patient dose optimisation. We will focus on the IQ methodologies that are required for dealing with standard reconstruction, but also for iterative reconstruction algorithms. With this concept the previously used FOM will be presented with a proposal to update them in order to make them relevant and up to date with technological progress. The MO that objectively assesses IQ for clinically relevant tasks represents the most promising method in terms of radiologist sensitivity performance and therefore of most relevance in the clinical environment. PMID:26459319

  5. Blue Stragglers in Globular Clusters: Observations, Statistics and Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knigge, Christian

    This chapter explores how we might use the observed statistics of blue stragglers in globular clusters to shed light on their formation. This means we will touch on topics also discussed elsewhere in this book, such as the discovery and implications of bimodal radial distributions and the "double sequences" of blue stragglers that have recently been found in some clusters. However, we will focus particularly on the search for a "smoking gun" correlation between the number of blue stragglers in a given globular cluster and a physical cluster parameter that would point towards a particular formation channel. As we shall see, there is little evidence for an intrinsic correlation between blue straggler numbers and stellar collision rates, even in dense cluster cores. On the other hand, there is a clear correlation between blue straggler numbers and the total (core) mass of the cluster. This would seem to point towards a formation channel involving binaries, rather than dynamical encounters. However, the correlation between blue straggler numbers and actual binary numbers—which relies on recently determined empirical binary fractions—is actually weaker than that with core mass. We explain how this surprising result may be reconciled with a binary formation channel if binary fractions depend almost uniquely on core mass. If this is actually the case, it would have significant implications for globular cluster dynamics more generally.

  6. Issues in cosmology: Observational tests and consistency with superstring physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huey, Gregory Gordon

    2000-12-01

    The CMB temperature anisotropy probes distances nearly to the edge of the observable universe and back to when the universe was a few 100,000 years old. Near-future satellite experiments will measure the CMB power spectrum with unprecedented accuracy. One use of this data will be to determine values for cosmological parameters. In this thesis parameter resolution is considered for two cases: a curved universe with a cosmological constant, and a flat universe with a negative pressure fluid of undetermined equation of state. Both of these cases are shown to have degeneracies with respect to some parameters. That is, if one parameter is changed, others can be adjusted to yield indistinguishable CMB spectra. Thus, some cosmological parameters, such as the matter density ? m, Hubble constant h and equation of state of quintessence, can not be separately determined from CMB data alone, regardless of precision. However, other cosmological measurements (supernovae, age, baryon fraction, large scale structure, etc.) can be combined with the CMB to reduce the degeneracy. Depending on the range of parameters allowed by the combination of observations, substantial degeneracy may remain or it may be eliminated. A long-standing problem in superstring theories is the stabilization of moduli. Unstable moduli are disastrous for cosmology and high-energy physics. The coupling of moduli to ordinary matter fields in a cosmological setting, however, can result in a robust moduli stabilization mechanism. As an example, the problem of stabilizing the dilaton in a nonperturbative potential induced by gaugino condensates is reconsidered. A well- known difficulty is that the potential is so steep that the dilaton field tends to overrun the correct minimum and evolve to an observationally unacceptable vacuum unless the initial conditions are finely tuned. The generic coupling of the dilaton to thermal energy of matter fields (generic, for example, to some supergravity and string theories) results in a natural cosmological mechanism for gently relaxing the dilaton field into the correct minimum of the potential without fine-tuning of initial conditions. The effect has been neglected in previous treatments of the problem and may be relevant for stabilizing other moduli.

  7. Strongly intensive quantities

    SciTech Connect

    Gorenstein, M. I.; Gazdzicki, M.

    2011-07-15

    Analysis of fluctuations of hadron production properties in collisions of relativistic particles profits from use of measurable intensive quantities which are independent of system size variations. The first family of such quantities was proposed in 1992; another is introduced in this paper. Furthermore we present a proof of independence of volume fluctuations for quantities from both families within the framework of the grand canonical ensemble. These quantities are referred to as strongly intensive ones. Influence of conservation laws and resonance decays is also discussed.

  8. Quantity Stickiness versus Stackelberg Leadership

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreira, F. A.

    2008-10-30

    We study the endogenous Stackelberg relations in a dynamic market. We analyze a twice-repeated duopoly where, in the beginning, each firm chooses either a quantity-sticky production mode or a quantity-flexible production mode. The size of the market becomes observable after the first period. In the second period, a firm can adjust its quantity if, and only if, it has adopted the flexible mode. Hence, if one firm chooses the sticky mode whilst the other chooses the flexible mode, then they respectively play the roles of a Stackelberg leader and a Stackelberg follower in the second marketing period. We compute the supply quantities at equilibrium and the corresponding expected profits of the firms. We also analyze the effect of the slope parameter of the demand curve on the expected supply quantities and on the profits.

  9. Physical influences on phytoplankton ecology : models and observations

    E-print Network

    Clayton, Sophie A

    2013-01-01

    The physical environment in the oceans dictates not only how phytoplankton cells are dispersed and their populations intermingled, but also mediates the supply of nutrients to the surface mixed layer. In this thesis I ...

  10. Learning From Where Students Look While Observing Simulated Physical Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demaree, Dedra

    2005-04-01

    The Physics Education Research (PER) Group at the Ohio State University (OSU) has developed Virtual Reality (VR) programs for teaching introductory physics concepts. Winter 2005, the PER group worked with OSU's cognitive science eye-tracking lab to probe what features students look at while using our VR programs. We see distinct differences in the features students fixate on depending upon whether or not they have formally studied the related physics. Students who first make predictions seem to fixate more on the relevant features of the simulation than those who do not, regardless of their level of education. It is known that students sometimes perform an experiment and report results consistent with their misconceptions but inconsistent with the experimental outcome. We see direct evidence of one student holding onto misconceptions despite fixating frequently on the information needed to understand the correct answer. Future studies using these technologies may prove valuable for tackling difficult questions regarding student learning.

  11. PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL, AND BIOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS IN THE EASTERN TROPICAL

    E-print Network

    ;#12;CONTENTS Page Introduction 1 Procedures 4 Methods 5 Weather observations 5 Temperature, salinity, density phosphorus 6 Nitrate, nitrite, and silicate 7 Incident solar radiation : 7 Submarine daylight 7 Chlorophyll standing crop 8 Micronekton standing crop 9 Bathythermograph (BT) observations 10 Surface current velocity

  12. Directly Observed Physical Activity among 3-Year-Olds in Finnish Childcare

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soini, Anne; Villberg, Jari; Sääkslahti, Arja; Gubbels, Jessica; Mehtälä, Anette; Kettunen, Tarja; Poskiparta, Marita

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of the study was to determine 3-year-olds' physical activity levels and how these vary across season, gender, time of day, location, and the physical and social environment in childcare settings in Finland. A modified version of the Observational System for Recording Physical Activity in Children-Preschool (OSRAC-P) was used…

  13. Associations between observed neighborhood characteristics and physical activity: findings from a multiethnic urban community

    PubMed Central

    Kwarteng, Jamila L.; Schulz, Amy J.; Mentz, Graciela B.; Zenk, Shannon N.; Opperman, Alisha A.

    2014-01-01

    Background There is growing interest in the contributions of characteristics of the neighborhood environment to inequalities in physical activity. However, few studies have examined the relationship between observed neighborhood environmental characteristics and physical activity in a multiethnic urban area. Purpose The purpose of this study was to assess relationships between neighborhood environments and physical activity and the extent to which these associations varied by demographic characteristics or perceptions of the physical and social environment. Methods Cross-sectional analyses drew upon data collected from a stratified proportional probability sample of non-Hispanic Black, Hispanic and non-Hispanic White (NHW) adults (n = 919) in low-to-moderate income neighborhoods in Detroit, Michigan. Physical activity was assessed as self-reported duration and frequency of vigorous and moderate physical activity. Observed physical environment was assessed through systematic social observation by trained observers on blocks adjacent to survey respondents' residences. Results We find a positive association of sidewalk condition with physical activity, with stronger effects for younger compared with older residents. In addition, physical disorder was more negatively associated with physical activity among NHW and older residents. Conclusions These findings suggest that sidewalk improvements and reductions in physical disorder in urban communities may promote greater equity in physical activity. PMID:24159053

  14. Physical properties of the planets and satellites from radar observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettengill, G. H.

    1978-01-01

    The radar cross section of a planetary target is defined as the area of an isotropic scatterer, normal to the illumination, that would yield the observed echo intensity, if it were placed at the target's location. Attention is given to the angular scattering law, surface imagery, and topography. The observational results are discussed, taking into account the moon and the inner planets, the asteroids, the Galilean satellites, and the rings of Saturn. It is pointed out that the reach of radar astronomy has maintained nearly an exponential growth over the past three decades, as the sensitivity of available radar systems has on average more than doubled each year. There are, however, limits to this growth set by the large costs required for a new generation of observing facilities. Only modest increases in radar system sensitivity are, therefore, expected for the next decade.

  15. Giacobini-Zinner comet: Polarimetric and physical observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martel, M. T.; Maines, P.; Grudzinska, S.; Stawikowski, A.

    1984-01-01

    The results of observations of the Giacobini-Zinner comet on 25 and 31 October 1959 are presented. The magnitude of the comet was measured photoelectrically in two spectral regions. The radius is on the order of one kilometer. The photoelectric measurements of comets 1959b and 1957c were used to measure the abundances of the CN and C2 radicals and of solid particles in the heads.

  16. RF Modal Quantity Gaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanleuven, K.

    1989-01-01

    The primary objective is to provide a concept of a radio frequency (RF) modal resonance technique which is being investigated as a method for gaging the quantities of subcritical cryogenic propellants in metallic tanks. Of special interest are the potential applications of the technique to microgravity propellant gaging situations. The results of concept testing using cryogenic oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen, as well as paraffin simulations of microgravity fluid orientations, are reported. These test results were positive and showed that the gaging concept was viable.

  17. Observable gravitational and electromagnetic orbits and trajectories in discrete physics

    SciTech Connect

    Noyes, H.P.; McGoveran, D.O.

    1988-11-28

    Our discrete and finite version of relativistic quantum mechanics provides an elementary particle physics consistent with the standard model of quarks and leptons. Our recent relativistic calculation of the bound state spectrum of hydrogen has allowed us to make a combinatorial correction to the first order estimate of 1/..cap alpha.. = /Dirac h/c/e/sup 2/ = 137 derived from the combinatorial hierarchy and achieve agreement with experiment up to terms of order ..cap alpha../sup 3/. The same theory requires that to first order /Dirac h/c/Gm/sub p//sup 2/ = 2/sup 127/ + 136 approx. = 1.7 /times/ 10/sup 38/. Using the emission and absorption of spin 1 photons and spin 2 gravitons in this framework, we try to show that we can meet the three additional tests of general relativity---solar red shift, solar bending of light, and precession of the perihelion of Mercury. We predict that a macroscopic electromagnetic orbit would have four times the Sommerfeld precession for basically the same reason that Mercury has six times the Sommerfeld precession. 20 refs.

  18. Ionosphere TEC disturbances before strong earthquakes: observations, physics, modeling (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namgaladze, A. A.

    2013-12-01

    The phenomenon of the pre-earthquake ionospheric disturbances is discussed. A number of typical TEC (Total Electron Content) relative disturbances is presented for several recent strong earthquakes occurred in different ionospheric conditions. Stable typical TEC deviations from quiet background state are observed few days before the strong seismic events in the vicinity of the earthquake epicenter and treated as ionospheric earthquake precursors. They don't move away from the source in contrast to the disturbances related with geomagnetic activity. Sunlit ionosphere approach leads to reduction of the disturbances up to their full disappearance, and effects regenerate at night. The TEC disturbances often observed in the magnetically conjugated areas as well. At low latitudes they accompany with equatorial anomaly modifications. The hypothesis about the electromagnetic channel of the pre-earthquake ionospheric disturbances' creation is discussed. The lithosphere and ionosphere are coupled by the vertical external electric currents as a result of ionization of the near-Earth air layer and vertical transport of the charged particles through the atmosphere over the fault. The external electric current densities exceeding the regular fair-weather electric currents by several orders are required to produce stable long-living seismogenic electric fields such as observed by onboard measurements of the 'Intercosmos-Bulgaria 1300' satellite over the seismic active zones. The numerical calculation results using the Upper Atmosphere Model demonstrate the ability of the external electric currents with the densities of 10-8-10-9 A/m2 to produce such electric fields. The sumulations reproduce the basic features of typical pre-earthquake TEC relative disturbances. It is shown that the plasma ExB drift under the action of the seismogenic electric field leads to the changes of the F2 region electron number density and TEC. The upward drift velocity component enhances NmF2 and TEC and the downward component decreases it, while horizontal components redistribute plasma in the horizontal plane around the source. The UAM calculations also show that the external electric currents of the seismic origin generate the small disturbances of the neutral atmosphere with the characteristics of the internal gravity waves but they don't influence noticeably on the relative pre-earthquake TEC disturbances.

  19. Development of a Direct Observation Instrument to Measure Environmental Characteristics of Parks for Physical Activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The study's purpose is to describe the development and evaluate the reliability (inter-observer agreement) and validity (rater agreement with a gold standard) of a direct observation instrument to assess park characteristics that may be related to physical activity. A direct observation instrument ...

  20. OBSERVED, GIS, AND SELF-REPORTED ENVIRONMENTAL FEATURES AND ADOLESCENT PHYSICAL ACTIVITY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose: Examine associations among observed, self-reported, and Geographical Information Systems (GIS) environmental features and physical activity among adolescent males. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Boy Scout troops and neighborhoods in Houston, Texas. Subjects: Two hundred and ten ...

  1. CVT/GPL phase 2 integrated testing. [in earth observations, space physics, and material sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shurney, R. E.; Maybee, G.; Schmitt, S.

    1974-01-01

    Experiments representing earth observations, space physics, and material sciences disciplines were installed in the General Purpose Laboratory (GPL). The experiments and the GPL are described. The experiments interfaces the GPL and GPL support systems are assessed. The experiments were cloud physics, ionospheric disturbances, material sciences, high energy astronomy, and superfluid helium.

  2. Top 10 Research Questions Related to Assessing Physical Activity and Its Contexts Using Systematic Observation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Thomas L.; van der Mars, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Numerous methods are available to assess physical activity (PA) but systematic observation (SO) excels in being able to provide contextually rich data on the setting in which the activity occurs. As SO is particularly useful for determining how activity is influenced by the immediate physical and social environments, its use is becoming more…

  3. Physical Therapy Observation and Assessment in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Eilish; Campbell, Suzann K.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the elements of the Observation and Assessment section of the Infant Care Path for Physical Therapy in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). The types of physical therapy assessments presented in this path are evidence-based and the suggested timing of these assessments is primarily based on practice knowledge from expert…

  4. Testing Gravitational Physics with Space-based Gravitational-wave Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, John G.

    2011-01-01

    Gravitational wave observations provide exceptional and unique opportunities for precision tests of gravitational physics, as predicted by general relativity (GR). Space-based gravitational wave measurements, with high signal-to-noise ratios and large numbers of observed events may provide the best-suited gravitational-wave observations for testing GR with unprecedented precision. These observations will be especially useful in testing the properties of gravitational waves and strong-field aspects of the theory which are less relevant in other observations. We review the proposed GR test based on observations of massive black hole mergers, extreme mass ratio inspirals, and galactic binary systems.

  5. Composition of Mars constrained using geophysical observations and mineral physics modeling

    E-print Network

    Wen, Lianxing

    Composition of Mars constrained using geophysical observations and mineral physics modeling Yi Wang August 2013 Available online 21 August 2013 Edited by K. Hirose Keywords: Mars composition Mean moment radius and the observed mean moment of inertia factor of Mars to constrain mineralogical

  6. On Whether People Have the Capacity to Make Observations of Mutually Excl usive Physical Phenomena Simultaneously

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder

    1998-04-01

    It has been shown by Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen that in quantum mechanics two different wave functions can simultaneously characterize the same physical existent. This result means that one can make predictions regarding simultaneous, mutually exclusive features of a physical existent. It is important to ask whether people have the capacity to make observations of mutually exclusive phenomena simultaneously? Our everyday experience informs us that a human observer is capable of observing only one set of physical circumstances at a time. Evidence from psychology, though, indicates that people indeed have the capacity to make observations of mutually exclusive phenomena simultaneously, even though this capacity is not generally recognized. Working independently, Sigmund Freud and William James provided some of this evidence. How the nature of the quantum mechanical wave function is associated with the problem posed by Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen, is addressed at the end of the paper.

  7. The influence of instructional interactions on students’ mental models about the quantization of physical observables: a modern physics course case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Didi? Körhasan, Nilüfer; Ery?lmaz, Ali; Erkoç, ?akir

    2016-01-01

    Mental models are coherently organized knowledge structures used to explain phenomena. They interact with social environments and evolve with the interaction. Lacking daily experience with phenomena, the social interaction gains much more importance. In this part of our multiphase study, we investigate how instructional interactions influenced students’ mental models about the quantization of physical observables. Class observations and interviews were analysed by studying students’ mental models constructed in a modern physics course during an academic semester. The research revealed that students’ mental models were influenced by (1) the manner of teaching, including instructional methodologies and content specific techniques used by the instructor, (2) order of the topics and familiarity with concepts, and (3) peers.

  8. In-situ observation of a soap film catenoid - a simple educational physics experiment

    E-print Network

    Masato Ito; Taku Sato

    2009-12-22

    The solution to the Euler-Lagrange equation is an extremal functional.To understand that the functional is stationary at local extrema (maxima or minima), we propose a physics experiment that involves using soap film to form a catenoid. A catenoid is a surface that is formed between two coaxial circular rings and is classified mathematically as a minimal surface.Using soap film, we create catenoids between two rings and characterize the catenoid in-situ while varying distance between rings. The shape of the soap film is very interesting and can be explained using dynamic mechanics. By observing catenoid, physics students can observe local extrema phenomena. We stress that in-situ observation of soap film catenoids is an appropriate physics experiment that combines theory and experimentation.

  9. In situ observation of a soap-film catenoid—a simple educational physics experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Masato; Sato, Taku

    2010-03-01

    The solution to the Euler-Lagrange equation is an extremal functional. To understand that the functional is stationary at local extrema (maxima or minima), we propose a physics experiment that involves using a soap film to form a catenoid. A catenoid is a surface that is formed between two coaxial circular rings and is classified mathematically as a minimal surface. Using the soap film, we create catenoids between two rings and characterize the catenoid in situ while varying the distance between the rings. The shape of the soap film is very interesting and can be explained using dynamic mechanics. By observing the catenoid, physics students can observe local extrema phenomena. We stress that in situ observation of soap-film catenoids is an appropriate physics experiment that combines theory and experimentation.

  10. Physical vs. Observational Properties of Clouds in Turbulent Molecular Cloud Models

    E-print Network

    Javier Ballesteros-Paredes; Mordecai-M. Mac Low

    2002-01-30

    We examine how well the physical properties of clumps in turbulent molecular clouds can be determined by measurements of observed clump structures. We compare simulated observations of three-dimensional numerical models of isothermal, magnetized, supersonic turbulence to the actual physical structure of the models. We determine how changing the parameters of turbulence changes the structure of the simulations. Stronger driving produces greater density fluctuations, and longer wavelength driving produces larger structures. Magnetic fields have a less pronounced effect on structure, and one that is not monotonic with field strength. Aligned structures are seen only with low-density tracers, and when the intensity of the field is large. Comparing different regions with the same tracers (or the same region with different tracers) can give information about physical conditions: different density tracers can help determine the size of the density fluctuations and thus the strength of the driving. Nevertheless, velocity superposition of multiple physical clumps can fully obscure the physical properties of those clumps, and short wavelength driving worsens this effect. Regarding Larson's relationships, we confirm previous claims that the mean density-size relationship is an artifact of the observations; and the velocity dispersion-size relationship, is consistent with observations. Regarding the mass spectra, we show that, when we look for clumps with high enough resolution, they converge to a log-normal function, rather than the power-law obtained in the literature.

  11. Viking landing sites, remote-sensing observations, and physical properties of Martian surface materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Henry J.; Jakosky, Bruce M.

    1989-01-01

    Consideration is given to the relations between the physical properties of the surface materials at Viking landing sites, the physical properties of other Martian surfaces inferred from radar observations from earth and thermal observations from orbit, and the geological processes that formed the materials and shaped the surfaces. The radar and thermal remote-sensing signatures of the landing site surface materials are estimated and compared with the thermal and radar measurements for the entire planet. It is shown that the surface materials at the landing sites are good analogs for the materials in most of the Martian equatorial regions.

  12. Tri-Axial Accelerometry and Heart Rate Telemetry: Relation and Agreement with Behavioral Observation in Elementary Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scruggs, Philip W.; Beveridge, Sandy K.; Clocksin, Brian D.

    2005-01-01

    The relation and agreement of tri-axial accelerometry and heart rate telemetry in measuring moderate to vigorous physical activity were examined in association to behavioral observation during 1st- and 2nd-grade physical education. In Study 1, physical activity measures of heart rate and behavioral observation were collected on 346 participants…

  13. Post-Lesson Observation Conferencing of University Supervisors and Physical Education Teacher Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Steven; Grenier, Michelle; Channell, Kathy

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of our descriptive study was to examine post-lesson observation conferencing discourse between university supervisors (USs) and physical education teacher education students (PTs). Three USs completed a questionnaire related to demographic information and their perceptions of their role as a supervisor. These USs then audio-recorded…

  14. An Observational Assessment of Physical Activity Levels and Social Behaviour during Elementary School Recess

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Simon J.; Fairclough, Stuart J.; Ridgers, Nicola D.; Porteous, Conor

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the present study was to assess children's physical activity, social play behaviour, activity type and social interactions during elementary school recess using a pre-validated systematic observation system. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Two elementary schools located in Merseyside, England. Method: Fifty-six…

  15. Stellar Flares Observed by LOFT: Implications for the Physics of Coronae

    E-print Network

    Stellar Flares Observed by LOFT: Implications for the Physics of Coronae and for the "Space Weather book (http://sci.esa.int/loft/53447-loft-yellow-book/) LOFT's primary instrument is the Large Area a host star on exoplanet systems, important for habitability concerns and space weather which other

  16. The observational legacy of preon stars - probing new physics beyond the LHC

    E-print Network

    F. Sandin; J. Hansson

    2007-10-30

    We discuss possible ways to observationally detect the superdense cosmic objects composed of hypothetical sub-constituent fermions beneath the quark/lepton level, recently proposed by us. The characteristic mass and size of such objects depend on the compositeness scale, and their huge density cannot arise within a context of quarks and leptons alone. Their eventual observation would therefore be a direct vindication of physics beyond the standard model of particle physics, possibly far beyond the reach of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), in a relatively simple and inexpensive manner. If relic objects of this type exist, they can possibly be detected by present and future x-ray observatories, high-frequency gravitational wave detectors, and seismological detectors. To have a realistic detection rate, i.e., to be observable, they must necessarily constitute a significant fraction of cold dark matter.

  17. Observational legacy of preon stars: Probing new physics beyond the CERN LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Sandin, F.; Hansson, J.

    2007-12-15

    We discuss possible ways to observationally detect the superdense cosmic objects composed of hypothetical subconstituent fermions beneath the quark/lepton level, recently proposed by us. The characteristic mass and size of such objects depend on the compositeness scale, and their huge density cannot arise within a context of quarks and leptons alone. Their eventual observation would therefore be a direct vindication of physics beyond the standard model of particle physics, possibly far beyond the reach of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), in a relatively simple and inexpensive manner. If relic objects of this type exist, they can possibly be detected by present and future x-ray observatories, high-frequency gravitational wave detectors, and seismological detectors. To have a realistic detection rate, i.e., to be observable, they must necessarily constitute a significant fraction of cold dark matter.

  18. Observational legacy of preon stars: Probing new physics beyond the CERN LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandin, F.; Hansson, J.

    2007-12-01

    We discuss possible ways to observationally detect the superdense cosmic objects composed of hypothetical subconstituent fermions beneath the quark/lepton level, recently proposed by us. The characteristic mass and size of such objects depend on the compositeness scale, and their huge density cannot arise within a context of quarks and leptons alone. Their eventual observation would therefore be a direct vindication of physics beyond the standard model of particle physics, possibly far beyond the reach of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), in a relatively simple and inexpensive manner. If relic objects of this type exist, they can possibly be detected by present and future x-ray observatories, high-frequency gravitational wave detectors, and seismological detectors. To have a realistic detection rate, i.e., to be observable, they must necessarily constitute a significant fraction of cold dark matter.

  19. The observational legacy of preon stars - probing new physics beyond the LHC

    E-print Network

    Sandin, F

    2007-01-01

    We discuss possible ways to observationally detect the superdense cosmic objects composed of hypothetical sub-constituent fermions beneath the quark/lepton level, recently proposed by us. The characteristic mass and size of such objects depend on the compositeness scale, and their huge density cannot arise within a context of quarks and leptons alone. Their eventual observation would therefore be a direct vindication of physics beyond the standard model of particle physics, possibly far beyond the reach of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), in a relatively simple and inexpensive manner. If relic objects of this type exist, they can possibly be detected by present and future x-ray observatories, high-frequency gravitational wave detectors, and seismological detectors. To have a realistic detection rate, i.e., to be observable, they must necessarily constitute a significant fraction of cold dark matter.

  20. The system for observing fitness instruction time (SOFIT) as a measure of energy expenditure during classroom based physical activity

    E-print Network

    Honas, Jeffery J.; Washburn, Richard A.; Smith, Bryan K.; Greene, Leon; Cook-Wiens, Galen; Donnelly, Joseph E.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to develop an equation to estimate physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) during a 10-min physically active academic lesson using The System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time (SOFIT) and demographic...

  1. Inclusion of Linearized Moist Physics in Nasa's Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holdaway, Daniel; Errico, Ronald; Gelaro, Ronaldo; Kim, Jong G.

    2013-01-01

    Inclusion of moist physics in the linearized version of a weather forecast model is beneficial in terms of variational data assimilation. Further, it improves the capability of important tools, such as adjoint-based observation impacts and sensitivity studies. A linearized version of the relaxed Arakawa-Schubert (RAS) convection scheme has been developed and tested in NASA's Goddard Earth Observing System data assimilation tools. A previous study of the RAS scheme showed it to exhibit reasonable linearity and stability. This motivates the development of a linearization of a near-exact version of the RAS scheme. Linearized large-scale condensation is included through simple conversion of supersaturation into precipitation. The linearization of moist physics is validated against the full nonlinear model for 6- and 24-h intervals, relevant to variational data assimilation and observation impacts, respectively. For a small number of profiles, sudden large growth in the perturbation trajectory is encountered. Efficient filtering of these profiles is achieved by diagnosis of steep gradients in a reduced version of the operator of the tangent linear model. With filtering turned on, the inclusion of linearized moist physics increases the correlation between the nonlinear perturbation trajectory and the linear approximation of the perturbation trajectory. A month-long observation impact experiment is performed and the effect of including moist physics on the impacts is discussed. Impacts from moist-sensitive instruments and channels are increased. The effect of including moist physics is examined for adjoint sensitivity studies. A case study examining an intensifying Northern Hemisphere Atlantic storm is presented. The results show a significant sensitivity with respect to moisture.

  2. High energy nucleus-nucleus collisions at CERN: Signatures, physical observables and experimental results

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, J.W.

    1988-02-01

    Experimental results on high energy nucleus-nucleus collisions have become available with the recent experiments at CERN utilizing 200 GeV/n oxygen and sulfur beams. Physics motivations for these experiments are presented: a description of predicted signatures for possible formation of a quark-gluon plasma and physical observables that are expected to provide important information for understanding the dynamics of these collisions. A presentation will be made of some of the first experimental results to emerge from this new field. 28 refs., 9 figs.

  3. Top 10 research questions related to assessing physical activity and its contexts using systematic observation.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Thomas L; van der Mars, Hans

    2015-03-01

    Numerous methods are available to assess physical activity (PA) but systematic observation (SO) excels in being able to provide contextually rich data on the setting in which the activity occurs. As SO is particularly useful for determining how activity is influenced by the immediate physical and social environments, its use is becoming more popular. Observation tools have the advantages of flexibility, high internal validity, low inference, and low participant burden, while their disadvantages include the need for careful observer training and recalibration, inaccessibility to certain environments, and potential participant reactivity. There is a need for both scientists and practitioners to have additional information on observation techniques and systems relative to making environmental and policy decisions about PA, and in this article, we describe concepts and identify questions related to using SO in researching PA behavior. We present 10 general questions in 3 sections, including those related to: (a) ensuring data accuracy through the selection of the most appropriate methodological protocols; (b) investigating PA in school settings, including physical education, recess, and other programs; and (c) investigating PA in community settings (e.g., parks, recreation centers, youth and adult sport programs) and homes. PMID:25664670

  4. Using Momentary Time Sampling to Estimate Minutes of Physical Activity in Physical Education: Validation of Scores for the System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heath, Edward M.; Coleman, Karen J.; Lensegrav, Tera L.; Fallon, Jennifer A.

    2006-01-01

    The System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time (SOFIT) is a direct observation system specifically developed for use during physical education (PE; McKenzie, 1991; McKenzie, Sallis, & Nader, 1991). The purpose of this study was to validate the estimates of time spent in various physical activity intensities obtained with the paper and pencil…

  5. In situ observations of aerosol physical and optical properties in northern India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lihavainen, H.; Hyvarinen, A.; Hooda, R. K.; Raatikainen, T. E.; Sharma, V.; Komppula, M.

    2012-12-01

    The southern Asia, including India, is exposed to substantial quantities of particulate air pollution originating mainly from fossil fuel combustion and biomass burning. Besides serious adverse health effects, these aerosols cause a large reduction of solar radiation at the surface accompanied by a substantial atmospheric heating, which is expected to have significant influences on the air temperature, crop yields, livestock and water resources over the southern Asia. The various influences by aerosols in this region depend crucially on the development of aerosol emissions from household, industrial, transportation and biomass burning sectors. The main purpose of this study is to investigate several measured aerosol optical and physical properties. We take advantage of observations from two measurement stations which have been established by the Finnish Meteorological Institute and The Energy and Resources Institute. Another station is on the foothills of Himalayas, in Mukteshwar, about 350 km east of New Delhi at elevation about 2 km ASL. This site is considered as a rural background site. Measurements of aerosol size distribution (7-500 nm), PM10, PM2.5, aerosol scattering and absorption coefficients and weather parameters have been conducted since 2006. Another station is located at the outskirts of New Delhi, in Gual Pahari, about 35 km south of city centre. It is considered as an urban background site. Measurements of aerosol size distribution (7 nm- 10 ?m), PM10, PM2.5, aerosol scattering and absorption coefficients, aerosol optical depth, aerosol vertical distribution (LIDAR), aerosol filter sampling for chemical characterization and weather parameters were conducted between 2008 and 2010. On the overall average PM10 and PM2.5 values were about 3-4 times higher in Gual Pahari than in Mukteshwar as expected, 216 and 126 ?g m^-3, respectively. However, difference depended much on the season, so that during winter time PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations were about 9 and 6 times higher in Gual Pahari than in Mukteshwar. During the pre-monsoon the concentrations in Gual Pahari were only twofold compared to Mukteshwar. The monsoon cleans the atmosphere from particulate matter so that PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations reduced to more than half compared to pre-monsoon values. We also found a very clear diurnal cycle on both station, except during the monsoon season. However the phase of the cycle was different between stations. This annual and diurnal variation is controlled besides emissions by evolution of boundary layer and transport of aerosols from Indo- Gangetic plains to the background site in Mukteshwar. Basically all measured aerosol properties behaved similarly. We also analyzed the data to observe the so called elevated heat pump hypothesis and trends in long term aerosol properties, although six years of data is not enough to make solid conclusions.

  6. Physical properties (particle size, rock abundance) from thermal infrared remote observations: Implications for Mars landing sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, P. R.; Edgett, Kenneth S.

    1994-01-01

    Critical to the assessment of potential sites for the 1997 Pathfinder landing is estimation of general physical properties of the martian surface. Surface properties have been studied using a variety of spacecraft and earth-based remote sensing observations, plus in situ studies at the Viking lander sites. Because of their value in identifying landing hazards and defining scientific objectives, we focus this discussion on thermal inertia and rock abundance derived from middle-infrared (6 to 30 microns) observations. Used in conjunction with other datasets, particularly albedo and Viking orbiter images, thermal inertia and rock abundance provide clues about the properties of potential Mars landing sites.

  7. Prospective relationships between body weight and physical activity: an observational analysis from the NAVIGATOR study

    PubMed Central

    Preiss, David; Thomas, Laine E; Wojdyla, Daniel M; Haffner, Steven M; Gill, Jason M R; Yates, Thomas; Davies, Melanie J; Holman, Rury R; McMurray, John J; Califf, Robert M; Kraus, William E

    2015-01-01

    Objectives While bidirectional relationships exist between body weight and physical activity, direction of causality remains uncertain and previous studies have been limited by self-reported activity or weight and small sample size. We investigated the prospective relationships between weight and physical activity. Design Observational analysis of data from the Nateglinide And Valsartan in Impaired Glucose Tolerance Outcomes Research (NAVIGATOR) study, a double-blinded randomised clinical trial of nateglinide and valsartan, respectively. Setting Multinational study of 9306 participants. Participants Participants with biochemically confirmed impaired glucose tolerance had annual measurements of both weight and step count using research grade pedometers, worn for 7?days consecutively. Along with randomisation to valsartan or placebo plus nateglinide or placebo, participants took part in a lifestyle modification programme. Outcome measures Longitudinal regression using weight as response value and physical activity as predictor value was conducted, adjusted for baseline covariates. Analysis was then repeated with physical activity as response value and weight as predictor value. Only participants with a response value preceded by at least three annual response values were included. Results Adequate data were available for 2811 (30%) of NAVIGATOR participants. Previous weight (?2=16.8; p<0.0001), but not change in weight (?2=0.1; p=0.71) was inversely associated with subsequent step count, indicating lower subsequent levels of physical activity in heavier individuals. Change in step count (?2=5.9; p=0.02) but not previous step count (?2=0.9; p=0.34) was inversely associated with subsequent weight. However, in the context of trajectories already established for weight (?2 for previous weight measurements 747.3; p<0.0001) and physical activity (?2 for previous step count 432.6; p<0.0001), these effects were of limited clinical importance. Conclusions While a prospective bidirectional relationship was observed between weight and physical activity, the magnitude of any effect was very small in the context of natural trajectories already established for these variables. Trial registration number NCT00097786. PMID:26275900

  8. Review on the Observed and Physical Properties of Core Collapse Supernovae

    E-print Network

    Mario Hamuy

    2003-01-01

    This paper summarizes observed and physical properties of all types of core collapse supernovae. Despite the great diversity displayed by these objects, several regularities emerge which suggest that 1) there is a continuum in the properties of these objects, 2) the mass of the envelope is one of the driving parameters of the explosion, or it is correlated with some other property of the core, with the latter determining the outcome of the explosion, and 3) the physics of the core and explosion mechanism of all core collapse supernovae are not be fundamentally different, regardless of the external appearance of the supernova. Far above in energy scale and 56Ni production lies SN 1998bw, the only supernova firmly associated with a gamma-ray burst.

  9. Hyper fast radiative transfer for the physical retrieval of surface parameters from SEVIRI observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liuzzi, G.; Masiello, G.; Serio, C.; Blasi, M. G.; Venafra, S.

    2015-09-01

    This paper describes the theoretical aspects of a fast scheme for the physical retrieval of surface temperature and emissivity from SEVIRI data, their implementation and some sample results obtained. The scheme is based on a Kalman Filter approach, which effectively exploits the temporal continuity in the observations of the geostationary Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) platform, on which SEVIRI (Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager) operates. Such scheme embodies in its core a physical retrieval algorithm, which employs an hyper fast radiative transfer code highly customized for this retrieval task. Radiative transfer and its customizations are described in detail. Fastness, accuracy and stability of the code are fully documented for a variety of surface features, showing a peculiar application to the massive Greek forest fires in August 2007.

  10. Role of Subsurface Physics in the Assimilation of Surface Soil Moisture Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reichle, R. H.

    2010-01-01

    Root zone soil moisture controls the land-atmosphere exchange of water and energy and exhibits memory that may be useful for climate prediction at monthly scales. Assimilation of satellite-based surface soil moisture observations into a land surface model is an effective way to estimate large-scale root zone soil moisture. The propagation of surface information into deeper soil layers depends on the model-specific representation of subsurface physics that is used in the assimilation system. In a suite of experiments we assimilate synthetic surface soil moisture observations into four different models (Catchment, Mosaic, Noah and CLM) using the Ensemble Kalman Filter. We demonstrate that identical twin experiments significantly overestimate the information that can be obtained from the assimilation of surface soil moisture observations. The second key result indicates that the potential of surface soil moisture assimilation to improve root zone information is higher when the surface to root zone coupling is stronger. Our experiments also suggest that (faced with unknown true subsurface physics) overestimating surface to root zone coupling in the assimilation system provides more robust skill improvements in the root zone compared with underestimating the coupling. When CLM is excluded from the analysis, the skill improvements from using models with different vertical coupling strengths are comparable for different subsurface truths. Finally, the skill improvements through assimilation were found to be sensitive to the regional climate and soil types.

  11. Trigonometric functions of nonlinear quantities

    SciTech Connect

    Wester, D.W.

    1994-08-01

    Trigonometric functions of nonlinear quantities are introduced. Functions of the form {line_integral}(x{sup a}), {line_integral}(x{sup y}), and {line_integral}{sup n}(x{sup a}) are reported, where {line_integral} is a trigonometric function such as cos, sin, tan, cot, sec, or csc; x is a variable; a is a constant; y is a variable; and n is a constant. Sums, products and quotients of these functions are defined. Trigonometric functions of nonlinear quantities involving constants to variable powers also are mentioned. Possible applications to quantum mechanics, gravity, and a final theory of matter are discussed.

  12. What the complex joint probabilities observed in weak measurements can tell us about quantum physics

    SciTech Connect

    Hofmann, Holger F.

    2014-12-04

    Quantummechanics does not permit joint measurements of non-commuting observables. However, it is possible to measure the weak value of a projection operator, followed by the precise measurement of a different property. The results can be interpreted as complex joint probabilities of the two non-commuting measurement outcomes. Significantly, it is possible to predict the outcome of completely different measurements by combining the joint probabilities of the initial state with complex conditional probabilities relating the new measurement to the possible combinations of measurement outcomes used in the characterization of the quantum state. We can therefore conclude that the complex conditional probabilities observed in weak measurements describe fundamental state-independent relations between non-commuting properties that represent the most fundamental form of universal laws in quantum physics.

  13. CDM Equipment Center Cameras Quantity

    E-print Network

    Schaefer, Marcus

    CDM Equipment Center Cameras Quantity DSLRs Camera Lenses Canon 7D 18/28-135mm Kit Lens 28 Canon 6D Equipment Matthews RoadRags II Kit 24" x 36" Flag Kit 6 Matthews Baby Boa weight Bag 5lbs 5 Matthews Baby

  14. Quantity Estimation Of The Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Gorana, Agim; Malkaj, Partizan; Muda, Valbona

    2007-04-23

    In this paper we present some considerations about quantity estimations, regarding the range of interaction and the conservations laws in various types of interactions. Our estimations are done under classical and quantum point of view and have to do with the interaction's carriers, the radius, the influence range and the intensity of interactions.

  15. Multi-spacecraft Observations of Heavy Ion Dropouts: Physical Processes, Fractionation Rates, and Release Mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weberg, M. J.; Lepri, S. T.; Zurbuchen, T.

    2014-12-01

    Heavy ion dropouts in the solar wind are thought to originate from large, closed coronal loops. The distinctive, mass-dependent fractionation patterns of the dropouts requires that their source loops are relatively quiet and stable long enough (on the order of a day) to undergo gravitational settling. Therefore by studying the composition of heavy ion dropouts we are able to peer into the solar corona and glean information about the fine balance of physical processes. Additionally, the occurrence rates and magnetic profiles of dropouts suggest specific forms of magnetic reconnection are responsible for the release of the otherwise trapped plasma into the solar wind. In this study we identify and compare dropouts observed by two different satellites, ACE and Ulysses, which together provide over 20 years of continuous observations at a variety of heliographic latitudes and radii. The resulting partial global view (or 3D view) enables us to identify coronal source regions and release mechanisms of heavy ion dropouts. We also discuss a physical model of gravitational settling which can be used to reconcile fractionation rates with the rate at which plasma must be escaping via reconnection. Our conclusions and results may contribute towards the ongoing refinement and validation of theories which predict the origin of "slow type" solar wind.

  16. The development and validation of the Interpersonal Support in Physical Activity Consultations Observational Tool.

    PubMed

    Rouse, Peter C; Duda, Joan L; Ntoumanis, Nikos; Jolly, Kate; Williams, Geoffrey C

    2016-02-01

    This study describes the development and psychometric characteristics of an observational instrument that examines four aspects of interpersonal support (or lack of) provided during physical activity (PA) promotion consultations (i.e., Autonomy Support, Involvement, Structure and Interpersonal Control), as identified by Self-determination Theory (SDT). The reliability and validity of the Interpersonal Support in Physical Activity Consultations Observational Tool (ISPACOT) were examined within an exploratory randomised control trial. Recorded consultations (N = 42) conducted by qualified PA advisors (N = 14) at 13 leisure centres across the West Midlands (UK) were rated. Intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) indicated moderate to high inter-rater reliability for overall interpersonal support (0.80), and the Autonomy Support (0.74), Involvement (0.73) and Structure (0.91) dimensions, but low reliability for Interpersonal Control (0.35). The advisors, who conducted PA promotion consultations that were rated as low in their interpersonally supportive features, were perceived by their clients as being less supportive (F(1,10) = 5.0, p <.05). Ratings on the ISPACOT differentiated advisors who were trained in SDT principles and those who were not. Overall, the findings provided preliminary evidence for the reliability and convergent validity of the ISPACOT. PMID:25490158

  17. Physical properties of individual coronal loops in a solar active region observed in the XUV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, C.-C.

    1980-01-01

    The physical properties of individual coronal loops in a solar active region observed in the XUV by the slitless objective grating spectroheliograph on board Skylab are investigated. Spectroheliograms of the normal active loop region McMath 12378 reveal three distinctive structural groups of loops in different temperature ranges, namely (1) small compact and smaller loops at temperatures of about 2,000,000 K observed in Fe XV and Fe XVI; (2) large Ne VII and Mg IX loops at temperatures from 500,000 to 1,000,000 K; and (3) chromospheric ribbons in He II and H alpha. The temperature of the active region is found to be uniform at about 2,000,000 K in the loops and background while loop density is found to be 3.5 x 10 to the 9th/cu cm in the loops and 2.5 x 10 to the 9th/cu cm in the surrounding background. Significant changes in the active region are observed in 24 h, although the gross temperature density structures of many loops do not show changes in 7 min. Gas pressure within the coronal loops is found to be about 40% greater than that of the background plasma. The observed loop parameters are noted to be consistent with flux-limited models of density enhancement in magnetic flux tubes and thus no esoteric heating function is required.

  18. A physical model to estimate snowfall over land using AMSU-B observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Min-Jeong; Weinman, J. A.; Olson, W. S.; Chang, D.-E.; Skofronick-Jackson, G.; Wang, J. R.

    2008-05-01

    In this study, we present a physical model to retrieve snowfall rate over land using brightness temperature observations from NOAA's Advanced Microwave Sounder Unit-B (AMSU-B) at 89 GHz, 150 GHz, 183.3 ± 1 GHz, 183.3 ± 3 GHz, and 183.3 ± 7 GHz. The retrieval model is applied to the New England blizzard of 5 March 2001 which deposited about 75 cm of snow over much of Vermont, New Hampshire, and northern New York. In this physical model, prior retrieval assumptions about snowflake shape, particle size distributions, environmental conditions, and optimization methodology have been updated. Here, single scattering parameters for snow particles are calculated with the discrete-dipole approximation (DDA) method instead of assuming spherical shapes. Five different snow particle models are considered. Snow particle size distributions are assumed to vary with air temperature and to follow aircraft measurements described by previous studies. Brightness temperatures at AMSU-B frequencies for the New England blizzard are calculated using these DDA calculated single scattering parameters and particle size distributions. The vertical profiles of pressure, temperature, relative humidity and hydrometeors are provided by MM5 model simulations. These profiles are treated as the a priori database in the Bayesian retrieval algorithm. In algorithm applications to the blizzard data, calculated brightness temperatures associated with selected database profiles agree with AMSU-B observations to within about ±5 K at all five frequencies. Retrieved snowfall rates compare favorably with the near-concurrent National Weather Service (NWS) radar reflectivity measurements. The relationships between the NWS radar measured reflectivities Ze and retrieved snowfall rate R for a given snow particle model are derived by a histogram matching technique. All of these Ze-R relationships fall in the range of previously established Ze-R relationships for snowfall. This suggests that the current physical model developed in this study can reliably estimate the snowfall rate over land using the AMSU-B measured brightness temperatures.

  19. IMOS National Reference Stations: a continental-wide physical, chemical and biological coastal observing system.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Tim P; Morello, Elisabetta B; Evans, Karen; Richardson, Anthony J; Rochester, Wayne; Steinberg, Craig R; Roughan, Moninya; Thompson, Peter; Middleton, John F; Feng, Ming; Sherrington, Robert; Brando, Vittorio; Tilbrook, Bronte; Ridgway, Ken; Allen, Simon; Doherty, Peter; Hill, Katherine; Moltmann, Tim C

    2014-01-01

    Sustained observations allow for the tracking of change in oceanography and ecosystems, however, these are rare, particularly for the Southern Hemisphere. To address this in part, the Australian Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS) implemented a network of nine National Reference Stations (NRS). The network builds on one long-term location, where monthly water sampling has been sustained since the 1940s and two others that commenced in the 1950s. In-situ continuously moored sensors and an enhanced monthly water sampling regime now collect more than 50 data streams. Building on sampling for temperature, salinity and nutrients, the network now observes dissolved oxygen, carbon, turbidity, currents, chlorophyll a and both phytoplankton and zooplankton. Additional parameters for studies of ocean acidification and bio-optics are collected at a sub-set of sites and all data is made freely and publically available. Our preliminary results demonstrate increased utility to observe extreme events, such as marine heat waves and coastal flooding; rare events, such as plankton blooms; and have, for the first time, allowed for consistent continental scale sampling and analysis of coastal zooplankton and phytoplankton communities. Independent water sampling allows for cross validation of the deployed sensors for quality control of data that now continuously tracks daily, seasonal and annual variation. The NRS will provide multi-decadal time series, against which more spatially replicated short-term studies can be referenced, models and remote sensing products validated, and improvements made to our understanding of how large-scale, long-term change and variability in the global ocean are affecting Australia's coastal seas and ecosystems. The NRS network provides an example of how a continental scaled observing systems can be developed to collect observations that integrate across physics, chemistry and biology. PMID:25517905

  20. IMOS National Reference Stations: A Continental-Wide Physical, Chemical and Biological Coastal Observing System

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Tim P.; Morello, Elisabetta B.; Evans, Karen; Richardson, Anthony J.; Rochester, Wayne; Steinberg, Craig R.; Roughan, Moninya; Thompson, Peter; Middleton, John F.; Feng, Ming; Sherrington, Robert; Brando, Vittorio; Tilbrook, Bronte; Ridgway, Ken; Allen, Simon; Doherty, Peter; Hill, Katherine; Moltmann, Tim C.

    2014-01-01

    Sustained observations allow for the tracking of change in oceanography and ecosystems, however, these are rare, particularly for the Southern Hemisphere. To address this in part, the Australian Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS) implemented a network of nine National Reference Stations (NRS). The network builds on one long-term location, where monthly water sampling has been sustained since the 1940s and two others that commenced in the 1950s. In-situ continuously moored sensors and an enhanced monthly water sampling regime now collect more than 50 data streams. Building on sampling for temperature, salinity and nutrients, the network now observes dissolved oxygen, carbon, turbidity, currents, chlorophyll a and both phytoplankton and zooplankton. Additional parameters for studies of ocean acidification and bio-optics are collected at a sub-set of sites and all data is made freely and publically available. Our preliminary results demonstrate increased utility to observe extreme events, such as marine heat waves and coastal flooding; rare events, such as plankton blooms; and have, for the first time, allowed for consistent continental scale sampling and analysis of coastal zooplankton and phytoplankton communities. Independent water sampling allows for cross validation of the deployed sensors for quality control of data that now continuously tracks daily, seasonal and annual variation. The NRS will provide multi-decadal time series, against which more spatially replicated short-term studies can be referenced, models and remote sensing products validated, and improvements made to our understanding of how large-scale, long-term change and variability in the global ocean are affecting Australia's coastal seas and ecosystems. The NRS network provides an example of how a continental scaled observing systems can be developed to collect observations that integrate across physics, chemistry and biology. PMID:25517905

  1. Observations of Asteroid 2577 Litva with Analysis of Physical Properties Through Bayesian Interence Based Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lust, Nathaniel B.; Britt, Daniel

    2014-11-01

    Observations of asteroid 2577 Litva, a known multiple system, were taken from Robinson Observatory at the University of Central Florida spanning several weeks from late 2013 to early 2014. This work outlines a modified Bayesian Inference methodology for determining periodicities within the data as well as correcting for orbital effects with pole determination, and compares our results with previously published works. For the primary object, Litva, we find the most probable period to be 2.812186±5x10 - 6 hours, the most probable for the pole direction to be at 26.96 ± 2 , 298.8 ± 11 degrees latitude and longitude. The secondary system does not appear to eclipse the primary object, most likely due orbital geometries. For the third object we find the most probable rotation period to be 5.68389 ± 0.0005 hours. We discuss how to extend this work to determine the direction of the rotation axis for the third body, as well as the pole direction for the eclipsing satellite. This methodology is a novel tool for generating probability distributions for each measured quantity handling low signal-to-noise observations, working with widely spaced data, and detecting periodicities.

  2. Virtual Observatories for Space Physics Observations and Simulations: New Routes to Efficient Access and Visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Aaron

    2005-01-01

    New tools for data access and visualization promise to make the analysis of space plasma data both more efficient and more powerful, especially for answering questions about the global structure and dynamics of the Sun-Earth system. We will show how new existing tools (particularly the Virtual Space Physics Observatory-VSPO-and the Visual System for Browsing, Analysis and Retrieval of Data-ViSBARD; look for the acronyms in Google) already provide rapid access to such information as spacecraft orbits, browse plots, and detailed data, as well as visualizations that can quickly unite our view of multispacecraft observations. We will show movies illustrating multispacecraft observations of the solar wind and magnetosphere during a magnetic storm, and of simulations of 3 0-spacecraft observations derived from MHD simulations of the magnetosphere sampled along likely trajectories of the spacecraft for the MagCon mission. An important issue remaining to be solved is how best to integrate simulation data and services into the Virtual Observatory environment, and this talk will hopefully stimulate further discussion along these lines.

  3. Using MSG-SEVIRI Cloud Physical Properties and Weather Radar Observations for the Detection of Cb/TCu Clouds

    E-print Network

    Schmeits, Maurice

    Using MSG-SEVIRI Cloud Physical Properties and Weather Radar Observations for the Detection of Cb/towering cumulus (Cb/TCu) cloud detection method for the months of May­September is presented that combines. First, a pixel-based convective cloud mask (CCM) is con- structed on the basis of cloud physical

  4. Ultrasonic fuel quantity gauging system

    SciTech Connect

    Ellinger, S.M.; Jones, H.P.

    1989-03-28

    A method is described for measuring aircraft fuel quantity and density comprising: an ultrasonic transducer, a temperature sensor means, liquid fuel, computer control, and an indicator. The computer control consists a central processing unit and memory means, the memory having container volume and fuel temperature data stored therein. The central processing unit is connected to each ultrasonic sensor means, the central processing unit being connected to the temperature sensor means. The indicator is connected to the central processing means. The ultrasonic transducer is supported within a stillwell by the container means; and the liquid fuel being supported within the container means.

  5. PHYSICS. Observation of phononic helical edge states in a mechanical topological insulator.

    PubMed

    Süsstrunk, Roman; Huber, Sebastian D

    2015-07-01

    A topological insulator, as originally proposed for electrons governed by quantum mechanics, is characterized by a dichotomy between the interior and the edge of a finite system: The bulk has an energy gap, and the edges sustain excitations traversing this gap. However, it has remained an open question whether the same physics can be observed for systems obeying Newton's equations of motion. We conducted experiments to characterize the collective behavior of mechanical oscillators exhibiting the phenomenology of the quantum spin Hall effect. The phononic edge modes are shown to be helical, and we demonstrate their topological protection via the stability of the edge states against imperfections. Our results may enable the design of topological acoustic metamaterials that can capitalize on the stability of the surface phonons as reliable wave guides. PMID:26138969

  6. An Observational Perspective of Low-Mass Dense Cores I: Internal Physical and Chemical Properties

    E-print Network

    J. Di Francesco; N. J. Evans II; P. Caselli; P. C. Myers; Y. Shirley; A. Aikawa; M. Tafalla

    2006-02-17

    Low-mass dense cores represent the state of molecular gas associated with the earliest phases of low-mass star formation. Such cores are called "protostellar" or "starless," depending on whether they do or do not contain compact sources of luminosity. In this chapter, the first half of the review of low-mass dense cores, we describe the numerous inferences made about the nature of starless cores as a result of recent observations, since these reveal the initial conditions of star formation. We focus on the identification of isolated starless cores and their internal physical and chemical properties, including morphologies, densities, temperatures, kinematics, and molecular abundances. These objects display a wide range of properties since they are each at different points on evolutionary paths from ambient molecular cloud material to cold, contracting, and centrally concentrated configurations with significant molecular depletions and, in rare cases, enhancements.

  7. Parameterization of Stratospheric Aerosol Physical Properties on the Basis of Nd:YAG Lidar Observations.

    PubMed

    Gobbi, G P

    1998-07-20

    An extension to the 355- and 1064-nm wavelengths of a numerical optical model originally developed at 532 nm is presented. The resulting parameterization allows estimates of stratospheric aerosol surface area, volume, and extinction-to-backscatter ratio from lidar measurements obtained at one of the two Nd:YAG laser wavelengths. Functional relationships that link single-wavelength backscatter to each of the physical variables are provided for sulfate aerosol types ranging from background to heavy volcanic under environmental conditions representative of the global lower stratosphere. The behavior of the functional relationships at the three Nd:YAG wavelengths is compared. Relative errors of model estimates range between 10% and 50%, depending on wavelength and backscatter cross sections. These values are comparable with the ones that characterize in situ particle counters. The inference of particle effective radius and the application of the method to the interpretation of supercooled polar stratospheric cloud observations are discussed. PMID:18285928

  8. The Harari-Shupe Observation without Preons - a Glimpse of Physics to Come?

    E-print Network

    Piotr Zenczykowski

    2015-01-06

    We argue that one has to distinguish between the Harari-Shupe model (HSM) and the Harari-Shupe observation (HSO). The former - in which quarks and leptons are viewed as composite objects built from confined fermionic subparticles (`rishons') - is known to be beset with many difficulties. The latter may be roughly defined as this part of the HSM that really works. We recall that the phase-space Clifford-algebra approach leads to the HSO without any of the HSM problems and discuss in some detail how this is achieved. The light which the phase-space-based view sheds on the HSO sets then a new direction along which the connection between space and particle properties could be studied and offers a glimpse into weird physics that probably lurks much deeper than the field-theoretical approach of the Standard Model.

  9. The Harari-Shupe Observation without Preons - a Glimpse of Physics to Come?

    E-print Network

    Zenczykowski, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    We argue that one has to distinguish between the Harari-Shupe model (HSM) and the Harari-Shupe observation (HSO). The former - in which quarks and leptons are viewed as composite objects built from confined fermionic subparticles (`rishons') - is known to be beset with many difficulties. The latter may be roughly defined as this part of the HSM that really works. We recall that the phase-space Clifford-algebra approach leads to the HSO without any of the HSM problems and discuss in some detail how this is achieved. The light which the phase-space-based view sheds on the HSO sets then a new direction along which the connection between space and particle properties could be studied and offers a glimpse into weird physics that probably lurks much deeper than the field-theoretical approach of the Standard Model.

  10. A comparison of protocols and observer precision for measuring physical stream attributes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitacre, H.W.; Roper, B.B.; Kershner, J.L.

    2007-01-01

    Stream monitoring programs commonly measure physical attributes to assess the effect of land management on stream habitat. Variability associated with the measurement of these attributes has been linked to a number of factors, but few studies have evaluated variability due to differences in protocols. We compared six protocols, five used by the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service and one by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, on six streams in Oregon and Idaho to determine whether differences in protocol affect values for 10 physical stream attributes. Results from Oregon and Idaho were combined for groups participating in both states, with significant differences in attribute means for 9 out of the 10 stream attributes. Significant differences occurred in 5 of 10 in Idaho, and 10 of 10 in Oregon. Coefficients of variation, signal-to-noise ratio, and root mean square error were used to evaluate measurement precision. There were differences among protocols for all attributes when states were analyzed separately and as a combined dataset. Measurement differences were influenced by choice of instruments, measurement method, measurement location, attribute definitions, and training approach. Comparison of data gathered by observers using different protocols will be difficult unless a core set of protocols for commonly measured stream attributes can be standardized among monitoring programs.

  11. RG flow of transport quantities

    E-print Network

    Bum-Hoon Lee; Shesansu Sekhar Pal; Sang-Jin Sin

    2011-11-01

    The RG flow equation of various transport quantities are studied in arbitrary spacetime dimensions, in the fixed as well as fluctuating background geometry both for the Maxwellian and DBI type of actions. The regularity condition on the flow equation of the conductivity at the horizon for the DBI action reproduces naturally the leading order result of {\\it Hartnoll et al.}, [{\\it JHEP}, {\\bf 04}, 120 (2010)]. Motivated by the result of {\\it van der Marel et al.}, [{\\it science}, {\\bf 425}, 271 (2003], we studied, analytically, the conductivity versus frequency plane by dividing it into three distinct parts: $\\omega T$ and $\\omega >> T$. In order to compare, we choose 3+1 dimensional bulk spacetime for the computation of the conductivity. In the $\\omega conductivity does not show up the Drude like form in any spacetime dimensions. In the $\\omega > T$ range and staying away from the horizon, for the DBI action with unit dynamical exponent, non-zero magnetic field and charge density, the conductivity goes as $\\omega^{-2/3}$, whereas the phase of the conductivity, goes as, $ArcTan(Im\\sigma^{xx}/Re\\sigma^{xx})=\\pi/6$ and $ArcTan(Im\\sigma^{xy}/Re\\sigma^{xy})=-\\pi/3$. There exists a universal quantity at the horizon that is the phase angle of conductivity, which either vanishes or an integral multiple of $\\pi$. Furthermore, we calculate the temperature dependence to the thermoelectric and the thermal conductivity at the horizon. The charge diffusion constant for the DBI action is studied.

  12. Data base on physical observations of near-Earth asteroids and establishment of a network to coordinate observations of newly discovered near-Earth asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, D. R.; Chapman, C. R.; Campins, H.

    1990-01-01

    This program consists of two tasks: (1) development of a data base of physical observations of near-earth asteroids and establishment of a network to coordinate observations of newly discovered earth-approaching asteroids; and (2) a simulation of the surface of low-activity comets. Significant progress was made on task one and, and task two was completed during the period covered by this progress report.

  13. A Physical Model to Estimate Snowfall over Land using AMSU-B Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Min-Jeong; Weinman, J. A.; Olson, W. S.; Chang, D.-E.; Skofronick-Jackson, G.; Wang, J. R.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we present an improved physical model to retrieve snowfall rate over land using brightness temperature observations from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Advanced Microwave Sounder Unit-B (AMSU-B) at 89 GHz, 150 GHz, 183.3 +/- 1 GHz, 183.3 +/- 3 GHz, and 183.3 +/- 7 GHz. The retrieval model is applied to the New England blizzard of March 5, 2001 which deposited about 75 cm of snow over much of Vermont, New Hampshire, and northern New York. In this improved physical model, prior retrieval assumptions about snowflake shape, particle size distributions, environmental conditions, and optimization methodology have been updated. Here, single scattering parameters for snow particles are calculated with the Discrete-Dipole Approximation (DDA) method instead of assuming spherical shapes. Five different snow particle models (hexagonal columns, hexagonal plates, and three different kinds of aggregates) are considered. Snow particle size distributions are assumed to vary with air temperature and to follow aircraft measurements described by previous studies. Brightness temperatures at AMSU-B frequencies for the New England blizzard are calculated using these DDA calculated single scattering parameters and particle size distributions. The vertical profiles of pressure, temperature, relative humidity and hydrometeors are provided by MM5 model simulations. These profiles are treated as the a priori data base in the Bayesian retrieval algorithm. In algorithm applications to the blizzard data, calculated brightness temperatures associated with selected database profiles agree with AMSU-B observations to within about +/- 5 K at all five frequencies. Retrieved snowfall rates compare favorably with the near-concurrent National Weather Service (NWS) radar reflectivity measurements. The relationships between the NWS radar measured reflectivities Z(sub e) and retrieved snowfall rate R for a given snow particle model are derived by a histogram matching technique. All of these Z(sub e)-R relationships fall in the range of previously established Z(sub e)-R relationships for snowfall. This suggests that the current physical model developed in this study can reliably estimate the snowfall rate over land using the AMSU-B measured brightness temperatures.

  14. Unobservability of short-lived unstable particles and its implications for observational claims and theories in physics

    E-print Network

    Marcoen J. T. F. Cabbolet

    2015-11-04

    The physics literature contains many claims that elementary particles have been observed: such observational claims are, of course, important for the development of existential knowledge. Regarding claimed observations of short-lived unstable particles in particular, the use of the word `observation' is based on the convention in physics that the observation of a short-lived unstable particle can be claimed when its predicted decay products have been observed with a significance of 5 sigma. This paper, however, shows that this 5 sigma convention is inconsistent with existing concepts of observation by showing that unstable particles with a lifetime of less than 0.01 attosecond are fundamentally unobservable both from the perspective of Fox's recent concepts of direct and indirect observation, and from the perspective of Van Fraassen's notion of observability. This cognitive inaccessibility of parts of the subatomic world has far-reaching implications for physics, not the least of which is that the aforementioned convention is untenable: claims that such short-lived unstable particles have been observed will thus have to be retracted. The main implications are two incompleteness theorems for physics, respectively stating (i) that experiments cannot prove completeness of a physical theory predicting short-lived unstable particles, and (ii) that experiments cannot prove correctness of such a theory---one can at most test its empirical adequacy. On a general note, the conclusion is that the importance of philosophical arguments for particle physics is herewith demonstrated: it is, thus, a widespread misconception that philosophical arguments can be completely avoided.

  15. Balancing Teacher Quality and Quantity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bond, Helen

    The world is facing a shortage of trained teachers. According to the 2010 Global Monitoring Report approximately 10.3 million teachers will be needed globally to staff classrooms from Bangkok to Canada. The situation is worse in Sub-Saharan Africa. Estimates suggest that approximately 1.2 million new teachers will be needed in Sub-Saharan Africa alone to achieve universal primary education goals by 2015. Increases in primary school enrollments, drought, and HIV-AIDS have exacerbated the need for well trained teachers. Despite the need, the focus is on balancing quality with quantity. An effective teacher is deemed a critical element, although not the only one, in a student's success in the classroom. This paper focuses on the dilemma of meeting universal primary education goals in Sub-Saharan Africa, while maintaining teacher quality in fragile contexts.

  16. Linking observations at active volcanoes to physical processes through conduit flow modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Mark; Neuberg, Jurgen

    2010-05-01

    Low frequency seismic events observed on volcanoes such as Soufriere hills, Montserrat may offer key indications about the state of a volcanic system. To obtain a better understanding of the source of these events and of the physical processes that take place within a volcano it is necessary to understand the conditions of magma a depth. This can be achieved through conduit flow modelling (Collier & Neuberg, 2006). 2-D compressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved through a Finite Element approach, for differing initial water and crystal contents, magma temperatures, chamber overpressures and geometric shapes of conduit. In the fully interdependent modelled system each of these variables has an effect on the magma density, viscosity, gas content, and also the pressure within the flow. These variables in turn affect the magma ascent velocity and the overall eruption dynamics of an active system. Of particular interest are the changes engendered in the flow by relativity small variations in the conduit geometry. These changes can have a profound local effect of the ascent velocity of the magma. By restricting the width of 15m wide, 5000m long vertical conduit over a 100m distance a significant acceleration of the magma is seen in this area. This has implications for the generation of Low-Frequency (LF) events at volcanic systems. The strain-induced fracture of viscoelastic magma or brittle failure of melt has been previously discussed as a possible source of LF events by several authors (e.g. Tuffen et al., 2003; Neuberg et al., 2006). The location of such brittle failure however has been seen to occur at relativity shallow depths (<1000m), which does not agree with the location of recorded LF events. By varying the geometry of the conduit and causing accelerations in the magma flow, localised increases in the shear strain rate of up to 30% are observed. This provides a mechanism of increasing the depth over witch brittle failure of melt may occur. A key observable of the Low frequency events observed on Montserrat is their tightly confined source region. The high degree of similarity of the waveforms from such events indicates a stationary common source within a finite volume of 150m x 150m x 150m (Neuberg et al., 2006). By modelling the physical processes that occur at depth within the volcano it has been possible to identify a potential source region of these events caused by the shape of the conduit, that has a fixed position and will have the potential cause repeatable events whenever magma is moving within the system. Making links of this type is essential to form a better understanding of what the observations made by monitoring systems actually relate to in terms of the volcanoes activity. Tuffen, H., Dingwell, D.B., and Pinkerton, H. 2003. Repeated fracture and healing of silicic magma generate flow banding and earthquakes? Geology, 31(12), 1089-1092. Collier, L. and Neuberg, J. 2006. Incorporating seismic observations into 2D conduit flow modelling. Journal of volcanology and geothermal research, 152, 331-346. Neuberg, J., Tuffen, H., Collier, L., Green, D., Powell, T., and Dingwell, P. 2006. The trigger mechanisms of low-frequency swarms on Montserrat. Journal of volcanology and geothermal research, 153, 37-50.

  17. Plasma Physical Parameters along CME-driven Shocks. II. Observation-Simulation Comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacchini, F.; Susino, R.; Bemporad, A.; Lapenta, G.

    2015-08-01

    In this work, we compare the spatial distribution of the plasma parameters along the 1999 June 11 coronal mass ejection (CME)-driven shock front with the results obtained from a CME-like event simulated with the FLIPMHD3D code, based on the FLIP-MHD particle-in-cell method. The observational data are retrieved from the combination of white-light coronagraphic data (for the upstream values) and the application of the Rankine-Hugoniot equations (for the downstream values). The comparison shows a higher compression ratio X and Alfvénic Mach number MA at the shock nose, and a stronger magnetic field deflection d toward the flanks, in agreement with observations. Then, we compare the spatial distribution of MA with the profiles obtained from the solutions of the shock adiabatic equation relating MA, X, and {? }{Bn} (the angle between the upstream magnetic field and the shock front normal) for the special cases of parallel and perpendicular shock, and with a semi-empirical expression for a generically oblique shock. The semi-empirical curve approximates the actual values of MA very well, if the effects of a non-negligible shock thickness {? }{sh} and plasma-to magnetic pressure ratio {? }u are taken into account throughout the computation. Moreover, the simulated shock turns out to be supercritical at the nose and sub-critical at the flanks. Finally, we develop a new one-dimensional Lagrangian ideal MHD method based on the GrAALE code, to simulate the ion-electron temperature decoupling due to the shock transit. Two models are used, a simple solar wind model and a variable-? model. Both produce results in agreement with observations, the second one being capable of introducing the physics responsible for the additional electron heating due to secondary effects (collisions, Alfvén waves, etc.).

  18. Observing the Sun with ALMA: A New Window into Solar Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastian, Timothy S.; Shimojo, Masumi; Wedemeyer-Bohm, Sven; ALMA North American Solar Development Team

    2015-01-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) is a joint North American, European, and East Asian interferometric array that opens the mm-submm wavelength part of the electromagnetic spectrum for general astrophysical exploration, providing high resolution imaging in frequency bands. Despite being a general purpose instrument, provisions have been made to enable solar observations with ALMA, thereby offering a new window into solar physics. Radiation emitted at ALMA wavelengths originates mostly from the chromosphere, which plays an important role in the transport of energy and matter and the heating of the outer layers of the solar atmosphere. Despite decades of intensive research, an understanding of the chromosphere is still elusive, and challenging to observe owing to the complicated formation mechanisms of currently available diagnostics. ALMA will change the scene substantially as it serves as a nearly linear thermometer at high spatial, temporal, and spectral resolution, enabling us to study the complex interaction of magnetic fields and shock waves and yet-to-be-discovered dynamical processes.Moreover, ALMA will play an important role in the study of energetic emissions associated with solar flares at sub-THz frequencies.This presentations introduces ALMA to the solar physcis community and motivates the science that can be addressed by ALMA using a number of examples based on 3D MHD simulations. In addition, the means by which ALMA is used to acquire and calibrate solar observations will be discussed. Finally, we encourage potential users to join us in further defining and articulating the exciting science to be explored with this fundamentally new instrument.

  19. Change in physical structure of a phenol-spiked sapric histosol observed by Differential Scanning Calorimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ondruch, Pavel; Kucerik, Jiri; Schaumann, Gabriele E.

    2014-05-01

    Interactions of pollutants with soil organic matter (SOM), their fate and transformation are crucial for understanding of soil functions and properties. In past, many papers dealing with sorption of organic and inorganic compounds have been published. However, their aim was almost exceptionally fo-cused on the pollutants themselves, determination of sorption isotherms and influence of external factors, while the change in SOM supramolecular structure was usually ignored. The SOM structure is, however, very important, since the adsorbed pollutant might have a significant influence on soil stability and functions. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) represents a technique, which has been successfully used to analyze the physical structure and physico-chemical aging of SOM. It has been found out that water molecules progressively stabilize SOM (water molecule bridge (WaMB)) (Schaumann & Bertmer 2008). Those bridges connect and stabilize SOM and can be disrupted at higher temperature (WaMB transition; (Kunhi Mouvenchery et al. 2013; Schaumann et al. 2013). In the same temperature region melting of aliphatic moieties can be observed (Hu et al. 2000; Chilom & Rice 2005; Kucerik et al. submitted 2013). In this work, we studied the effect of phenol on the physical structure of sapric histosol. Phenol was dissolved in various solvents (water, acetone, hexane, methanol) and added to soils. After the evaporation of solvents by air drying, the sample was equilibrated at 76% relative humidity for 3 weeks. Using DSC, we investigated the influence of phenol on histosol structure and time dependence of melting temperature of aliphatic moieties and WaMB transition. While addition of pure organic solvent only resulted in slightly increased transition temperatures, both melting temperature and WaMB transition temperature were significantly reduced in most cases if phenol was dissolved in these solvents. Water treatment caused a decrease in WaMB transition temperature but increased melting temperature. During the 150 days of physico-chemical aging, an increase in WaMB transition and melting temperature of aliphatic crystallites was was observed. Several types of treatments contrasting with this development were attributed to specific solvent -phenol interactions and will be discussed in this contribution. The results indicate that after introduction of phenol and during the consequent relaxation of the SOM structure, the re-formation of water molecule bridges is significantly reduced and decelerated. WaMB has been suggested as one SOM stabilizing mechanism (Schaumann & Bertmer 2008); the incorporation of phenol destabilizes the physical structure of SOM. It is assumed that phenol can penetrate into the WaMB hotspots, competes with water and/or disrupts WaMB or participate in WaMB formation. Simultaneously, phenol can penetrate and irreversibly change also the aliphatic crystallites, which are traditionally not considered being actively involved in sorption processes. It furthermore could compete with the organic matter for the hydration water. In this contribution, we will discuss these mechanisms. The results clearly demonstrate the potential of DSC to probe labile (physical) structures in soil organic matter and to elucidate interaction of organic chemicals with SOM moieties. References Chilom, G. & Rice, J.A. (2005). Glass transition and crystallite melting in natural organic matter. Organic Geochemistry, 36, 1339-1346. Hu, W.-G.; Mao, J.; Xing, B. & Schmidt-Rohr, K. (2000). Poly(methylene) crystallites in humic substances detected by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. Environmental Science and Technology, 34, 530-534. Kucerik, J.; Schwarz, J.; Jaeger, A.; Bertmer, M. & Schaumann, G. (submitted 2013). Character of transitions causing physicochemical aging of a sapric histosol. Kunhi Mouvenchery, Y.; Jaeger, A.; Aquino, A.J.A.; Tunega, D.; Diehl, D.; Bertmer, M. & Schaumann, G.E. (2013). Restructuring of a peat in interaction with multivalent cations: Effect of cation type and aging time. PLoS ONE, 8, e65359. Scha

  20. Asymptotic conditions and conserved quantities

    SciTech Connect

    Koul, R.K.

    1990-01-01

    Two problems have been investigated in this dissertation. The first one deals with the relationship between stationary space-times which are flat at null infinity and stationary space-times which are asymptotic flat at space-like infinity. It is shown that the stationary space-times which are asymptotically flat, in the Penrose sense, at null infinity, are asymptotically flat at space-like infinity in the Geroch sense and metric at space like infinity is at least C{sup 1}. In the converse it is shown that the stationary space-times which are asymptotically flat at space like infinity, in the Beig sense, are asymptotically flat at null infinity in the Penrose sense. The second problem addressed deals with the theories of arbitrary dimensions. The theories treated are the ones which have fiber bundle structure, outside some compact region. For these theories the criterion for the choice of the background metric is specified, and the boundary condition for the initial data set (q{sub ab}, P{sup ab}) is given in terms of the background metric. Having these boundary conditions it is shown that the symplectic structure and the constraint functionals are well defined. The conserved quantities associated with internal Killing vector fields are specified. Lastly the energy relative to a fixed background and the total energy of the theory have been given. It is also shown that the total energy of the theory is independent of the choice of the background.

  1. Hans A. Bethe Prize: Astrophysical, observational and nuclear-physics aspects of r-process nucleosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kratz, Karl-Ludwig

    2014-03-01

    Guided by the Solar System (S.S.) abundance peaks at A ~= 130 and A ~= 195, the basic mechanisms for the rapid neutron-capture process (the r-process) have been known for over 50 years. However, even today, all proposed scenarios and sites face problems with astrophysical conditions as well as with the necessary nuclear-physics input. In my talk, I will describe efforts in experimental and theoretical nuclear-structure data for modeling today's three groups of r-process ``observables'', i.e. the bulk S.S. isotopic abundances, the elemental abundances in metal-poor halo stars, and peculiar isotopic patterns measured in certain cosmic stardust grains. To set a historical basis, I will briefly recall our site-independent ``waiting-point'' model, with superpositions of neutron-density components and the use of the first global, unified nuclear input based on the mass model FRDM(1992). This approach provided a considerable leap forward in the basic understanding of the required astrophysical conditions, as well as of specific shell-structure properties far from stability. Starting in the early millenium, the above simple model has been replaced by more realistic, dynamical parameter studies within the high-entropy wind scenario of core-collapse supernovae, now with superpositions of entropy (S) and electron-fraction (Ye) components. Furthermore, an improved, global set of nuclear-physics data is used today, based on the new mass model FRDM(2012). With this nuclear and astrophysics parameter combination, a new fit to the S.S. r-abundances will be shown, and its improvements and remaining deficiencies in terms of underlying shell structure will be discussed. Concerning the abundance patterns in metal-poor halo stars, an interpretation of the production of ``r-rich'' (e.g. CS 22892-052) and ``r-poor'' (e.g. HD 122563) stars in terms of different (Ye), S combinations will be presented. Finally, for the third group of ``r-observables'', a possible origin of the anomalous Xe-H pattern in presolar nanodiamonds by the ``main'' component of a ``cold'' r-process is suggested.

  2. Solar Physics with Radio Observations, Proceedings of Nobeyama Symposium 1998, NRO Report Millimeter Interferometer Observations of Flares

    E-print Network

    White, Stephen

    in the energy range below 500 keV which can dominate microwave emission. This fact results from the combination observations of flares is the acceleration of electrons to high energies in solar flares. It is well established that in the impulsive phase of solar flares, energy is converted from a form stored as magnetic

  3. Chemical and Physical Properties of Bulk Aerosols within Four Sectors Observed during TRACE-P

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, C. E.; Anderson, B. E.; Talbot, R. W.; Dibb, J. E.; Fuelberg, E.; Hudgins, C. H.; Kiley, C. M.; Russo, R.; Scheuer, E.; Seid, G.

    2003-01-01

    Chemical and physical aerosol data collected on the DC-8 during TRACE-P were grouped into four sectors based on back trajectories. The four sectors represent long-range transport from the west (WSW), regional circulation over the western Pacific and Southeast Asia (SE Asia), polluted transport from Northern Asia with substantial sea salt at low altitudes (NNW) and a substantial amount of dust (Channel). WSW has generally low mixing ratios at both middle and high altitudes, with the bulk of the aerosol mass due to non-sea-salt water-soluble inorganic species. Low altitude SE Asia also has low mean mixing ratios in general, with the majority of the aerosol mass comprised of non-sea-salts, however, soot is also relatively important m this region. "w had the highest mean sea salt mixing ratios, with the aerosol mass at low altitudes (a km) evenly divided between sea salts, mm-sea-salts, and dust. The highest mean mixing ratios of water-soluble ions and soot were observed at the lowest altitudes (a km) in the Channel sector. The bulk of the aerosol mass exported from Asia emanates h m Channel at both low and midaltitudes, due to the prevalence of dust compared to other sectors. Number densities show enhanced fine particles for Channel and NNW, while their volume distributions are enhanced due to sea salt and dust Low-altitude Channel exhibits the highest condensation nuclei ((34) number densities along with enhanced scattering coefficients, compared to the other sectors. At midaltitudes (2-7 km), low mean CN number densities coupled with a high proportion of nonvolatile particles (265%) observed in polluted sectors (Channel and NNW) are attributed to wet scavenging which removes hygroscopic CN particles. Low single scatter albedo m SE Asia reflects enhanced soot

  4. Laboratory Simulations of Planetary Surfaces: Understanding Regolith Physical Properties from Astronomical Photometric Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Robert M.; Hapke, Bruce W.; Boryta, Mark D.; Manatt, Ken S.; Smythe, William D.

    2015-08-01

    Abstract BodySolar system bodies are observed at many scattering angles. The reflection and polarization change with phase angle of light scattered from particulates has been studied for a century in the lab in efforts to understand clouds, aerosols, planetary ring systems and planetary regoliths. These effects must be understood in order to infer surface properties from astronomical data. The increase in reflectance with decreasing phase angle, the ‘Opposition Effect’ (OE), has been well documented in astronomical observations and laboratory studies. Variations in linear polarization with phase angle have also been well studied. Nevertheless, there is no generally accepted physical explanation. Our lab studies show that the OE in particulate materials is due to two processes, Shadow Hiding (SHOE) and Coherent Backscattering (CBOE). SHOE arises because, as phase angle nears zero, shadows cast by regolith grains upon one another become less visible. CBOE results from constructive interference between rays traveling the same path but in opposite directions. The CBOE process assumes the returned radiation is multiply scattered. We have deconstructed the scattering process using a goniometric photopolarimeter (GPP). This permits us to present samples with light that is linearly polarized in, and perpendicular to, the scattering plane. We make angular scattering measurements of the light scattered from a simulated planetary surface. The GPP also illuminates samples with both right handed and left handed circularly polarized light. This permits us to measure the phase curve, the linear and circular polarization ratios and the linear polarization as a function of phase angle. These GPP measurements permit us to quantify the amount of multiple scattering in a particulate medium in the laboratory. At smaller phase angles in highly reflective material such as Al2O3, multiple scattering increases. This is a consequence of coherent backscattering of photons that are multiply scattered in the medium. These photometric properties are dependent on the size and the albedo of the regolith particles.

  5. Oceanography Vol.18, No.1, Mar. 2005224 As a physical oceanographer specializing in observations and

    E-print Network

    Talley, Lynne D.

    because I enjoyed math and physics in high school, and had supportive teachers. I recall sit- ting specializing in low-tem- perature physics following several internships in college, but a copy of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution magazine Oceanus made its way to the Oberlin physics student lounge. So

  6. Transportation-cyber-physical-systems-oriented engine cylinder pressure estimation using high gain observer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yong-Fu; Xiao-Pei, Kou; Zheng, Tai-Xiong; Li, Yin-Guo

    2015-05-01

    In transportation cyber-physical-systems (T-CPS), vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communications play an important role in the coordination between individual vehicles as well as between vehicles and the roadside infrastructures, and engine cylinder pressure is significant for engine diagnosis on-line and torque control within the information exchange process under V2V communications. However, the parametric uncertainties caused from measurement noise in T-CPS lead to the dynamic performance deterioration of the engine cylinder pressure estimation. Considering the high accuracy requirement under V2V communications, a high gain observer based on the engine dynamic model is designed to improve the accuracy of pressure estimation. Then, the analyses about convergence, converge speed and stability of the corresponding error model are conducted using the Laplace and Lyapunov method. Finally, results from combination of Simulink with GT-Power based numerical experiments and comparisons demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach with respect to robustness and accuracy. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61304197), the Scientific and Technological Talents of Chongqing, China (Grant No. cstc2014kjrc-qnrc30002), the Key Project of Application and Development of Chongqing, China (Grant No. cstc2014yykfB40001), the Natural Science Funds of Chongqing, China (Grant No. cstc2014jcyjA60003), and the Doctoral Start-up Funds of Chongqing University of Posts and Telecommunications, China (Grant No. A2012-26).

  7. Analysis of the physical state of one Arctic polar stratospheric cloud based on observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drdla, K.; Tabazadeh, A.; Turco, R. P.; Jacobson, M. Z.; Dye, J. E.; Twohy, C.; Baumgardner, D.

    1994-01-01

    During the Arctic Airborne Stratospheric Expedition (AASE) simultaneous measurements of aerosol size distribution and NO(y)(HN03 + NO + NO2 + 2(N205)) were made along ER-2 flight paths. The flow characteristics of the NO(y) instrument allow us to derive the condensed NO(y) amount (assumed to be HN03) present during polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) events. Analysis of the January 24th flight indicates that this condensed HN03 amount does not agree well with the aerosol volume if the observed PSCs are composed of solid nitric acid trihydrate (NAT), as is generally assumed. However, the composition agrees well with that predicted for liquid H2S04/HN03/H20 solution droplets using a new Aerosol Physical Chemistry Model (APCM). The agreement corresponds in detail to variations in temperature and humidity. The weight percentages of H2SO4, HN03, and H2O derived from the measurements all correspond to those predicted for ternary, liquid solutions.

  8. Analysis of the physical state of one Arctic polar stratospheric cloud based on observations

    SciTech Connect

    Drdla, K.; Tabazadeh, A.; Turco, R.P.; Jacobson, M.Z.; Dye, J.H.; Twohy, C.; Baumgardner, D.

    1994-11-15

    During the Arctic Airborne Stratospheric Expedition, simultaneous measurements of aerosol size distribution and NO{sub y} (HNO{sub 3} + NO + NO{sub 2} + 2{center_dot}N{sub 2}O{sub 5}) were made along ER-2 flight paths. The flow characteristics of the NO{sub y} instrument allow the authors to derive the condensed NO{sub y} amount (assumed to be HNO{sub 3}) present during polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) events. Analysis of the January 24th flight indicates that this condensed HNO{sub 3} amount does not agree well with the aerosol volume if the observed PSCs are composed of solid nitric acid trihydrate (NAT), as is generally assumed. However, the composition agrees well with that predicted for liquid H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}/HNO{sub 3}/H{sub 2}O solution droplets using a new Aerosol Physical Chemistry Model (APCM). The agreement corresponds in detail to variations in temperature and humidity. The weight percentages of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, HNO{sub 3}, and H{sub 2}O derived from the measurements all correspond to those predicted for ternary, liquid solutions. 26 refs., 4 figs.

  9. Physical properties of young stellar populations in 24 starburst galaxies observed with FUSE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellerin, Anne; Robert, Carmelle

    2007-10-01

    We present the main physical properties of very young stellar populations seen with the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer in 24 individual starbursts. These characteristics have been obtained using the evolutionary spectral synthesis technique in the far-ultraviolet range with the LAVALSB code. For each starburst, quantitative values for age, metallicity, initial mass function slope, stellar mass and internal extinction have been obtained and discussed in details. Limits of the code have been tested. One main conclusion is that most starbursts (and probably all of them) cannot be represented by any continuous star formation burst in the far ultraviolet. Also, quantitative values of various optical diagnostics related to these stellar populations have been predicted. Underlying stellar populations, dominated by B-type stars, have been detected in NGC1140, NGC4449 and possibly NGC3991. We characterized the young stellar populations of less than 5Myr in Seyfert2 nuclei. Based on observations made with the NASA-CNES-CSA Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer. Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) is operated for NASA by the Johns Hopkins University under NASA contract NAS5-32985. E-mail: pellerin@stsci.edu (AP); carobert@phy.ulaval.ca (CR)

  10. Orbital and Physical Characteristics of Meter-scale Impactors from Airburst Observations

    E-print Network

    Brown, P; Clark, D; Tagliaferri, E

    2015-01-01

    We have analysed the orbits and ablation characteristics in the atmosphere of 59 earth-impacting fireballs, produced by meteoroids one meter in diameter or larger, described here as meter-scale. Using heights at peak luminosity as a proxy for strength, we determine that there is roughly an order of magnitude spread in strengths of the population of meter-scale impactors at the Earth. We use fireballs producing recovered meteorites and well documented fireballs from ground-based camera networks to calibrate our ablation model interpretation of the observed peak height of luminosity as a function of speed. The orbits and physical strength of these objects are consistent with the majority being asteroidal bodies originating from the inner main asteroid belt. We find a lower limit of ~10-15% of our objects have a possible cometary (Jupiter-Family comet and/or Halley-type comet) origin based on orbital characteristics alone. Only half this number, however, also show evidence for weaker than average structure. Two ...

  11. Simultaneous and sequential comparisons of food quantity and consumption.

    PubMed

    Choplin, Jessica M; Motyka Joss, Laura

    2012-12-01

    Two experiments explored how food-quantity comparisons affect judgments of food quantity and consumption. In Experiment 1, participants viewed drawings of portions of mashed potatoes presented either simultaneously or sequentially and later recalled sizes from memory. The observed biases in memory for size were consistent with previous research on the biases in judgments of the sizes of geometric shapes when shapes were presented simultaneously or sequentially. In Experiment 2, participants viewed two serving bowls of pasta salad presented either simultaneously or sequentially and consumed as much or as little as they wished from the smaller bowl. Consistent with previous findings suggesting that the quantities people consume are inversely related to biases in judgments of quantity, the effects observed in Experiment 1 were flipped in Experiment 2. These results suggest that food consumption is likely to be affected by comparison quantities and the effects of comparison quantities will depend on whether quantities are presented simultaneously or sequentially. PMID:23121780

  12. A comparison of cloud microphysical quantities with forecasts from cloud prediction models

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, M.; Jensen, M.; Hogan, R.; O’Connor, E.; Huang, D.

    2010-03-15

    Numerical weather prediction models (ECMWF, NCEP) are evaluated using ARM observational data collected at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. Cloud forecasts generated by the models are compared with cloud microphysical quantities, retrieved using a variety of parameterizations. Information gained from this comparison will be utilized during the FASTER project, as models are evaluated for their ability to reproduce fast physical processes detected in the observations. Here the model performance is quantified against the observations through a statistical analysis. Observations from remote sensing instruments (radar, lidar, radiometer and radiosonde) are used to derive the cloud microphysical quantities: ice water content, liquid water content, ice effective radius and liquid effective radius. Unfortunately, discrepancies in the derived quantities arise when different retrieval schemes are applied to the observations. The uncertainty inherent in retrieving the microphysical quantities using various retrievals is estimated from the range of output microphysical values. ARM microphysical retrieval schemes (Microbase, Mace) are examined along with the CloudNet retrieval processing of data from the ARM sites for this purpose. Through the interfacing of CloudNet and “ARM” processing schemes an ARMNET product is produced and employed as accepted observations in the assessment of cloud model predictions.

  13. Physical Observations of (196256) 2003 EH1, Presumed Parent of the Quadrantid Meteoroid Stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasuga, Toshihiro; Jewitt, David

    2015-11-01

    The near-Earth asteroid (196256) 2003 EH1 has been suggested to have a dynamical association with the Quadrantid meteoroid stream. We present photometric observations taken to investigate the physical character of this body and to explore its possible relation to the stream. We find no evidence for ongoing mass loss. A model fitted to the point-like surface brightness profile at 2.1 AU limits the fractional contribution to the integrated brightness by the near-nucleus coma to ?2.5%. Assuming an albedo equal to those typical of cometary nuclei (pR = 0.04), we find that the effective nucleus radius is re = 2.0 ± 0.2 km. Time-resolved R-band photometry can be fitted by a two-peaked light curve having a rotational period of 12.650 ± 0.033 hr. The range of the light curve, ?mR = 0.44 ± 0.01 mag, is indicative of an elongated shape having an axis ratio of ?1.5 projected into the plane of the sky. The asteroid shows colors slightly redder than the Sun, being comparable with those of C-type asteroids. The limit to the mass loss rate set by the absence of the resolved coma is ?2.5 × 10?2 kg s?1, corresponding to an upper limit on the fraction of the surface that could be sublimating water ice fA ? 10?4. Even if sustained over the 200–500 year dynamical age of the Quadrantid stream, the total mass loss from 2003 EH1 would be too small to supply the reported stream mass (1013 kg), implying either that the stream has another parent or that mass loss from 2003 EH1 is episodic.

  14. 7 CFR 985.12 - Salable quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 985.12 Salable quantity. Salable quantity means the total quantity of each class of oil which handlers may purchase...

  15. 7 CFR 985.12 - Salable quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 985.12 Salable quantity. Salable quantity means the total quantity of each class of oil which handlers may purchase...

  16. 7 CFR 985.12 - Salable quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 985.12 Salable quantity. Salable quantity means the total quantity of each class of oil which handlers may purchase...

  17. Observational Analysis of Student Activity Modes, Lesson Contexts and Teacher Interactions during Games Classes in High School (11-16 Years) Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Simon; Fairclough, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    This purpose of this study was to examine student activity, lesson contexts and teacher interactions during secondary school physical education, using a recently validated systematic observation instrument termed the System for Observing the Teaching of Games in Physical Education (SOTG-PE). Thirty, single-gender high school (11-16 years) physical

  18. PHYSICAL REVIEW E 84, 026403 (2011) Observations of a structure-forming instability in a dc-glow-discharge dusty plasma

    E-print Network

    Merlino, Robert L.

    2011-01-01

    -glow-discharge dusty plasma J. R. Heinrich, S.-H. Kim, and R. L. Merlino Department of Physics and Astronomy coagulation in astrophysics [15,16]. In plasma physics, spatiotemporal pattern formation has been observedPHYSICAL REVIEW E 84, 026403 (2011) Observations of a structure-forming instability in a dc

  19. Thermo-Physical Modeling of W.I.S.E. Observed Asteroids; Determining the Diameter and Investigating the Yarkovsky Effect

    E-print Network

    California at Los Angles, University of

    Thermo-Physical Modeling of W.I.S.E. Observed Asteroids; Determining the Diameter and Investigating, Baltimore, MD Dfieldi1@jhu.edu August 29, 2011 Abstract The near Earth asteroid population is continuously replenished by main belt asteroids that strayed into orbital resonances with Jupiter and Mars. The standard

  20. Learning Physically-Instantiated Game Play Through Visual Observation Andrei Barbu, Siddharth Narayanaswamy, and Jeffrey Mark Siskind

    E-print Network

    Siskind, Jeffrey Mark

    our system learning to play six different games. I. INTRODUCTION Children learn to play games play like HOPSCOTCH, TAG, and DODGEBALL all have well defined rules that children ultimately comeLearning Physically-Instantiated Game Play Through Visual Observation Andrei Barbu, Siddharth

  1. Model Aided Observational Study of Physical Processes in Fresh Water Reservoirs 

    E-print Network

    Al Senafi, Fahad

    2012-10-19

    , turbulent kinetic energy, and the velocity variances. In order to investigate the accuracy of the model, we quantitatively compared these parameters to estimates from the observed data in the bottom boundary layer. In general, the model and observational...

  2. DENSITY ESTIMATION FOR PROJECTED EXOPLANET QUANTITIES

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Robert A.

    2011-05-20

    Exoplanet searches using radial velocity (RV) and microlensing (ML) produce samples of 'projected' mass and orbital radius, respectively. We present a new method for estimating the probability density distribution (density) of the unprojected quantity from such samples. For a sample of n data values, the method involves solving n simultaneous linear equations to determine the weights of delta functions for the raw, unsmoothed density of the unprojected quantity that cause the associated cumulative distribution function (CDF) of the projected quantity to exactly reproduce the empirical CDF of the sample at the locations of the n data values. We smooth the raw density using nonparametric kernel density estimation with a normal kernel of bandwidth {sigma}. We calibrate the dependence of {sigma} on n by Monte Carlo experiments performed on samples drawn from a theoretical density, in which the integrated square error is minimized. We scale this calibration to the ranges of real RV samples using the Normal Reference Rule. The resolution and amplitude accuracy of the estimated density improve with n. For typical RV and ML samples, we expect the fractional noise at the PDF peak to be approximately 80 n{sup -log2}. For illustrations, we apply the new method to 67 RV values given a similar treatment by Jorissen et al. in 2001, and to the 308 RV values listed at exoplanets.org on 2010 October 20. In addition to analyzing observational results, our methods can be used to develop measurement requirements-particularly on the minimum sample size n-for future programs, such as the microlensing survey of Earth-like exoplanets recommended by the Astro 2010 committee.

  3. ``Observation, Experiment, and the Future of Physics'' John G. King's acceptance speech for the 2000 Oersted Medal presented by the American Association of Physics Teachers, 18 January 2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, John G.

    2001-01-01

    Looking at our built world, most physicists see order where many others see magic. This view of order should be available to all, and physics would flourish better in an appreciative society. Despite the remarkable developments in the teaching of physics in the last half century, too many people, whether they've had physics courses or not, don't have an inkling of the power and value of our subject, whose importance ranges from the practical to the psychological. We need to supplement people's experiences in ways that are applicable to different groups, from physics majors to people without formal education. I will describe and explain an ambitious program to stimulate scientific, engineering, and technological interest and understanding through direct observation of a wide range of phenomena and experimentation with them. For the very young: toys, playgrounds, kits, projects. For older students: indoor showcases, projects, and courses taught in intensive form. For all ages: more instructive everyday surroundings with outdoor showcases and large demonstrations.

  4. "In Situ" Observation of a Soap-Film Catenoid--A Simple Educational Physics Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ito, Masato; Sato, Taku

    2010-01-01

    The solution to the Euler-Lagrange equation is an extremal functional. To understand that the functional is stationary at local extrema (maxima or minima), we propose a physics experiment that involves using a soap film to form a catenoid. A catenoid is a surface that is formed between two coaxial circular rings and is classified mathematically as…

  5. Observation, Understanding and Belief: guiding students through the great texts of physics and astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuehn, Kerry

    2014-03-01

    Questions such as ``Is Newton's theory of gravity correct?'' and ``How do you know?'' appeal to the innate sense of inquisitiveness and wonder that attracted many students (and professors) to the study of natural science in the first place. Seeking to answer such questions, one must typically acquire a deeper understanding of the technical aspects of the theory. In this way, broadly posed questions can serve as a motivation and guide to understanding scientific theories. During the past decade, I have developed and taught a four-semester introductory physics curriculum to undergraduate students at Wisconsin Lutheran College which is based on the careful reading, analysis and discussion of foundational texts in physics and astronomy--texts such as Newton's Principia, Huygens' Treatise on Light, and Pascal's Equilibrium of Liquids. This curriculum is designed to encourage a critical and circumspect approach to natural science, while at the same time developing a suitable foundation for advanced coursework in physics. In this talk, I will discuss the motivation, organization, unique features, and target audience of an undergraduate physics textbook, recently submitted for publication, which is based on this curriculum.

  6. An observation-constrained multi-physics WRF ensemble for simulating European mega heat waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stegehuis, A. I.; Vautard, R.; Ciais, P.; Teuling, A. J.; Miralles, D. G.; Wild, M.

    2015-07-01

    Many climate models have difficulties in properly reproducing climate extremes, such as heat wave conditions. Here we use the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) regional climate model with a large combination of different atmospheric physics schemes, in combination with the NOAH land-surface scheme, with the goal of detecting the most sensitive physics and identifying those that appear most suitable for simulating the heat wave events of 2003 in western Europe and 2010 in Russia. In total, 55 out of 216 simulations combining different atmospheric physical schemes have a temperature bias smaller than 1 °C during the heat wave episodes, the majority of simulations showing a cold bias of on average 2-3 °C. Conversely, precipitation is mostly overestimated prior to heat waves, and shortwave radiation is slightly overestimated. Convection is found to be the most sensitive atmospheric physical process impacting simulated heat wave temperature across four different convection schemes in the simulation ensemble. Based on these comparisons, we design a reduced ensemble of five well performing and diverse scheme configurations, which may be used in the future to perform heat wave analysis and to investigate the impact of climate change during summer in Europe.

  7. ATMOSPHERIC PHYSICS AS OBSERVED BY A VERTICALLY POINTING DOPPLER RADAR Frdric Fabry, and Isztar Zawadzki

    E-print Network

    Fabry, Frederic

    have also observed supercooled drizzle formed directly via the warm rain process coexisting with snow, Canada 1. THE INSTRUMENT AND ITS USES FIG. 1. The McGill vertically pointing radar after a freezing rain this instrument and its data. 2. WARM AND COLD RAIN PROCESSES Despite the fact that radar observations in rain

  8. Effect of smoking on physical and cognitive capability in later life: a multicohort study using observational and genetic approaches

    PubMed Central

    North, Teri-Louise; Palmer, Tom M; Lewis, Sarah J; Cooper, Rachel; Power, Chris; Pattie, Alison; Starr, John M; Deary, Ian J; Martin, Richard M; Aihie Sayer, Avan; Kumari, Meena; Cooper, Cyrus; Kivimaki, Mika; Kuh, Diana; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Day, Ian N M

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The observed associations between smoking and functional measures at older ages are vulnerable to bias and confounding. Mendelian randomisation (MR) uses genotype as an instrumental variable to estimate unconfounded causal associations. We conducted a meta-analysis of the observational associations and implemented an MR approach using the smoking-related single nucleotide polymorphism rs16969968 to explore their causal nature. Setting 9 British cohorts belonging to the HALCyon collaboration. Participants Individual participant data on N=26?692 individuals of European ancestry (N from earliest phase analysed per study) of mean ages 50–79?years were available for inclusion in observational meta-analyses of the primary outcomes. Primary outcomes Physical capability, cognitive capability and cognitive decline. The smoking exposures were cigarettes per day, current versus ex-smoker, current versus never smoker and ever versus never smoker. Results In observational analyses current and ever smoking were generally associated with poorer physical and cognitive capability. For example, current smokers had a general fluid cognition score which was 0.17 z-score units (95% CI ?0.221 to ?0.124) lower than ex-smokers in cross-sectional analyses. Current smokers had a walk speed which was 0.25 z-score units lower than never smokers (95% CI ?0.338 to ?0.170). An MR instrumental variable approach for current versus ex-smoker and number of cigarettes smoked per day produced CIs which neither confirmed nor refuted the observational estimates. The number of genetic associations stratified by smoking status were consistent with type I error. Conclusions Our observational analysis supports the hypothesis that smoking is detrimental to physical and cognitive capability. Further studies are needed for a suitably powered MR approach. PMID:26671949

  9. Atmospheric physics and Earth observations: sample performance of the grille spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Lemaitre, M P; Laurent, J; Besson, J; Girard, A; Lippens, C; Muller, C; Vercheval, J; Ackerman, M

    1984-07-13

    The grille spectrometer observed the setting and rising sun 18 times during the Spacelab 1 mission. In addition to solar absorption lines, many of which had not been observed before, atmospheric spectral absorptions due to carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide were observed at heights tangent to the thermosphere (greater than 85 kilometers), and absorptions due to ozone, water, methane, and nitrous oxide were observed in the mesosphere (greater than 50 kilometers). The strongly coupled molecules NO-NO(2) and HC1-HF were observed as pairs in the stratosphere. Methane is presented as an example of the instrumental operations because of the characteristic aspect of the Q branch of its v(3) band. PMID:17837928

  10. Asteroids' physical models from combined dense and sparse photometry and scaling of the YORP effect by the observed obliquity distribution

    E-print Network

    Hanuš, J; Brož, M; Marciniak, A; Warner, B D; Pilcher, F; Stephens, R; Behrend, R; Carry, B; ?apek, D; Antonini, P; Audejean, M; Augustesen, K; Barbotin, E; Baudouin, P; Bayol, A; Bernasconi, L; Borczyk, W; Bosch, J -G; Brochard, E; Brunetto, L; Casulli, S; Cazenave, A; Charbonnel, S; Christophe, B; Colas, F; Coloma, J; Conjat, M; Cooney, W; Correira, H; Cotrez, V; Coupier, A; Crippa, R; Cristofanelli, M; Dalmas, Ch; Danavaro, C; Demeautis, C; Droege, T; Durkee, R; Esseiva, N; Esteban, M; Fagas, M; Farroni, G; Fauvaud, M; Fauvaud, S; Del Freo, F; Garcia, L; Geier, S; Godon, C; Grangeon, K; Hamanowa, H; Heck, N; Hellmich, S; Higgins, D; Hirsch, R; Husarik, M; Itkonen, T; Jade, O; Kami?ski, K; Kankiewicz, P; Klotz, A; Koff, R A; Kryszczy?ska, A; Kwiatkowski, T; Laffont, A; Leroy, A; Lecacheux, J; Leonie, Y; Leyrat, C; Manzini, F; Martin, A; Masi, G; Matter, D; Micha?owski, J; Micha?owski, M J; Micha?owski, T; Michelet, J; Michelsen, R; Morelle, E; Mottola, S; Naves, R; Nomen, J; Oey, J; Ogloza, W; Oksanen, A; Oszkiewicz, D; Pääkkönen, P; Paiella, M; Pallares, H; Paulo, J; Pavic, M; Payet, B; Poli?ska, M; Polishook, D; Poncy, R; Revaz, Y; Rinner, C; Rocca, M; Roche, A; Romeuf, D; Roy, R; Saguin, H; Salom, P A; Sanchez, S; Santacana, G; Santana-Ros, T; Sareyan, J -P; Sobkowiak, K; Sposetti, S; Starkey, D; Stoss, R; Strajnic, J; Teng, J -P; Tregon, B; Vagnozzi, A; Velichko, F P; Waelchli, N; Wagrez, K; Wücher, H; 10.1051/0004-6361/201220701

    2013-01-01

    The larger number of models of asteroid shapes and their rotational states derived by the lightcurve inversion give us better insight into both the nature of individual objects and the whole asteroid population. With a larger statistical sample we can study the physical properties of asteroid populations, such as main-belt asteroids or individual asteroid families, in more detail. Shape models can also be used in combination with other types of observational data (IR, adaptive optics images, stellar occultations), e.g., to determine sizes and thermal properties. We use all available photometric data of asteroids to derive their physical models by the lightcurve inversion method and compare the observed pole latitude distributions of all asteroids with known convex shape models with the simulated pole latitude distributions. We used classical dense photometric lightcurves from several sources and sparse-in-time photometry from the U.S. Naval Observatory in Flagstaff, Catalina Sky Survey, and La Palma surveys (...

  11. Shoot-the-Shower: real-time observations for astroparticle physics using the FRAM robotic telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebr, J.; Jane?ek, P.; Prouza, M.; Kubánek, P.; Jelínek, M.; Mašek, M.; Ebrová, I.; ?erný, J.

    2014-12-01

    The FRAM telescope operates as an atmospheric monitoring device for the Pierre Auger Observatory in Argentina. In addition to regular photometric observations aimed to determine the overall aerosol content and characteristic in the atmosphere above the Observatory, FRAM is also a part of the rapid monitoring program. When a ultra-high energy shower is detected by the fluorescence telescopes of the Observatory, the FRAM telescope takes a series of images to measure atmospheric transparency along the trajectory of the shower. These observations are critical for the identification of showers with anomalous profiles. If such showers were clearly observed, they can significantly constrain the hadronic interaction models at very high energies.

  12. Observation of CP violation in $D^0 \\rightarrow K^- ?^+ $ as a smoking gun for New Physics

    E-print Network

    David Delepine; Gaber Faisel; Carlos A. Ramirez

    2012-12-27

    In this paper, we study the Cabibbo favored non-leptonic $D^0$ decays into $K^- \\pi^+$ decays. First we show that, within the Standard Model, the corresponding CP asymmetry is strongly suppressed and out of the experimental range even taking into account the large strong phases coming from final state Interactions. We show also that although new physics models with extra sequential generation can enhance the CP asymmetry by few orders of magnitude however the resulting CP asymmetry is still far from experimental range. The most sensitive New Physics Models to this CP asymmetry comes from no-manifest Left-Right models where a CP asymmetry up to 10% can be reached and general two Higgs models extension of SM where a CP asymmetry of order $10^{-2}$ can be obtained without being in contradiction with the experimental constraints on these models.

  13. Physics 344 Lab 2 Visual Observations with the 0.5 m Telescope

    E-print Network

    Gustafsson, Torgny

    observations in 1609 until the introduction of astronomical photography in the mid 1800's, the human eye Reference: Chapter 6 Purpose: For several hundred years, from the first use of a telescope for astronomical

  14. Method of 'optimum observables' and implementation of neural networks in physics investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Boos, E. E.; Bunichev, V. E.; Dudko, L. V.; Markina, A. A.

    2008-02-15

    A separation of a signal of various physics processes from an overwhelming background is one of the most important problems in contemporary high-energy physics. The application of various multivariate statistical methods, such as the neural-network method, has become one of the popular steps toward optimizing relevant analyses. The choice of optimum variables that would disclose distinctions between a signal and a background is one of the important elements in the application of neural networks. A universal method for determining an optimum set of such kinematical variables is described in the present article. The method is based on an analysis of Feynman diagrams contributing to signal and background processes. This method was successfully implemented in searches for single top-quark production with the D0 detector (Tevatron, Fermilab) in analyzing Run I and Run II data. Brief recommendations concerning an optimum implementation of the neural-network method in physics analysis are given on the basis of experience gained in searches for single top-quark production with the D0 detector.

  15. Decadal Challenges in Ground-Based Observations for Solar and Space Physics (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, R. M.

    2013-12-01

    Ground-based observations of the sun and near-Earth space have long provided the fundamental information needed to achieve a better understanding of the coupled Sun-Earth system and the processes responsible for solar activity and its effects on Earth's magnetosphere, ionosphere, and atmosphere. Observations based on both active and passive radio wave and optical techniques provide measurements throughout Earth's atmosphere, geospace, the heliosphere, and the Sun. Although the number of observing instruments, the capabilities of the instruments, and the variety of ground-based assets continue to open new frontiers and enable scientific discoveries, gaps still exist, not only in terms of the spatial coverage of the measurements, but also in the properties of the system that are observed and the cadence and frequency of the observations. Fortunately, new technologies have provided the tools by which these challenges can be overcome. This is an opportune time to develop an integrated strategy for development, deployment, operation, and data analysis of ground-based assets. These include, for example, advanced networking technologies, crowd-sourced data acquisition, and multi-use observational platforms. Ground-based observations can also be optimized through the development of smart sensors, that operate at low power and are easily deployable, reconfigurable, and remotely operable. Furthermore, the data from ground-based observations will be collected, archived, and disseminated in ways that will enable effective and productive data mining, image and pattern recognition, cross-correlation among diverse data sets, and broadly-based collaborative research. These capabilities are especially important as we attempt to understand the system aspects of the solar-terrestrial environment. The next decade will undoubtedly see new understanding and discoveries resulting from improved and expanded ground-based instruments, as well as in their strategic deployment and operation.

  16. 30 CFR 75.325 - Air quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Air quantity. 75.325 Section 75.325 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.325 Air quantity. (a)(1) In bituminous and lignite mines the quantity of air shall be at least 3,000 cubic feet per minute reaching each working...

  17. 48 CFR 36.516 - Quantity surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Quantity surveys. 36.516... CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 36.516 Quantity surveys. The contracting officer may insert the clause at 52.236-16, Quantity Surveys, in solicitations and contracts...

  18. 48 CFR 36.516 - Quantity surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Quantity surveys. 36.516... CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 36.516 Quantity surveys. The contracting officer may insert the clause at 52.236-16, Quantity Surveys, in solicitations and contracts...

  19. 48 CFR 36.516 - Quantity surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Quantity surveys. 36.516... CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 36.516 Quantity surveys. The contracting officer may insert the clause at 52.236-16, Quantity Surveys, in solicitations and contracts...

  20. 48 CFR 36.516 - Quantity surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Quantity surveys. 36.516... CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 36.516 Quantity surveys. The contracting officer may insert the clause at 52.236-16, Quantity Surveys, in solicitations and contracts...

  1. 48 CFR 36.516 - Quantity surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Quantity surveys. 36.516... CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 36.516 Quantity surveys. The contracting officer may insert the clause at 52.236-16, Quantity Surveys, in solicitations and contracts...

  2. 30 CFR 75.325 - Air quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Air quantity. 75.325 Section 75.325 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.325 Air quantity. (a)(1) In bituminous and lignite mines the quantity of air shall be at least 3,000 cubic feet per minute reaching each working...

  3. 30 CFR 75.325 - Air quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air quantity. 75.325 Section 75.325 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.325 Air quantity. (a)(1) In bituminous and lignite mines the quantity of air shall be at least 3,000 cubic feet per minute reaching each working...

  4. Observed variations of methane on Mars unexplained by known atmospheric chemistry and physics.

    PubMed

    Lefèvre, Franck; Forget, François

    2009-08-01

    The detection of methane on Mars has revived the possibility of past or extant life on this planet, despite the fact that an abiogenic origin is thought to be equally plausible. An intriguing aspect of the recent observations of methane on Mars is that methane concentrations appear to be locally enhanced and change with the seasons. However, methane has a photochemical lifetime of several centuries, and is therefore expected to have a spatially uniform distribution on the planet. Here we use a global climate model of Mars with coupled chemistry to examine the implications of the recently observed variations of Martian methane for our understanding of the chemistry of methane. We find that photochemistry as currently understood does not produce measurable variations in methane concentrations, even in the case of a current, local and episodic methane release. In contrast, we find that the condensation-sublimation cycle of Mars' carbon dioxide atmosphere can generate large-scale methane variations differing from those observed. In order to reproduce local methane enhancements similar to those recently reported, we show that an atmospheric lifetime of less than 200 days is necessary, even if a local source of methane is only active around the time of the observation itself. This implies an unidentified methane loss process that is 600 times faster than predicted by standard photochemistry. The existence of such a fast loss in the Martian atmosphere is difficult to reconcile with the observed distribution of other trace gas species. In the case of a destruction mechanism only active at the surface of Mars, destruction of methane must occur with an even shorter timescale of the order of approximately 1 hour to explain the observations. If recent observations of spatial and temporal variations of methane are confirmed, this would suggest an extraordinarily harsh environment for the survival of organics on the planet. PMID:19661912

  5. The Importance of Long-Term Synoptic Observations and Data Sets for Solar Physics and Helioseismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsworth, Yvonne; Broomhall, Anne-Marie; Gosain, Sanjay; Roth, Markus; Jefferies, Stuart M.; Hill, Frank

    2015-12-01

    A casual single glance at the Sun would not lead an observer to conclude that it varies. The discovery of the 11-year sunspot cycle was only made possible through systematic daily observations of the Sun over 150 years and even today historic sunspot drawings are used to study the behavior of past solar cycles. The origin of solar activity is still poorly understood as shown by the number of different models that give widely different predictions for the strength and timing of future cycles. Our understanding of the rapid transient phenomena related to solar activity, such as flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs) is also insufficient and making reliable predictions of these events, which can adversely impact technology, remains elusive. There is thus still much to learn about the Sun and its activity that requires observations over many solar cycles. In particular, modern helioseismic observations of the solar interior currently span only 1.5 cycles, which is far too short to adequately sample the characteristics of the plasma flows that govern the dynamo mechanism underlying solar activity. In this paper, we review some of the long-term solar and helioseismic observations and outline some future directions.

  6. Observing Supermassive Black Holes Across Cosmic Time: From Phenomenology to Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merloni, Andrea

    In the last decade, a combination of high sensitivity and spatial resolution observations and of coordinated multi-wavelength surveys has revolutionized our view of extra-galactic black hole (BH) astrophysics. We now know that supermassive black holes reside in the nuclei of almost every galaxy, grow over cosmological times by accreting matter, interact and merge with each other, and in the process liberate enormous amounts of energy that influence dramatically the evolution of the surrounding gas and stars, providing a powerful self-regulatory mechanism for galaxy formation. The different energetic phenomena associated to growing black holes and Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN), their cosmological evolution and the observational techniques used to unveil them, are the subject of this chapter. In particular, I will focus my attention on the connection between the theory of high-energy astrophysical processes giving rise to the observed emission in AGN, the observable imprints they leave at different wavelengths, and the methods used to uncover them in a statistically robust way. I will show how such a combined effort of theorists and observers have led us to unveil most of the SMBH growth over a large fraction of the age of the Universe, but that nagging uncertainties remain, preventing us from fully understating the exact role of black holes in the complex process of galaxy and large-scale structure formation, assembly and evolution.

  7. Herschel observations of EXtra-Ordinary Sources (HEXOS): Methanol as a probe of physical conditions in Orion KL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, S.; Bergin, E. A.; Crockett, N. R.; Goldsmith, P. F.; Lis, D. C.; Pearson, J. C.; Schilke, P.; Bell, T. A.; Comito, C.; Blake, G. A.; Caux, E.; Ceccarelli, C.; Cernicharo, J.; Daniel, F.; Dubernet, M.-L.; Emprechtinger, M.; Encrenaz, P.; Gerin, M.; Giesen, T. F.; Goicoechea, J. R.; Gupta, H.; Herbst, E.; Joblin, C.; Johnstone, D.; Langer, W. D.; Latter, W. B.; Lord, S. D.; Maret, S.; Martin, P. G.; Melnick, G. J.; Menten, K. M.; Morris, P.; Müller, H. S. P.; Murphy, J. A.; Neufeld, D. A.; Ossenkopf, V.; Pérault, M.; Phillips, T. G.; Plume, R.; Qin, S.-L.; Schlemmer, S.; Stutzki, J.; Trappe, N.; van der Tak, F. F. S.; Vastel, C.; Yorke, H. W.; Yu, S.; Zmuidzinas, J.

    2011-03-01

    We have examined methanol emission from Orion KL withthe Herschel/HIFI instrument, and detected two methanol bands centered at 524 GHz and 1061 GHz. The 524 GHz methanol band (observed in HIFI band 1a) is dominated by the isolated ?J = 0, K = -4 ? -3, vt = 0 Q branch, and includes 25 E-type and 2 A-type transitions. The 1061 GHz methanol band (observed in HIFI band 4b) is dominated by the ?J = 0, K = 7 ? 6, vt = 0 Q branch transitions which are mostly blended. We have used the isolated E-type vt = 0 methanol transitions to explore the physical conditions in the molecular gas. With HIFI's high velocity resolution, the methanol emission contributed by different spatial components along the line of sight toward Orion KL (hot core, low velocity flow, and compact ridge) can be distinguished and studied separately. The isolated transitions detected in these bands cover a broad energy range (upper state energy ranging from 80 K to 900 K), which provides a unique probe of the thermal structure in each spatial component. The observations further show that the compact ridge is externally heated. These observations demonstrate the power of methanol lines as probes of the physical conditions in warm regions in close proximity to young stars. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  8. Environmental and social-motivational contextual factors related to youth physical activity: systematic observations of summer day camps

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Youth risk of obesity is high during the summer months. Summer day camps can be ideal settings for preventing obesity through reducing youth summer sedentary behaviors. However, with limited research on camp settings, the mechanisms by which these programs promote children’s physical activity (PA) remains largely unknown. The current study was designed to take a first step in addressing this gap in research through systematic observations of 4 summer day camps. Methods Systematic observations of 4 summer day camps was conducted using the System for Observing Play and Leisure Activity in Youth (SOPLAY) and a social-motivational climate supplemental observation tool founded on Self-Determination Theory and previous research developed by the authors. Teams of two coders observed daily activities for four days across two-week periods at each camp. On 15 minute intervals throughout each day, camps were assessed on level of youth PA (e.g., sedentary, moderate, vigorous), five physical features (e.g., equipment), eight staff interactions (e.g., encourage PA), and six social climate components (e.g., inclusive game). Results Across the sample, highly engaging games [F(1,329)?=?17.68, p?physical-environmental effects of temperature [F(1,328)?=?1.54, p?observations of the physical and social resources of summer day camps and contributes to our understanding of the strengths and needs of camps to effectively promote PA in both boys and girls during the summer months when risks for obesity are high. PMID:23688205

  9. Physical Diversity of Near-Earth Asteroids from Arecibo Radar Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Patrick A.; Howell, Ellen S.; Nolan, Michael C.; Richardson, James E.; Springmann, Alessondra

    2015-08-01

    Radar observations of near-Earth asteroids have revealed a heterogeneous population with diameters spanning meter to kilometer scales, diverse shapes ranging from simple spheroids to extremely irregular bodies, rotation periods stretching from minutes to weeks, and a spectrum of surface properties. Since 1998, the Arecibo Observatory S-band radar system has detected over 400 near-Earth asteroids. We find the radar-observed near-Earth asteroid population with absolute magnitude H < 21 is not dominated by a single category of basic shape: spheroids, multiple-asteroid systems, double-lobed contact binaries, elongated bodies, or irregularly shaped asteroids. A radar-observed binary fraction of 14% (N = 38; including two triple-asteroid systems) among near-Earth asteroids with H < 21 is in agreement with optical observations, while contact binaries account for a similar fraction (14%; N = 38). At smaller sizes, binaries and contact binaries are much rarer, with only three binaries and one contact binary with H < 21 detected thus far. The spin distribution of near-Earth asteroids estimated from radar matches very well with the spin distribution determined from optical lightcurves, including the well-known spin barrier for bodies with H < 21 and the curious lack of small, slowly rotating bodies with H > 21, despite different biases in these observing techniques. The shape and spin distributions of near-Earth asteroids observed with radar both show a distinct change in the population around H of 21 or 22 (100- to 200-m diameters), possibly indicating fundamental structural changes at this scale. Beyond constraining overall sizes and shapes, radar images as fine as 7.5-m resolution with Arecibo, akin to a low-cost flyby, reveal asteroid surfaces with ridges, concavities, crater-like depressions, angular facets, and boulders, details that constrain regolith properties and affect our understanding of geophysics in microgravity. Furthermore, the integrated surface properties of radar albedo and polarization ratio correlate with some spectral types, and thus composition.

  10. Fate of Deepwater Horizon oil in Alabama's beach system: understanding physical evolution processes based on observational data.

    PubMed

    Hayworth, Joel S; Prabakhar Clement, T; John, Gerald F; Yin, Fang

    2015-01-15

    The impact of MC252 oil on northern Gulf of Mexico (GOM) beaches from the 2010 Deepwater Horizon (DWH) catastrophe was extensive along Alabama's beaches. While considerable amount of cleanup has occurred along these beaches, as of August 2014, DWH oil spill residues continue to be found as surface residual balls (SRBs), and also occasionally as submerged oil mats (SOMs). Four years of field observations informing the fate and transport of DWH SRBs in Alabama's beach system are presented here, along with a conceptual framework for describing their physical evolution processes. The observation data show that SRBs containing MC252 residues currently remain in Alabama's beach system, although their relationship to SOMs is not fully known. Based on our field observations we conclude that small DWH SRBs are likely to persist for several years along the Alabama shoreline. PMID:25496697

  11. Observation of Hypervelocity Dust in Dense Supersonic Plasma Flows: Physics and Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Ticos, C. M.; Wang, Z.; Wurden, G. A.; Shukla, P. K.

    2008-10-15

    Synthetic diamond and graphite dust powders with a wide range of sizes, from a few to several tens of microns in diameter were accelerated to velocities up to 4 km/s in vacuum by plasma jet produced in a coaxial gun. Some of the key features of the plasma flow are high density, of the order of 10{sup 22} m{sup -3}, low ion and electron temperatures, of only a few eV, and good collimation over a distance of {approx_equal}2 m due to confinement by the self-generated magnetic field. The main features of this plasma-drag acceleration technique are presented and discussed. From basic science point of view hypervelocity dust is useful for studying the physics of dust interaction with energetic plasma flows at microscopic level. In physical applications, it has been proposed to use hypervelocity dust for diagnostic or control of magnetically confined fusion plasmas. In engineering, hypervelocity dusty plasmas are extensively employed in industrial processes involved in the processing of surfaces.

  12. Aircraft Observations of Sub-cloud Aerosol and Convective Cloud Physical Properties 

    E-print Network

    Axisa, Duncan

    2011-02-22

    This research focuses on aircraft observational studies of aerosol-cloud interactions in cumulus clouds. The data were collected in the summer of 2004, the spring of 2007 and the mid-winter and spring of 2008 in Texas, central Saudi Arabia...

  13. Role of subsurface physics in the assimilation of surface soil moisture observations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil moisture controls the exchange of water and energy between the land surface and the atmosphere and exhibits memory that may be useful for climate prediction at monthly time scales. Though spatially distributed observations of soil moisture are increasingly becoming available from remotely sense...

  14. Physical Characterization of Warm Spitzer-observed Near-Earth Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Cristina A.; Emery, Joshua P.; Trilling, David E.; Delbo, Marco; Hora, Joseph L.; Mueller, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy of Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) connects diagnostic spectral features to specific surface mineralogies. The combination of spectroscopy with albedos and diameters derived from thermal infrared observations can increase the scientific return beyond that of the individual datasets. For instance, some taxonomic classes can be separated into distinct compositional groupings with albedo and different mineralogies with similar albedos can be distinguished with spectroscopy. To that end, we have completed a spectroscopic observing campaign to complement the ExploreNEOs Warm Spitzer program that obtained albedos and diameters of nearly 600 NEOs (Trilling et al., 2010). The spectroscopy campaign included visible and near-infrared observations of ExploreNEOs targets from various observatories. Here we present the results of observations using the low-resolution prism mode (approx. 0.7-2.5 microns) of the SpeX instrument on the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF). We also include near-infrared observations of Explore-NEOs targets from the MIT-UH-IRTF Joint Campaign for Spectral Reconnaissance. Our dataset includes near-infrared spectra of 187 ExploreNEOs targets (125 observations of 92 objects from our survey and 213 observations of 154 objects from the MIT survey). We identify a taxonomic class for each spectrum and use band parameter analysis to investigate the mineralogies for the S-, Q-, and V-complex objects. Our analysis suggests that for spectra that contain near-infrared data but lack the visible wavelength region, the Bus-DeMeo system misidentifies some S-types as Q-types. We find no correlation between spectral band parameters and ExploreNEOs albedos and diameters. We investigate the correlations of phase angle with band area ratio and near-infrared spectral slope. We find slightly negative Band Area Ratio (BAR) correlations with phase angle for Eros and Ivar, but a positive BAR correlation with phase angle for Ganymed.The results of our phase angle study are consistent with those of (Sanchez et al., 2012). We find evidence for spectral phase reddening for Eros, Ganymed, and Ivar. We identify the likely ordinary chondrite type analog for an appropriate subset of our sample. Our resulting proportions of H, L, and LL ordinary chondrites differ from those calculated for meteorite falls and in previous studies of ordinary chondrite-like NEOs.

  15. Physical and observable characteristics of cloud-to-ground lightning over the Pearl River Delta region of South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yonglin; Chan, L. Y.; Lin, Qinhao; Feng, Wanxing; Bi, Xinhui; Chen, Jiahong; Tao, Hantao; Wang, Xinming; Chen, Duohong; Sheng, Guoying; Fu, Jiamo

    2014-05-01

    Cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning characteristic parameters deduced from the lightning location system (LLS) for five differing microenvironmental areas relative to megacity, city, municipal town, hilly suburban area, and mountainous rural area conditions were examined in our 2009-2011 Pearl River Delta (PRD) study. Our LLS data analysis showed that there were high variation of lightning characteristics and phenomenal changes among these areas. As a supplement to the usual study of physical characteristics, an observation-based methodology had been developed to study the lightning behavior, while the respective thunderstorms were traversing through these observation areas. Special features and phenomenal changes related to the lightning characteristic parameters, such as observable lightning stroke days (OLSDs) and observable lightning stroke frequency and density for an OLSD, were also addressed. Microenvironmental variation due to change in topography, degree of urbanization, urban effect, and thunderstorm strength was found to affect the spatial distribution of lightning stroke and the severity of lightning activities over the observation areas. This approach increases our understanding of lightning in subtropical China. It also tells us more about the behavior of lightning while the thunderstorm traverses through an observation area. This information is lacking in previous studies.

  16. The estimation of body mass index and physical attractiveness is dependent on the observer's own body mass index.

    PubMed Central

    Tovée, M J; Emery, J L; Cohen-Tovée, E M

    2000-01-01

    A disturbance in the evaluation of personal body mass and shape is a key feature of both anorexia and bulimia nervosa. However, it is uncertain whether overestimation is a causal factor in the development of these eating disorders or is merely a secondary effect of having a low body mass. Moreover, does this overestimation extend to the perception of other people's bodies? Since body mass is an important factor in the perception of physical attractiveness, we wanted to determine whether this putative overestimation of self body mass extended to include the perceived attractiveness of others. We asked 204 female observers (31 anorexic, 30 bulimic and 143 control) to estimate the body mass and rate the attractiveness of a set of 25 photographic images showing people of varying body mass index (BMI). BMI is a measure of weight scaled for height (kg m(- 2)). The observers also estimated their own BMI. Anorexic and bulimic observers systematically overestimated the body mass of both their own and other people's bodies, relative to controls, and they rated a significantly lower body mass to be optimally attractive. When the degree of overestimation is plotted against the BMI of the observer there is a strong correlation. Taken across all our observers, as the BMI of the observer declines, the overestimation of body mass increases. One possible explanation for this result is that the overestimation is a secondary effect caused by weight loss. Moreover, if the degree of body mass overestimation is taken into account, then there are no significant differences in the perceptions of attractiveness between anorexic and bulimic observers and control observers. Our results suggest a significant perceptual overestimation of BMI that is based on the observer's own BMI and not correlated with cognitive factors, and suggests that this overestimation in eating-disordered patients must be addressed directly in treatment regimes. PMID:11075712

  17. Physical properties of star clusters in the outer LMC as observed by the Dark Energy Survey

    E-print Network

    Pieres, A; Balbinot, E; Luque, E; Queiroz, A B A; da Costa, L N; Maia, M A G; Drlica-Wagner, A; Roodman, A; Abbott, C; Allam, S; Benoit-Levy, A; Bertin, E; Brooks, D; Buckley-Geer, E; Burke, D L; Rosell, A Carnero; Kind, M Carrasco; Carretero, J; Cunha, C E; Desai, S; Diehl, H T; Eifler, T F; Finley, D A; Flaugher, B; Fosalba, P; Frieman, J; Gerdes, D W; Gruen, D; Gruendl, R A; Gutierrez, G; Honscheid, K; James, D J; Kuehn, K; Kuropatkin, N; Lahav, O; Li, T S; Marshall, J L; Martini, P; Miller, C J; Miquel, R; Nichol, R C; Nord, B; Ogando, R; Plazas, A A; Romer, A K; Sanchez, E; Scarpine, V; Schubnell, M; Sevilla-Noarbe, I; Smith, R C; Soares-Santos, M; Sobreira, F; Suchyta, E; Swanson, M E C; Tarle, G; Thaler, J; Thomas, D; Tucker, D; Walker, A R

    2015-01-01

    The Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) harbors a rich and diverse system of star clusters, whose ages, chemical abundances, and positions provide information about the LMC history of star formation. We use Science Verification imaging data from the Dark Energy Survey to increase the census of known star clusters in the outer LMC and to derive physical parameters for a large sample of such objects using a spatially and photometrically homogeneous data set. Our sample contains 255 visually identified cluster candidates, of which 109 were not listed in any previous catalog. We quantify the crowding effect for the stellar sample produced by the DES Data Management pipeline and conclude that the stellar completeness is < 10% inside typical LMC cluster cores. We therefore develop a pipeline to sample and measure stellar magnitudes and positions around the cluster candidates using DAOPHOT. We also implement a maximum-likelihood method to fit individual density profiles and colour-magnitude diagrams. For 117 (from a tot...

  18. Understanding the Sunrise Peak in Rural NOX: Physical and Chemical Factors Observed during PROPHET Summer Intensives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moody, J. L.; Carroll, M. A.; Lilly, M. A.; Thornberry, T.; Wimmers, A.; Mitchell, M.; Seaman, C.; L'Heureux, M.; Yageman, L.; Campbell, C.; Yip, G.; Hengel, S.; Fortner, E.

    2002-12-01

    The PROPHET tower provides measurements of rural air chemistry at the top of a mixed deciduous forest canopy in Northern Lower Michigan. Using data from summer intensives in 2000 and 2001, we have identified a number of mornings with significant peaks (~3000 ppt or greater) in NOx. This analysis describes the temporal evolution of these features, and evaluates a number of mechanisms that may explain this behavior. An NCAR Integrated Sounding System (ISS) with a Doppler Wind Profiler and Radio Acoustic Sounder provided measurements of boundary layer behavior from ~200 meters and above. However, during the night, the NBL was typically below the height of the lowest range gates of the ISS. To observe characteristics of the NBL a tether system was used to raise/lower standard rawinsondes throughout several nights. Ultimately, the transition from the stable nocturnal boundary layer (NBL) to the daytime convective mixed layer is shown to determine the erosion of the morning chemical maxima. This occurs as the mixed layer deepens and entrains an increasing volume of air from aloft, the concentrations drop significantly, and corresponding changes are observed in the concentrations of other trace gases. Multiple mechanisms may explain the initial chemical increase that typically begins at first light, when net solar radiation becomes positive. On nights with tethersonde data, we have observed that the initial erosion of the NBL at sunrise corresponds with the timing of significant increase in NOx at the tower. However, observations indicate that a number of these peaks occur on saturated mornings. Therefore, we also consider the role of fog and dew formation as a reservoir that potentially liberates NOx in the early morning as moist air in the NBL begins to evaporate.

  19. Multiyear high-frequency physical and environmental observations at the Guadiana Estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garel, E.; Ferreira, Ó.

    2015-07-01

    High-frequency data collected continuously over a multiyear time frame are required for investigating the various agents that drive ecological and hydrodynamic processes in estuaries. Here, we present water quality and current in-situ observations from a fixed monitoring station operating from 2008 to 2014 in the lower Guadiana Estuary, southern Portugal (37°11.30' N, 7°24.67' W). The data were recorded by: a multi-parametric probe providing hourly records of temperature, chlorophyll, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, and pH at a water depth of ~ 1 m; and, a bottom-mounted acoustic Doppler current profiler measuring the pressure, near-bottom temperature, and flow velocity through the water column every 15 min. The time-series, in particular the probe one, present substantial data gaps arising from equipment failure and maintenance, which are ineluctable with this type of observations in harsh environments. However, prolonged (months-long) periods of observations during contrasted external forcing conditions are available. The raw data are reported together with quality flags indicating the status (valid/non-valid) of each record. Hourly river discharge data from two hydrographic stations located near the estuary head are also provided to support data analysis and interpretation. The dataset is publicly available at PANGAEA (doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.845750) in machine-readable format.

  20. Multi-year high-frequency physical and environmental observations at the Guadiana Estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garel, E.; Ferreira, Ó.

    2015-11-01

    High-frequency data collected continuously over a multi-year time frame are required for investigating the various agents that drive ecological and hydrodynamic processes in estuaries. Here, we present water quality and current in situ observations from a fixed monitoring station operating from 2008 to 2014 in the lower Guadiana Estuary, southern Portugal (37°11.30' N, 7°24.67' W). The data were recorded by a multi-parametric probe providing hourly records (temperature, salinity, chlorophyll, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, and pH) at a water depth of ~ 1 m, and by a bottom-mounted acoustic Doppler current profiler measuring the pressure, near-bottom temperature, and flow velocity through the water column every 15 min. The time series data, in particular the probe ones, present substantial gaps arising from equipment failure and maintenance, which are ineluctable with this type of observation in harsh environments. However, prolonged (months-long) periods of multi-parametric observations during contrasted external forcing conditions are available. The raw data are reported together with flags indicating the quality status of each record. River discharge data from two hydrographic stations located near the estuary head are also provided to support data analysis and interpretation. The data set is publicly available in machine-readable format at PANGAEA (doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.845750).

  1. Herschel/HIFI Observations of Extra-Ordinary Sources: The physical and chemical structure of the Orion Bar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagy, Zsofia; Ossenkopf, Volker; van der Tak, Floris; Choi, Yunhee; Bergin, Edwin; Gerin, Maryvonne; Joblin, Christine; Röllig, Markus; Simon, Robert; Stutzki, Jürgen

    2015-08-01

    Young massive stars have a strong impact on their environment, including feedback due to their Far Ultraviolet (FUV) radiation. The penetration of FUV radiation into the interstellar medium affects the physical and chemical structure of high-mass star forming regions. Photon-Dominated Regions (PDRs) are interfaces between fully ionized and cold molecular material. Spectral line observations at sub-mm and far-infrared wavelengths provide information on the physics and chemistry of PDRs, and therefore help us to understand the impact of young massive stars on their surrounding interstellar medium.One of the best targets to probe PDR structure and chemistry is the Orion Bar, located at a distance of about 415 pc, with a nearly edge-on geometry. We have carried out an unbiased spectral line survey with Herschel/HIFI in the 480-1250 GHz and 1410-1910 GHz frequency range. We have identified lines from about 30 molecules, including the reactive ions CH+, SH+, CF+, and OH+ (Nagy et al., 2013; Van der Tak and Nagy et al., 2013), the high-J ladder of CO isotopes, and grain chemistry tracers such as H2CO.We interpret the molecular line emission observed in the HIFI range using detailed non-LTE and PDR models in order to probe the structure and chemistry of the Orion Bar. We present an overview of the HIFI line survey observations and their interpretation using radiative transfer and chemical models.

  2. The effect of the action observation physical training on the upper extremity function in children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin-Young; Kim, Jong-Man; Ko, Eun-Young

    2014-06-01

    The purpose this study was to investigate the effect of action observation physical training (AOPT) on the functioning of the upper extremities in children with cerebral palsy (CP), using an evaluation framework based on that of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). The subjects were divided into an AOPT group and a physical training (PT) group. AOPT group practiced repeatedly the actions they observed on video clips, in which normal child performed an action with their upper extremities. PT group performed the same actions as the AOPT group did after observing landscape photographs. The subjects participated in twelve 30-min sessions, 3 days a week, for 4 weeks. Evaluation of upper extremity function using the following: the power of grasp and Modified Ashworth Scale for body functions and structures, a Box and Block test, an ABILHAND-Kids questionnaire, and the WeeFIM scale for activity and participation. Measurements were performed before and after the training, and 2 weeks after the end of training. The results of this study showed that, in comparison with the PT group, the functioning of the upper extremities in the AOPT group was significantly improved in body functions and activity and participation according to the ICF framework. This study demonstrates that AOPT has a positive influence on the functioning of the upper extremities in children with CP. It is suggested that this alternative approach for functioning of the upper extremities could be an effective method for rehabilitation in children with CP. PMID:25061598

  3. Physical properties of transneptunian objects, Centaurs, and Trojans from thermal observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, M.

    2014-07-01

    The most productive way to measure the size and albedo of small bodies throughout the Solar System is through studies of their thermal emission. This is complicated for the cold bodies in the outer Solar System, whose thermal emission peaks at wavelengths for which the Earth's atmosphere is opaque. While the relatively warm Trojans are marginally accessible from the ground in the Q band, the sizes of only a handful of transneptunian objects (TNOs) and Centaurs were known before Spitzer was launched in 2003. Spitzer/MIPS photometry at wavelengths of 24 and 70 microns allowed size and albedo of tens of TNOs and Centaurs to be measured. Herschel (operational in 2009--2013) allowed photometry of a total of ˜140 TNOs at wavelengths between 70 and 500 microns using PACS and SPIRE, chiefly in the framework of the Key Programme ``TNOs are Cool!''. I will present selected results from these surveys and discuss their implications on our knowledge of the origin and evolution of the Solar System, as evidenced by its coldest members. Of particular interest are the sizes of binary systems. Where their masses are known from spatially resolved observations, diameter measurements allow the bulk mass density to be determined, providing a unique probe of the object's interior. In the past few years, we have witnessed a remarkable increase in the number of successfully observed stellar occultations by TNOs and other small bodies. They provide an elegant, model-independent, and accurate way of measuring projected TNO dimensions at the time of the event and at the location of the observer(s). Even satellites or ring systems can be detected this way. However, predictable occultations are rare events and will likely stay infrequent, even in the post-Gaia era. Studies of the ensemble properties of the transneptunian populations will continue to rely on thermal observations. Reliable thermal modeling requires some knowledge of the target's temperature. Optimally, this is obtained through the data themselves, requiring a wavelength coverage straddling the emission peak and including the temperature-sensitive Wien slope. Spitzer covered this range for TNOs and allowed first derivations of the typical thermal inertia: TNO surfaces appear to show the extremely low thermal inertia expected for cold regoliths. Unfortunately, Herschel's wavelength made it largely insensitive to TNO temperatures. The same will hold true for ALMA and for JWST (however useful they will be for TNO science otherwise). If approved, the Japanese-led mission SPICA, with its proposed European camera SAFARI, will be the next observatory to provide sensitive photometric capabilities at the required wavelength range, between some 35 and 210 microns.

  4. Geoethics: IPCC disgraced by violation of observational facts and physical laws in their sea level scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mörner, Nils-Axel

    2014-05-01

    Sea level may rise due to glacier melting, heat expansion of the oceanic water column, and redistribution of the waster masses - all these factors can be handled as to rates and amplitudes (provided one knows what one is talking about). In key areas over the entire Indian Ocean and in many Pacific Islands there are no traces of and sea level rise over the last 40-50 years. This is also the case for test-areas like Venice and the North Sea coasts. In the Kattegatt Sea one can fix the sea level factor to a maximum rise of 1.0-0.9 mm/year over the last century. The 204 tide gauges selected by NOAA for their global sea level monitoring provide a strong and sharp maximum (of 182 sites) in the range of 0.0-2.0 mm/yr. Satellite altimetry is said to give a rise of 3.2 mm/yr; this, however, is a value achieved after a quite subjective and surely erroneous "correction". The IPCC is talking about exceptionally much higher rates, and even worse are some "boy scouts" desperate try to launce real horror ratios. Physical laws set the frames of the rate and amount of ice melting, and so do records of events in the past (i.e. the geological records). During the Last Ice Age so much ice was accumulated on land, that the sea level dropped by about 120 m. When the process was reversed and ice melted under exceptionally strong climate forcing, sea level rose at a maximum rate of about 10 mm/yr (a meter per century). This can never happen under today's climate conditions. Even with IPCC's hypothetical scenarios, the true sea rise must be far less. When people like Rahmstorf (claiming 1 m or more by 2100) and Hansen (claiming a 4 m rise from 2080 to 2100) give their values, they exceed what is possible according to physical laws and accumulated geological knowledge. The expansion of the oceanic water column may reach amounts of sea level rise in the order of a few centimetres, at the most a decimetre. Old temperature measurements may record a temperature rise over the last 50 years in the order of 0.4o C. The improved ARGO measurements starting 2004 give virtually no change, however. The physically possible amount of expansion decreases, of course, with the decreasing water columns towards the coasts, and at the coasts it is zero (±0.0 mm). The redistribution of water masses in response to the Earth's rotation, surface current beat, wind stress, air pressure, etc. is an important factor. It gives local to regional changes, cancelled out on the global scale, however. From a geoethical point of view, it is of course quite blameworthy that IPCC excels in spreading these horror scenarios of a rapid, even accelerating, sea level rise. Besides, modern understanding of the planetary-solar-terrestrial interaction shows that we are now on our way into grand solar minimum with severely colder climate - that is just the opposite to IPCC's talk about an accelerating warming. In science we should debate - but we should not dictate (as IPCC insist upon), and it is here the perspectives of geoethics comes into the picture.

  5. Transformative Relation of Kinematical Descriptive Quantities Defined by Different Spatial Referential Frame, Its Property and Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Ji

    2012-08-01

    Quantitative transformations between corresponding kinetic quantities defined by any two spatial referential frames, whose relative kinematics relations (purely rotational and translational movement) are known, are presented based on necessarily descriptive definitions of the fundamental concepts (instant, time, spatial referential frame that distinguishes from Maths. Coordination, physical point) had being clarified by directly empirical observation with artificially descriptive purpose. Inductive investigation of the transformation reveals that all physical quantities such as charge, temperature, time, volume, length, temporal rate of the quantities and relations like temporal relation between signal source and observer as such are independent to spatial frames transformation except above kinematical quantities transformations, kinematics related dynamics such as Newton ’ s second law existing only in inertial frames and exchange of kinetic energy of mass being valid only in a selected inertial frame. From above bas is, we demonstrate a series of inferences and applications such as phase velocity of light being direct respect to medium (including vacuum) rather than to the frame, using spatial referential frame to describe any measurable field (electric field, magnetic field, gravitational field) and the field ’ s variation; and have tables to contrast and evaluate all aspects of those hypotheses related with spacetime such as distorted spacetime around massive stellar, four dimension spacetime, gravitational time dilation and non - Euclid geometry with new one. The demonstration strongly suggests all the hypotheses are invalid in capable tested concepts ’ meaning and relations. The conventional work on frame transformation and its property, hypothesized by Voigt, Heaviside, Lorentz, Poincare and Einstein a century ago with some mathematical speculation lacking rigorous definition of the fundamental concepts such as instant, time, spatial reference, straight line, plane area, merely good in building up patchwork to do self p referred explanation by making up derivative concepts or accumulating new hypothesis, has disturbed people to describe the physical nature by setting up the sound basis of concept and relations with capable tested method, it’s time to be replaced by empirically effective alternative.

  6. Physical and Chemical Processes Affecting Permeability during Geologic Carbon Sequestration in Arkose and Dolostone: Experimental Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luhmann, A. J.; Kong, X.; Tutolo, B. M.; Saar, M. O.; Seyfried, W. E.

    2012-12-01

    Geologic carbon sequestration in saline sedimentary basins provides a promising option to reduce anthropogenic CO2 emissions. We are conducting experiments using a novel flow system at elevated temperatures and pressures to better understand the physical and chemical processes that result from CO2 injection into these basins and the effects of these processes on system permeability. Here we present experimental results on arkose (primarily K-feldspar and quartz) and dolostone, focusing on CO2 exsolution and fluid-mineral reactions. Following heating-induced CO2 exsolution in an arkose sediment (90-125 ?m) core, XRCT scans revealed abundant pores several times larger than the average grain size. The pores likely grew as exsolved CO2 accumulated in the pores and exerted outspread forces on the surrounding grains. These trapped CO2 accumulations blocked flow pathways, reducing measured permeability by 10,000 times. Another reported experiment on a solid arkose core and water with aqueous CO2 concentrations at 80% saturation dissolved K-feldspar, as evidenced by 3 to 1 ratios of Si to K in sampled fluids, and precipitated an Al-rich mineral, likely gibbsite. SEM images revealed extensive clay precipitation on K-feldspar mineral surfaces. Alteration reduced permeability from 5 × 10-14 m2 to 3 × 10-14 m2 during this 52-day experiment. The third reported experiment on a dolostone core and 1 molal NaCl brine with an aqueous CO2 concentration at 75% saturation caused extensive dissolution and a large increase in permeability. This three-day experiment produced a wormhole of 2 mm in diameter that penetrated the entire 2.6 cm long core with a diameter of 1.3 cm. High, initial Ca and Mg fluid concentrations that quickly receded imply early formation of the wormhole that grew in diameter with time. Our experimental results show that formation permeability can change dramatically from both physical and chemical processes, and these changes should be accounted for during geologic carbon sequestration.

  7. Self-determined motivation towards physical activity in adolescents treated for obesity: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Within the Self-Determination Theory (SDT) framework, the first major study aim was to investigate the SDT tenets in an obese adolescent population by examining the factor structure of the Behavioural Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire-2 (BREQ-2) and by investigating associations between physical activity (PA) and motivation in obese adolescents. The second aim was to study differences in motivation according to adolescents' educational level, since lower educated obese adolescent are a sub-risk group for lower PA levels among the obese adolescents. The third aim was to investigate whether attending a residential obesity treatment program could lead to an increase in autonomous motivation towards PA and to see if the treatment effect on motivation was different in low versus high educated youth. Methods For the first study aim, the sample comprised 177 obese adolescents at the start of a 10-month multidisciplinary residential obesity treatment program (BMI = 35.9 ± 6.0 kg/m2, 15.1 ± 1.5 years, 62% girls). A subsample of 65 adolescents (stratified by educational level) were divided into low (n = 34) versus high educated (n = 31) as part of the second and third study aim. Motivation was assessed using the BREQ-2 and PA using the Flemish Physical Activity Questionnaire. Results Exploratory factor analysis showed sufficient validations with the original factor for 17 out of 19 BREQ-2 items. Significant positive correlations were found between PA and the composite score of relative autonomy (r = 0.31, p < 0.001), introjected (r = 0.23, p < 0.01), identified (r = 0.31, p < 0.001) and intrinsic regulation (r = 0.38, p < 0.001). Higher educated adolescents scored higher on the composite score of relative autonomy, introjected, identified and intrinsic regulation at the start of treatment (F = 3.68, p < 0.001). The composite score of relative autonomy, external, identified and intrinsic regulation significantly increased during treatment for all adolescents (F = 6.65, p < 0.001). Introjected regulation significantly increased for lower educated adolescents (F = 25.57, p < 0.001). Conclusions The BREQ-2 can be used in an obese adolescent population. Higher levels of autonomous motivation towards PA were related to higher PA levels. Adolescents had increases in both autonomous and controlled forms of motivation during treatment. Special attention for lower educated adolescents during treatment is needed, as they have a lower autonomous motivation at the start of treatment and an increase in introjected regulation during treatment. PMID:21923955

  8. Panchromatic Observations of the Textbook GRB 110205A: Constraining Physical Mechanisms of Prompt Emission and Afterglow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zheng, W.; Shen, R. F.; Sakamoto, T.; Beardmore, A. P.; De Pasquale, M.; Wu, X. F.; Gorosabel, J.; Urata, Y.; Sugita, S.; Zhang, B.; Pozanenko, A.; Nissinen, M.; Sahu, D. K.; Im, M.; Ukwatta, T. N.; Andreev, M.; Klunko, E.; Volnova, A.; Akerlof, C. W.; Anto, P.; Barthelmy, S. D.; Breeveld, A.; Carsenty, U.; Gehrels, N.; Sonbas, E.

    2011-01-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of a bright, long duration (T(sub 90) approx. 257 s) GRB 110205A at redshift z = 2.22. The optical prompt emission was detected by Swift/UVOT, ROTSE-IIIb and BOOTES telescopes when the GRB was still radiating in the gamma-ray band. Thanks to its long duration, nearly 200 s of observations were obtained simultaneously from optical, X-ray to gamma-ray (1 eV - 5 MeV), which makes it one of the exceptional cases to study the broadband spectral energy distribution across 6 orders of magnitude in energy during the prompt emission phase. In particular, by fitting the time resolved prompt spectra, we clearly identify, for the first time, an interesting two-break energy spectrum, roughly consistent with the standard GRB synchrotron emission model in the fast cooling regime. Although the prompt optical emission is brighter than the extrapolation of the best fit X/ -ray spectra, it traces the -ray light curve shape, suggesting a relation to the prompt high energy emission. The synchrotron + synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) scenario is disfavored by the data, but the models invoking a pair of internal shocks or having two emission regions can interpret the data well. Shortly after prompt emission (approx. 1100 s), a bright (R = 14.0) optical emission hump with very steep rise ( alpha approx. 5.5) was observed which we interpret as the emission from the reverse shock. It is the first time that the rising phase of a reverse shock component has been closely observed.

  9. Monthly Deaths Number And Concomitant Environmental Physical Activity: 192 Months Observation (1990-2005)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoupel, E.; Kalediene, R.; Petrauskiene, J.; Starkuviene, S.; Abramson, E.; Israelevich, P.; Sulkes, J.

    2007-12-01

    Human life and health state are dependent on many endogenous and exogenous influence factors. The aim of this study is to check the possible links between monthly deaths distribution and concomitant activity of three groups of cosmophysical factors: solar (SA), geomagnetic (GMA) and cosmic ray (CRA) activities. 192 months death number in years 1990-2005 (n=674004) at the Republic of Lithuania were analyzed. Total and both gender data were considered. In addition to the total death numbers, groups of ischemic heart disease (IHD), stroke (CVA), non-cardiovascular (NCV), accident, traffic accident and suicide-related deaths were studied. Sunspot number and solar radio flux (for SA), Ap, Cp and Am indices (for GMA) and neutron activity on the Earth s surface (for CRA) were the environmental physical activity parameters used in this study. Yearly and monthly deaths distributions were also studied. Pearson correlation coefficients (r) and their probabilities (p) were calculated. Multivariate analysis was conducted. Results revealed: 1) significant correlation of monthly deaths number with CRA (total, stroke, NCV and suicides) and inverse with SA and GMA; 2) significant correlation of monthly number of traffic accidents number with SA and GMA, and inverse with CRA; 3) a strong negative relationship between year and IHD/CVA victims number (an evidence for growing role of stroke in cardiovascular mortality); 4) significant links of rising cardiovascular deaths number at the beginning of the year and traffic accidents victims at the end of the year. It is concluded that CRA is related to monthly deaths distribution.

  10. Transit Timing Observations from Kepler: IV. Confirmation of 4 Multiple Planet Systems by Simple Physical Models

    SciTech Connect

    Fabrycky, Daniel C.; Ford, Eric B.; Steffen, Jason H.; Rowe, Jason F.; Carter, Joshua A.; Moorhead, Althea V.; Batalha, Natalie M.; Borucki, William J.; Bryson, Steve; Buchhave, Lars A.; Christiansen, Jessie L.; /SETI Inst., Mtn. View /NASA, Ames /Caltech

    2012-01-01

    Eighty planetary systems of two or more planets are known to orbit stars other than the Sun. For most, the data can be sufficiently explained by non-interacting Keplerian orbits, so the dynamical interactions of these systems have not been observed. Here we present 4 sets of lightcurves from the Kepler spacecraft, which each show multiple planets transiting the same star. Departure of the timing of these transits from strict periodicity indicates the planets are perturbing each other: the observed timing variations match the forcing frequency of the other planet. This confirms that these objects are in the same system. Next we limit their masses to the planetary regime by requiring the system remain stable for astronomical timescales. Finally, we report dynamical fits to the transit times, yielding possible values for the planets masses and eccentricities. As the timespan of timing data increases, dynamical fits may allow detailed constraints on the systems architectures, even in cases for which high-precision Doppler follow-up is impractical.

  11. Physical performance and training response during Ramadan observance, with particular reference to protein metabolism.

    PubMed

    Shephard, Roy J

    2012-06-01

    This review examines information on the effects of Ramadan observance upon the metabolism, training and performance of athletes, with particular reference to proteins and amino acids. Increased gluconeogenesis and/or a reduced intake of protein could lead to a decrease of lean tissue, with adverse effects on muscular performance, and the lack of immediate protein ingestion could compromise responses to strength training. Actual responses vary quite widely, depending on culture and the individual's level and type of athletic involvement. In elite competitors, there is typically an increased fractional ingestion of protein with a small reduction in overall energy intake, and this may lead to small reductions of body and lean tissue mass. There are often small decreases of performance, particularly in activities requiring vigorous and/or repetitive muscular contraction. More information is needed on responses in situations where protein intake is likely to be inadequate (adolescent growth, those maintaining vegetarian diets or from poor countries and disciplines with very high overall energy needs) and when vigorous muscle training is in progress. However, in most of the situations studied to date, Ramadan observance has had only limited adverse consequences for either training or competitive performance. PMID:22554842

  12. General Relativity: Geometry Meets Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomsen, Dietrick E.

    1975-01-01

    Observing the relationship of general relativity and the geometry of space-time, the author questions whether the rest of physics has geometrical explanations. As a partial answer he discusses current research on subatomic particles employing geometric transformations, and cites the existence of geometrical definitions of physical quantities such…

  13. 36 CFR 223.220 - Quantity determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Quantity determination. 223.220 Section 223.220 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER Special Forest Products § 223.220 Quantity...

  14. Rethinking Intensive Quantities via Guided Mediated Abduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrahamson, Dor

    2012-01-01

    Some intensive quantities, such as slope, velocity, or likelihood, are perceptually privileged in the sense that they are experienced as holistic, irreducible sensations. However, the formal expression of these quantities uses "a/b" analytic metrics; for example, the slope of a line is the quotient of its rise and run. Thus, whereas students'…

  15. Physical connectivity in the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System inferred from 9 years of ocean color observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soto, I.; Andréfouët, S.; Hu, C.; Muller-Karger, F. E.; Wall, C. C.; Sheng, J.; Hatcher, B. G.

    2009-06-01

    Ocean color images acquired from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) from 1998 to 2006 were used to examine the patterns of physical connectivity between land and reefs, and among reefs in the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System (MBRS) in the northwestern Caribbean Sea. Connectivity was inferred by tracking surface water features in weekly climatologies and a time series of weekly mean chlorophyll- a concentrations derived from satellite imagery. Frequency of spatial connections between 17 pre-defined, geomorphological domains that include the major reefs in the MBRS and river deltas in Honduras and Nicaragua were recorded and tabulated as percentage of connections. The 9-year time series of 466 weekly mean images portrays clearly the seasonal patterns of connectivity, including river plumes and transitions in the aftermath of perturbations such as hurricanes. River plumes extended offshore from the Honduras coast to the Bay Islands (Utila, Cayo Cochinos, Guanaja, and Roatán) in 70% of the weekly mean images. Belizean reefs, especially those in the southern section of the barrier reef and Glovers Atoll, were also affected by riverine discharges in every one of the 9 years. Glovers Atoll was exposed to river plumes originating in Honduras 104/466 times (22%) during this period. Plumes from eastern Honduras went as far as Banco Chinchorro and Cozumel in Mexico. Chinchorro appeared to be more frequently connected to Turneffe Atoll and Honduran rivers than with Glovers and Lighthouse Atolls, despite their geographic proximity. This new satellite data analysis provides long-term, quantitative assessments of the main pathways of connectivity in the region. The percentage of connections can be used to validate predictions made using other approaches such as numerical modeling, and provides valuable information to ecosystem-based management in coral reef provinces.

  16. Ship wake signatures in radar/optical images of the sea surface: observations and physical mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermakov, S.; Kapustin, I.; Lazareva, T.

    2014-10-01

    Ship wakes can be clearly seen in satellite radar and optical images of the sea surface, and understanding of physical mechanisms responsible for the wake signatures is very important to develop methods of ship detection/identification. The wake surface signatures at small and intermediate stages are characterized by a smooth centerline area where surface waves are depressed due to the vessel turbulence and by a pair of rough bands at the sides of the centerline wake. At large wake ages two slick bands (a "railroad track" wake) appear instead of the rough bands, while the smooth centerline band is practically absent. In this paper results of field studies of the mean flow structure near the wake are presented. It is shown that two mean circulating currents ("rolls") rotating in the opposite directions are formed at two sides of the median vertical plane of the wake. Near the water surface the rolls result in diverging horizontal flows, decreasing near the wake edges. Wind waves propagating against the diverging currents are amplified due to a wave straining mechanism thus increasing the surface roughness. Film sampling was carried out when crossing the wakes and analysis of films collected within the "railroad" slick bands and outside the bands has revealed enhanced surface wave damping, obviously due to accumulation of surfactants in the slick bands; the surfactant compression is explained by the action of the diverging currents. The diverging currents as part of the rolls and the surfactant transport to the water surface are supposed to be associated with air bubbles generated by ship propellers.

  17. EQUATION OF STATE AND NEUTRON STAR PROPERTIES CONSTRAINED BY NUCLEAR PHYSICS AND OBSERVATION

    SciTech Connect

    Hebeler, K.; Lattimer, J. M.; Pethick, C. J.; Schwenk, A.

    2013-08-10

    Microscopic calculations of neutron matter based on nuclear interactions derived from chiral effective field theory, combined with the recent observation of a 1.97 {+-} 0.04 M{sub Sun} neutron star, constrain the equation of state of neutron-rich matter at sub- and supranuclear densities. We discuss in detail the allowed equations of state and the impact of our results on the structure of neutron stars, the crust-core transition density, and the nuclear symmetry energy. In particular, we show that the predicted range for neutron star radii is robust. For use in astrophysical simulations, we provide detailed numerical tables for a representative set of equations of state consistent with these constraints.

  18. Stellar physics. Observing the onset of outflow collimation in a massive protostar.

    PubMed

    Carrasco-González, C; Torrelles, J M; Cantó, J; Curiel, S; Surcis, G; Vlemmings, W H T; van Langevelde, H J; Goddi, C; Anglada, G; Kim, S-W; Kim, J-S; Gómez, J F

    2015-04-01

    The current paradigm of star formation through accretion disks, and magnetohydrodynamically driven gas ejections, predicts the development of collimated outflows, rather than expansion without any preferential direction. We present radio continuum observations of the massive protostar W75N(B)-VLA 2, showing that it is a thermal, collimated ionized wind and that it has evolved in 18 years from a compact source into an elongated one. This is consistent with the evolution of the associated expanding water-vapor maser shell, which changed from a nearly circular morphology, tracing an almost isotropic outflow, to an elliptical one outlining collimated motions. We model this behavior in terms of an episodic, short-lived, originally isotropic ionized wind whose morphology evolves as it moves within a toroidal density stratification. PMID:25838383

  19. Three-body physics. Observation of the Efimov state of the helium trimer.

    PubMed

    Kunitski, Maksim; Zeller, Stefan; Voigtsberger, Jörg; Kalinin, Anton; Schmidt, Lothar Ph H; Schöffler, Markus; Czasch, Achim; Schöllkopf, Wieland; Grisenti, Robert E; Jahnke, Till; Blume, Dörte; Dörner, Reinhard

    2015-05-01

    Quantum theory dictates that upon weakening the two-body interaction in a three-body system, an infinite number of three-body bound states of a huge spatial extent emerge just before these three-body states become unbound. Three helium (He) atoms have been predicted to form a molecular system that manifests this peculiarity under natural conditions without artificial tuning of the attraction between particles by an external field. Here we report experimental observation of this long-predicted but experimentally elusive Efimov state of (4)He3 by means of Coulomb explosion imaging. We show spatial images of an Efimov state, confirming the predicted size and a typical structure where two atoms are close to each other while the third is far away. PMID:25931554

  20. Ionospheric total electron content variations observed before earthquakes: Possible physical mechanism and modeling

    E-print Network

    Namgaladze, A A; Zakharenkova, I E; Shagimuratov, I I; Martynenko, O V

    2009-01-01

    The GPS derived anomalous TEC disturbances before earthquakes were discovered in the last years using global and regional TEC maps, measurements over individual stations as well as measurements along individual GPS satellite passes. For strong mid-latitudinal earthquakes the seismo-ionospheric anomalies look like local TEC enhancements or decreases located in the vicinity of the forthcoming earthquake epicenter In case of strong low-latitudinal earthquakes there are effects related with the modification of the equatorial F2-region anomaly: deepening or filling of the ionospheric electron density trough over the magnetic equator. We consider that the most probable reason of the NmF2 and TEC disturbances observed before the earthquakes is the vertical drift of the F2-region ionospheric plasma under the influence of the zonal electric field of seismic origin. To check this hypothesis, the model calculations have been carried out with the use of the Upper Atmosphere Model. The electric potential distribution at t...

  1. Pellagra: a rare disease observed in a victim of mental and physical abuse.

    PubMed

    Piercecchi-Marti, Marie-Dominique; Pélissier-Alicot, Anne-Laure; Leonetti, Georges; Tervé, Jean-Paul; Cianfarani, François; Pellissier, Jean-François

    2004-12-01

    Lesions of the brain stem and cerebellum due to nutritional deficiencies are mostly seen in chronic alcohol abuse and more rarely in severe malnutrition. We report the case of a 27-year-old woman, found dead in the family flat. She presented cachexia (167 cm, 25 kg) and multiple hematomas of the limbs. Postmortem examination revealed lesions due to peritonitis. Neuropathological examination showed severe atrophy of the corpus callosum and central neuronal chromatolysis, which are observed in pellagra. Inflammatory colitis or celiac disease was not found. Toxicological analysis was negative, in particular no alcohol absorption. Pellagra, which is due to nicotinamide deficiency, is a disease rarely seen in this country. In this case, nutritional deficiency was the consequence of failure to eat in a context of abuse. The woman was born of an incestuous relationship and presented intellectual retardation due to poor affective relations with her mother. PMID:15577526

  2. Generating wind fields that honour point observations and physical conservation laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlabing, Dirk; Bárdossy, András

    2015-04-01

    Wind exhibits a strong spatial and temporal variability. In the application of lake modelling, these features are important for simulating water flows and stratification correctly, as mean and variance of wind speed determine the input of momentum into the lake. This makes a mere interpolation of point measurements an unsuitable method for producing model input. Additionally to concrete point measurements, more subtle aspects of wind fields are to be reproduced. It follows from the fact that wind vectors represent moving air that a wind field has to be divergency-free in order to be mass-conservative. Further, a temporal sequence of wind fields has to comply with the Navier-Stokes equation in order to conserve momentum. All these constraints can be met by representing the conditioned wind field as a linear combination of unconditioned, normally distributed random fields that individually possess the same spatial covariance structuref as observed wind fields. The aim of having the same covariance structure in the conditioned wind field is formulated as an optimization problem with respect to the weights used in the linear combination. With the help of Quadratic Programming (QP) and exploiting the convexity of the problem, feasible solutions can easily be found. In this QP problem, observations become linear constraints. Conservation laws can be incorporated by introducing control volumes in a similar fashion as they are used in fluid mechanics. Budgets of flows through these control volumes become integral conditions in the QP problem. The applicability of the approach will be shown using an artificial example and real-world data measured on shore and on a moving boat on Lake Constance.

  3. Asteroids' physical models from combined dense and sparse photometry and scaling of the YORP effect by the observed obliquity distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanuš, J.; ?urech, J.; Brož, M.; Marciniak, A.; Warner, B. D.; Pilcher, F.; Stephens, R.; Behrend, R.; Carry, B.; ?apek, D.; Antonini, P.; Audejean, M.; Augustesen, K.; Barbotin, E.; Baudouin, P.; Bayol, A.; Bernasconi, L.; Borczyk, W.; Bosch, J.-G.; Brochard, E.; Brunetto, L.; Casulli, S.; Cazenave, A.; Charbonnel, S.; Christophe, B.; Colas, F.; Coloma, J.; Conjat, M.; Cooney, W.; Correira, H.; Cotrez, V.; Coupier, A.; Crippa, R.; Cristofanelli, M.; Dalmas, Ch.; Danavaro, C.; Demeautis, C.; Droege, T.; Durkee, R.; Esseiva, N.; Esteban, M.; Fagas, M.; Farroni, G.; Fauvaud, M.; Fauvaud, S.; Del Freo, F.; Garcia, L.; Geier, S.; Godon, C.; Grangeon, K.; Hamanowa, H.; Hamanowa, H.; Heck, N.; Hellmich, S.; Higgins, D.; Hirsch, R.; Husarik, M.; Itkonen, T.; Jade, O.; Kami?ski, K.; Kankiewicz, P.; Klotz, A.; Koff, R. A.; Kryszczy?ska, A.; Kwiatkowski, T.; Laffont, A.; Leroy, A.; Lecacheux, J.; Leonie, Y.; Leyrat, C.; Manzini, F.; Martin, A.; Masi, G.; Matter, D.; Micha?owski, J.; Micha?owski, M. J.; Micha?owski, T.; Michelet, J.; Michelsen, R.; Morelle, E.; Mottola, S.; Naves, R.; Nomen, J.; Oey, J.; Og?oza, W.; Oksanen, A.; Oszkiewicz, D.; Pääkkönen, P.; Paiella, M.; Pallares, H.; Paulo, J.; Pavic, M.; Payet, B.; Poli?ska, M.; Polishook, D.; Poncy, R.; Revaz, Y.; Rinner, C.; Rocca, M.; Roche, A.; Romeuf, D.; Roy, R.; Saguin, H.; Salom, P. A.; Sanchez, S.; Santacana, G.; Santana-Ros, T.; Sareyan, J.-P.; Sobkowiak, K.; Sposetti, S.; Starkey, D.; Stoss, R.; Strajnic, J.; Teng, J.-P.; Trégon, B.; Vagnozzi, A.; Velichko, F. P.; Waelchli, N.; Wagrez, K.; Wücher, H.

    2013-03-01

    Context. The larger number of models of asteroid shapes and their rotational states derived by the lightcurve inversion give us better insight into both the nature of individual objects and the whole asteroid population. With a larger statistical sample we can study the physical properties of asteroid populations, such as main-belt asteroids or individual asteroid families, in more detail. Shape models can also be used in combination with other types of observational data (IR, adaptive optics images, stellar occultations), e.g., to determine sizes and thermal properties. Aims: We use all available photometric data of asteroids to derive their physical models by the lightcurve inversion method and compare the observed pole latitude distributions of all asteroids with known convex shape models with the simulated pole latitude distributions. Methods: We used classical dense photometric lightcurves from several sources (Uppsala Asteroid Photometric Catalogue, Palomar Transient Factory survey, and from individual observers) and sparse-in-time photometry from the U.S. Naval Observatory in Flagstaff, Catalina Sky Survey, and La Palma surveys (IAU codes 689, 703, 950) in the lightcurve inversion method to determine asteroid convex models and their rotational states. We also extended a simple dynamical model for the spin evolution of asteroids used in our previous paper. Results: We present 119 new asteroid models derived from combined dense and sparse-in-time photometry. We discuss the reliability of asteroid shape models derived only from Catalina Sky Survey data (IAU code 703) and present 20 such models. By using different values for a scaling parameter cYORP (corresponds to the magnitude of the YORP momentum) in the dynamical model for the spin evolution and by comparing synthetic and observed pole-latitude distributions, we were able to constrain the typical values of the cYORP parameter as between 0.05 and 0.6. Table 3 is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  4. Household Water Quantity and Health: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Stelmach, Rachel D.; Clasen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    While the quantity of water used in the home is thought to be an important determinant of health, much of the evidence relies on using water access as a proxy for quantity. This review examines the health effects of household water quantity using studies that directly measured water quantity. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and article reference lists. Eligible studies included experimental and observational studies that measured a difference in water quantity and quantified an association between water quantity and health outcomes. 21 studies, divided into six of the many possible water-quantity associated outcomes, met the eligibility criteria. Due to heterogeneity in designs, settings, methods, and outcomes, a meta-analysis was inappropriate. Overall results showed a positive association between water quantity and health outcomes, but the effect depended on how the water was used. Increased water usage for personal hygiene was generally associated with improved trachoma outcomes, while increased water consumption was generally associated with reduced gastrointestinal infection and diarrheal disease and improved growth outcomes. In high-income countries, increased water consumption was associated with higher rates of renal cell carcinoma and bladder cancer but not associated with type II diabetes, cardiac-related mortality, or all-cause mortality. PMID:26030467

  5. Conserved quantities for the Sitter particles$^*$

    E-print Network

    Cacciatori, Sergio L

    2009-01-01

    Recent observations of the luminosity-red shift relation of distant type Ia supernovae established the fact that the expansion of the universe is accelerated. This is interpreted by saying that there exists some kind of agent (called dark energy), which exerts an overall repulsive effect on ordinary matter. Dark energy contributes today in the amount of about 73 % to the total energy content of the universe, and its spatial distribution is compatible with perfect uniformity. The simplest possible explanation for dark energy is to assume that it is just a universal constant, the so called cosmological constant. This would mean that the background arena for all natural phenomena, once all physical matter-energy has been ideally removed, is the de Sitter space time. Thus, the Poincar\\'e group should be replaced by the de Sitter group, and one is naturally led to a reformulation of the theory of special relativity on these grounds. The absence of a privileged class of equivalent frames (inertial frames) suggests ...

  6. Testing conceptual and physically based soil hydrology schemes against observations for the Amazon Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guimberteau, M.; Ducharne, A.; Ciais, P.; Boisier, J. P.; Peng, S.; De Weirdt, M.; Verbeeck, H.

    2014-06-01

    This study analyzes the performance of the two soil hydrology schemes of the land surface model ORCHIDEE in estimating Amazonian hydrology and phenology for five major sub-basins (Xingu, Tapajós, Madeira, Solimões and Negro), during the 29-year period 1980-2008. A simple 2-layer scheme with a bucket topped by an evaporative layer is compared to an 11-layer diffusion scheme. The soil schemes are coupled with a river routing module and a process model of plant physiology, phenology and carbon dynamics. The simulated water budget and vegetation functioning components are compared with several data sets at sub-basin scale. The use of the 11-layer soil diffusion scheme does not significantly change the Amazonian water budget simulation when compared to the 2-layer soil scheme (+3.1 and -3.0% in evapotranspiration and river discharge, respectively). However, the higher water-holding capacity of the soil and the physically based representation of runoff and drainage in the 11-layer soil diffusion scheme result in more dynamic soil water storage variation and improved simulation of the total terrestrial water storage when compared to GRACE satellite estimates. The greater soil water storage within the 11-layer scheme also results in increased dry-season evapotranspiration (+0.5 mm d-1, +17%) and improves river discharge simulation in the southeastern sub-basins such as the Xingu. Evapotranspiration over this sub-basin is sustained during the whole dry season with the 11-layer soil diffusion scheme, whereas the 2-layer scheme limits it after only 2 dry months. Lower plant drought stress simulated by the 11-layer soil diffusion scheme leads to better simulation of the seasonal cycle of photosynthesis (GPP) when compared to a GPP data-driven model based on eddy covariance and satellite greenness measurements. A dry-season length between 4 and 7 months over the entire Amazon Basin is found to be critical in distinguishing differences in hydrological feedbacks between the soil and the vegetation cover simulated by the two soil schemes. On average, the multilayer soil diffusion scheme provides little improvement in simulated hydrology over the wet tropical Amazonian sub-basins, but a more significant improvement is found over the drier sub-basins. The use of a multilayer soil diffusion scheme might become critical for assessments of future hydrological changes, especially in southern regions of the Amazon Basin where longer dry seasons and more severe droughts are expected in the next century.

  7. Radar observations and physical modeling of binary near-Earth asteroid (1862) Apollo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, Thomas F.; Benner, Lance A.; Brozovic, Marina; Leford, Bruce; Nolan, Michael C.; Giorgini, Jon D.; Ostro, Steve J.; Margot, Jean-Luc

    2014-11-01

    Binary asteroid 1862 Apollo has an extensive observational history allowing many of its characteristics to be investigated. Apollo was one of the first objects to show evidence for the YORP effect (Kaasalainen et al. 2007, Nature 446, 420) and its mass has been estimated by detection of the Yarkovsky effect (Nugent et al. 2012, AJ 144, 60; Farnocchia et al. 2013, Icarus 224, 1). We observed Apollo at Arecibo and Goldstone from Oct. 29-Nov. 13, 2005, obtaining a series of echo power spectra and delay-Doppler images that achieved resolutions as high as 7.5 m/pixel. The Arecibo images show that Apollo is a binary system with a rounded primary that has two large protrusions about 120 deg apart in longitude. We used the Arecibo data and published lightcurves to estimate the primary's 3D shape. Our best fit has major axes of ~1.8x1.5x1.3 km and a volume of ~1.6 km^3. The protrusions have lengths of ~300 and 200 m, are on the primary's equator, and give Apollo a distinctly different appearance from the primaries with equatorial ridges seen with other binary near-Earth asteroids. We estimated the pole by starting with the Kaasalainen et al. spin vector of ecliptic (longitude, latitude)=(50 deg, -71 deg) +- 7 deg and letting it float. Our best fit has a pole within 11 deg of (longitude, latitude)=(71, -72). Convex models produced from inversion of lightcurves by Kaasalainen et al. and thermal infrared data by Rozitis et al. (2013, A&A 555, A20) are more oblate than our model, do not show protrusions, and have somewhat different pole directions. The Arecibo images reveal weak but persistent echoes from a satellite on Nov. 1 and 2 but cover only a fraction of its orbit. The images are insufficient to estimate the satellite's shape and yield a rough estimate for its long axis of 190 m. Preliminary fits give an orbital period of ~27.0-27.5 h and a semimajor axis of ~3.5-4.0 km, implying a mass of 2.8-3.9E12 kg and a bulk density of 1.7-2.4 g/cm^3. The density is consistent with estimates reported by Rozitis et al. and Farnocchia et al., providing the first independent test using a binary to estimate the density of near-Earth asteroid that has also been estimated through detection of the Yarkovsky effect.

  8. Physical Climatology of Indonesian Maritime Continent: An Overview of Observational Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamanaka, M. D.

    2014-12-01

    The Indonesian maritime continent (IMC) is a miniature of our land-sea coexisting planet Earth. Firstly, without interior activity, the Earth becomes an even-surfaced "aqua-planet" with both atmosphere and ocean flowing almost zonally, and solar differential heating generates (global thermal tides and) Hadley's meridional circulations with ITCZ along the equator as observed actually over open (Indian and Pacific) oceans in the both sides of IMC. ITCZ involves intraseasonal variations or super cloud clusters moving eastward. Secondly, the lands and seas over the actual Earth have been keeping the area ratio of 3:7 (similar to that of islands and inland/surrounding seas in IMC), but their displacements have produced IMC near the equator, which turns equatorial Pacific easterly current northward (Kuroshio) and reflects equatorial oceanic waves inducing coupled ocean-atmosphere interannual variations such as ENSO and IOD, or displacements of Walker's zonal circulations. Thirdly, because IMC consists of many large/small islands with very long coastlines, many narrow straits become a dam for the global (Pacific to Indian) ocean circulation, and the land-sea heat capacity contrasts along the coastlines generate the world's largest rainfall with diurnal cycles (sea-land breeze circulations). The diurnal cycles are dominant in the rainy season (austral summer in Jawa and Bali), because rainfall-induced sprinkler-like land cooling reverses the trans-coastal temperature gradient before sunrise, and subsequent clear sky on land until around noon provides solar heating dependent on season. These processes lead to rapid land/hydrosphere-atmosphere water exchange, local air pollutant washout, and transequatorial boreal winter monsoon (cold surge). In El Niño years the cooler sea-surface temperature suppresses the morning coastal-sea rainfall, and induces often serious smog over IMC. Lastly, high-resolution observations/models covering both over islands and seas are necessary. A radar-profiler network (HARIMAU) has been constructed during FY2005-09, and capacity building on radar operations and buoy manufacturing has been promoted during FY2009-13 by Japan-Indonesia collaboration projects, which are taken over by an Indonesian national center (MCCOE) established in November 2013.

  9. Physics of the weird solar minimum: New observations of the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zita, E.; Smith, C.; Ballou, C.; Friedman, B.; Showalter, C.; Rex, R.; Hurlburt, N.

    2010-10-01

    While solar physicists expected more sunspots, flares, and coronal mass ejections by now, the Sun has defied most predictions by persisting in a relatively quiet state for an unusually long time. Can we tell whether this solar minimum is likely to ease in the next decade, or if it may become a Maunder-type minimum? What evidence is there for mechanisms that might explain the observed delayed and low-amplitude magnetic activity? What effects could decreased solar activity have on Earth's climate? Evergreen undergraduates study the Sun with colleagues who built the new Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). Students analyzed flow velocities with respect to magnetic field tilts; analyzed waves of UV light in active regions; developed a software suite to enable the public to engage with solar dynamics; and cataloged movies of solar events for public release. We use data from the high-resolution HINODE satellite and from the new full-disk SDO. Zita studied the solar dynamo, and found that resistivity gradients can drive magnetic advection. We summarize our work and the light it may shed on questions such as those above.

  10. ON THE TRANSITIONAL DISK CLASS: LINKING OBSERVATIONS OF T TAURI STARS AND PHYSICAL DISK MODELS

    SciTech Connect

    Espaillat, C.; Andrews, S.; Qi, C.; Wilner, D.; Ingleby, L.; Calvet, N.; Hernandez, J.; Furlan, E.; D'Alessio, P.; Muzerolle, J. E-mail: sandrews@cfa.harvard.edu E-mail: dwilner@cfa.harvard.edu E-mail: ncalvet@umich.edu E-mail: Elise.Furlan@jpl.nasa.gov E-mail: muzerol@stsci.edu

    2012-03-10

    Two decades ago 'transitional disks' (TDs) described spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of T Tauri stars with small near-IR excesses, but significant mid- and far-IR excesses. Many inferred this indicated dust-free holes in disks possibly cleared by planets. Recently, this term has been applied disparately to objects whose Spitzer SEDs diverge from the expectations for a typical full disk (FD). Here, we use irradiated accretion disk models to fit the SEDs of 15 such disks in NGC 2068 and IC 348. One group has a 'dip' in infrared emission while the others' continuum emission decreases steadily at all wavelengths. We find that the former have an inner disk hole or gap at intermediate radii in the disk and we call these objects 'transitional disks' and 'pre-transitional disks' (PTDs), respectively. For the latter group, we can fit these SEDs with FD models and find that millimeter data are necessary to break the degeneracy between dust settling and disk mass. We suggest that the term 'transitional' only be applied to objects that display evidence for a radical change in the disk's radial structure. Using this definition, we find that TDs and PTDs tend to have lower mass accretion rates than FDs and that TDs have lower accretion rates than PTDs. These reduced accretion rates onto the star could be linked to forming planets. Future observations of TDs and PTDs will allow us to better quantify the signatures of planet formation in young disks.

  11. The Physics of Water Masers observable with ALMA and SOFIA: Model Predictions for Evolved Stars

    E-print Network

    Gray, M D; Richards, A M S; Humphreys, E M L; Sobolev, A M; Yates, J A

    2015-01-01

    We present the results of models that were designed to study all possible water maser transitions in the frequency range 0-1.91THz, with particular emphasis on maser transitions that may be generated in evolved-star envelopes and observed with the ALMA and SOFIA telescopes. We used tens of thousands of radiative transfer models of both spin species of H2O, spanning a considerable parameter space in number density, kinetic temperature and dust temperature. Results, in the form of maser optical depths, have been summarized in a master table, Table 6. Maser transitions identified in these models were grouped according to loci of inverted regions in the density/kinetic temperature plane, a property clearly related to the dominant mode of pumping. A more detailed study of the effect of dust temperature on maser optical depth enabled us to divide the maser transitions into three groups: those with both collisional and radiative pumping schemes (22,96,209,321,325,395,941 and 1486\\,GHz), a much larger set that are pr...

  12. Barotropic tidal dynamics of the Bay of Biscay shelf: observations, numerical modelling and physical interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Cann, Bernard

    1990-08-01

    The first order dynamics of the Bay of Biscay shelf are mostly dominated by barotropic semidiurnal tides. The diurnal tides and currents are weak. Quarter-diurnal tides are strongly amplified on the shelf. In this paper, we investigate the two major superinertial tidal bands (semidiurnal and quarter-diurnal). A description in terms of data is given first (Section 2). Coastal sea level and original open sea data (bottom pressure and currents), harmonically analysed, are studied. A numerical model is then used to provide a coherent and dense picture of the tidal dynamics of M 2 and M 4 and their variability (Section 3). Care is taken to assess the validity of the model by comparison with bottom pressure and coastal sea level data. M 2 amplitudes are increasing crossshore by an order of 20% and M 2 phases are slowly propagating to the northwest. M 2 currents are maximum at the shelf break. M 4 amplitudes are increasing by a factor 10 between the shelf break and the coast: the shelf is actually close to resonance in its central part. M 4 phases are propagating to the north. An amphidromic point is apparent in the northern outer part of the shelf. Using the data, we then produce a shelf-scale momentum and continuity balance for M 2 (Section 4). The simple model described by BATTISTI and CLARKE (1982a, Journal of Physical Oceanography, 12, 8-16) is applied successfully. The M 2 equilibrium may be interpreted as follows: the deepsea Kelvin wave induces on the shelf a Poincaréwave which is almost perfectly reflected. The energy fluxes are directed alongshore (southeastward) on the shelf and little dissipation is seen to occur. The alongshore variability may be explained partly by the alongshore variations of the cross-shore bathymetric profile. For the quarter-diurnal band (Section 5), the shelf is close to resonance in its central part [the CLARKE and BATTISTI (1981, Deep-Sea Research, 28, 665-682) criterion is met: ga/(? 2 - f2) ˜ L, where a is an average cross-shore bottom slope, ? the frequency and L the shelf width]. A modified version of the BATTISTI and CLARKE (1982a) theory is applied successfully to M 4. M 4 energy fluxes are directed onshore. Both onshore and alongshore phase propagation and partial reflection follow. Through resonance, M 4 is strongly amplified cross-shelf and dissipated in coastal areas. In addition to local generation, the M 4 tide is forced on the shelf from the shelf break. This is thought to result from an M 4 tide in the Bay of Biscay which is itself co-oscillating with an oceanic M 4 tide originating from the Celtic Sea and English Channel regions. The non-linear generation of M 4 at the shelf break is thought to be relatively unimportant.

  13. Soil moisture-precipitation coupling: observations from the Oklahoma Mesonet and underlying physical mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, T. W.; Rapp, A. D.; Quiring, S. M.; Blake, J.

    2015-08-01

    Interactions between soil moisture and the atmosphere are driven by the partitioning of sensible and latent heating, through which soil moisture has been connected to atmospheric modifications that could potentially lead to the initiation of convective precipitation. The majority of previous studies linking the land surface to subsequent precipitation have used atmospheric reanalysis or model data sets. In this study, we link in situ observations of soil moisture from more than 100 stations in Oklahoma to subsequent unorganized afternoon convective precipitation. We use hourly next generation (NEXRAD) radar-derived precipitation to identify convective events, and then compare the location of precipitation initiation to underlying soil moisture anomalies in the morning. Overall we find a statistically significant preference for convective precipitation initiation over drier than normal soils, with over 70 % of events initiating over soil moisture below the long-term median. The significant preference for precipitation initiation over drier than normal soils is in contrast with previous studies using satellite-based precipitation to identify the region of maximum precipitation accumulation. We evaluated 19 convective events occurring near Lamont, Oklahoma, where soundings of the atmospheric profile at 06:00 and 12:00 LST are also available. For these events, soil moisture has strong negative correlations with the level of free convection (LFC), planetary boundary layer (PBL) height, and surface temperature changes between 06:00 and 12:00 LST. We also find strong positive correlations between morning soil moisture and morning-to-afternoon changes in convective available potential energy and convective inhibition. In general, the results of this study demonstrate that both positive and negative soil moisture feedbacks are important in this region of the USA.

  14. Determination of physical properties of the Asteroid (41) Daphne from interferometric observations in the thermal infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matter, Alexis; Delbo, Marco; Ligori, Sebastiano; Crouzet, Nicolas; Tanga, Paolo

    2011-09-01

    We describe interferometric observations of the Asteroid (41) Daphne in the thermal infrared obtained with the Mid-Infrared Interferometric Instrument (MIDI) and the Auxiliary Telescopes (ATs) of the European Southern Observatory (ESO) Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI). We derived the size and the surface thermal properties of (41) Daphne by means of a thermophysical model (TPM), which is used for the interpretation of interferometric data for the first time. From our TPM analysis, we derived a volume equivalent diameter for (41) Daphne of 189 km, using a non-convex 3-D shape model derived from optical lightcurves and adaptive optics images (B. Carry, private communication). On the other hand, when using the convex shape of Kaasalainen et al. (Kaasalainen, M., Mottola, S., Fulchignoni, M. [2002]. Icarus 159, 369-395) in our TPM analysis, the resulting volume equivalent diameter of (41) Daphne is between 194 and 209 km, depending on the surface roughness. The shape of the asteroid is used as an a priori information in our TPM analysis. No attempt is made to adjust the shape to the data. Only the size of the asteroid and its thermal parameters such as, albedo, thermal inertia and roughness are adjusted to the data. We estimated our model systematic uncertainty to be of 4% and of 7% on the determination of the asteroid volume equivalent diameter depending on whether the non-convex or the convex shape is used, respectively. In terms of thermal properties, we derived a value of the surface thermal inertia smaller than 50 J m -2 s -0.5 K -1 and preferably in the range between 0 and ˜30 J m -2 s -0.5 K -1. Our TPM analysis also shows that Daphne has a moderate macroscopic surface roughness.

  15. Average Transverse Momentum Quantities Approaching the Lightfront

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boer, Daniël

    2015-09-01

    In this contribution to Light Cone 2014, three average transverse momentum quantities are discussed: the Sivers shift, the dijet imbalance, and the p T broadening. The definitions of these quantities involve integrals over all transverse momenta that are overly sensitive to the region of large transverse momenta, which conveys little information about the transverse momentum distributions of quarks and gluons inside hadrons. TMD factorization naturally suggests alternative definitions of such integrated quantities, using Bessel-weighting and rapidity cut-offs, with the conventional definitions as limiting cases. The regularized quantities are given in terms of integrals over the TMDs of interest that are well-defined and moreover have the advantage of being amenable to lattice evaluations.

  16. Lighting Quantity and Quality in Educational Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elwazanim, Salim A.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses educational facility lighting management, and examines how light quantity, distribution, and quality-enhancement strategies can improve the indoor environment while reducing lighting costs. Informational tables provide lighting pattern, color, and illuminance data. (GR)

  17. 7 CFR 985.12 - Salable quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ...ORDER REGULATING THE HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating...means the total quantity of each class of oil which handlers may purchase from, or...

  18. 7 CFR 985.12 - Salable quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ...ORDER REGULATING THE HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating...means the total quantity of each class of oil which handlers may purchase from, or...

  19. 7 CFR 985.12 - Salable quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ...ORDER REGULATING THE HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating...means the total quantity of each class of oil which handlers may purchase from, or...

  20. 7 CFR 985.12 - Salable quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ...ORDER REGULATING THE HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating...means the total quantity of each class of oil which handlers may purchase from, or...

  1. 7 CFR 985.12 - Salable quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ...ORDER REGULATING THE HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating...means the total quantity of each class of oil which handlers may purchase from, or...

  2. Zero-gravity quantity gaging system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The Zero-Gravity Quantity Gaging System program is a technology development effort funded by NASA-LeRC and contracted by NASA-JSC to develop and evaluate zero-gravity quantity gaging system concepts suitable for application to large, on-orbit cryogenic oxygen and hydrogen tankage. The contract effective date was 28 May 1985. During performance of the program, 18 potential quantity gaging approaches were investigated for their merit and suitability for gaging two-phase cryogenic oxygen and hydrogen in zero-gravity conditions. These approaches were subjected to a comprehensive trade study and selection process, which found that the RF modal quantity gaging approach was the most suitable for both liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen applications. This selection was made with NASA-JSC concurrence.

  3. 7 CFR 929.14 - Marketable quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES OF MASSACHUSETTS, RHODE ISLAND, CONNECTICUT...quantity means for a crop year the number of pounds of cranberries necessary to meet the total market demand and to...

  4. 7 CFR 929.14 - Marketable quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES OF MASSACHUSETTS, RHODE ISLAND, CONNECTICUT...quantity means for a crop year the number of pounds of cranberries necessary to meet the total market demand and to...

  5. 7 CFR 929.14 - Marketable quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES OF MASSACHUSETTS, RHODE ISLAND, CONNECTICUT...quantity means for a crop year the number of pounds of cranberries necessary to meet the total market demand and to...

  6. 7 CFR 929.14 - Marketable quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES OF MASSACHUSETTS, RHODE ISLAND, CONNECTICUT...quantity means for a crop year the number of pounds of cranberries necessary to meet the total market demand and to...

  7. 7 CFR 35.13 - Minimum quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS EXPORT GRAPES AND PLUMS Exemptions § 35.13 Minimum quantity...a shipment of 25 packages or less of vinifera species table grapes, either a single variety or a combination of two or more...

  8. 7 CFR 35.13 - Minimum quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS EXPORT GRAPES AND PLUMS Exemptions § 35.13 Minimum quantity...a shipment of 25 packages or less of vinifera species table grapes, either a single variety or a combination of two or more...

  9. 7 CFR 35.13 - Minimum quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS EXPORT GRAPES AND PLUMS Exemptions § 35.13 Minimum quantity...a shipment of 25 packages or less of vinifera species table grapes, either a single variety or a combination of two or more...

  10. 7 CFR 35.13 - Minimum quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS EXPORT GRAPES AND PLUMS Exemptions § 35.13 Minimum quantity...a shipment of 25 packages or less of vinifera species table grapes, either a single variety or a combination of two or more...

  11. 7 CFR 35.13 - Minimum quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS EXPORT GRAPES AND PLUMS Exemptions § 35.13 Minimum quantity...a shipment of 25 packages or less of vinifera species table grapes, either a single variety or a combination of two or more...

  12. Ancient light from young cosmic cities: Physical and observational signatures of galaxy proto-clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Chiang, Yi-Kuan; Overzier, Roderik; Gebhardt, Karl

    2013-12-20

    A growing number of galaxy clusters at z = 1-2 is being discovered as part of deep optical, IR, X-ray, and Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect surveys. For a complete picture of cluster formation, however, it is important that we also start probing the much earlier epoch, between redshifts of about 2 and 7, during which these clusters and their galaxies first began to form. Because the study of these so-called proto-clusters is currently quite limited by small number statistics, widely varying selection techniques, and many assumptions, we have performed a large systematic study of cluster formation utilizing cosmological simulations. We use the Millennium Simulations to track the evolution of dark matter and galaxies in about 3000 clusters from the earliest times to z = 0. We define an effective radius R{sub e} for proto-clusters and characterize their growth in size and mass with cosmic time. We show that the progenitor regions of galaxy clusters (ranging in mass from ?10{sup 14} to a few times 10{sup 15} M {sub ?}) can already be identified in galaxy surveys at very early times (at least up to z ? 5), provided that the galaxy overdensities are measured on a sufficiently large scale (R{sub e} ? 5-10 Mpc comoving) and with sufficient statistics. We present the overdensities in matter, dark matter halos, and galaxies as functions of present-day cluster mass, redshift, bias, and window size that can be used to interpret the wide range of structures found in real surveys. We also derive the probability that a structure having a galaxy overdensity ?{sub gal}, defined by a set of observational selection criteria, is indeed a proto-cluster, and we show how their z = 0 masses can already be estimated long before virialization. We present overdensity profiles as a function of radius, and we further show how the projected surface overdensities of proto-clusters decrease as the uncertainties in redshift measurements increase. We provide a table of proto-cluster candidates selected from the literature and discuss their properties in light of our simulation predictions. This paper provides the general framework that will allow us to extend the study of cluster formation out to much higher redshifts using the large number of proto-clusters that are expected to be discovered in, e.g., the upcoming HETDEX and Hyper Suprime-Cam surveys.

  13. Physical processes in the transition zone between North Sea and Baltic Sea. Numerical simulations and observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanev, Emil V.; Lu, Xi; Grashorn, Sebastian

    2015-09-01

    The dynamics in the transition zone between the North Sea and Baltic Sea are analyzed here using data from a 22-year-long climatic simulation with a focus on the periods 1992-1994 and 2001-2003 when two recent major inflow events occurred. Observations from gauges and in situ measurements are used to validate the model. Parameters, which cannot be easily measured, such as water and salt transports through straits, have been compared against similar previous estimates. The good performance of simulations is attributed to the finer resolution of the model compared to earlier set ups. The outflow in the Kattegat, which is an analogue of the tidal outflows, tends to propagate to the North over the shallows without showing a substantial deflection to the right due to the Earth's rotation. The inflow follows the topography. The different inflow and outflow pathways are explained as a consequence of the specific combination of bathymetry, axial and lateral processes. The circulation in Kattegat is persistently clockwise with an eastern intensification during inflow and a western one during outflow regimes. The tidal wave there propagates as Kelvin wave, keeping the coast on its right. The flows in the two main straits reveal very different responses to tides, which are also highly asymmetric during inflow and outflow conditions. The circulation has a typical two-layer structure, the correlation between salinity and velocity tends to increase the salt transport in the salinity conveyor belt. The transversal circulation in the entrance of the Sound enhances the vertical mixing of the saltier North Sea water. The long-term averaged ratio of the water transports through the Great Belt and the Sound is ?2.6-2.7 but this number changes reaching lower values during the major inflow in 1993. The transports in the straits are asymmetric. During inflow events the repartition of water penetrating the Baltic Sea is strongly in favor of the pathway through the Sound, which provides a shorter connection between the Kattegat and Baltic proper. The wider Great Belt has a relatively larger role in exporting water from the Baltic into the North Sea. A demonstration is given that the ventilation of the Baltic Sea deep water is not only governed by the dynamics in the straits and the strong westerly winds enhancing the eastward propagation of North Sea water (a case in 1993), but also by the clockwise circulation in the Kattegat acting as a preconditioning factor for the flow-partitioning.

  14. Physical modeling of triple near-Earth Asteroid (153591) 2001 SN263 from radar and optical light curve observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Tracy M.; Howell, Ellen S.; Nolan, Michael C.; Magri, Christopher; Pravec, Petr; Taylor, Patrick A.; Oey, Julian; Higgins, David; Világi, Jozef; Kornoš, Leonard; Galád, Adrián; Gajdoš, Štefan; Gaftonyuk, Ninel M.; Krugly, Yurij N.; Molotov, Igor E.; Hicks, Michael D.; Carbognani, Albino; Warner, Brian D.; Vachier, Frederic; Marchis, Franck; Pollock, Joseph T.

    2015-03-01

    We report radar observations (2380-MHz, 13-cm) by the Arecibo Observatory and optical light curves observed from eight different observatories and collected at the Ond?ejov Observatory of the triple near-Earth asteroid system (153591) 2001 SN263. The radar observations were obtained over the course of ten nights spanning February 12-26, 2008 and the light curve observations were made throughout January 12 - March 31, 2008. Both data sets include observations during the object's close approach of 0.06558 AU on February 20th, 2008. The delay-Doppler images revealed the asteroid to be comprised of three components, making it the first known triple near-Earth asteroid. Only one other object, (136617) 1994 CC is a confirmed triple near-Earth asteroid. We present physical models of the three components of the asteroid system. We constrain the primary's pole direction to an ecliptic longitude and latitude of (309 °, - 80 °) ± 15 ° . We find that the primary rotates with a period 3.4256 ± 0.0002 h and that the larger satellite has a rotation period of 13.43 ± 0.01 h , considerably shorter than its orbital period of approximately 6 days. We find that the rotation period of the smaller satellite is consistent with a tidally locked state and therefore rotates with a period of 0.686 ± 0.002 days (Fang et al. [2011]. Astron. J. 141, 154-168). The primary, the larger satellite, and the smaller satellite have equivalent diameters of 2.5 ± 0.3 km , 0.77 ± 0.12 km , 0.43 ± 0.14 km and densities of 1.1 ± 0.2 g /cm3, 1.0 ± 0.4 g /cm3, 2.3 ± 1.3 g /cm3 , respectively.

  15. History matching for exploring and reducing climate model parameter space using observations and a large perturbed physics ensemble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, Daniel; Goldstein, Michael; Allison, Lesley; Blaker, Adam; Challenor, Peter; Jackson, Laura; Yamazaki, Kuniko

    2013-10-01

    We apply an established statistical methodology called history matching to constrain the parameter space of a coupled non-flux-adjusted climate model (the third Hadley Centre Climate Model; HadCM3) by using a 10,000-member perturbed physics ensemble and observational metrics. History matching uses emulators (fast statistical representations of climate models that include a measure of uncertainty in the prediction of climate model output) to rule out regions of the parameter space of the climate model that are inconsistent with physical observations given the relevant uncertainties. Our methods rule out about half of the parameter space of the climate model even though we only use a small number of historical observations. We explore 2 dimensional projections of the remaining space and observe a region whose shape mainly depends on parameters controlling cloud processes and one ocean mixing parameter. We find that global mean surface air temperature (SAT) is the dominant constraint of those used, and that the others provide little further constraint after matching to SAT. The Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) has a non linear relationship with SAT and is not a good proxy for the meridional heat transport in the unconstrained parameter space, but these relationships are linear in our reduced space. We find that the transient response of the AMOC to idealised CO2 forcing at 1 and 2 % per year shows a greater average reduction in strength in the constrained parameter space than in the unconstrained space. We test extended ranges of a number of parameters of HadCM3 and discover that no part of the extended ranges can by ruled out using any of our constraints. Constraining parameter space using easy to emulate observational metrics prior to analysis of more complex processes is an important and powerful tool. It can remove complex and irrelevant behaviour in unrealistic parts of parameter space, allowing the processes in question to be more easily studied or emulated, perhaps as a precursor to the application of further relevant constraints.

  16. Our Sun IV: The Standard Model and Helioseismology: Consequences of Uncertainties in Input Physics and in Observed Solar Parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boothroyd, Arnold I.; Sackmann, I.-Juliana

    2001-01-01

    Helioseismic frequency observations provide an extremely accurate window into the solar interior; frequencies from the Michaelson Doppler Imager (MDI) on the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) spacecraft, enable the adiabatic sound speed and adiabatic index to be inferred with an accuracy of a few parts in 10(exp 4) and the density with an accuracy of a few parts in 10(exp 3). This has become a Serious challenge to theoretical models of the Sun. Therefore, we have undertaken a self-consistent, systematic study of the sources of uncertainties in the standard solar models. We found that the largest effect on the interior structure arises from the observational uncertainties in the photospheric abundances of the elements, which affect the sound speed profile at the level of 3 parts in 10(exp 3). The estimated 4% uncertainty in the OPAL opacities could lead to effects of 1 part in 10(exp 3); the approximately 5%, uncertainty in the basic pp nuclear reaction rate would have a similar effect, as would uncertainties of approximately 15% in the diffusion constants for the gravitational settling of helium. The approximately 50% uncertainties in diffusion constants for the heavier elements would have nearly as large an effect. Different observational methods for determining the solar radius yield results differing by as much as 7 parts in 10(exp 4); we found that this leads to uncertainties of a few parts in 10(exp 3) in the sound speed int the solar convective envelope, but has negligible effect on the interior. Our reference standard solar model yielded a convective envelope position of 0.7135 solar radius, in excellent agreement with the observed value of 0.713 +/- 0.001 solar radius and was significantly affected only by Z/X, the pp rate, and the uncertainties in helium diffusion constants. Our reference model also yielded envelope helium abundance of 0.2424, in good agreement with the approximate range of 0.24 to 0.25 inferred from helioseismic observations; only extreme Z/X values yielded envelope helium abundance outside this range. We found that other current uncertainties, namely, in the solar age and luminosity, in nuclear rates other than the pp reaction, in the low-temperature molecular opacities, and in the low-density equation of state, have no significant effect on the quantities that can be inferred from helioseismic observations. The predicted pre-main-sequence lithium depletion is uncertain by a factor of 2. The predicted neutrino capture rate is uncertain by approximately 30% for the Cl-27 experiment and by approximately 3% for Ga-71 experiments, while the B-8 neutrino flux is uncertain by approximately 30%.

  17. Physical conditions in high-redshift GRB-DLA absorbers observed with VLT/UVES: Implications for molecular hydrogen searches

    E-print Network

    Ledoux, C; Smette, A; Fox, A J; Petitjean, P; Ellison, S L; Fynbo, J P U; Savaglio, S

    2009-01-01

    We aim to understand the nature of the absorbing neutral gas in the galaxies hosting high-redshift long-duration GRBs and to determine their physical conditions. We report the detection of a significant number of previously unidentified allowed transition lines of Fe+, involving the fine structure of the ground term and that of other excited levels, from the zabs=3.969, log N(H0)=22.10 DLA system located in the host galaxy of GRB 050730. The time-dependent evolution of the observed Fe+ energy-level populations is modelled by assuming the excitation mechanism is fluorescence following excitation by ultraviolet photons. This UV pumping model successfully reproduces the observations, yielding a distance of the GRB-facing front of the cloud to the burst of d=440\\pm 30 pc and a linear cloud size of l=520{+240}{-190} pc. We discuss these results in the context of no detections of H2 and CI lines in a sample of seven z>1.8 GRB host galaxies observed with VLT/UVES. We show that the lack of H2 can be explained by the ...

  18. Liquid-top mixed-phase cloud detection from shortwave-infrared satellite radiometer observations: A physical basis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Steven D.; Noh, Yoo-Jeong; Heidinger, Andrew K.

    2014-07-01

    Meteorological clouds often exist in the liquid phase at temperatures below 0°C. Traditionally, satellite-derived information on cloud phase comes from narrow bands in the shortwave and thermal infrared, with sensitivity biased strongly toward cloud top. In situ observations suggest an abundance of clouds having supercooled liquid water at their tops but a predominantly ice phase residing below. Satellites may report these clouds simply as supercooled liquid, with no further information regarding the presence of a subcloud top ice phase. Here we describe a physical basis for the detection of liquid-top mixed-phase clouds from passive satellite radiometer observations. The algorithm makes use of reflected sunlight in narrow bands at 1.6 and 2.25 µm to optically probe below liquid-topped clouds and determine phase. Detection is predicated on differential absorption properties between liquid and ice particles, accounting for varying Sun/sensor geometry and cloud optical properties. When tested on numerical weather prediction model simulated cloud fields, the algorithm provided threat scores in the 0.6-0.8 range and false alarm rates in the 0.1-0.2 range. A case study based on surface and satellite observations of liquid-top mixed-phase clouds in northern Alaska was also examined. Preliminary results indicate promising potential for distinction between supercooled liquid-top phase clouds with and without an underlying mixed-phase component.

  19. Physical Properties of Spicules from Simultaneous Spectro-Polarimetric Observations of He I and Ca II Lines

    E-print Network

    H. Socas-Navarro; D. Ellmore

    2004-10-23

    We present full Stokes observations from SPINOR in the \\ion{Ca}{2} infrared triplet and the \\ion{He}{1} multiplet at 1083 nm from which some properties of spicules have been derived. There are important advantages in multi-line observations, particularly from different elements. We find that the orientation of the plane of polarization is very different for the Ca and He lines, which provides the first direct model-independent evidence for magnetic fields in spicules. Our data shows that the Ca and He lines have almost identical widths. Since the Ca atom is 10 times heavier than He, we are able to conclude that most of the broadening is non-thermal ($\\simeq$16 km s$^{-1}$) and to set an upper limit of 13 kK to the spicular temperatures. The bisectors of the lines span a velocity range of over 15 km s$^{-1}$ for the He line and 30 km s$^{-1}$ for the Ca ones. The vertical gradient of line-of-sight velocities is also very different for both elements. We obtain 2.8 km s$^{-1}$ Mm$^{-1}$ from He versus 6.4 km s$^{-1}$ Mm$^{-1}$ from Ca. These properties, and others from similar observations, should be taken into account in future physical models of spicules.

  20. Gamma-ray cosmology and fundamental physics with TeV blazars: results from 20 years of observations

    E-print Network

    Jonathan Biteau; David A. Williams

    2015-08-25

    Gamma rays from TeV blazars have been detected by ground-based experiments for more than two decades. We have collected the most extensive set of archival spectra from these sources in order to constrain the processes affecting gamma-ray propagation on cosmological distances. We discuss our results on the diffuse photon field that populates universe, called the extragalactic background light, on the expansion rate of the Universe, and on fundamental physics in the form of axion-like particles and Lorentz-invariance violation. Specifically, we present a spectrum of the extragalactic background light from 0.26 to 105 microns constructed from the gamma-ray observations, we measure a value of the Hubble constant compatible with other estimates, and we constrain the energy scale at which Lorentz-invariance violation impacts gamma-ray absorption by the extragalactic background light to be larger than sixty percent of the Planck scale.

  1. Gamma-ray cosmology and fundamental physics with TeV blazars: results from 20 years of observations

    E-print Network

    Biteau, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Gamma rays from TeV blazars have been detected by ground-based experiments for more than two decades. We have collected the most extensive set of archival spectra from these sources in order to constrain the processes affecting gamma-ray propagation on cosmological distances. We discuss our results on the diffuse photon field that populates universe, called the extragalactic background light, on the expansion rate of the Universe, and on fundamental physics in the form of axion-like particles and Lorentz-invariance violation. Specifically, we present a spectrum of the extragalactic background light from 0.26 to 105 microns constructed from the gamma-ray observations, we measure a value of the Hubble constant compatible with other estimates, and we constrain the energy scale at which Lorentz-invariance violation impacts gamma-ray absorption by the extragalactic background light to be larger than sixty percent of the Planck scale.

  2. New Insight into the Observation of Spectroscopic Strength Reduction in Atomic Nuclei: Implication for the Physical Meaning of Spectroscopic Factors

    SciTech Connect

    Timofeyuk, N. K.

    2009-12-11

    Experimental studies of one-nucleon knockout from magic nuclei suggest that their nucleon orbits are not fully occupied. This conflicts a commonly accepted view of the shell closure associated with such nuclei. The conflict can be reconciled if the overlap between initial and final nuclear states in a knockout reaction are calculated by a nonstandard method. The method employs an inhomogeneous equation based on correlation-dependent effective nucleon-nucleon interactions and allows the simplest wave functions, in which all nucleons occupy only the lowest nuclear orbits, to be used. The method also reproduces the recently established relation between reduction of spectroscopic strength, observed in knockout reactions on other nuclei, and nucleon binding energies. The implication of the inhomogeneous equation method for the physical meaning of spectroscopic factors is discussed.

  3. New Insight into the Observation of Spectroscopic Strength Reduction in Atomic Nuclei: Implication for the Physical Meaning of Spectroscopic Factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timofeyuk, N. K.

    2009-12-01

    Experimental studies of one-nucleon knockout from magic nuclei suggest that their nucleon orbits are not fully occupied. This conflicts a commonly accepted view of the shell closure associated with such nuclei. The conflict can be reconciled if the overlap between initial and final nuclear states in a knockout reaction are calculated by a nonstandard method. The method employs an inhomogeneous equation based on correlation-dependent effective nucleon-nucleon interactions and allows the simplest wave functions, in which all nucleons occupy only the lowest nuclear orbits, to be used. The method also reproduces the recently established relation between reduction of spectroscopic strength, observed in knockout reactions on other nuclei, and nucleon binding energies. The implication of the inhomogeneous equation method for the physical meaning of spectroscopic factors is discussed.

  4. Impact of corn residue quantity on yield of following crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have observed that crop growth can be suppressed in fields where high quantities of corn residue are present on the soil surface. To examine this perceived trend, we grew dry pea, spring wheat, and red clover in two levels of corn residues, achieved by growing corn at 21,000 and 30,000 plants/ac...

  5. Number versus Continuous Quantity in Numerosity Judgments by Fish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agrillo, Christian; Piffer, Laura; Bisazza, Angelo

    2011-01-01

    In quantity discrimination tasks, adults, infants and animals have been sometimes observed to process number only after all continuous variables, such as area or density, have been controlled for. This has been taken as evidence that processing number may be more cognitively demanding than processing continuous variables. We tested this hypothesis…

  6. Physical properties of the OMC-2 and OMC-3 cores from CS and C(18)O observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castets, A.; Langer, W. D.

    1995-01-01

    We have investigated the properties of the OMC-2 and OMC-3 cores in the Orion giant molecular cloud using high spatial spectral resolution observations of several transitions of the (13)CO, C(18)O, C(S-32) and C(S-34) molecules taken with the SEST telescope. The OMC-2 core consists of one clump (22 solar mass) with a radius of 0.11 pc surrounded by a cluster of 11 discrete infrared sources. The H2 column density and volume density in the center of this clump are 2 x 10(exp 22)/sq cm and 9 x 10(exp 5)/cu cm respectively. From a comparison between physical parameters derived from C(18)O and C(S-32) observations we conclude that the molecular envelope around the core has been completely removed by these sources and that only the very dense gas is left. OMC-3 shows a more complex elongated structure in C(18)O and CS than OMC-2. The C(S-32) and C(S-34) maps show that the denser region can be separated into at least sub-cores of roughly equal sizes (radius approximately equals 0.13 pc), with n(H2) = 6 x 10(exp 5)/cu cm, and a mass of 10 solar mass (from C(S-32)). The very different masses obtained for the central core from C(18)O and C(S-32) (55 and 12 solar mass respectively) indicate that a massive envelope is still present around the very dense sub-cores. We report the first detection of several molecular outflows in OMC-3. The presence of an IRAS source and the first detection of these outflows confirm that star formation is going on in OMC-3. Based on the different physical properties of these regions compared with OMC-1, OMC-2 appears to be in an intermediate evolutionary stage between OMC-1 and OMC-3.

  7. Maximal Holevo Quantity Based on Weak Measurements.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yao-Kun; Fei, Shao-Ming; Wang, Zhi-Xi; Cao, Jun-Peng; Fan, Heng

    2015-01-01

    The Holevo bound is a keystone in many applications of quantum information theory. We propose " maximal Holevo quantity for weak measurements" as the generalization of the maximal Holevo quantity which is defined by the optimal projective measurements. The scenarios that weak measurements is necessary are that only the weak measurements can be performed because for example the system is macroscopic or that one intentionally tries to do so such that the disturbance on the measured system can be controlled for example in quantum key distribution protocols. We evaluate systematically the maximal Holevo quantity for weak measurements for Bell-diagonal states and find a series of results. Furthermore, we find that weak measurements can be realized by noise and project measurements. PMID:26090962

  8. The influence of spin on thermodynamical quantities

    SciTech Connect

    Li, G.-Q.

    2007-03-15

    We use the brick-wall method to investigate thermodynamical quantities around a static Gibbons-Maeda dilaton black hole and show that each of these quantities contains an additional spin-dependent term and that the usual result that the entropy density, energy density, and pressure take the same forms as in flat spacetime holds only for the leading term. Our results are compatible with the early conclusions that the black hole entropy is not exactly proportional to the horizon area and that Hawking radiation is not purely thermal.

  9. Malting extremely small quantities of barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Micromalting procedures for malt quality analysis typically use 50 – 500 g of barley and are used to produce malt with characteristics suitable for malting quality analysis. Modifications to routine micromalting protocols in which small quantities of grain within inexpensive mesh containers are surr...

  10. Units for quantities of dimension one

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dybkaer, René

    2004-02-01

    All quantities of dimension one are said to have the SI coherent derived unit "one" with the symbol '1'. (Single quotation marks are used here sometimes to indicate a quote, name, term or symbol; double quotation marks flag a concept when necessary.) Conventionally, the term and symbol may not be combined with the SI prefixes (except for the special terms and symbols for one and 1: radian, rad, and steradian, sr). This restriction is understandable, but leads to correct yet impractical alternatives and ISO deprecated symbols such as ppm or in some cases redundant combinations of units, such as mg/kg. "Number of entities" is dimensionally independent of the current base quantities and should take its rightful place among them. The corresponding base unit is "one". A working definition is given. Other quantities of dimension one are derived as fraction, ratio, efficiency, relative quantity, relative increment or characteristic number and may also use the unit "one", whether considered to be base or derived. The special term 'uno' and symbol 'u' in either case are proposed, allowing combination with SI prefixes.

  11. 30 CFR 75.325 - Air quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...specified in the approved ventilation plan. A quantity greater...specified in the approved ventilation plan. (2) The velocity...methane and respirable dust in accordance with...specified in the approved ventilation plan. The locations...during installation and removal of mechanized...

  12. Infants Make Quantity Discriminations for Substances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hespos, Susan J.; Dora, Begum; Rips, Lance J.; Christie, Stella

    2012-01-01

    Infants can track small groups of solid objects, and infants can respond when these quantities change. But earlier work is equivocal about whether infants can track continuous substances, such as piles of sand. Experiment 1 ("N" = 88) used a habituation paradigm to show infants can register changes in the size of piles of sand that they see poured…

  13. 36 CFR 223.220 - Quantity determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Quantity determination. 223.220 Section 223.220 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL...

  14. 36 CFR 223.220 - Quantity determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Quantity determination. 223.220 Section 223.220 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL...

  15. 36 CFR 223.220 - Quantity determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Quantity determination. 223.220 Section 223.220 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL...

  16. 36 CFR 223.220 - Quantity determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Quantity determination. 223.220 Section 223.220 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL...

  17. CALL, Prewriting Strategies, and EFL Writing Quantity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafiee, Sajad; Koosha, Mansour; Afghar, Akbar

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to explore the effect of teaching prewriting strategies through different methods of input delivery (i.e. conventional, web-based, and hybrid) on EFL learners' writing quantity. In its quasi-experimental study, the researchers recruited 98 available sophomores, and assigned them to three experimental groups (conventional,…

  18. Automated in situ observations of upper ocean biogeochemistry, bio-optics, and physics and their potential use for global studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickey, Tommy D.; Granata, Timothy C.; Taupier-Letage, Isabelle

    1992-01-01

    The processes controlling the flux of carbon in the upper ocean have dynamic ranges in space and time of at least nine orders of magnitude. These processes depend on a broad suite of inter-related biogeochemical, bio-optical, and physical variables. These variables should be sampled on scales matching the relevant phenomena. Traditional ship-based sampling, while critical for detailed and more comprehensive observations, can span only limited portions of these ranges because of logistical and financial constraints. Further, remote observations from satellite platforms enable broad horizontal coverage which is restricted to the upper few meters of the ocean. For these main reasons, automated subsurface measurement systems are important for the fulfillment of research goals related to the regional and global estimation and modeling of time varying biogeochemical fluxes. Within the past few years, new sensors and systems capable of autonomously measuring several of the critical variables have been developed. The platforms for deploying these systems now include moorings and drifters and it is likely that autonomous underwater vehicles (AUV's) will become available for use in the future. Each of these platforms satisfies particular sampling needs and can be used to complement both shipboard and satellite observations. In the present review, (1) sampling considerations will be summarized, (2) examples of data obtained from some of the existing automated in situ sampling systems will be highlighted, (3) future sensors and systems will be discussed, (4) data management issues for present and future automated systems will be considered, and (5) the status of near real-time data telemetry will be outlined. Finally, we wish to make it clear at the outset that the perspectives presented here are those of the authors and are not intended to represent those of the United States JGOFS program, the International JGOFS program, NOAA's C&GC program, or other global ocean programs.

  19. Combined effects of physics and physiology explain the observed pattern of nitrate uptake kinetics in the ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, S. L.; Hohn, S.; Brandt, G.; Merico, A.; Yoshikawa, C.

    2013-12-01

    Recent trait-based modeling of nutrient uptake by microorganisms (Aksnes & Cao. Marine Ecology Progress Series 440, p. 41-51, 2011; Fiksen et al. Limnology and Oceanography 58, p. 193-202, 2013) has advanced our understanding of how the nutrient uptake kinetics should depend on cell size and extracellular diffusion of nutrient molecules. This has provided a basis for better understanding observed patterns in terms of traits and fundamental physical processes, and for formulating more realistic models of plankton ecosystems. Here we extend the trait-based models using the principle of optimality subject to a physiological trade-off between the maximum uptake rate vs. the number of uptake sites. Then we test the predictions of each model, with and without the trade-off, against observed patterns for kinetic parameters describing the rate of nitrate uptake by natural assemblages of oceanic plankton as measured by ship-board experiments. The new model is able to reproduce: 1) the tendency of half-saturation constants to increase with nitrate concentration in the ocean, in terms of the trade-off, and 2) the wide variability in measured half-saturation constants, in terms of a realistic range of cell sizes for oceanic phytoplankton. We finally present a coherent explanation for the observed pattern in terms of both adaptation of physiology to environmental nutrient concentrations, which results in greater half- saturation constants for cells of any size adapted to higher vs. lower nutrient concentrations, and cell size, which tends to increase with ambient nutrient concentration. This provides a basis for modeling size as an adaptive trait in planktonic ecosystem models.

  20. EVIDENCE FOR LOW BLACK HOLE SPIN AND PHYSICALLY MOTIVATED ACCRETION MODELS FROM MILLIMETER-VLBI OBSERVATIONS OF SAGITTARIUS A*

    SciTech Connect

    Broderick, Avery E.; Fish, Vincent L.; Doeleman, Sheperd S.; Loeb, Abraham

    2011-07-10

    Millimeter very long baseline interferometry (mm-VLBI) provides the novel capacity to probe the emission region of a handful of supermassive black holes on sub-horizon scales. For Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*), the supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way, this provides access to the region in the immediate vicinity of the horizon. Broderick et al. have already shown that by leveraging spectral and polarization information as well as accretion theory, it is possible to extract accretion-model parameters (including black hole spin) from mm-VLBI experiments containing only a handful of telescopes. Here we repeat this analysis with the most recent mm-VLBI data, considering a class of aligned, radiatively inefficient accretion flow (RIAF) models. We find that the combined data set rules out symmetric models for Sgr A*'s flux distribution at the 3.9{sigma} level, strongly favoring length-to-width ratios of roughly 2.4:1. More importantly, we find that physically motivated accretion flow models provide a significantly better fit to the mm-VLBI observations than phenomenological models, at the 2.9{sigma} level. This implies that not only is mm-VLBI presently capable of distinguishing between potential physical models for Sgr A*'s emission, but further that it is sensitive to the strong gravitational lensing associated with the propagation of photons near the black hole. Based upon this analysis we find that the most probable magnitude, viewing angle, and position angle for the black hole spin are a = 0.0{sup +0.64+0.86}, {theta}=68{sup o+5o+9o}{sub -20}{sup o}{sub -28}{sup o}, and {xi}=-52{sup o+17o+33o}{sub -15}{sup o}{sub -24}{sup o} east of north, where the errors quoted are the 1{sigma} and 2{sigma} uncertainties.

  1. Urban forms, physical activity and body mass index: a cross-city examination using ISS Earth Observation photographs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Ge

    2005-01-01

    Johnson Space Center has archived thousands of astronauts acquired Earth images. Some spectacular images have been widely used in news media and in k-12 class room, but their potential utilizations in health promotion and disease prevention have relatively untapped. The project uses daytime ISS photographs to define city forms and links them to city or metropolitan level health data in a multicity context. Road connectivity, landuse mix and Shannon's information indices were used in the classification of photographs. In contrast to previous remote-sensing studies, which tend to focus on a single city or a portion of a city, this project utilized photographs of 39 U.S. cities. And in contrast to previous health-promotion studies on the built environment, which tend to rely on survey respondents' responses to evaluate road connectivity or mixed land use for a single study site, the project examined the built environments of multiple cities based on ISS photos. It was found that road connectivity and landuse mix were not statistically significant by themselves, but the composite measure of the Shannon index was significantly associated with physical activity, but not BMI. Consequently, leisure-time physical activity seems to be positively associated with the urban complexity scale. It was also concluded that unless they are planned or designed in advance, photographs taken by astronauts generally are not appropriate for a study of a single-site built environment nor are they appropriate for a study of infectious diseases at a local scale. To link urban built environment with city-wide health indicators, both the traditional nadir view and oblique views should be emphasized in future astronauts' earth observation photographs.

  2. QUANTITY: An Isobaric Tag for Quantitative Glycomics

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shuang; Wang, Meiyao; Chen, Lijun; Yin, Bojiao; Song, Guoqiang; Turko, Illarion V.; Phinney, Karen W.; Betenbaugh, Michael J.; Zhang, Hui; Li, Shuwei

    2015-01-01

    Glycan is an important class of macromolecules that play numerous biological functions. Quantitative glycomics - analysis of glycans at global level - however, is far behind genomics and proteomics owing to technical challenges associated with their chemical properties and structural complexity. As a result, technologies that can facilitate global glycan analysis are highly sought after. Here, we present QUANTITY (Quaternary Amine Containing Isobaric Tag for Glycan), a quantitative approach that can not only enhance detection of glycans by mass spectrometry, but also allow high-throughput glycomic analysis from multiple biological samples. This robust tool enabled us to accomplish glycomic survey of bioengineered Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells with knock-in/out enzymes involved in protein glycosylation. Our results demonstrated QUANTITY is an invaluable technique for glycan analysis and bioengineering. PMID:26616285

  3. Radiation Protection Quantities for Near Earth Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clowdsley, Martha S.; Wilson, John W.; Kim, Myung-Hee; Anderson, Brooke M.; Nealy, John E.

    2004-01-01

    As humans travel beyond the protection of the Earth's magnetic field and mission durations grow, risk due to radiation exposure will increase and may become the limiting factor for such missions. Here, the dosimetric quantities recommended by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) for the evaluation of health risk due to radiation exposure, effective dose and gray-equivalent to eyes, skin, and blood forming organs (BFO), are calculated for several near Earth environments. These radiation protection quantities are evaluated behind two different shielding materials, aluminum and polyethylene. Since exposure limits for missions beyond low Earth orbit (LEO) have not yet been defined, results are compared to limits recommended by the NCRP for LEO operations.

  4. Quantity Discrimination in Wolves (Canis lupus)

    PubMed Central

    Utrata, Ewelina; Virányi, Zsófia; Range, Friederike

    2012-01-01

    Quantity discrimination has been studied extensively in different non-human animal species. In the current study, we tested 11 hand-raised wolves (Canis lupus) in a two-way choice task. We placed a number of food items (one to four) sequentially into two opaque cans and asked the wolves to choose the larger amount. Moreover, we conducted two additional control conditions to rule out non-numerical properties of the presentation that the animals might have used to make the correct choice. Our results showed that wolves are able to make quantitative judgments at the group, but also at the individual level even when alternative strategies such as paying attention to the surface area or time and total amount are ruled out. In contrast to previous canine studies on dogs (Canis familiaris) and coyotes (Canis latrans), our wolves’ performance did not improve with decreasing ratio, referred to as Weber’s law. However, further studies using larger quantities than we used in the current set-up are still needed to determine whether and when wolves’ quantity discrimination conforms to Weber’s law. PMID:23181044

  5. Quantity Discrimination in Wolves (Canis lupus).

    PubMed

    Utrata, Ewelina; Virányi, Zsófia; Range, Friederike

    2012-01-01

    Quantity discrimination has been studied extensively in different non-human animal species. In the current study, we tested 11 hand-raised wolves (Canis lupus) in a two-way choice task. We placed a number of food items (one to four) sequentially into two opaque cans and asked the wolves to choose the larger amount. Moreover, we conducted two additional control conditions to rule out non-numerical properties of the presentation that the animals might have used to make the correct choice. Our results showed that wolves are able to make quantitative judgments at the group, but also at the individual level even when alternative strategies such as paying attention to the surface area or time and total amount are ruled out. In contrast to previous canine studies on dogs (Canis familiaris) and coyotes (Canis latrans), our wolves' performance did not improve with decreasing ratio, referred to as Weber's law. However, further studies using larger quantities than we used in the current set-up are still needed to determine whether and when wolves' quantity discrimination conforms to Weber's law. PMID:23181044

  6. The IMPEx data model - a common metadata standard for the analysis of simulated and observational space plasma physics data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Ubaidi, Tarek

    The FP7-SPACE project IMPEx (http://impex-fp7.oeaw.ac.at/) was established to provide a web-based infrastructure to facilitate the inter-comparison and joint use of spacecraft in-situ measurements and computational models in the fields of planetary plasma science. Within this project several observational (CDAWeb, AMDA, CLWeb), as well as numerical simulation (FMI, LATMOS, SINP) databases provide datasets, which can be combined for further analysis and scientific investigation. The major goal of this project consists in providing an environment for the connection and joint operation of the different types of numerical and observational data sources in order to validate numerical simulations with spacecraft observations and vice versa. As an important milestone of IMPEx, a common metadata standard was developed for the description of the currently integrated simulation models and the archived datasets. This standard is called IMPEx Data Model (DM). It is based on the SPASE DM, which originates from the Heliospheric physics community, and which was developed for the description of observational data. A considerable part of the project effort is dedicated to the development of standardized (web service-) interfaces and protocols using the IMPEx DM as an extension of the standard SPASE DM for the communication between the different tools and databases of the IMPEx research infrastructure. For the visualization and analysis of the archived datasets available within IMPEx and beyond, several tools (AMDA, 3DView, ClWeb) were upgraded to be able to work with the newly developed metadata standards and protocols. To meet the requirement of extendibility, the IMPEx DM as well as the established communication protocols have been designed to be as compact as possible and yet general and powerful enough to integrate a wide range of data sets and to allow for simple procedures when attaching new components to the system. Furthermore the IMPEx DM has by now also been successfully applied outside the project’s core infrastructure: A prototype for UCLA MHD model description can be seen at LatHyS (LATMOS Hybrid Simulation Database). The so-called ‘IMPEx portal’, a dedicated entry point for all integrated services and tools, is currently being built up to leverage the advantages of the applied IMPEx standards and to provide efficient access to IMPEx services for the broad scientific community and general public. This presentation will give an insight on the technological challenges of distributed data infrastructures, the evident need of a common DM for interoperability between different data sources and their future in cloud-based environments.

  7. Difference in quantity discrimination in dogs and wolves

    PubMed Central

    Range, Friederike; Jenikejew, Julia; Schröder, Isabelle; Virányi, Zsófia

    2014-01-01

    Certain aspects of social life, such as engaging in intergroup conflicts, as well as challenges posed by the physical environment, may facilitate the evolution of quantity discrimination. In lack of excessive comparative data, one can only hypothesize about its evolutionary origins, but human-raised wolves performed well when they had to choose the larger of two sets of 1–4 food items that had been sequentially placed into two opaque cans. Since in such paradigms, the animals never see the entire content of either can, their decisions are thought to rely on mental representation of the two quantities rather than on some perceptual factors such as the overall volume or surface area of the two amounts. By equaling the time that it takes to enter each quantity into the cans or the number of items entered, one can further rule out the possibility that animals simply choose based on the amount of time needed to present the two quantities. While the wolves performed well even in such a control condition, dogs failed to choose the larger one of two invisible quantities in another study using a similar paradigm. Because this disparity could be explained by procedural differences, in the current study, we set out to test dogs that were raised and kept identically as the previously tested wolves using the same set-up and procedure. Our results confirm the former finding that dogs, in comparison to wolves, have inferior skills to represent quantities mentally. This seems to be in line with Frank’s (1980) hypothesis suggesting that domestication altered the information processing of dogs. However, as discussed, also alternative explanations may exist. PMID:25477834

  8. Physical Activity and Play Behaviours in Children and Young People with Intellectual Disabilities: A Cross-Sectional Observational Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boddy, Lynne M.; Downs, Samantha J.; Knowles, Zoe R.; Fairclough, Stuart J.

    2015-01-01

    The benefits of physical activity and active play for children and young people are well established. However, there is a lack of physical activity research involving children and young people with intellectual disabilities. This study investigated habitual physical activity and recess play behaviour in 70 5- to 15-year-old participants with…

  9. European Marine Observation and DataNetwork (EMODNET)- physical parameters: A support to marine science and operational oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahlin, Hans; Gies, Tobias; Giordano, Marco; Gorringe, Patrick; Manzella, Giuseppe; Maudire, Gilbert; Novellino, Antonio; Pagnani, Maureen; Petersson, Sian; Pouliquen, Sylvie; Rickards, Lesley; Schaap, Dick; Tijsse, Peter; van der Horste, Serge

    2013-04-01

    The overall objectives of EMODNET - physical parameters is to provide access to archived and real-time data on physical conditions in Europe's seas and oceans and to determine how well the data meet the needs of users. In particular it will contribute towards the definition of an operational European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet) and contribute to developing the definition of the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) marine core service. Access to data and metadata will consider measurements from fixed stations that will cover at least: 1. wave height and period; 2. temperature of the water column; 3. wind speed and direction; 4. salinity of the water column; 5. horizontal velocity of the water column ; 6. light attenuation; 7. sea level. A first running prototype of the portal active from the end of 2011, the final release of the EMODnet PP is due by half June 2012. Then there are 6 months for testing and users' feedback acquisition and management. The project finishes 16th December 2013 after one year of maintenance. Compliance with INSPIRE framework and temporal and geographical data coverage are ensured under the requirements contained in the several Commission Regulations issued from 2008 until 2010. The metadata are based upon the ISO 19115 standard and are compliant with the INSPIRE directive and regulations. This assures also a minimum metadata content in both systems that will facilitate the setting up of a portal that can provide information on data and access to them, depending on the internal data policy of potential contributors. Data coverage: There are three pillars sustaining EMODnet PP: EuroGOOS ROOSs (the EuroGOOS regional Operational Systems), MyOcean and SeaDataNet. MyOcean and EuroGOOS have agreed in EuroGOOS general assemblies (2008-2009-2010) to share their efforts to set up a common infrastructure for real-time data integration for operational oceanography needs extending the global and regional portals set up by MyOcean to handle additional variables and observation providers. SeaDataNet is a Pan-European infrastructure for oceans and marine data management, that provides access to archived data residing in distributed information systems. EMODNet Physics held three workshops with institutions working in operational data collection in the Baltin, North Sea, East Atlantic, Mediterranean and Black Sea. They allowed to list most of the existing fixed stations in the seas of European interest. The workshops and the follow up are constructing a common collaborative framework within EuroGOOS ROOSs. Behind the ROOSs there is a wide number of institutions, scientists and technicians, whose participation to EMODnet PP will be acknowledged and made visible through the web pages, newsletters, and EuroGOOS publications. This common collaborative framework is producing an important network of data centres that can support GMES for the years to come.

  10. Observations and Modeling of Long Negative Laboratory Discharges: Identifying the Physics Important to an Electrical Spark in Air

    SciTech Connect

    Biagi, C J; Uman, M A

    2011-12-13

    There are relatively few reports in the literature focusing on negative laboratory leaders. Most of the reports focus exclusively on the simpler positive laboratory leader that is more commonly encountered in high voltage engineering [Gorin et al., 1976; Les Renardieres Group, 1977; Gallimberti, 1979; Domens et al., 1994; Bazelyan and Raizer 1998]. The physics of the long, negative leader and its positive counterpart are similar; the two differ primarily in their extension mechanisms [Bazelyan and Raizer, 1998]. Long negative sparks extend primarily by an intermittent process termed a 'step' that requires the development of secondary leader channels separated in space from the primary leader channel. Long positive sparks typically extend continuously, although, under proper conditions, their extension can be temporarily halted and begun again, and this is sometimes viewed as a stepping process. However, it is emphasized that the nature of positive leader stepping is not like that of negative leader stepping. There are several key observational studies of the propagation of long, negative-polarity laboratory sparks in air that have aided in the understanding of the stepping mechanisms exhibited by such sparks [e.g., Gorin et al., 1976; Les Renardieres Group, 1981; Ortega et al., 1994; Reess et al., 1995; Bazelyan and Raizer, 1998; Gallimberti et al., 2002]. These reports are reviewed below in Section 2, with emphasis placed on the stepping mechanism (the space stem, pilot, and space leader). Then, in Section 3, reports pertaining to modeling of long negative leaders are summarized.

  11. OSO-8 X-ray spectra of clusters of galaxies. 1. Observations of twenty clusters: Physical correlations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mushotzky, R. F.; Serlemitsos, P. J.; Smith, B. W.; Boldt, E. A.; Holt, S. S.

    1978-01-01

    OSO-8 X-ray spectra from 2 to 20 keV were analyzed for 26 clusters of galaxies. Temperature, emission integrals, iron abundances, and low energy absorption measurements are given. Eight clusters have positive iron emission line detections at the 90% confidence level, and all twenty cluster spectra are consistent with Fe/H=0.000014 by number with the possible exception of Virgo. Physical correlations between X-ray spectral parameters and other cluster properties are examined. It is found that: (1) the X-ray temperature is approximately proportional to the square of the velocity dispersion of the galaxies; (2) the emission integral and therefore the bolometric X-ray luminosity is a strong function of the X-ray temperature; (3) the X-ray temperature and emission integral are better correlated with cluster central galaxy density than with richness; (4) temperature and emission integral are separately correlated with Rood-Sastry type; and (5) the fraction of galaxies which are spirals is correlated with the observed ram pressure in the cluster core.

  12. Physical properties of the gamma-ray binary LS 5039 through low and high frequency radio observations

    E-print Network

    Marcote, B; Paredes, J M; Ishwara-Chandra, C H

    2015-01-01

    We have studied in detail the 0.15-15 GHz radio spectrum of the gamma-ray binary LS 5039 to look for a possible turnover and absorption mechanisms at low frequencies, and to constrain the physical properties of its emission. We have analysed two archival VLA monitorings, all the available archival GMRT data and a coordinated quasi-simultaneous observational campaign conducted in 2013 with GMRT and WSRT. The data show that the radio emission of LS 5039 is persistent on day, week and year timescales, with a variability $\\lesssim 25~\\%$ at all frequencies, and no signature of orbital modulation. The obtained spectra reveal a power-law shape with a curvature below 5 GHz and a turnover at $\\sim0.5$ GHz, which can be reproduced by a one-zone model with synchrotron self-absorption plus Razin effect. We obtain a coherent picture for a size of the emitting region of $\\sim0.85~\\mathrm{mas}$, setting a magnetic field of $B\\sim20~\\mathrm{mG}$, an electron density of $n_{\\rm e}\\sim4\\times10^5~{\\rm cm^{-3}}$ and a mass-los...

  13. Equidistribution of energy and other quantities in oscillating systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolff, Charles L.

    1993-01-01

    Energy of a high harmonic standing wave tends to be distributed equally over the whole wave even in a stratified medium where the wave's peak amplitude can be much larger near the upper boundary than the lower one. This fact is generalized to the many diverse physical problems which solve second-order differential equations of Sturm-Liouville type. For any such solution y(z) whose sign fluctuates along the z-axis, quantities are found which have the same value between any two neighboring zeros of y. One of the equidistributed quantities for an oscillating fluid sphere is similar to kinetic energy but is identical only in limiting cases. The acoustic midpoint of a cavity can be a unique place where some nonlinear perturbations have extra strength. This may apply to the puzzling solar phenomenon called supergranulation.

  14. Interactions of socioeconomic position with psychosocial and environmental correlates of children's physical activity: an observational study of South Australian families

    PubMed Central

    Dollman, James; Lewis, Nicole R

    2009-01-01

    Background Evidence for psychosocial and environmental correlates on children's physical activity is scattered and somewhat unconvincing. Further, the moderating influences of socioeconomic position (SEP) on these influences are largely unexplored. The aim of this study was to examine the interactions of SEP, operationalised by mother education, and predictors of children's physical activity based on the Youth Physical Activity Promotion Model. Methods In 2005, a sample of South Australians (10–15 y) was surveyed on psychosocial and environmental correlates of physical activity using the Children's Physical Activity Correlates Questionnaire (n = 3300) and a parent survey (n = 1720). The following constructs were derived: 'is it worth it?' (perceived outcomes); 'am I able?' (perceived competency); 'reinforcing' (parental support); and 'enabling' (parent-perceived barriers). Self-reported physical activity was represented by a global score derived from the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents. Associations among physical activity and hypothesised correlates were tested among children with mothers of high (university educated) and low (left school at or before 15 y) SEP. Results Among high SEP children, 'is it worth it?' emerged as a significant predictor of physical activity for boys and girls. Among low SEP children, 'is it worth it?' predicted boys' physical activity, while among girls, 'reinforcing' was the only significant predictor, explaining ~35% of the total explained variance in physical activity. Conclusion While perceived outcomes emerged as a consistent predictor of physical activity in this sample, parental support was a powerful limiting factor among low SEP girls. Interventions among this high risk group should focus on supporting parents to provide both emotional and instrumental support for their daughters to engage in physical activity. PMID:19678960

  15. Quantity quotient reporting. Comparison of various models.

    PubMed

    Haeckel, Rainer; Wosniok, Werner; Postma, Theo

    2015-11-01

    Quantity quotient (QQ) reporting has been proposed by several authors to improve or support the present situation of presenting quantitative laboratory results. This proposal is based on a concept (symmetrical model) known from the intelligence quotient, which was developed to make intelligence tests comparable. In laboratory medicine, however, most measurands follow a non-symmetrical (skewed) distribution, leading to a compression of the QQ values at the lower end of the reference interval. This effect can be avoided by several alternatives. Three models considering non-symmetrical distributions are compared with the symmetrical model in the present study. The corresponding algorithms can be easily handled on the Excel platform. Graphical presentation of the QQ allows a quick overview of test results if they occur in a large number. PMID:26536582

  16. Generic system of exact flavor-electroweak quantities via new dynamical parameter

    E-print Network

    E. M. Lipmanov

    2011-03-16

    Unification-type idea of a basic connection between particle mass and charge quantities is in the spirit of string theory. On the level of phenomenology, this idea means raison d'etre for particle flavor since it requires more than one mass copy i.e. transition from individual particle mass to the concept of mass-matrix. In this paper that idea is exemplified by a generic system of accurate empirical relations for dimensionless flavor-electroweak quantities (fine structure constant, muon-electron and tauon-electron mass ratios and quark CKM and neutrino PMNS mixing angles) build in terms of one small universal e-parameter as mediator of mass-matrix and charge quantities. The used in this study empirically suggested math paradigm consists of repeated exponentiation of e-powers. Accuracy boost of flavor relations from replacement of e-power terms by exponential f-terms is observed. The two widely discussed in the literature empirical flavor regularities, quark-lepton complementarity (QLC) and Koide charged lepton mass formula, are essential parts of the generic system. Solar neutrino mixing angle is predicted {\\theta}sol= 34.05o by extension of QLC. Charged lepton mass ratios satisfy Koide relation with high accuracy ~10-9. The Appendix contains comments on dual objective-anthropic nature of physical reality.

  17. Quantity Versus Interval as a ``Hinge'' Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jane, Jane; Nelson, Jim

    2007-11-01

    Column Editor's note: It is extremely important for students to develop definitions of terms from shared experiences such as the ones described by the Nelsons. Conceptual development in students will be hindered if we assume that dictionary definitions are adequate for developing understanding or that the meanings students associate with physics terms are accurate. Careful attention to what we say is crucial but we must also incorporate time for student discourse into instructional planning. Discussion of these ``hinge'' concepts requires close attention to addressing the linguistic problems associated with developing scientific literacy.

  18. Changes in time-segment specific physical activity between ages 10 and 14 years: A longitudinal observational study

    PubMed Central

    Brooke, Hannah L.; Atkin, Andrew J.; Corder, Kirsten; Ekelund, Ulf; van Sluijs, Esther M.F.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Describe (1) time-segment specific changes in physical activity (PA) into adolescence, (2) differences in change in PA between specific time-segments (weekdays–weekends, in-school–out-of-school, out-of-school–weekends, lesson-time–lunch-time), and (3) associations of change in time-segment specific with overall PA. Design Longitudinal observational study (4-year follow-up). Methods Children from the SPEEDY study (n = 769, 42% boys) had PA measured by accelerometer for at least three days at ages 10.2 ± 0.3, 11.2 ± 0.3 and 14.3 ± 0.3 years. Changes in moderate-to-vigorous PA (?MVPA, minutes ?2000 counts/minute [cpm]) and total PA (?TPA, average cpm) during weekdays, weekends, in-school, out-of-school, lesson-times and lunch-times, were tested using three level (age, individual, school) mixed-effects linear regression. Differences in ?MVPA/?TPA between time-segments were tested using time-segment × age interaction terms. Associations of four-year time-segment specific ?MVPA/?TPA with four-year overall ?MVPA/?TPA were tested using two level (time-segment specific ?MVPA/?TPA, school) mixed-effects linear regression. Results MVPA and TPA declined in all time-segments, except lesson-time MVPA. Annual ?MVPA and, for boys only, ?TPA was greater on weekends than weekdays (beta ± SE for interaction term: boys, ?3.53 ± 0.83 min, ?29.64 ± 7.64 cpm; girls, ?2.20 ± 0.64 min) and out-of-school (boys, ?4.36 ± 0.79 min, ?19.36 ± 8.46 cpm; girls, ?2.44 ± 0.63 min). ?MVPA and ?TPA during lunch-time was greater than during lesson-time (boys, ?0.96 ± 0.20 min, ?36.43 ± 6.55 cpm; girls, ?0.90 ± 0.13 min, ?38.72 ± 4.40 cpm). ?TPA was greater out-of-school than in-school (boys, ?19.89 ± 6.71 cpm; girls, ?18.46 ± 6.51 cpm). For all time-segments, four-year ?MVPA/?TPA was positively associated with four-year overall ?MVPA/?TPA (all p < 0.042), except for girl's in-school and lunch-time TPA. Conclusions Interventions focused on PA maintenance could target all time-segments, but weekends and out-of-school may be particularly advantageous due to the relatively large declines observed. PMID:25459234

  19. Analysis of observational cases measured by MRR and PARSIVEL disdrometer for understanding the physical characteristics of precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cha, J.; Chang, K.; Jeoung, J.; Bae, J.; Choi, Y.; Kim, Y.; Hydrometeo. Resource Res. Team

    2010-12-01

    The methods measuring the precipitation drop size distribution(hereafter referred to as DSD) at Cloud Physics Observation System (CPOS) in Daegwallyeong are to use PARSIVEL (PARticle SIze and VELocity) disdrometer (hereafter referred to as PARSIVEL) and Micro Rain Radar (hereafter referred to as MRR). First of all, PARSIVEL and MRR give good correlation coefficients between their rain rates and those of rain gage: R2= 0.93 and 0.91, respectively. For the DSD, the rain rates are classified in 3 categories (Category 1: rr (Rain Rate) ? 0.5 mm h-1, Category 2: 0.5 mm h-1< rr <4.0 mm h-1, Category 3: rr ? 4 mm h-1). The shapes of PARSIVEL and MRR DSD are relatively most similar in category 2. In addition, we retrieve the vertical rain rate and liquid water content from MRR under melting layer, calculated by Cha et al’s method, in Daegwallyeong (37°41' N,128°45' E, 843 m ASL, mountain area) and Haenam (34°33' N,126°34' E, 4.6 m ASL, coast area). The vertical variations of rain rate and liquid water content in Daegwallyeong are smaller than those in Haenam. We think that this different vertical rain rate characteristic for both sites is due to the vertical different cloud type (convective and stratiform cloud seem dominant at Haenam and Daegwallyeong, respectively). This suggests that the statistical precipitation DSD model for the application of weather radar and numerical simulation of precipitation processes be considered differently for the region, which will be performed in near future.

  20. XMM-Newton observation of the ULIRG NGC 6240. The physical nature of the complex Fe K line emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boller, Th.; Keil, R.; Hasinger, G.; Costantini, E.; Fujimoto, R.; Anabuki, N.; Lehmann, I.; Gallo, L.

    2003-11-01

    We report on an XMM-Newton observation of the ultraluminous infrared galaxy NGC 6240. The 0.3-10 keV spectrum can be successfully modelled with: (i) three collisionally ionized plasma components with temperatures of about 0.7, 1.4, and 5.5 keV; (ii) a highly absorbed direct power-law component; and (iii) a neutral Fe Kalpha and Kbeta line. We detect a significant neutral column density gradient which is correlated with the temperature of the three plasma components. Combining the XMM-Newton spectral model with the high spatial resolution Chandra image we find that the temperatures and the column densities increase towards the center. With high significance, the Fe K line complex is resolved into three distinct narrow lines: (i) the neutral Fe Kalpha line at 6.4 keV; (ii) an ionized line at about 6.7 keV; and (iii) a higher ionized line at 7.0 keV (a blend of the Fe XXVI and the Fe Kbeta line). While the neutral Fe K line is most probably due to reflection from optically thick material, the Fe XXV and Fe XXVI emission arises from the highest temperature ionized plasma component. We have compared the plasma parameters of the ultraluminous infrared galaxy NGC 6240 with those found in the local starburst galaxy NGC 253. We find a striking similarity in the plasma temperatures and column density gradients, suggesting a similar underlying physical process at work in both galaxies.

  1. Physical properties of the gamma-ray binary LS 5039 through low- and high-frequency radio observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcote, B.; Ribó, M.; Paredes, J. M.; Ishwara-Chandra, C. H.

    2015-07-01

    We have studied in detail the 0.15-15 GHz radio spectrum of the gamma-ray binary LS 5039 to look for a possible turnover and absorption mechanisms at low frequencies, and to constrain the physical properties of its emission. We have analysed two archival Very Large Array monitorings, all the available archival Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) data and a coordinated quasi-simultaneous observational campaign conducted in 2013 with Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope and Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope. The data show that the radio emission of LS 5039 is persistent on day, week and year time-scales, with a variability ? 25 per cent at all frequencies, and no signature of orbital modulation. The obtained spectra reveal a power-law shape with a curvature below 5 GHz and a turnover at ˜0.5GHz, which can be reproduced by a one-zone model with synchrotron self-absorption plus Razin effect. We obtain a coherent picture for the size of the emitting region of ˜0.85 mas, setting a magnetic field of B ˜ 20 mG, an electron density of ne ˜ 4 × 105 cm-3 and a mass-loss rate of dot{M}˜ 5× 10^{-8} M_{? yr^{-1}}. These values imply a significant mixing of the stellar wind with the relativistic plasma outflow from the compact companion. At particular epochs the Razin effect is negligible, implying changes in the injection and the electron density or magnetic field. The Razin effect is reported for the first time in a gamma-ray binary, giving further support to the young non-accreting pulsar scenario.

  2. An Investigation of Relationships Between Fifth Grade Students' Perception of the Physical Classroom Environment and Observed Environmental Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faust, Russell Weidner

    An exploratory field study was conducted in 42 self-contained, elementary grade classrooms in 18 school buildings. Subjects were 1,030 fifth-grade students. The purpose of the study was to determine the range of physical environmental conditions in the classrooms; and how students' perceptions of the physical environment (1) describe the…

  3. Convergent Validity of Four Accelerometer Cutpoints with Direct Observation of Preschool Children's Outdoor Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahan, David; Nicaise, Virginie; Reuben, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: More than one fifth of American preschool-aged children are classified as overweight/obese. Increasing physical activity is one means of slowing/reversing progression to overweight or obesity. Measurement of physical activity in this age group relies heavily on motion sensors such as accelerometers. Output is typically interpreted through…

  4. Knowledge base for growth and innovation in ocean economy: assembly and dissemination of marine data for seabed mapping - European Marine Observation Data Network - EMODnet Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novellino, Antonio; Gorringe, Patrick; Schaap, Dick; Pouliquen, Sylvie; Rickards, Lesley; Manzella, Giuseppe

    2014-05-01

    The Physics preparatory action (MARE/2010/02 - Lot [SI2.579120]) had the overall objectives to provide access to archived and near real-time data on physical conditions as monitored by fixed stations and Ferrybox lines in all the European sea basins and oceans and to determine how well the data meet the needs of users. The existing EMODnet-Physics portal, www.emodnet-physics.eu, includes systems for physical data from the whole Europe (wave height and period, temperature of the water column, wind speed and direction, salinity of the water column, horizontal velocity of the water column, light attenuation, and sea level) provided mainly by fixed stations and ferry-box platforms, discovering related data sets (both near real time and historical data sets), viewing and downloading of the data from about 470 platforms across the European Sea basins. It makes layers of physical data and their metadata available for use and contributes towards the definition of an operational European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet). It is based on a strong collaboration between EuroGOOS member institutes and its regional operational oceanographic systems (ROOSs), and it brings together two marine, but different, communities : the "real time" ocean observing institutes and centers and the National Oceanographic Data Centres (NODCs) that are in charge for archived ocean data validation, quality check and continuous update of data archives for marine environmental monitoring. EMODnet Physics is a Marine Observation and Data Information System that provides a single point of access to near real time and historical achieved data, it is built on existing infrastructure by adding value and avoiding any unnecessary complexity, it provides data access to any relevant user, and is aimed at attracting new data holders and providing better and more data. With a long term-vision for a sustained pan European Ocean Observation System EMODnet Physics is supporting the coordination of the EuroGOOS ROOSs and the empowerment and improvement of their observing and data management infrastructure. The on-going EMODnet Physics preparatory action has recently been extended (MARE/2012/06 - Lot 6) with the aim to enlarge the coverage with additional monitoring systems (e.g. Argos, Gliders, HF Radars etc) and products and strengthening the underlying infrastructure. The presentation will show how to exploit the EMODnet portal and access to the metadata and data of connected platforms.

  5. Comparing Physically Abusive, Neglectful, and Non-Maltreating Parents during Interactions with Their Children: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Steven R.; Rack, Jessica J.; Shi, Xiaowei; Norris, Alda M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To clarify the nature and extent of differences in the ways that physically abusive, neglectful, and non-maltreating parents communicate during interactions with their children. Method: A meta-analysis was conducted of 33 observational studies comparing parent-child interactions in families where parents have a documented history of…

  6. Observing Tin-Lead Alloys by Scanning Electron Microscopy: A Physical Chemistry Experiment Investigating Macro-Level Behaviors and Micro-Level Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yue; Xu, Xinhua; Wu, Meifen; Hu, Huikang; Wang, Xiaogang

    2015-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was introduced into undergraduate physical chemistry laboratory curriculum to help students observe the phase composition and morphology characteristics of tin-lead alloys and thus further their understanding of binary alloy phase diagrams. The students were captivated by this visual analysis method, which…

  7. Physics 171 Solutions to Problem Set #5 Fall 2014 1. Once across the event horizon of a black hole, what is the longest proper time the observer

    E-print Network

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    Physics 171 Solutions to Problem Set #5 Fall 2014 1. Once across the event horizon of a black hole, what is the longest proper time the observer can spend before reaching the singularity of the black hole? A curve of extremal proper time is a geodesic. For timelike geodesics, the proper time is locally

  8. VOI UME 52, NUMBER 8 PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS 2() FmRUAR& 1984 Direct Observation of Elastic and Plastic Deformations at Au(111) Surfaces

    E-print Network

    Marks, Laurence D.

    ) surfaces have been ob- served by high-resolution electron microscopy. These are normal expansionVOI UME 52, NUMBER 8 PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS 2() FmRUAR& 1984 Direct Observation of Elastic of the first surface interplanar spacing, lateral expansions through surface dislocations, and the development

  9. Electric Charge as a Vector Quantity

    E-print Network

    Gerald L. Fitzpatrick

    2000-11-30

    Starting with the premise that the electric charge associated with fundamental fermions (quarks and leptons) can, under certain circumstances, be appropriately represented as a real \\emph{internal} 2-vector, the mathematical ``machinery'' implicit in the associated internal 2-space is shown to apply to \\emph{all} fundamental fermions. In particular, it is shown that \\emph{flavor eigenstates}, \\emph{flavor doublets} and \\emph{families} of fundamental fermions can all be represented in the 2-space, and that such things as internal \\emph{colors}, \\emph{family replication}, and the observed \\emph{number} (three) of families, are more-or-less implicit in the new 2-space description. Moreover, the model predicts that, unlike the case in the standard model, particles such as the $u$, $c$ and $t$ quarks are characterized by significant internal (topological and other) differences. Similar differences may help explain recent observations of (nearly) maximal $\

  10. On the Concepts of Quantity and Quality in the History of Western Thought

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Stephen R.

    2004-01-01

    This paper charts a cognitive history of the concepts of quantity and quality from three inter-related and inter-dependent perspectives of mathematics, logic, and physics. In so doing, other notions associated with the evolution of these concepts are identified and explicated. It is argued that the concepts of quantity and quality, considered in…

  11. Is physical practice necessary for parallel development of implicit and explicit sequence knowledge? Evidence from observational learning 

    E-print Network

    Zihlman, Kirk A.

    2006-08-16

    the explicit and implicit systems. Unexpectedly, performance on the indirect test for the observers that revealed explicit learning was similar to that reported for the model, indicating parallel activation also occurred during observation. This finding...

  12. ISO terminological analysis of the VIM3 concepts 'quantity' and 'kind-of-quantity'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dybkaer, René

    2010-06-01

    The recent third edition of the International Vocabulary of Metrology—Basic and General Concepts and Associated Terms (VIM3) (JCGM 200:2008 (Sèvres: BIPM); also ISO/IEC Guide 99:2007 3rd edn (Geneva: ISO)) has undergone important changes, not least by adhering to ISO International Standards on terminology work (ISO 704:2000 Terminology Work—Principles and Methods; ISO 1087-1:2000 Terminology Work—Vocabulary—Part 1: Theory and Application; ISO 10241:1992 International Terminology Standards—Preparation and Layout). A recent critique (Mari 2009 Metrologia 46 L11-L15)—based on Object-Oriented Analysis—centres on the meaning and relation of the two first and fundamental concepts 'quantity'Single quotation marks ('...') or bold type indicate a concept when necessary, double quotation marks ("...") a term or quotation. and the new entry 'kind-of-quantity'. This makes it timely to analyse the two concepts, their relation and their respective role in forming the generic hierarchical concept system of VIM3 from 'property' to individual quantities. It is suggested that 'kind-of-quantity' acts as a division criterionSynonyms are "criterion of subdivision", "type of characteristic(s)", see the annexe..

  13. CREST-Snow Analysis and Field Experiment (CREST-SAFE): Continuous In Situ Observations of Snow Physical Properties and Microwave Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munoz, J.; Lakhankar, T.; Romanov, P.; Powell, A. M.; Khanbilvardi, R.

    2012-12-01

    The CREST-Snow Analysis and Field Experiment (CREST-SAFE) is being carried out for two winter seasons (2011 and 2012) at the research site of the National Weather Service office, Caribou ME, USA. In this ground experiment, dual polarized microwave (37 and 89 GHz) observations are conducted continuously from the time of snow onset to snow melt off along with detailed synchronous observations of snowpack physical properties. The objective of this long term field experiment is to improve our understanding of the effect of changing snow characteristics (grain size, density, temperature) under various meteorological conditions on the microwave emission of snow and hence to improve retrievals of snow cover properties from satellite observations in the microwave spectral range. In this presentation, we give an overview of the field experiment and of available datasets. We also present the analysis of microwave observations collected during the two years of experiment along with observations of the snowpack properties. The simulations of seasonal changes of the snow pack physical properties were simulated with the SNTHERM model whereas to simulate the snowpack emission in the microwave we have used from SNTHERM and the HUT (Helsinki University of Technology) snow emission model. For different snow conditions simulated microwave brightness temperatures were compared with brightness temperatures observed in situ and with satellite based brightness temperature. The analysis of microwave observations has revealed a large difference in the microwave brightness temperature over fresh and aged snow pack even under the same snow depth. This suggests a substantial impact of other physical parameters on the microwave emission of snow as snow grain size, ice layer formation and density.

  14. Workshop Physics and Related Curricula: A 25-Year History of Collaborative Learning Enhanced by Computer Tools for Observation and Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laws, Priscilla W.; Willis, Maxine C.; Sokoloff, David R.

    2015-10-01

    This article describes the 25-year history of development of the activity-based Workshop Physics (WP) at Dickinson College, its adaptation for use at Gettysburg Area High School, and its synergistic influence on curricular materials developed at the University of Oregon and Tufts University and vice versa. WP and these related curricula: 1) are based on Physics Education Research (PER) findings and are PER-validated; 2) feature active, collaborative learning; and 3) use computer-based tools that enable students to learn by making predictions and then collecting, displaying, and analyzing data from their experiments.

  15. Consumer-Resource Dynamics: Quantity, Quality, and Allocation

    PubMed Central

    Getz, Wayne M.; Owen-Smith, Norman

    2011-01-01

    Background The dominant paradigm for modeling the complexities of interacting populations and food webs is a system of coupled ordinary differential equations in which the state of each species, population, or functional trophic group is represented by an aggregated numbers-density or biomass-density variable. Here, using the metaphysiological approach to model consumer-resource interactions, we formulate a two-state paradigm that represents each population or group in a food web in terms of both its quantity and quality. Methodology and Principal Findings The formulation includes an allocation function controlling the relative proportion of extracted resources to increasing quantity versus elevating quality. Since lower quality individuals senesce more rapidly than higher quality individuals, an optimal allocation proportion exists and we derive an expression for how this proportion depends on population parameters that determine the senescence rate, the per-capita mortality rate, and the effects of these rates on the dynamics of the quality variable. We demonstrate that oscillations do not arise in our model from quantity-quality interactions alone, but require consumer-resource interactions across trophic levels that can be stabilized through judicious resource allocation strategies. Analysis and simulations provide compelling arguments for the necessity of populations to evolve quality-related dynamics in the form of maternal effects, storage or other appropriate structures. They also indicate that resource allocation switching between investments in abundance versus quality provide a powerful mechanism for promoting the stability of consumer-resource interactions in seasonally forcing environments. Conclusions/Significance Our simulations show that physiological inefficiencies associated with this switching can be favored by selection due to the diminished exposure of inefficient consumers to strong oscillations associated with the well-known paradox of enrichment. Also our results demonstrate how allocation switching can explain observed growth patterns in experimental microbial cultures and discuss how our formulation can address questions that cannot be answered using the quantity-only paradigms that currently predominate. PMID:21283752

  16. 48 CFR 52.236-16 - Quantity Surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Quantity Surveys. 52.236... Quantity Surveys. As prescribed in 36.516, the contracting officer may insert the following clause in... payment based on quantity surveys is contemplated: Quantity Surveys (APR 1984) (a) Quantity surveys...

  17. 48 CFR 52.236-16 - Quantity Surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Quantity Surveys. 52.236... Quantity Surveys. As prescribed in 36.516, the contracting officer may insert the following clause in... payment based on quantity surveys is contemplated: Quantity Surveys (APR 1984) (a) Quantity surveys...

  18. 48 CFR 52.236-16 - Quantity Surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Quantity Surveys. 52.236... Quantity Surveys. As prescribed in 36.516, the contracting officer may insert the following clause in... payment based on quantity surveys is contemplated: Quantity Surveys (APR 1984) (a) Quantity surveys...

  19. 48 CFR 52.236-16 - Quantity Surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Quantity Surveys. 52.236... Quantity Surveys. As prescribed in 36.516, the contracting officer may insert the following clause in... payment based on quantity surveys is contemplated: Quantity Surveys (APR 1984) (a) Quantity surveys...

  20. 48 CFR 52.236-16 - Quantity Surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Quantity Surveys. 52.236... Quantity Surveys. As prescribed in 36.516, the contracting officer may insert the following clause in... payment based on quantity surveys is contemplated: Quantity Surveys (APR 1984) (a) Quantity surveys...

  1. Observation and Analysis of N[subscript 2]O Rotation-Vibration Spectra: A Physical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Mark S.; Reeve, Scott W.; Burns, William A.

    2008-01-01

    The linear molecule N[subscript 2]O is presented as an alternative gas-phase species for the ubiquitous undergraduate physical chemistry rotation-vibration spectroscopy experiment. Utilizing a 0.5 cm[superscript -1] resolution teaching grade FTIR spectrometer, 15 vibrational bands, corresponding to 1229 rotation-vibration transitions, have been…

  2. The Problem-Solving Process in Physics as Observed When Engineering Students at University Level Work in Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gustafsson, Peter; Jonsson, Gunnar; Enghag, Margareta

    2015-01-01

    The problem-solving process is investigated for five groups of students when solving context-rich problems in an introductory physics course included in an engineering programme. Through transcripts of their conversation, the paths in the problem-solving process have been traced and related to a general problem-solving model. All groups exhibit…

  3. Diagnose Physical Conditions Near the Flare Energy-release Sites from Observations of Solar Microwave Type III Bursts

    E-print Network

    Tan, Baolin; Meszarosova, Hana; Huang, Guangli

    2015-01-01

    In the physics of solar flares, it is crucial to diagnose the physical conditions near the flare energy-release sites. However, so far it is unclear how do diagnose these physical conditions. Solar microwave type III burst is believed to be a sensitive signature of the primary energy release and electron accelerations in solar flares. This work takes into account the effect of magnetic field on the plasma density and developed s set of formulas which can be used to estimate the plasma density, temperature, magnetic field near the magnetic reconnection site and particle acceleration region, and the velocity and energy of electron beams. We applied these formulas to three groups of microwave type III pairs in a X-class flare, and obtained some reasonable and interesting results. This method can be applied to other microwave type III bursts to diagnose the physical conditions of source regions, and provide some basic information to understand the intrinsic nature and fundamental processes occurring near the flar...

  4. Seismic analysis of 70 Ophiuchi A: A new quantity proposed

    E-print Network

    Y. K. Tang; S. L. Bi; N. Gai

    2008-06-02

    The basic intent of this paper is to model 70 Ophiuchi A using the latest asteroseismic observations as complementary constraints and to determine the fundamental parameters of the star. Additionally, we propose a new quantity to lift the degeneracy between the initial chemical composition and stellar age. Using the Yale stellar evolution code (YREC7), we construct a series of stellar evolutionary tracks for the mass range $M$ = 0.85 -- 0.93 $M_{\\odot}$ with different composition $Y_{i}$ (0.26 -- 0.30) and $Z_{i}$ (0.017 -- 0.023). Along these tracks, we select a grid of stellar model candidates that fall within the error box in the HR diagram to calculate the theoretical frequencies, the large- and small- frequency separations using the Guenther's stellar pulsation code. Following the asymptotic formula of stellar $p$-modes, we define a quantity $r_{01}$ which is correlated with stellar age. Also, we test it by theoretical adiabatic frequencies of many models. Many detailed models of 70 Ophiuchi A have been listed in Table 3. By combining all non-asteroseismic observations available for 70 Ophiuchi A with these seismological data, we think that Model 60, Model 125 and Model 126, listed in Table 3, are the optimum models presently. Meanwhile, we predict that the radius of this star is about 0.860 -- 0.865 $R_{\\odot}$ and the age is about 6.8 -- 7.0 Gyr with mass 0.89 -- 0.90 $M_{\\odot}$. Additionally, we prove that the new quantity $r_{01}$ can be a useful indicator of stellar age.

  5. 1991 Urey Prize Lecture: Physical evolution in the solar system - Present observations as a key to the past

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Binzel, Richard P.

    1992-01-01

    The present evaluation of the use of new observational methods for exploring solar system evolutionary processes gives attention to illustrative cases from the constraining of near-earth asteroid sources and the discovery of main-belt asteroid fragments which indicate Vesta to be a source of basaltic achondrite meteorites. The coupling of observational constraints with numerical models clarifies cratering and collisional evolution for both main-belt and Trojan asteroids.

  6. A geochemical module for "AMDTreat" to compute caustic quantity, effluent quantity, and sludge volume

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cravotta, Charles A., III; Parkhurst, David L.; Means, Brent P; McKenzie, Bob; Morris, Harry; Arthur, Bill

    2010-01-01

    Treatment with caustic chemicals typically is used to increase pH and decrease concentrations of dissolved aluminum, iron, and/or manganese in largevolume, metal-laden discharges from active coal mines. Generally, aluminum and iron can be removed effectively at near-neutral pH (6 to 8), whereas active manganese removal requires treatment to alkaline pH (~10). The treatment cost depends on the specific chemical used (NaOH, CaO, Ca(OH)2, Na2CO3, or NH3) and increases with the quantities of chemical added and sludge produced. The pH and metals concentrations do not change linearly with the amount of chemical added. Consequently, the amount of caustic chemical needed to achieve a target pH and the corresponding effluent composition and sludge volume can not be accurately determined without empirical titration data or the application of geochemical models to simulate the titration of the discharge water with caustic chemical(s). The AMDTreat computer program (http://amd.osmre.gov/ ) is widely used to compute costs for treatment of coal-mine drainage. Although AMDTreat can use results of empirical titration with industrial grade caustic chemicals to compute chemical costs for treatment of net-acidic or net-alkaline mine drainage, such data are rarely available. To improve the capability of AMDTreat to estimate (1) the quantity and cost of caustic chemicals to attain a target pH, (2) the concentrations of dissolved metals in treated effluent, and (3) the volume of sludge produced by the treatment, a titration simulation is being developed using the geochemical program PHREEQC (wwwbrr.cr.usgs.gov/projects/GWC_coupled/phreeqc/) that will be coupled as a module to AMDTreat. The simulated titration results can be compared with or used in place of empirical titration data to estimate chemical quantities and costs. This paper describes the development, evaluation, and potential utilization of the PHREEQC titration module for AMDTreat.

  7. Evaluation of Specific Absorption Rate as a Dosimetric Quantity for Electromagnetic Fields Bioeffects

    PubMed Central

    Panagopoulos, Dimitris J.; Johansson, Olle; Carlo, George L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate SAR as a dosimetric quantity for EMF bioeffects, and identify ways for increasing the precision in EMF dosimetry and bioactivity assessment. Methods We discuss the interaction of man-made electromagnetic waves with biological matter and calculate the energy transferred to a single free ion within a cell. We analyze the physics and biology of SAR and evaluate the methods of its estimation. We discuss the experimentally observed non-linearity between electromagnetic exposure and biological effect. Results We find that: a) The energy absorbed by living matter during exposure to environmentally accounted EMFs is normally well below the thermal level. b) All existing methods for SAR estimation, especially those based upon tissue conductivity and internal electric field, have serious deficiencies. c) The only method to estimate SAR without large error is by measuring temperature increases within biological tissue, which normally are negligible for environmental EMF intensities, and thus cannot be measured. Conclusions SAR actually refers to thermal effects, while the vast majority of the recorded biological effects from man-made non-ionizing environmental radiation are non-thermal. Even if SAR could be accurately estimated for a whole tissue, organ, or body, the biological/health effect is determined by tiny amounts of energy/power absorbed by specific biomolecules, which cannot be calculated. Moreover, it depends upon field parameters not taken into account in SAR calculation. Thus, SAR should not be used as the primary dosimetric quantity, but used only as a complementary measure, always reporting the estimating method and the corresponding error. Radiation/field intensity along with additional physical parameters (such as frequency, modulation etc) which can be directly and in any case more accurately measured on the surface of biological tissues, should constitute the primary measure for EMF exposures, in spite of similar uncertainty to predict the biological effect due to non-linearity. PMID:23750202

  8. Seasonal Variations in Physical Characteristics of the South Australian Shelf Waters -Results from the Southern Australian Integrated Marine Observing System (SAIMOS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, C.; Luick, J.; Leterme, S. C.; Middleton, J.; Seuront, L.

    2009-04-01

    The Southern Australia Integrated Marine Observing System, or SAIMOS, is one of five nodes operating as part of the Australia-wide Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS). This is a collaborative program designed to observe Australia's oceans, both coastal and blue-water. Since February 2008 Physical Data has been collected for SAIMOS in both summer and winter months during 8 surveys. The data collected during summer are used to characterise the nature and dynamics of the Kangaroo Island-Eyre Peninsula upwelling system during a record upwelling event in February 2008. During this event a plume of very cool water was observed along the bottom from South of KI to the Eyre Peninsula. This plume dissipated rapidly after the end of upwelling favourable winds and by March 2008 had disappeared entirely from the observations. The data are also used to study the dense high salinity outflow from Spencer Gulf observed during the winter months. The dense plume result from surface cooling of high salinity waters at the head of Spencer Gulf. One striking result of these observations is that the outflow occurs during a series of strong pulses with a period of approximately 2 weeks and duration of 1-3 days. During these pulses bottom velocities at 100 m can exceed 1 m/s.

  9. 7 CFR 61.102 - Determination of quantity index.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determination of quantity index. 61.102 Section 61.102... quantity index. The quantity index of cottonseed shall be determined as follows: (a) For upland cottonseed the quantity index shall equal four times percentage of oil plus six times percentage of ammonia,...

  10. 14 CFR 23.1551 - Oil quantity indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oil quantity indicator. 23.1551 Section 23... Information Markings and Placards § 23.1551 Oil quantity indicator. Each oil quantity indicator must be marked in sufficient increments to indicate readily and accurately the quantity of oil....

  11. 14 CFR 27.1551 - Oil quantity indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Oil quantity indicator. 27.1551 Section 27... § 27.1551 Oil quantity indicator. Each oil quantity indicator must be marked with enough increments to indicate readily and accurately the quantity of oil....

  12. 14 CFR 25.1551 - Oil quantity indication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oil quantity indication. 25.1551 Section 25... Placards § 25.1551 Oil quantity indication. Each oil quantity indicating means must be marked to indicate the quantity of oil readily and accurately....

  13. 14 CFR 23.1551 - Oil quantity indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Oil quantity indicator. 23.1551 Section 23... Information Markings and Placards § 23.1551 Oil quantity indicator. Each oil quantity indicator must be marked in sufficient increments to indicate readily and accurately the quantity of oil....

  14. 14 CFR 29.1551 - Oil quantity indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Oil quantity indicator. 29.1551 Section 29... Placards § 29.1551 Oil quantity indicator. Each oil quantity indicator must be marked with enough increments to indicate readily and accurately the quantity of oil....

  15. 14 CFR 29.1551 - Oil quantity indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oil quantity indicator. 29.1551 Section 29... Placards § 29.1551 Oil quantity indicator. Each oil quantity indicator must be marked with enough increments to indicate readily and accurately the quantity of oil....

  16. 14 CFR 27.1551 - Oil quantity indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oil quantity indicator. 27.1551 Section 27... § 27.1551 Oil quantity indicator. Each oil quantity indicator must be marked with enough increments to indicate readily and accurately the quantity of oil....

  17. 14 CFR 25.1551 - Oil quantity indication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Oil quantity indication. 25.1551 Section 25... Placards § 25.1551 Oil quantity indication. Each oil quantity indicating means must be marked to indicate the quantity of oil readily and accurately....

  18. Variations in hospital waste quantities and generation rates.

    PubMed

    Hamoda, H M; El-Tomi, H N; Bahman, Q Y

    2005-01-01

    The relationship between public health and improper collection, handling, and disposal of solid wastes in general, and hospital wastes in particular, is quite clear. Hazardous and nonhazardous wastes generated from different divisions of two of the largest public hospitals (capacity of approximately 400 beds each) in Kuwait were quantified and generation rates were determined. The generation rates were related to some important factors such as the number of patients, number of beds, and the type of activity conducted in different sections of the hospitals. The relationship between the waste generation rate and the number of patients was more applicable than that expressed in terms of the number of beds. The rates observed were in the range of 4.89 to 5.4 kg/patient/day, which corresponds to 3.65 to 3.97 kg/bed/day, respectively. These generation rates were comparable with those reported in the literature for similar hospitals. Minimal waste quantities were collected in the weekends. The study indicated that the hospitals surveyed provide some segregation of hazardous and nonhazardous wastes. Hazardous wastes contributed about 53% of the total quantity of wastes generated at the hospitals. PMID:15717788

  19. High localization of primary slip zones in large earthquakes from paleoseismic trenches: Observations and implications for earthquake physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rockwell, Thomas K.; Ben-Zion, Yehuda

    2007-10-01

    Paleoseismic exposures excavated across relatively straight sections of major faults in southern California display a high degree of localization at depths of only a few meters below the surface. In some cases, the width of the slip zone in events with multimeter displacement is on the order of 1-2 mm to a cm, which is the resolution of the observations. Repetitive slip events in the same zone increase the observed width of the faulting, as expressed at trench depths, but the superposed slip again tends to be highly localized. These observations are probably representative of >80% of the length of the faults studied. Based on these results, combined with the expected tendency for narrower slip zone with depth, observations from exhumed faults, and high localization of seismicity along large faults, we hypothesize that the majority of slip carried by large faults occurs in very narrow zones. If correct, the emerging integrated view of high slip localization during earthquake ruptures places important constraints on many issues of earthquake dynamics.

  20. THE JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS 142, 184505 (2015) Observation and theory of reorientation-induced spectral diffusion

    E-print Network

    Fayer, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    in the XXXX configuration. Polarization-selective 2D IR spectra of bulk water do not exhibit polarization-induced spectral diffusion in polarization-selective 2D IR spectroscopy Patrick L. Kramer,a) Jun Nishida,a) Chiara function (FFCF) observable under various polarization conditions is introduced, and model calculations

  1. Fate of Deepwater Horizon oil in Alabama's beach system: Understanding physical evolution processes based on observational data

    E-print Network

    Clement, Prabhakar

    aromatic hydrocarbons Crude oil spill a b s t r a c t The impact of MC252 oil on northern Gulf of Mexico processes. The observation data show that SRBs containing MC252 residues currently remain in Alabama's beach plat- form exploring for oil on the Macondo Prospect (MC252) in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) exploded

  2. Herschel observations of Extra-Ordinary Sources: Methanol as a probe of physical conditions in Orion KL

    E-print Network

    Wang, S; Crockett, N R; Goldsmith, P F; Lis, D C; Pearson, J C; Schilke, P; Bell, T A; Comito, C; Blake, G A; Caux, E; Ceccarelli, C; Cernicharo, J; Daniel, F; Dubernet, M -L; Emprechtinger, M; Encrenaz, P; Gerin, M; Giesen, T F; Goicoechea, J R; Gupta, H; Herbst, E; Joblin, C; Johnstone, D; Langer, W D; Latter, W B; Lord, S D; Maret, S; Martin, P G; Melnick, G J; Menten, K M; Morris, P; Muller, H S P; Murphy, J A; Neufeld, D A; Ossenkopf, V; Perault, M; Phillips, T G; Plume, R; Qin, S -L; Schlemmer, S; Stutzki, J; Trappe, N; van der Tak, F F S; Vastel, C; Yorke, H W; Yu, S; Zmuidzinas, J

    2011-01-01

    We have examined methanol emission from Orion KL with of the {\\em Herschel}/HIFI instrument, and detected two methanol bands centered at 524 GHz and 1061 GHz. The 524 GHz methanol band (observed in HIFI band 1a) is dominated by the isolated $\\Delta$J$=$0, K$=-4\\rightarrow$-3, v$_t

  3. Un/Covering: Female Religious Converts Learning the Problems and Pragmatics of Physical Observance in the Secular World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galman, Sally Campbell

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the experiences of three women who have chosen to move from secular, assimilated lives to lives characterized by the distinctive dress and practice associated with observant Islam, Orthodox Judaism, and Orthodox Christianity, respectively. All three relied upon informal, peer, and distance learning strategies for their…

  4. Evaluation of Cloud Physical Properties of ECMWF Analysis and Re-Analysis (ERA-40 and ERA Interim) against CERES Tropical Deep Convective Cloud Object Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Kuan-Man

    2008-01-01

    This study presents an approach that converts the vertical profiles of grid-averaged cloud properties from large-scale models to probability density functions (pdfs) of subgrid-cell cloud physical properties measured at satellite footprints. Cloud physical and radiative properties, rather than just cloud and precipitation occurrences, of assimilated cloud systems by the European Center for Medium-range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) operational analysis (EOA) and ECMWF Re-Analyses (ERA-40 and ERA Interim) are validated against those obtained from Earth Observing System satellite cloud object data for January-August 1998 and March 2000 periods. These properties include ice water path (IWP), cloud-top height and temperature, cloud optical depth and solar and infrared radiative fluxes. Each cloud object, a contiguous region with similar cloud physical properties, is temporally and spatially matched with EOA and ERA-40 data. Results indicate that most pdfs of EOA and ERA-40 cloud physical and radiative properties agree with those of satellite observations of the tropical deep convective cloud-object type for the January-August 1998 period. There are, however, significant discrepancies in selected ranges of the cloud property pdfs such as the upper range of EOA cloud top height. A major discrepancy is that the dependence of the pdfs on the cloud object size for both EOA and ERA-40 is not as strong as in the observations. Modifications to the cloud parameterization in ECMWF that occurred in October 1999 eliminate the clouds near the tropopause but shift power of the pdf to lower cloud-top heights and greatly reduce the ranges of IWP and cloud optical depth pdfs. These features persist in ERA-40 due to the use of the same cloud parameterizations. The downgrade of data assimilation technique and the lack of snow water content information in ERA-40, not the coarser horizontal grid resolution, are also responsible for the disagreements with observed pdfs of cloud physical properties although the detection rates of cloud object occurrence are improved for small size categories. A possible improvement to the convective parameterization is to introduce a stronger dependence of updraft penetration heights with grid-cell dynamics. These conclusions will be rechecked using the ERA Interim data, due to recent changes in the ECMWF convective parameterization (Bechtold et al. 2004, 2008). Results from the ERA Interim will be presented at the meeting.

  5. Measuring self-regulation in a physically active context: Psychometric analyses of scores derived from an observer-rated measure of self-regulation

    PubMed Central

    Lakes, Kimberley D.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to report psychometric properties of scores obtained using a novel observer-rated measure of children’s self-regulation, the Response to Challenge Scale (RCS). The RCS was developed to rate children’s self-regulatory abilities in a physically active context (e.g., while completing a physical challenge course). The RCS and other study measures were administered in a private school sample of 207 children. Analyses of score distributions indicated that the RCS was able to capture variance among children in self-regulatory abilities; the distribution was normal for the Affective, Cognitive, and Total Self-Regulation scales. Validity analyses revealed significant positive correlations between Cognitive, Affective, Motor, and Total Self-Regulation and executive function task performance; significant negative correlations between Cognitive Regulation and teacher-rated hyperactivity and inattention; significant negative correlations between Affective, Motor, and Total Self-Regulation and teacher ratings of peer problems; and significant positive correlations between Cognitive and Affective Regulation and parent ratings of prosocial behavior. Parent and teacher rated Total Difficulties scores were both negatively correlated with RCS Total Self-Regulation scores. Results suggest that it is possible for observers to rate self-regulatory abilities in the context of physical activities, and that these ratings correspond with performance on tasks requiring executive function as well as teacher and parent ratings of children’s difficulties. PMID:25750662

  6. Lidar and in situ observations of continental and Saharan aerosol: closure analysis of particles optical and physical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gobbi, G. P.; Barnaba, F.; van Dingenen, R.; Putaud, J. P.; Mircea, M.; Facchini, M. C.

    2003-12-01

    Single wavelength polarization lidar observations collected at Mt. Cimone (44.2º N, 10.7º E, 1870 m a.s.l.) during the June 2000 MINATROC campaign are analyzed to derive tropospheric profiles of aerosol extinction, depolarization, surface area and volume. Lidar retrievals for the 2170-2245 m level are compared to the same variables as computed from in situ measurements of particles size distributions, performed at the mountain top Station (2165 m a.s.l.) by a differential mobility analyzer (DMA) and an optical particle counter (OPC). A sensitivity analysis of this closure experiment shows that mean relative differences between the backscatter coefficients obtained by the two techniques undergo a sharp decrease when hygroscopic growth to ambient humidity is considered for the DMA dataset, otherwise representative of dry aerosols. Minimization of differences between lidar and size distribution-derived backscatter coefficients allowed to find values of the "best" refractive index, specific to each measurement. These results show the refractive index to increase for air masses proceeding from Africa and Western Europe. Lidar depolarization was observed to minimize mainly in airmasses proceeding from Western Europe, thus indicating a spherical, i.e. liquid nature for such aerosols. Conversely, African, Mediterranean and East Europe aerosol showed a larger depolarizing fraction, mainly due to coexisting refractory and soluble fractions. The analysis shows average relative differences between lidar and in-situ observations of 5% for backscatter, 36% for extinction 41% for surface area and 37% for volume. These values are well within the expected combined uncertainties of the lidar and in situ retrievals. Average differences further decrease during the Saharan dust transport event, when a lidar signal inversion model considering non-spherical scatterers is employed. The quality of the closure obtained between particle counter and lidar-derived aerosol surface area and volume observations constitutes a validation of the technique adopted to retrieve such aerosol properties on the basis of single-wavelength lidar observations.

  7. 77 FR 10450 - Designation of Hazardous Substances; Designation, Reportable Quantities, and Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-22

    ... K174 and K175. (See 65 FR 67132.) The maximum observed constituent concentrations were included in the... Quantities, and Notification. \\1\\ 44 FR 50767, Aug. 29, 1979, Final Rulemaking; Water Programs; Determination of Reportable Quantities for Hazardous Substances; and 50 FR 13463, Apr. 4, 1985, Final...

  8. 77 FR 10387 - Designation of Hazardous Substances; Designation, Reportable Quantities, and Notification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-22

    ... constituent concentrations for listed hazardous wastes K174 and K175. (See 65 FR 67132.) The maximum observed... in 40 CFR 302-- Designation, Reportable Quantities, and Notification. \\1\\ 44 FR 50767, Aug. 29, 1979... 50 FR 13463, Apr. 4, 1985, Final rule; Notification Requirements; Reportable Quantity...

  9. A horizontal mobile measuring system for atmospheric quantities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hübner, J.; Olesch, J.; Falke, H.; Meixner, F. X.; Foken, T.

    2014-09-01

    A fully automatic horizontal mobile measuring system (HMMS) for atmospheric quantities has been developed. The HMMS is based on the drive mechanism of a garden railway system and can be installed at any location and along any measuring track. In addition to meteorological quantities (temperature, humidity and short-/long-wave down/upwelling radiation), HMMS also measures trace gas concentrations (carbon dioxide and ozone). While sufficient spatial resolution is a problem even for measurements on distributed towers, this could be easily achieved with the HMMS, which has been specifically developed to obtain higher information density about horizontal gradients in a heterogeneous forest ecosystem. There, horizontal gradients of meteorological quantities and trace gases could be immense, particularly at the transition from a dense forest to an open clearing, with large impact on meteorological parameters and exchange processes. Consequently, HMMS was firstly applied during the EGER IOP3 project (ExchanGE processes in mountainous Regions - Intense Observation Period 3) in the Fichtelgebirge Mountains (SE Germany) during summer 2011. At a constant 1 m above ground, the measuring track of the HMMS consisted of a straight line perpendicular to the forest edge, starting in the dense spruce forest and leading 75 m into an open clearing. Tags with bar codes, mounted every metre on the wooden substructure, allowed (a) keeping the speed of the HMMS constant (approx. 0.5 m s-1) and (b) operation of the HMMS in a continuous back and forth running mode. During EGER IOP3, HMMS was operational for almost 250 h. Results show that - due to considerably long response times (between 4 and 20 s) of commercial temperature, humidity and the radiation sensors - true spatial variations of the meteorological quantities could not be adequately captured (mainly at the forest edge). Corresponding dynamical (spatial) errors of the measurement values were corrected on the basis of well-defined individual response times of the sensors and application of a linear correction algorithm. Due to the very short response times (? 1 s) of the applied commercial CO2 and O3 analysers, dynamical errors for the trace gas data were negligible and no corrections were done.

  10. A horizontal mobile measuring system for atmospheric quantities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hübner, J.; Olesch, J.; Falke, H.; Meixner, F. X.; Foken, T.

    2014-05-01

    A fully automatic Horizontal Mobile Measuring System (HMMS) for atmospheric quantities has been developed. The HMMS is based on the drive mechanism of a garden railway system and can be installed at any location and with any measuring track. In addition to meteorological quantities (temperature, humidity and short/long-wave down/upwelling radiation), HMMS also measures trace gas concentrations (carbon dioxide and ozone). While sufficient spatial resolution is a problem even for measurements on distributed towers, this could be easily achieved with the HMMS, which has been specifically developed to obtain higher information density about horizontal gradients in a heterogeneous forest ecosystem. There, horizontal gradients of meteorological quantities and trace gases could be immense, particularly at the transition from a dense forest to an open clearing, with large impact on meteorological parameters and exchange processes. Consequently, HMMS was firstly applied during EGER IOP3 project (ExchanGE processes in mountainous Regions - Intense Observation Period 3) in the Fichtelgebirge Mountains (SE Germany) during summer 2011. At a constant 1 m above ground, the measuring track of the HMMS consisted of a straight line perpendicular to the forest edge, starting in the dense spruce forest and leading 75 m into an open clearing. Tags with bar codes, mounted every meter on the wooden substructure, allowed (a) keeping the speed of the HMMS constant (approx. 0.5 m s-1) and (b) operation of the HMMS in a continuous back and forth running mode. During EGER IOP3, HMMS was operational for almost 250 h. Results show that - due to considerably long response times (between 4 s and 20 s) of commercial temperature, humidity and the radiation sensors - true spatial variations of the meteorological quantities could not be adequately captured (mainly at the forest edge). Corresponding dynamical (spatial) errors of the measurement values were corrected on the basis of well defined individual response times of the sensors and application of a linear correction algorithm. Due to the very short response times (? 1 s) of the applied commercial CO2 and O3 analysers, dynamical errors for the trace gas data were negligible and no corrections were done.

  11. The Statistical and Physical Properties of the Low Redshift Lyman Alpha Forest Observed with HST/STIS

    E-print Network

    Davé, R; Dav\\'e, Romeel; Tripp, Todd M.

    2001-01-01

    We examine the Ly-alpha absorber population at zquasar spectra drawn from a cosmological hydrodynamic simulation of a Lambda-CDM universe. We find very good agreement in the column density and b-parameter distributions, down to the smallest observable absorbers with N_HI\\approx 10^{12.3} cm^-2. The observed absorber population is complete for N_HI\\ga 10^{13} cm^-2, with a column density distribution slope of \\beta=2.04\\pm 0.23 and a median b-parameter of 21 km/s above this limit. The intergalactic gas giving rise to these weak absorbers is analogous to that at high redshift, located in diffuse large-scale structures that are highly photoionized by the metagalactic UV flux, though a greater number arise within shock-heated warm gas. The density, temperature, and column density of the...

  12. HIGH-PRESSURE PHYSICS. Direct observation of an abrupt insulator-to-metal transition in dense liquid deuterium.

    PubMed

    Knudson, M D; Desjarlais, M P; Becker, A; Lemke, R W; Cochrane, K R; Savage, M E; Bliss, D E; Mattsson, T R; Redmer, R

    2015-06-26

    Eighty years ago, it was proposed that solid hydrogen would become metallic at sufficiently high density. Despite numerous investigations, this transition has not yet been experimentally observed. More recently, there has been much interest in the analog of this predicted metallic transition in the dense liquid, due to its relevance to planetary science. Here, we show direct observation of an abrupt insulator-to-metal transition in dense liquid deuterium. Experimental determination of the location of this transition provides a much-needed benchmark for theory and may constrain the region of hydrogen-helium immiscibility and the boundary-layer pressure in standard models of the internal structure of gas-giant planets. PMID:26113719

  13. Observation and manipulation of subsurface hydride in Pd{111} and its effect on surface chemical, physical, and electronic properties

    PubMed Central

    Sykes, E. Charles H.; Fernández-Torres, Luis C.; Nanayakkara, Sanjini U.; Mantooth, Brent A.; Nevin, Ryan M.; Weiss, Paul S.

    2005-01-01

    We report the observation and manipulation of hydrogen atoms beneath the surface of a Pd{111} crystal by using low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy. These subsurface hydride sites have been postulated to have critical roles in hydrogen storage, metal embrittlement, fuel cells, and catalytic reactions, but they have been neither observed directly nor selectively populated previously. We demonstrate that the subsurface region of Pd can be populated with hydrogen atoms from the bulk by applying voltage pulses from a scanning tunneling microscope tip. This phenomenon is explained with an inelastic excitation mechanism, whereby hydrogen atoms in the bulk are excited by tunneling electrons and are promoted to more stable sites in the subsurface region. We show that this selectively placed subsurface hydride affects the electronic, geometric, and chemical properties of the surface. Specifically, we observed the effects of hydride formation on surface deformation and charge and on adsorbed hydrogen on the surface. Hydrogen segregation and overlayer vacancy ordering on the Pd{111} have been characterized and explained in terms of the surface changes attributable to selective hydrogen occupation of subsurface hydride sites in Pd{111}. PMID:16322103

  14. Observation and manipulation of subsurface hydride in Pd[111] and its effect on surface chemical, physical, and electronic properties.

    PubMed

    Sykes, E Charles H; Fernández-Torres, Luis C; Nanayakkara, Sanjini U; Mantooth, Brent A; Nevin, Ryan M; Weiss, Paul S

    2005-12-13

    We report the observation and manipulation of hydrogen atoms beneath the surface of a Pd[111] crystal by using low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy. These subsurface hydride sites have been postulated to have critical roles in hydrogen storage, metal embrittlement, fuel cells, and catalytic reactions, but they have been neither observed directly nor selectively populated previously. We demonstrate that the subsurface region of Pd can be populated with hydrogen atoms from the bulk by applying voltage pulses from a scanning tunneling microscope tip. This phenomenon is explained with an inelastic excitation mechanism, whereby hydrogen atoms in the bulk are excited by tunneling electrons and are promoted to more stable sites in the subsurface region. We show that this selectively placed subsurface hydride affects the electronic, geometric, and chemical properties of the surface. Specifically, we observed the effects of hydride formation on surface deformation and charge and on adsorbed hydrogen on the surface. Hydrogen segregation and overlayer vacancy ordering on the Pd[111] have been characterized and explained in terms of the surface changes attributable to selective hydrogen occupation of subsurface hydride sites in Pd[111]. PMID:16322103

  15. The effects of single-session music therapy interventions on the observed and self-reported levels of pain control, physical comfort, and relaxation of hospice patients.

    PubMed

    Krout, R E

    2001-01-01

    This article describes the process and results of a three-month music therapy clinical effectiveness study conducted with terminally ill patients. The purpose of this study was to quantify and evaluate the effectiveness of single-session music therapy interventions with hospice patients in three patient problem areas: pain control; physical comfort; and relaxation. Data from a total of 90 sessions conducted with a total of 80 subjects served by Hospice of Palm Beach County, Florida, were included in the study. Music therapy services were provided by five board-certified music therapists and one music therapist eligible for board certification. The subjects in this study were receiving regularly scheduled music therapy services from the hospice organization. The study used both behavioral observation and subject's self-reporting as methods of data reporting and recording. Subjects were observed for, or self-reported, their levels of pain control, physical comfort, and relaxation, both before and after each music therapy session. The subjects were served in the environments where music therapy services would normally be delivered (i.e., home, hospital, nursing home, or inpatient acute-care unit of the hospice organization). Music therapy services included live active and passive music-based experiences. These were designed to build and to establish rapport with patient or family, to facilitate family interaction and patient control, to provide support and comfort, to facilitate relaxation, to enable reminiscence and life review, to provide a frame-work for spiritual exploration and validation, and to encourage the identification and expression of feelings of anticipatory mourning and grief. A total of six hypotheses stated that there would be significant pre- to postsession differences in each of the three variables: pain control, physical comfort, and relaxation, as measured during two different session and data collection scenarios. These scenarios included the independent observation and recording of the three subject variables and the subject's self-report of each variable. Reliability correlation coefficients were calculated for each of the different session and data-collection scenarios to help assess the correlation between primary and reliability observers. Pearson product moment correlations indicated reliability agreement coefficients of r = .85 and r = .90. One-tailed t-tests were performed on the collected data for subject pain control, physical comfort, and relaxation. Results of the t-tests were significant at the p < or = .001 (for observed pain control, physical comfort, and relaxation) and p < or = 005 (for self-reported pain control, physical comfort, and relaxation) levels. These results suggest that single-session music therapy interventions appear to be effective in increasing subject pain control, physical comfort, and relaxation during both data collection scenarios. Based on the results of these tests of the analyzed data, the hypotheses were all accepted. Tables illustrate pre- to post-session changes in levels of all three variables from both session and data-collection scenarios. Copies of the data-collection forms are also included in the Appendix. The discussion section addresses limitations of this study and suggestions for future studies. PMID:11712719

  16. The Statistical and Physical Properties of the Low Redshift Lyman Alpha Forest Observed with HST/STIS

    E-print Network

    Romeel Davé; Todd M. Tripp

    2001-06-26

    We examine the Ly-alpha absorber population at zquasar spectra drawn from a cosmological hydrodynamic simulation of a Lambda-CDM universe. We find very good agreement in the column density and b-parameter distributions, down to the smallest observable absorbers with N_HI\\approx 10^{12.3} cm^-2. The observed absorber population is complete for N_HI\\ga 10^{13} cm^-2, with a column density distribution slope of \\beta=2.04\\pm 0.23 and a median b-parameter of 21 km/s above this limit. The intergalactic gas giving rise to these weak absorbers is analogous to that at high redshift, located in diffuse large-scale structures that are highly photoionized by the metagalactic UV flux, though a greater number arise within shock-heated warm gas. The density, temperature, and column density of these absorbers follow similar relationships to those at high redshift, though with substantially larger scatter due to the shock-heated gas. The b-parameters typically have a significant contribution from thermal broadening, which facilitates a measurement of the low-z IGM temperature as traced by Ly-alpha absorbers. From our simulation we estimate T_IGM\\sim 5000 K, with an upper limit of 10^4 K, at the mean density. The agreement in predicted and observed amplitude of the column density distributions allows us to measure the HI photoionization rate at z=0.17 to be 10^{-13.3\\pm 0.7} s^{-1} (estimated modeling uncertainty), close to predictions based on quasar properties.

  17. Skylab experiments. Volume 5: Astronomy and space physics. [Skylab observations of galactic radiation, solar energy, and interplanetary composition for high school level education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The astronomy and space physics investigations conducted in the Skylab program include over 20 experiments in four categories to explore space phenomena that cannot be observed from earth. The categories of space research are as follows: (1) phenomena within the solar system, such as the effect of solar energy on Earth's atmosphere, the composition of interplanetary space, the possibility of an inner planet, and the X-ray radiation from Jupiter, (2) analysis of energetic particles such as cosmic rays and neutrons in the near-earth space, (3) stellar and galactic astronomy, and (4) self-induced environment surrounding the Skylab spacecraft.

  18. Probing viscoelastic surfaces with bimodal tapping-mode atomic force microscopy: Underlying physics and observables for a standard linear solid model

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Summary This paper presents computational simulations of single-mode and bimodal atomic force microscopy (AFM) with particular focus on the viscoelastic interactions occurring during tip–sample impact. The surface is modeled by using a standard linear solid model, which is the simplest system that can reproduce creep compliance and stress relaxation, which are fundamental behaviors exhibited by viscoelastic surfaces. The relaxation of the surface in combination with the complexities of bimodal tip–sample impacts gives rise to unique dynamic behaviors that have important consequences with regards to the acquisition of quantitative relationships between the sample properties and the AFM observables. The physics of the tip–sample interactions and its effect on the observables are illustrated and discussed, and a brief research outlook on viscoelasticity measurement with intermittent-contact AFM is provided. PMID:25383277

  19. 16 CFR 300.28 - Undetermined quantities of reclaimed fibers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Undetermined quantities of reclaimed fibers. 300.28 Section 300.28 ...Undetermined quantities of reclaimed fibers. (a) Where a wool product is composed in part of various man-made fibers recovered from textile products...

  20. 16 CFR 300.28 - Undetermined quantities of reclaimed fibers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Undetermined quantities of reclaimed fibers. 300.28 Section 300.28 ...Undetermined quantities of reclaimed fibers. (a) Where a wool product is composed in part of various man-made fibers recovered from textile products...

  1. 10 CFR 26.109 - Urine specimen quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Urine specimen quantity. 26.109 Section 26.109 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.109 Urine specimen quantity. (a)...

  2. 7 CFR 1430.207 - Dairy operation payment quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dairy operation payment quantity. 1430.207...LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS DAIRY PRODUCTS Milk Income Loss Contract Program § 1430.207 Dairy operation payment quantity....

  3. 7 CFR 760.1307 - Dairy operation payment quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dairy operation payment quantity. 760.1307...PROGRAMS INDEMNITY PAYMENT PROGRAMS Dairy Economic Loss Assistance Payment Program § 760.1307 Dairy operation payment quantity....

  4. Category 3 threshold quantities for hazard categorization of nonreactor facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Mandigo, R.L.

    1996-02-13

    This document provides the information necessary to determine Hazard Category 3 threshold quantities for those isotopes of interest not listed in WHC-CM-4-46, Section 4, Table 1.''Threshold Quantities.''

  5. 48 CFR 16.504 - Indefinite-quantity contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...on market research, trends on recent contracts for similar supplies or services, survey of potential users, or any other rational basis. (2) To ensure that the contract is binding, the minimum quantity must be more than a nominal quantity, but...

  6. 7 CFR 1207.511 - Determination of assessable quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Rules and Regulations Assessments § 1207.511 Determination of assessable quantity. The assessable quantity of potatoes in any lot shall be determined on the basis...

  7. 7 CFR 1207.511 - Determination of assessable quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Rules and Regulations Assessments § 1207.511 Determination of assessable quantity. The assessable quantity of potatoes in any lot shall be determined on the basis...

  8. 7 CFR 1207.511 - Determination of assessable quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Rules and Regulations Assessments § 1207.511 Determination of assessable quantity. The assessable quantity of potatoes in any lot shall be determined on the basis...

  9. 7 CFR 1207.511 - Determination of assessable quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Rules and Regulations Assessments § 1207.511 Determination of assessable quantity. The assessable quantity of potatoes in any lot shall be determined on the basis...

  10. The OSIRIS-REx target asteroid (101955) Bennu: Constraints on its physical, geological, and dynamical nature from astronomical observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauretta, D. S.; Bartels, A. E.; Barucci, M. A.; Bierhaus, E. B.; Binzel, R. P.; Bottke, W. F.; Campins, H.; Chesley, S. R.; Clark, B. C.; Clark, B. E.; Cloutis, E. A.; Connolly, H. C.; Crombie, M. K.; Delbó, M.; Dworkin, J. P.; Emery, J. P.; Glavin, D. P.; Hamilton, V. E.; Hergenrother, C. W.; Johnson, C. L.; Keller, L. P.; Michel, P.; Nolan, M. C.; Sandford, S. A.; Scheeres, D. J.; Simon, A. A.; Sutter, B. M.; Vokrouhlický, D.; Walsh, K. J.

    2015-04-01

    We review the results of an extensive campaign to determine the physical, geological, and dynamical properties of asteroid (101955) Bennu. This investigation provides information on the orbit, shape, mass, rotation state, radar response, photometric, spectroscopic, thermal, regolith, and environmental properties of Bennu. We combine these data with cosmochemical and dynamical models to develop a hypothetical timeline for Bennu's formation and evolution. We infer that Bennu is an ancient object that has witnessed over 4.5 Gyr of solar system history. Its chemistry and mineralogy were established within the first 10 Myr of the solar system. It likely originated as a discrete asteroid in the inner Main Belt approximately 0.7-2 Gyr ago as a fragment from the catastrophic disruption of a large (approximately 100-km), carbonaceous asteroid. It was delivered to near-Earth space via a combination of Yarkovsky-induced drift and interaction with giant-planet resonances. During its journey, YORP processes and planetary close encounters modified Bennu's spin state, potentially reshaping and resurfacing the asteroid. We also review work on Bennu's future dynamical evolution and constrain its ultimate fate. It is one of the most Potentially Hazardous Asteroids with an approximately 1-in-2700 chance of impacting the Earth in the late 22nd century. It will most likely end its dynamical life by falling into the Sun. The highest probability for a planetary impact is with Venus, followed by the Earth. There is a chance that Bennu will be ejected from the inner solar system after a close encounter with Jupiter. OSIRIS-REx will return samples from the surface of this intriguing asteroid in September 2023.

  11. Volcanoes triggered by dynamic and static stress changes in Chile: Observations, stress field changes and physical modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaete, Ayleen; Walter, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Evidence is increasing that subduction zone earthquakes may influence the volcanic activity along a volcanic arc. The processes of triggering, however, are not clear. In a commonly discussed concept, changes of the crustal stress field may affect intrusive bodies under volcano, open magma pathways and faults, and decompress a magma-fluid system. Other concepts focus on the dynamic passage of seismic waves, inducing bubble growth and ascent as well as fluid migration. Volcanoes in the south and central Andes have a century long documented history of earthquake - eruption interactions. Numerous subduction earthquakes were followed by more and unexpected volcano eruptions, which is why we here concentrate our research on this particular area. The most recent major subduction earthquake occurred on April 1st, 2014, close to the coast of northern Chile. During this event we had volcano monitoring stations located at several active volcanoes and fumarole sites, as well as at on of the largest geyser fields of the world, all located within 500 km distance to the earthquake epicenter. Here we present preliminary results describing if and how those monitored volcano sites showed activity level changes, which is an opportunity to study the influence of earthquakes over active and dormant volcanoes. After analysis of the date we computed the static strain and stress field in the overriding plate and at the sites of the volcanoes. In addition we design physical models that allow to study not only the effects of static stress changes and dilatation on fluid paths, but also the effect of dynamic processes. To this aim we simulate real seismic waveforms on a shaking table hosting an analogue volcano, and discuss under which situations magma paths and ascent rates are augmented and hindered by the subduction earthquake. Results are transferrable to other subduction related volcano-earthquake interactions and may allow better understanding of the processes of static and dynamic triggering.

  12. Physical activity in people with asbestos related pleural disease and dust-related interstitial lung disease: An observational study.

    PubMed

    Dale, Marita T; McKeough, Zoe J; Munoz, Phillip A; Corte, Peter; Bye, Peter Tp; Alison, Jennifer A

    2015-11-01

    This study aimed to measure the levels of physical activity (PA) in people with dust-related pleural and interstitial lung diseases and to compare these levels of PA to a healthy population. There is limited data on PA in this patient population and no previous studies have compared PA in people with dust-related respiratory diseases to a healthy control group. Participants with a diagnosis of a dust-related respiratory disease including asbestosis and asbestos related pleural disease (ARPD) and a healthy age- and gender-matched population wore the SenseWear(®) Pro3 armband for 9 days. Six-minute walk distance, Medical Outcomes Study 36-item short-form health survey and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale were also measured. Fifty participants were recruited and 46 completed the study; 22 with ARPD, 10 with dust-related interstitial lung disease (ILD) and 14 healthy age-matched participants. The mean (standard deviation) steps/day were 6097 (1939) steps/day for dust-related ILD, 9150 (3392) steps/day for ARPD and 10,630 (3465) steps/day for healthy participants. Compared with the healthy participants, dust-related ILD participants were significantly less active as measured by steps/day ((mean difference 4533 steps/day (95% confidence interval (CI): 1888-7178)) and energy expenditure, ((mean difference 512 calories (95% CI: 196-827)) and spent significantly less time engaging in moderate, vigorous or very vigorous activities (i.e. >3 metabolic equivalents; mean difference 1.2 hours/day (95% CI: 0.4-2.0)). There were no differences in levels of PA between healthy participants and those with ARPD. PA was reduced in people with dust-related ILD but not those with ARPD when compared with healthy age and gender-matched individuals. PMID:26048393

  13. Plasma physical parameters along coronal-mass-ejection-driven shocks. I. Ultraviolet and white-light observations

    SciTech Connect

    Bemporad, A.; Susino, R.; Lapenta, G.

    2014-04-01

    In this work, UV and white-light (WL) coronagraphic data are combined to derive the full set of plasma physical parameters along the front of a shock driven by a coronal mass ejection. Pre-shock plasma density, shock compression ratio, speed, and inclination angle are estimated from WL data, while pre-shock plasma temperature and outflow velocity are derived from UV data. The Rankine-Hugoniot (RH) equations for the general case of an oblique shock are then applied at three points along the front located between 2.2 and 2.6 R {sub ?} at the shock nose and at the two flanks. Stronger field deflection (by ?46°), plasma compression (factor ?2.7), and heating (factor ?12) occur at the nose, while heating at the flanks is more moderate (factor 1.5-3.0). Starting from a pre-shock corona where protons and electrons have about the same temperature (T{sub p} ? T{sub e} ? 1.5 × 10{sup 6} K), temperature increases derived with RH equations could better represent the proton heating (by dissipation across the shock), while the temperature increase implied by adiabatic compression (factor ?2 at the nose, ?1.2-1.5 at the flanks) could be more representative of electron heating: the transit of the shock causes a decoupling between electron and proton temperatures. Derived magnetic field vector rotations imply a draping of field lines around the expanding flux rope. The shock turns out to be super-critical (sub-critical) at the nose (at the flanks), where derived post-shock plasma parameters can be very well approximated with those derived by assuming a parallel (perpendicular) shock.

  14. Physical activity levels and torso orientations of hospitalized patients at risk of developing a pressure injury: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Chaboyer, Wendy; Mills, Peter M; Roberts, Shelley; Latimer, Sharon

    2015-02-01

    Pressure injury guidelines recommend regular repositioning yet patients' mobility and repositioning patterns are unknown. An observational study using activity monitors was undertaken to describe the 24?h activity patterns of 84 hospitalized patients at risk of developing a pressure injury. The vast majority of participants' time was spent in the sedentary activity range (94%?±?3%) followed by the light range (5%?±?4 %). Patients changed their posture a median of 94 (interquartile range 48) time in the 24-h period (range 11-154), or ??3.8 times per hour. Although a main focus for pressure injury prevention has been on repositioning, this study shows that patients with restricted mobility are actually moving quite often. Therefore, it might be appropriate to focus more attention on other pressure injury prevention strategies such as adequate nutrition, appropriate support surfaces and good skin care. PMID:24118408

  15. Anatomy of the AGN in NGC 5548. II. The spatial, temporal, and physical nature of the outflow from HST/COS Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arav, N.; Chamberlain, C.; Kriss, G. A.; Kaastra, J. S.; Cappi, M.; Mehdipour, M.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Steenbrugge, K. C.; Behar, E.; Bianchi, S.; Boissay, R.; Branduardi-Raymont, G.; Costantini, E.; Ely, J. C.; Ebrero, J.; di Gesu, L.; Harrison, F. A.; Kaspi, S.; Malzac, J.; De Marco, B.; Matt, G.; Nandra, K. P.; Paltani, S.; Peterson, B. M.; Pinto, C.; Ponti, G.; Pozo Nuñez, F.; De Rosa, A.; Seta, H.; Ursini, F.; de Vries, C. P.; Walton, D. J.; Whewell, M.

    2015-05-01

    Context. AGN outflows are thought to influence the evolution of their host galaxies and of super massive black holes. Our deep multiwavelength campaign on NGC 5548 has revealed a new, unusually strong X-ray obscuration, accompanied by broad UV absorption troughs observed for the first time in this object. The X-ray obscuration caused a dramatic decrease in the incident ionizing flux on the outflow that produces the long-studied narrow UV absorption lines in this AGN. The resulting data allowed us to construct a comprehensive physical, spatial, and temporal picture for this enduring AGN wind. Aims: We aim to determine the distance of the narrow UV outflow components from the central source, their total column-density, and the mechanism responsible for their observed absorption variability. Methods: We study the UV spectra acquired during the campaign, as well as from four previous epochs (1998-2011). Our main analysis tools are ionic column-density extraction techniques, photoionization models based on the code CLOUDY, and collisional excitation simulations. Results: A simple model based on a fixed total column-density absorber, reacting to changes in ionizing illumination, matches the very different ionization states seen in five spectroscopic epochs spanning 16 years. The main component of the enduring outflow is situated at 3.5 ± 1.1 pc from the central source, and its distance and number density are similar to those of the narrow-emitting-line region in this object. Three other components are situated between 5-70 pc and two are farther than 100 pc. The wealth of observational constraints and the anti-correlation between the observed X-ray and UV flux in the 2002 and 2013 epochs make our physical model a leading contender for interpreting trough variability data of quasar outflows. Conclusions: This campaign, in combination with prior UV and X-ray data, yields the first simple model that can explain the physical characteristics and the substantial variability observed in an AGN outflow. Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  16. 48 CFR 1852.214-72 - Full quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Full quantities. 1852.214... 1852.214-72 Full quantities. As prescribed in 1814.201-670(b), insert the following provision: Full... made on full quantities. (End of provision)...

  17. 41 CFR 101-27.102 - Economic order quantity principle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Economic order quantity... MANAGEMENT 27.1-Stock Replenishment § 101-27.102 Economic order quantity principle. The economic order quantity (EOQ) principle is a means for achieving economical inventory management. Application of the...

  18. 41 CFR 101-27.102 - Economic order quantity principle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2011-07-01 2007-07-01 true Economic order quantity... MANAGEMENT 27.1-Stock Replenishment § 101-27.102 Economic order quantity principle. The economic order quantity (EOQ) principle is a means for achieving economical inventory management. Application of the...

  19. 48 CFR 52.211-18 - Variation in Estimated Quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Variation in Estimated Quantity. 52.211-18 Section...Clauses 52.211-18 Variation in Estimated Quantity. As prescribed in 11...contemplated that authorizes a variation in the estimated quantity of unit-priced items:...

  20. 48 CFR 852.216-70 - Estimated quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Estimated quantities. 852.216-70 Section...Provisions and Clauses 852.216-70 Estimated quantities. As prescribed in 816.504(a), insert the following clause: Estimated Quantities (APR 1984)...

  1. 48 CFR 852.216-70 - Estimated quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Estimated quantities. 852... Estimated quantities. As prescribed in 816.504(a), insert the following clause: Estimated Quantities (APR... percent of the estimated requirement or which provide that the Government shall guarantee any...

  2. 48 CFR 52.211-18 - Variation in Estimated Quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Variation in Estimated....211-18 Variation in Estimated Quantity. As prescribed in 11.703(c), insert the following clause in... in the estimated quantity of unit-priced items: Variation in Estimated Quantity (APR 1984) If...

  3. 43 CFR 3430.1-2 - Commercial quantities defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Commercial quantities defined. 3430.1-2... Leases § 3430.1-2 Commercial quantities defined. For the purpose of § 3430.1-1 of this title, commercial quantities is defined as follows: (a) The coal deposit discovered under the prospecting permit shall be...

  4. 43 CFR 3430.1-2 - Commercial quantities defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Commercial quantities defined. 3430.1-2... Leases § 3430.1-2 Commercial quantities defined. For the purpose of § 3430.1-1 of this title, commercial quantities is defined as follows: (a) The coal deposit discovered under the prospecting permit shall be...

  5. 43 CFR 3430.1-2 - Commercial quantities defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Commercial quantities defined. 3430.1-2... Leases § 3430.1-2 Commercial quantities defined. For the purpose of § 3430.1-1 of this title, commercial quantities is defined as follows: (a) The coal deposit discovered under the prospecting permit shall be...

  6. 43 CFR 3430.1-2 - Commercial quantities defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Commercial quantities defined. 3430.1-2... Leases § 3430.1-2 Commercial quantities defined. For the purpose of § 3430.1-1 of this title, commercial quantities is defined as follows: (a) The coal deposit discovered under the prospecting permit shall be...

  7. Construct validity of the Chelsea critical care physical assessment tool: an observational study of recovery from critical illness

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Intensive care unit-acquired weakness (ICU-AW) is common in survivors of critical illness, resulting in global weakness and functional deficit. Although ICU-AW is well described subjectively in the literature, the value of objective measures has yet to be established. This project aimed to evaluate the construct validity of the Chelsea Critical Care Physical Assessment tool (CPAx) by analyzing the association between CPAx scores and hospital-discharge location, as a measure of functional outcome. Methods The CPAx was integrated into practice as a service-improvement initiative in an 11-bed intensive care unit (ICU). For patients admitted for more than 48 hours, between 10 May 2010 and 13 November 2013, the last CPAx score within 24 hours of step down from the ICU or death was recorded (n?=?499). At hospital discharge, patients were separated into seven categories, based on continued rehabilitation and care needs. Descriptive statistics were used to explore the association between ICU discharge CPAx score and hospital-discharge location. Results Of the 499 patients, 171 (34.3%) returned home with no ongoing rehabilitation or care input; 131 (26.2%) required community support; 28 (5.6%) went to inpatient rehabilitation for <6 weeks; and 25 (5.0%) went to inpatient rehabilitation for >6 weeks; 27 (5.4%) required nursing home level of care; 80 (16.0%) died in the ICU, and 37 (7.4%) died in hospital. A significant difference was found in the median CPAx score between groups (P?

  8. Physical processes of thermokarst lakes in the continuous permafrost zone of northern Siberia - observations and modeling (Lena River Delta, Siberia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boike, J.; Georgi, C.; Kirilin, G.; Muster, S.; Abramova, K.; Fedorova, I.; Chetverova, A.; Grigoriev, M.; Bornemann, N.; Langer, M.

    2015-04-01

    The thermal regimes of five lakes located within the continuous permafrost zone of northern Siberia (Lena River Delta) have been investigated using hourly water temperature and water level records covering a three year period (2009-2012), together with bathymetric survey data. The lakes included thermokarst lakes located on Holocene river terraces that may be connected to Lena River water during spring flooding, and a thermokarst lake located on deposits of the Pleistocene Ice Complex. The data were used for numerical modeling with FLake software, and also to determine the physical indices of the lakes. The lakes vary in area, depths and volumes. The winter thermal regime is characterized by an ice cover up to 2 m thick that survives for more than 7 months of the year, from October until about mid-June. Lake-bottom temperatures increase at the start of the ice-covered period due to upward-directed heat flux from the underlying thawed sediment. The effects of solar radiation return prior to ice break-up, effectively warming the water beneath the ice cover and inducing convective mixing. Ice break-up starts the beginning of June and takes until the middle or end of June for completion. Mixing occurs within the entire water column from the start of ice break-up and continues during the ice-free periods, as confirmed by the Wedderburn numbers. Some of the lakes located closest to the Lena River are subjected to varying levels of spring flooding with river water, on an annual basis. Numerical modeling using FLake software indicates that the vertical heat flux across the bottom sediment tends towards an annual mean of zero, with maximum downward fluxes of about 5 W m-2 in summer and with heat released back into the water column at a~rate of less than 1 W m-2 during the ice-covered period. The lakes are shown to be efficient heat absorbers and effectively distribute the heat through mixing. Monthly bottom water temperatures during the ice-free period range up to 15 °C and are therefore higher than the associated monthly air or ground temperatures in the surrounding frozen permafrost landscape. The investigated lakes remain unfrozen at depth, with mean annual lake-bottom temperatures of between 2.7 and 4 °C. The data are available in the Supplement for this paper and through the PANGAEA website (http://www.pangaea.de/).

  9. Observations and physical interpretations of the solar wind flow properties as obtained from white light coronagraph aboard SPARTAN 201-01

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guhathakurta, Madhulika; Fisher, Richard; Ofman, Leon

    1995-01-01

    The solar corona was observed with an externally occulted White Light Coronagraph (WLC) carried on the SPARTAN 201-1 spacecraft on 11-12 Apr. 1993. With observations from WLC and the ground based Mauna Loa White Light Coronagraph, a large number of polar plumes both in the north and south polar holes were traced from 1.16 to 5.5 Rs. Flow properties of the solar wind in coronal holes have been determined (Habbal et al., 1995) by using a two fluid model constrained by density profiles and scale height temperatures from the white light observations, and interplanetary measurements of the flow speed and proton mass flux from Ulysses' south polar passage. Provisions for acceleration by Alfven waves, as well as electron and proton heating, are included in the momentum and the energy equations respectively. The model computations fit remarkably well the empirical constraints of the two different density structures (plumes and coronal holes) for a range of input parameters. In this study we investigate the physical nature of the heating function used in the two-fluid model. Alfven waves have been suggested as the possible source of heating that accelerates the solar wind (Ofman and Davila, 1995). We utilize the density contrast observed in WLC data in the plume and ambient coronal hole region to estimate the Alfven wave frequencies responsible for heating these structures. The source heating function utilized in the two fluid model of the solar wind acceleration will be compared with the resonant Alfven wave heating function.

  10. Comparison of self-report, video observation and direct measurement methods for upper extremity musculoskeletal disorder physical risk factors.

    PubMed

    Spielholz, P; Silverstein, B; Morgan, M; Checkoway, H; Kaufman, J

    2001-05-15

    The prevention of work-related musculoskeletal disorders has become a national priority in many countries. Increasingly, attempts are made to quantify those exposures that increase risk in order to set exposure limit values. This study used commonly employed field measurement methods and tools in order to perform an inter-method comparison between three primary methods of risk factor exposure assessment: self-report questionnaires, observational video analysis and direct measurement. Extreme posture duration, repetition, hand force (estimated from electromyography) and movement velocity were assessed for 18 subjects while performing each of three jobs processing tree seedlings. Results indicated that self-reports were the least precise assessment method, which consistently overestimated exposures for each of the measured risk factors. However, adjustment of the reports as psychophysical scales may increase agreement on a group level. Wrist flexion/extension duration and repetition were best measured by electrogoniometer. Electrogoniometric measures of wrist deviation duration and frequency were less precise than video analysis. Forearm rotation duration and repetition, grip force and velocity appeared to be best quantified by direct measurement as measured by electrogoniometer and electromyography (EMG) (as root-mean-square amplitude). The results highlight the fact that it is as important to consider and report estimated measurement error in order to reduce potential exposure misclassification in epidemiologic studies. PMID:11373023

  11. A New Ground-Based Network for Synoptic Solar Observations: The Solar Physics Research Integrated Network Group (SPRING)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Frank; Roth, Markus; Thompson, Michael; Gusain, Sanjay

    2014-06-01

    SPRING is a project to develop a geographically distributed network of instrumentation to obtain synoptic solar observations. Building on the demonstrated success of networks to provide nearly-continuous long-term data for helioseismology, SPRING will provide data for a wide range of solar research areas. Scientific objectives include internal solar dynamics and structure; wave transport in the solar atmosphere; the evolution of the magnetic field over the activity cycle; irradiance fluctuations; and space weather origins. Anticipated data products include simultaneous full-disk multi-wavelength Doppler and vector magnetic field images; filtergrams in H-Alpha, CaK, and white light; and PSPT-type irradiance support. The data will be obtained with a duty cycle of around 90% and at a cadence no slower than one minute. The current concept is a multi-instrument platform installed in at least six locations, and which will also provide context information for large-aperture solar telescopes such as EST and the DKIST. There is wide support for the idea within the EU and the US solar research communities. The project is in the early planning stages, and we are open to and looking for participants in the science and instrument definition.

  12. Cardiac looping may be driven by compressive loads resulting from unequal growth of the heart and pericardial cavity. Observations on a physical simulation model

    PubMed Central

    Bayraktar, Meriç; Männer, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    The transformation of the straight embryonic heart tube into a helically wound loop is named cardiac looping. Such looping is regarded as an essential process in cardiac morphogenesis since it brings the building blocks of the developing heart into an approximation of their definitive topographical relationships. During the past two decades, a large number of genes have been identified which play important roles in cardiac looping. However, how genetic information is physically translated into the dynamic form changes of the looping heart is still poorly understood. The oldest hypothesis of cardiac looping mechanics attributes the form changes of the heart loop (ventral bending ? simple helical coiling ? complex helical coiling) to compressive loads resulting from growth differences between the heart and the pericardial cavity. In the present study, we have tested the physical plausibility of this hypothesis, which we call the growth-induced buckling hypothesis, for the first time. Using a physical simulation model, we show that growth-induced buckling of a straight elastic rod within the confined space of a hemispherical cavity can generate the same sequence of form changes as observed in the looping embryonic heart. Our simulation experiments have furthermore shown that, under bilaterally symmetric conditions, growth-induced buckling generates left- and right-handed helices (D-/L-loops) in a 1:1 ratio, while even subtle left- or rightward displacements of the caudal end of the elastic rod at the pre-buckling state are sufficient to direct the buckling process toward the generation of only D- or L-loops, respectively. Our data are discussed with respect to observations made in biological “models.” We conclude that compressive loads resulting from unequal growth of the heart and pericardial cavity play important roles in cardiac looping. Asymmetric positioning of the venous heart pole may direct these forces toward a biased generation of D- or L-loops. PMID:24772086

  13. The covariance matrix of derived quantities and their combination

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Z.; Perey, F.G.

    1992-06-01

    The covariance matrix of quantities derived from measured data via nonlinear relations are only approximate since they are functions of the measured data taken as estimates for the true values of the measured quantities. The evaluation of such derived quantities entails new estimates for the true values of the measured quantities and consequently implies a modification of the covariance matrix of the derived quantities that was used in the evaluation process. Failure to recognize such an implication can lead to inconsistencies between the results of different evaluation strategies. In this report we show that an iterative procedure can eliminate such inconsistencies.

  14. Observed changes in the physical environment and chemistry in the inner coma of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodewits, Dennis; Lara, Luisa M.; LaForgia, Fiorangela; A'Hearn, Michael F.; Knollenberg, Joerg; Lazzarin, Monica; Lin, Zhing-Yi; Shi, Xian

    2015-11-01

    The Optical, Spectroscopic, and Infrared Remote Imaging System (OSIRIS) on board Rosetta consists of two bore-sighted cameras (Keller et al. 2007). Its Wide Angle Camera includes narrow-band filters to image gaseous emission by CS, OH, NH, CN, NH2, Na, and [O I].OSIRIS monitored gas about once every two weeks for heliocentric distances greater than 2 AU and weekly afterward. Images were calibrated using the OSIRIS pipeline (Tubiana et al. 2015), and further processed to remove the continuum flux and the emission from other molecules with lines that fall within the narrowband filters’ passbands.Many collimated jets are visible in the continuum images (Lara et al. 2015; Lin et al. 2015). Those jets are not present in the gas images. The morphology of the gas images is either focused in a projected cone (OI, CN) or diffuse and roughly isotropic (OH, NH, CS, NH2). We interpret the first as the signature of prompt emission (where fragmentation of a molecule released from the nucleus directly produces a radical in an excited state), and the second as that of excitation of fragments species after they were formed.Surprisingly, up to the spring of 2015 all measured surface brightnesses are more than 10x higher than can be accounted for by formation and excitation processes as understood from remote sensing of comets. This changed in the summer of 2015 and current measurements are consistent with photodissociation and fluorescence rates. This change reflects the transition of 67P from a distant comet with extremely low gas production rates to conditions under which comets are normally observed.

  15. From Gauging Accuracy of Quantity Estimates to Gauging Accuracy and Resolution of

    E-print Network

    Kreinovich, Vladik

    Physical Fields Vladik Kreinovich1 and Irina Perfilieva2 1 University of Texas, El Paso, TX 79968, USA. In this paper, we discuss how to handle this additional uncertainty. 1 Formulation of the Problem Need for data, or in the amount of water in an underground water layer. Since we cannot measure the corresponding quantity y

  16. Social Support in Women with Fibromyalgia: Is Quality More Important than Quantity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franks, Heather M.; Cronan, Terry A.; Oliver, Karen

    2004-01-01

    The present study is an examination of the effects of quality and quantity of social support on the psychological and physical well-being of women with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). Participants were 568 women who were members of a health maintenance organization (HMO) with a confirmed diagnosis of FMS. Participants were administered a battery of…

  17. How to define physical properties of unstable particles

    E-print Network

    J. Gegelia; S. Scherer

    2009-10-22

    In the framework of effective quantum field theory we address the definition of physical quantities characterizing unstable particles. With the aid of a one-loop calculation, we study this issue in terms of the charge and the magnetic moment of a spin-1/2 resonance. By appealing to the invariance of physical observables under field redefinitions we demonstrate that physical properties of unstable particles should be extracted from the residues at complex (double) poles of the corresponding S-matrix.

  18. Inevitability of One Type of Universe, One Set of Physical Laws and Where to Observe Failed Inflation Events Within Our Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, Michael

    Starting from the simple premises of one size of fundamental building block, two types of energy and only three dimensions, it is shown that there can be no multiverses outside our universe, that some black holes are observable failed inflation events within our universe and that there can be only one underlying set of the laws of physics. These laws will be the same everywhere and fail nowhere. Composites formed from the building blocks during different inflation events can produce different sizes of fermions, nucleons and atoms, but a type of universe with symmetries similar to ours is the inevitable outcome of a successful inflation event. The building blocks provide the base for matter, anti-matter and dark matter in the same composite forms and show how the existence or otherwise of dark energy can be observed. Also explained are why only positive masses are observed, why some particle configurations and orbits are stable and what the terms `energy' and `inertia' really describe.

  19. Tracking of food quantity by coyotes (Canis latrans).

    PubMed

    Baker, Joseph M; Shivik, John; Jordan, Kerry E

    2011-10-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that Weber's Law mediates quantitative discrimination abilities across various species. Here, we tested coyotes' (Canis latrans) ability to discriminate between various quantities of food and investigated whether this ability conforms to predictions of Weber's Law. We demonstrate herein that coyotes are capable of reliably discriminating large versus small quantities of discrete food items. As predicted by Weber's Law, coyotes' quantitative discrimination abilities are mediated by the ratio between the large and small quantities of food and exhibit scalar variability. Furthermore, in this task coyotes were not discriminating large versus small quantities based on olfactory cues alone. PMID:21856389

  20. A new insight into the observation of spectroscopic strength reduction in atomic nuclei: implication for the physical meaning of spectroscopic factors

    E-print Network

    N. K. Timofeyuk

    2009-11-26

    Experimental studies of one nucleon knockout from magic nuclei suggest that their nucleon orbits are not fully occupied. This conflicts a commonly accepted view of the shell closure associated with such nuclei. The conflict can be reconciled if the overlap between initial and final nuclear states in a knockout reaction are calculated by a non-standard method. The method employs an inhomogeneous equation based on correlation-dependent effective nucleon-nucleon (NN) interactions and allows the simplest wave functions, in which all nucleons occupy only the lowest nuclear orbits, to be used. The method also reproduces the recently established relation between reduction of spectroscopic strength, observed in knockout reactions on other nuclei, and nucleon binding energies. The implication of the inhomogeneous equation method for the physical meaning of spectroscopic factors is discussed.

  1. Goddard Laboratory for Atmospheric Sciences physical retrieval system for remote determination of weather and climate parameter from HIRS2 and MSU observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susskind, J.

    1984-01-01

    At the Goddard Laboratory for Atmospheric Sciences (GLAS) a physically based satellite temperature sounding retrieval system, involving the simultaneous analysis of HIRS2 and MSU sounding data, was developed for determining atmospheric and surface conditions which are consistent with the observed radiances. In addition to determining accurate atmospheric temperature profiles even in the presence of cloud contamination, the system provides global estimates of day and night sea or land surface temperatures, snow and ice cover, and parameters related to cloud cover. Details of the system are described elsewhere. A brief overview of the system is presented, as well as recent improvements and previously unpublished results, relating to the sea-surface intercomparison workshop, the diurnal variation of ground temperatures, and forecast impact tests.

  2. Minimum quantity lubrication machining of aluminum and magnesium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhowmick, Sukanta

    2011-12-01

    The use of minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) machining, i.e. drilling and tapping of aluminum and magnesium alloys using very low quantities of cutting fluids was studied and the MQL machining performance was compared to dry and conventional flooded conditions. An experimental drilling station with an MQL system was built to measure torque and thrust force responses. Uncoated and diamond-like carbon (DLC) coated HSS drills were tested against 319 Al and AZ91 alloys using 10--50 ml/h of distilled water (H 2O-MQL) and a fatty acid based MQL agent (FA-MQL). The results indicated that H2O-MQL used in conjunction with non-hydrogenated DLC (NH-DLC) coatings reduced the average torque and thrust-force compared to dry cutting and achieved a performance comparable with conventional flooded drilling. At least 103 holes could be drilled using NH-DLC in H2O-MQL and uncoated HSS in FA-MQL in drilling of both 319 Al and AZ91. MQL drilling and tapping provided a stable machining performance, which was evident from the uniform torque and force patterns and also resulted in desirable hole surface, thread quality and chip segments. The maximum temperature generated in the workpiece during MQL machining was lower than that observed in dry drilling and tapping, and comparable to flooded conditions. The mechanical properties of the material adjacent to drilled holes, as evaluated through plastic strain and hardness measurements, revealed a notable softening in case of dry drilling, with magnesium alloys exhibiting a recrystallized grain zone, but not for MQL drilling. Softened aluminum and magnesium promoted adhesion to the tools resulted built-up edge formation and consequently high torques and thrust-forces were generated. NH-DLC coatings' low COF in H 2O-MQL against 319 Al (0.10) and AZ91 (0.12) compared to uncoated HSS (0.63 and 0.65) limited the temperature increase during NH-DLC in H2 O-MQL drilling and hence both torques and thrust forces were effectively reduced.

  3. AKARI OBSERVATIONS OF BROWN DWARFS. III. CO, CO{sub 2}, AND CH{sub 4} FUNDAMENTAL BANDS AND PHYSICAL PARAMETERS

    SciTech Connect

    Sorahana, S.; Yamamura, I.

    2012-12-01

    We investigate variations in the strengths of three molecular bands, CH{sub 4} at 3.3 {mu}m, CO at 4.6 {mu}m, and CO{sub 2} at 4.2 {mu}m, in 16 brown dwarf spectra obtained by AKARI. Spectral features are examined along the sequence of source classes from L1 to T8. We find that the CH{sub 4} 3.3 {mu}m band is present in the spectra of brown dwarfs later than L5, and the CO 4.6 {mu}m band appears in all spectral types. The CO{sub 2} absorption band at 4.2 {mu}m is detected in late-L and T-type dwarfs. To better understand brown dwarf atmospheres, we analyze the observed spectra using the Unified Cloudy Model. The physical parameters of the AKARI sample, i.e., atmospheric effective temperature T {sub eff}, surface gravity log g, and critical temperature T {sub cr}, are derived. We also model IRTF/SpeX and UKIRT/CGS4 spectra in addition to the AKARI data in order to derive the most probable physical parameters. Correlations between the spectral type and the modeled parameters are examined. We confirm that the spectral-type sequence of late-L dwarfs is not related to T {sub eff}, but instead originates as a result of the effect of dust.

  4. Analysis of the sensitivity of thermal infrared nadir satellite observations to the chemical and micro-physical properties of upper tropospheric-lower stratospheric sulphate aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sellitto, Pasquale; Sèze, Geneviève; Legras, Bernard

    2015-04-01

    Secondary sulphate aerosols are the predominant typology of aerosols in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UTLS), and can have an important impact on radiative transfer and climate, cirrus formation and chemistry in the UTLS. Despite their importance, the satellite observation at the regional scale of sulphate aerosols in the UTLS is limited. In this work, we address the sensitivity of the thermal infrared satellite observations to secondary sulphate aerosols in the UTLS. The absorption properties of sulphuric acid/water droplets, for different sulphuric acid mixing ratios and temperatures, are systematically analysed. The absorption coefficients are derived by means of a Mie code, using refractive indexes taken from the GEISA (Gestion et Etude des Informations Spectroscopiques Atmosphériques : Management and Study of Spectroscopic Information) spectroscopic database and log-normal size distributions with different effective radii and number concentrations. IASI (Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer) and SEVIRI (Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager) pseudo-observations are generated using forward radiative transfer calculations performed with the 4A (Automatized Atmospheric Absorption Atlas) radiative transfer model, to estimate the impact of the absorption of idealized aerosol layers, at typical UTLS conditions, on the radiance spectra observed by these simulated satellite instruments. We found a marked spectral signature of these aerosol layers between 700 and 1200 cm-1, due to the absorption bands of the sulphate and bi-sulphate ions and the undissociated sulphuric acid, with absorption peaks at 1170 and 905 cm-1. Micro-windows with a sensitivity to chemical and micro-physical properties of the sulphate aerosol layer are identified, and the role of interfering species, and temperature and water vapour profile is discussed.

  5. Estimation of Ability Level by Using Only Observable Quantities in Adaptive Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirisci, Levent; Hsu, Tse-Chi

    A predictive adaptive testing (PAT) strategy was developed based on statistical predictive analysis, and its feasibility was studied by comparing PAT performance to those of the Flexilevel, Bayesian modal, and expected a posteriori (EAP) strategies in a simulated environment. The proposed adaptive test is based on the idea of using item difficulty…

  6. 48 CFR 16.504 - Indefinite-quantity contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Indefinite-quantity contracts. 16.504 Section 16.504 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Indefinite-Delivery Contracts 16.504 Indefinite-quantity contracts. (a) Description....

  7. 48 CFR 1852.214-72 - Full quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Full quantities. 1852.214-72 Section 1852.214-72 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 1852.214-72 Full quantities. As prescribed...

  8. 48 CFR 1852.214-72 - Full quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Full quantities. 1852.214-72 Section 1852.214-72 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 1852.214-72 Full quantities. As prescribed...

  9. 48 CFR 1852.214-72 - Full quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Full quantities. 1852.214-72 Section 1852.214-72 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 1852.214-72 Full quantities. As prescribed...

  10. 48 CFR 1852.214-72 - Full quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Full quantities. 1852.214-72 Section 1852.214-72 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 1852.214-72 Full quantities. As prescribed...

  11. 30 CFR 36.45 - Quantity of ventilating air.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Quantity of ventilating air. 36.45 Section 36... TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT Test Requirements § 36.45 Quantity of ventilating air. (a) Results of the engine tests shall be used to calculate ventilation (cubic feet of air per minute) that shall be supplied by...

  12. 7 CFR 1434.9 - Determination of quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS FOR HONEY § 1434.9 Determination of quantity. The amount of a marketing assistance loan and loan... the producer and verified by the county office representative for honey on Form CCC-633 (Honey) that is eligible to be pledged as security for the loan or LDP Estimates of the quantity of honey shall...

  13. 14 CFR 25.1553 - Fuel quantity indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel quantity indicator. 25.1553 Section 25.1553 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Placards § 25.1553 Fuel quantity indicator. If the unusable fuel supply for any tank exceeds one gallon,...

  14. 14 CFR 23.1553 - Fuel quantity indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel quantity indicator. 23.1553 Section 23.1553 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Information Markings and Placards § 23.1553 Fuel quantity indicator. A red radial line must be marked on...

  15. 41 CFR 109-27.102 - Economic order quantity principle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Economic order quantity principle. 109-27.102 Section 109-27.102 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... PROCUREMENT 27-INVENTORY MANAGEMENT 27.1-Stock Replenishment § 109-27.102 Economic order quantity principle....

  16. 41 CFR 109-27.102 - Economic order quantity principle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Economic order quantity principle. 109-27.102 Section 109-27.102 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... PROCUREMENT 27-INVENTORY MANAGEMENT 27.1-Stock Replenishment § 109-27.102 Economic order quantity principle....

  17. 10 CFR 40.22 - Small quantities of source material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Small quantities of source material. 40.22 Section 40.22 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SOURCE MATERIAL General Licenses § 40.22 Small quantities of source material. (a) A general license is hereby issued authorizing commercial and industrial firms, research, educational...

  18. 10 CFR 40.22 - Small quantities of source material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Small quantities of source material. 40.22 Section 40.22 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SOURCE MATERIAL General Licenses § 40.22 Small quantities of source material. (a) A general license is hereby issued authorizing commercial and industrial firms, research, educational...

  19. 10 CFR 40.22 - Small quantities of source material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Small quantities of source material. 40.22 Section 40.22 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SOURCE MATERIAL General Licenses § 40.22 Small quantities of source material. (a) A general license is hereby issued authorizing commercial and industrial firms, research, educational...

  20. 10 CFR 40.22 - Small quantities of source material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Small quantities of source material. 40.22 Section 40.22 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SOURCE MATERIAL General Licenses § 40.22 Small quantities of source material. (a) A general license is hereby issued authorizing commercial and industrial firms; research, educational,...

  1. Judgments of Discrete and Continuous Quantity: An Illusory Stroop Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barth, Hilary C.

    2008-01-01

    Evidence from human cognitive neuroscience, animal neurophysiology, and behavioral research demonstrates that human adults, infants, and children share a common nonverbal quantity processing system with nonhuman animals. This system appears to represent both discrete and continuous quantity, but the proper characterization of the relationship…

  2. Numerical Order and Quantity Processing in Number Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turconi, Eva; Campbell, Jamie I. D.; Seron, Xavier

    2006-01-01

    We investigated processing of numerical order information and its relation to mechanisms of numerical quantity processing. In two experiments, performance on a quantity-comparison task (e.g. 2 5; which is larger?) was compared with performance on a relative-order judgment task (e.g. 2 5; ascending or descending order?). The comparison task…

  3. 46 CFR 108.433 - Quantity of CO2: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Quantity of CO2: General. 108.433 Section 108.433 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.433 Quantity of CO2: General. Each CO2 system must...

  4. 46 CFR 108.469 - Quantity of foam producing materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Quantity of foam producing materials. 108.469 Section 108.469 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Foam Extinguishing Systems § 108.469 Quantity of foam producing materials. (a) Except as...

  5. 19 CFR 159.21 - Quantity upon which duties based.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Quantity upon which duties based. 159.21 Section 159.21 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) LIQUIDATION OF DUTIES Weight, Gage, and Measure § 159.21 Quantity upon which duties based. Insofar as duties are...

  6. 19 CFR 159.21 - Quantity upon which duties based.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Quantity upon which duties based. 159.21 Section 159.21 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) LIQUIDATION OF DUTIES Weight, Gage, and Measure § 159.21 Quantity upon which duties based. Insofar as duties are...

  7. 46 CFR 76.17-5 - Quantity of foam required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Quantity of foam required. 76.17-5 Section 76.17-5... EQUIPMENT Foam Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.17-5 Quantity of foam required. (a) Area protected. (1... of foam over the entire tank top or bilge of the space protected. The arrangement of piping shall...

  8. 46 CFR 95.17-5 - Quantity of foam required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Quantity of foam required. 95.17-5 Section 95.17-5... PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Foam Extinguishing Systems, Details § 95.17-5 Quantity of foam required. (a) Area... blanket of foam over the entire tank top or bilge of the space protected. The arrangement of piping...

  9. 19 CFR 144.33 - Minimum quantities to be withdrawn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) WAREHOUSE AND REWAREHOUSE ENTRIES AND WITHDRAWALS Withdrawals from Warehouse § 144.33 Minimum quantities to be withdrawn. Unless by special authority of the Commissioner of Customs, merchandise shall not be withdrawn from bonded warehouse in quantities less than an entire...

  10. 46 CFR 108.433 - Quantity of CO2: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Quantity of CO2: General. 108.433 Section 108.433 Shipping...Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.433 Quantity of CO2 : General. Each CO2 system must have enough gas to meet the...

  11. 46 CFR 108.433 - Quantity of CO2: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Quantity of CO2: General. 108.433 Section 108.433 Shipping...Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.433 Quantity of CO2: General. Each CO2 system must have enough gas to meet the...

  12. 46 CFR 108.433 - Quantity of CO2: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Quantity of CO2: General. 108.433 Section 108.433 Shipping...Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.433 Quantity of CO2: General. Each CO2 system must have enough gas to meet the...

  13. 46 CFR 108.433 - Quantity of CO2: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Quantity of CO2: General. 108.433 Section 108.433 Shipping...Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.433 Quantity of CO2 : General. Each CO2 system must have enough gas to meet the...

  14. 46 CFR 108.433 - Quantity of CO2: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Quantity of CO2: General. 108.433 Section 108.433 Shipping...Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.433 Quantity of CO2 : General. Each CO2 system must have enough gas to meet the...

  15. 30 CFR 36.45 - Quantity of ventilating air.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... exhaust gas with normal air. The most undesirable and hazardous condition of engine operation prescribed... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Quantity of ventilating air. 36.45 Section 36... TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT Test Requirements § 36.45 Quantity of ventilating air. (a) Results of the engine...

  16. 30 CFR 36.45 - Quantity of ventilating air.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... exhaust gas with normal air. The most undesirable and hazardous condition of engine operation prescribed... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Quantity of ventilating air. 36.45 Section 36... TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT Test Requirements § 36.45 Quantity of ventilating air. (a) Results of the engine...

  17. 49 CFR 172.315 - Packages containing limited quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Packages containing limited quantities. 172.315..., TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Marking § 172.315 Packages containing limited quantities. Except for transportation by aircraft or as otherwise provided in this subchapter, a package containing...

  18. 30 CFR 75.322 - Harmful quantities of noxious gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Harmful quantities of noxious gases. 75.322 Section 75.322 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.322 Harmful quantities of noxious gases. Concentrations of...

  19. 30 CFR 75.322 - Harmful quantities of noxious gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Harmful quantities of noxious gases. 75.322 Section 75.322 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.322 Harmful quantities of noxious gases. Concentrations of...

  20. 30 CFR 75.322 - Harmful quantities of noxious gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Harmful quantities of noxious gases. 75.322 Section 75.322 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.322 Harmful quantities of noxious gases. Concentrations of...

  1. 30 CFR 75.322 - Harmful quantities of noxious gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Harmful quantities of noxious gases. 75.322 Section 75.322 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.322 Harmful quantities of noxious gases. Concentrations of...

  2. 46 CFR 108.433 - Quantity of CO2: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Quantity of CO2: General. 108.433 Section 108.433 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.433 Quantity of CO2: General. Each CO2 system must...

  3. 48 CFR 52.211-17 - Delivery of Excess Quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Delivery of Excess....211-17 Delivery of Excess Quantities. As prescribed in 11.703(b), insert the following clause: Delivery of Excess Quantities (SEP 1989) The Contractor is responsible for the delivery of each...

  4. 48 CFR 52.211-17 - Delivery of Excess Quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Delivery of Excess....211-17 Delivery of Excess Quantities. As prescribed in 11.703(b), insert the following clause: Delivery of Excess Quantities (SEP 1989) The Contractor is responsible for the delivery of each...

  5. 48 CFR 52.211-17 - Delivery of Excess Quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Delivery of Excess....211-17 Delivery of Excess Quantities. As prescribed in 11.703(b), insert the following clause: Delivery of Excess Quantities (SEP 1989) The Contractor is responsible for the delivery of each...

  6. 48 CFR 52.211-17 - Delivery of Excess Quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Delivery of Excess....211-17 Delivery of Excess Quantities. As prescribed in 11.703(b), insert the following clause: Delivery of Excess Quantities (SEP 1989) The Contractor is responsible for the delivery of each...

  7. 48 CFR 52.211-17 - Delivery of Excess Quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Delivery of Excess....211-17 Delivery of Excess Quantities. As prescribed in 11.703(b), insert the following clause: Delivery of Excess Quantities (SEP 1989) The Contractor is responsible for the delivery of each...

  8. 46 CFR 76.17-5 - Quantity of foam required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Quantity of foam required. 76.17-5 Section 76.17-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Foam Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.17-5 Quantity of foam required. (a) Area protected. (1) For machinery and similar spaces, the...

  9. 48 CFR 16.504 - Indefinite-quantity contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... individual requirements. Quantity limits may be stated as number of units or as dollar values. (1) The... quantity based on market research, trends on recent contracts for similar supplies or services, survey of... perform the work; (5) The total estimated value of the contract is less than the simplified...

  10. 10 CFR 26.109 - Urine specimen quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Urine specimen quantity. 26.109 Section 26.109 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.109 Urine specimen quantity. (a) Licensees and other entities who are subject to this subpart shall establish...

  11. 10 CFR 26.109 - Urine specimen quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Urine specimen quantity. 26.109 Section 26.109 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.109 Urine specimen quantity. (a) Licensees and other entities who are subject to this subpart shall establish...

  12. 10 CFR 26.109 - Urine specimen quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Urine specimen quantity. 26.109 Section 26.109 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.109 Urine specimen quantity. (a) Licensees and other entities who are subject to this subpart shall establish...

  13. 10 CFR 26.109 - Urine specimen quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Urine specimen quantity. 26.109 Section 26.109 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.109 Urine specimen quantity. (a) Licensees and other entities who are subject to this subpart shall establish...

  14. 10 CFR 26.109 - Urine specimen quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Urine specimen quantity. 26.109 Section 26.109 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.109 Urine specimen quantity. (a) Licensees and other entities who are subject to this subpart shall establish...

  15. Physics 343 Observational Radio Astronomy

    E-print Network

    Baker, Andrew J.

    choice May 5th = last day of class: I will lecture on 1­2 topics that you choose shortly after spring, but also about radio astronomy in general: + techniques: singledish telescopes, interferometry + science break. Any topic related to radio astronomy is fair game. Previous years: "Current and Future Radio

  16. Physics 343 Observational Radio Astronomy

    E-print Network

    Baker, Andrew J.

    is fair game. Previous years: "Current and Future Radio Astronomy Projects" "The Search telescopes, interferometry + science: stars, planets, interstellar medium, active galactic nuclei, cosmic, or a final project with the SRT studying "radio frequency interference" #12; Visit to Green Bank

  17. Physics 343 Observational Radio Astronomy

    E-print Network

    Baker, Andrew J.

    , interferometry + science: stars, planets, interstellar medium, active galactic nuclei, cosmic microwave that you choose shortly after spring break. Any topic related to radio astronomy is fair game. Previous years: "Current and Future Radio Astronomy Projects" "The Search for Extratrrestrial Intelligence

  18. Insomnia among patients with advanced disease during admission in a Palliative Care Unit: a prospective observational study on its frequency and association with psychological, physical and environmental factors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aims of this study were: 1) to assess the frequency of insomnia among patients during admission in a Palliative Care Unit (PCU); 2) to study the association between emotional distress and insomnia, taking physical, environmental and other psychological factors into account. Methods Prospective observational study including patients consecutively admitted to a PCU during eight months, excluding those with severe cognitive problems or too low performance status. Insomnia was assessed by asking a single question and by using the Sleep Disturbance Scale (SDS), and emotional distress using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Physical, environmental and other psychological factors potentially interfering with sleep quality were evaluated. Association between insomnia and the factors evaluated was studied using univariate and multivariate regression analyses. Results 61 patients were included (mean age 71.5 years; 95% with oncological disease); 38 (62%) answered “yes” to the insomnia single question and 29 (47%) showed moderate to severe insomnia according to the SDS. 65% showed clinically significant emotional distress and 79% had nocturnal rumination. The physical symptoms most often mentioned as interfering with sleep quality were pain (69%) and dyspnoea (36%). 77% reported at least one environmental disturbance. In the univariate analysis, answering “yes” to the insomnia single question was significantly associated with higher HADS score, anxiety, nocturnal rumination, clear knowledge of the diagnosis, higher performance status and dyspnoea; moderate to severe insomnia was significantly associated with nocturnal rumination, higher performance status, environmental disturbances and daytime sleepiness. In the multivariate regression analysis, answering “yes” to the single question was associated with dyspnoea (OR 7.2 [1.65-31.27]; p?=?0.009), nocturnal rumination (OR 5.5 [1.05-28.49]; p?=?0.04) and higher performance status (OR 14.3 [1.62-125.43]; p?=?0.017), and moderate to severe insomnia with nocturnal rumination (OR 5.6 [1.1-29.1]; p?=?0.041), and inversely associated with daytime sleepiness (OR 0.25 [0.07-0.9]; p?=?0.043). Conclusions Insomnia was highly frequent. Several physical, psychological and environmental factors seemed to influence insomnia. Within the multimodal management of insomnia, the assessment of nocturnal rumination may be of particular interest, irrespective of emotional distress. Further studies with larger sample sizes could confirm this result. PMID:25136263

  19. Kinematic quantities of finite elastic and plastic deformation

    E-print Network

    T. Fülöp; P. Ván

    2012-03-05

    Kinematic quantities for finite elastic and plastic deformations are defined via an approach that does not rely on auxiliary elements like reference frame and reference configuration, and that gives account of the inertial-noninertial aspects explicitly. These features are achieved by working on Galilean spacetime directly. The quantity expressing elastic deformations is introduced according to its expected role: to measure how different the current metric is from the relaxed/stressless metric. Further, the plastic kinematic quantity is the change rate of the stressless metric. The properties of both are analyzed, and their relationship to frequently used elastic and plastic kinematic quantities is discussed. One important result is that no objective elastic or plastic quantities can be defined from deformation gradient.

  20. Anatomy of the AGN in NGC 5548: II. The Spatial, Temporal and Physical Nature of the Outflow from HST/COS Observations

    E-print Network

    Arav, N; Kriss, G A; Kaastra, J S; Cappi, M; Mehdipour, M; Petrucci, P -O; Steenbrugge, K C; Behar, E; Bianchi, S; Boissay, R; Branduardi-Raymont, G; Costantini, E; Ely, J C; Ebrero, J; di Gesu, L; Harrison, F A; Kaspi, S; Malzac, J; De Marco, B; Matt, G; Nandra, K P; Paltani, S; Peterson, B M; Pinto, C; Ponti, G; Nuñez, F Pozo; De Rosa, A; Seta, H; Ursini, F; de Vries, C P; Walton, D J; Whewel, M

    2014-01-01

    (Abridged) Our deep multiwavelength campaign on NGC 5548 revealed an unusually strong X-ray obscuration. The resulting dramatic decrease in incident ionizing flux allowed us to construct a comprehensive physical, spatial and temporal picture for the long-studied AGN wind in this object. Here we analyze the UV spectra of the outflow acquired during the campaign as well as from four previous epochs. We find that a simple model based on a fixed total column-density absorber, reacting to changes in ionizing illumination, matches the very different ionization states seen in five spectroscopic epochs spanning 16 years. Absorption troughs from C III* appeared for the first time during our campaign. From these troughs, we infer that the main outflow component is situated at 3.5+-1 pc from the central source. Three other components are situated between 5-70 pc and two are further than 100 pc. The wealth of observational constraints and the disparate relationship of the observed X-ray and UV flux between different epoc...

  1. Invariant quantities in the scalar-tensor theories of gravitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Järv, Laur; Kuusk, Piret; Saal, Margus; Vilson, Ott

    2015-01-01

    We consider the general scalar-tensor gravity without derivative couplings. By rescaling of the metric and reparametrization of the scalar field, the theory can be presented in different conformal frames and parametrizations. In this work we argue that while due to the freedom to transform the metric and the scalar field, the scalar field itself does not carry a physical meaning (in a generic parametrization), there are functions of the scalar field and its derivatives which remain invariant under the transformations. We put forward a scheme to construct these invariants, discuss how to formulate the theory in terms of the invariants, and show how the observables like parametrized post-Newtonian parameters and characteristics of the cosmological solutions can be neatly expressed in terms of the invariants. In particular, we describe the scalar field solutions in Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker cosmology in Einstein and Jordan frames and explain their correspondence despite the approximate equations turning out to be linear and nonlinear in different frames.

  2. Variations in Delivery and Exercise Content of Physical Therapy Rehabilitation Following Total Knee Replacement Surgery: A Cross-Sectional Observation Study

    PubMed Central

    Oatis, Carol A.; Li, Wenjun; DiRusso, Jessica M.; Hoover, Mindy J.; Johnston, Katherine K.; Butz, Monika K.; Phillips, Amy L.; Nanovic, Kimberly M.; Cummings, Elizabeth C.; Rosal, Milagros C.; Ayers, David C.; Franklin, Patricia D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Prevalence of total knee replacement (TKR) is large and growing but functional outcomes are variable. Physical therapy (PT) is integral to functional recovery following TKR but little is known about the quantity or content of PT delivered. Purposes of this study were to describe the amount and exercise content of PT provided in the terminal episode of PT care following TKR and to examine factors associated with utilization and content. Methods Subjects included participants in a clinical trial of behavioral interventions for patients undergoing primary unilateral TKR who had completed the 6-month study evaluation. PT records were requested from 142 consecutive participants who had completed their post-TKR rehabilitation, 102 in/out patient care, and 40 in homecare. Information on utilization and exercises was extracted from a retrospective review of the PT records. Results We received 90 (88%) outpatient and 27 (68%) homecare PT records. Records showed variability in timing, amount and content of PT. Patients receiving outpatient PT had more visits and remained in PT longer (p<0.001). Exercises known in the TKR literature were utilized more frequently in the outpatient setting (p=0.001) than in home care. Records from both settings had limited documentation of strengthening progression. Conclusions The study reveals considerable variability in timing, utilization and exercise content of PT following TKR and suggests sub-optimal exercise for strengthening. While methods we employed document variability, improved systematic PT documentation and in-depth research are needed to identify optimal timing, utilization and content of PT following TKR.

  3. Craig, S. D., VanLehn, K., & Chi. M.T.H. (2008). Promoting learning by observing deep-level reasoning questions on quantitative physics problem solving with Andes. In K. McFerrin, R. Weber, R. Weber, R.

    E-print Network

    VanLehn, Kurt

    2008-01-01

    Craig, S. D., VanLehn, K., & Chi. M.T.H. (2008). Promoting learning by observing deep learning by observing deep-level reasoning questions on quantitative physics problem solving with Andes narrative of a multimedia environment improves learning over both a narrative description without the deep

  4. Study of physical conditions in protoplanetary disks by interferometry. Theory, instrumentation and first observations. -- étude des conditions physiques dans les disques protoplanétaires par interférométrie. Théorie, instrumentation et premières observations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malbet, Fabien

    2007-10-01

    Les étoiles se forment lors de l'effondrement de nuages de gaz et de poussière. Dans l'environnement proche de l'étoile naissante la matière se concentre dans un plan équatorial que l'on appelle disque protoplanétaire. Les astronomes pensent que les planètes se forment au sein de cette masse de gaz et de poussière orbitant autour de l'étoile. Pour sonder ces disques à des échelles correspondant aux orbites des futures planètes, il convient d'observer dans l'infrarouge à très haute résolution spatiale. L'interférométrie infrarouge est donc un outil idéal pour étudier les conditions physiques des disques protoplanétaires. Dans ce mémoire, je décris les premiers pas de l'interférométrie infrarouge, depuis la mise au point des petits interféromètres PTI et IOTA jusqu'à la construction de l'instrument AMBER au foyer de l'interféromètre du VLT. Je décris aussi les résultats d'une piste de recherche technologique particulièrement attrayante dans le cas de l'interférométrie infrarouge et issue des technologies des autoroutes de l'information: l'optique intégrée appliquée à la combinaison de plusieurs faisceaux en astronomie. Je montre ensuite comment à partir des observations obtenues à partir de ces instruments, il est possible de contraindre la physique des disques autour des étoiles jeunes. Gráce à la résolution spectrale nouvellement disponible sur ces instruments, pour la première fois nous pouvons séparer des phénomènes physiques aussi différents que l'accrétion de matière sur l'étoile et l'éjection de particules par des vents dont l'origine précise est encore mal connue. Les résultats présentés dans ce mémoire ont été obtenus principalement à partir d'observations sur les systèmes jeunes FU Ori et MWC 297 effectuées par AMBER sur le VLTI, mais aussi par les petits interféromètres infrarouges PTI et IOTA. Je développe aussi les travaux de modélisation de la structure verticale des disques associés afin de montrer la richesse des renseignements obtenus. Finalement je trace les contours d'un programme de recherche qui permettra tout d'abord de maximiser le retour astrophysique sur un instrument comme le VLTI, puis d'obtenir de premières images interférométriques de ces environnements circumstellaires. Je propose aussi la réalisation d'un instrument de seconde génération qui permettra de fournir des images interférométriques détaillées de ces sources compactes par synthèse d'ouverture. Stars are forming when clouds of gas and dust collapse. In the close environment of the new star, the matter is concentrated in an equatorial plane which is called protoplanetary disk. The astronomers think that planets are formed within this mass of gas and dust orbiting around the star. To probe these disks at scales corresponding to the orbits of the future planets, it is necessary to observe at very high spatial resolution in the infrared wavelength domain. Infrared interferometry is therefore an ideal tool to study the physical conditions in protoplanetary disks. In this document, I describe the first steps of infrared interferometry, from the beginning of the small interferometers PTI and IOTA until the construction of the AMBER instrument at the focus of the VLT Interferometer. I describe also the results of a technological research track, particularly attractive in the case of infrared interferometry, and coming from the information freeway: the integrated optics applies to the combination of several beams in astronomy. I show then how from observations obtained from these instruments, it is possible to constrain the physics of disks around young stars. Thanks to the spectral resolution recently available on these instruments, for the first time, we can separate the physical phenomena as different as accretion of matter onto the star and the ejection of particles by winds whose precise origin is still not well known. The results presented in this document were obtained mainly from observations on the young systems FU Ori and MWC 297 and performed by AMBER on

  5. Conceptual Model of Quantities, Units, Dimensions, and Values

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rouquette, Nicolas F.; DeKoenig, Hans-Peter; Burkhart, Roger; Espinoza, Huascar

    2011-01-01

    JPL collaborated with experts from industry and other organizations to develop a conceptual model of quantities, units, dimensions, and values based on the current work of the ISO 80000 committee revising the International System of Units & Quantities based on the International Vocabulary of Metrology (VIM). By providing support for ISO 80000 in SysML via the International Vocabulary of Metrology (VIM), this conceptual model provides, for the first time, a standard-based approach for addressing issues of unit coherence and dimensional analysis into the practice of systems engineering with SysML-based tools. This conceptual model provides support for two kinds of analyses specified in the International Vocabulary of Metrology (VIM): coherence of units as well as of systems of units, and dimension analysis of systems of quantities. To provide a solid and stable foundation, the model for defining quantities, units, dimensions, and values in SysML is explicitly based on the concepts defined in VIM. At the same time, the model library is designed in such a way that extensions to the ISQ (International System of Quantities) and SI Units (Systeme International d Unites) can be represented, as well as any alternative systems of quantities and units. The model library can be used to support SysML user models in various ways. A simple approach is to define and document libraries of reusable systems of units and quantities for reuse across multiple projects, and to link units and quantity kinds from these libraries to Unit and QuantityKind stereotypes defined in SysML user models.

  6. 7 CFR 983.53 - Testing of minimal quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Testing of minimal quantities. (a) Aflatoxin. Handlers who handle less than...the following methods for testing for aflatoxin: (1) The handler may have an inspector...of hulled and dried pistachios for the aflatoxin certification before further...

  7. 48 CFR 816.504 - Indefinite-quantity contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...contracting officer shall insert the Alternate II clause at 852.216-70 in solicitations for estimated quantities of orthopedic, prosthetic, and optical supplies. (d) The contracting officer shall insert the Alternate III clause at 852.216-70 in...

  8. 48 CFR 816.504 - Indefinite-quantity contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...contracting officer shall insert the Alternate II clause at 852.216-70 in solicitations for estimated quantities of orthopedic, prosthetic, and optical supplies. (d) The contracting officer shall insert the Alternate III clause at 852.216-70 in...

  9. 26 CFR 50.6 - Ascertainment of quantity mined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...THE TAX IMPOSED WITH RESPECT TO CERTAIN HYDRAULIC MINING § 50.6 Ascertainment of quantity mined. Each person engaged in hydraulic mining operations within the scope...surveys of the premises on which such hydraulic mining operations are conducted...

  10. 7 CFR 983.53 - Testing of minimal quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA, ARIZONA, AND...entire inventory of hulled and dried pistachios for the aflatoxin certification before...the testing of minimal quantities of pistachios for quality. [74 FR 56540,...

  11. 7 CFR 983.53 - Testing of minimal quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA, ARIZONA, AND...entire inventory of hulled and dried pistachios for the aflatoxin certification before...the testing of minimal quantities of pistachios for quality. [74 FR 56540,...

  12. 7 CFR 983.53 - Testing of minimal quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA, ARIZONA, AND...entire inventory of hulled and dried pistachios for the aflatoxin certification before...the testing of minimal quantities of pistachios for quality. [74 FR 56540,...

  13. 7 CFR 983.53 - Testing of minimal quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA, ARIZONA, AND...entire inventory of hulled and dried pistachios for the aflatoxin certification before...the testing of minimal quantities of pistachios for quality. [74 FR 56540,...

  14. Hyperspectral Remote Sensing of Tropical Grass Quality and Quantity

    E-print Network

    Hyperspectral Remote Sensing of Tropical Grass Quality and Quantity Onisimo Mutanga 7 April 2004, The Netherlands Prof. W. J. Bond University of Cape Town, South Africa #12;Hyperspectral Remote Sensing 1.2 Hyperspectral remote sensing

  15. 7 CFR 1434.9 - Determination of quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...MARKETING ASSISTANCE LOAN AND LDP REGULATIONS FOR HONEY § 1434.9 Determination of quantity. ...and verified by the county office representative for honey on Form CCC-633 (Honey) that is eligible to be pledged as security...

  16. 7 CFR 1434.9 - Determination of quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...MARKETING ASSISTANCE LOAN AND LDP REGULATIONS FOR HONEY § 1434.9 Determination of quantity. ...and verified by the county office representative for honey on Form CCC-633 (Honey) that is eligible to be pledged as security...

  17. 7 CFR 1434.9 - Determination of quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...MARKETING ASSISTANCE LOAN AND LDP REGULATIONS FOR HONEY § 1434.9 Determination of quantity. ...and verified by the county office representative for honey on Form CCC-633 (Honey) that is eligible to be pledged as security...

  18. 7 CFR 1434.9 - Determination of quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...MARKETING ASSISTANCE LOAN AND LDP REGULATIONS FOR HONEY § 1434.9 Determination of quantity. ...and verified by the county office representative for honey on Form CCC-633 (Honey) that is eligible to be pledged as security...

  19. 7 CFR 1434.9 - Determination of quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...MARKETING ASSISTANCE LOAN AND LDP REGULATIONS FOR HONEY § 1434.9 Determination of quantity. ...and verified by the county office representative for honey on Form CCC-633 (Honey) that is eligible to be pledged as security...

  20. 19 CFR 351.409 - Differences in quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Calculation of Export Price, Constructed Export Price, Fair Value, and Normal Value § 351.409 Differences in quantities. (a...export price or constructed export price with normal value, the Secretary will make a reasonable...