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1

On the Representation of Physical Quantities in Natural Language Text  

E-print Network

language. Our focus is on physical quantities found in descriptions of physical processes that water will eventually boil if you heat it on a stove, that a ball placed at the top of a steep ramp continuous properties can appear in written natural language. Our focus is on physical quantities found

Forbus, Kenneth D.

2

WHAT PHYSICAL QUANTITIES MAKE SENSE IN NONEQUILIBRIUM STATISTICAL MECHANICS?  

E-print Network

WHAT PHYSICAL QUANTITIES MAKE SENSE IN NONEQUILIBRIUM STATISTICAL MECHANICS? by David Ruelle statistical mechanics is conceptually simple, it has been an enormously successful physical theory, and has*. Abstract. Statistical mechanics away from equilibrium is in a formative stage, where general concepts

Ruelle, David

3

WHAT PHYSICAL QUANTITIES MAKE SENSE IN NONEQUILIBRIUM STATISTICAL MECHANICS?  

E-print Network

WHAT PHYSICAL QUANTITIES MAKE SENSE IN NONEQUILIBRIUM STATISTICAL MECHANICS? by David Ruelle*. Abstract. Statistical mechanics away from equilibrium is in a formative stage, where general concepts: ruelle@ihes.fr 1 #12; 1 Introduction. Statistical mechanics, as seen by Boltzmann, is an attempt

Ruelle, David

4

Can the Lorenz-Gauge Potentials Be Considered Physical Quantities?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two results support the idea that the scalar and vector potentials in the Lorenz gauge can be considered to be physical quantities: (i) they separately satisfy the properties of causality and propagation at the speed of light and do not imply spurious terms and (ii) they can naturally be written in a manifestly covariant form. In this paper we…

Heras, Jose A.; Fernandez-Anaya, Guillermo

2010-01-01

5

Kinematic quantities for a spherical distribution of uniformly accelerated observers  

E-print Network

The kinematical quantities derived from the velocity field of a nongeodesic congruence are studied. We found the shear tensor components are finite in time but diverge at the event horizon of the spacetime located at $\\rho = 0$. The surface gravity on the horizon is just the proper acceleration of the uniformly expanding distribution of observers, in spherical Rindler coordinates. The Raychaudhuri equation is fulfilled for the congruence of particles worldlines.

Hristu Culetu

2014-10-17

6

Physical observability of horizons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Event horizons are (generically) not physically observable. In contrast, apparent horizons (and the closely related trapping horizons) are generically physically observable—in the sense that they can be detected by observers working in finite-size regions of spacetime. Consequently event horizons are inappropriate tools for defining astrophysical black holes, or indeed for defining any notion of an evolving black hole (evolving either due to accretion or Hawking radiation). The only situation in which an event horizon becomes physically observable is for the very highly idealized stationary or static black holes, when the event horizon is a Killing horizon which is degenerate with the apparent and trapping horizons, and then it is the physical observability of the apparent/trapping horizons that is fundamental—the event horizon merely comes along for the ride.

Visser, Matt

2014-12-01

7

Heisenberg uncertainty principle and economic analogues of basic physical quantities  

E-print Network

From positions, attained by modern theoretical physics in understanding of the universe bases, the methodological and philosophical analysis of fundamental physical concepts and their formal and informal connections with the real economic measurings is carried out. Procedures for heterogeneous economic time determination, normalized economic coordinates and economic mass are offered, based on the analysis of time series, the concept of economic Plank's constant has been proposed. The theory has been approved on the real economic dynamic's time series, including stock indices, Forex and spot prices, the achieved results are open for discussion.

Vladimir Soloviev; Vladimir Saptsin

2011-11-10

8

W, F, and I : Three quantities basic to radiation physics.  

SciTech Connect

The W value is an index of the mean number of ions produced in a gas subjected to ionizing radiation. Formally, it is defined as the radiation energy absorbed (usually expressed in units of eV) ''per ion pair of either sign produced'', or, in a simpler language, ''per electron liberated''. The basic knowledge up to 1961 is eloquently articulated in a classic essay by Platzman [1], which Professor Doke loves to cite. The theme of Platzman was to explain from the point of view of basic physics the magnitude and characteristics of the ratio W/I, where I is the (first) ionization threshold energy. In summary, major characteristics are as follows. (1) The W value for a given gas depends weakly on the properties of the radiation such as the mass and charge of particles or initial energies (provided they are sufficiently high). This makes the ionization measurement useful as a method of dosimetry, viz., the determination of the absorbed energy. (2) The ratio W/I is always greater than unity because a part of the absorbed energy must be used in nonionizing events such as discrete excitation or molecular dissociation into neutral fragments and also in producing subexcitation electrons, viz., electrons with kinetic energies too low to cause electronic excitation or ionization [2]. (3) The ratio W/I is 1.7-1.8 for rare gases, and 2.1-2.6 for gases of common molecules (depending on the electronic structure, going from ''hard'' to ''soft''). Calculation of the W value is possible from three approaches: (i) the energy balance of Platzman, heuristic for general understanding and appropriate for an estimate; (ii) the Fowler equation [3] for the direct evaluation of the mean number of ions produced; and (iii) the method of Spencer and Fano [4] through the degradation spectra (or the track length distributions) of charged particles, most importantly of electrons, present in the medium. The Fowler method is good for obtaining the mean number of ions or excited states resulting from the incidence of particles of relatively low energies, while the Spencer-Fano method is good for the incidence of high-energy particles.

Inokuti, M.

1998-11-11

9

10 CFR 37.73 - Applicability of physical protection of category 1 and category 2 quantities of radioactive...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...quantities of radioactive material during transit. 37.73 Section 37.73 Energy...RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL Physical Protection in Transit § 37.73 Applicability of physical...quantities of radioactive material during transit. (a) For shipments of...

2014-01-01

10

On determination of mean values of observed quantities according to O. Ya. Orlov  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The definition of O. Ya. Orlov for mean values of observed quantities for any epoch suits for application not only in astronomy, and in geophysics, geodesy, meteorology. The method of seasonal decomposition and adjustment Census X-11 for realization of Orlov's definition in various areas of researches is used.

Tyshchuk, M.; Gozhy, A.

2005-06-01

11

A Systematic Review of Mapping Strategies for the Sonification of Physical Quantities  

PubMed Central

The field of sonification has progressed greatly over the past twenty years and currently constitutes an established area of research. This article aims at exploiting and organizing the knowledge accumulated in previous experimental studies to build a foundation for future sonification works. A systematic review of these studies may reveal trends in sonification design, and therefore support the development of design guidelines. To this end, we have reviewed and analyzed 179 scientific publications related to sonification of physical quantities. Using a bottom-up approach, we set up a list of conceptual dimensions belonging to both physical and auditory domains. Mappings used in the reviewed works were identified, forming a database of 495 entries. Frequency of use was analyzed among these conceptual dimensions as well as higher-level categories. Results confirm two hypotheses formulated in a preliminary study: pitch is by far the most used auditory dimension in sonification applications, and spatial auditory dimensions are almost exclusively used to sonify kinematic quantities. To detect successful as well as unsuccessful sonification strategies, assessment of mapping efficiency conducted in the reviewed works was considered. Results show that a proper evaluation of sonification mappings is performed only in a marginal proportion of publications. Additional aspects of the publication database were investigated: historical distribution of sonification works is presented, projects are classified according to their primary function, and the sonic material used in the auditory display is discussed. Finally, a mapping-based approach for characterizing sonification is proposed. PMID:24358192

Dubus, Gaël; Bresin, Roberto

2013-01-01

12

Transverse geometry and physical observers  

E-print Network

It is proposed that the mathematical formalism that is most appropriate for the study of spatially non-integrable cosmological models is the transverse geometry of a one-dimensional foliation (congruence) defined by a physical observer. By that means, one can discuss the geometry of space, as viewed by that observer, without the necessity of introducing a complementary sub-bundle to the line bundle of the observer or a codimension-one foliation transverse to the foliation of the observer. The concept of groups of transverse isometries acting on such a spacetime and the relationship of transverse geometry to spacetime threadings (1+3 decompositions) is also discussed.

David Delphenich

2007-11-13

13

Observing physical activity in suburbs.  

PubMed

This study examined the reliability of the block walk method (BWM) for observing physical activity on suburban sidewalks/streets. Trained observers simultaneously walked 40 sidewalk/street segments each 1525 m in length at a pace of 30.5 m/min while recording the number of individuals walking/bicycling/jogging and the address where the activity occurred. An activity was observed at 2.9% of the 1020 addresses walked passed. In all 41 individuals were seen walking, 4 jogging, and 3 bicycling during 400 observation minutes. Agreements were 80%, 90%, and 86.7% for address, activity type, and number of individuals. The BWM is reliable for assessing activity on suburban sidewalks/streets. PMID:18261948

Suminski, Richard R; Fritzsinger, Jessica; Leck, Tina; Hyder, Melissa M

2008-12-01

14

Nature of the Physical Observer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nature of the observer has long plagued physical science. Here we review the current status of cognitive science in the context of a cosmology of mind in an Anthropic Multiverse. The concept of an élan vital or life force has long been considered the elementary action principle driving the evolution of living-systems by theologically minded scientists and individuals. Sufficiently extending Einstein's original model of a Static Universe, to a Holographic Anthropic Multiverse (HAM), provides a context for solving this centuries old problem for introducing this type of teleological principle into Physics, Biology, Medicine and Psychology. This means the contemporary framework of biological mechanism should no longer be considered the formal philosophical basis for describing living systems and contemporary allopathic (scientific) medicine. The new noetic action principle has far reaching implications for medicine and transpersonal psychology.

Osoroma, Drahcir S.

2010-12-01

15

A wireless interrogation system exploiting narrowband acoustic resonator for remote physical quantity measurement  

SciTech Connect

Monitoring physical quantities using acoustic wave devices can be advantageously achieved using the wave characteristic dependence to various parametric perturbations (temperature, stress, and pressure). Surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonators are particularly well suited to such applications as their resonance frequency is directly influenced by these perturbations, modifying both the phase velocity and resonance conditions. Moreover, the intrinsic radio frequency (rf) nature of these devices makes them ideal for wireless applications, mainly exploiting antennas reciprocity and piezoelectric reversibility. In this paper, we present a wireless SAW sensor interrogation unit operating in the 434 MHz centered ISM band--selected as a tradeoff between antenna dimensions and electromagnetic wave penetration in dielectric media--based on the principles of a frequency sweep network analyzer. We particularly focus on the compliance with the ISM standard which reveals complicated by the need for switching from emission to reception modes similarly to radar operation. In this matter, we propose a fully digital rf synthesis chain to develop various interrogation strategies to overcome the corresponding difficulties and comply with the above-mentioned standard. We finally assess the reader interrogation range, accuracy, and dynamics.

Friedt, J.-M [SENSeOR, 32 Avenue de l'Observatoire, 25044 Besancon (France); Droit, C.; Martin, G.; Ballandras, S. [Department of Time and Frequency, FEMTO-ST, 32 Avenue de l'Observatoire, 25044 Besancon (France)

2010-01-15

16

A wireless interrogation system exploiting narrowband acoustic resonator for remote physical quantity measurement.  

PubMed

Monitoring physical quantities using acoustic wave devices can be advantageously achieved using the wave characteristic dependence to various parametric perturbations (temperature, stress, and pressure). Surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonators are particularly well suited to such applications as their resonance frequency is directly influenced by these perturbations, modifying both the phase velocity and resonance conditions. Moreover, the intrinsic radio frequency (rf) nature of these devices makes them ideal for wireless applications, mainly exploiting antennas reciprocity and piezoelectric reversibility. In this paper, we present a wireless SAW sensor interrogation unit operating in the 434 MHz centered ISM band--selected as a tradeoff between antenna dimensions and electromagnetic wave penetration in dielectric media--based on the principles of a frequency sweep network analyzer. We particularly focus on the compliance with the ISM standard which reveals complicated by the need for switching from emission to reception modes similarly to radar operation. In this matter, we propose a fully digital rf synthesis chain to develop various interrogation strategies to overcome the corresponding difficulties and comply with the above-mentioned standard. We finally assess the reader interrogation range, accuracy, and dynamics. PMID:20113119

Friedt, J-M; Droit, C; Martin, G; Ballandras, S

2010-01-01

17

Observational physics of mirror world  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The existence of the whole world of shadow particles, interacting with each other and having no mutual interactions with ordinary particles except gravity is a specific feature of modern superstring models, being considered as models of the theory of everything. The presence of shadow particles is the necessary condition in the superstring models, providing compensation of the asymmetry of left and right chirality states of ordinary particles. If compactification of additional dimensions retains the symmetry of left and right states, shadow world turns to be the mirror one, with particles and fields having properties strictly symmetrical to the ones of corresponding ordinary particles and fields. Owing to the strict symmetry of physical laws for ordinary and mirror particles, the analysis of cosmological evolution of mirror matter provides rather definite conclusions on possible effects of mirror particles in the universe. A general qualitative discussion of possible astronomical impact of mirror matter is given, in order to make as wide as possible astronomical observational searches for the effects of mirror world, being the unique way to test the existence of mirror partners of ordinary particles in the Nature.

Khlopov, M. YA.; Beskin, G. M.; Bochkarev, N. E.; Pustilnik, L. A.; Pustilnik, S. A.

1989-01-01

18

Estimation of methane hydrate quantities from marine seismic data and physical modeling (time-average method)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine seismic reflection data collected from offshore southwestern Taiwan show that prominent seismic bottom simulating reflectors (BSRs) are observed that indicate the existence of gas hydrate in the seafloor sediment with free gas zone underneath. We apply a theoretical rock physics model to analyze 2D marine seismic data to determine gas hydrate and free gas saturation. High-porosity marine sediment is modeled as a granular system where the elastic wave velocities are linked to porosity; effective pressure; mineralogy; elastic properties of the pore-filling material; and water, gas and gas hydrate saturation of the pore space. To apply this model to seismic data, we first obtain interval velocity from migration velocity analysis. Next, all input parameters to the rock physics model, except porosity and water, gas and gas hydrate saturation, are estimated from geological information. The saturation estimations are extremely sensitive to the input velocity values. Therefore, accurate velocity determination is crucial for correct reservoir characterization. We apply pre-stack depth migration and amplitude versus angle (AVA) methods to analyze two seismic lines (EW9509-35 and EW9509-46) located in the key area offshore southwestern Taiwan. A more advanced approach to velocity analysis is through the use of iterative migration, also known as migration velocity analysis (MVA). These techniques can overcome the restriction of lateral homogeneity and retrieve information about the velocity. Further more, the incidence and emergence angles of any reflection can be approached more accurately when using ray-tracing methods in depth domain, rather then ray-path approximations based on RMS velocities in time domain. Thus, efficient amplitude versus angle analysis is available within the process of pre-stack depth migration with little additional computing time, and that enables us to quantify further acoustic and shear-wave velocities in the subsurface. Velocity structures derived from pre-stack depth migration and from analyzing the wide-angle seismic data show that the hydrate-bearing sediments generally have velocity ranges from 1750 to 2000 m/s, with most values around 1900 m/s. Low velocity zones observed beneath the gas hydrate bearing sediments clearly indicate the presence of free gas below.

Tsai, C.; Liu, C.; Schnurle, P.; Chen, H.

2005-12-01

19

Variational symmetries, conserved quantities and identities for several equations of mathematical physics  

SciTech Connect

We find variational symmetries, conserved quantities and identities for several equations: envelope equation, Böcher equation, the propagation of sound waves with losses, flow of a gas with losses, and the nonlinear Schrödinger equation with losses or gains, and an electro-magnetic interaction. Most of these equations do not have a variational description with the classical variational principle and we find such a description with the generalized variational principle of Herglotz.

Donchev, Veliko, E-mail: velikod@ie.bas.bg [Laboratory “Physical Problems of Electron and Ion Technologies,” Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72 Tzarigradsko shosse, 1784 Sofia (Bulgaria)] [Laboratory “Physical Problems of Electron and Ion Technologies,” Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72 Tzarigradsko shosse, 1784 Sofia (Bulgaria)

2014-03-15

20

A comparison of water vapor quantities from model short-range forecasts and ARM observations  

SciTech Connect

Model evolution and improvement is complicated by the lack of high quality observational data. To address a major limitation of these measurements the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program was formed. For the second quarter ARM metric we will make use of new water vapor data that has become available, and called the 'Merged-sounding' value added product (referred to as OBS, within the text) at three sites: the North Slope of Alaska (NSA), Darwin Australia (DAR) and the Southern Great Plains (SGP) and compare these observations to model forecast data. Two time periods will be analyzed March 2000 for the SGP and October 2004 for both DAR and NSA. The merged-sounding data have been interpolated to 37 pressure levels (e.g., from 1000hPa to 100hPa at 25hPa increments) and time averaged to 3 hourly data for direct comparison to our model output.

Hnilo, J J

2006-03-17

21

In-situ observation of irradiation quantities using a tethered balloon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Irradiance is a key parameter in Earth's weather and climate system. Accurate observations of the components of the radiation budget are therefore essential to create reliable time series, to analyse spatial variability and to test, validate and adapt satellite-based algorithms. This holds true for near surface measurements as well as for in-situ observations in the lower troposphere. Such measurements are difficult to realise and therefore rarely performed. A tethered balloon system manufactured by Vailsala (9 cbm) is utilised as a carrier of a radiation budget sonde operating up to 1000 m above ground. Application is limited to fair weather conditions with maximum winds of 20 km/h and visibility greater than 3 km at ground level. The experimental setup is composed of a downward and upward looking pair of Kipp&Zonen CM11 (0.305-2.8 ?m) and a corresponding pair of Kipp&Zonen CG4 (4.5 - 42 ?m). Instruments are categorized as WMO 'secondary standard' according to ISO9660 and can be characterised as sufficiently robust and with acceptable response time for this purpose. Instrumentation is complemented by meteorological sensors (wind, temperature, humidity) flown on a dedicated suspension close (less than 50 m distance) to radiation sonde. In-situ measurements of irradiation in flowing and turbulent air are subjected to errors due to moving platform (roll/yaw/pitch). Potential deviations to near-surface measurements are discussed and an error estimate is given. Some comparisons of results of radiative transfer calculations for simple meteorological conditions have been made so far. It can be accomplished either by referring to profiles or by evaluating time series taken at elevated levels. Profiling lacks stationarity most time of a day due to high variability of shortwave downward and thus must be interpreted carefully. First results for longwave profiles as well as evaluation of time series obtained at distinct levels above ground show good correspondence.

Becker, Ralf; Gross, Steffen; Behrens, Klaus

2014-05-01

22

Near-Earth asteroids: Observer alert network and physical observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This project strives to obtain physical observations on newly discovered Near-Earth Objects (NEO's) in order to provide fundamental data needed to assess the resources available in the population. The goal is acquiring data on all objects brighter than magnitude V= 17.0. To accomplish this, an electronic mail alert and observer information service that informs observers around the world as to the status of physical observations on currently observable NEO's was established. Such data is also acquired ourselves through a cooperative program with European colleagues that uses telescopes on La Palma to obtain spectra of NEO's and through observations made from a local telescope on Tumamoc Hill. This latter telescope has the advantage that large amounts of observing time are available, so that whenever a new NEO's discovered, we can be assured of getting time to observe it.

Davis, Donald R.; Chapman, Clark R.

1992-01-01

23

Evidence for Direct Retrieval of Relative Quantity Information in a Quantity Judgment Task: Decimals, Integers, and the Role of Physical Similarity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Participants' reaction times (RTs) in numerical judgment tasks in which one must determine which of 2 numbers is greater generally follow a monotonically decreasing function of the numerical distance between the two presented numbers. Here, I present 3 experiments in which the relative influences of numerical distance and physical similarity are…

Cohen, Dale J.

2010-01-01

24

The Built Environment Predicts Observed Physical Activity  

PubMed Central

Background: In order to improve our understanding of the relationship between the built environment and physical activity, it is important to identify associations between specific geographic characteristics and physical activity behaviors. Purpose: Examine relationships between observed physical activity behavior and measures of the built environment collected on 291 street segments in Indianapolis and St. Louis. Methods: Street segments were selected using a stratified geographic sampling design to ensure representation of neighborhoods with different land use and socioeconomic characteristics. Characteristics of the built environment on-street segments were audited using two methods: in-person field audits and audits based on interpretation of Google Street View imagery with each method blinded to results from the other. Segments were dichotomized as having a particular characteristic (e.g., sidewalk present or not) based on the two auditing methods separately. Counts of individuals engaged in different forms of physical activity on each segment were assessed using direct observation. Non-parametric statistics were used to compare counts of physically active individuals on each segment with built environment characteristic. Results: Counts of individuals engaged in physical activity were significantly higher on segments with mixed land use or all non-residential land use, and on segments with pedestrian infrastructure (e.g., crosswalks and sidewalks) and public transit. Conclusion: Several micro-level built environment characteristics were associated with physical activity. These data provide support for theories that suggest changing the built environment and related policies may encourage more physical activity. PMID:24904916

Kelly, Cheryl; Wilson, Jeffrey S.; Schootman, Mario; Clennin, Morgan; Baker, Elizabeth A.; Miller, Douglas K.

2014-01-01

25

X ray timing observations and gravitational physics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Photon-rich x ray observations on bright compact galactic sources will make it possible to detect many fast processes that may occur in these systems on millisecond and submillisecond timescales. Many of these processes are of direct relevance to gravitational physics because they arise in regions of strong gravity near neutron stars and black holes where the dynamical timescales for compact objects of stellar mass are milliseconds. To date, such observations have been limited by the detector area and telemetry rates available. However, instruments such as the proposed X ray Large Array (XLA) would achieve collecting areas of about 100 sq m. This instrument has been described elsewhere (Wood and Michelson 1988) and was the subject of a recent prephase A feasibility study at Marshall Space Flight Center. Observations with an XLA class instrument will directly impact five primary areas of astrophysics research: the attempt to detect gravitational radiation, the study of black holes, the physics of mass accretion onto compact objects, the structure of neutron stars and nuclear matter, and the characterization of dark matter in the universe. Those observations are discussed that are most directly relevant to gravitational physics: the search for millisecond x ray pulsars that are potential sources of continuous gravitational radiation; and the use of x ray timing observations to probe the physical conditions in extreme relativistic regions of space near black holes, both stellar-sized and supermassive.

Michelson, Peter F.; Wood, Kent S.

1989-01-01

26

Physical observations and taxonomy of asteroids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Physical asteroid observations are summarized and the classification scheme to describe asteroid surfaces in relation to mineralogical composition is detailed. The principle classes, distinguished on the basis of a number of parameters involving albedo and color, are called C, S, and M.

Morrison, D.

1978-01-01

27

The trinucleons: Physical observables and model properties  

SciTech Connect

Our progress in understanding the properties of {sup 3}H and {sup 3}He in terms of a nonrelativistic Hamiltonian picture employing realistic nuclear forces is reviewed. Trinucleon model properties are summarized for a number of contemporary force models, and predictions for physical observables are presented. Disagreement between theoretical model results and experimental results are highlighted.

Gibson, B.F.

1992-05-01

28

The trinucleons: Physical observables and model properties  

SciTech Connect

Our progress in understanding the properties of {sup 3}H and {sup 3}He in terms of a nonrelativistic Hamiltonian picture employing realistic nuclear forces is reviewed. Trinucleon model properties are summarized for a number of contemporary force models, and predictions for physical observables are presented. Disagreement between theoretical model results and experimental results are highlighted.

Gibson, B.F.

1992-01-01

29

10 CFR 37.79 - Requirements for physical protection of category 1 and category 2 quantities of radioactive...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...REGULATORY COMMISSION PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF CATEGORY...RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL Physical Protection in Transit...79 Requirements for physical protection of category...attempted, or suspicious activities related to the...

2014-01-01

30

A Holoinformational Model of the Physical Observer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The author proposes a holoinformational view of the observer based, on the holonomic theory of brain/mind function and quantum brain dynamics developed by Karl Pribram, Sir John Eccles, R.L. Amoroso, Hameroff, Jibu and Yasue, and in the quantumholographic and holomovement theory of David Bohm. This conceptual framework is integrated with nonlocal information properties of the Quantum Field Theory of Umesawa, with the concept of negentropy, order, and organization developed by Shannon, Wiener, Szilard and Brillouin, and to the theories of self-organization and complexity of Prigogine, Atlan, Jantsch and Kauffman. Wheeler's "it from bit" concept of a participatory universe, and the developments of the physics of information made by Zureck and others with the concepts of statistical entropy and algorithmic entropy, related to the number of bits being processed in the mind of the observer are also considered. This new synthesis gives a self-organizing quantum nonlocal informational basis for a new model of awareness in a participatory universe. In this synthesis, awareness is conceived as meaningful quantum nonlocal information interconnecting the brain and the cosmos, by a holoinformational unified field (integrating nonlocal holistic (quantum) and local (Newtonian). We propose that the cosmology of the physical observer is this unified nonlocal quantum-holographic cosmos manifesting itself through awareness, interconnected in a participatory holistic and indivisible way the human mind-brain to all levels of the self-organizing holographic anthropic multiverse.

Biase, Francisco Di

2013-09-01

31

Quantities, Units, and Symbols.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet provides a reference to the quantities, units, and their symbols which are used in physical science. It is a revision of a 1969 report and takes account of the progress which has been made in obtaining international agreement on the definitions, names, and symbols for units and on the rules for the expression of relations involving…

Royal Society, London (England).

32

Validity of the Observation of Children's Physical Activity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study assessed the validity of the Children's Physical Activity Form, an observational instrument which measures the intensity of children's physical activity, by comparing observer judgments of subjects' (N=40) activity intensity level with min-by-min heart rate values. Results document the validity of the instrument for observing physical

O'Hara, Nancy M.; And Others

1989-01-01

33

Combining electric field and aurora observations from DE 1 and 2 with ground magnetometer records to estimate ionospheric electromagnetic quantities  

SciTech Connect

Using data from the ground-based magnetometer network and from nearly simultaneous observations with satellites Dynamics Explorer (DE) 1 and 2, an attempt is made to estimate the global distribution of electric fields and currents in the high-latitude ionosphere. For this purpose, the Rice model for ionospheric conductivity is modified to match spatially the aurora observed with DE 1. An optimum conductivity is then chosen iteratively so that the resultant electric fields become consistent with electric fields deduced from ion drifts measured along the DE 2 orbit. It is demonstrated that statistical conductivity models are not fully adequate for use with the magnetogram inversion technique when analyzing the large-scale electrodynamics of individual substorms. The auroral conductive belt in the empirical models needs to be shifted latitudinally and longitudinally to provide more realistic representations for various auroral forms, such as the westward traveling surge and the expanding poleward bulge. There is a need for further work along these lines, but some important features are noted. It is found that significant electric fields must exist to explain an intense auroral electrojet current in the region where auroral activity and the conductivity are quite low. The relative importance of the ionospheric conductance and the electric field in controlling the auroral electrojets is emphasized.

Kamide, Y.; Ishihara, Y. (Kyoto Sangyo Univ. (Japan)); Killeen, T.L. (Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor (USA)); Craven, J.D.; Frank, L.A. (Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City (USA)); Heelis, R.A. (Univ. of Texas, Richardson (USA))

1989-06-01

34

Physics 229 Lecture 1 1 Spring 2008 Lecture 1 -Introduction and Review: Newton's Laws, Conserved Quantities and N-  

E-print Network

of Sir Isaac Newton. Newton's first law of motion states that, if the vector sum of the forces actingPhysics 229 Lecture 1 1 Spring 2008 Lecture 1 - Introduction and Review: Newton's Laws, Conserved and motion. For our purposes the word "classical" implies two points. The first point is that classical means

Ellis, Steve

35

Physical fitness training reference manual for security force personnel at fuel cycle facilities possessing formula quantities of special nuclear materials  

SciTech Connect

The recommendations contained throughout this NUREG are being provided to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) as a reference manual which can be used by licensee management as they develop a program plan for the safe participation of guards, Tactical Response Team members (TRTs), and all other armed response personnel in physical fitness training and in physical performance standards testing. The information provided in this NUREG will help licensees to determine if guards, TRTs, and other armed response personnel can effectively perform their normal and emergency duties without undue hazard to themselves, to fellow employees, to the plant site, and to the general public. The recommendations in this NUREG are similar in part to those contained within the Department of Energy (DOE) Medical and Fitness Implementation Guide which was published in March 1991. The guidelines contained in this NUREG are not requirements, and compliance is not required. 25 refs.

Arzino, P.A.; Caplan, C.S.; Goold, R.E. (California State Univ., Hayward, CA (United States). Foundation)

1991-09-01

36

Observable physical modes of modified gravity  

E-print Network

At linear order in cosmological perturbations, departures from the growth in the cosmological standard model can be quantified in terms of two functions of redshift $z$ and Fourier number $k$. Previous studies have performed principal component forecasts for several choices of these two functions, based on expected capabilities of upcoming large structure surveys. It is typically found that there will be many well-constrained degrees of freedom. However, not all and, probably most, of these degrees of freedom were physical if the parametrization had allowed for an arbitrary $k$-dependence. In this paper, we restrict the $k$-dependence to that allowed in local theories of gravity under the quasi-static approximation, i.e. ratios of polynomials in $k$, and identify the best constrained features in the ($z$,$k$)-dependence of the commonly considered functions $\\mu$ and $\\gamma$ as measured by an LSST-like weak lensing survey. We estimate the uncertainty in the measurements of the eigenmodes of modified growth. We find that imposing the theoretical prior on $k$-dependence reduces the number of degrees of freedom and the covariance between parameters. On the other hand, imaging surveys like LSST are not as sensitive to the $z$-dependence as they are to the $k$-dependence of the modified growth functions. This trade off provides us with, more or less, the same number of well-constrained eigenmodes (with respect to our prior) as found before, but now these modes are physical.

Alireza Hojjati; Levon Pogosian; Alessandra Silvestri; Gong-Bo Zhao

2014-01-08

37

Observable physical modes of modified gravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At linear order in cosmological perturbations, departures from the growth in the cosmological standard model can be quantified in terms of two functions of redshift z and Fourier number k. Previous studies have performed principal component forecasts for several choices of these two functions based on expected capabilities of upcoming large structure surveys. It is typically found that there will be many well-constrained degrees of freedom. However, not all and probably most of these degrees of freedom were physical if the parametrization had allowed for an arbitrary k dependence. In this paper, we restrict the k dependence to that allowed in local theories of gravity under the quasistatic approximation, i.e. ratios of polynomials in k, and identify the best constrained features in the (z ,k) dependence of the commonly considered functions ? and ? as measured by a Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST)-like weak lensing survey. We estimate the uncertainty in the measurements of the eigenmodes of modified growth. We find that imposing the theoretical prior on k dependence reduces the number of degrees of freedom and the covariance between parameters. On the other hand, imaging surveys like LSST are not as sensitive to the z dependence as they are to the k dependence of the modified growth functions. This trade-off provides us with, more or less, the same number of well-constrained eigenmodes (with respect to our prior) as found before, but now these modes are physical.

Hojjati, Alireza; Pogosian, Levon; Silvestri, Alessandra; Zhao, Gong-Bo

2014-04-01

38

Black hole physics: recent developments and observational perspectives  

E-print Network

Black hole physics: recent developments and observational perspectives ´Eric Gourgoulhon'Astrophysique Fran¸caise Montpellier, France 5 May 2013 ´Eric Gourgoulhon (LUTH) Black hole physics: new perspectives SF2A, Montpellier, 5 May 2013 1 / 45 #12;Outline 1 The current observational status of black holes

Gourgoulhon, Eric

39

Urban Mining: Quality and quantity of recyclable and recoverable material mechanically and physically extractable from residual waste  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: • Material recycling and recovery from residual waste by physical and mechanical process has been investigated. • About 6% of recyclable can be extracted by NIR and 2-3Dimension selector. • Another 2% of construction materials can be extracted by adopting modified soil washing process. • Extracted material quality is quite high even some residual heavy metal have been detected by leaching test. - Abstract: The mechanically sorted dry fraction (MSDF) and Fines (<20 mm) arising from the mechanical biological treatment of residual municipal solid waste (RMSW) contains respectively about 11% w/w each of recyclable and recoverable materials. Processing a large sample of MSDF in an existing full-scale mechanical sorting facility equipped with near infrared and 2-3 dimensional selectors led to the extraction of about 6% w/w of recyclables with respect to the RMSW weight. Maximum selection efficiency was achieved for metals, about 98% w/w, whereas it was lower for Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE), about 2% w/w. After a simulated lab scale soil washing treatment it was possible to extract about 2% w/w of inert exploitable substances recoverable as construction materials, with respect to the amount of RMSW. The passing curve showed that inert materials were mainly sand with a particle size ranging from 0.063 to 2 mm. Leaching tests showed quite low heavy metal concentrations with the exception of the particles retained by the 0.5 mm sieve. A minimum pollutant concentration was in the leachate from the 10 and 20 mm particle size fractions.

Di Maria, Francesco, E-mail: francesco.dimaria@unipg.it; Micale, Caterina; Sordi, Alessio; Cirulli, Giuseppe; Marionni, Moreno

2013-12-15

40

Observational motives underlying the choice of algebras in physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss observational motives for the adoption of specific algebras in physics. Then we perform an observational analysis of Dyson's exposition of Feynman's proof of Maxwell's equations. Based on the epistemology of observational realism, we argue that the non-commutation relations, adopted as principles in the proof, are algebraic representations of observational relativistic physics, contrarily to the opinion that relations of this kind are theoretical statements and abstractions. We also comment on the origins of the non-commutative algebra of quantum physics contrasting with the relativistic case.

Pombo, Claudia

2010-01-01

41

19. Detail of southeast corner of physical plant showing observation ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

19. Detail of southeast corner of physical plant showing observation lookout (view is looking northwest) - Skinner Meat Packing Plant, Main Plant, 6006 South Twenty-seventh Street, Omaha, Douglas County, NE

42

Observed and physical properties of type II plateau supernovae  

E-print Network

I use photometry and spectroscopy data for 24 Type II plateau supernovae to examine their observed and physical properties. This dataset shows that these objects encompass a wide range in their observed properties (plateau luminosities, tail luminosities, and expansion velocities) and their physical parameters (explosion energies, ejected masses, initial radii, and 56Ni yields). Several regularities emerge within this diversity, which reveal (1) a continuum in the properties of Type II plateau supernovae, (2) a one parameter family (at least to first order), (3) evidence that stellar mass plays a central role in the physics of core collapse and the fate of massive stars.

Mario Hamuy

2003-10-01

43

Quantity Stickiness versus Stackelberg Leadership  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the endogenous Stackelberg relations in a dynamic market. We analyze a twice-repeated duopoly where, in the beginning, each firm chooses either a quantity-sticky production mode or a quantity-flexible production mode. The size of the market becomes observable after the first period. In the second period, a firm can adjust its quantity if, and only if, it has adopted the flexible mode. Hence, if one firm chooses the sticky mode whilst the other chooses the flexible mode, then they respectively play the roles of a Stackelberg leader and a Stackelberg follower in the second marketing period. We compute the supply quantities at equilibrium and the corresponding expected profits of the firms. We also analyze the effect of the slope parameter of the demand curve on the expected supply quantities and on the profits.

Ferreira, F. A.

2008-10-01

44

PHYSICS OF PLANETS: OBSERVING EXTRASOLAR GIANT PLANETS WITH Tristan Guillot  

E-print Network

1 PHYSICS OF PLANETS: OBSERVING EXTRASOLAR GIANT PLANETS WITH DARWIN/TPF Tristan Guillot/TPF. Extrasolar giant planets are milestones on the quest for our origins: they hold crucial information con for those objects with little or no atmosphere). On the other hand, extrasolar giant planets represent a new

Guillot, Tristan

45

The Impact of Transit Observations on Planetary Physics  

E-print Network

We highlight the importance of transit observations on understanding the physics of planetary atmospheres and interiors. Transmission spectra and emission spectra allow us to characterize this exotic atmospheres, which possess TiO, VO, H2O, CO, Na, and K, as principal absorbers. We calculate mass-radius relations for water-rock-iron and gas giant planets and examine these relations in light of current and future transit observations. A brief review is given of mechanisms that could lead to the large radii observed for some transiting planets.

Jonathan J. Fortney

2008-01-31

46

Physical Activity Surveillance in Parks Using Direct Observation  

PubMed Central

Introduction Primary features of observational public health surveillance instruments are that they are valid, can reliably estimate physical activity behaviors, and are useful across diverse geographic settings and seasons by different users. Previous studies have reported the validity and reliability of Systematic Observation of Play and Recreation in Communities (SOPARC) to estimate park and user characteristics. The purpose of this investigation was to establish the use of SOPARC as a surveillance instrument and to situate the findings from the study in the context of the previous literature. Methods We collected data by using SOPARC for more than 3 years in 4 locations: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Columbus, Ohio; Chapel Hill/Durham, North Carolina; and Albuquerque, New Mexico during spring, summer, and autumn. Results We observed a total of 35,990 park users with an overall observer reliability of 94% (range, 85%–99%) conducted on 15% of the observations. We monitored the proportion of park users engaging in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and found marginal differences in MVPA by both city and season. Park users visited parks significantly more on weekend days than weekdays and visitation rates tended to be lower during summer than spring. Conclusion SOPARC is a highly reliable observation instrument that can be used to collect data across diverse geographic settings and seasons by different users and has potential as a surveillance system. PMID:24384304

McKenzie, Thomas L.; Cohen, Deborah; Evenson, Kelly R.; Golinelli, Daniela; Hillier, Amy; Lapham, Sandra C.; Williamson, Stephanie

2014-01-01

47

The s Process: Nuclear Physics, Stellar Models, Observations  

E-print Network

Nucleosynthesis in the s process takes place in the He burning layers of low mass AGB stars and during the He and C burning phases of massive stars. The s process contributes about half of the element abundances between Cu and Bi in solar system material. Depending on stellar mass and metallicity the resulting s-abundance patterns exhibit characteristic features, which provide comprehensive information for our understanding of the stellar life cycle and for the chemical evolution of galaxies. The rapidly growing body of detailed abundance observations, in particular for AGB and post-AGB stars, for objects in binary systems, and for the very faint metal-poor population represents exciting challenges and constraints for stellar model calculations. Based on updated and improved nuclear physics data for the s-process reaction network, current models are aiming at ab initio solution for the stellar physics related to convection and mixing processes. Progress in the intimately related areas of observations, nuclear...

Kaeppeler, Franz; Bisterzo, Sara; Aoki, Wako

2010-01-01

48

Strongly intensive quantities  

SciTech Connect

Analysis of fluctuations of hadron production properties in collisions of relativistic particles profits from use of measurable intensive quantities which are independent of system size variations. The first family of such quantities was proposed in 1992; another is introduced in this paper. Furthermore we present a proof of independence of volume fluctuations for quantities from both families within the framework of the grand canonical ensemble. These quantities are referred to as strongly intensive ones. Influence of conservation laws and resonance decays is also discussed.

Gorenstein, M. I. [Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kiev (Ukraine); Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Frankfurt (Germany); Gazdzicki, M. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, University of Frankfurt, Frankfurt (Germany); Jan Kochanowski University, Kielce (Poland)

2011-07-15

49

Interpreting Observations of Galaxies through Simulations with Realistic ISM Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To get a complete view of galaxy formation, multiwavelength studies are essential. Such data are now obtainable across a wide range of redshifts. However, to make definitive comparisons between observations and theory, we need to directly connect simulations of galaxy formation to observables. The aim of the proposed research is to advance the state of the art for making observationally testable predictions of theoretical models of galaxy formation and evolution through hydrodynamic simulations of galaxies combined with radiation-transfer models. We will go beyond current ``sub-resolution'' recipes for star formation, feedback, and small-scale dust attenuation used in current simulations and replace these with explicit physics, making it possible to directly test galaxy formation theory against observations. The simulations run with the proposed model will be used to address the following questions: * What processes set the morphologies of star-forming galaxies at redshifts around 2? * Is the Kennicutt-Schmidt law expected to evolve with redshift? * Which processes are responsible for driving galactic winds? * Are observations of dust in high-redshift quasars consistent with theories of where dust grains are produced and destroyed? * How are dust grains transported into galactic halos, and is their survival there consistent with theory? We will accomplish this by augmenting the new Lagrangian unstructured-mesh hydrodynamics code Arepo with the relevant ISM physics: an accurate treatment of gas, metal, and energy return from stars, including supernovae types Ia and II, and AGB stars; a self-consistent estimate of the interstellar radiation field, including radiation pressure; a model for the formation and dissociation of molecular hydrogen; and tracking of the processes responsible for the production and destruction of dust grains. With this new code, we will be able to run simulations of galaxies in a cosmological context while resolving the structure of the interstellar medium on scales of tens of parsecs using realistic physics. These simulations will then be processed with our dust radiation- transfer code Sunrise, generating ``simulated observations'' in the form of images, spectra, and integral field unit-style data cubes including kinematics, directly testing whether the included physical processes are consistent with observed samples of galaxies. The proposed research is well aligned with the goals of the NASA astrophysics theory program, as it is fundamentally oriented towards facilitating the interpretation of observations from NASA facilities such as the Hubble, Galex, Spitzer, and the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope, as well as other ground- and space-based facilities.

Jonsson, Patrik

50

Non-diagonal flavour observables in B and collider physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Until now the focus within the direct search for supersymmetry has mainly been on flavour diagonal observables. Recently lepton flavour violating signals at future electron positron colliders have been studied. There is now an opportunity to analyse the relations between collider observables and low-energy observables in the hadronic sector. In a first work in this direction, we study flavour violation in the squark decays of the second and third generations taking into account results from B physics, in particular from the rare decay b --> s?. Correlations between various squark decay modes can be used to get more precise information on various flavour violating parameters. PACS: 12.60.Jv - 13.25.Hv - 14.80.Ly

Hurth, T.; Porod, W.

51

Extreme value laws in dynamical systems under physical observables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extreme value theory for chaotic deterministic dynamical systems is a rapidly expanding area of research. Given a system and a real function (observable) defined on its phase space, extreme value theory studies the limit probabilistic laws obeyed by large values attained by the observable along orbits of the system. Based on this theory, the so-called block maximum method is often used in applications for statistical prediction of large value occurrences. In this method, one performs statistical inference for the parameters of the Generalised Extreme Value (GEV) distribution, using maxima over blocks of regularly sampled observable values along an orbit of the system. The observables studied so far in the theory are expressed as functions of the distance with respect to a point, which is assumed to be a density point of the system’s invariant measure. However, at least with respect to the ambient (usually Euclidean) metric, this is not the structure of the observables typically encountered in physical applications, such as windspeed or vorticity in atmospheric models. In this paper we consider extreme value limit laws for observables which are not expressed as functions of the distance (in the ambient metric) from a density point of the dynamical system. In such cases, the limit laws are no longer determined by the functional form of the observable and the dimension of the invariant measure: they also depend on the specific geometry of the underlying attractor and of the observable’s level sets. We present a collection of analytical and numerical results, starting with a toral hyperbolic automorphism as a simple template to illustrate the main ideas. We then formulate our main results for a uniformly hyperbolic system, the solenoid map. We also discuss non-uniformly hyperbolic examples of maps (Hénon and Lozi maps) and of flows (the Lorenz63 and Lorenz84 models). Our purpose is to outline the main ideas and to highlight several serious problems found in the numerical estimation of the limit laws.

Holland, Mark P.; Vitolo, Renato; Rabassa, Pau; Sterk, Alef E.; Broer, Henk W.

2012-03-01

52

Physics of the inner heliosphere: Mechanisms, models and observational signatures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Selected problems concerned with the important physical processes that occur in the corona and solar wind acceleration region, particularly time dependent phenomena were studied. Both the physics of the phenomena and the resultant effects on observational signatures, particularly spectroscopic signatures were also studied. Phenomena under study include: wave motions, particularly Alfven and fast mode waves; the formation of standing shocks in the inner heliosphere as a result of momentum and/or heat addition to the wind; and coronal transient phenomena where momentum and/or heat are deposited in the corona to produce transient plasma heating and/or mass ejection. The development of theoretical models for the inner heliosphere, the theoretical investigation of spectroscopic plasma diagnostics for this region, and the analysis of existing skylab and other relevant data are also included.

Withbroe, George L.

1987-01-01

53

Physical Temperature Measurements of L1551 from NH3 Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present NH3 and HC7N images of dark cloud L1551 produced from archive observations of the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT). The observations were fully calibrated with the GBT pipeline, and the NH3 line strengths are used to compute the physical temperature and number density of NH3 in the region. The observations of dark cloud L1551 reveal regions of strong emission of NH3 (1,1) emission and much weaker emission of NH3 (2,2) and HC7N J=21-20 lines. We were able to determine a physical-temperature range of 11 to 19 Kelvin for this cloud, but feel that the methods used to obtain these data are applicable beyond this single object. Therefore, we further present our method for using the NH3 (1,1) line fits to constrain model fits of the density, velocity, and temperature distributions of the other transitions. These data were produced using the spectral-line data-reduction pipeline and are provided as examples of data available from the GBT archive.

Towner, Allison P.; Hosmer, L.; Langston, G.

2013-01-01

54

Report on Physics of Channelization: Theory, Experiment, and Observation  

SciTech Connect

The project involved a study of physical processes that create eroded channel and drainage networks. A particular focus was on how the shape of the channels and the network depended on the nature of the fluid flow. Our approach was to combine theoretical, experimental, and observational studies in close collaboration with Professor Daniel Rothman of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Laboratory -scaled experiments were developed and quantitative data on the shape of the pattern and erosion dynamics are obtained with a laser-aided topography technique and fluorescent optical imaging techniques.

Kudrolli, Arshad [Clark University] [Clark University

2014-05-19

55

Observation of asteroids with GRAVITY - Physical characterization of binary systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Density and internal structures are among the most important characteristics of asteroids, yet these properties are also some of the least known. For distant asteroids (in the Main Belt and beyond) these properties were up to now accessible only for the largest (>100 km in size) asteroids. Going to smaller and fainter asteroids can revolutionize our understanding because we will be sampling a new regime in physical properties. Here we discuss how ground-based optical interferometry with the GRAVITY instrument can be used to observe the motion of asteroid satellites to determine the mass of small binary systems. Following the expected sensitivity performances in K-band of GRAVITY, we present a sample of binary targets potentially observable in single-field mode. The feasibility of such observations will strongly be dependent on the ability of the control software of GRAVITY to track objects moving at high rate on the sky (differential motion ˜f 10 mas.s^{-1}). Although the dual-field mode could allow to increase the sample of small binary asteroids observable, it seems to be currently unfeasible given the high differential motion of asteroids.

Matter, A.; Delbo, M.; Carry, B.; Tanga, P.

2014-12-01

56

Physics of Solar Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs): Theory and Observation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) represent acceleration of magnetized coronal structures to a few thousand km/s in tens of minutes. A recent succession of Sun-observing satellite missions together with a suite of instruments measuring solar wind (SW) plasmas at the L1 Lagrange point have dramatically improved our observational understanding of CME properties from the Sun to 1 AU. The traditional models, which envision releasing magnetic energy stored in the corona via reconnection (accomplished by specified and/or numerical dissipation in these models), have not produced quantitative agreement with the observed CME acceleration and propagation to 1 AU. In this talk, I will present a new concept that does not require reconnection and yields model CME dynamics in good quantitative agreement with data. The underlying magnetic structure is a flux rope, and the basic driving force is the toroidal Lorentz hoop force acting on a flux rope with two legs anchored in the Sun. The force equations were originally derived for axisymmetric toroidal tokamak equilibria by Shafranov, but the basic physics can be adapted to the dynamics of nonaxisymmetric solar flux ropes. The initial flux rope is driven out of equilibrium by increasing its poloidal flux. The calculated acceleration and subsequent propagation of model CMEs have been shown to correctly replicate the observed CME dynamics from the Sun to 1 AU, with the computed plasma and magnetic field parameters at 1 AU in close agreement with the in situ SW data. The increasing poloidal flux produces an electromotive force (EMF) that is sufficient to accelerate particles to X-ray energies. The predicted temporal profile of the EMF given by the best-fit solution to the observed CME trajectory is found to closely coincide with that of the observed associated solar flare X-ray intensity.

Chen, James

2010-11-01

57

Assessing Preschool Children's Physical Activity: The Observational System for Recording Physical Activity in Children-Preschool Version  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper we present initial information concerning a new direct observation system--the Observational System for Recording Physical Activity in Children-Preschool Version. The system will allow researchers to record young children's physical activity levels while also coding the topography of their physical activity, as well as detailed…

Brown, William H.; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; McIver, Kerry L.; Dowda, Marsha; Almeida, M. Joao C. A.; Pate, Russell R.

2006-01-01

58

The Algebra of Physical Observables in Nonlinearly Realized Gauge Theories  

E-print Network

We classify the physical observables in spontaneously broken nonlinearly realized gauge theories in the recently proposed loopwise expansion governed by the Weak Power-Counting (WPC) and the Local Functional Equation. The latter controls the non-trivial quantum deformation of the classical nonlinearly realized gauge symmetry, to all orders in the loop expansion. The Batalin-Vilkovisky (BV) formalism is used. We show that the dependence of the vertex functional on the Goldstone fields is obtained via a canonical transformation w.r.t. the BV bracket associated with the BRST symmetry of the model. We also compare the WPC with strict power-counting renormalizability in linearly realized gauge theories. In the case of the electroweak group we find that the tree-level Weinberg relation still holds if power-counting renormalizability is weakened to the WPC condition.

Quadri, Andrea

2010-01-01

59

The Algebra of Physical Observables in Nonlinearly Realized Gauge Theories  

E-print Network

We classify the physical observables in spontaneously broken nonlinearly realized gauge theories in the recently proposed loopwise expansion governed by the Weak Power-Counting (WPC) and the Local Functional Equation. The latter controls the non-trivial quantum deformation of the classical nonlinearly realized gauge symmetry, to all orders in the loop expansion. The Batalin-Vilkovisky (BV) formalism is used. We show that the dependence of the vertex functional on the Goldstone fields is obtained via a canonical transformation w.r.t. the BV bracket associated with the BRST symmetry of the model. We also compare the WPC with strict power-counting renormalizability in linearly realized gauge theories. In the case of the electroweak group we find that the tree-level Weinberg relation still holds if power-counting renormalizability is weakened to the WPC condition.

Andrea Quadri

2010-07-23

60

Limitations on Some Physical Parameters from Position Observations of Planets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the early 20th century when classical meridian transits of planets can be considered sufficiently accurate many different types the positional observations including almost 400000 optic and high-precision radiotechnical measurements of planets and near- or on-the-planets spacecraft have been obtained. They made it possible not only to improve the orbital elements of planets and values related with ephemerides such as the Astronomical Unit, radius, masses and rotations of planets, but to determine some small physical parameters characterizing the fundamental properties of our physical space. The EPM2006 of IAA RAS ephemerides and, as control, DE405 of JPL ephemerides have been used to analyse the data. Unfortunately, the real accuracy of parameters is reduced by the order or more because of systematic errors of observations of an unknown origin, impossibility to completely allow for the delay in the solar corona, and large correlations between parameters; however some estimations and upper limits may be obtained. The PPN parameters and solar oblateness produced various secular and periodic effects in orbital elements of planets have been estimated from the simultaneous solution: the quadrupole moment of the Sun J[2]=(2±0.5)•10^-7, |? - 1|<0.0002, |? - 1|<0.0002. The upper limit of the density of dark matter in the Solar system resulted from the corrections to secular perihelion advance of the Earth and Mars: ?[dim] < 10^-19 g/cm^3 (I.B. Khriplovich and E.V. Pitjeva, IJMPD, 2006). Estimations obtained for the unmodel secular perihelion precession of Uranus, Neptune and Pluto are substantially below 100" per century and confine the upper limit of the value of anomalous forces suggested for the acceleration of Pioneer spacecraft.

Pitjeva, E. V.

2006-08-01

61

Saddle quantities and applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we make the connection between the theoretical study of the generalized homoclinic loop bifurcation (GHB ?) and the practical computational aspects. For this purpose we first compare the Dulac normal form with the Joyal normal form. These forms were both used to prove the GHB ? theorem. But the second one is far more practical from the algorithmic point of view. We then show that the information carried by these normal forms can be computed in a much simpler way, using what we shall call dual Lyapunov constants. The coefficients of a normal form or the dual Lyapunov quantities are particular cases of what we shall call saddle quantities. We calculate the saddle quantities for quadratic systems, and we show that no more than three limit cycles can appear in a homoclinic loop bifurcation. We also study the homoclinic loop bifurcation of order 5, appearing in a 6-parameter family close to a Hamiltonian system. To our knowledge, this is the first time that one can find a complete description of a GHB ? of such high order. Finally we calculate the saddle quantities for a symmetric cubic vector field, and we deduce a bound for the number of limit cycles that appear in a GHB ?.

Joyal, Pierre; Rousseau, Christiane

62

Observed and Physical Properties of Core-Collapse Supernovae  

E-print Network

I use photometry and spectroscopy data for 24 Type II plateau supernovae to examine their observed and physical properties. This dataset shows that these objects encompass a wide range of ~5 mag in their plateau luminosities, their expansion velocities vary by x5, and the nickel masses produced in these explosions go from 0.0016 to 0.26 Mo. From a subset of 16 objects I find that the explosion energies vary between 0.6x and 5.5x10^51 ergs, the ejected masses encompass the range 14-56 Mo, and the progenitors' radii go from 80 to 600 Ro. Despite this great diversity several regularities emerge, which reveal that there is a continuum in the properties of these objects from the faint, low-energy, nickel-poor SNe 1997D and 1999br, to the bright, high-energy, nickel-rich SN 1992am. This study provides evidence that more massive progenitors produce more energetic explosions, thus suggesting that the outcome of the core collapse is somewhat determined by the envelope mass. I find also that supernovae with greater energies produce more nickel. Similar relationships appear to hold for Type Ib/c supernovae, which suggests that both Type II and Type Ib/c supernovae share the same core physics. When the whole sample of core collapse objects is considered, there is a continous distribution of energies below 8x10^51 ergs. Far above in energy scale and nickel production lies the extreme hypernova 1998bw, the only supernova firmly associated to a GRB.

Mario Hamuy

2002-09-10

63

OBSERVED ENVIRONMENTAL FEATURES AND THE PHYSICAL ACTIVITY OF ADOLESCENT MALES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Background: It has recently been reported that adult physical activity was associated with environmental features. The aim of this study was to determine whether environmental features were associated with physical activity among male adolescents. Methods: Physical activity levels of 210 Boy Scouts ...

64

Directly Observed Physical Activity Levels in Preschool Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Millions of young children attend preschools and other structured child development programs, but little is known about their physical activity levels while in those settings. The purpose of this study was to describe the physical activity levels and demographic and school-related correlates of physical activity in children attending…

Pate, Russell R.; McIver, Kerry; Dowda, Marsha; Brown, William H.; Addy, Cheryl

2008-01-01

65

Observations and Inferred Physical Characteristics of Compact Intracloud Discharges  

SciTech Connect

Compact intracloud discharges (CIDS) represent a distinct class of electrical discharges that occur within intense regions of thunderstorms. They are singular discharges that produce brief (typically 3 µs in duration) broadband RF emissions that are 20 to 30 dB more powerful than radiation from all other recorded lightning processes in the HF and VHF radio spectrum. Far field electric field change recordings of CIDS consist of a single, large-amplitude bipolar pulse that begins to rise during the RF-producing phase of the CID and typically lasts for 20 µs. During the summer of 1998 we operated a 4-station array of electric field change meters in New Mexico to support FORTE satellite observations of transient RF and optical sources and to learn more about the phenomenology and physical characteristics of CIDS. Over 800 CIDS were detected and located during the campaign. The events were identified on the basis of their unique field change waveforms. CID source heights determined using the relative delays of ionospherically reflected source emissions were typically between 4 and 11 km above ground level. Events of both positive and negative polarity were observed with events' of initially- negative polarity (indicative of discharges occurring between underlying positive and overlying negative charge) occurring at slightly higher altitudes. Within CID field change waveforms the CID pulse was often followed within a few ms by one or more smaller-amplitude pulses. We associate these subsequent pulses with the initial activity of a "normal" intracloud flash, the inference being that some fraction of the time, a CID initiates an intracloud lightning flash.

Argo, P.E.; Eack, K.B.; Holden, D.N.; Massey, R.S.; Shao, X.; Smith, D.A.; Wiens, K.C.

1999-02-01

66

Synoptic Observations for Physical Characterization of Fast Rotator NEOs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NEOs can be studied not only dynamically, to learn about their impact hazard, but also physically, to establish various properties important both to better address their potential hazard and also to understand what they can tell us about the origin of the solar system and its ongoing processes.Taking advantage of the two-meter-class telescopes around Tucson, we plan to observe NEOs synoptically using telescopes at three different locations: VATT (Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope) at Mount Graham (longitude: -109.8719, latitude: 32.7016, elevation: 10469 feet), Bok 2.3 m at Kitt Peak (longitude: -111.6004, latitude: 31.9629, elevation: 6795 feet) and Kuiper 1.5-m at Mount Bigelow (longitude: -110.7345, latitude: 32.4165, elevation: 8235 feet). All three telescopes will aim simultaneously at the same object, each with a different instrument. The three telescopes will be part of the Arizona Robotic Telescope (ART) network, a University of Arizona initiative to provide near real-time observations of Target of Opportunity objects across the visible and near-infrared wavelengths. The VATT-4K optical imager mounted on the VATT has already been used for photometry. In the future we plan to utilize the BCSpec (Boller & Chivens Spectrograph) for visible spectroscopy on Bok 2.3 meter and a near-infrared instrument on Kuiper 1.5 meter. We report here the preliminary results of several NEOs whose rotation rate and color have been estimated using photometry with images recorded with VATT-4K. 2009 SQ104 has a rotation rate of 6.85+/- 0.03 h, 2014 AY28 has a rotation rate of 0.91 +/- 0.02 h, 2014 EC of 0.54 +/-0.04 h, 2014 FA44 of 3.45 +/- 0.05 h, and 2014 KS40 of 1.11 +/- 0.06 h.

Kikwaya Eluo, Jean-Baptiste; Hergenrother, Carl W.

2014-11-01

67

Blue Stragglers in Globular Clusters: Observations, Statistics and Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This chapter explores how we might use the observed statistics of blue stragglers in globular clusters to shed light on their formation. This means we will touch on topics also discussed elsewhere in this book, such as the discovery and implications of bimodal radial distributions and the "double sequences" of blue stragglers that have recently been found in some clusters. However, we will focus particularly on the search for a "smoking gun" correlation between the number of blue stragglers in a given globular cluster and a physical cluster parameter that would point towards a particular formation channel. As we shall see, there is little evidence for an intrinsic correlation between blue straggler numbers and stellar collision rates, even in dense cluster cores. On the other hand, there is a clear correlation between blue straggler numbers and the total (core) mass of the cluster. This would seem to point towards a formation channel involving binaries, rather than dynamical encounters. However, the correlation between blue straggler numbers and actual binary numbers—which relies on recently determined empirical binary fractions—is actually weaker than that with core mass. We explain how this surprising result may be reconciled with a binary formation channel if binary fractions depend almost uniquely on core mass. If this is actually the case, it would have significant implications for globular cluster dynamics more generally.

Knigge, Christian

68

Intermediate dosimetric quantities.  

PubMed

The transfer of energy from ionizing radiation to matter involves a series of steps. In wide ranges of their energy spectra photons and neutrons transfer energy to an irradiated medium almost exclusively by the production of charged particles which ionize and thereby produce electrons that can ionize in turn. The examination of these processes leads to a series of intermediate quantities. One of these is kerma, which has long been employed as a measure of the energy imparted in the first of the interactions. It depends only on the fluence of uncharged particles and is therefore--unlike absorbed dose and electron fluence--insensitive to local differences of receptor geometry and composition. An analogous quantity for charged-particle fields, cema (converted energy per unit mass), is defined, which quantifies the energy imparted in terms of the interactions of charged particles, disregarding energy dissipation by secondary electrons. Cema can be expressed as an integral over the fluence of ions times their stopping power. However, complications arise when the charged particles are electrons, and when their fluence cannot be separated from that of the secondaries. The resulting difficulty can be circumvented by the definition of reduced cema. This quantity corresponds largely to the concept employed in the cavity theory of Spencer and Attix. In reduced cema not all secondary electrons but all electrons below a chosen cutoff energy, delta, are considered to be absorbed locally. When the cutoff energy is reduced, cema approaches absorbed dose and thereby becomes sensitive to highly local differences in geometry or composition. With larger values of delta, reduced cema is a useful parameter to specify the dose-generating potential of a charged-particle field 'free in air' or in vacuo. It is nearly equal to the mean absorbed dose in a sphere with radius equal to the range of electrons of energy delta. Reduced cema is a function of the fluence at the specified location at and above the chosen cutoff energy. Its definition requires a modification of restricted linear collision stopping power, L delta, and it is recommended that the definition of L delta be so changed. PMID:1561314

Kellerer, A M; Hahn, K; Rossi, H H

1992-04-01

69

Physical properties of orbital debris from spectroscopic observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently, certain physical properties, such as material type and albedo, of orbital debris are assumed when used to determine the size of the objects. A study to ascertain whether or not the assumed values are valid has begun using reflectance spectroscopy as a means of determining the material type of the object. What appears to some as a squiggly line

K. Jorgensen; J. Africano; K. Hamada; E. Stansbery; P. Kervin

2004-01-01

70

Spherical Unidentified Anomalous Phenomena: Scientific Observations and Physical Hypotheses, Danger Evaluation For Aviation and Future Observational Plans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spherical unidentified anomalous phenomena (UAP), of both plasma and solid-like kinds, have often been observed in the world. Several monitoring campaigns have permitted us to know better some structural properties and temporal behaviour of such phenomena. On the basis of what has been observed so far, and considering the deduced constants that characterize the phenomenon, and of the consequent physical working-hypotheses that results, possible dangers to aviation are examined from several point of view of physical science; both natural and non-natural features of these kind of UAP are considered. A systematic instrumented observational plan is proposed, involving both recurrence areas and time flaps of the phenomenon itself.

Teodorani, M.

2010-05-01

71

Directly Observed Physical Activity among 3-Year-Olds in Finnish Childcare  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main purpose of the study was to determine 3-year-olds' physical activity levels and how these vary across season, gender, time of day, location, and the physical and social environment in childcare settings in Finland. A modified version of the Observational System for Recording Physical Activity in Children-Preschool (OSRAC-P) was used…

Soini, Anne; Villberg, Jari; Sääkslahti, Arja; Gubbels, Jessica; Mehtälä, Anette; Kettunen, Tarja; Poskiparta, Marita

2014-01-01

72

The physics and modes of star cluster formation: observations.  

PubMed

Stellar clusters are born in cold and dusty molecular clouds and the youngest clusters are embedded to various degrees in a dusty dark molecular material. Such embedded clusters can be considered protocluster systems. The most deeply buried examples are so heavily obscured by dust that they are only visible at infrared wavelengths. These embedded protoclusters constitute the nearest laboratories for a direct astronomical investigation of the physical processes of cluster formation and early evolution. I review the present state of empirical knowledge concerning embedded-cluster systems and discuss the implications for understanding their formation and subsequent evolution to produce bound stellar clusters. PMID:20083503

Lada, Charles J

2010-02-28

73

Physical properties of the planets and satellites from radar observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The radar cross section of a planetary target is defined as the area of an isotropic scatterer, normal to the illumination, that would yield the observed echo intensity, if it were placed at the target's location. Attention is given to the angular scattering law, surface imagery, and topography. The observational results are discussed, taking into account the moon and the inner planets, the asteroids, the Galilean satellites, and the rings of Saturn. It is pointed out that the reach of radar astronomy has maintained nearly an exponential growth over the past three decades, as the sensitivity of available radar systems has on average more than doubled each year. There are, however, limits to this growth set by the large costs required for a new generation of observing facilities. Only modest increases in radar system sensitivity are, therefore, expected for the next decade.

Pettengill, G. H.

1978-01-01

74

Geometrical properties of Riemannian superspaces, observables and physical states  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Classical and quantum aspects of physical systems that can be described by Riemannian non-degenerate superspaces are analyzed from the topological and geometrical points of view. For the N=1 case the simplest supermetric introduced by Cirilo-Lombardo (Phys. Lett. B 661:186, 2008) have the correct number of degrees of freedom for the fermion fields and the super-momentum fulfills the mass shell condition, in sharp contrast with other cases in the literature where the supermetric is degenerate. This fact leads a deviation of the 4-impulse (e.g. mass constraint) that can be mechanically interpreted as a modification of the Newton law. Quantum aspects of the physical states and the basic states, and the projection relation between them, are completely described due the introduction of a new Majorana-Weyl representation of the generators of the underlying group manifold. A new oscillatory fermionic effect in the B 0 part of the vacuum solution involving the chiral and antichiral components of this Majorana bispinor is explicitly shown.

Cirilo-Lombardo, Diego Julio

2012-07-01

75

The JMU Mineral Museum - Observing Physical Properties of Minerals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Mineral museums provide a resourse for students to explore beautiful examples of minerals. During the exploration process, they can also apply or reinforce visual observation skills they have learned in lab. The James Madison University Mineral Museum (http://csm.jmu.edu/minerals/) provides educational opportunities for both introductory geology and earth science courses as well as advanced major. In this exercise, students have possibly their first opportunity to enjoy the wonderous world of minerals in an exhilerating display. During the exploration process, students are provided a reinforcment of visual observation skills previously experienced in lab and an introduction to mineral names and classifications.

Cynthia A. Kearns

76

Learning to Detect Error in Movement Timing Using Physical and Observational Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three experiments assessed the possibility that a physical practice participant 's ability to render appropriate movement timing estimates may be hindered compared to those who merely observed. Results from these experiments revealed that observers and physical practice participants executed and estimated the overall durations of movement…

Black, Charles B.; Wright, David L.; Magnuson, Curt E.; Brueckner, Sebastian

2005-01-01

77

Physical Oceanography of the Caribbean Sea: Some Recent Observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent oceanographic observations in the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico (the Intra-Americas Sea) have contributed to our understanding of IAS circulation, the dynamics forcing the circulation, and the role of the IAS in hemispheric ocean processes. Specifically, recent results from several programs will be presented and discussed: The Windward Islands Passages Program, designed to measure upper ocean transport and

D. Wilson; W. E. Johns

2001-01-01

78

Contribution of resonance tunneling of molecule to physical observables  

E-print Network

Probabilities of resonant tunneling through a potential barrier are compared for a rigid molecule and an excited molecule. It is shown that the resonance spectrum is mainly governed by the transmission resonance spectrum of the rigid molecule. Analytical expressions for the probability for the tunneling of the rigid molecule through a barrier allow resonance-spectrum-averaged observables, including quantum diffusion, to be estimated.

P. M. Krassovitskiy; F. M. Pen'kov

2014-12-12

79

Near-Earth Asteroid Physical Observations: 1993-1995  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In September 1993, we initiated a regular program of photometric observations of Near-Earth objects. Since that time we have been allocated 5-7 nights per month at the 42'' Hall telescope at Anderson Mesa. There are three goals of our observing program for each asteroid: (1) to obtain an accurate rotation period and characterization of the lightcurve, (2) to obtain the surface color, and (3) to measure the photometric parameters, H and G. All of the lightcurve observations are made in Kron-Cousins R and we always obtain a V-R color. Limited ECAS colors are also obtained when the objects are bright enough. We have secured periods for 9 asteroids, 1864 Daedalus, 1866 Sisyphus, 3200 Phaethon, 4954 Eric, 5693 (1993 EA), 5836 (1993 MF), 6489 (1991 JX), 1993 QP, and 1993 WD. Some of these periods are a confimation of an earlier result but most are new. We obtained colors for all these objects as well as four additional asteroids, 5407 (1992 AX), 1993 UC, 1993 VW, and 1994 LW. We have additional (as yet unreduced) observations of 2062 Aten, 2212 Hephaistos, 3752 Camillo, 5143 Heracles, 5863 (1983 RB), 6053 (1993 BW3), 7025 (1993 QA), 7092 (1992 LC), 1989 VA, 1992 TC, 1994 RC, and 1995 YA3. The fastest rotation period we find is 2.402 hours for 1866 Sisyphus and the slowest is 93QP at ~ 24 hours. The colors for these objects range from V-R=0.34 for 3200 Phaethon to V-R=0.49 for 1866 Sisyphus and 4954 Eric. Most colors fall near V-R=0.43. These observations should help to provide a more complete understanding of the surface properties and rotational states of the Near-Earth asteroids. This work was supported by NASA Grant NAGW-1470.

Skiff, B. A.; Buie, M. W.; Bowell, E.

1996-09-01

80

Giacobini-Zinner comet: Polarimetric and physical observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of observations of the Giacobini-Zinner comet on 25 and 31 October 1959 are presented. The magnitude of the comet was measured photoelectrically in two spectral regions. The radius is on the order of one kilometer. The photoelectric measurements of comets 1959b and 1957c were used to measure the abundances of the CN and C2 radicals and of solid particles in the heads.

Martel, M. T.; Maines, P.; Grudzinska, S.; Stawikowski, A.

1984-01-01

81

Observable gravitational and electromagnetic orbits and trajectories in discrete physics  

SciTech Connect

Our discrete and finite version of relativistic quantum mechanics provides an elementary particle physics consistent with the standard model of quarks and leptons. Our recent relativistic calculation of the bound state spectrum of hydrogen has allowed us to make a combinatorial correction to the first order estimate of 1/..cap alpha.. = /Dirac h/c/e/sup 2/ = 137 derived from the combinatorial hierarchy and achieve agreement with experiment up to terms of order ..cap alpha../sup 3/. The same theory requires that to first order /Dirac h/c/Gm/sub p//sup 2/ = 2/sup 127/ + 136 approx. = 1.7 /times/ 10/sup 38/. Using the emission and absorption of spin 1 photons and spin 2 gravitons in this framework, we try to show that we can meet the three additional tests of general relativity---solar red shift, solar bending of light, and precession of the perihelion of Mercury. We predict that a macroscopic electromagnetic orbit would have four times the Sommerfeld precession for basically the same reason that Mercury has six times the Sommerfeld precession. 20 refs.

Noyes, H.P.; McGoveran, D.O.

1988-11-28

82

Physical Oceanography of the Caribbean Sea: Some Recent Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent oceanographic observations in the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico (the Intra-Americas Sea) have contributed to our understanding of IAS circulation, the dynamics forcing the circulation, and the role of the IAS in hemispheric ocean processes. Specifically, recent results from several programs will be presented and discussed: The Windward Islands Passages Program, designed to measure upper ocean transport and water mass properties of the exchange between the Atlantic Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, is entering its tenth year of observations. Mean transport estimates based on 10 to 20 sections now exist for the major passages between Trinidad and the Virgin Islands. Approximately 19 of the estimated 32 Sv in the Florida Straits enter through these passages, of which approximately 12 enter south of Dominica, 6 in the Grenada Passage. The Caribbean Inflow Variability Experiment is designed to continuously monitor the transport through the Grenada Passage. Plans are in place to monitor a submarine telephone cable between Grenada and Trinidad to estimate transport; at present several shipboard velocity sections and year-long pressure gauge records are available as part of the program. Dominant low-frequency signals in the cross-passage pressure difference are 30 - 60 days. The NOPP Year of the Ocean Drifting Buoy Program placed over 150 WOCE-style surface drifting buoys in the IAS during 1998 - 2000. Analysis of drifter tracks shows the best picture to date of IAS surface currents, including well-resolved gyres in the SW Caribbean (Panama-Colombia) region. Monitoring of Florida Straits transport via submarine cable is once again active, complemented by quarterly CD and transport cruises. Analyses of historical transport data (Baringer & Larson, 2001) have shown correlations between low frequency transport variability and climate indices (e. g., NAO). Additionally, full-depth velocity profiles across the straits are available weekly from the 38 kHz ADCP mounted on the Explorer of the Seas cruise ship. Availability of these and other observational resources, its semi-enclosed and well-bounded geography, and its significance to downstream North American oceanic and atmospheric conditions make the IAS an excellent region for model development and validation.

Wilson, D.; Johns, W. E.

2001-12-01

83

[ital COBE] DMR observations of early universe physics  

SciTech Connect

The [ital COBE] Differential Microwave Radiometer (DMR) instrument has observed that the full microwave sky is remarkably uniform in the millimeter to centimeter wavelength range. However at a small level ([le]10[sup [minus]5]), there is large-scale structure. The natural interpretation of this structure is as the imprint of spatial curvature fluctuations, primarily due to density variations, in the early universe. The results are supportive of gravitational instability theories of structure formation and inflation/quantum cosmology models. The natural energy scale for inflation then is [similar to]10[sup 16] GeV. A failure to find fluctuations within a factor of two of the [ital COBE] DMR level would have contradicted gravitational instability models with a near scale-invariant spectra.

Smoot, G.F. (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, SSL and CfPA University of California, Bldg. 50-351 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States))

1992-02-05

84

Models of GRB shocks: physics predictions, observational tests  

SciTech Connect

Radiation from GRBs, either in the prompt phase or seen as flares or an afterglow, is believed to be produced at shocks by accelerated electrons in magnetic fields. However, there are alternatives, at least for the prompt and flares, namely the magnetically dominated and Poynting flux driven outflows, where no shocks presumably form at all. The outflow properties are intimately linked to the central engine/progenitor; hence, to understand the nature of the outflow is of great importance. Here we review the present status of the 'standard model of GRBs' - the model with internal/external shocks. We briefly discuss two alternative models of the magnetic field generation at shocks: the model based on the Weibel instability and the recently proposed one based on the generation of vorticity at a shock. We also address the electron energization/acceleration mechanisms (including non-Fermi) in both models. The observational predictions for the spectral and temporal dynamics of the produced radiation have been elaborated as well; these include: (i) the Jitter radiation and spectral variability in the Weibel model and (ii) the time-evolving magnetic equipartition parameter in the vorticity model. The predictions appear to be quite different and this provides certain hope that they can allow to differentiate between the models.

Medvedev, Mikhail V. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66045 (United States)

2008-05-22

85

Development of a Direct Observation Instrument to Measure Environmental Characteristics of Parks for Physical Activity  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The study's purpose is to describe the development and evaluate the reliability (inter-observer agreement) and validity (rater agreement with a gold standard) of a direct observation instrument to assess park characteristics that may be related to physical activity. A direct observation instrument ...

86

Modulation of Motor Cortex Excitability by Physical Similarity with an Observed Hand Action  

Microsoft Academic Search

The passive observation of hand actions is associated with increased motor cortex excitability, presumably reflecting activity within the human mirror neuron system (MNS). Recent data show that in-group ethnic membership increases motor cortex excitability during observation of culturally relevant hand gestures, suggesting that physical similarity with an observed body part may modulate MNS responses. Here, we ask whether the MNS

Marie-Christine Désy; Hugo Théoret; Edwin Robertson

2007-01-01

87

Radar Observations and Physical Model of Asteroid 6489 Golevka  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report 8510-MHz (3.5-cm) radar observations of the Earth-crossing asteroid (ECA) 6489 Golevka (1991 JX) obtained between June 3 and June 15, 1995, at Goldstone, the Very Large Array and the Evpatoria (Ukraine) and Kashima (Japan) radio antennas. One-dimensional Doppler spectra are used to estimate the object's convex hull, refine the ephemeris, and yield four possible pole directions. Three-dimensional modeling using two-dimensional delay-Doppler images and published lightcurves unambiguously defines the pole and reveals an extraordinarily angular shape with flat sides, sharp edges and corners, and peculiar concavities. The equivalent diameter of the object is 530±30 m, with moments of inertia about the (long, intermediate, short) axes proportional to (1.00, 1.38, 1.39) ±0.1. The asteroid's pole direction is ?=202±5°, ?=-45±5°, and its sidereal period is P=6.0289±0.0001 h. The asteroid's circular polarization ratio, SC/OC=0.23±0.02, is lower than the average for radar-detected near-Earth asteroids and reveals only a modest degree of near-surface roughness at scales near the 3.5-cm wavelength. However, the approximately Lambertian radar scattering law implies considerable surface roughness at larger scales. The asteroid's radar scattering law is modeled as ?cos n?, with ?=0.25±0.12 and n=1.7±0.7 giving an equivalent spherical albedo of 0.18±0.09. This value is in the middle of the distribution of albedos of S-class asteroid's previously imaged by radar. The Hapke parameters describing the object's optical scattering properties are w=0.173±0.006, h=0.024±0.012, B0=1.03±0.45, g=-0.34±0.02, and overline?=20±5°. Both the optical and the radar scattering properties are consistent with those of a typical S-class asteroid. Goldstone-VLA plane-of-sky images do not resolve the asteroid but do provide astrometry with uncertainties less than 0.1 arcsec. Integration of an orbit based on all available radar and optical astrometry shows that Golevka has an insignificant probability of collision with any planet during at least the next nine centuries. We investigate Golevka's dynamical environment, assuming uniform density. Some areas of the surface are characterized by large enough slopes that we expect that they are exposed, solid, monolithic rock.

Hudson, R. S.; Ostro, S. J.; Jurgens, R. F.; Rosema, K. D.; Giorgini, J. D.; Winkler, R.; Rose, R.; Choate, D.; Cormier, R. A.; Franck, C. R.; Frye, R.; Howard, D.; Kelley, D.; Littlefair, R.; Slade, M. A.; Benner, L. A. M.; Thomas, M. L.; Mitchell, D. L.; Chodas, P. W.; Yeomans, D. K.; Scheeres, D. J.; Palmer, P.; Zaitsev, A.; Koyama, Y.; Nakamura, A.; Harris, A. W.; Meshkov, M. N.

2000-11-01

88

BEACHES: An Observational System for Assessing Children's Eating and Physical Activity Behaviors and Associated Events.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Behaviors of Eating and Activity for Children's Health Evaluation System (BEACHES) codes direct observations of children's dietary and physical activity behaviors and associated environmental events, including physical location, antecedents, and consequences. The system's reliability and validity was assessed in a study of 42 children (ages…

McKenzie, Thomas L.; And Others

1991-01-01

89

CVT/GPL phase 2 integrated testing. [in earth observations, space physics, and material sciences  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experiments representing earth observations, space physics, and material sciences disciplines were installed in the General Purpose Laboratory (GPL). The experiments and the GPL are described. The experiments interfaces the GPL and GPL support systems are assessed. The experiments were cloud physics, ionospheric disturbances, material sciences, high energy astronomy, and superfluid helium.

Shurney, R. E.; Maybee, G.; Schmitt, S.

1974-01-01

90

Nonclassical transport processes in geologic media: Review of field and laboratory observations and basic physical concepts  

SciTech Connect

We present an overview of the problem of solute transport in unsaturated heterogeneous media. We first review field and laboratory observations that demonstrate nonclassical flow and transport behavior. The main physical principles causing anomalous transport regimes in fractured rock media are identified. The basic factors and physical concepts needed to describe anomalous transport in saturated and unsaturated fractured rock are discussed in detail.

Bolshov, L.; Kondratenko, P.; Pruess, K.; Semenov, V.

2008-09-01

91

Physical Therapy Observation and Assessment in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents the elements of the Observation and Assessment section of the Infant Care Path for Physical Therapy in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). The types of physical therapy assessments presented in this path are evidence-based and the suggested timing of these assessments is primarily based on practice knowledge from expert…

Byrne, Eilish; Campbell, Suzann K.

2013-01-01

92

OBSERVED, GIS, AND SELF-REPORTED ENVIRONMENTAL FEATURES AND ADOLESCENT PHYSICAL ACTIVITY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Purpose: Examine associations among observed, self-reported, and Geographical Information Systems (GIS) environmental features and physical activity among adolescent males. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Boy Scout troops and neighborhoods in Houston, Texas. Subjects: Two hundred and ten ...

93

Testing Gravitational Physics with Space-based Gravitational-wave Observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gravitational wave observations provide exceptional and unique opportunities for precision tests of gravitational physics, as predicted by general relativity (GR). Space-based gravitational wave measurements, with high signal-to-noise ratios and large numbers of observed events may provide the best-suited gravitational-wave observations for testing GR with unprecedented precision. These observations will be especially useful in testing the properties of gravitational waves and strong-field aspects of the theory which are less relevant in other observations. We review the proposed GR test based on observations of massive black hole mergers, extreme mass ratio inspirals, and galactic binary systems.

Baker, John G.

2011-01-01

94

A physical explanation of an observed link area-slope relationship  

Microsoft Academic Search

An observed log-log linear relationship between channel slope and contributing area is explained by the erosional physics that lead to catchment form. It is postulated that tectonic uplift is in balance with the fluvial erosion down wasting that dominates catchment erosion, and it is shown that this relationship results in the observed log-log linear relationship at dynamic equilibrium. In addition,

Garry Willgoose; Rafael L. Bras; Ignacio Rodriguez-Iturbe

1991-01-01

95

A comparison of cloud microphysical quantities with forecasts from cloud prediction models  

SciTech Connect

Numerical weather prediction models (ECMWF, NCEP) are evaluated using ARM observational data collected at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. Cloud forecasts generated by the models are compared with cloud microphysical quantities, retrieved using a variety of parameterizations. Information gained from this comparison will be utilized during the FASTER project, as models are evaluated for their ability to reproduce fast physical processes detected in the observations. Here the model performance is quantified against the observations through a statistical analysis. Observations from remote sensing instruments (radar, lidar, radiometer and radiosonde) are used to derive the cloud microphysical quantities: ice water content, liquid water content, ice effective radius and liquid effective radius. Unfortunately, discrepancies in the derived quantities arise when different retrieval schemes are applied to the observations. The uncertainty inherent in retrieving the microphysical quantities using various retrievals is estimated from the range of output microphysical values. ARM microphysical retrieval schemes (Microbase, Mace) are examined along with the CloudNet retrieval processing of data from the ARM sites for this purpose. Through the interfacing of CloudNet and “ARM” processing schemes an ARMNET product is produced and employed as accepted observations in the assessment of cloud model predictions.

Dunn, M.; Jensen, M.; Hogan, R.; O’Connor, E.; Huang, D.

2010-03-15

96

On Whether People Have the Capacity to Make Observations of Mutually Excl usive Physical Phenomena Simultaneously  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been shown by Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen that in quantum mechanics two different wave functions can simultaneously characterize the same physical existent. This result means that one can make predictions regarding simultaneous, mutually exclusive features of a physical existent. It is important to ask whether people have the capacity to make observations of mutually exclusive phenomena simultaneously? Our everyday experience informs us that a human observer is capable of observing only one set of physical circumstances at a time. Evidence from psychology, though, indicates that people indeed have the capacity to make observations of mutually exclusive phenomena simultaneously, even though this capacity is not generally recognized. Working independently, Sigmund Freud and William James provided some of this evidence. How the nature of the quantum mechanical wave function is associated with the problem posed by Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen, is addressed at the end of the paper.

Snyder

1998-04-01

97

In situ observations of aerosol physical and optical properties in northern India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The southern Asia, including India, is exposed to substantial quantities of particulate air pollution originating mainly from fossil fuel combustion and biomass burning. Besides serious adverse health effects, these aerosols cause a large reduction of solar radiation at the surface accompanied by a substantial atmospheric heating, which is expected to have significant influences on the air temperature, crop yields, livestock and water resources over the southern Asia. The various influences by aerosols in this region depend crucially on the development of aerosol emissions from household, industrial, transportation and biomass burning sectors. The main purpose of this study is to investigate several measured aerosol optical and physical properties. We take advantage of observations from two measurement stations which have been established by the Finnish Meteorological Institute and The Energy and Resources Institute. Another station is on the foothills of Himalayas, in Mukteshwar, about 350 km east of New Delhi at elevation about 2 km ASL. This site is considered as a rural background site. Measurements of aerosol size distribution (7-500 nm), PM10, PM2.5, aerosol scattering and absorption coefficients and weather parameters have been conducted since 2006. Another station is located at the outskirts of New Delhi, in Gual Pahari, about 35 km south of city centre. It is considered as an urban background site. Measurements of aerosol size distribution (7 nm- 10 ?m), PM10, PM2.5, aerosol scattering and absorption coefficients, aerosol optical depth, aerosol vertical distribution (LIDAR), aerosol filter sampling for chemical characterization and weather parameters were conducted between 2008 and 2010. On the overall average PM10 and PM2.5 values were about 3-4 times higher in Gual Pahari than in Mukteshwar as expected, 216 and 126 ?g m^-3, respectively. However, difference depended much on the season, so that during winter time PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations were about 9 and 6 times higher in Gual Pahari than in Mukteshwar. During the pre-monsoon the concentrations in Gual Pahari were only twofold compared to Mukteshwar. The monsoon cleans the atmosphere from particulate matter so that PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations reduced to more than half compared to pre-monsoon values. We also found a very clear diurnal cycle on both station, except during the monsoon season. However the phase of the cycle was different between stations. This annual and diurnal variation is controlled besides emissions by evolution of boundary layer and transport of aerosols from Indo- Gangetic plains to the background site in Mukteshwar. Basically all measured aerosol properties behaved similarly. We also analyzed the data to observe the so called elevated heat pump hypothesis and trends in long term aerosol properties, although six years of data is not enough to make solid conclusions.

Lihavainen, H.; Hyvarinen, A.; Hooda, R. K.; Raatikainen, T. E.; Sharma, V.; Komppula, M.

2012-12-01

98

Quantity Calculus: Unambiguous Designation of Values and Units in Graphs and Tables  

Microsoft Academic Search

The method of quantity calculus treats physical quantities as the product of a numerical value and a unit. This method, known for more than a century and internationally recommended for handling of physical quantities, is not used as extensively in textbooks and teaching as it could be. This paper gives some background to the methodology, and shows examples, suitable for

Mary Anne White

1998-01-01

99

Eyes on the Block: Measuring Urban Physical Disorder Through In-Person Observation  

PubMed Central

In this paper, we present results from measuring physical disorder in Los Angeles neighborhoods. Disorder measures came from structured observations conducted by trained field interviewers. We examine inter-rater reliability of disorder measures in depth. We assess the effects of observation conditions on the reliability of reporting. Finally, we examine the relationships between disorder, other indicators of neighborhood status, and selected individual outcomes. Our results indicate that there is considerable variation in the level of agreement among independent observations across items, although overall agreement is moderate to high. Durable indicators of disorder provide the most reliable measures of neighborhood conditions. Circumstances of observation have statistically significant effects on the observers’ perceived level of disorder. Physical disorder is significantly related to other indicators of neighborhood status, and to children’s reading and behavior development. This result suggests a need for further research into the effects of neighborhood disorder on children. PMID:21643484

Pebley, Anne R.; Sastry, Narayan

2011-01-01

100

In-situ observation of a soap film catenoid - a simple educational physics experiment  

E-print Network

The solution to the Euler-Lagrange equation is an extremal functional.To understand that the functional is stationary at local extrema (maxima or minima), we propose a physics experiment that involves using soap film to form a catenoid. A catenoid is a surface that is formed between two coaxial circular rings and is classified mathematically as a minimal surface.Using soap film, we create catenoids between two rings and characterize the catenoid in-situ while varying distance between rings. The shape of the soap film is very interesting and can be explained using dynamic mechanics. By observing catenoid, physics students can observe local extrema phenomena. We stress that in-situ observation of soap film catenoids is an appropriate physics experiment that combines theory and experimentation.

Masato Ito; Taku Sato

2009-12-22

101

Trigonometric functions of nonlinear quantities  

SciTech Connect

Trigonometric functions of nonlinear quantities are introduced. Functions of the form {line_integral}(x{sup a}), {line_integral}(x{sup y}), and {line_integral}{sup n}(x{sup a}) are reported, where {line_integral} is a trigonometric function such as cos, sin, tan, cot, sec, or csc; x is a variable; a is a constant; y is a variable; and n is a constant. Sums, products and quotients of these functions are defined. Trigonometric functions of nonlinear quantities involving constants to variable powers also are mentioned. Possible applications to quantum mechanics, gravity, and a final theory of matter are discussed.

Wester, D.W.

1994-08-01

102

Research in space physics at the University of Iowa. [astronomical observatories, spaceborne astronomy, satellite observation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Various research projects in space physics are summarized. Emphasis is placed on: (1) the study of energetic particles in outer space and their relationships to electric, magnetic, and electromagnetic fields associated with the earth, the sun, the moon, the planets, and interplanetary medium; (2) observational work on satellites of the earth and the moon, and planetary and interplanetary spacecraft; (3) phenomenological analysis and interpretation; (4) observational work by ground based radio-astronomical and optical techniques; and (5) theoretical problems in plasma physics. Specific fields of current investigations are summarized.

Vanallen, J. A.

1974-01-01

103

The optimum quantity of debt  

Microsoft Academic Search

We find that the welfare gains to being at the optimum quantity of debt rather than the current US level are small, and, therefore, concerns regarding the high level of debt in the US economy may be misplaced. This finding is based on a model of a large number of infinitely lived households whose saving behavior is influenced by precautionary

S. Rao Aiyagari; Ellen R. McGrattan

1998-01-01

104

Observed Initiation and Reciprocity of Physical Aggression in Young, At-Risk Couples  

PubMed Central

The present study examined sex differences in initiation of physical aggression as observed during discussion tasks and in the likelihood of a similar response from the partner. In addition, patterns for men and women in the prevalence of aggression initiation and partner reciprocation across 4 time points spanning approximately 9 years from late adolescence through the mid-20s are examined, as well as overall associations with reported aggression and injuries. Findings indicated that the young women were more likely than the men to initiate physical aggression at late adolescence, but by the mid-20s in early adulthood there were no significant sex differences in initiation rates. The average rates of reciprocation across the 4 time points appeared to be similar for men and women. Women and men appeared more likely to report injuries if the couples observed physical aggression involved mutual aggression in their interactions. PMID:17468783

Capaldi, Deborah M.; Kim, Hyoun K.; Shortt, Joann Wu

2006-01-01

105

Tri-Axial Accelerometry and Heart Rate Telemetry: Relation and Agreement with Behavioral Observation in Elementary Physical Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relation and agreement of tri-axial accelerometry and heart rate telemetry in measuring moderate to vigorous physical activity were examined in association to behavioral observation during 1st- and 2nd-grade physical education. In Study 1, physical activity measures of heart rate and behavioral observation were collected on 346 participants…

Scruggs, Philip W.; Beveridge, Sandy K.; Clocksin, Brian D.

2005-01-01

106

2009 C. H. McCloy Lecture. Seeing Is Believing: Observing Physical Activity and Its Contexts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Direct (systematic) observation has been a mainstay of my research for over three decades. I believe it is an important tool for assessing physical activity, because it can simultaneously provide contextually rich data on the setting in which the activity occurs. It is particularly useful for those interested in using ecological and…

McKenzie, Thomas L.

2010-01-01

107

Effective Approaches in and Beyond the MSSM : applications to Higgs Physics and Dark Matter observables  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this thesis we use the Effective Field Theory approach for supersymmetric theories, applied to two experimental domains : the search for the Higgs bosons at colliders and the Dark Matter observables. The reason for introducing an effective approach in the Higgs physics is that the simple supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model (the MSSM) is known to have a

Guillaume Drieu La Rochelle

2012-01-01

108

The system for observing fitness instruction time (SOFIT) as a measure of energy expenditure during classroom based physical activity  

E-print Network

The aim of this investigation was to develop an equation to estimate physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) during a 10-min physically active academic lesson using The System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time (SOFIT) and demographic...

Honas, Jeffery J.; Washburn, Richard A.; Smith, Bryan K.; Greene, Leon; Cook-Wiens, Galen; Donnelly, Joseph E.

2008-01-01

109

Spectroscopic Observations of a Coronal Loop: Basic Physical Plasma Parameters Along the Full Loop Length  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coronal loops are the basic structures of the solar transition region and corona. Understanding of the physical mechanisms behind the loop heating, plasma flows, and filling are still considered a major challenge in solar physics. The mechanism(s) should be able to supply mass to the corona from the chromosphere and to heat the plasma over 1 MK within a small distance of a few hundred kilometers from the chromosphere to the corona. This problem makes coronal loops an interesting target for detailed study. In this study, we focus on spectroscopic observations of a coronal loop observed in its full length in various spectral lines as recorded by the Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer on board Hinode. We derive physical plasma parameters such as electron density, temperature, pressure, column depth, and filling factors along the loop length from one footpoint to the another. The obtained parameters are used to infer whether the observed coronal loop is overdense or underdense with respect to gravitational stratification of the solar atmosphere. These new measurements of physical plasma parameters, from one footpoint to another, provide important constraints on the modeling of the mass and energy balance in coronal loops.

Gupta, G. R.; Tripathi, Durgesh; Mason, Helen E.

2015-02-01

110

The perception-action dynamics of action competency are altered by both physical and observational training.  

PubMed

Action competency is defined as the ability of an individual to self-evaluate their own performance capabilities. The current experiment demonstrated that physical and observational training with a motor skill alters action competency ratings in a similar manner. Using a pre-test and post-test protocol, the results revealed that action competency is constrained prior to training by the intrinsic dynamics of relative phase (?), with in-phase (? = 0°) and anti-phase (? = 180°) patterns receiving higher competency ratings than other relative phase patterns. After 2 days of training, action competency ratings for two trained relative phase patterns, +60° and +120°, increased following physical practice or observational practice. A transfer test revealed that both physical performance ability and action competency ability transferred to the symmetry partners (-60° and -120°) of the two trained relative phase patterns following physical or observational training. The findings also revealed that relative motion direction acts as categorical information that helps to organize action production and facilitate action competency. The results are interpreted based on the coordination dynamics theory of perception-action coupling, and extend this theory by showing that visual perception, action production, and action competency are all constrained in a consistent manner by the dynamics of the order parameter relative phase. As a whole, the findings revealed that relative motion, relative phase, and possibly relative amplitude information are all distinct sources of information that contribute to the emergence of a kinematic understanding of action in the nervous system. PMID:25618008

Buchanan, John J; Ramos, Jorge; Robson, Nina

2015-04-01

111

Statistical physics concepts for the explanation of effects observed in martensitic phase transformations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Structural solid-to-solid transformations play a key role for the behaviour of several materials, e.g., shape memory alloys, steels, polymers and ceramics. A novel theoretical approach modelling martensitic phase transformation is demonstrated in the present study. The generally formulated model is based on the block-spin approach and on renormalization in statistical mechanics and is applied to a representative volume element (resp. representative mole element) which is assumed to be in a local thermodynamic equilibrium. The neighbouring representative volume elements are in a generally different thermodynamic equilibrium. This leads to fluxes between those elements. Using fundamental physical properties of a shape memory alloy (SMA) single crystal as input data the model predicts the order parameter ‘total strain’, the martensitic phase fraction and the stress-assisted transformation accompanied by pseudo-elasticity without the requirement of evolution equations for internal variables and assumptions on the mathematical structure of the classical free energy. In order to demonstrate the novel approach the first computations are carried out for a simple one-dimensional case, which can be generalized to the two- and three-dimensional case. Results for total strain and martensitic phase fraction are in good qualitative agreement with well known experimental data according to their macroscopic strain rearrangement when phase transformation occurs. Further a material softening effect during phase transformation in SMAs is predicted by the statistical physics approach. Formulas are presented for the relevant quantities such as volume fraction, total strain, transformation strain, rates of the volume fractions and of the strains.

Oberaigner, Eduard Roman; Leindl, Mario

2012-09-01

112

Physical characterisation of near-Earth asteroid (1620) Geographos. Reconciling radar and thermal-infrared observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. The Yarkovsky (orbital drift) and YORP (spin state change) effects play important roles in the dynamical and physical evolution of asteroids. Thermophysical modelling of these observed effects, and of thermal-infrared observations, allows a detailed physical characterisation of an individual asteroid to be performed. Aims: We perform a detailed physical characterisation of near-Earth asteroid (1620) Geographos, a potential meteor stream source and former spacecraft target, using the same techniques as previously used for (1862) Apollo. Methods: We use the advanced thermophysical model (ATPM) on published light-curve, radar, and thermal-infrared observations to constrain the thermophysical properties of Geographos. The derived properties are used to make detailed predictions of the Yarkovsky orbital drift and YORP rotational acceleration, which are then compared against published measurements to determine Geographos's bulk density. Results: We find that Geographos has a thermal inertia of 340-100+140 J m-2 K-1 s-1/2, a roughness fraction of ?50%, and a bulk density of 2100-450+550 kg m-3 when using the light-curve-derived shape model with the radar-derived maximum equatorial diameter of 5.04 ± 0.07 km. It is also found that the radar observations had overestimated the z-axis in Geographos's shape model because of their near-equatorial view. This results in a poor fit to the thermal-infrared observations if its effective diameter is kept fixed in the model fitting. Conclusions: The thermal inertia derived for Geographos is slightly higher than the typical values for a near-Earth asteroid of its size, and its derived bulk density suggests a rubble-pile interior structure. Large uncertainties in shape model z-axes are likely to explain why radar and thermal-infrared observations sometimes give inconsistent diameter determinations for other asteroids.

Rozitis, B.; Green, S. F.

2014-08-01

113

Observations of Asteroid 2577 Litva with Analysis of Physical Properties Through Bayesian Interence Based Modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations of asteroid 2577 Litva, a known multiple system, were taken from Robinson Observatory at the University of Central Florida spanning several weeks from late 2013 to early 2014. This work outlines a modified Bayesian Inference methodology for determining periodicities within the data as well as correcting for orbital effects with pole determination, and compares our results with previously published works. For the primary object, Litva, we find the most probable period to be 2.812186±5x10 - 6 hours, the most probable for the pole direction to be at 26.96 ± 2 , 298.8 ± 11 degrees latitude and longitude. The secondary system does not appear to eclipse the primary object, most likely due orbital geometries. For the third object we find the most probable rotation period to be 5.68389 ± 0.0005 hours. We discuss how to extend this work to determine the direction of the rotation axis for the third body, as well as the pole direction for the eclipsing satellite. This methodology is a novel tool for generating probability distributions for each measured quantity handling low signal-to-noise observations, working with widely spaced data, and detecting periodicities.

Lust, Nathaniel B.; Britt, Daniel

2014-11-01

114

Standard and derived Planck quantities: selected analysis and derivations  

E-print Network

We provide an overview of the fundamental units of physical quantities determined naturally by the values of fundamental constants of nature. We discuss a comparison between the 'Planck units', now widely used in theoretical physics and the pre-quantum 'Stoney units' in which, instead of the Planck constant, the charge of the electron is used with very similar quantitative results. We discuss some of the physical motivation for these special units, attributed much after they were introduced, and also put forth a summary of the arguments supporting various cases for making specific physical interpretations of the meanings of some of these units. The new aspects we discuss are a possible physical basis for the Stoney units, their link to the Planck units, and also the importance of Planck units for thermodynamical quantities in the context of quantum gravity.

Jason R. Buzcyna; C. S. Unnikrishnan; George T. Gillies

2010-06-16

115

Controlling symmetry-breaking states by a hidden quantity in multiplicative noise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The inhomogeneity of multiplicative white noise leads to various coupling modes between deterministic and stochastic forces. We investigate the phase transition induced by the variation of the coupling mode through manipulating its characteristic parameter continuously. Even when the noise strength is fixed, an increase of this parameter can enhance or inhibit the symmetry-breaking state. We also propose a scheme to implement these phase transitions experimentally. Our result demonstrates that the coupling mode previously considered to be a mathematical convention serves as an additional quantity leading to physically observable phase transitions. This observation provides a mechanism to control the effect of noise without regulating the noise strength.

Tang, Ying; Yuan, Ruoshi; Chen, Jianhong; Ao, Ping

2014-11-01

116

Balancing Teacher Quality and Quantity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The world is facing a shortage of trained teachers. According to the 2010 Global Monitoring Report approximately 10.3 million teachers will be needed globally to staff classrooms from Bangkok to Canada. The situation is worse in Sub-Saharan Africa. Estimates suggest that approximately 1.2 million new teachers will be needed in Sub-Saharan Africa alone to achieve universal primary education goals by 2015. Increases in primary school enrollments, drought, and HIV-AIDS have exacerbated the need for well trained teachers. Despite the need, the focus is on balancing quality with quantity. An effective teacher is deemed a critical element, although not the only one, in a student's success in the classroom. This paper focuses on the dilemma of meeting universal primary education goals in Sub-Saharan Africa, while maintaining teacher quality in fragile contexts.

Bond, Helen

117

Transformative Relation of Kinematical Descriptive Quantities Defined by Different Spatial Referential Frame, Its Property and Application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantitative transformations between corresponding kinetic quantities defined by any two spatial referential frames, whose relative kinematics relations (purely rotational and translational movement) are known, are presented based on necessarily descriptive definitions of the fundamental concepts (instant, time, spatial referential frame that distinguishes from Maths. Coordination, physical point) had being clarified by directly empirical observation with artificially descriptive purpose. Inductive investigation of the transformation reveals that all physical quantities such as charge, temperature, time, volume, length, temporal rate of the quantities and relations like temporal relation between signal source and observer as such are independent to spatial frames transformation except above kinematical quantities transformations, kinematics related dynamics such as Newton ’ s second law existing only in inertial frames and exchange of kinetic energy of mass being valid only in a selected inertial frame. From above bas is, we demonstrate a series of inferences and applications such as phase velocity of light being direct respect to medium (including vacuum) rather than to the frame, using spatial referential frame to describe any measurable field (electric field, magnetic field, gravitational field) and the field ’ s variation; and have tables to contrast and evaluate all aspects of those hypotheses related with spacetime such as distorted spacetime around massive stellar, four dimension spacetime, gravitational time dilation and non - Euclid geometry with new one. The demonstration strongly suggests all the hypotheses are invalid in capable tested concepts ’ meaning and relations. The conventional work on frame transformation and its property, hypothesized by Voigt, Heaviside, Lorentz, Poincare and Einstein a century ago with some mathematical speculation lacking rigorous definition of the fundamental concepts such as instant, time, spatial reference, straight line, plane area, merely good in building up patchwork to do self p referred explanation by making up derivative concepts or accumulating new hypothesis, has disturbed people to describe the physical nature by setting up the sound basis of concept and relations with capable tested method, it’s time to be replaced by empirically effective alternative.

Luo, Ji

2012-08-01

118

Unobservability of short-lived unstable particles and its implications for observational claims and theories in physics  

E-print Network

The physics literature contains many claims that elementary particles have been observed: such observational claims are, of course, important for the development of existential knowledge. Regarding claimed observations of short-lived unstable particles in particular, the term `observation' is not used with reference to any particular concept of observation: physicists merely use the word `observation' based on the convention in physics that the observation of a short-lived unstable particle can be claimed when its predicted decay products have been observed with a significance of 5 sigma. However, using Fox's recent concepts of direct and indirect observation, this paper shows that unstable particles with a lifetime of less than 0.01 attosecond are fundamentally unobservable. This cognitive inaccessibility of parts of the subatomic world has far-reaching implications for physics, not the least of which is that the aforementioned convention is untenable: claims that such short-lived unstable particles have bee...

Cabbolet, Marcoen J T F

2015-01-01

119

Explaining Phenomenologically Observed Space-time Flatness Requires New Fundamental Scale Physics  

E-print Network

The phenomenologically observed flatness - or near flatness - of spacetime cannot be understood as emerging from continuum Planck (or sub-Planck) scales using known physics. Using dimensional arguments it is demonstrated that any immaginable action will lead to Christoffel symbols that are chaotic. We put forward new physics in the form of fundamental fields that spontaneously break translational invariance. Using these new fields as coordinates we define the metric in such a way that the Riemann tensor vanishes identically as a Bianchi identity. Hence the new fundamental fields define a flat space. General relativity with curvature is recovered as an effective theory at larger scales at which crystal defects in the form of disclinations come into play as the sources of curvature.

D. Bennett; H. B. Nielsen

2013-06-12

120

Review on the Observed and Physical Properties of Core Collapse Supernovae  

E-print Network

This paper summarizes observed and physical properties of all types of core collapse supernovae. Despite the great diversity displayed by these objects, several regularities emerge which suggest that 1) there is a continuum in the properties of these objects, 2) the mass of the envelope is one of the driving parameters of the explosion, or it is correlated with some other property of the core, with the latter determining the outcome of the explosion, and 3) the physics of the core and explosion mechanism of all core collapse supernovae are not be fundamentally different, regardless of the external appearance of the supernova. Far above in energy scale and 56Ni production lies SN 1998bw, the only supernova firmly associated with a gamma-ray burst.

Mario Hamuy

2003-01-01

121

Role of Subsurface Physics in the Assimilation of Surface Soil Moisture Observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Root zone soil moisture controls the land-atmosphere exchange of water and energy and exhibits memory that may be useful for climate prediction at monthly scales. Assimilation of satellite-based surface soil moisture observations into a land surface model is an effective way to estimate large-scale root zone soil moisture. The propagation of surface information into deeper soil layers depends on the model-specific representation of subsurface physics that is used in the assimilation system. In a suite of experiments we assimilate synthetic surface soil moisture observations into four different models (Catchment, Mosaic, Noah and CLM) using the Ensemble Kalman Filter. We demonstrate that identical twin experiments significantly overestimate the information that can be obtained from the assimilation of surface soil moisture observations. The second key result indicates that the potential of surface soil moisture assimilation to improve root zone information is higher when the surface to root zone coupling is stronger. Our experiments also suggest that (faced with unknown true subsurface physics) overestimating surface to root zone coupling in the assimilation system provides more robust skill improvements in the root zone compared with underestimating the coupling. When CLM is excluded from the analysis, the skill improvements from using models with different vertical coupling strengths are comparable for different subsurface truths. Finally, the skill improvements through assimilation were found to be sensitive to the regional climate and soil types.

Reichle, R. H.

2010-01-01

122

Assessing agreement of self-reported and observed physical exposures of the upper extremity.  

PubMed

Assessment of workplace physical exposures by self-reported questionnaires has logistical advantages in population studies, but is subject to exposure misclassification. This study measured agreement between eight self-reported and observer-rated physical exposures to the hands and wrists, and evaluated predictors of intermethod agreement. Workers (n = 341) from three occupational categories (clerical/technical, construction, and service) completed self-administered questionnaires and worksite assessments. Analyses compared self-reported and observed ratings using a weighted kappa coefficient. Personal and psychosocial factors, presence of upper extremity symptoms, andjob type were evaluated as predictors of agreement. Weighted kappa values were substantial for lifting (0.67) and holding vibrating tools (0.61), moderate for forceful grip (0.58), and fair to poor for all other exposures. Upper extremity symptoms did not predict greater disagreement between self-reported and observed exposures. Occupational category was the only significant predictor of inter-method agreement. Self-reported exposures may provide a useful estimate of some work exposures for population studies. PMID:20166314

Dale, Ann Marie; Strickland, Jaime; Gardner, Bethany; Symanzik, Juergen; Evanoff, Bradley Allen

2010-01-01

123

Status of physical observables of a Friedmann universe in the classical and quantum Hamiltonian formalisms.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper is devoted to an investigation of the relationships between the classical Friedmann cosmology and the Dirac Hamiltonian approach to quantization of the universe, based on the simple but important example of a homogeneous universe filled with excitations of a scalar field. The method of gaugeless reduction is used to completely separate the sector of physical variables from the purely gauge sector, making it possible to find the relationship between cosmological observables in the Friedmann — Einstein sense and observables of the Dirac Hamiltonian formalism in the Narlikar conformai reference frame. Gaugeless reduction enabled us to establish that in the process of reduction, one of the variables of the nonphysical sector is converted into an invariant time parameter and cannot be treated as a dynamical variable in either the functional or the operator approach to quantization. It is shown that in this conversion of a variable into a time parameter, the Hartle-Hawking functional integral is the reason why the wave function of the Wheeler—De Witt (WDW) equation cannot be normalized and why an infinite gauge factor arises. The gaugeless reduction provides a certain recipe for mathematical and physical interpretation of the WDW equation and wave functions, the use of which makes their relationship to observational cosmology clear and transparent. It is shown, in particular, how the WDW wave function describes the Friedmann evolution with respect to proper time.

Palii, Yu. P.; Papoyan, V. V.; Pervushin, V. N.

1997-04-01

124

Unobservability of short-lived unstable particles and its implications for observational claims and theories in physics  

E-print Network

The physics literature contains many claims that elementary particles have been observed: such observational claims are, of course, important for the development of existential knowledge. Regarding claimed observations of short-lived unstable particles in particular, the term `observation' is not used with reference to any particular concept of observation: physicists merely use the word `observation' based on the convention in physics that the observation of a short-lived unstable particle can be claimed when its predicted decay products have been observed with a significance of 5 sigma. However, using Fox's recent concepts of direct and indirect observation, this paper shows that unstable particles with a lifetime of less than 0.01 attosecond are fundamentally unobservable. This cognitive inaccessibility of parts of the subatomic world has far-reaching implications for physics, not the least of which is that the aforementioned convention is untenable: claims that such short-lived unstable particles have been observed will thus have to be retracted. The main implications are two incompleteness theorems for physics, respectively stating (i) that experiments cannot prove completeness of a physical theory predicting short-lived unstable particles, and (ii) that experiments cannot prove correctness of such a theory - one can at most test its empirical adequacy. On a general note, the conclusion is that the importance of philosophical arguments for particle physics is herewith demonstrated: it is, thus, a widespread misconception that philosophical arguments can be completely avoided.

Marcoen J. T. F. Cabbolet

2015-02-03

125

Has saturation physics been observed in deuteron-gold collisions at RHIC?  

E-print Network

We have addressed the question of whether saturation (CGC) has been observed in deuteron-gold collisions at RHIC. We have made a detailed analysis of the Cronin peak characteristic of the nuclear modification factor measured for d-Au collisions at mid-rapidity. The Cronin peak which is obtained around $p_t\\simeq 3$ GeV may be reproduced at the proper height only by boosting the saturation momentum by a huge non-perturbative additional component. At forward rapidity, we get a quantitative agreement with data, reproducing hadron production spectra and the $R_{CP}$ ratio using a recently developed description of the small-x physics.

Yacine Mehtar-Tani

2007-01-22

126

The effect of task structure, practice schedule, and model type on the learning of relative and absolute timing by physical and observational practice  

E-print Network

observers of an expert model were able to produce the relative timing as well as those who physically practiced the skill, while those who observed learning models were not. All observers and the physical practice participants were able to produce...

Black, Charles Beyer

2004-11-15

127

The physics of extrasolar gaseous planets : from theory to observable signatures  

E-print Network

We review our present understanding of the physical properties of substellar objects, brown dwarfs and irradiated or non-irradiated gaseous exoplanets. This includes a description of their internal properties, mechanical structure and heat content, their atmospheric properties, thermal profile and emergent spectrum, and their evolution, in particular as irradiated companions of a close parent star. The general theory can be used to make predictions in term of detectability for the future observational projects. Special attention is devoted to the evolution of the two presently detected transit planets, HD209458B and OGLE-TR-56B. For this latter, we present a consistent evolution for its recently revised mass and show that we reproduce the observed radius within its error bars. We briefly discuss differences between brown dwarfs and gaseous planets, both in terms of mass function and formation process. We outline several arguments to show that the minimum mass for deuterium burning, recently adopted officially as the limit to distinguish the two types of objects, is unlikely to play any specific role in star formation, so that such a limit is of purely semantic nature and is not supported by a physical justification.

G. Chabrier; F. Allard; I. Baraffe; T. Barman; P. H. Hauschildt

2004-01-29

128

The development and validation of the Interpersonal Support in Physical Activity Consultations Observational Tool.  

PubMed

Abstract This study describes the development and psychometric characteristics of an observational instrument that examines four aspects of interpersonal support (or lack of) provided during physical activity (PA) promotion consultations (i.e., Autonomy Support, Involvement, Structure and Interpersonal Control), as identified by Self-determination Theory (SDT). The reliability and validity of the Interpersonal Support in Physical Activity Consultations Observational Tool (ISPACOT) were examined within an exploratory randomised control trial. Recorded consultations (N = 42) conducted by qualified PA advisors (N = 14) at 13 leisure centres across the West Midlands (UK) were rated. Intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) indicated moderate to high inter-rater reliability for overall interpersonal support (0.80), and the Autonomy Support (0.74), Involvement (0.73) and Structure (0.91) dimensions, but low reliability for Interpersonal Control (0.35). The advisors, who conducted PA promotion consultations that were rated as low in their interpersonally supportive features, were perceived by their clients as being less supportive (F(1,10) = 5.0, p <.05). Ratings on the ISPACOT differentiated advisors who were trained in SDT principles and those who were not. Overall, the findings provided preliminary evidence for the reliability and convergent validity of the ISPACOT. PMID:25490158

Rouse, Peter C; Duda, Joan L; Ntoumanis, Nikos; Jolly, Kate; Williams, Geoffrey C

2014-12-01

129

Physical properties of individual coronal loops in a solar active region observed in the XUV  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The physical properties of individual coronal loops in a solar active region observed in the XUV by the slitless objective grating spectroheliograph on board Skylab are investigated. Spectroheliograms of the normal active loop region McMath 12378 reveal three distinctive structural groups of loops in different temperature ranges, namely (1) small compact and smaller loops at temperatures of about 2,000,000 K observed in Fe XV and Fe XVI; (2) large Ne VII and Mg IX loops at temperatures from 500,000 to 1,000,000 K; and (3) chromospheric ribbons in He II and H alpha. The temperature of the active region is found to be uniform at about 2,000,000 K in the loops and background while loop density is found to be 3.5 x 10 to the 9th/cu cm in the loops and 2.5 x 10 to the 9th/cu cm in the surrounding background. Significant changes in the active region are observed in 24 h, although the gross temperature density structures of many loops do not show changes in 7 min. Gas pressure within the coronal loops is found to be about 40% greater than that of the background plasma. The observed loop parameters are noted to be consistent with flux-limited models of density enhancement in magnetic flux tubes and thus no esoteric heating function is required.

Cheng, C.-C.

1980-01-01

130

Can nonhuman primates use tokens to represent and sum quantities?  

PubMed

It is unclear whether nonhuman animals can use physical tokens to flexibly represent various quantities by combining token values. Previous studies showed that chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and a macaque (Macaca mulatta) were only partly successful in tests involving sets of different-looking food containers representing different food quantities, while some capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) have shown greater success in tests involving sets of various concrete objects representing different food quantities. Some of the discrepancy in results between these studies may be attributed to the different methods used. In an effort to reconcile these discrepancies, we presented two primates species, chimpanzees and capuchin monkeys, with two token tasks. The critical test in each task involved summing the value of multiple tokens of different types to make accurate quantity judgments. We found that, using either method, individuals of both species learned to associate individual tokens with specific quantities, as well as successfully compare individual tokens to one another or to sets of visible food items. However, regardless of method, only a few individuals exhibited the capacity to sum multiple tokens of different types and then use those summed values to make an optimal response. This suggests that flexible combination of symbolic stimuli in quantity judgments tasks is within the abilities of chimpanzees and capuchins but does not characterize the majority of individuals. Furthermore, the results suggest the need to carefully examine specific methodological details that may promote or hinder such possible representation. PMID:20836596

Evans, Theodore A; Beran, Michael J; Addessi, Elsa

2010-11-01

131

IMOS National Reference Stations: A Continental-Wide Physical, Chemical and Biological Coastal Observing System  

PubMed Central

Sustained observations allow for the tracking of change in oceanography and ecosystems, however, these are rare, particularly for the Southern Hemisphere. To address this in part, the Australian Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS) implemented a network of nine National Reference Stations (NRS). The network builds on one long-term location, where monthly water sampling has been sustained since the 1940s and two others that commenced in the 1950s. In-situ continuously moored sensors and an enhanced monthly water sampling regime now collect more than 50 data streams. Building on sampling for temperature, salinity and nutrients, the network now observes dissolved oxygen, carbon, turbidity, currents, chlorophyll a and both phytoplankton and zooplankton. Additional parameters for studies of ocean acidification and bio-optics are collected at a sub-set of sites and all data is made freely and publically available. Our preliminary results demonstrate increased utility to observe extreme events, such as marine heat waves and coastal flooding; rare events, such as plankton blooms; and have, for the first time, allowed for consistent continental scale sampling and analysis of coastal zooplankton and phytoplankton communities. Independent water sampling allows for cross validation of the deployed sensors for quality control of data that now continuously tracks daily, seasonal and annual variation. The NRS will provide multi-decadal time series, against which more spatially replicated short-term studies can be referenced, models and remote sensing products validated, and improvements made to our understanding of how large-scale, long-term change and variability in the global ocean are affecting Australia's coastal seas and ecosystems. The NRS network provides an example of how a continental scaled observing systems can be developed to collect observations that integrate across physics, chemistry and biology. PMID:25517905

Lynch, Tim P.; Morello, Elisabetta B.; Evans, Karen; Richardson, Anthony J.; Rochester, Wayne; Steinberg, Craig R.; Roughan, Moninya; Thompson, Peter; Middleton, John F.; Feng, Ming; Sherrington, Robert; Brando, Vittorio; Tilbrook, Bronte; Ridgway, Ken; Allen, Simon; Doherty, Peter; Hill, Katherine; Moltmann, Tim C.

2014-01-01

132

IMOS National Reference Stations: a continental-wide physical, chemical and biological coastal observing system.  

PubMed

Sustained observations allow for the tracking of change in oceanography and ecosystems, however, these are rare, particularly for the Southern Hemisphere. To address this in part, the Australian Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS) implemented a network of nine National Reference Stations (NRS). The network builds on one long-term location, where monthly water sampling has been sustained since the 1940s and two others that commenced in the 1950s. In-situ continuously moored sensors and an enhanced monthly water sampling regime now collect more than 50 data streams. Building on sampling for temperature, salinity and nutrients, the network now observes dissolved oxygen, carbon, turbidity, currents, chlorophyll a and both phytoplankton and zooplankton. Additional parameters for studies of ocean acidification and bio-optics are collected at a sub-set of sites and all data is made freely and publically available. Our preliminary results demonstrate increased utility to observe extreme events, such as marine heat waves and coastal flooding; rare events, such as plankton blooms; and have, for the first time, allowed for consistent continental scale sampling and analysis of coastal zooplankton and phytoplankton communities. Independent water sampling allows for cross validation of the deployed sensors for quality control of data that now continuously tracks daily, seasonal and annual variation. The NRS will provide multi-decadal time series, against which more spatially replicated short-term studies can be referenced, models and remote sensing products validated, and improvements made to our understanding of how large-scale, long-term change and variability in the global ocean are affecting Australia's coastal seas and ecosystems. The NRS network provides an example of how a continental scaled observing systems can be developed to collect observations that integrate across physics, chemistry and biology. PMID:25517905

Lynch, Tim P; Morello, Elisabetta B; Evans, Karen; Richardson, Anthony J; Rochester, Wayne; Steinberg, Craig R; Roughan, Moninya; Thompson, Peter; Middleton, John F; Feng, Ming; Sherrington, Robert; Brando, Vittorio; Tilbrook, Bronte; Ridgway, Ken; Allen, Simon; Doherty, Peter; Hill, Katherine; Moltmann, Tim C

2014-01-01

133

Physical Characteristics of Faint Meteors by Light Curve and High-resolution Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The physical structure of a meteoroid may be inferred from optical observations, particularly the light curve, of a meteor. For example: a classically shaped (late peaked) light curve is seen as evidence of a solid single body, whereas a symmetric light curve may indicate a dustball structure. High-resolution optical observations show how the meteoroid fragments: continuously, leaving a long wake, or discretely, leaving several distinct pieces. Calculating the orbit of the meteoroid using two station data then allows the object to be associated with asteroidal or cometary parent bodies. Optical observations thus provide simultaneous information on meteoroid structure, fragmentation mode, and origin.CAMO (the Canadian Automated Meteor Observatory) has been continuously collecting faint (masses < 10-4 kg) two station optical meteors with image-intensified narrow field (with a resolution of up to 3 meters per pixel) and wide field (26 by 19 degrees) cameras since 2010. The narrow field, telescopic cameras allow the meteor fragmentation to be studied using a pair of mirrors to track the meteor. The wide-field cameras provide the light curve and trajectory solution.We present preliminary results from classifying light curves and high-resolution optical observations for 3000 faint meteors recorded since 2010. We find that most meteors (both asteroidal and cometary) show long trails, while meteors with short trails are the second most common morphology. It is expected that meteoroids that experience negligible fragmentation have the shortest trails, so our results imply that the majority of small meteoroids fragment during ablation. A surprising observation is that almost equal fractions of asteroidal and cometary meteors fragment (showing long trails), implying a similar structure for both types of meteoroids.

Subasinghe, Dilini; Campbell-Brown, Margaret D.; Stokan, Edward

2014-11-01

134

Using MSG-SEVIRI Cloud Physical Properties and Weather Radar Observations for the Detection of Cb/TCu Clouds  

E-print Network

Using MSG-SEVIRI Cloud Physical Properties and Weather Radar Observations for the Detection of Cb (SEVIRI) on board Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellites and weather radar reflectivity factors/TCu clouds for the collection of pixels that pass the CCM. In this model, MSG-SEVIRI cloud physical

Schmeits, Maurice

135

Assimilation of streamflow and soil moisture observations in a distributed physically-based hydrological model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data assimilation techniques not only enhance model simulations and predictions, they also give the opportunity to pose a diagnostic on both model and observations used in the assimilation process. The goal of this research is to assimilate streamflow and soil moisture in a distributed physically-based hydrological model, CATHY (CATchment HYdrology). The study site is the des Anglais Watershed, a 690-km2 river basin located in southern Québec, Canada. An ensemble Kalman filter was used to assimilate streamflow observations at the basin outlet and at interior locations, as well as soil moisture at different depths (15, 45, and 90 cm) measured with probes (6 stations) and surface soil moisture estimated from radar remote sensing. The use of a Latin hypercube sampling instead of the Monte Carlo method to generate the ensemble reduced the size of ensemble, and therefore the calculation time. An important issue in data assimilation is the estimation of error covariance matrices. Different post-assimilation diagnostics, based on innovations (observation-minus-background), analysis residuals (observation-minus-analysis) and analysis increments (analysis-minus-background) were used to evaluate assimilation optimality. A calibration approach was performed to determine the standard deviation of model parameters, forcing data and observations that lead to optimal assimilations. The analysis of innovations showed a lag between the model prediction and the observation during rainfall events. The assimilation of streamflow observations (outlet or interior locations) corrected this discrepancy. The assimilation of outlet streamflow observations improved the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiencies (NSE) at both outlet and interior point locations. The structure of the state vector used in this study allowed the assimilation of outlet streamflow observations to have an impact over streamflow simulations at interior point locations. Indeed, the state vector contains the outlet streamflow (Qout) and the incoming streamflow (Qin), since both these informations are used by the Muskingum-Cunge surface routing equation in CATHY. However, assimilation of streamflow observations increased systematically the soil moisture values simulated at 15 and 45 cm. The combined assimilation of outlet streamflow and soil moisture improved the NSE of streamflow without degrading the simulation of soil moisture. Moreover, the assimilation of streamflow and soil moisture observations from one station (at 45 cm depth) appeared to have a similar impact on soil moisture simulations compared to a combined assimilation of streamflow and soil moisture observations from five stations. Finally, it was found that the frequency of the assimilation of soil moisture observations has a greater impact on the results than the spatial coverage of the assimilation: assimilation of daily soil moisture measured with probes at six stations gives better results than the assimilation of surface soil moisture estimated from radar remote sensing 8 times over the course of a summer season.

Trudel, M.; Leconte, R.; Paniconi, C.

2012-04-01

136

A comparison of protocols and observer precision for measuring physical stream attributes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Stream monitoring programs commonly measure physical attributes to assess the effect of land management on stream habitat. Variability associated with the measurement of these attributes has been linked to a number of factors, but few studies have evaluated variability due to differences in protocols. We compared six protocols, five used by the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service and one by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, on six streams in Oregon and Idaho to determine whether differences in protocol affect values for 10 physical stream attributes. Results from Oregon and Idaho were combined for groups participating in both states, with significant differences in attribute means for 9 out of the 10 stream attributes. Significant differences occurred in 5 of 10 in Idaho, and 10 of 10 in Oregon. Coefficients of variation, signal-to-noise ratio, and root mean square error were used to evaluate measurement precision. There were differences among protocols for all attributes when states were analyzed separately and as a combined dataset. Measurement differences were influenced by choice of instruments, measurement method, measurement location, attribute definitions, and training approach. Comparison of data gathered by observers using different protocols will be difficult unless a core set of protocols for commonly measured stream attributes can be standardized among monitoring programs. ?? 2007 American Water Resources Association.

Whitacre, H.W.; Roper, B.B.; Kershner, J.L.

2007-01-01

137

The algebra of physical observables in non-linearly realized gauge theories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We classify the physical observables in spontaneously broken non-linearly realized gauge theories in the recently proposed loopwise expansion governed by the Weak Power-Counting (WPC) and the Local Functional Equation. The latter controls the non-trivial quantum deformation of the classical non-linearly realized gauge symmetry, to all orders in the loop expansion. The Batalin-Vilkovisky (BV) formalism is used. We show that the dependence of the vertex functional on the Goldstone fields is obtained via a canonical transformation w.r.t. the BV bracket associated with the BRST symmetry of the model. We also compare the WPC with strict power-counting renormalizability in linearly realized gauge theories. In the case of the electroweak group we find that the tree-level Weinberg relation still holds if power-counting renormalizability is weakened to the WPC condition.

Quadri, Andrea

2010-11-01

138

Toward the estimation of background fluctuations under newly-observed signals in particle physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When the number of events associated with a signal process is estimated in particle physics, it is common practice to extrapolate background distributions from control regions to a predefined signal window. This allows accurate estimation of the expected, or average, number of background events under the signal. However, in general, the actual number of background events can deviate from the average due to fluctuations in the data. Such a difference can be sizable when compared to the number of signal events in the early stages of data analysis following the observation of a new particle, as well as in the analysis of rare decay channels. We report on the development of a data-driven technique that aims to estimate the actual, as opposed to the expected, number of background events in a predefined signal window. We discuss results on toy Monte Carlo data and provide a preliminary estimate of systematic uncertainty.

Colecchia, Federico

2015-01-01

139

Spitzer Observations of Supernova Remnants. II. Physical Conditions and Comparison with HH7 and HH54  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have studied the shock-excited molecular regions associated with four supernova remnants (SNRs)—IC443C, W28, W44, and 3C391—and two Herbig-Haro objects—HH7 and HH54—using Spitzer's Infrared Spectrograph (IRS). The physical conditions within the observed areas (roughly ~1' × 1' in size) are inferred from spectroscopic data obtained from IRS and from the Short and Long Wavelength Spectrometers on board the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO), together with photometric data from Spitzer's Infrared Array Camera. Adopting a power-law distribution for the gas temperature in the observed region, with the mass of gas at temperature T to T+dT assumed proportional to T -b dT, the H2 S(0) to S(7) spectral line maps obtained with IRS were used to constrain the gas density, yielding estimated densities n(H2) in the range of ~ (2-4)×103 cm-3. The excitation of H2 S(9) to S(12) and high-J CO pure rotational lines, however, require environments several times denser. The inconsistency among the best-fit densities estimated from different species can be explained by density fluctuations within the observed regions. The best-fit power-law index b is smaller than the value 3.8 predicted for a paraboloidal C-type bow shock, suggesting that the shock front has a "flatter" shape than that of a paraboloid. The best-fit parameters for SNRs and Herbig-Haro objects do not differ significantly between the two classes of sources, except that for the SNRs the ortho-to-para ratio (OPR) of hot gas (T> 1000 K) is close to the local thermal equilibrium value 3, while for HH7 and HH54 even the hottest gas exhibits an OPR smaller than 3; we interpret this difference as resulting from environmental differences between these classes of sources, molecular material near SNRs being subject to stronger photodissociation that results in faster para-to-ortho conversion. Finally, we mapped the physical parameters within the regions observed with IRS and found that the mid-lying H2 emissions—S(3) to S(5)—tend to trace the hot component of the gas, while the intensities of S(6) and S(7) are more sensitive to the density of the gas compared to S(3) to S(5).

Yuan, Yuan; Neufeld, David A.

2011-01-01

140

A Physical Model to Estimate Snowfall over Land using AMSU-B Observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this study, we present an improved physical model to retrieve snowfall rate over land using brightness temperature observations from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Advanced Microwave Sounder Unit-B (AMSU-B) at 89 GHz, 150 GHz, 183.3 +/- 1 GHz, 183.3 +/- 3 GHz, and 183.3 +/- 7 GHz. The retrieval model is applied to the New England blizzard of March 5, 2001 which deposited about 75 cm of snow over much of Vermont, New Hampshire, and northern New York. In this improved physical model, prior retrieval assumptions about snowflake shape, particle size distributions, environmental conditions, and optimization methodology have been updated. Here, single scattering parameters for snow particles are calculated with the Discrete-Dipole Approximation (DDA) method instead of assuming spherical shapes. Five different snow particle models (hexagonal columns, hexagonal plates, and three different kinds of aggregates) are considered. Snow particle size distributions are assumed to vary with air temperature and to follow aircraft measurements described by previous studies. Brightness temperatures at AMSU-B frequencies for the New England blizzard are calculated using these DDA calculated single scattering parameters and particle size distributions. The vertical profiles of pressure, temperature, relative humidity and hydrometeors are provided by MM5 model simulations. These profiles are treated as the a priori data base in the Bayesian retrieval algorithm. In algorithm applications to the blizzard data, calculated brightness temperatures associated with selected database profiles agree with AMSU-B observations to within about +/- 5 K at all five frequencies. Retrieved snowfall rates compare favorably with the near-concurrent National Weather Service (NWS) radar reflectivity measurements. The relationships between the NWS radar measured reflectivities Z(sub e) and retrieved snowfall rate R for a given snow particle model are derived by a histogram matching technique. All of these Z(sub e)-R relationships fall in the range of previously established Z(sub e)-R relationships for snowfall. This suggests that the current physical model developed in this study can reliably estimate the snowfall rate over land using the AMSU-B measured brightness temperatures.

Kim, Min-Jeong; Weinman, J. A.; Olson, W. S.; Chang, D.-E.; Skofronick-Jackson, G.; Wang, J. R.

2008-01-01

141

Data base on physical observations of near-Earth asteroids and establishment of a network to coordinate observations of newly discovered near-Earth asteroids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This program consists of two tasks: (1) development of a data base of physical observations of near-earth asteroids and establishment of a network to coordinate observations of newly discovered earth-approaching asteroids; and (2) a simulation of the surface of low-activity comets. Significant progress was made on task one and, and task two was completed during the period covered by this progress report.

Davis, D. R.; Chapman, C. R.; Campins, H.

1990-01-01

142

Physical and functional bivalency observed among TCR/CD3 complexes isolated from primary T cells  

PubMed Central

Unlike BCR and secreted immunoglobulin, TCR expression is not currently thought to occur in a bivalent form. The conventional monovalent model of TCR/CD3 is supported by published studies of complexes solubilized in the detergent digitonin, in which bivalency was not observed. We have revisited the issue of TCR valency by examining complexes isolated from primary ?? T cells after solubilization in digitonin. Using immunoprecipitation followed by flow cytometry (IP-FCM), we unexpectedly observed TCR/CD3 complexes that contained two TCRs per complex. Standard anti-TCR antibodies, being bivalent themselves, tended to bind with double occupancy to bivalent TCRs; this property masked the presence of the second TCR per complex in certain Ab binding assays, which may partially explain why previous data did not reveal these bivalent complexes. We also found that the prevalence of bivalency among fully assembled, mature TCR/CD3 complexes was sufficient to impact the functional performance of immunoprecipitated TCRs in binding antigenic peptide/MHC-Ig fusion proteins. Both TCR positions per bivalent complex required an antigen-specific TCR in order to effect optimal binding to these soluble ligands. Therefore, we conclude that in primary T cells, TCR/CD3 complexes can be found that are physically and functionally bivalent. The expression of bivalent TCR/CD3 complexes has implications regarding potential mechanisms by which antigen may trigger signaling. It also suggests the possibility that the potential for bivalent expression could represent a general feature of antigen receptors. PMID:21666056

Schrum, Adam G.; Gil, Diana; Turka, Laurence A.; Palmer, Ed

2011-01-01

143

Some Mineral Physics Observations Pertinent to the Rheological Properties of Super-Earths  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Both orbital and thermal evolution of recently discovered super-Earths (terrestrial planets whit mass exceeding that of Earth) depends critically on the rheological properties of their mantle. Although direct experimental studies on rheological properties are unavailable under the conditions equivalent to the deep mantles of these planets (~1 TPa and ~5000 K), a review of key materials science observations suggests that the deep mantle of these planets have much lower viscosity than most of the shallower regions of these planets. The key observations are: (i) phase transformations likely occur under these conditions including the B1 to B2 transition in MgO (1) and the dissociation of MgSiO3 into two oxides (MgO and SiO2) (2), (ii) the systematics in high-temperature creep show that materials with NaCl (B1) structures have much smaller viscosity than other oxides compared at the same normalized conditions (3), and (iii) diffusion coefficients in most of materials have a minimum at certain pressure and above that pressure it increases with pressure (due to mechanism transition) (4). In addition, a review of existing studies also shows that the ionic solids with B2 (CsCl) structure have larger diffusion coefficients than their B1 counter parts. Furthermore, if metallization transition occurs in any of these materials, delocalized electrons will further weaken the material. All of these observations or concepts suggest that even though the viscosity of a planet (below the asthenosphere) increases with depth in the relatively shallow regions, viscosity likely starts to decrease with depth below some critical depth (>~2000 km). The inferred low viscosity of super-Earths implies a large tidal dissipation and relatively rapid orbital evolution. Also such a rheological properties likely promote a layered mantle convection that enhances a weak deep mantle and retards the thermal evolution. 1. A. R. Oganov, M. J. Gillan, G. D. Price, Journal of Chemical Physics 118, 10174 (2003). 2. K. Umemoto, R. M. Wentzcovitch, P. B. Allen, Science 311, 983 (2006). 3. S. Karato, Physics of Earth and Planetary Interiors 55, 234 (1989). 4. S. Karato, Programme and Abstracts, The Seismological Society of Japan 1, 216 (1978).

Karato, S.

2010-12-01

144

Physical and chemical structure of the IC 63 nebula. 1: Millimeter and far-infrared observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present results of a (sub)millimeter and far-infrared study of the reflection/emission nebula IC 63, located close to the BO.5p star gamma Cas. The source has been mapped in the (12)CO 2 - 1 and 3 - 2, (13)CO 2 - 1, and CS 2 - 1 lines and shows a small molecular cloud less than 1'x 2' in extent, which coincides with the brightest optical nebulosity and IRAS 100 micrometer emission. IC 63 is therefore an excellent example of a nearby (d approximately = 230 pc), edge-on photon-dominated region (PDR). Various other molecules have been observed at the peak position through their rotational transitions, in order to probe the physical parameters and to derive abundances. The measured CO, HCO(+) HCN, CS and H2CO line ratios suggest that the cloud is warm, T approximately = 50 K, and dense, n (H2) approximately = 5 x 10(exp 4)/cu cm. Excitation of molecules by electrons may play a significant role in this PDR. On the basis of these physical conditions, column densities have been determined from the observed line strengths. Several different methods are discussed to constrain the H2 column density, including the use of measured submillimeter continuum fluxes. The resulting abundances of species such as CN and CS are similar to those found in cold, dark clouds like TMC-1 and L134N. However, the abundances of other simple molecules such as HNC, HCO(+) and possibly C2H are lower by factors of at least three, probably because of the enhanced photodissociation rates at a distance of 1.3 pc from a B star. Surprisingly, only the abundance of the H2S molecule appears enhanced. More complex, volatile molecules such as CH3OH CH3CN and HNCO, and the sulfur-oxides SO and SO2 have not been found in this cloud. Limited observations of molecules in the reflection nebulea NGC 2023 are presented as well, and the resulting molecular abundances are compared with those found for IC 63.

Jansen, David J.; Van Dishoeck, Ewine F.; Black, John H.

1994-01-01

145

SuperIso Relic: A program for calculating relic density and flavor physics observables in Supersymmetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe SuperIso Relic, a public program for evaluation of relic density and flavor physics observables in the minimal supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model (MSSM). SuperIso Relic is an extension of the SuperIso program which adds to the flavor observables of SuperIso the computation of all possible annihilation and coannihilation processes of the LSP which are required for the relic density calculation. All amplitudes have been generated at the tree level with FeynArts/FormCalc, and widths of the Higgs bosons are computed with FeynHiggs at the two-loop level. SuperIso Relic also provides the possibility to modify the assumptions of the cosmological model, and to study their consequences on the relic density. Catalogue identifier: AEGD_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEGD_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: yes No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 2?274?720 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 6?735?649 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C (C99 Standard compliant) and Fortran Computer: 32- or 64-bit PC, Mac Operating system: Linux, MacOS RAM: 100 Mb Classification: 1.9, 11.6 External routines: ISASUGRA/ISAJET and/or SOFTSUSY, FeynHiggs Does the new version supersede the previous version?: No (AEAN_v2_0) Nature of problem: Calculation of the lightest supersymmetric particle relic density, as well as flavor physics observables, in order to derive constraints on the supersymmetric parameter space. Solution method: SuperIso Relic uses a SUSY Les Houches Accord file, which can be either generated automatically via a call to SOFTSUSY or ISAJET, or provided by the user. This file contains the masses and couplings of the supersymmetric particles. SuperIso Relic then computes the lightest supersymmetric particle relic density as well as the most constraining flavor physics observables. To do so, it calculates first the widths of the Higgs bosons with FeynHiggs, and then it evaluates the squared amplitudes of the diagrams needed for the relic density calculation. These thousands of diagrams have been previously generated with the FeynArts/FormCalc package. SuperIso Relic is able to perform the calculations in different supersymmetry breaking scenarios, such as mSUGRA, NUHM, AMSB and GMSB. Reasons for new version: This version incorporates the calculation of the relic density, which is often used to constrain Supersymmetry. Summary of revisions:Addition of the relic density calculationReplacement of "float" type by "double". Unusual features: SuperIso Relic includes the possibility of altering the underlying cosmological model and testing the influence of the cosmological assumptions. Additional comments: This program is closely associated with the "SuperIso" program - CPC Program Library, Catalogue Id. AEAN. Running time:Compilation time: a couple of hours for the statically linked version, a few minutes for the dynamically linked version. Running time: about 1 second, or a few seconds if libraries need to be compiled on the fly.

Arbey, A.; Mahmoudi, F.

2010-07-01

146

Observing the Sun with ALMA: A New Window into Solar Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) is a joint North American, European, and East Asian interferometric array that opens the mm-submm wavelength part of the electromagnetic spectrum for general astrophysical exploration, providing high resolution imaging in frequency bands. Despite being a general purpose instrument, provisions have been made to enable solar observations with ALMA, thereby offering a new window into solar physics. Radiation emitted at ALMA wavelengths originates mostly from the chromosphere, which plays an important role in the transport of energy and matter and the heating of the outer layers of the solar atmosphere. Despite decades of intensive research, an understanding of the chromosphere is still elusive, and challenging to observe owing to the complicated formation mechanisms of currently available diagnostics. ALMA will change the scene substantially as it serves as a nearly linear thermometer at high spatial, temporal, and spectral resolution, enabling us to study the complex interaction of magnetic fields and shock waves and yet-to-be-discovered dynamical processes.Moreover, ALMA will play an important role in the study of energetic emissions associated with solar flares at sub-THz frequencies.This presentations introduces ALMA to the solar physcis community and motivates the science that can be addressed by ALMA using a number of examples based on 3D MHD simulations. In addition, the means by which ALMA is used to acquire and calibrate solar observations will be discussed. Finally, we encourage potential users to join us in further defining and articulating the exciting science to be explored with this fundamentally new instrument.

Bastian, Timothy S.; Shimojo, Masumi; Wedemeyer-Bohm, Sven; ALMA North American Solar Development Team

2015-01-01

147

Change in physical structure of a phenol-spiked sapric histosol observed by Differential Scanning Calorimetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interactions of pollutants with soil organic matter (SOM), their fate and transformation are crucial for understanding of soil functions and properties. In past, many papers dealing with sorption of organic and inorganic compounds have been published. However, their aim was almost exceptionally fo-cused on the pollutants themselves, determination of sorption isotherms and influence of external factors, while the change in SOM supramolecular structure was usually ignored. The SOM structure is, however, very important, since the adsorbed pollutant might have a significant influence on soil stability and functions. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) represents a technique, which has been successfully used to analyze the physical structure and physico-chemical aging of SOM. It has been found out that water molecules progressively stabilize SOM (water molecule bridge (WaMB)) (Schaumann & Bertmer 2008). Those bridges connect and stabilize SOM and can be disrupted at higher temperature (WaMB transition; (Kunhi Mouvenchery et al. 2013; Schaumann et al. 2013). In the same temperature region melting of aliphatic moieties can be observed (Hu et al. 2000; Chilom & Rice 2005; Kucerik et al. submitted 2013). In this work, we studied the effect of phenol on the physical structure of sapric histosol. Phenol was dissolved in various solvents (water, acetone, hexane, methanol) and added to soils. After the evaporation of solvents by air drying, the sample was equilibrated at 76% relative humidity for 3 weeks. Using DSC, we investigated the influence of phenol on histosol structure and time dependence of melting temperature of aliphatic moieties and WaMB transition. While addition of pure organic solvent only resulted in slightly increased transition temperatures, both melting temperature and WaMB transition temperature were significantly reduced in most cases if phenol was dissolved in these solvents. Water treatment caused a decrease in WaMB transition temperature but increased melting temperature. During the 150 days of physico-chemical aging, an increase in WaMB transition and melting temperature of aliphatic crystallites was was observed. Several types of treatments contrasting with this development were attributed to specific solvent -phenol interactions and will be discussed in this contribution. The results indicate that after introduction of phenol and during the consequent relaxation of the SOM structure, the re-formation of water molecule bridges is significantly reduced and decelerated. WaMB has been suggested as one SOM stabilizing mechanism (Schaumann & Bertmer 2008); the incorporation of phenol destabilizes the physical structure of SOM. It is assumed that phenol can penetrate into the WaMB hotspots, competes with water and/or disrupts WaMB or participate in WaMB formation. Simultaneously, phenol can penetrate and irreversibly change also the aliphatic crystallites, which are traditionally not considered being actively involved in sorption processes. It furthermore could compete with the organic matter for the hydration water. In this contribution, we will discuss these mechanisms. The results clearly demonstrate the potential of DSC to probe labile (physical) structures in soil organic matter and to elucidate interaction of organic chemicals with SOM moieties. References Chilom, G. & Rice, J.A. (2005). Glass transition and crystallite melting in natural organic matter. Organic Geochemistry, 36, 1339-1346. Hu, W.-G.; Mao, J.; Xing, B. & Schmidt-Rohr, K. (2000). Poly(methylene) crystallites in humic substances detected by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. Environmental Science and Technology, 34, 530-534. Kucerik, J.; Schwarz, J.; Jaeger, A.; Bertmer, M. & Schaumann, G. (submitted 2013). Character of transitions causing physicochemical aging of a sapric histosol. Kunhi Mouvenchery, Y.; Jaeger, A.; Aquino, A.J.A.; Tunega, D.; Diehl, D.; Bertmer, M. & Schaumann, G.E. (2013). Restructuring of a peat in interaction with multivalent cations: Effect of cation type and aging time. PLoS ONE, 8, e65359. Scha

Ondruch, Pavel; Kucerik, Jiri; Schaumann, Gabriele E.

2014-05-01

148

Rethinking Intensive Quantities via Guided Mediated Abduction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some intensive quantities, such as slope, velocity, or likelihood, are perceptually privileged in the sense that they are experienced as holistic, irreducible sensations. However, the formal expression of these quantities uses "a/b" analytic metrics; for example, the slope of a line is the quotient of its rise and run. Thus, whereas students'…

Abrahamson, Dor

2012-01-01

149

30 CFR 75.325 - Air quantity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...roof supports, the quantity of air reaching the working face shall...mounted dust collectors or diffuser fans are used, the approved ventilation...the dust collector or diffuser fan. (b) In bituminous and lignite mines, the quantity of air reaching the last open...

2012-07-01

150

30 CFR 75.325 - Air quantity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...roof supports, the quantity of air reaching the working face shall...mounted dust collectors or diffuser fans are used, the approved ventilation...the dust collector or diffuser fan. (b) In bituminous and lignite mines, the quantity of air reaching the last open...

2011-07-01

151

30 CFR 75.325 - Air quantity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...roof supports, the quantity of air reaching the working face shall...mounted dust collectors or diffuser fans are used, the approved ventilation...the dust collector or diffuser fan. (b) In bituminous and lignite mines, the quantity of air reaching the last open...

2013-07-01

152

30 CFR 75.325 - Air quantity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...roof supports, the quantity of air reaching the working face shall...mounted dust collectors or diffuser fans are used, the approved ventilation...the dust collector or diffuser fan. (b) In bituminous and lignite mines, the quantity of air reaching the last open...

2014-07-01

153

Tropical cyclone rainfall: An observational and numerical study of the structure and governing physical processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fresh water flooding has become the largest threat to life at hurricane landfall in the United States, in part because of a lack of skill of current Quantitative Precipitation Forcast (QPF) methods. This study aims to develop a global climatology of tropical cyclone (TC) rainfall and to improve our understanding of physical processes that affect the TC rainfall structure and distribution, using satellite observations and numerical simulations. First, the TC rainfall distributions with respect to the storm intensity and location are examined, using global satellite observations from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). Secondly, numerical simulations using the Penn State/National Centers for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) mesoscale modelling system, version 5 (MM5), are performed to study how specific processes affect the cyclone rainfall. The presence of moisture and momentum sources on a storm's inner core is investigated using a method that modifies the environmental conditions in the model. The mean TC rainfall distribution and the first order asymmetry vary with storm intensity and geographical location among the six oceanic basins. The mean rainfall increases with storm intensity within 250 km of the storm center while the radius of maximum rainfall decreases. The asymmetric component is determined by the first-order Fourier decomposition in a coordinate system relative to storm motion and shear. The rainfall asymmetry with TC motion varies significantly with both storm intensity and geographic location. For the global average of all TCs, the maximum rainfall is located in the front quadrants. However, the global composite asymmetry is larger when analysed with respect to shear. The asymmetry is observed down-shear left (right) in the Northern (Southern) Hemisphere for shear values >7.5 m s -1. The analysis is further extended to examine the net effect of the storm motion and the vertical wind shear. It is found that the storm-motion induced rainfall asymmetry is comparable to that induced by the shear when the shear is <5 m s-1. TC propagation speed becomes more important in the relatively low shear environment. The overall rainfall asymmetry, in all oceanic basins, depends on the angle and relative magnitude between the storm motion and shear vectors. The combined effect of shear and TC propagation speed is further investigated using numerical simulations of Hurricane Floyd (1999). Floyd was a well-observed intense storm that experienced variable environmental shear, from relatively low shear to close to 15 m s-1 high shear during its life cycle. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Lonfat, Manuel

154

Number versus Continuous Quantity in Numerosity Judgments by Fish  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In quantity discrimination tasks, adults, infants and animals have been sometimes observed to process number only after all continuous variables, such as area or density, have been controlled for. This has been taken as evidence that processing number may be more cognitively demanding than processing continuous variables. We tested this hypothesis…

Agrillo, Christian; Piffer, Laura; Bisazza, Angelo

2011-01-01

155

Piagetian conservation of discrete quantities in bonobos ( Pan paniscus ), chimpanzees ( Pan troglodytes ), and orangutans ( Pongo pygmaeus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated whether physical discreteness helps apes to understand the concept of Piagetian conservation (i.e. the invariance of quantities). Subjects were four bonobos, three chimpanzees, and five orangutans. Apes were tested on their ability to conserve discrete\\/continuous quantities in an over-conservation procedure in which two unequal quantities of edible rewards underwent various transformations in front of subjects. Subjects were

Chikako Suda; Josep Call

2005-01-01

156

Physical Processes of Substorm Onset and Current Disruption Observed by AMPTE/CCE  

SciTech Connect

A new scenario of AMPTE/CCE observation of substorm onset and current disruption and the corresponding physical processes is presented. Toward the end of the late growth phase, plasma beta increases to greater than or equal to 50 and a low-frequency instability with a wave period of 50-75 seconds is excited and grows exponentially to a large amplitude at the onset of current disruption. At the current disruption onset, higher-frequency instabilities are excited so that the plasma and electromagnetic field form a turbulent state. Plasma transport and heating take place to reduce plasma beta and modify the ambient plasma pressure and velocity profiles so that the ambient magnetic field recovers from a tail-like geometry to a more dipole- like geometry. To understand the excitation of the low-frequency global instability, a new theory of kinetic ballooning instability (KBI) is proposed to explain the high critical beta threshold (greater than or equal to 50) of the low-frequency global instability observed by the AMPTE/CCE. The stabilization kinetic effects of trapped electron and finite ion Larmor radii give rise to a large parallel electric field and hence a parallel current that greatly enhances the stabilizing effect of field line tension to the ballooning mode. As a result, the high critical beta threshold for excitation of KBI is greatly increased over the ideal MHD ballooning instability threshold by greater than O(10 squared). The wave-ion magnetic drift resonance effect typically reduces the high critical beta threshold by up to 20% and produces a perturbed resonant ion velocity distribution with a duskward velocity roughly equal to the average ion magnetic drift velocity as the KBI grows to a large amplitude. Higher-frequency instabilities, such as the cross-field current instability (CCI), can be excited by the additional velocity space free energy associated with the positive slope in the perturbed resonant ion velocity distribution.

Cheng, C.Z. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ (United States); Lui, A.T.Y. [Applied Physics Laboratory, Johns Hopkins Uniersity, Laurel, MD (United States)

1998-03-01

157

Green space and physical activity: An observational study using Health Survey for England data  

PubMed Central

Past studies have suggested that a link between health outcomes and green space is due to increased levels of physical activity of individuals living in areas with more green space. We found a positive association between green space and physical activity levels. The odds of achieving the recommended amount of physical activity was 1.27 (95% CI: 1.13–1.44) for people living in the greenest quintile in England compared to those living in the least green quintile, after controlling for individual and environmental factors. However, no association was found between green space and types of physical activity normally associated with green space. An association was found with other types of physical activity (gardening and do-it-yourself, and occupational physical activity). These findings suggest that although there is a positive association between physical activity and green space it may not be explained by individuals using green space for recreation. PMID:22795498

Mytton, Oliver T; Townsend, Nick; Rutter, Harry; Foster, Charlie

2012-01-01

158

PHYSICAL CONDITIONS IN A CORONAL MASS EJECTION FROM HINODE, STEREO, AND SOHO OBSERVATIONS  

SciTech Connect

In the present work, we analyze multiwavelength observations from Hinode, Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), and STEREO of the early phases of a coronal mass ejection (CME). We use Hinode/EIS and SOHO/UVCS high-resolution spectra to measure the physical properties of the CME ejecta as a function of time at 1.1 and 1.9 solar radii. Hinode/XRT images are used in combination with EIS spectra to constrain the high temperature plasma properties of the ejecta. SECCHI/EUVI, SECCHI/COR 1, SOHO/EIT, and SOHO/LASCO images are used to measure the CME trajectory, velocity, and acceleration. The combination of measurements of plane of the sky velocities from two different directions allows us to determine the total velocity of the CME plasma up to 5 solar radii. Plasma properties, dynamical status, thermal structure, and brightness distributions are used to constrain the energy content of the CME plasma and to determine the heating rate. We find that the heating is larger than the kinetic energy, and compare it to theoretical predictions from models of CME plasma heating and acceleration.

Landi, E. [Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Raymond, J. C.; Miralles, M. P. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Hara, H. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

2010-03-01

159

Physical properties of young stellar populations in 24 starburst galaxies observed with FUSE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the main physical properties of very young stellar populations seen with the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer in 24 individual starbursts. These characteristics have been obtained using the evolutionary spectral synthesis technique in the far-ultraviolet range with the LAVALSB code. For each starburst, quantitative values for age, metallicity, initial mass function slope, stellar mass and internal extinction have been obtained and discussed in details. Limits of the code have been tested. One main conclusion is that most starbursts (and probably all of them) cannot be represented by any continuous star formation burst in the far ultraviolet. Also, quantitative values of various optical diagnostics related to these stellar populations have been predicted. Underlying stellar populations, dominated by B-type stars, have been detected in NGC1140, NGC4449 and possibly NGC3991. We characterized the young stellar populations of less than 5Myr in Seyfert2 nuclei. Based on observations made with the NASA-CNES-CSA Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer. Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) is operated for NASA by the Johns Hopkins University under NASA contract NAS5-32985. E-mail: pellerin@stsci.edu (AP); carobert@phy.ulaval.ca (CR)

Pellerin, Anne; Robert, Carmelle

2007-10-01

160

Weight Preoccupation as a Function of Observed Physical Attractiveness: Ethnic Differences Among Normal-Weight Adolescent Females  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To examine the association between observer ratings of physical attractiveness and weight preoccupation for female adolescents, and to explore any ethnic differences between Caucasian, African-American, and Hispanic females. Methods Normal-weight female ado- lescents who had participated in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health in-home Wave II survey were included (n = 4,324). Physical attractiveness ratings were made in

Natalie Colabianchi; Carolyn E. Ievers-Landis; Elaine A. Borawski

2005-01-01

161

The physical conditions in IRDC clumps from Herschel/HIFI observations of H2O  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. The earliest phases of high-mass star formation are poorly understood. Aims: Our goal is to determine the physical conditions and kinematic structure of massive starforming cloud clumps. Methods: We analyse H2O 557 GHz line profiles observed with HIFI toward four positions in two infrared-dark cloud clumps. By comparison with ground-based C17O, N2H+, CH3OH, and NH3 line observations, we constrain the volume density and kinetic temperature of the gas and estimate the column density and abundance of H2O and N2H+. Results: The observed water lines are complex with emission and absorption components. The absorption is redshifted and consistent with a cold envelope, while the emission is interpreted as resulting from proto-stellar outflows. The gas density in the clumps is ~107 cm-3. The o-H2O outflow column density is 0.3-3.0 × 1014 cm-2. The o-H2O absorption column density is between 1.5 × 1014 and 2.6 × 1015 cm-2 with cold o-H2O abundances between 1.5 × 10-9 and 3.1 × 10-8. Conclusions: All clumps have high gas densities (~107 cm-3) and display infalling gas. Three of the four clumps have outflows. The clumps form an evolutionary sequence as probed by H2O N2H+, NH3, and CH3OH. We find that G28-MM is the most evolved, followed by G11-MM and then G28-NH3. The least evolved clump is G11-NH3 which shows no signposts of starformation; G11-NH3 is a high-mass pre-stellar core. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia with important participation of NASA.Tables 4, 6, 8, 10, 11, and Appendix A are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgFinal Herschel and APEX data used in the paper (FITS files) are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/570/A51

Shipman, R. F.; van der Tak, F. F. S.; Wyrowski, F.; Herpin, F.; Frieswijk, W.

2014-10-01

162

48 CFR 1352.215-73 - Evaluation quantities-indefinite quantity contract.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...215-73 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 1352.215-73 Evaluation quantities—indefinite quantity...

2011-10-01

163

48 CFR 1352.215-73 - Evaluation quantities-indefinite quantity contract.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...215-73 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 1352.215-73 Evaluation quantities—indefinite quantity...

2013-10-01

164

48 CFR 1352.215-73 - Evaluation quantities-indefinite quantity contract.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...215-73 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 1352.215-73 Evaluation quantities—indefinite quantity...

2010-10-01

165

48 CFR 1352.215-73 - Evaluation quantities-indefinite quantity contract.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...215-73 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 1352.215-73 Evaluation quantities—indefinite quantity...

2014-10-01

166

48 CFR 1352.215-73 - Evaluation quantities-indefinite quantity contract.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...215-73 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 1352.215-73 Evaluation quantities—indefinite quantity...

2012-10-01

167

Generic system of exact flavor-electroweak quantities via new dynamical parameter  

E-print Network

Unification-type idea of a basic connection between particle mass and charge quantities is in the spirit of string theory. On the level of phenomenology, this idea means raison d'etre for particle flavor since it requires more than one mass copy i.e. transition from individual particle mass to the concept of mass-matrix. In this paper that idea is exemplified by a generic system of accurate empirical relations for dimensionless flavor-electroweak quantities (fine structure constant, muon-electron and tauon-electron mass ratios and quark CKM and neutrino PMNS mixing angles) build in terms of one small universal e-parameter as mediator of mass-matrix and charge quantities. The used in this study empirically suggested math paradigm consists of repeated exponentiation of e-powers. Accuracy boost of flavor relations from replacement of e-power terms by exponential f-terms is observed. The two widely discussed in the literature empirical flavor regularities, quark-lepton complementarity (QLC) and Koide charged lepton mass formula, are essential parts of the generic system. Solar neutrino mixing angle is predicted {\\theta}sol= 34.05o by extension of QLC. Charged lepton mass ratios satisfy Koide relation with high accuracy ~10-9. The Appendix contains comments on dual objective-anthropic nature of physical reality.

E. M. Lipmanov

2011-03-16

168

Difference in quantity discrimination in dogs and wolves  

PubMed Central

Certain aspects of social life, such as engaging in intergroup conflicts, as well as challenges posed by the physical environment, may facilitate the evolution of quantity discrimination. In lack of excessive comparative data, one can only hypothesize about its evolutionary origins, but human-raised wolves performed well when they had to choose the larger of two sets of 1–4 food items that had been sequentially placed into two opaque cans. Since in such paradigms, the animals never see the entire content of either can, their decisions are thought to rely on mental representation of the two quantities rather than on some perceptual factors such as the overall volume or surface area of the two amounts. By equaling the time that it takes to enter each quantity into the cans or the number of items entered, one can further rule out the possibility that animals simply choose based on the amount of time needed to present the two quantities. While the wolves performed well even in such a control condition, dogs failed to choose the larger one of two invisible quantities in another study using a similar paradigm. Because this disparity could be explained by procedural differences, in the current study, we set out to test dogs that were raised and kept identically as the previously tested wolves using the same set-up and procedure. Our results confirm the former finding that dogs, in comparison to wolves, have inferior skills to represent quantities mentally. This seems to be in line with Frank’s (1980) hypothesis suggesting that domestication altered the information processing of dogs. However, as discussed, also alternative explanations may exist. PMID:25477834

Range, Friederike; Jenikejew, Julia; Schröder, Isabelle; Virányi, Zsófia

2014-01-01

169

7 CFR 35.13 - Minimum quantity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS EXPORT GRAPES AND PLUMS Exemptions § 35.13 Minimum quantity...a shipment of 25 packages or less of vinifera species table grapes, either a single variety or a combination of two or more...

2014-01-01

170

7 CFR 35.13 - Minimum quantity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS EXPORT GRAPES AND PLUMS Exemptions § 35.13 Minimum quantity...a shipment of 25 packages or less of vinifera species table grapes, either a single variety or a combination of two or more...

2011-01-01

171

7 CFR 35.13 - Minimum quantity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS EXPORT GRAPES AND PLUMS Exemptions § 35.13 Minimum quantity...a shipment of 25 packages or less of vinifera species table grapes, either a single variety or a combination of two or more...

2013-01-01

172

7 CFR 35.13 - Minimum quantity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS EXPORT GRAPES AND PLUMS Exemptions § 35.13 Minimum quantity...a shipment of 25 packages or less of vinifera species table grapes, either a single variety or a combination of two or more...

2012-01-01

173

7 CFR 35.13 - Minimum quantity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS EXPORT GRAPES AND PLUMS Exemptions § 35.13 Minimum quantity...a shipment of 25 packages or less of vinifera species table grapes, either a single variety or a combination of two or more...

2010-01-01

174

7 CFR 985.12 - Salable quantity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ...ORDER REGULATING THE HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating...means the total quantity of each class of oil which handlers may purchase from, or...

2014-01-01

175

7 CFR 985.12 - Salable quantity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ...ORDER REGULATING THE HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating...means the total quantity of each class of oil which handlers may purchase from, or...

2011-01-01

176

7 CFR 985.12 - Salable quantity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ...ORDER REGULATING THE HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating...means the total quantity of each class of oil which handlers may purchase from, or...

2012-01-01

177

7 CFR 985.12 - Salable quantity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ...ORDER REGULATING THE HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating...means the total quantity of each class of oil which handlers may purchase from, or...

2013-01-01

178

Average Transverse Momentum Quantities Approaching the Lightfront  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this contribution to Light Cone 2014, three average transverse momentum quantities are discussed: the Sivers shift, the dijet imbalance, and the p T broadening. The definitions of these quantities involve integrals over all transverse momenta that are overly sensitive to the region of large transverse momenta, which conveys little information about the transverse momentum distributions of quarks and gluons inside hadrons. TMD factorization naturally suggests alternative definitions of such integrated quantities, using Bessel-weighting and rapidity cut-offs, with the conventional definitions as limiting cases. The regularized quantities are given in terms of integrals over the TMDs of interest that are well-defined and moreover have the advantage of being amenable to lattice evaluations.

Boer, Daniël

2015-01-01

179

Zero-gravity quantity gaging system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Zero-Gravity Quantity Gaging System program is a technology development effort funded by NASA-LeRC and contracted by NASA-JSC to develop and evaluate zero-gravity quantity gaging system concepts suitable for application to large, on-orbit cryogenic oxygen and hydrogen tankage. The contract effective date was 28 May 1985. During performance of the program, 18 potential quantity gaging approaches were investigated for their merit and suitability for gaging two-phase cryogenic oxygen and hydrogen in zero-gravity conditions. These approaches were subjected to a comprehensive trade study and selection process, which found that the RF modal quantity gaging approach was the most suitable for both liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen applications. This selection was made with NASA-JSC concurrence.

1989-01-01

180

Studying Burgers' models to investigate the physical meaning of the alignments statistically observed in turbulence  

E-print Network

Studying Burgers' models to investigate the physical meaning of the alignments statistically, the vortex stretching vector, the pressure Hessian eigenvectors and the strain rate eigenvectors are computed and discussed in the case of the Burgers' vortex and the Burgers' layer. It is shown that the main physical

181

An Observational Study on Physical Properties of the Molecular Gas in External Galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To study the physical properties of the molecular gas in luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs), this thesis presents the preliminary results of a small local sample, a case study on a distant LIRG IRAS F10214+4724 at z=2.286 and another case study on a local LIRG ARP 302. The molecular gas in Perseus A, the cD galaxy in the center of the Perseus Cluster, is presented in high angular resolution observation to study the gas distribution and its kinematics. A small sample of 5 LIRGs was observed and the CO (J=3?2) mapping results reveal the gas distribution concentrated in the galactic centers or the centers of mergers and their overlapping regions. For NGC 3256, the maps in the CO (J=3?2), CO (J=4?3) and CO (J=7?6) transitions are obtained. Together with the measurements in the lower transitions from literatures, the peak of the spectral energy distribution (SED) of CO line was found between CO (J=5?4) and CO (J=6?5). With the radiation transfer model and the CO ladder, the gas density is constrained to n(H2)=103.7~104.1 cm-3 for a kinematic temperature T kin=40~45 K adopted from the literature. Local LIRG NGC 3256 shows the similar excitation conditions as the submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) in the early universe, further supporting the view that the SMGs are the same type of the local LIRGs, but only at the early epoch. The CI (3P2?3P1), CO (J=3?2), CO (J=4?3), CO (J=6?5) and CO (J=7?6) transitions as well as the dust continuum at 3 mm and 1 mm were detected towards the distant LIRG IRAS F10214+4724 at z=2.286. IRAS F10214+4724 now belongs to a sample of only 3 extragalactic sources at any redshift where both of the carbon fine structure lines have been detected. The source is spatially resolved by our CI (3P2?3P1) observation and we detect a velocity gradient along the east-west direction. The CI line ratio allows us to derive a carbon excitation temperature of 42+12-9 K. The carbon excitation in conjunction with the CO ladder and the dust continuum constrains the gas density to n(H2)=103.6~104.0 cm-3 and the kinematic temperature to Tkin=45~80 K, similar to the excitation conditions found in nearby starburst galaxies. The rest-frame 360 ?m dust continuum morphology is more compact than the line emitting region. This supports previous findings that the far infrared (FIR) luminosity arises from regions closer to the AGN. High angular resolution observation in CO (J=2?1) was carried out towards ARP 302N, the northern galaxy of the early merging system ARP 302, revealing the extended spatial distribution of the molecular gas in ARP 302N. The molecular gas was shown as a very asymmetric distribution with two strong concentrations on both sides of the center together with a weaker one offset by about 8 kpc to the north. The molecular gas distribution is also found to be consistent with that from the hot dust as traced by the 24 ?m continuum emission observed by Spitzer. For an observed line ratio of CO (J=2?1/1?0), excitation analysis suggests that the gas density is low, less than 103 cm-3, over the entire galaxy. By fitting the SED of ARP 302N in the FIR band, we obtain a dust temperature of Td=26~36 K and a dust mass of M dust=2.0~3.6×10^8 M?. The good spatial correspondence among the 3.6 cm radio continuum emission, the Spitzer 8 & 24?m data and the high resolution CO (J=2?1) observation from the SMA (submillimeter array) shows that there are asymmetrical star forming activities in ARP 302N. The molecular gas in Perseus A (Per A) has been imaged in CO (J=2?1) at a spatial resolution of ~1 kpc over a central region of radius ~10 kpc. Per A is known to contain ~1.3×10^10 M? of molecular gas, which has been proposed to be captured from mergers or ram-pressure stripping of gas-rich galaxies, or accreted from an X-ray cooling flow. For the first time, the molecular gas detected in our images can be seen to be concentrated in three radial filaments with lengths ranging from 1.1 kpc to 2.4 kpc. These all lie in the east-west directions, spanning from the center of the galaxy to radii of

Ao, Y. P.

2011-01-01

182

Observational Analysis of Student Activity Modes, Lesson Contexts and Teacher Interactions during Games Classes in High School (11-16 Years) Physical Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This purpose of this study was to examine student activity, lesson contexts and teacher interactions during secondary school physical education, using a recently validated systematic observation instrument termed the System for Observing the Teaching of Games in Physical Education (SOTG-PE). Thirty, single-gender high school (11-16 years) physical

Roberts, Simon; Fairclough, Stuart

2011-01-01

183

PHYSICAL REVIEW B 88, 144307 (2013) Direct observation of the phonon dispersion of a three-dimensional solid/solid  

E-print Network

for solid/solid systems, very few attempts have been made to experimentally characterize dispersionPHYSICAL REVIEW B 88, 144307 (2013) Direct observation of the phonon dispersion of a three-dimensional solid/solid hypersonic colloidal crystal Gaohua Zhu,1,* Nichlas Z. Swinteck,2 Songtao Wu,1 Jin S. Zhang

Deymier, Pierre

184

A Computer-Based Observational Assessment of the Teaching Behaviours that Influence Motivational Climate in Physical Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The primary purpose of this study was to use an established behavioural taxonomy (Ames, 1992b) as a computer-based observational coding system to assess the teaching behaviours that influence perceptions of the motivational climate in Physical Education (PE). The secondary purpose was to determine the degree of congruence between the behavioural…

Morgan, Kevin; Sproule, John; Weigand, Daniel; Carpenter, Paul

2005-01-01

185

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A 476 (2002) 758764 Observation of radiation induced latchup in the readout  

E-print Network

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A 476 (2002) 758­764 Observation of radiation.80 Keywords: Latchup; Microelectronics; Nuclear electronics; Radiation tolerant electronics; Radiation effects of a single detector board is shown, and so they are exposed to high radiation levels. The CDP [3] is a clock

Ramello, Luciano

186

Solar Physics (2004) 224: 34 C Springer 2005 The topical issue of "Space Climate: Direct and Indirect Observations of  

E-print Network

Solar Physics (2004) 224: 3­4 C Springer 2005 PREFACE The topical issue of "Space Climate: Direct and Indirect Observations of Long-Term Solar Activity" is based on contributions presented at the First of solar activity, and their effects in the near-Earth environment and technoculture. As an analogy

Usoskin, Ilya G.

187

Statistical Estimation of Distributions of Physical Quantities in Nuclear Fission  

Microsoft Academic Search

Making use of a model based on the statistical theory, calculations were performed to obtain the mass yields, the most probable charges, the kinetic energies and the prompt neutron yields of fission fragments, and the mass yields of fission products from thermal-neutron-induced fission of U, U, Pu, Pu and from the spontaneous fission of Cf. The calculations are further extended

Toru YAMAMOTO; Kazusuke SUGIYAMA

1974-01-01

188

Physical activity monitoring based on accelerometry: validation and comparison with video observation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this feasibility study is to evaluate the use of the ‘Physilog’ device, an ambulatory physical-activity recorder\\u000a based on acceleration measurement, for the monitoring of daily physical activities. Accelerations measured at the level of\\u000a the chest and the thigh are recorded by Physilog over a period of 1 h in five normal subjects. A specially designed studio-like\\u000a room

K. Aminian; Ph. Robert; E. E. Buchser; B. Rutschmann; D. Hayoz; M. Depairon

1999-01-01

189

"In Situ" Observation of a Soap-Film Catenoid--A Simple Educational Physics Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The solution to the Euler-Lagrange equation is an extremal functional. To understand that the functional is stationary at local extrema (maxima or minima), we propose a physics experiment that involves using a soap film to form a catenoid. A catenoid is a surface that is formed between two coaxial circular rings and is classified mathematically as…

Ito, Masato; Sato, Taku

2010-01-01

190

Observational (Physical) Meaning of Non-Standard (Non--Additive) Probabilities  

E-print Network

Quantum Field Theory Vladik Kreinovich and Luc Longpr´e Department of Computer Science University of Texas are consistent with a probabilistic theory: idea In classical (pre-quantum) physics, predictions were usually. For example, if the hypothesis is that we have a fair coin (with probability of heads 0.5), what sequences

Kreinovich, Vladik

191

Observational (Physical) Meaning of NonStandard (Non#Additive) Probabilities  

E-print Network

Quantum Field Theory Vladik Kreinovich and Luc Longprâ??e Department of Computer Science University of Texas are consistent with a probabilistic theory: idea In classical (pre­quantum) physics, predictions were usually. For example, if the hypothesis is that we have a fair coin (with probability of heads 0.5), what sequences

Kreinovich, Vladik

192

Recent advances in observing the physical oceanography of the western Mediterranean Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mediterranean Sea has been investigated intensively since the early nineties, using modern techniques and collaborative approaches. This overview summarizes some of the resulting advances that were made concerning the physical oceanography of the western Mediterranean. The water mass formation processes are now much better understood and have been quantified to a large extent. The boundary conditions of the system

Uwe Send; Gerd Krahmann; Claude Millot; Monika Rhein; Joaquin Tintoref

1999-01-01

193

Malting extremely small quantities of barley  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Micromalting procedures for malt quality analysis typically use 50 – 500 g of barley and are used to produce malt with characteristics suitable for malting quality analysis. Modifications to routine micromalting protocols in which small quantities of grain within inexpensive mesh containers are surr...

194

49 CFR 172.315 - Limited quantities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...when marked in accordance with the white square-on-point limited quantity marking...The width of the border forming the square-on-point must be at least 2 mm...2) The top and bottom portions of the square-on-point and the border forming...

2011-10-01

195

Statistical Ensembles with Fluctuating Extensive Quantities  

E-print Network

We suggest an extension of the standard concept of statistical ensembles. Namely, we introduce a class of ensembles with extensive quantities fluctuating according to an externally given distribution. As an example the influence of energy fluctuations on multiplicity fluctuations in limited segments of momentum space for a classical ultra-relativistic gas is considered.

M. I. Gorenstein; M. Hauer

2008-01-28

196

30 CFR 75.325 - Air quantity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the intake end of any pillar line, unless a greater quantity...location required by the district manager and specified in the approved...the intake end of any pillar line. (h) The following equipment...is approved by the district manager and specified in the...

2010-07-01

197

Infants Make Quantity Discriminations for Substances  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Infants can track small groups of solid objects, and infants can respond when these quantities change. But earlier work is equivocal about whether infants can track continuous substances, such as piles of sand. Experiment 1 ("N" = 88) used a habituation paradigm to show infants can register changes in the size of piles of sand that they see poured…

Hespos, Susan J.; Dora, Begum; Rips, Lance J.; Christie, Stella

2012-01-01

198

Observation of CP violation in $D^0 \\rightarrow K^- ?^+ $ as a smoking gun for New Physics  

E-print Network

In this paper, we study the Cabibbo favored non-leptonic $D^0$ decays into $K^- \\pi^+$ decays. First we show that, within the Standard Model, the corresponding CP asymmetry is strongly suppressed and out of the experimental range even taking into account the large strong phases coming from final state Interactions. We show also that although new physics models with extra sequential generation can enhance the CP asymmetry by few orders of magnitude however the resulting CP asymmetry is still far from experimental range. The most sensitive New Physics Models to this CP asymmetry comes from no-manifest Left-Right models where a CP asymmetry up to 10% can be reached and general two Higgs models extension of SM where a CP asymmetry of order $10^{-2}$ can be obtained without being in contradiction with the experimental constraints on these models.

David Delepine; Gaber Faisel; Carlos A. Ramirez

2012-12-27

199

The relationship between physical activity and low back pain outcomes: a systematic review of observational studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although clinical guidelines advocate exercise and activity in the management of non-specific low back pain (NSLBP), the link\\u000a between levels of physical activity and outcomes is unclear. This systematic review investigated the relationships between\\u000a free living activity levels after onset of low back pain (LBP) and measures of pain, and disability in patients with NSLBP.\\u000a Cohort and cross-sectional studies were

Paul HendrickS; S. Milosavljevic; L. Hale; D. A. Hurley; S. McDonough; B. Ryan; G. D. Baxter

2011-01-01

200

Method of 'optimum observables' and implementation of neural networks in physics investigations  

SciTech Connect

A separation of a signal of various physics processes from an overwhelming background is one of the most important problems in contemporary high-energy physics. The application of various multivariate statistical methods, such as the neural-network method, has become one of the popular steps toward optimizing relevant analyses. The choice of optimum variables that would disclose distinctions between a signal and a background is one of the important elements in the application of neural networks. A universal method for determining an optimum set of such kinematical variables is described in the present article. The method is based on an analysis of Feynman diagrams contributing to signal and background processes. This method was successfully implemented in searches for single top-quark production with the D0 detector (Tevatron, Fermilab) in analyzing Run I and Run II data. Brief recommendations concerning an optimum implementation of the neural-network method in physics analysis are given on the basis of experience gained in searches for single top-quark production with the D0 detector.

Boos, E. E.; Bunichev, V. E.; Dudko, L. V.; Markina, A. A. [Moscow State University, Institute of Nuclear Physics (Russian Federation)

2008-02-15

201

Shoot-the-Shower: real-time observations for astroparticle physics using the FRAM robotic telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The FRAM telescope operates as an atmospheric monitoring device for the Pierre Auger Observatory in Argentina. In addition to regular photometric observations aimed to determine the overall aerosol content and characteristic in the atmosphere above the Observatory, FRAM is also a part of the rapid monitoring program. When a ultra-high energy shower is detected by the fluorescence telescopes of the Observatory, the FRAM telescope takes a series of images to measure atmospheric transparency along the trajectory of the shower. These observations are critical for the identification of showers with anomalous profiles. If such showers were clearly observed, they can significantly constrain the hadronic interaction models at very high energies.

Ebr, J.; Jane?ek, P.; Prouza, M.; Kubánek, P.; Jelínek, M.; Mašek, M.; Ebrová, I.; ?erný, J.

2014-12-01

202

Physics 344 Lab 2 Visual Observations with the 0.5 m Telescope  

E-print Network

observations in 1609 until the introduction of astronomical photography in the mid 1800's, the human eye Reference: Chapter 6 Purpose: For several hundred years, from the first use of a telescope for astronomical

Glashausser, Charles

203

Physical Characterization of Warm Spitzer-observed Near-Earth Objects  

E-print Network

Near-infrared spectroscopy of Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) connects diagnostic spectral features to specific surface mineralogies. The combination of spectroscopy with albedos and diameters derived from thermal infrared observations can increase the scientific return beyond that of the individual datasets. To that end, we have completed a spectroscopic observing campaign to complement the ExploreNEOs Warm Spitzer program that obtained albedos and diameters of nearly 600 NEOs (Trilling et al. 2010). Here we present the results of observations using the low-resolution prism mode (~0.7-2.5 microns) of the SpeX instrument on the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF). We also include near-infrared observations of ExploreNEOs targets from the MIT-UH-IRTF Joint Campaign for Spectral Reconnaissance. Our dataset includes near-infrared spectra of 187 ExploreNEOs targets (125 observations of 92 objects from our survey and 213 observations of 154 objects from the MIT survey). We identify a taxonomic class for each spectru...

Thomas, Cristina A; Trilling, David E; Delbo, Marco; Hora, Joseph L; Mueller, Michael

2013-01-01

204

Conserved Quasilocal Quantities and General Covariant Theories in Two Dimensions  

E-print Network

General matterless--theories in 1+1 dimensions include dilaton gravity, Yang--Mills theory as well as non--Einsteinian gravity with dynamical torsion and higher power gravity, and even models of spherically symmetric d = 4 General Relativity. Their recent identification as special cases of 'Poisson--sigma--models' with simple general solution in an arbitrary gauge, allows a comprehensive discussion of the relation between the known absolutely conserved quantities in all those cases and Noether charges, resp. notions of quasilocal 'energy--momentum'. In contrast to Noether like quantities, quasilocal energy definitions require some sort of 'asymptotics' to allow an interpretation as a (gauge--independent) observable. Dilaton gravitation, although a little different in detail, shares this property with the other cases. We also present a simple generalization of the absolute conservation law for the case of interactions with matter of any type.

W. Kummer; P. Widerin

1995-02-15

205

Non-physical practice improves task performance in an unstable, perturbed environment: motor imagery and observational balance training  

PubMed Central

For consciously performed motor tasks executed in a defined and constant way, both motor imagery (MI) and action observation (AO) have been shown to promote motor learning. It is not known whether these forms of non-physical training also improve motor actions when these actions have to be variably applied in an unstable and unpredictable environment. The present study therefore investigated the influence of MI balance training (MI_BT) and a balance training combining AO and MI (AO+MI_BT) on postural control of undisturbed and disturbed upright stance on unstable ground. As spinal reflex excitability after classical (i.e., physical) balance training (BT) is generally decreased, we tested whether non-physical BT also has an impact on spinal reflex circuits. Thirty-six participants were randomly allocated into an MI_BT group, in which participants imagined postural exercises, an AO+MI_BT group, in which participants observed videos of other people performing balance exercises and imagined being the person in the video, and a non-active control group (CON). Before and after 4 weeks of non-physical training, balance performance was assessed on a free-moving platform during stance without perturbation and during perturbed stance. Soleus H-reflexes were recorded during stable and unstable stance. The post-measurement revealed significantly decreased postural sway during undisturbed and disturbed stance after both MI_BT and AO+MI_BT. Spinal reflex excitability remained unchanged. This is the first study showing that non-physical training (MI_BT and AO+MI_BT) not only promotes motor learning of “rigid” postural tasks but also improves performance of highly variable and unpredictable balance actions. These findings may be relevant to improve postural control and thus reduce the risk of falls in temporarily immobilized patients. PMID:25538598

Taube, Wolfgang; Lorch, Michael; Zeiter, Sibylle; Keller, Martin

2014-01-01

206

Observed variations of methane on Mars unexplained by known atmospheric chemistry and physics.  

PubMed

The detection of methane on Mars has revived the possibility of past or extant life on this planet, despite the fact that an abiogenic origin is thought to be equally plausible. An intriguing aspect of the recent observations of methane on Mars is that methane concentrations appear to be locally enhanced and change with the seasons. However, methane has a photochemical lifetime of several centuries, and is therefore expected to have a spatially uniform distribution on the planet. Here we use a global climate model of Mars with coupled chemistry to examine the implications of the recently observed variations of Martian methane for our understanding of the chemistry of methane. We find that photochemistry as currently understood does not produce measurable variations in methane concentrations, even in the case of a current, local and episodic methane release. In contrast, we find that the condensation-sublimation cycle of Mars' carbon dioxide atmosphere can generate large-scale methane variations differing from those observed. In order to reproduce local methane enhancements similar to those recently reported, we show that an atmospheric lifetime of less than 200 days is necessary, even if a local source of methane is only active around the time of the observation itself. This implies an unidentified methane loss process that is 600 times faster than predicted by standard photochemistry. The existence of such a fast loss in the Martian atmosphere is difficult to reconcile with the observed distribution of other trace gas species. In the case of a destruction mechanism only active at the surface of Mars, destruction of methane must occur with an even shorter timescale of the order of approximately 1 hour to explain the observations. If recent observations of spatial and temporal variations of methane are confirmed, this would suggest an extraordinarily harsh environment for the survival of organics on the planet. PMID:19661912

Lefèvre, Franck; Forget, François

2009-08-01

207

19 CFR 144.33 - Minimum quantities to be withdrawn.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Customs, merchandise shall not be withdrawn from bonded warehouse in quantities less than an entire bale, cask, box, or other package, or, if in bulk, in quantities less than 1 ton in weight or the entire quantity imported, whichever is...

2010-04-01

208

49 CFR 172.315 - Packages containing limited quantities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Packages containing limited quantities...Marking § 172.315 Packages containing limited quantities...in this subchapter, a package containing a limited quantity...a size relative to the package as to be readily...

2010-10-01

209

Physical and Chemical Structure of Planet-Forming Disks Probed by Millimeter Observations and Modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Protoplanetary disks composed of dust and gas are ubiquitous around young stars and are commonly recognized as nurseries of planetary systems. Their lifetime, appearance, and structure are determined by an interplay between stellar radiation, gravity, thermal pressure, magnetic field, gas viscosity, turbulence, and rotation. Molecules and dust serve as major heating and cooling agents in disks. Dust grains dominate the disk opacities, reprocess most of the stellar radiation, and shield molecules from ionizing ultraviolet (UV)/X-ray photons. Disks also dynamically evolve by building up planetary systems, which drastically change their gas and dust density structures. Over the past decade, significant progress has been achieved in our understanding of disk chemical composition thanks to the upgrade or advent of new millimeter/infrared (IR) facilities [Submillimeter Array (SMA), Plateau de Bure Interferometer (PdBI), Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA), Herschel, Expanded Very Large Array (e-VLA), Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA)]. Some major breakthroughs in our comprehension of the disk physics and chemistry have been done since Protostars and Planets V (Reipurth et al., 2007). This review will present and discuss the impact of such improvements on our understanding of the disk physical structure and chemical composition.

Dutrey, A.; Semenov, D.; Chapillon, E.; Gorti, U.; Guilloteau, S.; Hersant, F.; Hogerheijde, M.; Hughes, M.; Meeus, G.; Nomura, H.; Piétu, V.; Qi, C.; Wakelam, V.

210

Environmental and social-motivational contextual factors related to youth physical activity: systematic observations of summer day camps  

PubMed Central

Background Youth risk of obesity is high during the summer months. Summer day camps can be ideal settings for preventing obesity through reducing youth summer sedentary behaviors. However, with limited research on camp settings, the mechanisms by which these programs promote children’s physical activity (PA) remains largely unknown. The current study was designed to take a first step in addressing this gap in research through systematic observations of 4 summer day camps. Methods Systematic observations of 4 summer day camps was conducted using the System for Observing Play and Leisure Activity in Youth (SOPLAY) and a social-motivational climate supplemental observation tool founded on Self-Determination Theory and previous research developed by the authors. Teams of two coders observed daily activities for four days across two-week periods at each camp. On 15 minute intervals throughout each day, camps were assessed on level of youth PA (e.g., sedentary, moderate, vigorous), five physical features (e.g., equipment), eight staff interactions (e.g., encourage PA), and six social climate components (e.g., inclusive game). Results Across the sample, highly engaging games [F(1,329)?=?17.68, p?physical-environmental effects of temperature [F(1,328)?=?1.54, p?observations of the physical and social resources of summer day camps and contributes to our understanding of the strengths and needs of camps to effectively promote PA in both boys and girls during the summer months when risks for obesity are high. PMID:23688205

2013-01-01

211

Our Sun IV: The Standard Model and Helioseismology: Consequences of Uncertainties in Input Physics and in Observed Solar Parameters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Helioseismic frequency observations provide an extremely accurate window into the solar interior; frequencies from the Michaelson Doppler Imager (MDI) on the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) spacecraft, enable the adiabatic sound speed and adiabatic index to be inferred with an accuracy of a few parts in 10(exp 4) and the density with an accuracy of a few parts in 10(exp 3). This has become a Serious challenge to theoretical models of the Sun. Therefore, we have undertaken a self-consistent, systematic study of the sources of uncertainties in the standard solar models. We found that the largest effect on the interior structure arises from the observational uncertainties in the photospheric abundances of the elements, which affect the sound speed profile at the level of 3 parts in 10(exp 3). The estimated 4% uncertainty in the OPAL opacities could lead to effects of 1 part in 10(exp 3); the approximately 5%, uncertainty in the basic pp nuclear reaction rate would have a similar effect, as would uncertainties of approximately 15% in the diffusion constants for the gravitational settling of helium. The approximately 50% uncertainties in diffusion constants for the heavier elements would have nearly as large an effect. Different observational methods for determining the solar radius yield results differing by as much as 7 parts in 10(exp 4); we found that this leads to uncertainties of a few parts in 10(exp 3) in the sound speed int the solar convective envelope, but has negligible effect on the interior. Our reference standard solar model yielded a convective envelope position of 0.7135 solar radius, in excellent agreement with the observed value of 0.713 +/- 0.001 solar radius and was significantly affected only by Z/X, the pp rate, and the uncertainties in helium diffusion constants. Our reference model also yielded envelope helium abundance of 0.2424, in good agreement with the approximate range of 0.24 to 0.25 inferred from helioseismic observations; only extreme Z/X values yielded envelope helium abundance outside this range. We found that other current uncertainties, namely, in the solar age and luminosity, in nuclear rates other than the pp reaction, in the low-temperature molecular opacities, and in the low-density equation of state, have no significant effect on the quantities that can be inferred from helioseismic observations. The predicted pre-main-sequence lithium depletion is uncertain by a factor of 2. The predicted neutrino capture rate is uncertain by approximately 30% for the Cl-27 experiment and by approximately 3% for Ga-71 experiments, while the B-8 neutrino flux is uncertain by approximately 30%.

Boothroyd, Arnold I.; Sackmann, I.-Juliana

2001-01-01

212

Quantity Flexibility Contracts and Supply Chain Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Quantity Flexibility (QF) contract is a method for coordinating materials and information flows in supply chains operating under rolling-horizon planning. It stipulates a maximum percentage revision each element of the period-by-period replenishment schedule is allowed per planning iteration. The supplier is obligated to cover any requests that remain within the upside limits. The bounds on reductions are a form

A. A. Tsay; W. S. Lovejoy

1999-01-01

213

Shielded radiation protection quantities beyond LEO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) has recommended that the quantities used to evaluate health risk to astronauts due to radiation exposure be effective dose and gray-equivalent. The NCRP recommends that effective dose be the limiting quantity for prevention of stochastic effects. Effective dose is a measure of whole body exposure, a weighted average of dose equivalent to a number body tissues for which the NCRP has adopted tissue weighting factors recommended by the International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP). For deterministic effects, the NCRP has recommended that gray-equivalent be used. Gray-equivalent is evaluated for specific critical organs and is the weighted sum of absorbed dose from field components to that organ using the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) number for that field component. RBE numbers recommended by the NCRP are used. The NCRP has provided effective dose limits as well as limits for gray-equivalent to eyes, skin, and blood forming organs (BFO) for astronauts in low earth orbit (LEO). As yet, no such limits have been defined for astronaut operations beyond LEO. In this study, the radiation protection quantities, effective dose and gray-equivalent to the eyes, skin, and BFO, are calculated for several environments beyond LEO. The lunar surface and Martian environments are included. For each environment, these radiation protection quantities are calculated behind varying amounts of various types of shielding materials. The results are compared to the exposure limits for LEO, since limits have not yet been defined for interplanetary missions. The benefits of using shielding material containing hydrogen and choosing optimal mission times are discussed.

Clowdsley, M. S.; Wilson, J. W.; Kim, M. Y.; Anderson, B. M.; Nealy, J. E.

214

Fate of Deepwater Horizon oil in Alabama's beach system: understanding physical evolution processes based on observational data.  

PubMed

The impact of MC252 oil on northern Gulf of Mexico (GOM) beaches from the 2010 Deepwater Horizon (DWH) catastrophe was extensive along Alabama's beaches. While considerable amount of cleanup has occurred along these beaches, as of August 2014, DWH oil spill residues continue to be found as surface residual balls (SRBs), and also occasionally as submerged oil mats (SOMs). Four years of field observations informing the fate and transport of DWH SRBs in Alabama's beach system are presented here, along with a conceptual framework for describing their physical evolution processes. The observation data show that SRBs containing MC252 residues currently remain in Alabama's beach system, although their relationship to SOMs is not fully known. Based on our field observations we conclude that small DWH SRBs are likely to persist for several years along the Alabama shoreline. PMID:25496697

Hayworth, Joel S; Prabakhar Clement, T; John, Gerald F; Yin, Fang

2015-01-15

215

Quantity Discrimination in Wolves (Canis lupus)  

PubMed Central

Quantity discrimination has been studied extensively in different non-human animal species. In the current study, we tested 11 hand-raised wolves (Canis lupus) in a two-way choice task. We placed a number of food items (one to four) sequentially into two opaque cans and asked the wolves to choose the larger amount. Moreover, we conducted two additional control conditions to rule out non-numerical properties of the presentation that the animals might have used to make the correct choice. Our results showed that wolves are able to make quantitative judgments at the group, but also at the individual level even when alternative strategies such as paying attention to the surface area or time and total amount are ruled out. In contrast to previous canine studies on dogs (Canis familiaris) and coyotes (Canis latrans), our wolves’ performance did not improve with decreasing ratio, referred to as Weber’s law. However, further studies using larger quantities than we used in the current set-up are still needed to determine whether and when wolves’ quantity discrimination conforms to Weber’s law. PMID:23181044

Utrata, Ewelina; Virányi, Zsófia; Range, Friederike

2012-01-01

216

Quantity Discrimination in Wolves (Canis lupus).  

PubMed

Quantity discrimination has been studied extensively in different non-human animal species. In the current study, we tested 11 hand-raised wolves (Canis lupus) in a two-way choice task. We placed a number of food items (one to four) sequentially into two opaque cans and asked the wolves to choose the larger amount. Moreover, we conducted two additional control conditions to rule out non-numerical properties of the presentation that the animals might have used to make the correct choice. Our results showed that wolves are able to make quantitative judgments at the group, but also at the individual level even when alternative strategies such as paying attention to the surface area or time and total amount are ruled out. In contrast to previous canine studies on dogs (Canis familiaris) and coyotes (Canis latrans), our wolves' performance did not improve with decreasing ratio, referred to as Weber's law. However, further studies using larger quantities than we used in the current set-up are still needed to determine whether and when wolves' quantity discrimination conforms to Weber's law. PMID:23181044

Utrata, Ewelina; Virányi, Zsófia; Range, Friederike

2012-01-01

217

Role of subsurface physics in the assimilation of surface soil moisture observations  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Soil moisture controls the exchange of water and energy between the land surface and the atmosphere and exhibits memory that may be useful for climate prediction at monthly time scales. Though spatially distributed observations of soil moisture are increasingly becoming available from remotely sense...

218

Benchmarking Physical Therapy Clinic Performance: Statistical Methods to Enhance Internal Validity When Using Observational Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many clinics and payers are beginning programs to collect and interpret outcomes related to quality of care and provider performance (ie, benchmarking). Outcomes assessment is commonly done using observational research designs, which makes it important for those involved in these endeavors to appreciate the underlying chal- lenges and limitations of these designs. This perspective article discusses the advan- tages and

Linda Resnik; Dawei Liu; Dennis L Hart; Vince Mor

219

Aircraft Observations of Sub-cloud Aerosol and Convective Cloud Physical Properties  

E-print Network

This research focuses on aircraft observational studies of aerosol-cloud interactions in cumulus clouds. The data were collected in the summer of 2004, the spring of 2007 and the mid-winter and spring of 2008 in Texas, central Saudi Arabia...

Axisa, Duncan

2011-02-22

220

Satellite observations of plasma physics near the magnetic field reconnection X line  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Satellite observations near the X line are required to understand electromagnetic energy conversion and particle acceleration resulting from magnetic field reconnection. More than 900 orbits of Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) spacecraft across the low-latitude dayside magnetopause, involving more than 4000 magnetopause crossings and 5000 h of data, were searched for examples of magnetic field reconnection within a few electron skin depths of the X line. Evidence that the X line was crossed in the best of these events comes from observations of DC electric and magnetic fields, electrostatic and electromagnetic lower hybrid waves, magnetosheath electrons flowing along the separatricies, and a super-Alfvenic electron jet flowing perpendicular to the magnetic field. A dispersion analysis identifies properties of the wave that are in agreement with the experiment. Neither these waves nor the DC electric field were sufficient to account for acceleration of the electron jet. The anomalous drag was not an important source of the observed DC electric field. The observed pressure gradient is a possible candidate for maintaining the electric field.

Mozer, F. S.; Sundkvist, D.; McFadden, J. P.; Pritchett, P. L.; Roth, I.

2011-12-01

221

Physical Characterization of Warm Spitzer-observed Near-Earth Objects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Near-infrared spectroscopy of Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) connects diagnostic spectral features to specific surface mineralogies. The combination of spectroscopy with albedos and diameters derived from thermal infrared observations can increase the scientific return beyond that of the individual datasets. For instance, some taxonomic classes can be separated into distinct compositional groupings with albedo and different mineralogies with similar albedos can be distinguished with spectroscopy. To that end, we have completed a spectroscopic observing campaign to complement the ExploreNEOs Warm Spitzer program that obtained albedos and diameters of nearly 600 NEOs (Trilling et al., 2010). The spectroscopy campaign included visible and near-infrared observations of ExploreNEOs targets from various observatories. Here we present the results of observations using the low-resolution prism mode (approx. 0.7-2.5 microns) of the SpeX instrument on the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF). We also include near-infrared observations of Explore-NEOs targets from the MIT-UH-IRTF Joint Campaign for Spectral Reconnaissance. Our dataset includes near-infrared spectra of 187 ExploreNEOs targets (125 observations of 92 objects from our survey and 213 observations of 154 objects from the MIT survey). We identify a taxonomic class for each spectrum and use band parameter analysis to investigate the mineralogies for the S-, Q-, and V-complex objects. Our analysis suggests that for spectra that contain near-infrared data but lack the visible wavelength region, the Bus-DeMeo system misidentifies some S-types as Q-types. We find no correlation between spectral band parameters and ExploreNEOs albedos and diameters. We investigate the correlations of phase angle with band area ratio and near-infrared spectral slope. We find slightly negative Band Area Ratio (BAR) correlations with phase angle for Eros and Ivar, but a positive BAR correlation with phase angle for Ganymed.The results of our phase angle study are consistent with those of (Sanchez et al., 2012). We find evidence for spectral phase reddening for Eros, Ganymed, and Ivar. We identify the likely ordinary chondrite type analog for an appropriate subset of our sample. Our resulting proportions of H, L, and LL ordinary chondrites differ from those calculated for meteorite falls and in previous studies of ordinary chondrite-like NEOs.

Thomas, Cristina A.; Emery, Joshua P.; Trilling, David E.; Delbo, Marco; Hora, Joseph L.; Mueller, Michael

2014-01-01

222

Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nuclear, plasma, elementary particle, and atomic and molecular physics are surveyed along with the physics of condensed matter and relativistic astrophysics. Attention is given to the discovery of quarks, psi particles, bosons and nuclear quantum states, the role of group theory and the search for a unified field theory. Also considered are magnetic and inertial confinement regarding fusion power, and the use of tunable lasers and microwave spectroscopy to study Rydberg states. In addition, surface physics, amorphous solids, superfluidity and gravitational collapse are discussed.

Bromley, D. A.

1980-07-01

223

FUSE Observations of LMC and SMC 03-4 Stars: Physical Parameters of the Hottest Stars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of the project is to analyze the spectra of the most massive stars in our neighbor Galaxies, to determine the physical parameters of temperature, mass, gravity, and Luminosity, together with the stellar wind properties. For this purpose, FUSE spectra, HST spectra (uv and optical) and high quality optical spectra obtained with ground-based telescopes need to be analyzed wing modern NLTE model atmosphere techniques. The combination of the use of spectra from different wavelength regions is a fundamental aspect of the project. Each spectral domain adds complementary important to the process of the spectral analysis. In this way the comparison of stellar properties between galaxies of different metallicity will become more significant.

Kudrtizki, Rolf-Peter

2004-01-01

224

Physical and observable characteristics of cloud-to-ground lightning over the Pearl River Delta region of South China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning characteristic parameters deduced from the lightning location system (LLS) for five differing microenvironmental areas relative to megacity, city, municipal town, hilly suburban area, and mountainous rural area conditions were examined in our 2009-2011 Pearl River Delta (PRD) study. Our LLS data analysis showed that there were high variation of lightning characteristics and phenomenal changes among these areas. As a supplement to the usual study of physical characteristics, an observation-based methodology had been developed to study the lightning behavior, while the respective thunderstorms were traversing through these observation areas. Special features and phenomenal changes related to the lightning characteristic parameters, such as observable lightning stroke days (OLSDs) and observable lightning stroke frequency and density for an OLSD, were also addressed. Microenvironmental variation due to change in topography, degree of urbanization, urban effect, and thunderstorm strength was found to affect the spatial distribution of lightning stroke and the severity of lightning activities over the observation areas. This approach increases our understanding of lightning in subtropical China. It also tells us more about the behavior of lightning while the thunderstorm traverses through an observation area. This information is lacking in previous studies.

Liu, Yonglin; Chan, L. Y.; Lin, Qinhao; Feng, Wanxing; Bi, Xinhui; Chen, Jiahong; Tao, Hantao; Wang, Xinming; Chen, Duohong; Sheng, Guoying; Fu, Jiamo

2014-05-01

225

Physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Physics is the scientific study of the basic principles of the universe, including matter, energy, motion and force, and their interactions. Major topics include classical mechanics, thermodynamics, light and optics, electromagnetism and relativity.

K-12 Outreach,

226

Time in Quantum Physics: From an External Parameter to an Intrinsic Observable  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Schrödinger equation, time plays a special role as an external parameter. We show that in an enlarged system where the time variable denotes an additional degree of freedom, solutions of the Schrödinger equation give rise to weights on the enlarged algebra of observables. States in the associated GNS representation correspond to states on the original algebra composed with a completely positive unit preserving map. Application of this map to the functions of the time operator on the large system delivers the positive operator valued maps which were previously proposed by two of us as time observables. As an example we discuss the application of this formalism to the Wheeler-DeWitt theory of a scalar field on a Robertson-Walker spacetime.

Brunetti, Romeo; Fredenhagen, Klaus; Hoge, Marc

2010-10-01

227

Multi-physics simulations of Van Allen Probes observations of November 14, 2012  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On November 14th, 2012 the Van Allen Probes observed significant ion and electron flux dropouts at ring current and radiation belt energies. These dropouts appear to be lobe crossings with the magnetic field in very stretched 'tail-like' configuration. Such a conclusion is quite extraordinary given the fact that the satellite position would indicate it is in the inner magnetosphere and on the dawn side. We have simulated this event using the fully coupled CRCM+BATSRUS model of the magnetosphere ring current system in a variety of configurations. The coupling of the bounce averaged kinetic model of the ring current (CRCM) with the global MHD model of the magnetosphere (BATSRUS) represented a comprehensive and consistent treatment of the inner and outer magnetosphere. The model was setup with no feedback of the ring current pressure and density to the magnetosphere (one-way coupling), with feedback (two-way coupling), and using both isotropic and anisotropic MHD to represent the effects of pitch-angle variation in the global magnetosphere. Moreover, the simulated magnetic field and ring current ion fluxes were extracted along the Van Allen Probes trajectories for direct comparison with the observations. We found that ring current feedback is essential to capturing the observed dropouts, and that the dropouts become more pronounced when pitch-angle anisotropy is included in the representation of the magnetosphere. Complete simulation results and comparisons with data are presented.

Glocer, A.; Buzulukova, N.; Fok, M. H.; Sibeck, D. G.; Chen, S.

2013-12-01

228

Physical properties of transneptunian objects, Centaurs, and Trojans from thermal observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The most productive way to measure the size and albedo of small bodies throughout the Solar System is through studies of their thermal emission. This is complicated for the cold bodies in the outer Solar System, whose thermal emission peaks at wavelengths for which the Earth's atmosphere is opaque. While the relatively warm Trojans are marginally accessible from the ground in the Q band, the sizes of only a handful of transneptunian objects (TNOs) and Centaurs were known before Spitzer was launched in 2003. Spitzer/MIPS photometry at wavelengths of 24 and 70 microns allowed size and albedo of tens of TNOs and Centaurs to be measured. Herschel (operational in 2009--2013) allowed photometry of a total of ˜140 TNOs at wavelengths between 70 and 500 microns using PACS and SPIRE, chiefly in the framework of the Key Programme ``TNOs are Cool!''. I will present selected results from these surveys and discuss their implications on our knowledge of the origin and evolution of the Solar System, as evidenced by its coldest members. Of particular interest are the sizes of binary systems. Where their masses are known from spatially resolved observations, diameter measurements allow the bulk mass density to be determined, providing a unique probe of the object's interior. In the past few years, we have witnessed a remarkable increase in the number of successfully observed stellar occultations by TNOs and other small bodies. They provide an elegant, model-independent, and accurate way of measuring projected TNO dimensions at the time of the event and at the location of the observer(s). Even satellites or ring systems can be detected this way. However, predictable occultations are rare events and will likely stay infrequent, even in the post-Gaia era. Studies of the ensemble properties of the transneptunian populations will continue to rely on thermal observations. Reliable thermal modeling requires some knowledge of the target's temperature. Optimally, this is obtained through the data themselves, requiring a wavelength coverage straddling the emission peak and including the temperature-sensitive Wien slope. Spitzer covered this range for TNOs and allowed first derivations of the typical thermal inertia: TNO surfaces appear to show the extremely low thermal inertia expected for cold regoliths. Unfortunately, Herschel's wavelength made it largely insensitive to TNO temperatures. The same will hold true for ALMA and for JWST (however useful they will be for TNO science otherwise). If approved, the Japanese-led mission SPICA, with its proposed European camera SAFARI, will be the next observatory to provide sensitive photometric capabilities at the required wavelength range, between some 35 and 210 microns.

Mueller, M.

2014-07-01

229

ECOSYSTEM RESPONSES TO RAINFALL QUANTITY AND VARIABILITY IN MODEL GRASSLAND ASSEMBLAGES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Global climate change scenarios and climate observations suggest increased variability in the total quantity, frequency, and event sizes in future precipitation patterns. Resulting changes in photosynthetic carbon gain, net primary production, or soil respiration are likely to have important conseq...

230

Geoethics: IPCC disgraced by violation of observational facts and physical laws in their sea level scenario  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sea level may rise due to glacier melting, heat expansion of the oceanic water column, and redistribution of the waster masses - all these factors can be handled as to rates and amplitudes (provided one knows what one is talking about). In key areas over the entire Indian Ocean and in many Pacific Islands there are no traces of and sea level rise over the last 40-50 years. This is also the case for test-areas like Venice and the North Sea coasts. In the Kattegatt Sea one can fix the sea level factor to a maximum rise of 1.0-0.9 mm/year over the last century. The 204 tide gauges selected by NOAA for their global sea level monitoring provide a strong and sharp maximum (of 182 sites) in the range of 0.0-2.0 mm/yr. Satellite altimetry is said to give a rise of 3.2 mm/yr; this, however, is a value achieved after a quite subjective and surely erroneous "correction". The IPCC is talking about exceptionally much higher rates, and even worse are some "boy scouts" desperate try to launce real horror ratios. Physical laws set the frames of the rate and amount of ice melting, and so do records of events in the past (i.e. the geological records). During the Last Ice Age so much ice was accumulated on land, that the sea level dropped by about 120 m. When the process was reversed and ice melted under exceptionally strong climate forcing, sea level rose at a maximum rate of about 10 mm/yr (a meter per century). This can never happen under today's climate conditions. Even with IPCC's hypothetical scenarios, the true sea rise must be far less. When people like Rahmstorf (claiming 1 m or more by 2100) and Hansen (claiming a 4 m rise from 2080 to 2100) give their values, they exceed what is possible according to physical laws and accumulated geological knowledge. The expansion of the oceanic water column may reach amounts of sea level rise in the order of a few centimetres, at the most a decimetre. Old temperature measurements may record a temperature rise over the last 50 years in the order of 0.4o C. The improved ARGO measurements starting 2004 give virtually no change, however. The physically possible amount of expansion decreases, of course, with the decreasing water columns towards the coasts, and at the coasts it is zero (±0.0 mm). The redistribution of water masses in response to the Earth's rotation, surface current beat, wind stress, air pressure, etc. is an important factor. It gives local to regional changes, cancelled out on the global scale, however. From a geoethical point of view, it is of course quite blameworthy that IPCC excels in spreading these horror scenarios of a rapid, even accelerating, sea level rise. Besides, modern understanding of the planetary-solar-terrestrial interaction shows that we are now on our way into grand solar minimum with severely colder climate - that is just the opposite to IPCC's talk about an accelerating warming. In science we should debate - but we should not dictate (as IPCC insist upon), and it is here the perspectives of geoethics comes into the picture.

Mörner, Nils-Axel

2014-05-01

231

Physical and Chemical Processes Affecting Permeability during Geologic Carbon Sequestration in Arkose and Dolostone: Experimental Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geologic carbon sequestration in saline sedimentary basins provides a promising option to reduce anthropogenic CO2 emissions. We are conducting experiments using a novel flow system at elevated temperatures and pressures to better understand the physical and chemical processes that result from CO2 injection into these basins and the effects of these processes on system permeability. Here we present experimental results on arkose (primarily K-feldspar and quartz) and dolostone, focusing on CO2 exsolution and fluid-mineral reactions. Following heating-induced CO2 exsolution in an arkose sediment (90-125 ?m) core, XRCT scans revealed abundant pores several times larger than the average grain size. The pores likely grew as exsolved CO2 accumulated in the pores and exerted outspread forces on the surrounding grains. These trapped CO2 accumulations blocked flow pathways, reducing measured permeability by 10,000 times. Another reported experiment on a solid arkose core and water with aqueous CO2 concentrations at 80% saturation dissolved K-feldspar, as evidenced by 3 to 1 ratios of Si to K in sampled fluids, and precipitated an Al-rich mineral, likely gibbsite. SEM images revealed extensive clay precipitation on K-feldspar mineral surfaces. Alteration reduced permeability from 5 × 10-14 m2 to 3 × 10-14 m2 during this 52-day experiment. The third reported experiment on a dolostone core and 1 molal NaCl brine with an aqueous CO2 concentration at 75% saturation caused extensive dissolution and a large increase in permeability. This three-day experiment produced a wormhole of 2 mm in diameter that penetrated the entire 2.6 cm long core with a diameter of 1.3 cm. High, initial Ca and Mg fluid concentrations that quickly receded imply early formation of the wormhole that grew in diameter with time. Our experimental results show that formation permeability can change dramatically from both physical and chemical processes, and these changes should be accounted for during geologic carbon sequestration.

Luhmann, A. J.; Kong, X.; Tutolo, B. M.; Saar, M. O.; Seyfried, W. E.

2012-12-01

232

Monthly Deaths Number And Concomitant Environmental Physical Activity: 192 Months Observation (1990-2005)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human life and health state are dependent on many endogenous and exogenous influence factors. The aim of this study is to check the possible links between monthly deaths distribution and concomitant activity of three groups of cosmophysical factors: solar (SA), geomagnetic (GMA) and cosmic ray (CRA) activities. 192 months death number in years 1990-2005 (n=674004) at the Republic of Lithuania were analyzed. Total and both gender data were considered. In addition to the total death numbers, groups of ischemic heart disease (IHD), stroke (CVA), non-cardiovascular (NCV), accident, traffic accident and suicide-related deaths were studied. Sunspot number and solar radio flux (for SA), Ap, Cp and Am indices (for GMA) and neutron activity on the Earth s surface (for CRA) were the environmental physical activity parameters used in this study. Yearly and monthly deaths distributions were also studied. Pearson correlation coefficients (r) and their probabilities (p) were calculated. Multivariate analysis was conducted. Results revealed: 1) significant correlation of monthly deaths number with CRA (total, stroke, NCV and suicides) and inverse with SA and GMA; 2) significant correlation of monthly number of traffic accidents number with SA and GMA, and inverse with CRA; 3) a strong negative relationship between year and IHD/CVA victims number (an evidence for growing role of stroke in cardiovascular mortality); 4) significant links of rising cardiovascular deaths number at the beginning of the year and traffic accidents victims at the end of the year. It is concluded that CRA is related to monthly deaths distribution.

Stoupel, E.; Kalediene, R.; Petrauskiene, J.; Starkuviene, S.; Abramson, E.; Israelevich, P.; Sulkes, J.

2007-12-01

233

Io's Volcanism: Thermo-Physical Models of Silicate Lava Compared with Observations of Thermal Emission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analyses of thermal infrared outbursts from the jovian satellite Io indicate that at least some of these volcanic events are due to silicate lava. Analysis of the January 9, 1990 outburst indicates that this was an active eruption consisting of a large lava flow (with mass eruption rate of order 10(exp 5) cubic m/sec) and a sustained area at silicate liquidus temperatures. This is interpreted as a series of fire fountains along a rift zone. A possible alternative scenario is that of an overflowing lava lake with extensive fire fountaining. The January 9, 1990 event is unique as multispectral observations with respect to time were obtained. In this paper, a model is presented for the thermal energy lost by active and cooling silicate lava flows and lakes on Io. The model thermal emission is compared with Earth-based observations and Voyager IRIS data. The model (a) provides an explanation of the thermal anomalies on Io's surface; (b) provides constraints on flow behavior and extent and infers some flow parameters; and (c) determines flow geometry and change in flow size with time, and the temperature of each part of the flow or lava lake surface as a function of its age. Models of heat output from active lava flows or inactive but recently emplaced lava flows or overturning lava lakes alone are unable to reproduce the observations. If the January 9, 1990 event is the emplacement of a lava flow, the equivalent of 27 such events per year would yield a volume of material sufficient, if uniformly distributed, to resurface all of Io at a rate of 1 cm/year.

Davies, Ashely G.

1996-01-01

234

Panchromatic Observations of the Textbook GRB 110205A: Constraining Physical Mechanisms of Prompt Emission and Afterglow  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present a comprehensive analysis of a bright, long duration (T(sub 90) approx. 257 s) GRB 110205A at redshift z = 2.22. The optical prompt emission was detected by Swift/UVOT, ROTSE-IIIb and BOOTES telescopes when the GRB was still radiating in the gamma-ray band. Thanks to its long duration, nearly 200 s of observations were obtained simultaneously from optical, X-ray to gamma-ray (1 eV - 5 MeV), which makes it one of the exceptional cases to study the broadband spectral energy distribution across 6 orders of magnitude in energy during the prompt emission phase. In particular, by fitting the time resolved prompt spectra, we clearly identify, for the first time, an interesting two-break energy spectrum, roughly consistent with the standard GRB synchrotron emission model in the fast cooling regime. Although the prompt optical emission is brighter than the extrapolation of the best fit X/ -ray spectra, it traces the -ray light curve shape, suggesting a relation to the prompt high energy emission. The synchrotron + synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) scenario is disfavored by the data, but the models invoking a pair of internal shocks or having two emission regions can interpret the data well. Shortly after prompt emission (approx. 1100 s), a bright (R = 14.0) optical emission hump with very steep rise ( alpha approx. 5.5) was observed which we interpret as the emission from the reverse shock. It is the first time that the rising phase of a reverse shock component has been closely observed.

Zheng, W.; Shen, R. F.; Sakamoto, T.; Beardmore, A. P.; De Pasquale, M.; Wu, X. F.; Gorosabel, J.; Urata, Y.; Sugita, S.; Zhang, B.; Pozanenko, A.; Nissinen, M.; Sahu, D. K.; Im, M.; Ukwatta, T. N.; Andreev, M.; Klunko, E.; Volnova, A.; Akerlof, C. W.; Anto, P.; Barthelmy, S. D.; Breeveld, A.; Carsenty, U.; Gehrels, N.; Sonbas, E.

2011-01-01

235

Consumer-Resource Dynamics: Quantity, Quality, and Allocation  

PubMed Central

Background The dominant paradigm for modeling the complexities of interacting populations and food webs is a system of coupled ordinary differential equations in which the state of each species, population, or functional trophic group is represented by an aggregated numbers-density or biomass-density variable. Here, using the metaphysiological approach to model consumer-resource interactions, we formulate a two-state paradigm that represents each population or group in a food web in terms of both its quantity and quality. Methodology and Principal Findings The formulation includes an allocation function controlling the relative proportion of extracted resources to increasing quantity versus elevating quality. Since lower quality individuals senesce more rapidly than higher quality individuals, an optimal allocation proportion exists and we derive an expression for how this proportion depends on population parameters that determine the senescence rate, the per-capita mortality rate, and the effects of these rates on the dynamics of the quality variable. We demonstrate that oscillations do not arise in our model from quantity-quality interactions alone, but require consumer-resource interactions across trophic levels that can be stabilized through judicious resource allocation strategies. Analysis and simulations provide compelling arguments for the necessity of populations to evolve quality-related dynamics in the form of maternal effects, storage or other appropriate structures. They also indicate that resource allocation switching between investments in abundance versus quality provide a powerful mechanism for promoting the stability of consumer-resource interactions in seasonally forcing environments. Conclusions/Significance Our simulations show that physiological inefficiencies associated with this switching can be favored by selection due to the diminished exposure of inefficient consumers to strong oscillations associated with the well-known paradox of enrichment. Also our results demonstrate how allocation switching can explain observed growth patterns in experimental microbial cultures and discuss how our formulation can address questions that cannot be answered using the quantity-only paradigms that currently predominate. PMID:21283752

Getz, Wayne M.; Owen-Smith, Norman

2011-01-01

236

Transit Timing Observations from Kepler: IV. Confirmation of 4 Multiple Planet Systems by Simple Physical Models  

SciTech Connect

Eighty planetary systems of two or more planets are known to orbit stars other than the Sun. For most, the data can be sufficiently explained by non-interacting Keplerian orbits, so the dynamical interactions of these systems have not been observed. Here we present 4 sets of lightcurves from the Kepler spacecraft, which each show multiple planets transiting the same star. Departure of the timing of these transits from strict periodicity indicates the planets are perturbing each other: the observed timing variations match the forcing frequency of the other planet. This confirms that these objects are in the same system. Next we limit their masses to the planetary regime by requiring the system remain stable for astronomical timescales. Finally, we report dynamical fits to the transit times, yielding possible values for the planets masses and eccentricities. As the timespan of timing data increases, dynamical fits may allow detailed constraints on the systems architectures, even in cases for which high-precision Doppler follow-up is impractical.

Fabrycky, Daniel C.; /UC, Santa Cruz; Ford, Eric B.; /Florida U.; Steffen, Jason H.; /Fermilab; Rowe, Jason F.; /SETI Inst., Mtn. View /NASA, Ames; Carter, Joshua A.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.; Moorhead, Althea V.; /Florida U.; Batalha, Natalie M.; /San Jose State U.; Borucki, William J.; /NASA, Ames; Bryson, Steve; /NASA, Ames; Buchhave, Lars A.; /Bohr Inst. /Copenhagen U.; Christiansen, Jessie L.; /SETI Inst., Mtn. View /NASA, Ames /Caltech

2012-01-01

237

What Physical Attributes Underlie Self-Reported vs. Observed Ability to Walk 400 m in Later Life?  

PubMed Central

Objective The aims of this study were to evaluate and contrast the physical attributes that are associated with self-reported vs. observed ability to walk 400 m among older adults. Design Analysis of baseline and 3-yr data from 1026 participants 65 yrs or older in the InCHIANTI (Invecchiare in Chianti) study was conducted. Observed and self-reported ability to walk 400 m at baseline and at 3 yrs were primary outcomes. Predictors included leg speed, leg strength, leg strength symmetry, range of motion, balance, and kyphosis. Results Balance, leg speed, leg strength, kyphosis, leg strength symmetry, and knee range of motion were associated with self-reported ability to walk 400 m at baseline (P < 0.001, c = 0.85). Balance, leg speed, and knee range of motion were associated with observed 400-m walk (P < 0.001, c = 0.85) at baseline. Prospectively, baseline leg speed and leg strength were predictive of both self-reported (P < 0.001, c = 0.79) and observed (P < 0.001, c = 0.72) ability to walk 400 m at 3 yrs. Conclusions The profiles of attributes that are associated with self-reported vs. observed walking ability differ. The factor most consistently associated with current and future walking ability is leg speed. These results draw attention to important foci for rehabilitation. PMID:24322434

Beauchamp, Marla K.; Leveille, Suzanne G.; Patel, Kushang V.; Kiely, Dan K.; Phillips, Caroline L.; Bandinelli, Stefania; Ferrucci, Luigi; Guralnik, Jack; Bean, Jonathan F.

2015-01-01

238

Ship wake signatures in radar/optical images of the sea surface: observations and physical mechanisms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ship wakes can be clearly seen in satellite radar and optical images of the sea surface, and understanding of physical mechanisms responsible for the wake signatures is very important to develop methods of ship detection/identification. The wake surface signatures at small and intermediate stages are characterized by a smooth centerline area where surface waves are depressed due to the vessel turbulence and by a pair of rough bands at the sides of the centerline wake. At large wake ages two slick bands (a "railroad track" wake) appear instead of the rough bands, while the smooth centerline band is practically absent. In this paper results of field studies of the mean flow structure near the wake are presented. It is shown that two mean circulating currents ("rolls") rotating in the opposite directions are formed at two sides of the median vertical plane of the wake. Near the water surface the rolls result in diverging horizontal flows, decreasing near the wake edges. Wind waves propagating against the diverging currents are amplified due to a wave straining mechanism thus increasing the surface roughness. Film sampling was carried out when crossing the wakes and analysis of films collected within the "railroad" slick bands and outside the bands has revealed enhanced surface wave damping, obviously due to accumulation of surfactants in the slick bands; the surfactant compression is explained by the action of the diverging currents. The diverging currents as part of the rolls and the surfactant transport to the water surface are supposed to be associated with air bubbles generated by ship propellers.

Ermakov, S.; Kapustin, I.; Lazareva, T.

2014-10-01

239

Erosion and Gully Formation in the Ethiopian Highlands: Physical Observations and Community Perspectives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aims of this investigation are to analyze spatio-temporal variations in sediment transport to waterways in a small agricultural watershed by: (i) locating sediment sources using modeling and bio-physical scientific approaches, (ii) locating sediment sources and erosion processes through age- and gender-differentiated focus group discussions and transect walks, and (iii) linking sediment sources to changes in soil nutrient concentrations. The collected field measurements, modeling results, and community perceptions have been gathered on an area encompassing a previous study site (14 ha) on a currently larger scale (95 ha) in the Debre Mewi watershed to develop a fuller picture of the social and environmental conditions that are leading to induced or controlled erosion and gully formation. Farmers provided their perspectives on erosion processes and these were complemented by and compared to soil and water field measurements during the rainy season. Nine sites were selected for monitoring and measuring groundwater, soil nutrient changes, and soil depth change on the 95 ha study area, based on land use and slope angle -- half represent grazing or fallow land and half are located on cultivated land. A set of stable gullies and actively forming gullies were monitored and measured simultaneously along hillslope locations in the top, middle and bottom areas. In addition, sediment concentration samples were collected at 4 weir locations in the 95 ha watershed and also at the final outlet to this watershed. Modeling efforts emphasize steep cropland as most vulnerable, whereas community members pointed out waterlogged black soils and lower areas as vulnerable. The data demonstrate that saturated pathways in the landscape provide areas for the development and widening of gullies and that flat cropland areas experience deposition rather than erosion, while soil nutrient concentrations are decreasing upslope and increasing downslope.

Guzman, Christian; Dagnew, Dessalegn; Zegeye, Assefa; Tilahun, Seifu; Yitaferu, Birru; Stoof, Cathelijne; Steenhuis, Tammo

2014-05-01

240

Physical connectivity in the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System inferred from 9 years of ocean color observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ocean color images acquired from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) from 1998 to 2006 were used to examine the patterns of physical connectivity between land and reefs, and among reefs in the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System (MBRS) in the northwestern Caribbean Sea. Connectivity was inferred by tracking surface water features in weekly climatologies and a time series of weekly mean chlorophyll- a concentrations derived from satellite imagery. Frequency of spatial connections between 17 pre-defined, geomorphological domains that include the major reefs in the MBRS and river deltas in Honduras and Nicaragua were recorded and tabulated as percentage of connections. The 9-year time series of 466 weekly mean images portrays clearly the seasonal patterns of connectivity, including river plumes and transitions in the aftermath of perturbations such as hurricanes. River plumes extended offshore from the Honduras coast to the Bay Islands (Utila, Cayo Cochinos, Guanaja, and Roatán) in 70% of the weekly mean images. Belizean reefs, especially those in the southern section of the barrier reef and Glovers Atoll, were also affected by riverine discharges in every one of the 9 years. Glovers Atoll was exposed to river plumes originating in Honduras 104/466 times (22%) during this period. Plumes from eastern Honduras went as far as Banco Chinchorro and Cozumel in Mexico. Chinchorro appeared to be more frequently connected to Turneffe Atoll and Honduran rivers than with Glovers and Lighthouse Atolls, despite their geographic proximity. This new satellite data analysis provides long-term, quantitative assessments of the main pathways of connectivity in the region. The percentage of connections can be used to validate predictions made using other approaches such as numerical modeling, and provides valuable information to ecosystem-based management in coral reef provinces.

Soto, I.; Andréfouët, S.; Hu, C.; Muller-Karger, F. E.; Wall, C. C.; Sheng, J.; Hatcher, B. G.

2009-06-01

241

Unitarity Triangle from CP invariant quantities  

E-print Network

We construct the CKM unitarity triangle from CP invariant quantities, using the coupling constant of weak decays with flavor change from b to u, and the particle - antiparticle mixing probability in the B_s and B_d systems. Also included are new measurements of the coupling V_us in Kaon decays. Of the two solutions, one agrees perfectly with the triangle constructed from CP violating processes in the K and B meson systems. The common solution yields a triangle with an area of J/2 = (1.51 +/- 0.09) x 10^{-5} and a CP violating phase gamma = 63.1^o +/- 4.0^o.

K. Kleinknecht; B. Renk

2006-05-30

242

Ionospheric total electron content variations observed before earthquakes: Possible physical mechanism and modeling  

E-print Network

The GPS derived anomalous TEC disturbances before earthquakes were discovered in the last years using global and regional TEC maps, measurements over individual stations as well as measurements along individual GPS satellite passes. For strong mid-latitudinal earthquakes the seismo-ionospheric anomalies look like local TEC enhancements or decreases located in the vicinity of the forthcoming earthquake epicenter In case of strong low-latitudinal earthquakes there are effects related with the modification of the equatorial F2-region anomaly: deepening or filling of the ionospheric electron density trough over the magnetic equator. We consider that the most probable reason of the NmF2 and TEC disturbances observed before the earthquakes is the vertical drift of the F2-region ionospheric plasma under the influence of the zonal electric field of seismic origin. To check this hypothesis, the model calculations have been carried out with the use of the Upper Atmosphere Model. The electric potential distribution at t...

Namgaladze, A A; Zakharenkova, I E; Shagimuratov, I I; Martynenko, O V

2009-01-01

243

Stellar physics. Observing the onset of outflow collimation in a massive protostar.  

PubMed

The current paradigm of star formation through accretion disks, and magnetohydrodynamically driven gas ejections, predicts the development of collimated outflows, rather than expansion without any preferential direction. We present radio continuum observations of the massive protostar W75N(B)-VLA 2, showing that it is a thermal, collimated ionized wind and that it has evolved in 18 years from a compact source into an elongated one. This is consistent with the evolution of the associated expanding water-vapor maser shell, which changed from a nearly circular morphology, tracing an almost isotropic outflow, to an elliptical one outlining collimated motions. We model this behavior in terms of an episodic, short-lived, originally isotropic ionized wind whose morphology evolves as it moves within a toroidal density stratification. PMID:25838383

Carrasco-González, C; Torrelles, J M; Cantó, J; Curiel, S; Surcis, G; Vlemmings, W H T; van Langevelde, H J; Goddi, C; Anglada, G; Kim, S-W; Kim, J-S; Gómez, J F

2015-04-01

244

Composition of Mars constrained using geophysical observations and mineral physics modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use the total mass, possible core radius and the observed mean moment of inertia factor of Mars to constrain mineralogical and compositional structures of Mars. We adopt a liquid Fe-S system for the Martian core and construct density models of the interior of Mars for a series of mantle compositions, core compositions and temperature profiles. The moment of inertia factor of the planet is then calculated and compared to the observation to place constraints on Mars composition. Based on the independent constraints of total mass, possible core radius of 1630-1830 km, and the mean moment of inertia factor (0.3645±0.0005) of Mars, we find that Fe content in the Martian mantle is between 9.9 and 11.9 mol%, Al content in the Martian mantle smaller than 1.5 mol%, S content in the Martian core between 10.6 and 14.9 wt%. The inferred Fe content in the bulk Mars lies between 27.3 and 32.0 wt%, and the inferred Fe/Si ratio in Mars between 1.55 and 1.95, within a range too broad to make a conclusion whether Mars has the same nonvolatile bulk composition as that of CI chondrite. We also conclude that no perovskite layer exists in the bottom of the Martian mantle. Based on the inferred density models, we estimate the flattening factor and J2 gravitational potential related to the hydrostatic figure of the rotating Mars to be (5.0304±0.0098)×10-3 and (1.8151±0.0065)×10-3, respectively. We also discuss implications of these compositional models to the understanding of formation and evolution of the planet.

Wang, Yi; Wen, Lianxing; Weidner, Donald J.

2013-11-01

245

Testing conceptual and physically based soil hydrology schemes against observations for the Amazon Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study analyzes the performance of the two soil hydrology schemes of the land surface model ORCHIDEE in estimating Amazonian hydrology and phenology for five major sub-basins (Xingu, Tapajós, Madeira, Solimões and Negro), during the 29-year period 1980-2008. A simple 2-layer scheme with a bucket topped by an evaporative layer is compared to an 11-layer diffusion scheme. The soil schemes are coupled with a river routing module and a process model of plant physiology, phenology and carbon dynamics. The simulated water budget and vegetation functioning components are compared with several data sets at sub-basin scale. The use of the 11-layer soil diffusion scheme does not significantly change the Amazonian water budget simulation when compared to the 2-layer soil scheme (+3.1 and -3.0% in evapotranspiration and river discharge, respectively). However, the higher water-holding capacity of the soil and the physically based representation of runoff and drainage in the 11-layer soil diffusion scheme result in more dynamic soil water storage variation and improved simulation of the total terrestrial water storage when compared to GRACE satellite estimates. The greater soil water storage within the 11-layer scheme also results in increased dry-season evapotranspiration (+0.5 mm d-1, +17%) and improves river discharge simulation in the southeastern sub-basins such as the Xingu. Evapotranspiration over this sub-basin is sustained during the whole dry season with the 11-layer soil diffusion scheme, whereas the 2-layer scheme limits it after only 2 dry months. Lower plant drought stress simulated by the 11-layer soil diffusion scheme leads to better simulation of the seasonal cycle of photosynthesis (GPP) when compared to a GPP data-driven model based on eddy covariance and satellite greenness measurements. A dry-season length between 4 and 7 months over the entire Amazon Basin is found to be critical in distinguishing differences in hydrological feedbacks between the soil and the vegetation cover simulated by the two soil schemes. On average, the multilayer soil diffusion scheme provides little improvement in simulated hydrology over the wet tropical Amazonian sub-basins, but a more significant improvement is found over the drier sub-basins. The use of a multilayer soil diffusion scheme might become critical for assessments of future hydrological changes, especially in southern regions of the Amazon Basin where longer dry seasons and more severe droughts are expected in the next century.

Guimberteau, M.; Ducharne, A.; Ciais, P.; Boisier, J. P.; Peng, S.; De Weirdt, M.; Verbeeck, H.

2014-06-01

246

Evaluation of Specific Absorption Rate as a Dosimetric Quantity for Electromagnetic Fields Bioeffects  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluate SAR as a dosimetric quantity for EMF bioeffects, and identify ways for increasing the precision in EMF dosimetry and bioactivity assessment. Methods We discuss the interaction of man-made electromagnetic waves with biological matter and calculate the energy transferred to a single free ion within a cell. We analyze the physics and biology of SAR and evaluate the methods of its estimation. We discuss the experimentally observed non-linearity between electromagnetic exposure and biological effect. Results We find that: a) The energy absorbed by living matter during exposure to environmentally accounted EMFs is normally well below the thermal level. b) All existing methods for SAR estimation, especially those based upon tissue conductivity and internal electric field, have serious deficiencies. c) The only method to estimate SAR without large error is by measuring temperature increases within biological tissue, which normally are negligible for environmental EMF intensities, and thus cannot be measured. Conclusions SAR actually refers to thermal effects, while the vast majority of the recorded biological effects from man-made non-ionizing environmental radiation are non-thermal. Even if SAR could be accurately estimated for a whole tissue, organ, or body, the biological/health effect is determined by tiny amounts of energy/power absorbed by specific biomolecules, which cannot be calculated. Moreover, it depends upon field parameters not taken into account in SAR calculation. Thus, SAR should not be used as the primary dosimetric quantity, but used only as a complementary measure, always reporting the estimating method and the corresponding error. Radiation/field intensity along with additional physical parameters (such as frequency, modulation etc) which can be directly and in any case more accurately measured on the surface of biological tissues, should constitute the primary measure for EMF exposures, in spite of similar uncertainty to predict the biological effect due to non-linearity. PMID:23750202

Panagopoulos, Dimitris J.; Johansson, Olle; Carlo, George L.

2013-01-01

247

Radar observations and physical modeling of binary near-Earth asteroid (1862) Apollo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Binary asteroid 1862 Apollo has an extensive observational history allowing many of its characteristics to be investigated. Apollo was one of the first objects to show evidence for the YORP effect (Kaasalainen et al. 2007, Nature 446, 420) and its mass has been estimated by detection of the Yarkovsky effect (Nugent et al. 2012, AJ 144, 60; Farnocchia et al. 2013, Icarus 224, 1). We observed Apollo at Arecibo and Goldstone from Oct. 29-Nov. 13, 2005, obtaining a series of echo power spectra and delay-Doppler images that achieved resolutions as high as 7.5 m/pixel. The Arecibo images show that Apollo is a binary system with a rounded primary that has two large protrusions about 120 deg apart in longitude. We used the Arecibo data and published lightcurves to estimate the primary's 3D shape. Our best fit has major axes of ~1.8x1.5x1.3 km and a volume of ~1.6 km^3. The protrusions have lengths of ~300 and 200 m, are on the primary's equator, and give Apollo a distinctly different appearance from the primaries with equatorial ridges seen with other binary near-Earth asteroids. We estimated the pole by starting with the Kaasalainen et al. spin vector of ecliptic (longitude, latitude)=(50 deg, -71 deg) +- 7 deg and letting it float. Our best fit has a pole within 11 deg of (longitude, latitude)=(71, -72). Convex models produced from inversion of lightcurves by Kaasalainen et al. and thermal infrared data by Rozitis et al. (2013, A&A 555, A20) are more oblate than our model, do not show protrusions, and have somewhat different pole directions. The Arecibo images reveal weak but persistent echoes from a satellite on Nov. 1 and 2 but cover only a fraction of its orbit. The images are insufficient to estimate the satellite's shape and yield a rough estimate for its long axis of 190 m. Preliminary fits give an orbital period of ~27.0-27.5 h and a semimajor axis of ~3.5-4.0 km, implying a mass of 2.8-3.9E12 kg and a bulk density of 1.7-2.4 g/cm^3. The density is consistent with estimates reported by Rozitis et al. and Farnocchia et al., providing the first independent test using a binary to estimate the density of near-Earth asteroid that has also been estimated through detection of the Yarkovsky effect.

Ford, Thomas F.; Benner, Lance A.; Brozovic, Marina; Leford, Bruce; Nolan, Michael C.; Giorgini, Jon D.; Ostro, Steve J.; Margot, Jean-Luc

2014-11-01

248

Sleep quantity, quality and optimism in children  

PubMed Central

We tested the relationship of objectively-measured sleep quantity and quality with positive characteristics of the child. Sleep duration, sleep latency, and sleep efficiency were measured by an actigraph for an average seven (range = 3 to 14) consecutive nights in 291 eight-year-old children (SD = 0.3 years). Children's optimism, self-esteem, and social competence were rated by parents and/or teachers. Sleep duration showed a non-linear, reverse J-shaped relationship with optimism (P = 0.02) such that children with sleep duration in the middle of the distribution scored higher in optimism compared to children who slept relatively little. Shorter sleep latency was related to higher optimism (P = 0.01). The associations remained when adjusting for child's age, sex, body mass index and parental level of education; the effects of sleep on optimism were neither changed when the parents' own optimism was controlled. In conclusion, sufficient sleep quantity and good sleep quality are associated with positive characteristics of the child, further underlining their importance in promoting well-being in children. PMID:20561178

Lemola, Sakari; Räikkönen, Katri; Scheier, Michael F.; Matthews, Karen A.; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Heinonen, Kati; Lahti, Jari; Komsi, Niina; Paavonen, E. Juulia; Kajantie, Eero

2014-01-01

249

Physics of the weird solar minimum: New observations of the Sun  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While solar physicists expected more sunspots, flares, and coronal mass ejections by now, the Sun has defied most predictions by persisting in a relatively quiet state for an unusually long time. Can we tell whether this solar minimum is likely to ease in the next decade, or if it may become a Maunder-type minimum? What evidence is there for mechanisms that might explain the observed delayed and low-amplitude magnetic activity? What effects could decreased solar activity have on Earth's climate? Evergreen undergraduates study the Sun with colleagues who built the new Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). Students analyzed flow velocities with respect to magnetic field tilts; analyzed waves of UV light in active regions; developed a software suite to enable the public to engage with solar dynamics; and cataloged movies of solar events for public release. We use data from the high-resolution HINODE satellite and from the new full-disk SDO. Zita studied the solar dynamo, and found that resistivity gradients can drive magnetic advection. We summarize our work and the light it may shed on questions such as those above.

Zita, E.; Smith, C.; Ballou, C.; Friedman, B.; Showalter, C.; Rex, R.; Hurlburt, N.

2010-10-01

250

Quantity judgments and individuation: evidence that mass nouns count.  

PubMed

Three experiments explored the semantics of the mass-count distinction in young children and adults. In Experiments 1 and 2, the quantity judgments of participants provided evidence that some mass nouns refer to individuals, as such. Participants judged one large portion of stuff to be "more" than three tiny portions for substance-mass nouns (e.g. mustard, ketchup), but chose according to number for count nouns (e.g. shoes, candles) and object-mass nouns (e.g. furniture, jewelry). These results suggest that some mass nouns quantify over individuals, and that therefore reference to individuals does not distinguish count nouns from mass nouns. Thus, Experiments 1 and 2 failed to support the hypothesis that there exist one-to-one mappings between mass-count syntax and semantics for either adults or young children. In Experiment 3, it was found that for mass-count flexible terms (e.g. string, stone) participants based quantity judgments on number when the terms were used with count syntax, but on total amount of stuff when used with mass syntax. Apparently, the presence of discrete physical objects in a scene (e.g. stones) is not sufficient to permit quantity judgments based on number. It is proposed that object-mass nouns (e.g. furniture) can be used to refer to individuals due to lexically specified grammatical features that normally occur in count syntax. Also, we suggest that children learning language parse words that refer to individuals as count nouns unless given morpho-syntactic and referential evidence to the contrary, in which case object-mass nouns are acquired. PMID:16139586

Barner, David; Snedeker, Jesse

2005-08-01

251

Determination of physical properties of the Asteroid (41) Daphne from interferometric observations in the thermal infrared  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe interferometric observations of the Asteroid (41) Daphne in the thermal infrared obtained with the Mid-Infrared Interferometric Instrument (MIDI) and the Auxiliary Telescopes (ATs) of the European Southern Observatory (ESO) Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI). We derived the size and the surface thermal properties of (41) Daphne by means of a thermophysical model (TPM), which is used for the interpretation of interferometric data for the first time. From our TPM analysis, we derived a volume equivalent diameter for (41) Daphne of 189 km, using a non-convex 3-D shape model derived from optical lightcurves and adaptive optics images (B. Carry, private communication). On the other hand, when using the convex shape of Kaasalainen et al. (Kaasalainen, M., Mottola, S., Fulchignoni, M. [2002]. Icarus 159, 369-395) in our TPM analysis, the resulting volume equivalent diameter of (41) Daphne is between 194 and 209 km, depending on the surface roughness. The shape of the asteroid is used as an a priori information in our TPM analysis. No attempt is made to adjust the shape to the data. Only the size of the asteroid and its thermal parameters such as, albedo, thermal inertia and roughness are adjusted to the data. We estimated our model systematic uncertainty to be of 4% and of 7% on the determination of the asteroid volume equivalent diameter depending on whether the non-convex or the convex shape is used, respectively. In terms of thermal properties, we derived a value of the surface thermal inertia smaller than 50 J m -2 s -0.5 K -1 and preferably in the range between 0 and ˜30 J m -2 s -0.5 K -1. Our TPM analysis also shows that Daphne has a moderate macroscopic surface roughness.

Matter, Alexis; Delbo, Marco; Ligori, Sebastiano; Crouzet, Nicolas; Tanga, Paolo

2011-09-01

252

Observed and modeled bio-optical, bioluminescent, and physical properties during a coastal upwelling event in Monterey Bay, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During spring and summer time, coastal upwelling influences circulation and ecosystem dynamics of the Monterey Bay, California, which is recognized as a National Marine Sanctuary. Observations of physical, bio-optical properties (including bioluminescence) together with results from dynamical biochemical and bioluminescence models are used to interpret the development of the upwelling event during August 2003 in Monterey Bay, California. Observations and the biochemical model show the development of a phytoplankton bloom in the southern portion of Monterey Bay. Model results show an increase of nutrients in the southern portion of the bay, where nutrient-rich water masses are brought in by the southward flow and cyclonic circulation inside the bay. This increase in nutrients together with the sluggish circulation in the southern portion of the bay provides favorable conditions for phytoplankton growth. Our observations and models suggest that with the development of upwelling the offshore water masses with the subsurface layer of bioluminescent zooplankton were replaced by water masses advected from the northern coast of the bay with a relatively high presence of mostly nonbioluminescent phytoplankton. Inshore observations from autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) show consistent coincidence of chlorophyll, backscatter, and bioluminescence maxima during upwelling development. Offshore AUV observations (taken at the entrance to the bay) show a deeper bioluminescence maximum below the surface layers of high chlorophyll and backscatter values during the earlier stages of upwelling development. Later, the observed deep offshore bioluminescence maximum disappeared and became a shallower and much weaker signal, coinciding with high chlorophyll and backscatter values offshore. Based on the biochemical and bioluminescence models, a methodology for estimating the nighttime water-leaving radiance due to stimulated bioluminescence is demonstrated and evaluated.

Shulman, Igor; Moline, Mark A.; Penta, Bradley; Anderson, Stephanie; Oliver, Matthew; Haddock, Steven H. D.

2011-01-01

253

Physical characteristics of the meteoroids by the results of combined radar and optical observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes a method determining of the light and ionization curves by the results of combined radio - TV observations meteors in 1978-1980 in Hissar Astronomical Observatory of the Institute of Astrophysics of Sciences of Tajikistan, the calculation results of photographic and radar meteoroid mass and analysis of the shape of light curves of meteors within the theory of evaporation and the theory of the quasi-continuous fragmentation. The photographic meteoroid mass from the light curve were defined: a) by the value of maximum luminescence intensity at the height hm and b) by the integration light curve. It is based on analysis of the data of the mass were obtained correction factor that takes into account the effect of fragmentation and other factors to determine the mass of meteoroids first method. Average value of the mass of meteoroids calculated by the light curve for meteors with magnitude M?1 is 19.10-3 g, and the average value of the mass found on magnitude of the luminescence intensity at the height the maximum brightness consist 18.2.10-3 that is in satisfactory agreement. The meteoroid’s masses was calculated also radio method by value of maximum linear electron density at the height of maximum ionization (n). The framework of the classical theory and the theory quasi-continuous fragmentation, the shape of the light curves of simultaneous radio - optical meteors were analyzed. It is shown that the main mechanism of ablation 60% of simultaneous radio - optical meteors is a quasi-continuous fragmentation. The bulk density and porosity of showers and sporadic meteoroids were determined. Found that the Geminids meteoroids and ?-Aquariids have the largest bulk densities (?o = 3.6 g/cm3). A meteoroids of the showers Orionids and Leonids have the lowest bulk density (?o ? 0.6 g/cm3), and the highest value of the porosity (60 ? K ? 80%). The mass fragments of flow and sporadic meteoroids lie in the range of 5.10-8÷10-5g.

Mirhusen, Narziev

254

The atmospheric component of the Mediterranean Sea water budget in a WRF multi-physics ensemble and observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of high resolution atmosphere-ocean coupled regional climate models to study possible future climate changes in the Mediterranean Sea requires an accurate simulation of the atmospheric component of the water budget (i.e., evaporation, precipitation and runoff). A specific configuration of the version 3.1 of the weather research and forecasting (WRF) regional climate model was shown to systematically overestimate the Mediterranean Sea water budget mainly due to an excess of evaporation (~1,450 mm yr-1) compared with observed estimations (~1,150 mm yr-1). In this article, a 70-member multi-physics ensemble is used to try to understand the relative importance of various sub-grid scale processes in the Mediterranean Sea water budget and to evaluate its representation by comparing simulated results with observed-based estimates. The physics ensemble was constructed by performing 70 1-year long simulations using version 3.3 of the WRF model by combining six cumulus, four surface/planetary boundary layer and three radiation schemes. Results show that evaporation variability across the multi-physics ensemble (˜10 % of the mean evaporation) is dominated by the choice of the surface layer scheme that explains more than ˜70 % of the total variance and that the overestimation of evaporation in WRF simulations is generally related with an overestimation of surface exchange coefficients due to too large values of the surface roughness parameter and/or the simulation of too unstable surface conditions. Although the influence of radiation schemes on evaporation variability is small (˜13 % of the total variance), radiation schemes strongly influence exchange coefficients and vertical humidity gradients near the surface due to modifications of temperature lapse rates. The precipitation variability across the physics ensemble (˜35 % of the mean precipitation) is dominated by the choice of both cumulus (˜55 % of the total variance) and planetary boundary layer (˜32 % of the total variance) schemes with a strong regional dependence. Most members of the ensemble underestimate total precipitation amounts with biases as large as 250 mm yr-1 over the whole Mediterranean Sea compared with ERA Interim reanalysis mainly due to an underestimation of the number of wet days. The larger number of dry days in simulations is associated with a deficit in the activation of cumulus schemes. Both radiation and planetary boundary layer schemes influence precipitation through modifications on the available water vapor in the boundary layer generally tied with changes in evaporation.

Di Luca, Alejandro; Flaounas, Emmanouil; Drobinski, Philippe; Brossier, Cindy Lebeaupin

2014-11-01

255

The reliability of the physical examination to guide fluid therapy in adults with severe falciparum malaria: an observational study  

PubMed Central

Background Adults with severe malaria frequently require intravenous fluid therapy to restore their circulating volume. However, fluid must be delivered judiciously as both under- and over-hydration increase the risk of complications and, potentially, death. As most patients will be cared for in a resource-poor setting, management guidelines necessarily recommend that physical examination should guide fluid resuscitation. However, the reliability of this strategy is uncertain. Methods To determine the ability of physical examination to identify hypovolaemia, volume responsiveness, and pulmonary oedema, clinical signs and invasive measures of volume status were collected independently during an observational study of 28 adults with severe malaria. Results The physical examination defined volume status poorly. Jugular venous pressure (JVP) did not correlate with intravascular volume as determined by global end diastolic volume index (GEDVI; rs?=?0.07, p?=?0.19), neither did dry mucous membranes (p?=?0.85), or dry axillae (p?=?0.09). GEDVI was actually higher in patients with decreased tissue turgor (p?observations) and, therefore, insensitive. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) correlated with GEDVI (rs?=?0.16, p?=?0.002), but even before resuscitation patients with a low GEDVI had a preserved MAP. Anuria on admission was unrelated to GEDVI and although liberal fluid resuscitation led to a median hourly urine output of 100 ml in 19 patients who were not anuric on admission, four (21%) developed clinical pulmonary oedema subsequently. MAP was unrelated to volume responsiveness (p?=?0.71), while a low JVP, dry mucous membranes, dry axillae, increased tissue turgor, prolonged capillary refill, and tachycardia all had a positive predictive value for volume responsiveness of ?50%. Extravascular lung water ?11 ml/kg indicating pulmonary oedema was present on 99 of the 353 times that it was assessed during the study, but was identified on less than half these occasions by tachypnoea, chest auscultation, or an elevated JVP. A clear chest on auscultation and a respiratory rate <30 breaths/minute could exclude pulmonary oedema on 82% and 72% of occasions respectively. Conclusions Findings on physical examination correlate poorly with true volume status in adults with severe malaria and must be used with caution to guide fluid therapy. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT00692627 PMID:24079262

2013-01-01

256

Physical modeling of triple near-Earth Asteroid (153591) 2001 SN263 from radar and optical light curve observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report radar observations (2380-MHz, 13-cm) by the Arecibo Observatory and optical light curves observed from eight different observatories and collected at the Ond?ejov Observatory of the triple near-Earth asteroid system (153591) 2001 SN263. The radar observations were obtained over the course of ten nights spanning February 12-26, 2008 and the light curve observations were made throughout January 12 - March 31, 2008. Both data sets include observations during the object's close approach of 0.06558 AU on February 20th, 2008. The delay-Doppler images revealed the asteroid to be comprised of three components, making it the first known triple near-Earth asteroid. Only one other object, (136617) 1994 CC is a confirmed triple near-Earth asteroid. We present physical models of the three components of the asteroid system. We constrain the primary's pole direction to an ecliptic longitude and latitude of (309 °, - 80 °) ± 15 ° . We find that the primary rotates with a period 3.4256 ± 0.0002 h and that the larger satellite has a rotation period of 13.43 ± 0.01 h , considerably shorter than its orbital period of approximately 6 days. We find that the rotation period of the smaller satellite is consistent with a tidally locked state and therefore rotates with a period of 0.686 ± 0.002 days (Fang et al. [2011]. Astron. J. 141, 154-168). The primary, the larger satellite, and the smaller satellite have equivalent diameters of 2.5 ± 0.3 km , 0.77 ± 0.12 km , 0.43 ± 0.14 km and densities of 1.1 ± 0.2 g /cm3, 1.0 ± 0.4 g /cm3, 2.3 ± 1.3 g /cm3 , respectively.

Becker, Tracy M.; Howell, Ellen S.; Nolan, Michael C.; Magri, Christopher; Pravec, Petr; Taylor, Patrick A.; Oey, Julian; Higgins, David; Világi, Jozef; Kornoš, Leonard; Galád, Adrián; Gajdoš, Štefan; Gaftonyuk, Ninel M.; Krugly, Yurij N.; Molotov, Igor E.; Hicks, Michael D.; Carbognani, Albino; Warner, Brian D.; Vachier, Frederic; Marchis, Franck; Pollock, Joseph T.

2015-03-01

257

Physical activity patterns of rural Senegalese adolescent girls during the dry and rainy seasons measured by movement registration and direct observation methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To study the physical activity patterns and daily estimates of energy expenditure (EE) of rural adolescent Senegalese girls.Design: Physical activity was monitored using a portable accelerometer during four consecutive days and within the same time, by direct observation during two consecutive days. Adolescent girls were followed during the dry season (June, n=40) and again during the rainy season (September,

E Bénéfice; C Cames

1999-01-01

258

"High Resolution Solar Physics: Theory, Observations, and Techniques", Eds. T. Rimmele, K. Balasubramiam and R. Radick, Procs. NSO/SP Summer Workshop Astron. Soc. Pac. Conf.  

E-print Network

to define future solar telescope concepts and projects. At that time the open tower was ready but yet"High Resolution Solar Physics: Theory, Observations, and Techniques", Eds. T. Rimmele, K. The future of optical solar physics at Utrecht hinges on a recently-funded three- year DOT science validation

Rutten, Rob

259

14 CFR 23.1553 - Fuel quantity indicator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel quantity indicator. 23.1553 Section...UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Operating Limitations and Information Markings and Placards § 23.1553 Fuel quantity indicator. A red...

2014-01-01

260

14 CFR 25.1553 - Fuel quantity indicator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel quantity indicator. 25...STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Operating Limitations and...and Placards § 25.1553 Fuel quantity indicator. If the unusable fuel supply for any tank exceeds...

2014-01-01

261

14 CFR 25.1553 - Fuel quantity indicator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fuel quantity indicator. 25...STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Operating Limitations and...and Placards § 25.1553 Fuel quantity indicator. If the unusable fuel supply for any tank exceeds...

2013-01-01

262

14 CFR 23.1553 - Fuel quantity indicator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fuel quantity indicator. 23.1553 Section...UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Operating Limitations and Information Markings and Placards § 23.1553 Fuel quantity indicator. A red...

2013-01-01

263

Category 3 threshold quantities for hazard categorization of nonreactor facilities  

SciTech Connect

This document provides the information necessary to determine Hazard Category 3 threshold quantities for those isotopes of interest not listed in WHC-CM-4-46, Section 4, Table 1.''Threshold Quantities.''

Mandigo, R.L.

1996-02-13

264

7 CFR 1430.207 - Dairy operation payment quantity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Dairy operation payment quantity. 1430.207 Section 1430.207 Agriculture Regulations of the Department...DAIRY PRODUCTS Milk Income Loss Contract Program § 1430.207 Dairy operation payment quantity....

2010-01-01

265

10 CFR 26.109 - Urine specimen quantity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Urine specimen quantity. 26.109 Section 26.109 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.109 Urine specimen quantity. (a)...

2011-01-01

266

HAZARDOUS WASTE FROM SMALL QUANTITY GENERATORS IN THE UNITED STATES  

EPA Science Inventory

The EPA must evaluate the potential impact of small quantity generator hazardous waste on groundwater contamination in the United States, focusing on potential groundwater contamination due to small quantity generator hazardous waste disposal in municipal sanitary landfills. Data...

267

Original article Determination of minimum quantity of pollen  

E-print Network

Original article Determination of minimum quantity of pollen and nutritive value of different to determine some aspects of nutrition in Scaptotri- gona depilis. This minimum quantity of pollen necessary to 1% con- centration. Scaptotrigona depilis / pollen / carbohydrate / nutrition / Meliponinae

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

268

10 CFR 40.22 - Small quantities of source material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... false Small quantities of source material. 40.22 Section 40.22 Energy...COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SOURCE MATERIAL General Licenses § 40.22 Small quantities of source material. (a) A general...

2014-01-01

269

Quantity matching by an orangutan (Pongo abelii).  

PubMed

An adult male orangutan (Pongo abelii) was presented with a series of delayed matching-to-sample (DMTS) tasks in which he was to match images based on (a) the number of individual animals depicted in the photograph (from 1 to 4), (b) the number of abstract shapes presented in the stimulus (from 1 to 4), or (c) the number of dots presented in the stimulus (from 1 to 4, 4-7, or 7-10). The spatial arrangement of the dots and the background color of the stimuli varied, and the size of the dots was manipulated to control for overall ratio of foreground to background. The subject's performance was not affected by these perceptual features, but was affected by the absolute difference and ratio between number of elements in the comparison stimuli. However, the relationship between these variables and his performance was not always linear as predicted by the analog magnitude model. In addition, the subject showed a high degree of transfer to novel numerosities up to ten, indicating that orangutans are capable of estimating quantity for a greater number of items than can presumably be subtilized by humans. PMID:23873480

Vonk, Jennifer

2014-03-01

270

Social Support in Women with Fibromyalgia: Is Quality More Important than Quantity?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study is an examination of the effects of quality and quantity of social support on the psychological and physical well-being of women with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). Participants were 568 women who were members of a health maintenance organization (HMO) with a confirmed diagnosis of FMS. Participants were administered a battery of…

Franks, Heather M.; Cronan, Terry A.; Oliver, Karen

2004-01-01

271

A horizontal mobile measuring system for atmospheric quantities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fully automatic Horizontal Mobile Measuring System (HMMS) for atmospheric quantities has been developed. The HMMS is based on the drive mechanism of a garden railway system and can be installed at any location and with any measuring track. In addition to meteorological quantities (temperature, humidity and short/long-wave down/upwelling radiation), HMMS also measures trace gas concentrations (carbon dioxide and ozone). While sufficient spatial resolution is a problem even for measurements on distributed towers, this could be easily achieved with the HMMS, which has been specifically developed to obtain higher information density about horizontal gradients in a heterogeneous forest ecosystem. There, horizontal gradients of meteorological quantities and trace gases could be immense, particularly at the transition from a dense forest to an open clearing, with large impact on meteorological parameters and exchange processes. Consequently, HMMS was firstly applied during EGER IOP3 project (ExchanGE processes in mountainous Regions - Intense Observation Period 3) in the Fichtelgebirge Mountains (SE Germany) during summer 2011. At a constant 1 m above ground, the measuring track of the HMMS consisted of a straight line perpendicular to the forest edge, starting in the dense spruce forest and leading 75 m into an open clearing. Tags with bar codes, mounted every meter on the wooden substructure, allowed (a) keeping the speed of the HMMS constant (approx. 0.5 m s-1) and (b) operation of the HMMS in a continuous back and forth running mode. During EGER IOP3, HMMS was operational for almost 250 h. Results show that - due to considerably long response times (between 4 s and 20 s) of commercial temperature, humidity and the radiation sensors - true spatial variations of the meteorological quantities could not be adequately captured (mainly at the forest edge). Corresponding dynamical (spatial) errors of the measurement values were corrected on the basis of well defined individual response times of the sensors and application of a linear correction algorithm. Due to the very short response times (? 1 s) of the applied commercial CO2 and O3 analysers, dynamical errors for the trace gas data were negligible and no corrections were done.

Hübner, J.; Olesch, J.; Falke, H.; Meixner, F. X.; Foken, T.

2014-05-01

272

A horizontal mobile measuring system for atmospheric quantities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fully automatic horizontal mobile measuring system (HMMS) for atmospheric quantities has been developed. The HMMS is based on the drive mechanism of a garden railway system and can be installed at any location and along any measuring track. In addition to meteorological quantities (temperature, humidity and short-/long-wave down/upwelling radiation), HMMS also measures trace gas concentrations (carbon dioxide and ozone). While sufficient spatial resolution is a problem even for measurements on distributed towers, this could be easily achieved with the HMMS, which has been specifically developed to obtain higher information density about horizontal gradients in a heterogeneous forest ecosystem. There, horizontal gradients of meteorological quantities and trace gases could be immense, particularly at the transition from a dense forest to an open clearing, with large impact on meteorological parameters and exchange processes. Consequently, HMMS was firstly applied during the EGER IOP3 project (ExchanGE processes in mountainous Regions - Intense Observation Period 3) in the Fichtelgebirge Mountains (SE Germany) during summer 2011. At a constant 1 m above ground, the measuring track of the HMMS consisted of a straight line perpendicular to the forest edge, starting in the dense spruce forest and leading 75 m into an open clearing. Tags with bar codes, mounted every metre on the wooden substructure, allowed (a) keeping the speed of the HMMS constant (approx. 0.5 m s-1) and (b) operation of the HMMS in a continuous back and forth running mode. During EGER IOP3, HMMS was operational for almost 250 h. Results show that - due to considerably long response times (between 4 and 20 s) of commercial temperature, humidity and the radiation sensors - true spatial variations of the meteorological quantities could not be adequately captured (mainly at the forest edge). Corresponding dynamical (spatial) errors of the measurement values were corrected on the basis of well-defined individual response times of the sensors and application of a linear correction algorithm. Due to the very short response times (? 1 s) of the applied commercial CO2 and O3 analysers, dynamical errors for the trace gas data were negligible and no corrections were done.

Hübner, J.; Olesch, J.; Falke, H.; Meixner, F. X.; Foken, T.

2014-09-01

273

Determination of dosimetric quantities in pediatric abdominal computed tomography scans*  

PubMed Central

Objective Aiming at contributing to the knowledge on doses in computed tomography (CT), this study has the objective of determining dosimetric quantities associated with pediatric abdominal CT scans, comparing the data with diagnostic reference levels (DRL). Materials and methods The study was developed with a Toshiba Asteion single-slice CT scanner and a GE BrightSpeed multi-slice CT unit in two hospitals. Measurements were performed with a pencil-type ionization chamber and a 16 cm-diameter polymethylmethacrylate trunk phantom. Results No significant difference was observed in the values for weighted air kerma index (CW), but the differences were relevant in values for volumetric air kerma index (CVOL), air kerma-length product (PKL,CT) and effective dose. Conclusion Only the CW values were lower than the DRL, suggesting that dose optimization might not be necessary. However, PKL,CT and effective dose values stressed that there still is room for reducing pediatric radiation doses. The present study emphasizes the importance of determining all dosimetric quantities associated with CT scans. PMID:25741103

Jornada, Tiago da Silva; da Silva, Teógenes Augusto

2014-01-01

274

On the physical structure of IRC +10216. Ground-based and Herschel observations of CO and C2H  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. The carbon-rich asymptotic giant branch star IRC +10 216 undergoes strong mass loss, and quasi-periodic enhancements of the density of the circumstellar matter have previously been reported. The star's circumstellar environment is a well-studied and complex astrochemical laboratory, in which many molecular species have been proved to be present. CO is ubiquitous in the circumstellar envelope, while emission from the ethynyl (C2H) radical is detected in a spatially confined shell around IRC +10 216. We recently detected unexpectedly strong emission from the N = 4-3, 6-5, 7-6, 8-7, and 9-8 transitions of C2H with the IRAM 30 m telescope and with Herschel/HIFI, which challenges the available chemical and physical models. Aims: We aim to constrain the physical properties of the circumstellar envelope of IRC +10 216, including the effect of episodic mass loss on the observed emission lines. In particular, we aim to determine the excitation region and conditions of C2H to explain the recent detections and to reconcile them with interferometric maps of the N = 1-0 transition of C2H. Methods: Using radiative-transfer modelling, we provide a physical description of the circumstellar envelope of IRC +10 216, constrained by the spectral-energy distribution and a sample of 20 high-resolution and 29 low-resolution CO lines - to date, the largest modelled range of CO lines towards an evolved star. We furthermore present the most detailed radiative-transfer analysis of C2H that has been done so far. Results: Assuming a distance of 150 pc to IRC +10 216, the spectral-energy distribution was modelled with a stellar luminosity of 11300 L? and a dust-mass-loss rate of 4.0 × 10-8 M? yr-1. Based on the analysis of the 20 high-frequency-resolution CO observations, an average gas-mass-loss rate for the last 1000 years of 1.5 × 10-5 M? yr-1 was derived. This results in a gas-to-dust-mass ratio of 375, typical for this type of star. The kinetic temperature throughout the circumstellar envelope is characterised by three power laws: Tkin(r) ? r-0.58 for radii r ? 9 stellar radii, Tkin(r) ? r-0.40 for radii 9 ? r ? 65 stellar radii, and Tkin(r) ? r-1.20 for radii r ? 65 stellar radii. This model successfully describes all 49 observed CO lines. We also show the effect of density enhancements in the wind of IRC +10 216 on the C2H-abundance profile, and the close agreement we find of the model predictions with interferometric maps of the C2H N = 1-0 transition and with the rotational lines observed with the IRAM 30 m telescope and Herschel/HIFI. We report on the importance of radiative pumping to the vibrationally excited levels of C2H and the significant effect this pumping mechanism has on the excitation of all levels of the C2H-molecule. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

De Beck, E.; Lombaert, R.; Agúndez, M.; Daniel, F.; Decin, L.; Cernicharo, J.; Müller, H. S. P.; Min, M.; Royer, P.; Vandenbussche, B.; de Koter, A.; Waters, L. B. F. M.; Groenewegen, M. A. T.; Barlow, M. J.; Guélin, M.; Kahane, C.; Pearson, J. C.; Encrenaz, P.; Szczerba, R.; Schmidt, M. R.

2012-03-01

275

Price and Quantity Competition in a Differentiated Duopoly  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article analyzes the duality of prices and quantities in a differentiated duopoly. It is shown that if firms can only make two types of binding contracts with consumers, the price contract and the quantity contract, it is a dominant strategy for each firm to choose the quantity (price) contract, provided the goods are substitutes (complements).

Nirvikar Singh; Xavier Vives

1984-01-01

276

Intensive Quantities: Why They Matter to Developmental Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A distinction can be drawn between extensive and intensive quantities. Extensive quantities (e.g., volume, distance), which have been the focus of developmental research, depend upon additive combination. Intensive quantities (e.g., density, speed), which have been relatively neglected, derive from proportional relations between variables. Thus,…

Howe, Christine; Nunes, Terezinha; Bryant, Peter

2010-01-01

277

Nutrition and Physical Activity in Child Care Centers: the Impact of a Wellness Policy Initiative on Environment and Policy Assessment and Observation Outcomes, 2011  

PubMed Central

Introduction The child care environment has emerged as an ideal setting in which to implement policies that promote healthy body weight of children. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of a wellness policy and training program on the physical activity and nutrition environment in 24 child care centers in Georgia. Methods We used the Environment and Policy Assessment and Observation instrument to identify changes to foods served, staff behaviors, and physical activity opportunities. Observations were performed over 1 day, beginning with breakfast and concluding when the program ended for the day. Observations were conducted from February 2010 through April 2011 for a total of 2 observations in each center. Changes to nutrition and physical activity in centers were assessed on the basis of changes in scores related to the physical activity and nutrition environment documented in the observations. Paired t test analyses were performed to determine significance of changes. Results Significant improvements to total nutrition (P < .001) and physical activity scores (P < .001) were observed. Results indicate that centers significantly improved the physical activity environments of centers by enhancing active play (P = .02), the sedentary environment (P = .005), the portable environment (P = .002), staff behavior (P = .004), and physical activity training and education (P < .001). Significant improvements were found for the nutrition environment (P < .001), and nutrition training and education (P < .001). Conclusion Findings from this study suggest that implementing wellness policies and training caregivers in best practices for physical activity and nutrition can promote healthy weight for young children in child care settings. PMID:23701720

Maalouf, Joyce; Evers, Sarah; Davis, Justin; Griffin, Monica

2013-01-01

278

Coronal upflows from edges of an active region observed with EUV Imaging Spectrometer onboard Hinode  

E-print Network

In order to better understand the plasma supply and leakage at active regions, we investigated physical properties of the upflows from edges of active region NOAA AR10978 observed with the EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) onboard Hinode. Our observational aim is to measure two quantities of the outflows: Doppler velocity and electron density.

Kitagawa, Naomasa

2014-01-01

279

Automated in situ observations of upper ocean biogeochemistry, bio-optics, and physics and their potential use for global studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The processes controlling the flux of carbon in the upper ocean have dynamic ranges in space and time of at least nine orders of magnitude. These processes depend on a broad suite of inter-related biogeochemical, bio-optical, and physical variables. These variables should be sampled on scales matching the relevant phenomena. Traditional ship-based sampling, while critical for detailed and more comprehensive observations, can span only limited portions of these ranges because of logistical and financial constraints. Further, remote observations from satellite platforms enable broad horizontal coverage which is restricted to the upper few meters of the ocean. For these main reasons, automated subsurface measurement systems are important for the fulfillment of research goals related to the regional and global estimation and modeling of time varying biogeochemical fluxes. Within the past few years, new sensors and systems capable of autonomously measuring several of the critical variables have been developed. The platforms for deploying these systems now include moorings and drifters and it is likely that autonomous underwater vehicles (AUV's) will become available for use in the future. Each of these platforms satisfies particular sampling needs and can be used to complement both shipboard and satellite observations. In the present review, (1) sampling considerations will be summarized, (2) examples of data obtained from some of the existing automated in situ sampling systems will be highlighted, (3) future sensors and systems will be discussed, (4) data management issues for present and future automated systems will be considered, and (5) the status of near real-time data telemetry will be outlined. Finally, we wish to make it clear at the outset that the perspectives presented here are those of the authors and are not intended to represent those of the United States JGOFS program, the International JGOFS program, NOAA's C&GC program, or other global ocean programs.

Dickey, Tommy D.; Granata, Timothy C.; Taupier-Letage, Isabelle

1992-01-01

280

A View on Dust Evolution with Metallicity and ISM physical conditions, from Herschel Observations of the Nearby Universe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The observational approach to study dust evolution usually consists of relating measured dust properties to parameters quantifying the physical conditions of a given region. Nearby galaxies constitute, in that sense, unique targets, due to the wide range of heavy element abundances (metallicity) and irradiation conditions they exhibit. Modelling the infrared (IR) to submillimeter (submm) spectral energy distributions (SED) of nearby galaxies observed with Herschel & Spitzer, nowadays, does not allow us to isolate individual grain processes. However, it is a powerful means to scrutinize the variations of average grain properties with environmental conditions, providing crucial benchmarks for dust evolution models. In particular, the evolution of the dust-to-gas mass ratio with metallicity is one of the keys to understanding cosmic dust evolution. Indeed, individual galaxies, at different metallicities can be considered as snapshots of galaxy evolution, at different stages of their elemental enrichment, despite the possible differences in star formation history. In this paper, we first summarize a recent study, presenting such a relation, in a sample of 126 nearby galaxies, observed with Herschel & Spitzer among other telescopes, covering a 2 dex metallicity range. This work shows that the dust-to-gas mass ratio is roughly proportional to the metallicity (Z) above Z ' 1/10 Z , and becomes non-linear below. Comparing to theoretical evolution models, it indicates that dust condensation in dense clouds is a crucial ingredient, responsible for the change of regime above this critical metallicity. We argue that the scatter in the relation is likely intrinsic, being the consequence of the diversity of star formation histories of each individual galaxy. Then, we discuss the methodological problems encountered when modelling dust properties and deriving correlations between grain parameters. In particular, we demonstrate that hierarchical Bayesian models can correct the various biases affecting standard least-square SED fits. Although these hierarchical Bayesian models are efficient, they have convergence issues. We demonstrate that these convergence issues can be addressed, using dedicated numerical methods.

Galliano, F.; Rémy-Ruyer, A.; Madden, S. C.

281

Physical Properties of the Deep Impact Target Comet 9P/Tempel 1 from Spitzer and Hubble Space Telescope Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Comet 9P/Tempel 1 is the target of the Deep Impact mission to be launched at the end of this year. Accurate knowledge of the physical properties of the comet's nucleus is important for mission success. Current published size estimates for the nucleus are uncertain by 50% [Fernandez et al. 2003] and the current best rotational solutions have periods of 22 and 42 hours [Belton and Meech, 2004]. In Spring 2004, with the comet outside the ice line and inactive and inbound on the final leg before the DI encounter, we obtained 12 spectrophotometric (7.5-40 microns) visits of the nucleus with the Spitzer Space Telescope over a 40 hour period in March 2004, and 18 photometric (F606) visits over a 42 hour period in May 2004 with the Hubble Space Telescope. Collating these observations into lightcurves, we have applied rotational and thermal models [Belton et al. 2005, Groussin et al. 2004] to derive values for the effective radius, axial ratio, pole position, bulk surface albedo, active surface area, and thermal inertia. Initial analysis of the observations has yielded a nucleus with an average radius of about 3 km, an axial ratio of about 3, a geometric albedo of about 4%, and an active surface fraction of about 8%. The thermal inertia is low, similar to that of other primitive bodies. The rotation pole orientation's J2000 RA and Dec are either (99o,-19o) or (60o,+72o) , with an error of about 4 degrees. We present the latest results of our observations and analysis here.

Lisse, C. M.; A'Hearn, M. F.; Belton, M. J. S.; Fernandez, Y. R.; Groussin, O.; Lamy, P.; Meech, K. J.; Toth, I.; Weaver, H. A.

2004-11-01

282

Combined effects of physics and physiology explain the observed pattern of nitrate uptake kinetics in the ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent trait-based modeling of nutrient uptake by microorganisms (Aksnes & Cao. Marine Ecology Progress Series 440, p. 41-51, 2011; Fiksen et al. Limnology and Oceanography 58, p. 193-202, 2013) has advanced our understanding of how the nutrient uptake kinetics should depend on cell size and extracellular diffusion of nutrient molecules. This has provided a basis for better understanding observed patterns in terms of traits and fundamental physical processes, and for formulating more realistic models of plankton ecosystems. Here we extend the trait-based models using the principle of optimality subject to a physiological trade-off between the maximum uptake rate vs. the number of uptake sites. Then we test the predictions of each model, with and without the trade-off, against observed patterns for kinetic parameters describing the rate of nitrate uptake by natural assemblages of oceanic plankton as measured by ship-board experiments. The new model is able to reproduce: 1) the tendency of half-saturation constants to increase with nitrate concentration in the ocean, in terms of the trade-off, and 2) the wide variability in measured half-saturation constants, in terms of a realistic range of cell sizes for oceanic phytoplankton. We finally present a coherent explanation for the observed pattern in terms of both adaptation of physiology to environmental nutrient concentrations, which results in greater half- saturation constants for cells of any size adapted to higher vs. lower nutrient concentrations, and cell size, which tends to increase with ambient nutrient concentration. This provides a basis for modeling size as an adaptive trait in planktonic ecosystem models.

Smith, S. L.; Hohn, S.; Brandt, G.; Merico, A.; Yoshikawa, C.

2013-12-01

283

Measuring Physical Activity in Preschoolers: Reliability and Validity of the System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time for Preschoolers (SOFIT-P)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is describe the initial feasibility, reliability, and validity of an instrument to measure physical activity in preschoolers using direct observation. The System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time for Preschoolers was developed and tested among 3- to 6-year-old children over fall 2008 for feasibility and reliability…

Sharma, Shreela V.; Chuang, Ru-Jye; Skala, Katherine; Atteberry, Heather

2011-01-01

284

Measuring Physical Activity in Preschoolers: Reliability and Validity of the System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time for Preschoolers (SOFIT-P)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is describe the initial feasibility, reliability, and validity of an instrument to measure physical activity in preschoolers using direct observation. The System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time for Preschoolers was developed and tested among 3- to 6-year-old children over fall 2008 for feasibility and reliability (Phase I, n = 67) and in fall 2009 for

Shreela V. Sharma; Ru-Jye Chuang; Katherine Skala; Heather Atteberry

2011-01-01

285

APPENDIX B FEDERAL TRAFFICKING PENALTIES DRUG/SCHEDULE QUANTITY PENALTIES QUANTITY PENALTIES  

E-print Network

Tracking Penalties - Marijuana DRUG QUANTITY 1st OFFENSE 2nd OFFENSE Marijuana 1,000 kg or more mixture Marijuana 100 kg to 999 kg mixture; or 100 to 999 plants · Not less than 5 years, not more than 40 years an individual Marijuana more than 10 kgs hashish; 50 to 99 kg mixture more than 1 kg of hashish oil; 50 to 99

Subramanian, Venkat

286

Urban forms, physical activity and body mass index: a cross-city examination using ISS Earth Observation photographs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Johnson Space Center has archived thousands of astronauts acquired Earth images. Some spectacular images have been widely used in news media and in k-12 class room, but their potential utilizations in health promotion and disease prevention have relatively untapped. The project uses daytime ISS photographs to define city forms and links them to city or metropolitan level health data in a multicity context. Road connectivity, landuse mix and Shannon's information indices were used in the classification of photographs. In contrast to previous remote-sensing studies, which tend to focus on a single city or a portion of a city, this project utilized photographs of 39 U.S. cities. And in contrast to previous health-promotion studies on the built environment, which tend to rely on survey respondents' responses to evaluate road connectivity or mixed land use for a single study site, the project examined the built environments of multiple cities based on ISS photos. It was found that road connectivity and landuse mix were not statistically significant by themselves, but the composite measure of the Shannon index was significantly associated with physical activity, but not BMI. Consequently, leisure-time physical activity seems to be positively associated with the urban complexity scale. It was also concluded that unless they are planned or designed in advance, photographs taken by astronauts generally are not appropriate for a study of a single-site built environment nor are they appropriate for a study of infectious diseases at a local scale. To link urban built environment with city-wide health indicators, both the traditional nadir view and oblique views should be emphasized in future astronauts' earth observation photographs.

Lin, Ge

2005-01-01

287

Biologically Weighted Quantities in Radiotherapy: an EMRP Joint Research Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Funded within the European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP) [1], the joint research project "Biologically weighted quantities in radiotherapy" (BioQuaRT) [2] aims to develop measurement and simulation techniques for determining the physical properties of ionising particle tracks on different length scales (about 2 nm to 10 ?m), and to investigate the correlation of these track structure characteristics with the biological effects of radiation at the cellular level. Work package 1 develops micro-calorimeter prototypes for the direct measurement of lineal energy and will characterise their response for different ion beams by experiment and modelling. Work package 2 develops techniques to measure particle track structure on different length scales in the nanometre range as well as a measurement device integrating a silicon microdosimeter and a nanodosimeter. Work package 3 investigates the indirect effects of radiation based on probes for quantifying particular radical and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Work package 4 focuses on the biological aspects of radiation damage and will produce data on initial DNA damage and late effects for radiotherapy beams of different qualities. Work package 5 provides evaluated data sets of DNA cross-sections and develops a multi-scale model to address microscopic and nanometric track structure properties. The project consortium includes three linked researchers holding so-called Researcher Excellence Grants, who carry out ancillary investigations such as developing and benchmarking a new biophysical model for induction of early radiation damage and developing methods for the translation of quantities derived from particle track structure to clinical applications in ion beam therapy.

Rabus, Hans; Palmans, Hugo; Hilgers, Gerhard; Sharpe, Peter; Pinto, Massimo; Villagrasa, Carmen; Nettelbeck, Heidi; Moro, Davide; Pola, Andrea; Pszona, Stanislaw; Teles, Pedro

2014-08-01

288

Estimating historical landfill quantities to predict methane emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are no observations for methane emissions from landfill waste in Ireland. Methane emissions are imputed from waste data. There are intermittent data on waste sent to landfill. We compare two alternative ways to impute the missing waste "data" and evaluate the impact on methane emissions. We estimate Irish historical landfill quantities from 1960-2008 and Irish methane emissions from 1968-2006. A model is constructed in which waste generation is a function of income, price of waste disposal and, household economies of scale. A transformation ratio of waste to methane is also included in the methane emissions model. Our results contrast significantly with the Irish Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) figures due to the differences in the underlying assumptions. The EPA's waste generation and methane emission figures are larger than our estimates from the early 1990s onwards. Projections of the distance to target show that the EPA overestimates the required policy effort.

Lyons, Seán; Murphy, Liam; Tol, Richard S. J.

2010-10-01

289

The IMPEx data model - a common metadata standard for the analysis of simulated and observational space plasma physics data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The FP7-SPACE project IMPEx (http://impex-fp7.oeaw.ac.at/) was established to provide a web-based infrastructure to facilitate the inter-comparison and joint use of spacecraft in-situ measurements and computational models in the fields of planetary plasma science. Within this project several observational (CDAWeb, AMDA, CLWeb), as well as numerical simulation (FMI, LATMOS, SINP) databases provide datasets, which can be combined for further analysis and scientific investigation. The major goal of this project consists in providing an environment for the connection and joint operation of the different types of numerical and observational data sources in order to validate numerical simulations with spacecraft observations and vice versa. As an important milestone of IMPEx, a common metadata standard was developed for the description of the currently integrated simulation models and the archived datasets. This standard is called IMPEx Data Model (DM). It is based on the SPASE DM, which originates from the Heliospheric physics community, and which was developed for the description of observational data. A considerable part of the project effort is dedicated to the development of standardized (web service-) interfaces and protocols using the IMPEx DM as an extension of the standard SPASE DM for the communication between the different tools and databases of the IMPEx research infrastructure. For the visualization and analysis of the archived datasets available within IMPEx and beyond, several tools (AMDA, 3DView, ClWeb) were upgraded to be able to work with the newly developed metadata standards and protocols. To meet the requirement of extendibility, the IMPEx DM as well as the established communication protocols have been designed to be as compact as possible and yet general and powerful enough to integrate a wide range of data sets and to allow for simple procedures when attaching new components to the system. Furthermore the IMPEx DM has by now also been successfully applied outside the project’s core infrastructure: A prototype for UCLA MHD model description can be seen at LatHyS (LATMOS Hybrid Simulation Database). The so-called ‘IMPEx portal’, a dedicated entry point for all integrated services and tools, is currently being built up to leverage the advantages of the applied IMPEx standards and to provide efficient access to IMPEx services for the broad scientific community and general public. This presentation will give an insight on the technological challenges of distributed data infrastructures, the evident need of a common DM for interoperability between different data sources and their future in cloud-based environments.

Al-Ubaidi, Tarek

290

Law of genome evolution direction: Coding information quantity grows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of the directionality of genome evolution is studied. Based on the analysis of C-value paradox and the evolution of genome size, we propose that the function-coding information quantity of a genome always grows in the course of evolution through sequence duplication, expansion of code, and gene transfer from outside. The function-coding information quantity of a genome consists of two parts, p-coding information quantity that encodes functional protein and n-coding information quantity that encodes other functional elements. The evidences on the law of the evolutionary directionality are indicated. The needs of function are the motive force for the expansion of coding information quantity, and the information quantity expansion is the way to make functional innovation and extension for a species. Therefore, the increase of coding information quantity of a genome is a measure of the acquired new function, and it determines the directionality of genome evolution.

Luo, Liao-Fu

2009-06-01

291

Individualized Instruction in Science, Introductory Physical Science, Learning Activity Packages.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learning Activity Packages (LAP) mostly relating to the Introductory Physical Science Text are presented in this manual for use in sampling a new type of instruction. The total of 14 topics are incorporated into five units: (1) introduction to individualized learning; (2) observation versus interpretation; (3) quantity of matter; (4) introduction…

Kuczma, R. M.

292

Combining physical galaxy models with radio observations to constrain the SFRs of high-z dusty star-forming galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We complement our previous analysis of a sample of z ˜ 1-2 luminous and ultraluminous infrared galaxies [(U)LIRGs], by adding deep Very Large Array radio observations at 1.4 GHz to a large data set from the far-UV to the submillimetre, including Spitzer and Herschel data. Given the relatively small number of (U)LIRGs in our sample with high signal-to-noise (S/N) radio data, and to extend our study to a different family of galaxies, we also include six well-sampled near-infrared (near-IR)-selected BzK galaxies at z ˜ 1.5. From our analysis based on the radtran spectral synthesis code GRASIL, we find that, while the IR luminosity may be a biased tracer of the star formation rate (SFR) depending on the age of stars dominating the dust heating, the inclusion of the radio flux offers significantly tighter constraints on SFR. Our predicted SFRs are in good agreement with the estimates based on rest-frame radio luminosity and the Bell calibration. The extensive spectrophotometric coverage of our sample allows us to set important constraints on the star formation (SF) history of individual objects. For essentially all galaxies, we find evidence for a rather continuous SFR and a peak epoch of SF preceding that of the observation by a few Gyr. This seems to correspond to a formation redshift of z ˜ 5-6. We finally show that our physical analysis may affect the interpretation of the SFR-M? diagram, by possibly shifting, with respect to previous works, the position of the most dust obscured objects to higher M? and lower SFRs.

Lo Faro, B.; Silva, L.; Franceschini, A.; Miller, N.; Efstathiou, A.

2015-03-01

293

European Marine Observation and DataNetwork (EMODNET)- physical parameters: A support to marine science and operational oceanography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The overall objectives of EMODNET - physical parameters is to provide access to archived and real-time data on physical conditions in Europe's seas and oceans and to determine how well the data meet the needs of users. In particular it will contribute towards the definition of an operational European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet) and contribute to developing the definition of the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) marine core service. Access to data and metadata will consider measurements from fixed stations that will cover at least: 1. wave height and period; 2. temperature of the water column; 3. wind speed and direction; 4. salinity of the water column; 5. horizontal velocity of the water column ; 6. light attenuation; 7. sea level. A first running prototype of the portal active from the end of 2011, the final release of the EMODnet PP is due by half June 2012. Then there are 6 months for testing and users' feedback acquisition and management. The project finishes 16th December 2013 after one year of maintenance. Compliance with INSPIRE framework and temporal and geographical data coverage are ensured under the requirements contained in the several Commission Regulations issued from 2008 until 2010. The metadata are based upon the ISO 19115 standard and are compliant with the INSPIRE directive and regulations. This assures also a minimum metadata content in both systems that will facilitate the setting up of a portal that can provide information on data and access to them, depending on the internal data policy of potential contributors. Data coverage: There are three pillars sustaining EMODnet PP: EuroGOOS ROOSs (the EuroGOOS regional Operational Systems), MyOcean and SeaDataNet. MyOcean and EuroGOOS have agreed in EuroGOOS general assemblies (2008-2009-2010) to share their efforts to set up a common infrastructure for real-time data integration for operational oceanography needs extending the global and regional portals set up by MyOcean to handle additional variables and observation providers. SeaDataNet is a Pan-European infrastructure for oceans and marine data management, that provides access to archived data residing in distributed information systems. EMODNet Physics held three workshops with institutions working in operational data collection in the Baltin, North Sea, East Atlantic, Mediterranean and Black Sea. They allowed to list most of the existing fixed stations in the seas of European interest. The workshops and the follow up are constructing a common collaborative framework within EuroGOOS ROOSs. Behind the ROOSs there is a wide number of institutions, scientists and technicians, whose participation to EMODnet PP will be acknowledged and made visible through the web pages, newsletters, and EuroGOOS publications. This common collaborative framework is producing an important network of data centres that can support GMES for the years to come.

Dahlin, Hans; Gies, Tobias; Giordano, Marco; Gorringe, Patrick; Manzella, Giuseppe; Maudire, Gilbert; Novellino, Antonio; Pagnani, Maureen; Petersson, Sian; Pouliquen, Sylvie; Rickards, Lesley; Schaap, Dick; Tijsse, Peter; van der Horste, Serge

2013-04-01

294

Observations and Modeling of Long Negative Laboratory Discharges: Identifying the Physics Important to an Electrical Spark in Air  

SciTech Connect

There are relatively few reports in the literature focusing on negative laboratory leaders. Most of the reports focus exclusively on the simpler positive laboratory leader that is more commonly encountered in high voltage engineering [Gorin et al., 1976; Les Renardieres Group, 1977; Gallimberti, 1979; Domens et al., 1994; Bazelyan and Raizer 1998]. The physics of the long, negative leader and its positive counterpart are similar; the two differ primarily in their extension mechanisms [Bazelyan and Raizer, 1998]. Long negative sparks extend primarily by an intermittent process termed a 'step' that requires the development of secondary leader channels separated in space from the primary leader channel. Long positive sparks typically extend continuously, although, under proper conditions, their extension can be temporarily halted and begun again, and this is sometimes viewed as a stepping process. However, it is emphasized that the nature of positive leader stepping is not like that of negative leader stepping. There are several key observational studies of the propagation of long, negative-polarity laboratory sparks in air that have aided in the understanding of the stepping mechanisms exhibited by such sparks [e.g., Gorin et al., 1976; Les Renardieres Group, 1981; Ortega et al., 1994; Reess et al., 1995; Bazelyan and Raizer, 1998; Gallimberti et al., 2002]. These reports are reviewed below in Section 2, with emphasis placed on the stepping mechanism (the space stem, pilot, and space leader). Then, in Section 3, reports pertaining to modeling of long negative leaders are summarized.

Biagi, C J; Uman, M A

2011-12-13

295

Losing Sleep over It: Daily Variation in Sleep Quantity and Quality in Canadian Students' First Semester of University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Daily covariation of sleep quantity and quality with affective, stressful, academic, and social experiences were observed in a sample of Canadian 17-19-year-olds in their first year of university. Participants (N = 191) completed web-based checklists for 14 consecutive days during their first semester. Multilevel models predicting sleep quantity

Galambos, Nancy L.; Dalton, Andrea L.; Maggs, Jennifer L.

2009-01-01

296

Assessing Characteristics of Drought and Its physical mechanism over Ethiopia using Observational and RegCM4 Driven Indices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study focuses on the analysis of dryness/wetness over Ethiopia from 1982 to 2009 using Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI), which are derived from observational and RegCM4 dataset over Ethiopia. Trend empirical orthogonal function (TEOF), regression and wavelet analysis are used to investigate the long term change, frequency and intra-annual variability of drought over Ethiopia. All method analysis of PDSI and SPI are consistent and showed, the southern regions to be more drought-prone than other regions of Ethiopia and statistically significant dry trend are dominated in particular during the recent decade. By contrast, the likelihood of drought occurrence of northern regions is considerably less and dominated by low frequency signals. Both indices indicated that the North and Northwest regions experienced frequent and worst drought conditions centered at the year 1983/1984 and similar conditions centered at the year 2007-2009 over the southern and southwestern regions have been identified. The first two most dominant trend principal components (TPCs) of observational driven PDSI and SPI-12 with corresponding RegCM4 driven TPCs of PDSI and SPI-12 indicates significant correlations (correlation exceeding ~0.8). In addition, the corresponding patterns (TEOFs) of RegCM4 and observational driven drought indices are so similar. Generally, the RegCM4 shows a good performance in simulating the multi-scale spatial and temporal variability of drought occurrence over Ethiopia. The correlation pattern of trend principal components (TPCs) of PDSI and SPI-12 with raw sea surface temperature (SST) indicates that the possible association of the observed variability of drought. The equatorial pacific, the northern and equatorial Atlantic are correlated significantly with first dominant TPC of drought indices, whereas ENSO, Indian and Atlantic Ocean significantly correlated with the second dominant TPC of drought indices. In addition we observe the association between ocean basin and drought indices is highly seasonal dependant with the strongest association in the spring. The physical mechanisms responsible for such linkage in the atmosphere are examined using both ERA-Interim (ERIM) and RegCM4 dataset. Moreover, it was found that droughts occurred in events of strong El Niño years mainly severe and wider areal coverage. During events of negative values of Indian Ocean dipole (-IOD) the southern and west border regions of the country hit by severe drought. The northern and some part of Ethiopia during events of negative anomaly SST of North Atlantic suffered at a significant level by drought conditions. Overall, the common power variance, phase, frequency and confidence of the time-lagged relationships between oceanic basin TPC and drought indices TPCs indicate that oceanic parameters can be used as indicators of drought occurrence in Ethiopia.

Zeleke, T. T.; Tsidu, G. M.; Giorgi, F.; Diro, G. T.

2012-12-01

297

Feasibility of a nuclear gauge for fuel quantity measurement aboard aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Capacitance fuel gauges have served as the basis for fuel quantity indicating systems in aircraft for several decades. However, there have been persistent reports by the airlines that these gauges often give faulty indications due to microbial growth and other contaminants in the fuel tanks. This report describes the results of a feasibility study of using gamma ray attenuation as the basis for measuring fuel quantity in the tanks. Studies with a weak Am-241 59.5-keV radiation source indicate that it is possible to continuously monitor the fuel quantity in the tanks to an accuracy of better than 1 percent. These measurements also indicate that there are easily measurable differences in the physical properties and resultant attenuation characteristics of JP-4, JP-5, and Jet A fuels. The experimental results, along with a suggested source-detector geometrical configuration are described.

Signh, J. J.; Mall, G. H.; Sprinkle, D. R.; Chegini, H.

1986-01-01

298

Effects of Insemination Quantity on Honey Bee Queen Physiology  

PubMed Central

Mating has profound effects on the physiology and behavior of female insects, and in honey bee (Apis mellifera) queens, these changes are permanent. Queens mate with multiple males during a brief period in their early adult lives, and shortly thereafter they initiate egg-laying. Furthermore, the pheromone profiles of mated queens differ from those of virgins, and these pheromones regulate many different aspects of worker behavior and colony organization. While it is clear that mating causes dramatic changes in queens, it is unclear if mating number has more subtle effects on queen physiology or queen-worker interactions; indeed, the effect of multiple matings on female insect physiology has not been broadly addressed. Because it is not possible to control the natural mating behavior of queens, we used instrumental insemination and compared queens inseminated with semen from either a single drone (single-drone inseminated, or SDI) or 10 drones (multi-drone inseminated, or MDI). We used observation hives to monitor attraction of workers to SDI or MDI queens in colonies, and cage studies to monitor the attraction of workers to virgin, SDI, and MDI queen mandibular gland extracts (the main source of queen pheromone). The chemical profiles of the mandibular glands of virgin, SDI, and MDI queens were characterized using GC-MS. Finally, we measured brain expression levels in SDI and MDI queens of a gene associated with phototaxis in worker honey bees (Amfor). Here, we demonstrate for the first time that insemination quantity significantly affects mandibular gland chemical profiles, queen-worker interactions, and brain gene expression. Further research will be necessary to elucidate the mechanistic bases for these effects: insemination volume, sperm and seminal protein quantity, and genetic diversity of the sperm may all be important factors contributing to this profound change in honey bee queen physiology, queen behavior, and social interactions in the colony. PMID:17912357

Richard, Freddie-Jeanne; Tarpy, David R.; Grozinger, Christina M.

2007-01-01

299

Rangeland Risk Management for Texans: Forage Quality and Quantity  

E-print Network

. Recognizing and Correcting Forage Quantity Problems Forage quantity can also be a problem, even when there appears to be plenty of standing crop. Grazing animals have very definite food preferences. They instinctively look for green plant material... the nutrient requirements of the mothers, or a combination of these approaches. Managing calving, lambing and kidding seasons to match forage pro- duction seasons can help reduce both forage quality and quantity problems. Flexible stocking plans also are impor...

Lyons, Robert K.

2000-11-01

300

XMM-Newton observation of the ULIRG NGC 6240: The physical nature of the complex Fe K line emission  

E-print Network

We report on an XMM-Newton observation of the ultraluminous infrared galaxy NGC 6240. The 0.3-10 keV spectrum can be successfully modelled with: (i) three collisionally ionized plasma components with temperatures of about 0.7, 1.4, and 5.5 keV; (ii) a highly absorbed direct power-law component; and (iii) a neutral Fe K_alpha and K_beta line. We detect a significant neutral column density gradient which is correlated with the temperature of the three plasma components. Combining the XMM-Newton spectral model with the high spatial resolution Chandra image we find that the temperatures and the column densities increase towards the center. With high significance, the Fe K line complex is resolved into three distinct narrow lines: (i) the neutral Fe K_alpha line at 6.4 keV; (ii) an ionized line at about 6.7 keV; and (iii) a higher ionized line at 7.0 keV (a blend of the Fe XXVI and the Fe K_beta line). While the neutral Fe K line is most probably due to reflection from optically thick material, the Fe XXV and Fe XXVI emission arises from the highest temperature ionized plasma component. We have compared the plasma parameters of the ultraluminous infrared galaxy NGC 6240 with those found in the local starburst galaxy NGC 253. We find a striking similarity in the plasma temperatures and column density gradients, suggesting a similar underlying physical process at work in both galaxies.

Th. Boller; R. Keil; G. Hasinger; E. Costantini; R. Fujimoto; N. Anabuki; I. Lehmann; L. Gallo

2003-07-17

301

Evidencing the transition from Mode I cracking to dilation banding: Results from physical experiments with fractographic observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mechanism of quasi-brittle fracture/rupture remains one of the central problems in different domains of material science/mechanics including geomechanics. There are basically two approaches to this problem. One is the fracture mechanics dealing with stability conditions of cracks characterized by a strong stress concentration at the tips causing crack propagation. The other approach is the formation of deformation localization bands as constitutive instabilities, whose onset in quasi-brittle rocks can be considered as corresponding to the inception of rupture. We investigate the conditions of applicability of these end-member approaches and show a continuous transition from one to another with an increase in the confining pressure P in the experimental extension tests on a synthetic physical rock analogue (granular, frictional, cohesive and dilatant) material GRAM1. Discontinuities/fractures perpendicular to the least (axial) stress ?3 were generated in GRAM1 samples. These fractures form dynamically and are of two types defined by the mean stress ? or P. When ? is very small, the fractures form through mode I cracking with ?3 equal to the material tensile strength. The fracture walls have smooth surfaces in this case. Increase in ? causes increase in ?3 at fracturing, which becomes less negative and reaches small positive (compression) values, while the failure still occurs along a discontinuity perpendicular to ?3. Thus, the discontinuities generated starting from a certain ? value cannot be mode I fractures. Increase in ? also results in changes in the relief of the surfaces of discontinuities after their postmortem opening (separation of the walls): the surfaces become rougher, with the topography features forming faint/delicate plumose patterns very similar to those on the geological joint walls. SEM observations of the unopened discontinuities show that they represent several grain sizes-thick bands of a material which underwent a heterogeneous decohesion and volume/porosity increase. This suggests a dilatancy within bands. After opening they become fractures with plumose fractography. As indicated, these fractures could not be formed through the mode I mechanism. The true formation mechanism is not completely clear, but it is suggested that it represents a running constitutive instability in the form of dilation banding (with further ? increase the bands become inclined to ?1, i.e., shear; inclination angle grows with ?). The morphological similarity between the experimentally generated plumose-surface fractures and natural joints surfaces is shown. On the other hand, MEB observations evidence a textural similarity between the experimental bands and some natural unopened incipient joints found in fine grained rocks. It is proposed that propagating dilation bands could be an important mechanism for the generation of natural joints.

Nguyen, S.; Chemenda, A.; Petit, J.; Ambre, J.; Geo-Fracnet-Géoazur

2010-12-01

302

Tracking of food quantity by coyotes (Canis latrans).  

PubMed

Previous studies have demonstrated that Weber's Law mediates quantitative discrimination abilities across various species. Here, we tested coyotes' (Canis latrans) ability to discriminate between various quantities of food and investigated whether this ability conforms to predictions of Weber's Law. We demonstrate herein that coyotes are capable of reliably discriminating large versus small quantities of discrete food items. As predicted by Weber's Law, coyotes' quantitative discrimination abilities are mediated by the ratio between the large and small quantities of food and exhibit scalar variability. Furthermore, in this task coyotes were not discriminating large versus small quantities based on olfactory cues alone. PMID:21856389

Baker, Joseph M; Shivik, John; Jordan, Kerry E

2011-10-01

303

Optimization of storage reservoir considering water quantity and quality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many factors influence water quality within a reservoir. Deforestation, excessive erosion, introduction of new species, domestic and industrial waste disposal and agricultural runoff are only a few examples.It is well known by specialists in water resources management that water levels in a reservoir may also affect its quality. But how these processes occur and how appropriate water levels can be maintained are very hard questions to answer. This is because of the physical and biological processes occurring inside the water body, and also due to the various demands from society concerning water uses.Nowadays, through the use of models, knowledge of some of the conditions can enable us to predict future conditions. In many cases, reservoir models, such as physical models for water quality, may predict the future water quality situation. These models have been used successfully to enhance knowledge about the interactions among the different parts inherent to the water systems.Through the combination of water quality and optimization models, this study proposes a suitable methodology for the assessment of planning operations of a storage reservoir. The purpose of this paper is to consider a multipurpose reservoir, under different water demands and uses from societies, concerning reservoir water quality.The proposed optimization is realized through the use of dynamic programming combined with stochastic techniques that can handle the probabilistic characteristics of inflow quantity and quality. For the water quality assessment, the UNEP/ILEC one-dimensional model with two layers called PAMOLARE is applied. Finally, sensitivity analysis is carried out using a genetic algorithm model. Copyright

Chaves, Paulo; Kojiri, Toshiharu; Yamashiki, Yosuke

2003-10-01

304

Physical Activity and Reduced Risk of Incident Sporadic Colorectal Adenomas: Observational Support for Mechanisms Involving Energy Balance and Inflammation Modulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the role of physical activity, energy balance, and inflammation on the risk of incident sporadic colorectal adenoma, the authors conducted a community- and colonoscopy-based case-control study (n = 177 cases, n = 228 controls) in Winston-Salem and Charlotte, North Carolina, from 1995 to 1997. Participants reported energy intake by a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire, daily physical activity levels

Keith G. Hauret; Roberd M. Bostick; Charles E. Matthews; James R. Hussey

305

An Investigation of Relationships Between Fifth Grade Students' Perception of the Physical Classroom Environment and Observed Environmental Factors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An exploratory field study was conducted in 42 self-contained, elementary grade classrooms in 18 school buildings. Subjects were 1,030 fifth-grade students. The purpose of the study was to determine the range of physical environmental conditions in the classrooms; and how students' perceptions of the physical environment (1) describe the…

Faust, Russell Weidner

306

Convergent Validity of Four Accelerometer Cutpoints with Direct Observation of Preschool Children's Outdoor Physical Activity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: More than one fifth of American preschool-aged children are classified as overweight/obese. Increasing physical activity is one means of slowing/reversing progression to overweight or obesity. Measurement of physical activity in this age group relies heavily on motion sensors such as accelerometers. Output is typically interpreted through…

Kahan, David; Nicaise, Virginie; Reuben, Karen

2013-01-01

307

Knowledge base for growth and innovation in ocean economy: assembly and dissemination of marine data for seabed mapping - European Marine Observation Data Network - EMODnet Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Physics preparatory action (MARE/2010/02 - Lot [SI2.579120]) had the overall objectives to provide access to archived and near real-time data on physical conditions as monitored by fixed stations and Ferrybox lines in all the European sea basins and oceans and to determine how well the data meet the needs of users. The existing EMODnet-Physics portal, www.emodnet-physics.eu, includes systems for physical data from the whole Europe (wave height and period, temperature of the water column, wind speed and direction, salinity of the water column, horizontal velocity of the water column, light attenuation, and sea level) provided mainly by fixed stations and ferry-box platforms, discovering related data sets (both near real time and historical data sets), viewing and downloading of the data from about 470 platforms across the European Sea basins. It makes layers of physical data and their metadata available for use and contributes towards the definition of an operational European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet). It is based on a strong collaboration between EuroGOOS member institutes and its regional operational oceanographic systems (ROOSs), and it brings together two marine, but different, communities : the "real time" ocean observing institutes and centers and the National Oceanographic Data Centres (NODCs) that are in charge for archived ocean data validation, quality check and continuous update of data archives for marine environmental monitoring. EMODnet Physics is a Marine Observation and Data Information System that provides a single point of access to near real time and historical achieved data, it is built on existing infrastructure by adding value and avoiding any unnecessary complexity, it provides data access to any relevant user, and is aimed at attracting new data holders and providing better and more data. With a long term-vision for a sustained pan European Ocean Observation System EMODnet Physics is supporting the coordination of the EuroGOOS ROOSs and the empowerment and improvement of their observing and data management infrastructure. The on-going EMODnet Physics preparatory action has recently been extended (MARE/2012/06 - Lot 6) with the aim to enlarge the coverage with additional monitoring systems (e.g. Argos, Gliders, HF Radars etc) and products and strengthening the underlying infrastructure. The presentation will show how to exploit the EMODnet portal and access to the metadata and data of connected platforms.

Novellino, Antonio; Gorringe, Patrick; Schaap, Dick; Pouliquen, Sylvie; Rickards, Lesley; Manzella, Giuseppe

2014-05-01

308

Scaling Laws in Particle Physics and Astrophysics  

E-print Network

Disclosure of scaling relationship between observable quantities gives direct information about dynamics of natural phenomenon. This is the main reason why scaling plays a key role in the methodology of natural sciences. In this talk, Part I will consider several diverse scaling laws in particle physics. Part II is dedicated to the to the extension of Chew-Frautschi hadronic spin/mass scaling relation to the realm of astronomical objects.

Rudolf Muradyan

2011-06-07

309

Combining price and quantity controls to mitigate global climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uncertainty about compliance costs causes otherwise equivalent price and quantity controls to behave differently and leads to divergent welfare consequences. Although most of the debate on global climate change policy has focused on quantity controls due to their political appeal, this paper argues that price controls are more efficient. Simulations based on a stochastic computable general equilibrium model indicate that

William A. Pizer

2002-01-01

310

STABILITY AND INFINITESIMAL ROBUSTNESS OF POSTERIOR DISTRIBUTIONS AND POSTERIOR QUANTITIES  

E-print Network

STABILITY AND INFINITESIMAL ROBUSTNESS OF POSTERIOR DISTRIBUTIONS AND POSTERIOR QUANTITIES revision February, 1998 Abstract Infinitesimal sensitivities of the posterior distribution P (\\DeltajX ) and posterior quantities ae(P ) w.r.t. the choice of the prior P are considered. In a very general setting

Basu, Sanjib

311

Finite difference approximation of hedging quantities in the Heston model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This note concerns the hedging quantities Delta and Gamma in the Heston model for European-style financial options. A modification of the discretization technique from In 't Hout & Foulon (2010) is proposed, which enables a fast and accurate approximation of these important quantities. Numerical experiments are given that illustrate the performance.

in't Hout, Karel

2012-09-01

312

Judgments of Discrete and Continuous Quantity: An Illusory Stroop Effect  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evidence from human cognitive neuroscience, animal neurophysiology, and behavioral research demonstrates that human adults, infants, and children share a common nonverbal quantity processing system with nonhuman animals. This system appears to represent both discrete and continuous quantity, but the proper characterization of the relationship…

Barth, Hilary C.

2008-01-01

313

Tracking of food quantity by coyotes ( Canis latrans)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have demonstrated that Weber's Law mediates quantitative discrimination abilities across various species. Here, we tested coyotes’ (Canis latrans) ability to discriminate between various quantities of food and investigated whether this ability conforms to predictions of Weber's Law. We demonstrate herein that coyotes are capable of reliably discriminating large versus small quantities of discrete food items. As predicted by

Joseph M. Baker; John Shivik; Kerry E. Jordan

2011-01-01

314

Numerical Order and Quantity Processing in Number Comparison  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigated processing of numerical order information and its relation to mechanisms of numerical quantity processing. In two experiments, performance on a quantity-comparison task (e.g. 2 5; which is larger?) was compared with performance on a relative-order judgment task (e.g. 2 5; ascending or descending order?). The comparison task…

Turconi, Eva; Campbell, Jamie I. D.; Seron, Xavier

2006-01-01

315

Quantity Food Production Instructor: Jim Vernere Teaching Assistant  

E-print Network

in the quantity kitchen environment. 5. Develop the ability to plan nutritious, appealing food combinations in theoretical solution of everyday supervision and organization of work of the food service department. 9Quantity Food Production 11:709:344 Instructor: Jim Vernere Teaching Assistant: Department

Chen, Kuang-Yu

316

Physics is the study of matter and energy and their inter-actions. Based on observations, hypotheses and testing,  

E-print Network

, hypotheses and testing, physicists identify, validate and apply the fundamental physical "rules" and "laws and optics (telecommunications, optometry, holography, etc.) · nuclear power (reactor design, containment, waste, etc.) · new materials (semiconductors, thin films, superconductors, biomatter, etc

Saldin, Dilano

317

Prevalence of epilepsy--an unknown quantity.  

PubMed

The incidence, prevalence, and mortality of epilepsy vary across countries with different economies. Differences can be explained by methodological problems, premature mortality, seizure remission, socioeconomic factors, and stigma. Diagnostic misclassification-one possible explanation-may result from inclusion of patients with acute symptomatic or isolated unprovoked seizures. Other sources of bias include age and ethnic origin of the target population, definitions of epilepsy, retrospective versus prospective ascertainment, sources of cases, and experienced and perceived stigma. Premature mortality is an issue in low-income countries (LICs), where treatment gap, brain infections, and traumatic brain injuries are more common than in high-income countries (HICs). Death rates may reflect untreated continued seizures or inclusion of acute symptomatic seizures. Lack of compliance with antiepileptic drugs has been associated with increased risk for death, increased hospital admissions, motor vehicle accidents, and fractures in poor communities. Epilepsy is a self-remitting clinical condition in up to 50% of cases. Studies in untreated individuals from LICs have shown that the proportion of remissions overlaps that of countries where patients receive treatment. When the identification of patients is based on spontaneous reports (e.g., door-to-door surveys), patients in remission may be less likely to disclose the disease for fear of stigmatization with no concurrent benefits. This might lead to underascertainment of cases when assessing the lifetime prevalence of epilepsy. In LICs, the proportion of people living in poverty is greater than in HICs. Poverty is associated with risk factors for epilepsy, risk for developing epilepsy, and increased mortality. The high incidence and prevalence of epilepsy found in LICs is also observed in low income individuals from HICs. Epileptogenic conditions are associated with an increased mortality. This may partly explain the difference between incidence and lifetime prevalence of epilepsy in LICs. Poverty within LICs and HICs could be a preventable cause of mortality in epilepsy. PMID:24966095

Beghi, Ettore; Hesdorffer, Dale

2014-07-01

318

Kinematic quantities of finite elastic and plastic deformation  

E-print Network

Kinematic quantities for finite elastic and plastic deformations are defined via an approach that does not rely on auxiliary elements like reference frame and reference configuration, and that gives account of the inertial-noninertial aspects explicitly. These features are achieved by working on Galilean spacetime directly. The quantity expressing elastic deformations is introduced according to its expected role: to measure how different the current metric is from the relaxed/stressless metric. Further, the plastic kinematic quantity is the change rate of the stressless metric. The properties of both are analyzed, and their relationship to frequently used elastic and plastic kinematic quantities is discussed. One important result is that no objective elastic or plastic quantities can be defined from deformation gradient.

T. Fülöp; P. Ván

2012-03-05

319

A redefinition to the complex object from the perspective of measurable quantities  

E-print Network

As light fields fluctuate randomly and rapidly, the former defined concept of the complex object was practically meaningless because no light detectors are rapid enough to catch up. So a redefinition in terms of observable quantities is needed. By using partial coherent theory, we show that the complex object modulates the cross-spectral density function, a measurable quantity, for both of its amplitude and the phase. Consequently, a redefinition to complex object was given in such a way. Also the applicability to obtain the object function is suggested when there is no fully coherent light is available.

Zhang, Minghui

2013-01-01

320

Beginning to edit physics  

SciTech Connect

A physicist-turned-editor shows you the basics required for copyediting physics papers (physical quantities, symbols, units, scientific notation, the structure of mathematical expressions, the nature of graphs), and points the way to learning enough ``editorial physics`` to begin substantive editing.

Murphy, P.W.

1995-02-01

321

An investigation of quantity discrimination in Clark's nutcrackers (Nucifraga columbiana).  

PubMed

We examined quantity discrimination in the Clark's nutcracker (Nucifraga columbiana), a corvid bird with a strong dependence upon caching and recovering nuts. We presented 2 sets of nuts simultaneously, in 21 different conditions, to see if the nutcrackers could choose the larger of the 2 quantities. The nutcrackers displayed a strong ability to discriminate quantities of nuts. Like other animals tested previously, the nutcrackers' performance decreased as the ratio of the 2 quantities approached 1. Interestingly, at constant distances, the nutcrackers did not have more difficulty with contrasts containing larger quantities. Thus, nutcrackers have a fine sensitivity for discriminating between 2 quantities. We review the relevant literature and explore the possibility that nutcrackers, like some other birds, may have developed a keen ability to discriminate quantities. This ability may have developed as an adaptive specialization to cope with their scatter-hoarding ecology, though the evidence for such a conclusion is mixed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25150963

Tornick, Jan K; Callahan, Emily S; Gibson, Brett M

2015-02-01

322

Orbits in disc galaxies with rapidly rotating massive nuclei: comparison with data from observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

An axially symmetric galactic dynamic model is used, with a disc, a massive nucleus and halo components, in order to reproduce recently obtained observation data in disc galaxies. The model reproduces very well two basic physical quantities, i.e. the high-velocity rotation and the high surface mass density in the central regions of some galaxies such as the galaxy NGC 3079.

N. J. Papadopoulos; N. D. Caranicolas

2005-01-01

323

Conceptual Model of Quantities, Units, Dimensions, and Values  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

JPL collaborated with experts from industry and other organizations to develop a conceptual model of quantities, units, dimensions, and values based on the current work of the ISO 80000 committee revising the International System of Units & Quantities based on the International Vocabulary of Metrology (VIM). By providing support for ISO 80000 in SysML via the International Vocabulary of Metrology (VIM), this conceptual model provides, for the first time, a standard-based approach for addressing issues of unit coherence and dimensional analysis into the practice of systems engineering with SysML-based tools. This conceptual model provides support for two kinds of analyses specified in the International Vocabulary of Metrology (VIM): coherence of units as well as of systems of units, and dimension analysis of systems of quantities. To provide a solid and stable foundation, the model for defining quantities, units, dimensions, and values in SysML is explicitly based on the concepts defined in VIM. At the same time, the model library is designed in such a way that extensions to the ISQ (International System of Quantities) and SI Units (Systeme International d Unites) can be represented, as well as any alternative systems of quantities and units. The model library can be used to support SysML user models in various ways. A simple approach is to define and document libraries of reusable systems of units and quantities for reuse across multiple projects, and to link units and quantity kinds from these libraries to Unit and QuantityKind stereotypes defined in SysML user models.

Rouquette, Nicolas F.; DeKoenig, Hans-Peter; Burkhart, Roger; Espinoza, Huascar

2011-01-01

324

A Five-Stage Process for the Development and Validation of a Systematic Observation Instrument: The System for Observing the Teaching of Games in Physical Education (SOTG-PE)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The primary purpose of this study was to develop and validate a System for Observing the Teaching of Games in Physical Education (SOTG-PE). Primary pilot testing of the SOTG-PE was conducted in a large, selective, all-boys secondary school in the north-west of England. Two hundred and eighty three pupils aged 11-16 volunteered as participants for…

Roberts, Simon; Fairclough, Stuart

2012-01-01

325

Angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare) discriminate between small quantities: A role of memory.  

PubMed

The ability to discriminate between sets of items differing in quantity has shown a growing interest in comparative studies as a diversity of animal species exhibit such quantitative competence. Previous studies with angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare) have demonstrated that this species is capable of spontaneously discriminating between fully visible groups (shoals) of conspecifics of different numerical size. In the present study, we investigated quantity discrimination in angelfish adopting a new procedure that we expected to make the task more difficult for the fish. During a pretest period, angelfish were allowed to fully see shoals of conspecifics of different numerical size, subsequently all fish but 1 in each stimulus shoal were hidden behind opaque barriers. Thus, during testing, experimental fish had to rely on their working memory, which implies a certain level of mental representation of the quantities or numbers discriminated. Angelfish chose the larger shoal with similar accuracy when 1 versus 2, 1 versus 3, 1 versus 4, 2 versus 3, and 2 versus 4 stimulus fish were contrasted, but failed to distinguish shoals when 3 versus 4, 4 versus 5, and 4 versus 6 fish were contrasted. Strong similarities were observed in relation with our previous procedure indicating the robustness of the quantity discrimination abilities of this species. Our results imply that angelfish form internal representations and demonstrate that these fish can make comparisons between small quantities of items while relying on their working memory alone. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25364939

Gómez-Laplaza, Luis M; Gerlai, Robert

2015-02-01

326

Minimum quantity lubrication machining of aluminum and magnesium alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) machining, i.e. drilling and tapping of aluminum and magnesium alloys using very low quantities of cutting fluids was studied and the MQL machining performance was compared to dry and conventional flooded conditions. An experimental drilling station with an MQL system was built to measure torque and thrust force responses. Uncoated and diamond-like carbon (DLC) coated HSS drills were tested against 319 Al and AZ91 alloys using 10--50 ml/h of distilled water (H 2O-MQL) and a fatty acid based MQL agent (FA-MQL). The results indicated that H2O-MQL used in conjunction with non-hydrogenated DLC (NH-DLC) coatings reduced the average torque and thrust-force compared to dry cutting and achieved a performance comparable with conventional flooded drilling. At least 103 holes could be drilled using NH-DLC in H2O-MQL and uncoated HSS in FA-MQL in drilling of both 319 Al and AZ91. MQL drilling and tapping provided a stable machining performance, which was evident from the uniform torque and force patterns and also resulted in desirable hole surface, thread quality and chip segments. The maximum temperature generated in the workpiece during MQL machining was lower than that observed in dry drilling and tapping, and comparable to flooded conditions. The mechanical properties of the material adjacent to drilled holes, as evaluated through plastic strain and hardness measurements, revealed a notable softening in case of dry drilling, with magnesium alloys exhibiting a recrystallized grain zone, but not for MQL drilling. Softened aluminum and magnesium promoted adhesion to the tools resulted built-up edge formation and consequently high torques and thrust-forces were generated. NH-DLC coatings' low COF in H 2O-MQL against 319 Al (0.10) and AZ91 (0.12) compared to uncoated HSS (0.63 and 0.65) limited the temperature increase during NH-DLC in H2 O-MQL drilling and hence both torques and thrust forces were effectively reduced.

Bhowmick, Sukanta

2011-12-01

327

Variation of physical properties beneath a fault observed by a two-ship seismic survey off southwest Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted a two-ship seismic reflection survey at Kumano-nada off the southwest Japan arc, in 2002, in order to clarify physical properties along a splay fault that branches from the plate boundary of the Nankai Trough subduction zone. During the survey, seismic reflection data were collected out to maximum offset of 20 km using multiple passes of a shooting and

Tetsuro Tsuru; Seiichi Miura; Jin-Oh Park; Aki Ito; Gou Fujie; Yoshiyuki Kaneda; Tetsuo No; Takeshi Katayama; Junzo Kasahara

2005-01-01

328

Observation and Analysis of N[subscript 2]O Rotation-Vibration Spectra: A Physical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The linear molecule N[subscript 2]O is presented as an alternative gas-phase species for the ubiquitous undergraduate physical chemistry rotation-vibration spectroscopy experiment. Utilizing a 0.5 cm[superscript -1] resolution teaching grade FTIR spectrometer, 15 vibrational bands, corresponding to 1229 rotation-vibration transitions, have been…

Bryant, Mark S.; Reeve, Scott W.; Burns, William A.

2008-01-01

329

26 CFR 50.6 - Ascertainment of quantity mined.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...THE TAX IMPOSED WITH RESPECT TO CERTAIN HYDRAULIC MINING § 50.6 Ascertainment of quantity mined. Each person engaged in hydraulic mining operations within the scope...surveys of the premises on which such hydraulic mining operations are conducted...

2010-04-01

330

19 CFR 151.2 - Quantities to be examined.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...1) Minimum quantities. Not less than one package of every 10 packages of merchandise shall be examined, unless a special regulation permits a lesser number of packages to be examined. Port directors are specially...

2010-04-01

331

7 CFR 945.54 - Minimum quantity exemption.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Regulations § 945.54 Minimum quantity exemption. The...

2013-01-01

332

Symbolizing Quantity Praveen K. Paritosh (paritosh@cs.northwestern.edu)  

E-print Network

include tall and short for the quantity of height of people; poverty line, lower class, middle class experience (e.g., what I consider to be spicy in regards to food), society (e.g., middle class), science (e

Forbus, Kenneth D.

333

9 CFR 442.1 - Quantity of contents labeling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR ACCURATE WEIGHTS § 442.1 Quantity of contents...be followed for determining net weight compliance and prescribes the reasonable variations allowed from the declared net weight on the labels of immediate...

2010-01-01

334

21 CFR 316.36 - Insufficient quantities of orphan drugs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Insufficient quantities of orphan drugs. 316.36 Section 316.36 Food and Drugs...HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE ORPHAN DRUGS Orphan-drug Exclusive Approval § 316.36 Insufficient...

2010-04-01

335

48 CFR 816.504 - Indefinite-quantity contracts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...contracting officer shall insert the Alternate II clause at 852.216-70 in solicitations for estimated quantities of orthopedic, prosthetic, and optical supplies. (d) The contracting officer shall insert the Alternate III clause at 852.216-70 in...

2014-10-01

336

48 CFR 816.504 - Indefinite-quantity contracts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...contracting officer shall insert the Alternate II clause at 852.216-70 in solicitations for estimated quantities of orthopedic, prosthetic, and optical supplies. (d) The contracting officer shall insert the Alternate III clause at 852.216-70 in...

2013-10-01

337

49 CFR 173.4a - Excepted quantities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Only materials authorized for transport aboard passenger aircraft and appropriately... . Packagings used for the transport of excepted quantities must...under normal conditions of transport, it cannot break, be...

2011-10-01

338

49 CFR 173.4a - Excepted quantities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Only materials authorized for transport aboard passenger aircraft and appropriately... . Packagings used for the transport of excepted quantities must...under normal conditions of transport, it cannot break, be...

2012-10-01

339

49 CFR 173.4a - Excepted quantities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Only materials authorized for transport aboard passenger aircraft and appropriately... Packagings used for the transport of excepted quantities must...under normal conditions of transport, it cannot break, be...

2014-10-01

340

49 CFR 173.4a - Excepted quantities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Only materials authorized for transport aboard passenger aircraft and appropriately... . Packagings used for the transport of excepted quantities must...under normal conditions of transport, it cannot break, be...

2013-10-01

341

49 CFR 173.4a - Excepted quantities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Only materials authorized for transport aboard passenger aircraft and appropriately... . Packagings used for the transport of excepted quantities must...under normal conditions of transport, it cannot break, be...

2010-10-01

342

21 CFR 316.36 - Insufficient quantities of orphan drugs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 false Insufficient quantities of orphan drugs. 316.36 Section 316.36 Food and Drugs...HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE ORPHAN DRUGS Orphan-drug Exclusive Approval § 316.36...

2014-04-01

343

21 CFR 316.36 - Insufficient quantities of orphan drugs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Insufficient quantities of orphan drugs. 316.36 Section 316.36 Food and Drugs...HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE ORPHAN DRUGS Orphan-drug Exclusive Approval § 316.36...

2013-04-01

344

21 CFR 316.36 - Insufficient quantities of orphan drugs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Insufficient quantities of orphan drugs. 316.36 Section 316.36 Food and Drugs...HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE ORPHAN DRUGS Orphan-drug Exclusive Approval § 316.36...

2012-04-01

345

21 CFR 316.36 - Insufficient quantities of orphan drugs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Insufficient quantities of orphan drugs. 316.36 Section 316.36 Food and Drugs...HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE ORPHAN DRUGS Orphan-drug Exclusive Approval § 316.36...

2011-04-01

346

Solar Fine-Scale Structures. I. Spicules and Other Small-Scale, Jet-Like Events at the Chromospheric Level: Observations and Physical Parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the last two decades the uninterrupted, high resolution observations of the Sun, from the excellent range of telescopes aboard many spacecraft complemented with observations from sophisticated ground-based telescopes have opened up a new world producing significantly more complete information on the physical conditions of the solar atmosphere than before. The interface between the lower solar atmosphere where energy is generated by subsurface convection and the corona comprises the chromosphere, which is dominated by jet-like, dynamic structures, called mottles when found in quiet regions, fibrils when found in active regions and spicules when observed at the solar limb. Recently, space observations with Hinode have led to the suggestion that there should exist two different types of spicules called Type I and Type II which have different properties. Ground-based observations in the Ca ii H and K filtergrams reveal the existence of long, thin emission features called straws in observations close to the limb, and a class of short-lived events called rapid blue-shifted excursions characterized by large Doppler shifts that appear only in the blue wing of the Ca ii infrared line. It has been suggested that the key to understanding how the solar plasma is accelerated and heated may well be found in the studies of these jet-like, dynamic events. However, while these structures are observed and studied for more than 130 years in the visible, but also in the UV and EUV emission lines and continua, there are still many questions to be answered. Thus, despite their importance and a multitude of observations performed and theoretical models proposed, questions regarding their origin, how they are formed, their physical parameters, their association with the underlying photospheric magnetic field, how they appear in the different spectral lines, and the interrelationship between structures observed in quiet and active regions on the disk and at the limb, as well as their role in global processes has not yet received definitive answers. In addition, how they affect the coronal heating and solar wind need to be further explored. In this review we present observations and physical properties of small-scale jet-like chromospheric events observed in active and quiet regions, on the disk and at the limb and discuss their interrelationship.

Tsiropoula, G.; Tziotziou, K.; Kontogiannis, I.; Madjarska, M. S.; Doyle, J. G.; Suematsu, Y.

2012-09-01

347

Effect of aquatic macrophytes on the quantity of bacterioplankton.  

PubMed

The authors investigated the effect of aquatic macrophytes on the quantity of bacterioplankton. Among the 7 species of aquatic macrophytes the most pronounced effect on bacterioplankton is exerted by Potamogeton crispus, causing a decrease in its quantity to 53.28%. Polygonum amphibium stimulates the growth of bacteria to 121.96%. Under the influence of macrophytes the spherical to cylindrical ratio changes from 1:1.31 (Lemna minor) to 1:2.07 (Potamogeton crispus). PMID:11712444

Czeczuga, B; Chomutowska, H

2000-01-01

348

Implementing ILDs and Assessment in Small-enrollment, Calculus-based Physics Classes -- Lessons, Observations and Open Questions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At Salem State, we offer a Physics minor, but most of our teaching load is support courses for other science majors and a lab sequence which satisfies the University's core education requirement. In three years of using assessments and ILDs in small-enrollment calculus-based Physics classes, there has been a significant implementation learning curve, there are encouraging results, a few cautions, and still some open questions to report. ILDs can be highly effective teaching tools. They do require significant advance preparation as well as a safe environment for student participation. Motivating students to do their best on assessment pre- and post-tests can also be difficult. Strategies for motivating assessment performance, experiments using clickers to encourage participation in ILDs, and modifying and developing home-grown ILDs are discussed.

Mason-McCaffrey, Deborah

2011-04-01

349

Principal component analysis of measured quantities during degradation of hydroperoxides in oxidized vegetable oils.  

PubMed

Decomposition of hydroperoxides in sunflower oil under strictly oxygen-free conditions was followed by measuring peroxide values against time, absorbance values at 232 and 268 nm, para-anisidine values, and by quantitative analyses of volatile products using various additives. The results were arranged in a matrix form and subjected to principal component analysis. Three principal components explained 89-97% of the total variance in the data. The measured quantities and the effect of additives were closely related. Characteristic plots showed similarities among the measured quantities (loading plots) and among the additives (score plots). Initial decomposition rate of hydroperoxides and the amount of volatile products formed were similar to each other. The outliers, the absorbance values, were similar to each other but carried independent information from the other quantities. Para-anisidine value (PAV) was a unique parameter. Since PAV behaved differently during the course of hydroperoxide degradation, it served as a kinetic indicator. Most additives were similar in their effects on the mentioned quantities, but two outliers were also observed. Rotation of the principal component axes did not change the dominant patterns observed. The investigations clearly showed which variables were worth measuring to evaluate different additives. PMID:10188601

Héberger, K; Keszler, A; Gude, M

1999-01-01

350

1991 Urey Prize Lecture: Physical evolution in the solar system - Present observations as a key to the past  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present evaluation of the use of new observational methods for exploring solar system evolutionary processes gives attention to illustrative cases from the constraining of near-earth asteroid sources and the discovery of main-belt asteroid fragments which indicate Vesta to be a source of basaltic achondrite meteorites. The coupling of observational constraints with numerical models clarifies cratering and collisional evolution for both main-belt and Trojan asteroids.

Binzel, Richard P.

1992-01-01

351

Changes in time-segment specific physical activity between ages 10 and 14 years: a longitudinal observational study  

E-print Network

and UKCRC Centre for Diet and Activity Research (CEDAR), University 5 of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine, Box 285 Institute of Metabolic Science, Cambridge 6 Biomedical Campus, Cambridge, CB2 0QQ, U.K. 7 b Department of Sports Medicine, Norwegian... activity in school-aged 24 children. Sports Medicine 2014; doi: 10.1007/s40279-014-0215-5 25 15 11. Cleland, V, Crawford, D, Baur, LA, et al., A prospective examination of children's time spent 1 outdoors, objectively measured physical activity...

Brooke, Hannah L.; Atkin, Andrew J.; Corder, Kirsten; Ekelund, Ulf; van Sluijs, Esther M. F .

2014-10-16

352

Quantity Effect of Radial Cracks on the Cracking Propagation Behavior and the Crack Morphology  

PubMed Central

In this letter, the quantity effect of radial cracks on the cracking propagation behavior as well as the circular crack generation on the impacted glass plate within the sandwiched glass sheets are experimentally investigated via high-speed photography system. Results show that the radial crack velocity on the backing glass layer decreases with the crack number under the same impact conditions during large quantities of repeated experiments. Thus, the “energy conversion factor” is suggested to elucidate the physical relation between the cracking number and the crack propagation speed. Besides, the number of radial crack also takes the determinative effect in the crack morphology of the impacted glass plate. This study may shed lights on understanding the cracking and propagation mechanism in laminated glass structures and provide useful tool to explore the impact information on the cracking debris. PMID:25048684

Chen, Jingjing; Xu, Jun; Liu, Bohan; Yao, Xuefeng; Li, Yibing

2014-01-01

353

Analysis of the hydrological response of a distributed physically-based model using post-assimilation (EnKF) diagnostics of streamflow and in situ soil moisture observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data assimilation techniques not only enhance model simulations and forecast, they also provide the opportunity to obtain a diagnostic of both the model and observations used in the assimilation process. In this research, an ensemble Kalman filter was used to assimilate streamflow observations at a basin outlet and at interior locations, as well as soil moisture at two different depths (15 and 45 cm). The simulation model is the distributed physically-based hydrological model CATHY (CATchment HYdrology) and the study site is the Des Anglais watershed, a 690 km2 river basin located in southern Quebec, Canada. Use of Latin hypercube sampling instead of a conventional Monte Carlo method to generate the ensemble reduced the size of the ensemble, and therefore the calculation time. Different post-assimilation diagnostics, based on innovations (observation minus background), analysis residuals (observation minus analysis), and analysis increments (analysis minus background), were used to evaluate assimilation optimality. An important issue in data assimilation is the estimation of error covariance matrices. These diagnostics were also used in a calibration exercise to determine the standard deviation of model parameters, forcing data, and observations that led to optimal assimilations. The analysis of innovations showed a lag between the model forecast and the observation during rainfall events. Assimilation of streamflow observations corrected this discrepancy. Assimilation of outlet streamflow observations improved the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiencies (NSE) between the model forecast (one day) and the observation at both outlet and interior point locations, owing to the structure of the state vector used. However, assimilation of streamflow observations systematically increased the simulated soil moisture values.

Trudel, Mélanie; Leconte, Robert; Paniconi, Claudio

2014-06-01

354

Trained Quantity Abilities in Horses (Equus caballus): A Preliminary Investigation  

PubMed Central

Once believed to be a human prerogative, the capacity to discriminate between quantities now has also been reported in several vertebrates. To date, only two studies investigated numerical abilities in horses (Equus caballus) but reported contrasting data. To assess whether horses can be trained to discriminate between quantities, I have set up a new experimental protocol using operant conditioning. One adult female was trained to discriminate between 1 and 4 (Test 1) in three different conditions: non-controlled continuous variables (numerical and continuous quantities that co-vary with number are simultaneously available), 50% controlled continuous variables (intermediate condition), and 100% controlled continuous variables (only numerical information available). The subject learned the discrimination in all conditions, showing the capacity to process numerical information. When presented with a higher numerical ratio (2 vs. 4, Test 2), the subject still discriminated between the quantities but its performance was statistically significant only in the non-controlled condition, suggesting that the subject used multiple cues in presence of a more difficult discrimination. On the whole, the results here reported encourage the use of this experimental protocol as a valid tool to investigate the capacity to process numerical and continuous quantities in horses in future research. PMID:25379278

Miletto Petrazzini, Maria Elena

2014-01-01

355

Health care cost in Switzerland: quantity- or price-driven?  

PubMed

In Switzerland, per capita health care costs vary substantially from canton to canton and rise considerably and steadily from year to year. Since costs are equal to the product of quantities and prices, the question arises whether regional cost variations and cost increase over time are quantity- or price-driven. Depending on the answer, the containment of health care costs must be approached differently. This article examines the cost of mandatory health insurance in Switzerland for the period from 2004 to 2010 and breaks it down into quantity and price effects. The main result of the cross-section analysis reveals that regional cost differences are mainly due to quantity differences. Similarly, the longitudinal analysis shows that the cost increase across all health care services is primarily caused by increasing per capita quantities. Any attempt to contain costs must therefore focus primarily on the extent of medical care utilization, and the key challenge to be met is how to identify medical care services which do not have a positive effect on patients' health status. PMID:24794986

Schleiniger, Reto

2014-07-01

356

Evaluation of Cloud Physical Properties of ECMWF Analysis and Re-Analysis (ERA-40 and ERA Interim) against CERES Tropical Deep Convective Cloud Object Observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study presents an approach that converts the vertical profiles of grid-averaged cloud properties from large-scale models to probability density functions (pdfs) of subgrid-cell cloud physical properties measured at satellite footprints. Cloud physical and radiative properties, rather than just cloud and precipitation occurrences, of assimilated cloud systems by the European Center for Medium-range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) operational analysis (EOA) and ECMWF Re-Analyses (ERA-40 and ERA Interim) are validated against those obtained from Earth Observing System satellite cloud object data for January-August 1998 and March 2000 periods. These properties include ice water path (IWP), cloud-top height and temperature, cloud optical depth and solar and infrared radiative fluxes. Each cloud object, a contiguous region with similar cloud physical properties, is temporally and spatially matched with EOA and ERA-40 data. Results indicate that most pdfs of EOA and ERA-40 cloud physical and radiative properties agree with those of satellite observations of the tropical deep convective cloud-object type for the January-August 1998 period. There are, however, significant discrepancies in selected ranges of the cloud property pdfs such as the upper range of EOA cloud top height. A major discrepancy is that the dependence of the pdfs on the cloud object size for both EOA and ERA-40 is not as strong as in the observations. Modifications to the cloud parameterization in ECMWF that occurred in October 1999 eliminate the clouds near the tropopause but shift power of the pdf to lower cloud-top heights and greatly reduce the ranges of IWP and cloud optical depth pdfs. These features persist in ERA-40 due to the use of the same cloud parameterizations. The downgrade of data assimilation technique and the lack of snow water content information in ERA-40, not the coarser horizontal grid resolution, are also responsible for the disagreements with observed pdfs of cloud physical properties although the detection rates of cloud object occurrence are improved for small size categories. A possible improvement to the convective parameterization is to introduce a stronger dependence of updraft penetration heights with grid-cell dynamics. These conclusions will be rechecked using the ERA Interim data, due to recent changes in the ECMWF convective parameterization (Bechtold et al. 2004, 2008). Results from the ERA Interim will be presented at the meeting.

Xu, Kuan-Man

2008-01-01

357

Chemical and physical observations in Golfo Dulce, an anoxic basin on the Pacific coast of Costa Rica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Golfo Duke is an embayment containing small concentrations of hydrogen sulfide near the bottom due to sulfate reduction. The processes of denitrification, nitrate reduction, and organic decomposition are also evident. Hydrographic data t,&en 8 days apart indicated an influx of ocean water into the basin. It appears from past observations in the eastern tropical Pacific that the basin erratically receives

FRANCIS A. RICHARDS; JAMES J. ANDERSON; JOEL D. CLINE

1971-01-01

358

Un/Covering: Female Religious Converts Learning the Problems and Pragmatics of Physical Observance in the Secular World  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents the experiences of three women who have chosen to move from secular, assimilated lives to lives characterized by the distinctive dress and practice associated with observant Islam, Orthodox Judaism, and Orthodox Christianity, respectively. All three relied upon informal, peer, and distance learning strategies for their…

Galman, Sally Campbell

2013-01-01

359

VOLUME 70, NUMBER 24 PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS 14 JUNE 1993 Observation and Calculation of Internal Structure in Scanning Tunneling  

E-print Network

, and orientations. A simple methodology based on extended Huckel theory, including the substrate, generates electron catalysis, corrosion, and etching. The ability to view such processes on an atomic scale in real time molecular structure [3]. Real-space observation of surface reactions has already been achieved for simple

Chiang, Shirley

360

Measuring self-regulation in a physically active context: Psychometric analyses of scores derived from an observer-rated measure of self-regulation  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study is to report psychometric properties of scores obtained using a novel observer-rated measure of children’s self-regulation, the Response to Challenge Scale (RCS). The RCS was developed to rate children’s self-regulatory abilities in a physically active context (e.g., while completing a physical challenge course). The RCS and other study measures were administered in a private school sample of 207 children. Analyses of score distributions indicated that the RCS was able to capture variance among children in self-regulatory abilities; the distribution was normal for the Affective, Cognitive, and Total Self-Regulation scales. Validity analyses revealed significant positive correlations between Cognitive, Affective, Motor, and Total Self-Regulation and executive function task performance; significant negative correlations between Cognitive Regulation and teacher-rated hyperactivity and inattention; significant negative correlations between Affective, Motor, and Total Self-Regulation and teacher ratings of peer problems; and significant positive correlations between Cognitive and Affective Regulation and parent ratings of prosocial behavior. Parent and teacher rated Total Difficulties scores were both negatively correlated with RCS Total Self-Regulation scores. Results suggest that it is possible for observers to rate self-regulatory abilities in the context of physical activities, and that these ratings correspond with performance on tasks requiring executive function as well as teacher and parent ratings of children’s difficulties.

Lakes, Kimberley D.

2014-01-01

361

SMA Observations of the W3(OH) Complex: Physical and Chemical Differentiation Between W3(H2O) and W3(OH)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the Submillimeter Array (SMA) observations of molecular lines at 270 GHz toward the W3(OH) and W3(H2O) complex. Although previous observations already resolved the W3(H2O) into two or three sub-components, the physical and chemical properties of the two sources are not well constrained. Our SMA observations clearly resolved the W3(OH) and W3(H2O) continuum cores. Taking advantage of the line fitting tool XCLASS, we identified and modeled a rich molecular spectrum in this complex, including multiple CH3CN and CH3OH transitions in both cores. HDO, C2H5CN, O13CS, and vibrationally excited lines of HCN, CH3CN, and CH3OCHO were only detected in W3(H2O). We calculate gas temperatures and column densities for both cores. The results show that W3(H2O) has higher gas temperatures and larger column densities than W3(OH) as previously observed, suggesting physical and chemical differences between the two cores. We compare the molecular abundances in W3(H2O) to those in the Sgr B2(N) hot core, the Orion KL hot core, and the Orion Compact Ridge, and discuss the chemical origin of specific species. An east–west velocity gradient is seen in W3(H2O), and the extension is consistent with the bipolar outflow orientation traced by water masers and radio jets. A north–south velocity gradient across W3(OH) is also observed. However, with current observations we cannot be assured whether the velocity gradients are caused by rotation, outflow, or radial velocity differences of the sub-components of W3(OH).

Qin, Sheng-Li; Schilke, Peter; Wu, Jingwen; Wu, Yuefang; Liu, Tie; Liu, Ying; Sánchez-Monge, Álvaro

2015-04-01

362

Physical structure of the photodissociation regions in NGC 7023. Observations of gas and dust emission with Herschel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. The determination of the physical conditions in molecular clouds is a key step towards our understanding of their formation and evolution of associated star formation. We investigate the density, temperature, and column density of both dust and gas in the photodissociation regions (PDRs) located at the interface between the atomic and cold molecular gas of the NGC 7023 reflection nebula. We study how young stars affect the gas and dust in their environment. Aims: Several Herschel Space Telescope programs provide a wealth of spatial and spectral information of dust and gas in the heart of PDRs. We focus our study on Spectral and Photometric Image Receiver (SPIRE) Fourier-Transform Spectrometer (FTS) fully sampled maps that allow us for the first time to study the bulk of cool/warm dust and warm molecular gas (CO) together. In particular, we investigate if these populations spatially coincide, if and how the medium is structured, and if strong density and temperature gradients occur, within the limits of the spatial resolution obtained with Herschel. Methods: The SPIRE FTS fully sampled maps at different wavelengths are analysed towards the northwest (NW) and the east (E) PDRs in NGC 7023. We study the spatial and spectral energy distribution of a wealth of intermediate rotational 12CO 4 ? Ju ? 13 and 13CO 5 ? Ju ? 10 lines. A radiative transfer code is used to assess the gas kinetic temperature, density, and column density at different positions in the cloud. The dust continuum emission including Spitzer, the Photoconductor Array Camera and Spectrometer (PACS), and SPIRE photometric and the Institute for Radio Astronomy in the Millimeter Range (IRAM) telescope data is also analysed. Using a single modified black body and a radiative transfer model, we derive the dust temperature, density, and column density. Results: The cloud is highly inhomogeneous, containing several irradiated dense structures. Excited 12CO and 13CO lines and warm dust grains localised at the edge of the dense structures reveal high column densities of warm/cool dense matter. Both tracers give a good agreement in the local density, column density, and physical extent, leading to the conclusion that they trace the same regions. The derived density profiles show a steep gradient at the cloud edge reaching a maximum gas density of 105-106 cm-3 in the PDR NGC 7023 NW and 104-105 cm-3 in the PDR NGC 7023 E and a subsequent decrease inside the cloud. Close to the PDR edges, the dust temperature (30 K and 20 K for the NW and E PDRs, respectively) is lower than the gas temperature derived from CO lines (65-130 K and 45-55 K, respectively). Further inside the cloud, the dust and gas temperatures are similar. The derived thermal pressure is about 10 times higher in NGC 7023 NW than in NGC 7023 E. Comparing the physical conditions to the positions of known young stellar object candidates in NGC 7023 NW, we find that protostars seem to be spatially correlated with the dense structures. Conclusions: Our approach combining both dust and gas delivers strong constraints on the physical conditions of the PDRs. We find dense and warm molecular gas of high column density in the PDRs. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

Köhler, M.; Habart, E.; Arab, H.; Bernard-Salas, J.; Ayasso, H.; Abergel, A.; Zavagno, A.; Polehampton, E.; van der Wiel, M. H. D.; Naylor, D. A.; Makiwa, G.; Dassas, K.; Joblin, C.; Pilleri, P.; Berné, O.; Fuente, A.; Gerin, M.; Goicoechea, J. R.; Teyssier, D.

2014-09-01

363

Fluid observers and tilting cosmology  

E-print Network

We study perfect fluid cosmological models with a constant equation of state parameter $\\gamma$ in which there are two naturally defined time-like congruences, a geometrically defined geodesic congruence and a non-geodesic fluid congruence. We establish an appropriate set of boost formulae relating the physical variables, and consequently the observed quantities, in the two frames. We study expanding spatially homogeneous tilted perfect fluid models, with an emphasis on future evolution with extreme tilt. We show that for ultra-radiative equations of state (i.e., $\\gamma>4/3$), generically the tilt becomes extreme at late times and the fluid observers will reach infinite expansion within a finite proper time and experience a singularity similar to that of the big rip. In addition, we show that for sub-radiative equations of state (i.e., $\\gamma fluid frame variables using the boost formulae. We also discuss spatially inhomogeneous models and tilting spatially homogeneous models with a cosmological constant.

A. A. Coley; S. Hervik; W. C. Lim

2006-05-24

364

[Relationship between stimulus quantity and acupuncture reinforcing and reducing manipulations].  

PubMed

To make clear the concept of reinforcing and reducing manipulations of acupuncture, so as to better instruct the clinical practice and enhance the therapeutic effect. Inspired by the dispute on stimulus quantity in reinforcing and reducing manipulations of the modern physicians, and on the basis of Huangdi Neijing (Huangdi's Canon of Internal Classic), relations between stimulus quantity and different manipulations were explored through studies on reducing and reinforcing experiences of outstanding modern physicians as well as the related scientific re searches. Taking references of both ancient and modern experiences, it is held that stimulus quantity can not be taken as the only index to describe the reinforcing and reducing manipulations of acupuncture, there is no corresponding relation between them. However, it has a certain positive significance on instruction of clinical practice and standardization of modern scientific researches. PMID:24032196

Chen, Zi-Xin; Wang, Yuan-Yuan

2013-07-01

365

Operational water quantity management in a river basin.  

PubMed

The real-time water quantity management of complex water resources systems can be successfully supported by mathematical models. Since there were no models available for integrated water management on the catchment scale, a generally applicable model system for quantitative water management has been developed and adapted to the watershed of the River Ruhr in Germany. The first results attained with this model system in the Ruhr catchment basin show that it is a powerful tool for operational water quantity management and is able to simulate a differentially structured watershed with high anthropogenic impacts. The use of this model has enabled Ruhrverband to make crucial improvements and increase the objectivity of operational water quantity management. PMID:15137160

Morgenschweis, G; Brudy-Zippelius, T; Ihringer, J

2003-01-01

366

Extreme constraints on ICM physics and cosmology: a deep observation of XMMUJ0044, the most distant massive cluster  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a deep (380 ks) Chandra observation of the distant galaxy cluster XMMUJ0044 at z=1.58. With this observation we will push detailed studies of X-ray clusters to the edge of the current discovery limit, by measuring global temperature and Fe abundance, gas and total mass, putting strong constraints on the time formation of cool core, on the chemical enrichment time scale, on the relation between ICM and galaxy population, and deriving the best constraint to the standard Lambda-CDM model attainable at present. These results, achievable only with Chandra, are secured by a first X-ray characterization of XMMUJ0044 based on XMM data, and will constitute an unrivaled reference for distant cluster studies until the next generation of high-angular resolution X-ray satellites.

Tozzi, Paolo

2012-09-01

367

A shared system of representation governing quantity discrimination in canids.  

PubMed

One way to investigate the evolution of cognition is to compare the abilities of phylogenetically related species. The domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris), for example, still shares cognitive abilities with the coyote (Canis latrans). Both of these canids possess the ability to make psychophysical "less/more" discriminations of food based on quantity. Like many other species including humans, this ability is mediated by Weber's Law: discrimination of continuous quantities is dependent on the ratio between the two quantities. As two simultaneously presented quantities of food become more similar, choice of the large or small option becomes random in both dogs and coyotes. It remains unknown, however, whether these closely related species within the same family - one domesticated, and one wild - make such quantitative comparisons with comparable accuracy. Has domestication honed or diminished this quantitative ability? Might different selective and ecological pressures facing coyotes drive them to be more or less able to accurately represent and discriminate food quantity than domesticated dogs? This study is an effort to elucidate this question concerning the evolution of non-verbal quantitative cognition. Here, we tested the quantitative discrimination ability of 16 domesticated dogs. Each animal was given nine trials in which two different quantities of food were simultaneously displayed to them. The domesticated dogs' performance on this task was then compared directly to the data from 16 coyotes' performance on this same task reported by Baker et al. (2011). The quantitative discrimination abilities between the two species were strikingly similar. Domesticated dogs demonstrated similar quantitative sensitivity as coyotes, suggesting that domestication may not have significantly altered the psychophysical discrimination abilities of canids. Instead, this study provides further evidence for similar non-verbal quantitative abilities across multiple species. PMID:23060847

Baker, Joseph M; Morath, Justice; Rodzon, Katrina S; Jordan, Kerry E

2012-01-01

368

Chemical Waste Management for the Conditionally Exempt Small Quantity Generator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Management of hazardous chemical wastes generated as a part of the curriculum poses a significant task for the individual responsible for maintaining compliance with all rules and regulations from the Environmental Protection Agency and the Department of Transportation while maintaining the principles of OSHA's Lab Standard and the Hazard Communication Standard. For schools that generate relatively small quantities of waste, an individual can effectively manage the waste program without becoming overly burdened by the EPA regulations required for those generating large quantities of waste, if given the necessary support from the institution.

Zimmer, Steven W.

1999-06-01

369

Skylab experiments. Volume 5: Astronomy and space physics. [Skylab observations of galactic radiation, solar energy, and interplanetary composition for high school level education  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The astronomy and space physics investigations conducted in the Skylab program include over 20 experiments in four categories to explore space phenomena that cannot be observed from earth. The categories of space research are as follows: (1) phenomena within the solar system, such as the effect of solar energy on Earth's atmosphere, the composition of interplanetary space, the possibility of an inner planet, and the X-ray radiation from Jupiter, (2) analysis of energetic particles such as cosmic rays and neutrons in the near-earth space, (3) stellar and galactic astronomy, and (4) self-induced environment surrounding the Skylab spacecraft.

1973-01-01

370

The OSIRIS-REx target asteroid (101955) Bennu: Constraints on its physical, geological, and dynamical nature from astronomical observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review the results of an extensive campaign to determine the physical, geological, and dynamical properties of asteroid (101955) Bennu. This investigation provides information on the orbit, shape, mass, rotation state, radar response, photometric, spectroscopic, thermal, regolith, and environmental properties of Bennu. We combine these data with cosmochemical and dynamical models to develop a hypothetical timeline for Bennu's formation and evolution. We infer that Bennu is an ancient object that has witnessed over 4.5 Gyr of solar system history. Its chemistry and mineralogy were established within the first 10 Myr of the solar system. It likely originated as a discrete asteroid in the inner Main Belt approximately 0.7-2 Gyr ago as a fragment from the catastrophic disruption of a large (approximately 100-km), carbonaceous asteroid. It was delivered to near-Earth space via a combination of Yarkovsky-induced drift and interaction with giant-planet resonances. During its journey, YORP processes and planetary close encounters modified Bennu's spin state, potentially reshaping and resurfacing the asteroid. We also review work on Bennu's future dynamical evolution and constrain its ultimate fate. It is one of the most Potentially Hazardous Asteroids with an approximately 1-in-2700 chance of impacting the Earth in the late 22nd century. It will most likely end its dynamical life by falling into the Sun. The highest probability for a planetary impact is with Venus, followed by the Earth. There is a chance that Bennu will be ejected from the inner solar system after a close encounter with Jupiter. OSIRIS-REx will return samples from the surface of this intriguing asteroid in September 2023.

Lauretta, D. S.; Bartels, A. E.; Barucci, M. A.; Bierhaus, E. B.; Binzel, R. P.; Bottke, W. F.; Campins, H.; Chesley, S. R.; Clark, B. C.; Clark, B. E.; Cloutis, E. A.; Connolly, H. C.; Crombie, M. K.; Delbó, M.; Dworkin, J. P.; Emery, J. P.; Glavin, D. P.; Hamilton, V. E.; Hergenrother, C. W.; Johnson, C. L.; Keller, L. P.; Michel, P.; Nolan, M. C.; Sandford, S. A.; Scheeres, D. J.; Simon, A. A.; Sutter, B. M.; Vokrouhlický, D.; Walsh, K. J.

2014-11-01

371

The OSIRIS-REx target asteroid (101955) Bennu: Constraints on its physical, geological, and dynamical nature from astronomical observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review the results of an extensive campaign to determine the physical, geological, and dynamical properties of asteroid (101955) Bennu. This investigation provides information on the orbit, shape, mass, rotation state, radar response, photometric, spectroscopic, thermal, regolith, and environmental properties of Bennu. We combine these data with cosmochemical and dynamical models to develop a hypothetical timeline for Bennu's formation and evolution. We infer that Bennu is an ancient object that has witnessed over 4.5 Gyr of solar system history. Its chemistry and mineralogy were established within the first 10 Myr of the solar system. It likely originated as a discrete asteroid in the inner Main Belt approximately 0.7-2 Gyr ago as a fragment from the catastrophic disruption of a large (approximately 100-km), carbonaceous asteroid. It was delivered to near-Earth space via a combination of Yarkovsky-induced drift and interaction with giant-planet resonances. During its journey, YORP processes and planetary close encounters modified Bennu's spin state, potentially reshaping and resurfacing the asteroid. We also review work on Bennu's future dynamical evolution and constrain its ultimate fate. It is one of the most Potentially Hazardous Asteroids with an approximately 1-in-2700 chance of impacting the Earth in the late 22nd century. It will most likely end its dynamical life by falling into the Sun. The highest probability for a planetary impact is with Venus, followed by the Earth. There is a chance that Bennu will be ejected from the inner solar system after a close encounter with Jupiter. OSIRIS-REx will return samples from the surface of this intriguing asteroid in September 2023.

Lauretta, D. S.; Bartels, A. E.; Barucci, M. A.; Bierhaus, E. B.; Binzel, R. P.; Bottke, W. F.; Campins, H.; Chesley, S. R.; Clark, B. C.; Clark, B. E.; Cloutis, E. A.; Connolly, H. C.; Crombie, M. K.; Delbó, M.; Dworkin, J. P.; Emery, J. P.; Glavin, D. P.; Hamilton, V. E.; Hergenrother, C. W.; Johnson, C. L.; Keller, L. P.; Michel, P.; Nolan, M. C.; Sandford, S. A.; Scheeres, D. J.; Simon, A. A.; Sutter, B. M.; Vokrouhlický, D.; Walsh, K. J.

2015-04-01

372

Food quantity affects the sensitivity of Daphnia to road salt.  

PubMed

Road deicing operations have raised chloride (Cl) levels in many temperate lakes in Europe and North America. These lakes vary widely in trophic status, but to date, no one has quantified the interaction between food quantity and road salt toxicity. We examined the effects of food quantity (particulate algal C concentration (C)) on the chronic toxicity of Cl to Daphnia in soft-water bioassays. There was a strong positive linear relationship (r(2) = 0.92 for NaCl and r(2) = 0.96 for CaCl2) between food quantity and Cl LC50. As food quantity increased from 0.2 to 1.0 mg C/L (levels characteristic of oligotrophic to eutrophic lakes, respectively), the chronic Cl LC50 increased from 55.7 to 284.8 mg Cl/L. Salt type (NaCl or CaCl2) did not affect the Cl LC50, Daphnia life history parameters, or the intrinsic rate of population increase (r). The life history parameter most sensitive to Cl was neonate production. Cl did not inhibit egg production, nor was the maternal lipid investment in eggs changed, but egg viability and the subsequent release of live neonates decreased as Cl levels increased and food decreased. Our results suggest the trophic status of lakes should be considered when assessing ecological threat from Cl. PMID:25751457

Brown, Arran H; Yan, Norman D

2015-04-01

373

Quantity Food Production Instructor: Jim Vernere Teaching Assistant  

E-print Network

Quantity Food Production 11:709:344 Instructor: Jim Vernere Teaching Assistant: Department with a consistent (expected) quality outcome. 7. Understand the purpose of food distribution systems and the role of the responsibilities and duties of the food production manager and gain skill in theoretical solution of everyday

Chen, Kuang-Yu

374

LOCAL SENSITIVITY, FUNCTIONAL DERIVATIVES AND NONLINEAR POSTERIOR QUANTITIES  

E-print Network

LOCAL SENSITIVITY, FUNCTIONAL DERIVATIVES AND NONLINEAR POSTERIOR QUANTITIES by Sanjib Basu 1 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701 February, 1994 Abstract The local sensitivity of a posterior'echet and Gâ??ateaux derivatives (Huber (1981)) are thus used. Differentiability of ratio linear posterior

Basu, Sanjib

375

How Do Our Actions Affect Water Quantity and Quality?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Water is an essential resource for all living things. How we live on our watershed can impact water quantity and quality. It is important to recognize how humans alter watershed dynamics, but students often find it challenging to visualize watershed processes and understand how decisions that they make as individuals and together as a community…

Gordon, Jessica

2008-01-01

376

Hazardous Waste Management for the Small Quantity Generator. Teacher Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This instructional package for teaching about the regulations imposed on small quantity generators by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under the Resource Conservation Recovery Act is organized around ll program objectives: students will be able to (l) determine a hazardous waste from lists or by identifying characteristics; (2) identify…

Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

377

IRRIGATION MANAGEMENT AFFECTING QUALITY AND QUANTITY OF RETURN FLOW  

EPA Science Inventory

Management practices for control of quality and quantity of return subsurface flow were studied theoretically, in the laboratory, and full scale in the field. Field water management studies using waters of different qualities and different leaching fractions showed that the soil ...

378

Requirements and process control for quantity of product in prepackages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Verification of the actual quantity of product in prepackages is an important part of compliance testing to facilitate fair trade, maintain a competitive marketplace and protect consumers against under-filled prepackages. Two of the most widely used legal metrological requirements are (i) the average net quantity of product in prepackages of an inspection lot shall be at least equal to the labelled quantity and (ii) the number of prepackages, in a randomly selected sample, that are under-filled by more than a permitted quantity is less than or equal to a permitted number. Industrial and government metrology officials are required to check whether prepackages in an inspection lot comply with these requirements by sampling prepackages at the point-of-pack, wholesale outlets and retail stores. This paper discusses some drawbacks of the acceptance sampling plans and metrological requirements recommended in the international recommendation OIML R87 developed by the International Organization of Legal Metrology. To counter these drawbacks, alternative sampling plans and average prepackage requirements are proposed. Statistical control of filling processes under the OIML R87 requirements is also discussed.

Sim, C. H.

2007-02-01

379

A Supplier's Optimal Quantity Discount Policy Under Asymmetric Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the supply-chain literature, an increasing body of work studies how suppliers can use incentive schemes such as quantity discounts to influence buyers' ordering behaviour, thus reducing the supplier's (and the total supply chain's) costs. Various functional forms for such incentive schemes have been proposed, but a critical assumption always made is that the supplier has full information about the

Charles J. Corbett; Xavier de Groote

2000-01-01

380

The Effects of Meal Schedule and Quantity on Problematic Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two case examples (a toddler with severe developmental delays and a 7-year old with severe mental retardation) illustrating effects of meal schedule and food quantity on displays of problematic behavior are offered. Brief functional analyses of aberrant behavior provided useful information for interpreting distinct patterns of behavior. (DB)

Wacker, David P.; And Others

1996-01-01

381

The Influence of Reasoning with Emergent Quantities on Students' Generalizations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports the mathematical generalizations of two groups of algebra students, one which focused primarily on quantitative relationships, and one which focused primarily on number patterns disconnected from quantities. Results indicate that instruction encouraging a focus on number patterns supported generalizations about patterns,…

Ellis, Amy B.

2007-01-01

382

A tennis ball size quantity of nuclear fuel commonly  

E-print Network

A tennis ball size quantity of nuclear fuel commonly used in commercial nuclear plants can power energy, gets more of its electricity from nuclear plants than any other state, about 51% (versus 20 Hydrogen is a clean, efficient energy source that can reduce our dependence on foreign oil

Kemner, Ken

383

Quantity Judgments and Individuation: Evidence that Mass Nouns Count  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three experiments explored the semantics of the mass-count distinction in young children and adults. In Experiments 1 and 2, the quantity judgments of participants provided evidence that some mass nouns refer to individuals, as such. Participants judged one large portion of stuff to be ''more'' than three tiny portions for substance-mass nouns…

Barner, David; Snedeker, Jesse

2005-01-01

384

Plotting Rates of Photosynthesis as a Function of Light Quantity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses methods for plotting rates of photosynthesis as a function of light quantity. Presents evidence that suggests that empirically derived conversion factors, which are used to convert foot candles to photon fluence rates, should be used with extreme caution. Suggests how rate data are best plotted when any kind of light meter is not…

Dean, Rob L.

1996-01-01

385

Quantity, Quality, and Satisfaction with Mentoring: What Matters Most?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

According to Kram's mentor role theory, satisfaction with mentoring and mentorship quality are key indicators of effective and successful mentoring. We contribute to mentoring research by demonstrating the relative importance of mentorship quantity, mentorship quality, and satisfaction with mentoring to the prediction of job satisfaction,…

Xu, Xiaohong; Payne, Stephanie C.

2014-01-01

386

Quality & Quantity manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor)  

E-print Network

under the scope of empirical investigation. Keywords Qualitative research · Measurement · FalsifiabilityQuality & Quantity manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor) How to State General Qualitative Facts in Psychology? Stéphane Vautier Received: date / Accepted: date Abstract In what form should

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

387

48 CFR 16.504 - Indefinite-quantity contracts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Quantity limits may be stated as number of units or as dollar values...potential users, or any other rational basis. (2) To ensure...the contract, including the number of options and the period for...name, address, telephone number, facsimile number, and...

2014-10-01

388

Children's Multiplicative Transformations of Discrete and Continuous Quantities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent studies have documented an evolutionarily primitive, early emerging cognitive system for the mental representation of numerical quantity (the analog magnitude system). Studies with nonhuman primates, human infants, and preschoolers have shown this system to support computations of numerical ordering, addition, and subtraction involving…

Barth, Hilary; Baron, Andrew; Spelke, Elizabeth; Carey, Susan

2009-01-01

389

48 CFR 16.504 - Indefinite-quantity contracts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Quantity limits may be stated as number of units or as dollar values...potential users, or any other rational basis. (2) To ensure...the contract, including the number of options and the period for...name, address, telephone number, facsimile number, and...

2011-10-01

390

48 CFR 16.504 - Indefinite-quantity contracts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Quantity limits may be stated as number of units or as dollar values...potential users, or any other rational basis. (2) To ensure...the contract, including the number of options and the period for...name, address, telephone number, facsimile number, and...

2013-10-01

391

48 CFR 16.504 - Indefinite-quantity contracts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Quantity limits may be stated as number of units or as dollar values...potential users, or any other rational basis. (2) To ensure...the contract, including the number of options and the period for...name, address, telephone number, facsimile number, and...

2012-10-01

392

Predictors of Sleep Quantity and Quality in College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Whereas sleep is often thought of as a common health issue among college students, few, if any, researchers have comprehensively evaluated correlates and predictors of sleep quality and quantity within this population. Most often, studies of this type are used by researchers to assess particular categories of correlates and predictors (e.g.,…

Davidson, Eric S.

2012-01-01

393

Coordinating a three-level supply chain with quantity discounts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous examples exist that illustrate how companies enjoying a strong position in a supply chain unilaterally dictate terms to their suppliers and\\/or their customers. This paper suggests a mechanism by which a company can coordinate its purchasing and production functions and create an integrated plan that dictates order and production quantities throughout a three-firm channel. Specifically, we model a company

CHARLES L. MUNSON; MEIR J. ROSENBLATT

2001-01-01

394

Research Article Impacts of data quantity on fisheries stock assessment  

E-print Network

Research Article Impacts of data quantity on fisheries stock assessment Yong Chen1, *, Liqiao Chen2 population dynamics of fish stocks is essential in developing optimal fisheries man- agement strategies. This is often obtained through fitting mathematical models to information/data collected from the fisheries

Chen, Yong

395

NEW APPROACHES TO ESTIMATION OF SOLID WASTE QUANTITY AND COMPOSITION  

EPA Science Inventory

Efficient and statistically sound sampling protocols for estimating the quantity and composition of solid waste over a stated period of time in a given location, such as a landfill site or at a specific point in an industrial or commercial process, are essential to the design of ...

396

QUANTITY V\\/S QUALITY IN INFORMATION MANAGEMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

(Two coordinated aspects of Quantity and Quality existing under the influence of anti cipated sources of information have passed several challenges to evaluate perfect information management techniques. Paper discusses a few issues covering the implication of Information Technology and Measuring Information.) Fundamental changes are taking place in the outlook of libraries in the ways the users are facing the emerging

Vinayak M. Bankapur

397

Quantity Recognition among Speakers of an Anumeric Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent research has suggested that the Piraha, an Amazonian tribe with a number-less language, are able to match quantities greater than 3 if the matching task does not require recall or spatial transposition. This finding contravenes previous work among the Piraha. In this study, we re-tested the Pirahas' performance in the crucial one-to-one…

Everett, Caleb; Madora, Keren

2012-01-01

398

Estimating Differential Quantities using Polynomial fitting of Osculating Jets  

E-print Network

Project Effective Computational Geometry for Curves and Surfaces, Shared-cost RTD (FET Open) ProjectEstimating Differential Quantities using Polynomial fitting of Osculating Jets F. Cazals , M properties of a smooth manifold S --a curve in the plane or a surface in 3D-- assuming a point cloud sampled

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

399

Analysis on light quantity and quality based on diverse cloud conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) is the source of incident light energy for the photosynthetic activity of plants. PAR additionally characterizes the light environment on the surface of the Earth. The light environment is an important factor for estimating quantities such as carbon exchange and the productivities of forests and agriculture. The incident PAR on the ground surface has the characteristics of light quantity consists of direct and diffuse components, and of light quality consists of spectral components such blue, green and red lights. These light quantity and quality are also important light environmental factors in the photosynthetic activities of plants under the natural environment. However, the light environment including direct and diffuse components and spectral components is easily affected by cloud conditions especially cloud cover and its movements. In this paper, we focus on the characteristics of the light quantity and quality under diverse cloud conditions, and analyse the observational data, which are the global- and diffuse- spectral irradiances from 400 to 700 nm with quantum and energy units and the cloud conditions derived from whole-sky images taken during summer in Kyoto city. As for the comparisons with light quality and cloud conditions, we use the Normalized Difference PAR Spectral Index (NDPSI) which shows the difference of red- and blue-light components and we use cloud cover and the Sun appearance ratio derived from the wholesky images to define the cloud conditions. As the results of these analyses, we confirmed that there are the clear relationships between cloud cover and diffuse ratio, between the Sun appearance ratio and the normalized global PAR as the light quantity, between cloud cover and NDPSI in diffuse component, and between the Sun appearance ratio and NDPSI in direct component as the light quality.

Yamashita, M.; Yoshimura, M.

2014-09-01

400

HYBRID {gamma} DORADUS-{delta} SCUTI PULSATORS: NEW INSIGHTS INTO THE PHYSICS OF THE OSCILLATIONS FROM KEPLER OBSERVATIONS  

SciTech Connect

Observations of the pulsations of stars can be used to infer their interior structure and test theoretical models. The main-sequence {gamma} Doradus (Dor) and {delta} Scuti (Sct) stars with masses 1.2-2.5 M {sub sun} are particularly useful for these studies. The {gamma} Dor stars pulsate in high-order g-modes with periods of order 1 day, driven by convective blocking at the base of their envelope convection zone. The {delta} Sct stars pulsate in low-order g- and p-modes with periods of order 2 hr, driven by the {kappa} mechanism operating in the He II ionization zone. Theory predicts an overlap region in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram between instability regions, where 'hybrid' stars pulsating in both types of modes should exist. The two types of modes with properties governed by different portions of the stellar interior provide complementary model constraints. Among the known {gamma} Dor and {delta} Sct stars, only four have been confirmed as hybrids. Now, analysis of combined Quarter 0 and Quarter 1 Kepler data for hundreds of variable stars shows that the frequency spectra are so rich that there are practically no pure {delta} Sct or {gamma} Dor pulsators, i.e., essentially all of the stars show frequencies in both the {delta} Sct and the {gamma} Dor frequency range. A new observational classification scheme is proposed that takes into account the amplitude as well as the frequency and is applied to categorize 234 stars as {delta} Sct, {gamma} Dor, {delta} Sct/{gamma} Dor or {gamma} Dor/{delta} Sct hybrids.

Grigahcene, A.; Monteiro, M. J. P. F. G. [Centro de Astrofisica, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade do Porto, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto (Portugal); Antoci, V.; Handler, G.; Houdek, G. [Institut fuer Astronomie, Tuerkenschanzstr. 17, A-1180 Wien (Austria); Balona, L. [South African Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 9, Observatory 7935 (South Africa); Catanzaro, G. [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, Via S. Sofia 78, 95123 Catania (Italy); Daszynska-Daszkiewicz, J. [Instytut Astronomiczny, Uniwersytet Wroclawski, Kopernika 11, 51-622 Wroclaw (Poland); Guzik, J. A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, X-2 MS T-086, Los Alamos, NM 87545-2345 (United States); Kurtz, D. W. [Jeremiah Horrocks Institute of Astrophysics, University of Central Lancashire, Preston PR1 2HE (United Kingdom); Marconi, M.; Ripepi, V. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, Via Moiariello 16, 80131 Naples (Italy); Moya, A. [Laboratorio de Astrofisica Estelar y Exoplanetas, LAEX-CAB (INTA-CSIC), P.O. Box 78, 28691 Villanueva de la Canada, Madrid (Spain); Suarez, J.-C. [Instituto de Astrofisica de AndalucIa (CSIC), CP3004, Granada (Spain); Uytterhoeven, K. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM CNRS-Universite Paris Diderot, IRFU/SAp, Centre de Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Borucki, W. J. [NASA Ames Research Center, MS 244-30, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Brown, T. M. [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope, Goleta, CA 93117 (United States); Christensen-Dalsgaard, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Gilliland, R. L. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Jenkins, J. M. [SETI Institute/NASA Ames Research Center, MS 244-30, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States)] (and others)

2010-04-20

401

Probing viscoelastic surfaces with bimodal tapping-mode atomic force microscopy: Underlying physics and observables for a standard linear solid model  

PubMed Central

Summary This paper presents computational simulations of single-mode and bimodal atomic force microscopy (AFM) with particular focus on the viscoelastic interactions occurring during tip–sample impact. The surface is modeled by using a standard linear solid model, which is the simplest system that can reproduce creep compliance and stress relaxation, which are fundamental behaviors exhibited by viscoelastic surfaces. The relaxation of the surface in combination with the complexities of bimodal tip–sample impacts gives rise to unique dynamic behaviors that have important consequences with regards to the acquisition of quantitative relationships between the sample properties and the AFM observables. The physics of the tip–sample interactions and its effect on the observables are illustrated and discussed, and a brief research outlook on viscoelasticity measurement with intermittent-contact AFM is provided. PMID:25383277

2014-01-01

402

The Physical Interpretation of X-Ray Phase Lags and Coherence: RXTE Observations of Cygnus X-1 as a Case Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There have been a number of recent spectral models that have been successful in reproducing the observed X-ray spectra of galactic black hole candidates (GBHC). However, there still exists controversy over such issues as: what are the sources of hard radiation, what is the system's geometry, is the accretion efficient or inefficient, etc. A potentially powerful tool for distinguishing among these possibilities, made possible by the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE), is the variability data, especially the observed phase lags and variability coherence. These data, in conjunction with spectral modeling, have the potential of determining physical sizes of the system, as well as placing strong constraints on both Compton corona and advection models. As an example, we present RXTE variability data of Cygnus X-1.

Nowak, M. A.; Dove, J. B.; Vaughan, B. A.; Wilms, J.; Begelman, M. C.

1998-01-01

403

Construct validity of the Chelsea critical care physical assessment tool: an observational study of recovery from critical illness  

PubMed Central

Introduction Intensive care unit-acquired weakness (ICU-AW) is common in survivors of critical illness, resulting in global weakness and functional deficit. Although ICU-AW is well described subjectively in the literature, the value of objective measures has yet to be established. This project aimed to evaluate the construct validity of the Chelsea Critical Care Physical Assessment tool (CPAx) by analyzing the association between CPAx scores and hospital-discharge location, as a measure of functional outcome. Methods The CPAx was integrated into practice as a service-improvement initiative in an 11-bed intensive care unit (ICU). For patients admitted for more than 48 hours, between 10 May 2010 and 13 November 2013, the last CPAx score within 24 hours of step down from the ICU or death was recorded (n?=?499). At hospital discharge, patients were separated into seven categories, based on continued rehabilitation and care needs. Descriptive statistics were used to explore the association between ICU discharge CPAx score and hospital-discharge location. Results Of the 499 patients, 171 (34.3%) returned home with no ongoing rehabilitation or care input; 131 (26.2%) required community support; 28 (5.6%) went to inpatient rehabilitation for <6 weeks; and 25 (5.0%) went to inpatient rehabilitation for >6 weeks; 27 (5.4%) required nursing home level of care; 80 (16.0%) died in the ICU, and 37 (7.4%) died in hospital. A significant difference was found in the median CPAx score between groups (P?

2014-01-01

404

Physical conditions of molecular gas in the Circinus galaxy Multi-J CO and Ci 3PP0 observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report mapping observations of the 12CO J = 3 ? 2, 4 ? 3, 6 ? 5, and 7 ? 6 transitions and the Ci 3PP0 (Ci) 492GHz transition toward the central 40'' × 40'' region of the Circinus galaxy, using the Atacama Pathfinder EXperiment (APEX) telescope. We also detected 13COJ = 3 ? 2 at the central position of Circinus. These observations are to date the highest CO transitions reported in Circinus. With large velocity gradient (LVG) modeling and likelihood analysis we try to obtain density, temperature, and column density of the molecular gas in three regions: the nuclear region (D < 18''~ 360 pc), the entire central 45'' (D < 45''~ 900 pc) region, and the star-forming (S-F) ring (18'' < D < 45''). In the nuclear region, we can fit the CO excitation with a single excitation component, yielding an average condition of nH2~103.2 cm-3, Tkin~ 200 K, and d?/dr~3 km s-1 pc-1. In the entire 45'' region, which covers both the nucleus and the S-F ring, two excitation components are needed with nH2~ 104.2 cm-3 and 103.0 cm-3, Tkin~ 60 K and 30 K, and MH2~2.3 × 107 M? and 6.6 × 107 M?, respectively. The gas excitation in the S-F ring can also be fitted with two LVG components, after subtracting the CO fluxes in the 18'' nuclear region. The S-F ring region contributes 80% of the molecular mass in the 45'' region. For the entire 45'' region, we find a standard conversion factor of N(H2) /ICO 1 ? 0 = 0.37 × 1020cm-2(K km s-1)-1, about 1/5 of the Galactic disk value. The luminosity ratios of Ci and 12COJ = 3 ? 2 (RCI/CO 3 ? 2) in Circinus basically follow a linear trend, similar to that obtained in high-redshift galaxies. The average RCI/CO J = 3 ? 2 in Circinus is found to be ~0.2, lying at an intermediate value between non-AGN nuclear regions and high-redshift galaxies. Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

Zhang, Zhi-Yu; Henkel, Christian; Gao, Yu; Güsten, Rolf; Menten, Karl M.; Papadopoulos, Padelis P.; Zhao, Yinghe; Ao, Yiping; Kaminski, Tomasz

2014-08-01

405

Unraveling AGN feedback and ICM physics with deep Chandra X-ray observations of the galaxy group NGC 5813  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results from deep Chandra X-ray observations of the galaxy group NGC 5813. This system shows three pairs of collinear cavities, with each pair associated with an elliptical AGN outburst shock. Due to the relatively regular morphology of this system, and the unique unambiguous detection of three distinct AGN outburst shocks, it is particularly well-suited for the study of AGN feedback and the AGN outburst history. We find that the mean kinetic power is roughly the same for each outburst, and that the total energy associated with the youngest outburst is significantly lower than that of the previous outbursts. This implies that the mean AGN jet power has remained stable for at least 50 Myr, and that the youngest outburst is ongoing. We find that the mean shock heating rate balances the local radiative cooling rate at each shock front, suggesting that AGN outburst shock heating alone is sufficient to offset cooling and establish AGN/ICM feedback within at least the central 30 kpc. Finally, we find non-zero shock front widths that are too large to be explained by particle diffusion, but are instead consistent with arising from broadening of the shock fronts due to propagation through a turbulent ICM with a mean turbulent speed of ~ 70 km s-1.

Randall, Scott W.; Nulsen, Paul E. J.; Jones, Christine; Forman, William R.; Clarke, Tracy E.; Blanton, Elizabeth L.

2015-03-01

406

A New Ground-Based Network for Synoptic Solar Observations: The Solar Physics Research Integrated Network Group (SPRING)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SPRING is a project to develop a geographically distributed network of instrumentation to obtain synoptic solar observations. Building on the demonstrated success of networks to provide nearly-continuous long-term data for helioseismology, SPRING will provide data for a wide range of solar research areas. Scientific objectives include internal solar dynamics and structure; wave transport in the solar atmosphere; the evolution of the magnetic field over the activity cycle; irradiance fluctuations; and space weather origins. Anticipated data products include simultaneous full-disk multi-wavelength Doppler and vector magnetic field images; filtergrams in H-Alpha, CaK, and white light; and PSPT-type irradiance support. The data will be obtained with a duty cycle of around 90% and at a cadence no slower than one minute. The current concept is a multi-instrument platform installed in at least six locations, and which will also provide context information for large-aperture solar telescopes such as EST and the DKIST. There is wide support for the idea within the EU and the US solar research communities. The project is in the early planning stages, and we are open to and looking for participants in the science and instrument definition.

Hill, Frank; Roth, Markus; Thompson, Michael; Gusain, Sanjay

2014-06-01

407

Chromosome Complement of the Fungal Plant Pathogen Fusarium graminearum Based on Genetic and Physical Mapping and Cytological Observations  

PubMed Central

A genetic map of the filamentous fungus Fusarium graminearum (teleomorph: Gibberella zeae) was constructed to both validate and augment the draft whole-genome sequence assembly of strain PH-1. A mapping population was created from a cross between mutants of the sequenced strain (PH-1, NRRL 31084, originally isolated from Michigan) and a field strain from Minnesota (00-676, NRRL 34097). A total of 111 ascospore progeny were analyzed for segregation at 235 loci. Genetic markers consisted of sequence-tagged sites, primarily detected as dCAPS or CAPS (n = 131) and VNTRs (n = 31), in addition to AFLPs (n = 66) and 7 other markers. While most markers exhibited Mendelian inheritance, segregation distortion was observed for 25 predominantly clustered markers. A linkage map was generated using the Kosambi mapping function, using a LOD threshold value of 3.5. Nine linkage groups were detected, covering 1234 cM and anchoring 99.83% of the draft sequence assembly. The nine linkage groups and the 22 anchored scaffolds from the sequence assembly could be assembled into four chromosomes, leaving only five smaller scaffolds (59,630 bp total) of the nuclear DNA unanchored. A chromosome number of four was confirmed by cytological karyotyping. Further analysis of the genetic map data identified variation in recombination rate in different genomic regions that often spanned several hundred kilobases. PMID:16079234

Gale, L. R.; Bryant, J. D.; Calvo, S.; Giese, H.; Katan, T.; O'Donnell, K.; Suga, H.; Taga, M.; Usgaard, T. R.; Ward, T. J.; Kistler, H. C.

2005-01-01

408

Molecular Biology 312 Appendix: Quantity One Manual p. 1 Using the "Quantity One" software package for Quantitative Analysis of Gels  

E-print Network

computer connected to the GelDoc system. When there are not other people waiting to use the GelDoc, you" are the commands you use to tell the program where your lanes are. Line up the frame lines with the center of each lane. Be sure the frame lines are #12;Molecular Biology 312 Appendix: Quantity One Manual p. 4 anchored

Lycan, Deborah E.

409

Observations and physical interpretations of the solar wind flow properties as obtained from white light coronagraph aboard SPARTAN 201-01  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The solar corona was observed with an externally occulted White Light Coronagraph (WLC) carried on the SPARTAN 201-1 spacecraft on 11-12 Apr. 1993. With observations from WLC and the ground based Mauna Loa White Light Coronagraph, a large number of polar plumes both in the north and south polar holes were traced from 1.16 to 5.5 Rs. Flow properties of the solar wind in coronal holes have been determined (Habbal et al., 1995) by using a two fluid model constrained by density profiles and scale height temperatures from the white light observations, and interplanetary measurements of the flow speed and proton mass flux from Ulysses' south polar passage. Provisions for acceleration by Alfven waves, as well as electron and proton heating, are included in the momentum and the energy equations respectively. The model computations fit remarkably well the empirical constraints of the two different density structures (plumes and coronal holes) for a range of input parameters. In this study we investigate the physical nature of the heating function used in the two-fluid model. Alfven waves have been suggested as the possible source of heating that accelerates the solar wind (Ofman and Davila, 1995). We utilize the density contrast observed in WLC data in the plume and ambient coronal hole region to estimate the Alfven wave frequencies responsible for heating these structures. The source heating function utilized in the two fluid model of the solar wind acceleration will be compared with the resonant Alfven wave heating function.

Guhathakurta, Madhulika; Fisher, Richard; Ofman, Leon

1995-01-01

410

Quantity processing in deaf and hard of hearing children: evidence from symbolic and nonsymbolic comparison tasks.  

PubMed

Deaf children usually achieve lower scores on numerical tasks than normally hearing peers. Explanations for mathematical disabilities in hearing children are based on quantity representation deficits (Geary, 1994) or on deficits in accessing these representations (Rousselle & Noël, 2008). The present study aimed to verify, by means of symbolic (Arabic digits) and nonsymbolic (dot constellations and hands) magnitude comparison tasks, whether deaf children show deficits in representations or in accessing numerical representations. The study participants were 10 prelocutive deaf children and 10 normally hearing children. Numerical distance and magnitude were manipulated. Response time (RT) analysis showed similar magnitude and distance effects in both groups on the 3 tasks. However, slower RTs were observed among the deaf participants on the symbolic task alone. These results suggest that although both groups' quantity representations were similar, the deaf group experienced a delay in accessing representations from symbolic codes. PMID:25051881

Rodríguez-Santos, José Miguel; Calleja, Marina; García-Orza, Javier; Iza, Mauricio; Damas, Jesús

2014-01-01

411

Improved quality and quantity of written feedback is associated with a structured feedback proforma.  

PubMed

Facilitating the provision of detailed, deep and useful feedback is an important design feature of any educational programme. Here we evaluate feedback provided to medical students completing short transferable skills projects. Feedback quantity and depth were evaluated before and after a simple intervention to change the structure of the feedback-provision form from a blank free-text feedback form to a structured proforma that asked a pair of short questions for each of the six domains being assessed. Each pair of questions consisted of asking the marker 'what was done well?' and 'what changes would improve the assignment?' Changing the form was associated with a significant increase in the quantity of the feedback and in the amount and quality of feedback provided to students. We also observed that, for these double-marked projects, the marker designated as 'marker 1' consistently wrote more feedback than the marker designated 'marker 2'. PMID:22916317

Newton, Philip M; Wallace, Melisa J; McKimm, Judy

2012-01-01

412

Improved quality and quantity of written feedback is associated with a structured feedback proforma  

PubMed Central

Facilitating the provision of detailed, deep and useful feedback is an important design feature of any educational programme. Here we evaluate feedback provided to medical students completing short transferable skills projects. Feedback quantity and depth were evaluated before and after a simple intervention to change the structure of the feedback-provision form from a blank free-text feedback form to a structured proforma that asked a pair of short questions for each of the six domains being assessed. Each pair of questions consisted of asking the marker 'what was done well?' and 'what changes would improve the assignment?' Changing the form was associated with a significant increase in the quantity of the feedback and in the amount and quality of feedback provided to students. We also observed that, for these double-marked projects, the marker designated as 'marker 1' consistently wrote more feedback than the marker designated 'marker 2'. PMID:22916317

Wallace, Melisa J.; McKimm, Judy

2012-01-01

413

30 CFR 1206.154 - Determination of quantities and qualities for computing royalties.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Determination of quantities and qualities for computing royalties. 1206.154 Section 1206...Determination of quantities and qualities for computing royalties. (a)(1) Royalties...plant products, the quantity basis for computing royalties due is the monthly net...

2011-07-01

414

30 CFR 206.154 - Determination of quantities and qualities for computing royalties.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Determination of quantities and qualities for computing royalties. 206.154 Section 206...Determination of quantities and qualities for computing royalties. (a)(1) Royalties...plant products, the quantity basis for computing royalties due is the monthly net...

2010-07-01

415

40 CFR 266.108 - Small quantity on-site burner exemption.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Hazardous Waste Burned in Boilers and Industrial Furnaces ...(1) The quantity of hazardous waste burned in a device for a calendar month does...the number of stacks; Actual Quantity Burned means the waste quantity burned per...

2010-07-01

416

48 CFR 52.247-8 - Estimated Weights or Quantities Not Guaranteed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Estimated Weights or Quantities Not Guaranteed. 52...and Clauses 52.247-8 Estimated Weights or Quantities Not Guaranteed. As...transportation-related services when weights or quantities are estimates:...

2010-10-01

417

Surface sealing as a modulating mechanism of water content variability: Physically based modeling and field observations at the hillslope scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the mechanisms underlying temporal and spatial water content variability at the hillslope and catchment scales remains a current challenge in hydrology. Currently, only few models are validated against flux measurements within the catchment scale, thus offering reliable information regarding internal catchment processes. In arid and semi-arid areas, these include the formation of surface seal that directly affects infiltration and evaporation fluxes but is often disregarded. At the LTER Lehavim site, in the center of Israel (31020' N, 34045' E), a typical hillslope (0.115 Km2) was chosen offering different aspects and a classic geomorphologic banding. Annual rainfall is 290 mm, the soils are brown lithosols and arid brown loess, prone to soil sealing. The vegetation is characterized by scattered dwarf shrubs (dominant species Sarcopoterium spinosum). An extensive spatial database of soil hydraulic and topographical parameters was measured in the field and interpolated to continuous maps using geostatistical techniques. Hydraulic properties of the seal layer at the soil surface were modeled following Mualem and Assouline (1989). This spatio-temporal database was used to characterize 8240 cells (3X3 m2) serving as an input to a numeric model solving the flow equations to predict soil water content at all temporal scales. Predictions were verified (R2=0.89) by sampling root zone gravimetric water content at 82 random locations within the hillsope, during ten consecutive field campaigns in the 2010-11 rainy season (for a total of 2450 samples). Accounting for surface sealing was found to improve water content predictions. Furthermore, extensive synthetic modeling found the sealed layer to be a highly efficient mechanism reducing temporal water content variability, compared to an unsealed domain (a reduction of 54% in variability at the 0-50 soil depth). It was found that reduced evaporation in the sealed domain compensates for the loss in infiltrated water due to runoff. A threshold was found, controlled by rainfall intensity and the soil profile depth, shifting the seal layer from being a positive feedback mechanism mainly conserving water through suppressing evaporation, to a negative feedback preventing infiltration and promoting loss of water through runoff. Thus, the sealing process affects substantially water budgets on all observed scales in the experimental site.

Sela, S.; Svoray, T.; Assouline, S.

2011-12-01

418

Provider-client interactions and quantity of health care use.  

PubMed

This paper considers three types of provider-client interactions that influence quantity of health care use: rationing, effort, and persuasion. By rationing, we refer to a quantity limit set by a provider; effort, the productive inputs supplied by a provider to increase a client's demand; persuasion, the unproductive inputs used by a provider to induce a client's demand. We construct a theoretical model incorporating all three mechanisms as special cases. When the general model is specialized into one of three mechanisms, a set of empirical implications emerges. We test for the presence of each mechanism using data of patients receiving outpatient treatment for alcohol abuse in the Maine Addiction Treatment System. We find evidence for rationing and persuasion, but not effort. PMID:15556245

Lien, Hsien-Ming; Albert Ma, Ching-To; McGuire, Thomas G

2004-11-01

419

Overcoming the dichotomy of quantity and quality in antibody responses.  

PubMed

Germinal centers (GCs) are specialized environments in which B cells mutate their BCR to identify new Abs with high affinity to a challenging Ag. B cells are selected in an evolutionary process of multiple rounds of mutation and selection. In the past decade, mechanisms of B cell migration, division, mutation, selection, and final differentiation have been extensively studied. Thereby, modulations of these mechanisms either optimize the quality, in terms of affinity, or the quantity of generated Abs, but never both, leading to an unclear effect on the overall efficiency of the Ab response. In this article, we predict with mathematical models that an affinity-dependent number of GC B cell divisions overcomes the dichotomy of quality and quantity, and has to be considered as a good target for immune interventions, in particular, in the elderly population with poor GC responses. PMID:25355924

Meyer-Hermann, Michael

2014-12-01

420

Complex Numbers and Physical Reality  

E-print Network

Some aspects of the development of physics and the mathematics set one think about relation between complex numbers and reality around us. If number to spot as the relation of two quantities, from the fact of existence of complex numbers and accepted definition of number it is necessary necessity complex value to assign to all physical quantities. The basic property of quantity to be it is more or less, therefore field of complex quantities, if it exists, it is necessary is ranked. The hypothesis was proposed that lexicographic ordering may be applied to the complex physical quantities. A set of the ranked complex numbers is quite natural to arrange on a straight line that represents in this case a non-Archimedean complex numerical axis. All physical quantities are located on the relevant non-Archimedean complex numerical axes, forming a new reality - "complex-valued" world. Thus, we get the conclusion that the resulting non-Archimedean complex numerical axis may serve as an example of the ideal mathematical object - hyperreal numerical axis. So, differentiation and integration on the non-Archimedean complex numerical axis can be realized using methods of nonstandard analysis. Certain properties of a new "complex-valued" reality, its connection with our "real" world and possibility of experimental detection of complex physical quantities are discussed.

V. V. Lyahov; V. M. Nechshadim

2001-03-12

421

Quality and Quantity Control at the Endoplasmic Reticulum  

PubMed Central

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the site of maturation for secretory and membrane proteins that together make up about one third of the cellular proteome. Cells carefully control the synthetic output of this organelle to regulate both quality and quantity of proteins that emerge. Here, we synthesize current concepts underlying the pathways that mediate protein degradation from the ER and their deployment under physiologic and pathologic conditions. PMID:20570125

Hegde, Ramanujan S.; Ploegh, Hidde L.

2010-01-01

422

The Quantity Flexibility Contract and Supplier-Customer Incentives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consider a supply chain consisting of two independent agents, a supplier (e.g., a manufacturer) and its customer (e.g., a retailer), the latter in turn serving an uncertain market demand. To reconcile manufacturing\\/procurement time lags with a need for timely response to the market, such supply chains often must commit resources to production quantities based on forecasted rather than realized demand.

Andy A. Tsay

1999-01-01

423

Method of intercalating large quantities of fibrous structures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method of intercalating large quantities of fibrous structures uses a rotatable reaction chamber containing a liquid phase intercalate. The intercalate liquid phase is controlled by appropriately heating, cooling, or pressurizing the reaction. Rotation of the chamber containing the fiber sample enables total submergence of the fiber during intercalation. Intercalated graphite fibers having metal-like resistivities are achieved and are conceivably useful as electrical conductors.

Gaier, James R. (inventor)

1991-01-01

424

Circadian Interleukin6 Secretion and Quantity and Depth of Sleep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients with pathologically increased daytime sleepiness and fa- tigue have elevated levels of circulating interleukin-6 (IL-6). The latter is an inflammatory cytokine, which causes sickness manifes- tations, including somnolence and fatigue, and activation of the hy- pothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. In this study, we examined: 1) the relation between serial measurements of plasma IL-6 and quantity and depth of sleep, evaluated by

ALEXANDROS N. VGONTZAS; DIMITRIS A. PAPANICOLAOU; EDWARD O. BIXLER; ANGELA LOTSIKAS; KEITH ZACHMAN; ANTHONY KALES; PAOLO PROLO; MA-LI WONG; JULIO LICINIO; PHILIP W. GOLD; RAMON C. HERMIDA; GEORGE MASTORAKOS; GEORGE P. CHROUSOS

425

Conserved Quantities in $f(R)$ Gravity via Noether Symmetry  

E-print Network

This paper is devoted to investigate $f(R)$ gravity using Noether symmetry approach. For this purpose, we consider Friedmann Robertson-Walker (FRW) universe and spherically symmetric spacetimes. The Noether symmetry generators are evaluated for some specific choice of $f(R)$ models in the presence of gauge term. Further, we calculate the corresponding conserved quantities in each case. Moreover, the importance and stability criteria of these models are discussed.

M. Farasat Shamir; Adil Jhangeer; Akhlaq Ahmad Bhatti

2012-07-03

426

Radio frequency tank eigenmode sensor for propellant quantity gauging  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method for measuring the quantity of fluid in a tank may include the steps of selecting a match between a measured set of electromagnetic eigenfrequencies and a simulated plurality of sets of electromagnetic eigenfrequencies using a matching algorithm, wherein the match is one simulated set of electromagnetic eigenfrequencies from the simulated plurality of sets of electromagnetic eigenfrequencies, and determining the fill level of the tank based upon the match.

Zimmerli, Gregory A. (Inventor)

2013-01-01

427

Planning a School Physics Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a model for planning the measurement of physical quantities. Provides two examples of optimizing the conditions of indirect measurement for laboratory experiments which involve measurements of acceleration due to gravity and of viscosity by means of Stokes' formula. (ML)

Blasiak, Wladyslaw

1986-01-01

428

Physics for Physical Sciences: Graphing Motion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This introductory tutorial provides examples and visualizations for beginners in the fundamentals of graphing Velocity vs. Time and Position vs. Time. Physical quantities are related to graphical features, such as the relationship between slope and velocity. Images and Flash animations are used to present the material, along with examples that demonstrate problem-solving using formulas relating to displacement and constant velocity.

2004-03-14

429

AKARI OBSERVATIONS OF BROWN DWARFS. III. CO, CO{sub 2}, AND CH{sub 4} FUNDAMENTAL BANDS AND PHYSICAL PARAMETERS  

SciTech Connect

We investigate variations in the strengths of three molecular bands, CH{sub 4} at 3.3 {mu}m, CO at 4.6 {mu}m, and CO{sub 2} at 4.2 {mu}m, in 16 brown dwarf spectra obtained by AKARI. Spectral features are examined along the sequence of source classes from L1 to T8. We find that the CH{sub 4} 3.3 {mu}m band is present in the spectra of brown dwarfs later than L5, and the CO 4.6 {mu}m band appears in all spectral types. The CO{sub 2} absorption band at 4.2 {mu}m is detected in late-L and T-type dwarfs. To better understand brown dwarf atmospheres, we analyze the observed spectra using the Unified Cloudy Model. The physical parameters of the AKARI sample, i.e., atmospheric effective temperature T {sub eff}, surface gravity log g, and critical temperature T {sub cr}, are derived. We also model IRTF/SpeX and UKIRT/CGS4 spectra in addition to the AKARI data in order to derive the most probable physical parameters. Correlations between the spectral type and the modeled parameters are examined. We confirm that the spectral-type sequence of late-L dwarfs is not related to T {sub eff}, but instead originates as a result of the effect of dust.

Sorahana, S. [Department of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Yamamura, I., E-mail: sorahana@ir.isas.jaxa.jp [Department of Space Astronomy and Astrophysics, Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS), Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan)

2012-12-01

430

Defining value through quantity and quality-Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) undervalue food quantities when items are broken.  

PubMed

Decision-making largely is influenced by the relative value of choice options, and the value of such options can be determined by a combination of different factors (e.g., the quantity, size, or quality of a stimulus). In this study, we examined the competing influences of quantity (i.e., the number of food items in a set) and quality (i.e., the original state of a food item) of choice items on chimpanzees' food preferences in a two-option natural choice paradigm. In Experiment 1, chimpanzees chose between sets of food items that were either entirely whole or included items that were broken into pieces before being shown to the chimpanzees. Chimpanzees exhibited a bias for whole food items even when such choice options consisted of a smaller overall quantity of food than the sets containing broken items. In Experiment 2, chimpanzees chose between sets of entirely whole food items and sets of initially whole items that were subsequently broken in view of the chimpanzees just before choice time. Chimpanzees continued to exhibit a bias for sets of whole items. In Experiment 3, chimpanzees chose between sets of new food items that were initially discrete but were subsequently transformed into a larger cohesive unit. Here, chimpanzees were biased to choose the discrete sets that retained their original qualitative state rather than toward the cohesive or clumped sets. These results demonstrate that beyond a food set's quantity (i.e., the value dimension that accounts for maximization in terms of caloric intake), other seemingly non-relevant features (i.e., quality in terms of a set's original state) affect how chimpanzees assign value to their choice options. PMID:25447509

Parrish, Audrey E; Evans, Theodore A; Beran, Michael J

2015-02-01

431

Insomnia among patients with advanced disease during admission in a Palliative Care Unit: a prospective observational study on its frequency and association with psychological, physical and environmental factors  

PubMed Central

Background The aims of this study were: 1) to assess the frequency of insomnia among patients during admission in a Palliative Care Unit (PCU); 2) to study the association between emotional distress and insomnia, taking physical, environmental and other psychological factors into account. Methods Prospective observational study including patients consecutively admitted to a PCU during eight months, excluding those with severe cognitive problems or too low performance status. Insomnia was assessed by asking a single question and by using the Sleep Disturbance Scale (SDS), and emotional distress using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Physical, environmental and other psychological factors potentially interfering with sleep quality were evaluated. Association between insomnia and the factors evaluated was studied using univariate and multivariate regression analyses. Results 61 patients were included (mean age 71.5 years; 95% with oncological disease); 38 (62%) answered “yes” to the insomnia single question and 29 (47%) showed moderate to severe insomnia according to the SDS. 65% showed clinically significant emotional distress and 79% had nocturnal rumination. The physical symptoms most often mentioned as interfering with sleep quality were pain (69%) and dyspnoea (36%). 77% reported at least one environmental disturbance. In the univariate analysis, answering “yes” to the insomnia single question was significantly associated with higher HADS score, anxiety, nocturnal rumination, clear knowledge of the diagnosis, higher performance status and dyspnoea; moderate to severe insomnia was significantly associated with nocturnal rumination, higher performance status, environmental disturbances and daytime sleepiness. In the multivariate regression analysis, answering “yes” to the single question was associated with dyspnoea (OR 7.2 [1.65-31.27]; p?=?0.009), nocturnal rumination (OR 5.5 [1.05-28.49]; p?=?0.04) and higher performance status (OR 14.3 [1.62-125.43]; p?=?0.017), and moderate to severe insomnia with nocturnal rumination (OR 5.6 [1.1-29.1]; p?=?0.041), and inversely associated with daytime sleepiness (OR 0.25 [0.07-0.9]; p?=?0.043). Conclusions Insomnia was highly frequent. Several physical, psychological and environmental factors seemed to influence insomnia. Within the multimodal management of insomnia, the assessment of nocturnal rumination may be of particular interest, irrespective of emotional distress. Further studies with larger sample sizes could confirm this result. PMID:25136263

2014-01-01

432

Perceptual Image Compression Prototype NASA missions have and will continue to generate immense quantities of image data. For  

E-print Network

Perceptual Image Compression Prototype NASA missions have and will continue to generate immense quantities of image data. For example, the Earth Observing System (EOS) is expected to generate in excess of the solution to this problem lies in efficient image compression techniques. As part of a larger program

433

Measurement of Active Quantity of the Subject Movement and Design of Surveillnace Camera System Using High Active Part  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study proposes Active Quantity for measuring the movement of subject body using Motion Region, and finds how subject body moves activity so that observer can watch the action effectively. In these years, we can watch the monitoring place by remote control of surveillance camera system. The surveillance camera system can enhance a security effect. On the other hand, it

Miwa Takai

2012-01-01

434

Finite groups and quantum physics  

SciTech Connect

Concepts of quantum theory are considered from the constructive 'finite' point of view. The introduction of a continuum or other actual infinities in physics destroys constructiveness without any need for them in describing empirical observations. It is shown that quantum behavior is a natural consequence of symmetries of dynamical systems. The underlying reason is that it is impossible in principle to trace the identity of indistinguishable objects in their evolution-only information about invariant statements and values concerning such objects is available. General mathematical arguments indicate that any quantum dynamics is reducible to a sequence of permutations. Quantum phenomena, such as interference, arise in invariant subspaces of permutation representations of the symmetry group of a dynamical system. Observable quantities can be expressed in terms of permutation invariants. It is shown that nonconstructive number systems, such as complex numbers, are not needed for describing quantum phenomena. It is sufficient to employ cyclotomic numbers-a minimal extension of natural numbers that is appropriate for quantum mechanics. The use of finite groups in physics, which underlies the present approach, has an additional motivation. Numerous experiments and observations in the particle physics suggest the importance of finite groups of relatively small orders in some fundamental processes. The origin of these groups is unclear within the currently accepted theories-in particular, within the Standard Model.

Kornyak, V. V., E-mail: kornyak@jinr.ru [Joint Institute for Nuclear Physics, Laboratory of Information Tecnnologies (Russian Federation)

2013-02-15

435

Quark Flavor Physics Review  

E-print Network

I review the status of lattice-QCD calculations relevant to quark flavor physics. The recent availability of physical-mass ensembles with large physical volumes generated by a growing number of lattice collaborations is an exciting development and I discuss their impact on the landscape of lattice flavor physics calculations. The activities of the newly formed FLAG-2 collaboration which provides averages of quantities calculated in lattice QCD that are relevant for quark flavor physics are also discussed. My talk covers (a subset of) the same quantities reviewed by FLAG-2, including results for $K$, $D_{(s)}$, and $B_{(s)}$ meson decay constants and semileptonic decay form factors, as well as for hadronic matrix elements of neutral ($K$, $D$, and $B_{(s)}$) meson mixing. I also briefly discuss recent progress towards understanding nonleptonic $K$ decay and long-distance contributions to $\\Delta m_K$.

Aida X. El-Khadra

2014-03-20

436

Initial Condition Sensitivity of Global Quantities in Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence  

E-print Network

In this paper we study the effect of subtle changes in initial conditions on the evolution of global quantities in two-dimensional Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence. We find that a change in the initial phases of complex Fourier modes of the Els\\"{a}sser variables, while keeping the initial values of total energy, cross helicity and Alfv\\'{e}n ratio unchanged, has a significant effect on the evolution of cross helicity. On the contrary, the total energy and Alfv\\'{e}n ratio are insensitive to the initial phases. Our simulations are based on direct numerical simulation using the pseudo-spectral method.

Gaurav Dar; Mahendra K. Verma; V. Eswaran

1998-03-16

437

Evaluating the uncertainty of input quantities in measurement models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM) gives guidance about how values and uncertainties should be assigned to the input quantities that appear in measurement models. This contribution offers a concrete proposal for how that guidance may be updated in light of the advances in the evaluation and expression of measurement uncertainty that were made in the course of the twenty years that have elapsed since the publication of the GUM, and also considering situations that the GUM does not yet contemplate. Our motivation is the ongoing conversation about a new edition of the GUM. While generally we favour a Bayesian approach to uncertainty evaluation, we also recognize the value that other approaches may bring to the problems considered here, and focus on methods for uncertainty evaluation and propagation that are widely applicable, including to cases that the GUM has not yet addressed. In addition to Bayesian methods, we discuss maximum-likelihood estimation, robust statistical methods, and measurement models where values of nominal properties play the same role that input quantities play in traditional models. We illustrate these general-purpose techniques in concrete examples, employing data sets that are realistic but that also are of conveniently small sizes. The supplementary material available online lists the R computer code that we have used to produce these examples (stacks.iop.org/Met/51/3/339/mmedia). Although we strive to stay close to clause 4 of the GUM, which addresses the evaluation of uncertainty for input quantities, we depart from it as we review the classes of measurement models that we believe are generally useful in contemporary measurement science. We also considerably expand and update the treatment that the GUM gives to Type B evaluations of uncertainty: reviewing the state-of-the-art, disciplined approach to the elicitation of expert knowledge, and its encapsulation in probability distributions that are usable in uncertainty propagation exercises. In this we deviate markedly and emphatically from the GUM Supplement 1, which gives pride of place to the Principle of Maximum Entropy as a means to assign probability distributions to input quantities.

Possolo, Antonio; Elster, Clemens

2014-06-01

438

Combined heuristics for determining order quantity under time-varying demands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The time-varying demands for a certain period are often assumed to be less than the basic economic order quantity (EOQ) so that total replenishment quantity rather than economic order quantity is normally considered by most of the heuristics. This acticle focuses on a combined heuristics method for determining order quantity under generalized time-varying demands. The independent policy (IP), abnormal independent

Tang Jiafu; Pan Zhendong; Gong Jun; Liu Shixin

2008-01-01

439

Oscillatory brain activity reveals linguistic prints in the quantity code.  

PubMed

Number representations change through education, although it is currently unclear whether and how language could impact the magnitude representation that we share with other species. The most prominent view is that language does not play any role in modulating the core numeric representation involved in the contrast of quantities. Nevertheless, possible cultural hints on the numerical magnitude representation are currently on discussion focus. In fact, the acquisition of number words provides linguistic input that the quantity system may not ignore. Bilingualism offers a window to the study of this question, especially in bilinguals where the two number wording systems imply also two different numerical systems, such as in Basque-Spanish bilinguals. The present study evidences linguistic prints in the core number representational system through the analysis of EEG oscillatory activity during a simple number comparison task. Gamma band synchronization appears when Basque-Spanish bilinguals compare pairs of Arabic numbers linked through the Basque base-20 wording system, but it does not if the pairs are related through the base-10 system. Crucially, this gamma activity, originated in a left fronto-parietal network, only appears in bilinguals who learned math in Basque and not in equivalent proficiency bilinguals who learned math in Spanish. Thus, this neural index reflected in gamma band synchrony appears to be triggered by early learning experience with the base-20 numerical associations in Basque number words. PMID:25875210

Salillas, Elena; Barraza, Paulo; Carreiras, Manuel

2015-01-01

440

Bulky waste quantities and treatment methods in Denmark.  

PubMed

Bulky waste is a significant and increasing waste stream in Denmark. However, only little research has been done on its composition and treatment. In the present study, data about collection methods, waste quantities and treatment methods for bulky waste were obtained from two municipalities. In addition a sorting analysis was conducted on combustible waste, which is a major fraction of bulky waste in Denmark. The generation of bulky waste was found to be 150-250 kg capita(-1) year(-1), and 90% of the waste was collected at recycling centres; the rest through kerbside collection. Twelve main fractions were identified of which ten were recyclable and constituted 50-60% of the total quantity. The others were combustible waste for incineration (30-40%) and non-combustible waste for landfilling (10%). The largest fractions by mass were combustible waste, bricks and tile, concrete, non-combustible waste, wood, and metal scrap, which together made up more than 90% of the total waste amounts. The amount of combustible waste could be significantly reduced through better sorting. Many of the waste fractions consisted of composite products that underwent thorough separation before being recycled. The recyclable materials were in many cases exported to other countries which made it difficult to track their destination and further treatment. PMID:21890876

Larsen, Anna W; Petersen, Claus; Christensen, Thomas H

2012-02-01