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1

Informationally complete sets of physical quantities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The notion of informational completeness is formulated within the convex state (or operational) approach to statistical physical theories and employed to introduce a type of statistical metrics. Further, a criterion for a set of physical quantities to be informationally complete is proven. Some applications of this result are given within the algebraic and Hilbert space formulations of quantum theory.

Paul Busch

1991-01-01

2

Observable quantities for electrodiffusion processes in membranes.  

PubMed

Electrically driven ion transport processes in a membrane system are analyzed in terms of observable quantities, such as the apparent volume flow, the time dependence of the electrolyte concentration in one cell compartment, and the electrical potential difference between the electrodes. The relations between the fluxes and these observable quantities are rigorously deduced from balances for constituent mass and solution volume. These relations improve the results for the transport coefficients up to 25% with respect to those obtained using simplified expressions common in the literature. Given the practical importance of ionic transport numbers and the solvent transference number in the phenomenological description of electrically driven processes, the transport equations are presented using the electrolyte concentration difference and the electric current as the drivers of the different constituents. Because various electric potential differences can be used in this traditional irreversible thermodynamics approach, the advantages of the formulation of the transport equations in terms of concentration difference and electric current are emphasized. PMID:18284224

Garrido, Javier

2008-02-20

3

A state estimation method with matching between a physical energy quantity and a decibel scaled noisy observation for a sound environmental system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A state estimation method for an energy stochastic system with a decibel observation mechanism is presented. The problem is to get a decibel-valued estimate of an energy state variable by using the decibel-valued noisy observation data, where the stochastic system of concern is physically driven on energy scale. The main attention is paid to matching between the physical energy principle

E. Uchino; M. Ohta; K. Hatakeyama

1992-01-01

4

Average observational quantities in the timescape cosmology  

SciTech Connect

We examine the properties of a recently proposed observationally viable alternative to homogeneous cosmology with smooth dark energy, the timescape cosmology. In the timescape model cosmic acceleration is realized as an apparent effect related to the calibration of clocks and rods of observers in bound systems relative to volume-average observers in an inhomogeneous geometry in ordinary general relativity. The model is based on an exact solution to a Buchert average of the Einstein equations with backreaction. The present paper examines a number of observational tests which will enable the timescape model to be distinguished from homogeneous cosmologies with a cosmological constant or other smooth dark energy, in current and future generations of dark energy experiments. Predictions are presented for comoving distance measures; H(z); the equivalent of the dark energy equation of state, w(z); the Om(z) measure of Sahni, Shafieloo, and Starobinsky; the Alcock-Paczynski test; the baryon acoustic oscillation measure, D{sub V}; the inhomogeneity test of Clarkson, Bassett, and Lu; and the time drift of cosmological redshifts. Where possible, the predictions are compared to recent independent studies of similar measures in homogeneous cosmologies with dark energy. Three separate tests with indications of results in possible tension with the {lambda}CDM model are found to be consistent with the expectations of the timescape cosmology.

Wiltshire, David L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8140, New Zealand, and International Center for Relativistic Astrophysics Network (ICRANet), Piazzale le della Repubblica 10, Pescara 65121 (Italy)

2009-12-15

5

Can the Lorenz-Gauge Potentials Be Considered Physical Quantities?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Two results support the idea that the scalar and vector potentials in the Lorenz gauge can be considered to be physical quantities: (i) they separately satisfy the properties of causality and propagation at the speed of light and do not imply spurious terms and (ii) they can naturally be written in a manifestly covariant form. In this paper we…

Heras, Jose A.; Fernandez-Anaya, Guillermo

2010-01-01

6

Noncommutative analysis and quantum physics I. Quantities, ensembles and states  

Microsoft Academic Search

A unified conceptual foundation of classical and quantum physics is given, free of undefined terms. Ensembles are defined by extending the `probability via expectation' approach of Whittle to noncommuting quantities. This approach carries no connotations of unlimited repeatability; hence it can be applied to unique systems such as the universe. Precise concepts and traditional results about complementarity, uncertainty and nonlocality

Arnold Neumaier

2000-01-01

7

Necessary and sufficient conditions for the observability of linear motion quantities in strapdown navigation systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Navigation Systems are a key element of a large variety of mobile platforms, whether manned or unmanned, autonomous or human-operated. This paper dwells on the observability of linear motion quantities (position, linear velocity, linear acceleration, and bias), in 3-D, of mobile platforms, and presents necessary and sufficient conditions, with physical insight, for the observability of these variables. The analysis provided

Pedro Batista; Carlos Silvestre; Paulo Oliveira

2009-01-01

8

Lecture Demonstrations in Modern Physics: Quality vs. Quantity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In a study conducted in modern physics courses, our investigation shows that inappropriate and an excessive number of demonstrations can lead to ineffective results. We carefully observed and recorded the activities done in all lectures in two modern physics classes throughout a quarter and analyzed students' responses to the end of the quarter questionnaires. We found a significant number of students did not recall many of the in-class demonstrations and were confused about the results of different demonstrations they had seen in lectures. In this paper, we will explore the possible reasons for this outcome and discuss implications for instructors who use demonstrations in lectures.

Sadaghiani, Homeyra R.; Bao, Lei

2005-10-20

9

Do Speakers and Listeners Observe the Gricean Maxim of Quantity?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Gricean Maxim of Quantity is believed to govern linguistic performance. Speakers are assumed to provide as much information as required for referent identification and no more, and listeners are believed to expect unambiguous but concise descriptions. In three experiments we examined the extent to which naive participants are sensitive to the…

Engelhardt, Paul E.; Bailey, Karl G. D.; Ferreira, Fernanda

2006-01-01

10

Renormalization of QCD Coupling Constant in Terms of Physical Quantities  

Microsoft Academic Search

A renormalization scheme is suggested where QCD input parameters - quark mass and coupling constant - are expressed in terms of gauge invariant and infrared stable quantities. For the renormalization of coupling constant the quark anomalous electromagnetic moment is used; the latter is calculated in a two loop approximation. Examination of the renormalized S matrix indicates confinement phenomenon already in

G. Sh; K. Sh

11

Renormalization of QCD Coupling Constant in Terms of Physical Quantities  

Microsoft Academic Search

A renormalization scheme is suggested where QCD input parameters - quark mass\\u000aand coupling constant - are expressed in terms of gauge invariant and infrared\\u000astable quantities. For the renormalization of coupling constant the quark\\u000aanomalous electromagnetic moment is used; the latter is calculated in a two\\u000aloop approximation. Examination of the renormalized S matrix indicated\\u000aconfinement phenomenon already in

G. Sh. Japaridze; K. Sh. Turashvili

1999-01-01

12

W, F, and I : Three quantities basic to radiation physics.  

SciTech Connect

The W value is an index of the mean number of ions produced in a gas subjected to ionizing radiation. Formally, it is defined as the radiation energy absorbed (usually expressed in units of eV) ''per ion pair of either sign produced'', or, in a simpler language, ''per electron liberated''. The basic knowledge up to 1961 is eloquently articulated in a classic essay by Platzman [1], which Professor Doke loves to cite. The theme of Platzman was to explain from the point of view of basic physics the magnitude and characteristics of the ratio W/I, where I is the (first) ionization threshold energy. In summary, major characteristics are as follows. (1) The W value for a given gas depends weakly on the properties of the radiation such as the mass and charge of particles or initial energies (provided they are sufficiently high). This makes the ionization measurement useful as a method of dosimetry, viz., the determination of the absorbed energy. (2) The ratio W/I is always greater than unity because a part of the absorbed energy must be used in nonionizing events such as discrete excitation or molecular dissociation into neutral fragments and also in producing subexcitation electrons, viz., electrons with kinetic energies too low to cause electronic excitation or ionization [2]. (3) The ratio W/I is 1.7-1.8 for rare gases, and 2.1-2.6 for gases of common molecules (depending on the electronic structure, going from ''hard'' to ''soft''). Calculation of the W value is possible from three approaches: (i) the energy balance of Platzman, heuristic for general understanding and appropriate for an estimate; (ii) the Fowler equation [3] for the direct evaluation of the mean number of ions produced; and (iii) the method of Spencer and Fano [4] through the degradation spectra (or the track length distributions) of charged particles, most importantly of electrons, present in the medium. The Fowler method is good for obtaining the mean number of ions or excited states resulting from the incidence of particles of relatively low energies, while the Spencer-Fano method is good for the incidence of high-energy particles.

Inokuti, M.

1998-11-11

13

The role of macroinstrument and microinstrument and of observable quantities in the new conception of thermodynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the first part of the paper, we introduce the concept of observable quantities associated with a macroinstrument measuring the density and temperature and with a microinstrument determining the radius of a molecule and its free path length, and also the relationship between these observable quantities. The concept of the number of degrees of freedom, which relates the observable quantities listed above, is generalized to the case of low temperatures. An analogy between the creation and annihilation operators for pairs (dimers) and the creation and annihilation operators for particles (molecules) is carried out. A generalization of the concept of a Bose condensate is introduced for classical molecules as an analog of an ideal liquid (without attraction). The negative pressure in the liquid is treated as holes (of exciton type) in the density of the Bose condensate. The phase transition gas-liquid is calculated for an ideal gas (without attraction). A comparison with experimental data is carried out. In the other part of the paper, we introduce the concept of new observable quantity, namely, of a pair (a dimer), as a result of attraction between nearest neighbors. We treat in a new way the concepts of Boyle temperature T B (as the temperature above which the dimers disappear) and of the critical temperature T c (below which the trimers and clusters are formed). The equation for the Zeno line is interpreted as the relation describing the dependence of the temperature on the density at which the dimers disappear. We calculate the maximal density of the liquid and also the maximal density of the holes. The law of corresponding states is derived as a result of an observation by a macrodevice which cannot distinguish between molecules of distinct gases, and a comparison of theoretical and experimental data is carried out.

Maslov, V. P.

2013-03-01

14

Nature of the Physical Observer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nature of the observer has long plagued physical science. Here we review the current status of cognitive science in the context of a cosmology of mind in an Anthropic Multiverse. The concept of an élan vital or life force has long been considered the elementary action principle driving the evolution of living-systems by theologically minded scientists and individuals. Sufficiently extending Einstein's original model of a Static Universe, to a Holographic Anthropic Multiverse (HAM), provides a context for solving this centuries old problem for introducing this type of teleological principle into Physics, Biology, Medicine and Psychology. This means the contemporary framework of biological mechanism should no longer be considered the formal philosophical basis for describing living systems and contemporary allopathic (scientific) medicine. The new noetic action principle has far reaching implications for medicine and transpersonal psychology.

Osoroma, Drahcir S.

2010-12-01

15

Evidence for direct retrieval of relative quantity information in a quantity judgment task: Decimals, integers, and the role of physical similarity  

PubMed Central

Participants' reaction times in numerical judgment tasks in which one must determine which of two numbers are greater generally follow a monotonically decreasing function of the numerical distance between the two presented numbers. Here, I present three experiments that assess the relative influences of numerical distance and physical similarity in just such a task using integers and decimals as stimuli. The data reveal that numerical distance is the primary feature controlling participants' RTs when integers are presented. However, the physical similarity between the decade place of the standard and the probe is the primary feature controlling participants' RTs when decimals are presented. I conclude that the unique qualities of decimals do not lend themselves to share the place coding representation of integers, thus a direct retrieval mechanism for judging the relative quantity of decimals has developed.

Cohen, Dale J.

2010-01-01

16

A wireless interrogation system exploiting narrowband acoustic resonator for remote physical quantity measurement.  

PubMed

Monitoring physical quantities using acoustic wave devices can be advantageously achieved using the wave characteristic dependence to various parametric perturbations (temperature, stress, and pressure). Surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonators are particularly well suited to such applications as their resonance frequency is directly influenced by these perturbations, modifying both the phase velocity and resonance conditions. Moreover, the intrinsic radio frequency (rf) nature of these devices makes them ideal for wireless applications, mainly exploiting antennas reciprocity and piezoelectric reversibility. In this paper, we present a wireless SAW sensor interrogation unit operating in the 434 MHz centered ISM band--selected as a tradeoff between antenna dimensions and electromagnetic wave penetration in dielectric media--based on the principles of a frequency sweep network analyzer. We particularly focus on the compliance with the ISM standard which reveals complicated by the need for switching from emission to reception modes similarly to radar operation. In this matter, we propose a fully digital rf synthesis chain to develop various interrogation strategies to overcome the corresponding difficulties and comply with the above-mentioned standard. We finally assess the reader interrogation range, accuracy, and dynamics. PMID:20113119

Friedt, J-M; Droit, C; Martin, G; Ballandras, S

2010-01-01

17

The composition of a quad of buildings sector energy: Physical, economic, and environmental quantities  

SciTech Connect

In an analysis conducted for the US Department of Energy Office of Building Technologies (OBT), the Pacific Northwest Laboratory examined the fuel type composition of energy consumed in the US buildings sector. Numerical estimates were developed for the physical quantities of fuel consumed, as well as of the fossil fuel emissions (carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides) and nuclear spent fuel byproducts associated with that consumption. Electric generating requirements and the economic values associated with energy consumption also were quantified. These variables were quantified for a generic quad (1 quadrillion Btu) of primary energy for the years 1987 and 2010, to illustrate the impacts of a fuel-neutral reduction in buildings sector energy use, and for specific fuel types, to enable meaningful comparisons of benefits achievable through various OBT research projects or technology developments. Two examples are provided to illustrate how these conversion factors may be used to quantify the impacts of energy savings potentially achievable through OBT building energy conservation efforts. 18 refs., 6 figs., 16 tabs.

Secrest, T.J.; Nicholls, A.K.

1990-07-01

18

A wireless interrogation system exploiting narrowband acoustic resonator for remote physical quantity measurement  

SciTech Connect

Monitoring physical quantities using acoustic wave devices can be advantageously achieved using the wave characteristic dependence to various parametric perturbations (temperature, stress, and pressure). Surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonators are particularly well suited to such applications as their resonance frequency is directly influenced by these perturbations, modifying both the phase velocity and resonance conditions. Moreover, the intrinsic radio frequency (rf) nature of these devices makes them ideal for wireless applications, mainly exploiting antennas reciprocity and piezoelectric reversibility. In this paper, we present a wireless SAW sensor interrogation unit operating in the 434 MHz centered ISM band--selected as a tradeoff between antenna dimensions and electromagnetic wave penetration in dielectric media--based on the principles of a frequency sweep network analyzer. We particularly focus on the compliance with the ISM standard which reveals complicated by the need for switching from emission to reception modes similarly to radar operation. In this matter, we propose a fully digital rf synthesis chain to develop various interrogation strategies to overcome the corresponding difficulties and comply with the above-mentioned standard. We finally assess the reader interrogation range, accuracy, and dynamics.

Friedt, J.-M [SENSeOR, 32 Avenue de l'Observatoire, 25044 Besancon (France); Droit, C.; Martin, G.; Ballandras, S. [Department of Time and Frequency, FEMTO-ST, 32 Avenue de l'Observatoire, 25044 Besancon (France)

2010-01-15

19

Understanding the Role of Measurements in Creating Physical Quantities: A Case Study of Learning to Quantify Temperature in Physics Teacher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learning to understand the content and meaning of physics' concepts is one of the main goals of physics education. In achieving this understanding, the creation of quantities through quantitative measurements, or rather through quantifying experiments, is a key process. The present article introduces a didactical reconstruction for understanding…

Mantyla, Terhi; Koponen, Ismo T.

2007-01-01

20

Physical quantity synergy in the field of turbulent heat transfer and its analysis for heat transfer enhancement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the principle of physical quantity synergy in the field of laminar heat transfer, and according to the models of\\u000a zero equation and k-? two equations for the turbulent flow, the synergy equations for both energy and momentum conservation in the turbulent heat\\u000a transfer are established. The synergy regulation among heat flux, mass flow and fluid driving force, and

Wei Liu; ZhiChun Liu; SuYi Huang

2010-01-01

21

Dual-Level Compressed Aggregation: Recovering Fields of Physical Quantities from Incomplete Sensory Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are powerful in monitoring physical events, the data collected from a WSN are almost always incomplete if the surveyed physical event spreads over a wide area. The reason for this incompleteness is twofold: i) insufficient network coverage and ii) data aggregation for energy saving. Whereas the existing recovery schemes only tackle the second aspect, we

Liu Xiang; Jun Luo; Chenwei Deng; Athanasios V. Vasilakos; Weisi Lin

2011-01-01

22

Fundamental properties of five Kepler stars using global asteroseismic quantities and ground-based observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an asteroseismic study of the solar-like stars KIC 11395018, KIC 10273246, KIC 10920273, KIC 10339342, and KIC 11234888 using short-cadence time series of more than eight months from the Kepler satellite. For four of these stars, we derive atmospheric parameters from spectra acquired with the Nordic Optical Telescope. The global seismic quantities (average largefrequency separation and frequency of maximum power), combined with the atmospheric parameters, yield the mean density and surface gravity with precisions of 2% and ~0.03 dex, respectively. We also determine the radius, mass, and age with precisions of 2-5%, 7-11%, and ~35%, respectively, using grid-based analyses. Coupling the stellar parameters with photometric data yields an asteroseismic distance with a precision better than 10%. A vsini measurement provides a rotational period-inclination correlation, and using the rotational periods from the recent literature, we constrain the stellar inclination for three of the stars. An Li abundance analysis yields an independent estimate of the age, but this is inconsistent with the asteroseismically determined age for one of the stars. We assess the performance of five grid-based analysis methods and find them all to provide consistent values of the surface gravity to ~0.03 dex when both atmospheric and seismic constraints are at hand. The different grid-based analyses all yield fitted values of radius and mass to within 2.4?, and taking the mean of these results reduces it to 1.5?. The absence of a metallicity constraint when the average large frequency separation is measured with a precision of 1% biases the fitted radius and mass for the stars with non-solar metallicity (metal-rich KIC 11395018 and metal-poor KIC 10273246), while including a metallicity constraint reduces the uncertainties in both of these parameters by almost a factor of two. We found that including the average small frequency separation improves the determination of the age only for KIC 11395018 and KIC 11234888, and for the latter this improvement was due to the lack of strong atmospheric constraints.

Creevey, O. L.; Do?an, G.; Frasca, A.; Thygesen, A. O.; Basu, S.; Bhattacharya, J.; Biazzo, K.; Brandão, I. M.; Bruntt, H.; Mazumdar, A.; Niemczura, E.; Shrotriya, T.; Sousa, S. G.; Stello, D.; Subramaniam, A.; Campante, T. L.; Handberg, R.; Mathur, S.; Bedding, T. R.; García, R. A.; Régulo, C.; Salabert, D.; Molenda-?akowicz, J.; Quirion, P.-O.; White, T. R.; Bonanno, A.; Chaplin, W. J.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Christiansen, J. L.; Elsworth, Y.; Fanelli, M. N.; Karoff, C.; Kinemuchi, K.; Kjeldsen, H.; Gai, N.; Monteiro, M. J. P. F. G.; Suárez, J. C.

2012-01-01

23

Quantity, Type, and Correlates of Physical Activity among American Middle Eastern University Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The prevalence of hypokinetic disease among persons of Middle Eastern heritage is higher than whites and research on American young adults of this population is limited. Therefore 214 tertiary students of Middle Eastern descent self-reported their physical activity (PA) over a 1-week monitoring period using pedometers and daily activity logs.…

Kahan, David

2009-01-01

24

The Ubiquitous Quantities: Explorations That Inform the Design of Instruction on the Physical Properties of Matter.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores high school student's postinstructional knowledge about mass, volume, weight, and density in terms of what students need to know to successfully solve academic physical science problems. Presents definitions of the concepts, discusses hypothesized knowledge deficiencies, and suggests implications for instructional design. (Contains 31…

Klopfer, L. E.; And Others

1992-01-01

25

A comparison of water vapor quantities from model short-range forecasts and ARM observations  

SciTech Connect

Model evolution and improvement is complicated by the lack of high quality observational data. To address a major limitation of these measurements the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program was formed. For the second quarter ARM metric we will make use of new water vapor data that has become available, and called the 'Merged-sounding' value added product (referred to as OBS, within the text) at three sites: the North Slope of Alaska (NSA), Darwin Australia (DAR) and the Southern Great Plains (SGP) and compare these observations to model forecast data. Two time periods will be analyzed March 2000 for the SGP and October 2004 for both DAR and NSA. The merged-sounding data have been interpolated to 37 pressure levels (e.g., from 1000hPa to 100hPa at 25hPa increments) and time averaged to 3 hourly data for direct comparison to our model output.

Hnilo, J J

2006-03-17

26

Physical Properties of Sand as Affected by Clinoptilolite Zeolite Particle Size and Quantity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about how the particle size of amendments influences the physical properties of amendment-sand mixtures. In two laboratory experiments, the amendment clinoptilolite zeolite (CZ) was used to amend sand at two sand:CZ ratios of 5 and 10 (w\\/w) and six CZ particle sizes, including: >1 mm, 1 to 0.5 mm, 0.5 to 0.25 mm, 0.25 to 0.105 mm,

Z. T. Huang; A. M. Petrovic

1994-01-01

27

The trinucleons: Physical observables and model properties  

SciTech Connect

Our progress in understanding the properties of {sup 3}H and {sup 3}He in terms of a nonrelativistic Hamiltonian picture employing realistic nuclear forces is reviewed. Trinucleon model properties are summarized for a number of contemporary force models, and predictions for physical observables are presented. Disagreement between theoretical model results and experimental results are highlighted.

Gibson, B.F.

1992-05-01

28

The trinucleons: Physical observables and model properties  

SciTech Connect

Our progress in understanding the properties of {sup 3}H and {sup 3}He in terms of a nonrelativistic Hamiltonian picture employing realistic nuclear forces is reviewed. Trinucleon model properties are summarized for a number of contemporary force models, and predictions for physical observables are presented. Disagreement between theoretical model results and experimental results are highlighted.

Gibson, B.F.

1992-01-01

29

Observed, unknown distributions of clinical chemical quantities should be considered to be log-normal: a proposal.  

PubMed

The distribution of many quantities in laboratory medicine are considered to be Gaussian if they are symmetric, although, theoretically, a Gaussian distribution is not plausible for quantities that can attain only non-negative values. If a distribution is skewed, further specification of the type is required, which may be difficult to provide. Skewed (non-Gaussian) distributions found in clinical chemistry usually show only moderately large positive skewness (e.g., log-normal- and ?(2) distribution). The degree of skewness depends on the magnitude of the empirical biological variation (CV(e)), as demonstrated using the log-normal distribution. A Gaussian distribution with a small CV(e) (e.g., for plasma sodium) is very similar to a log-normal distribution with the same CV(e). In contrast, a relatively large CV(e) (e.g., plasma aspartate aminotransferase) leads to distinct differences between a Gaussian and a log-normal distribution. If the type of an empirical distribution is unknown, it is proposed that a log-normal distribution be assumed in such cases. This avoids distributional assumptions that are not plausible and does not contradict the observation that distributions with small biological variation look very similar to a Gaussian distribution. PMID:20666698

Haeckel, Rainer; Wosniok, Werner

2010-07-29

30

Scalings between Physical and their Observationally Related Quantities of Merger Remnants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present scaling relations between the virial velocity (V) and the one-dimensional central velocity dispersion (?0); the gravitational radius (Rv) and the effective radius (Re); and the total mass (M) and the luminous mass (ML) found in N-body simulations of binary mergers of spiral galaxies. These scalings are of the form V2 ? ?0?, Rv ? Re? and M? ML?. The particlar values obtained for {?,?,?} depend on the method of fitting used [ordinary least-squares (OLS) or orthogonal distance regression (ODR)], the assumed profile [de Vaucouleurs (deV) or Sérsic (S)], and the size of the radial interval where the fit is done. The ? and ? indexes turn out more sensitive to the fitting procedure, resulting for the OLS in a mean < ? >ols = 1.51% and < ? >ols= 0.69, while for the ODR < ? >odr=2.35 and < ? >odr=0.76. The ? index depends more on the adopted type of profile, with < ? >deV=0.13 and < ? >S=0.27. We conclude that dissipationless formed remnants of mergers have a strong breaking of structural and kinematical homology.

Aceves, H.; Velázquez, H.

2005-10-01

31

Precision observables for particle physics experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this thesis is to develop tools for interpretation of the upcoming particle physics experiments. We implement and test Optimal Jet Finder (OJF), a jet finding algorithm that is based on the global energy flow in the event. OJF is infrared and collinear safe and resolves overlapping jets dynamically. The shapes of jets are determined dynamically and are not geometrical cones. However, they are more regular than those resulting from k?, which should facilitate detector calibration of OJF. We compare the statistical uncertainties of the W-boson mass when using three different jet finding algorithms: k? . JADE, and OJF. We find that OJF gives the same accuracy as k ? but is faster than k? if a large number of calorimeter cells is analyzed. We present the details of FORTRAN 77 and object-oriented C++ implementations of OJF. We calculate the rate of the lepton flavour violating mu ? e + gamma decay in a particular Grand Unification SO(10) model by Albright and Barr. We assume the Constrained Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model framework. We interpret the results in view of the recent cosmological observations from Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe. We find that the SO(10) model is consistent with the experimental limits on the mu ? e + gamma branching ratio over a large volume of the supersymmetric parameter space. However, if the branching ratio is further constrained by the MEG experiment, carried out in the Paul Scherrer Institute, below 10 -13, the available volume of the parameter space will be significantly reduced. We calculate the QED suppression of the rate of the lepton flavour violating mu ? e + gamma decay. The result, does not depend on the details of the mechanism that, is responsible for the lepton flavour violation, except for the mass scale that enters the final expression. If this mass scale is between 100 and 1000 GeV, the numerical value of the decrease in the decay rate is between 12% and 17%. If the rare muon decay is observed in the MEG experiment, our result will enhance the precision with which the parameters of the new physics models responsible for this decay can be extracted.

Jankowski, Ernest

32

Validity of the Observation of Children's Physical Activity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study assessed the validity of the Children's Physical Activity Form, an observational instrument which measures the intensity of children's physical activity, by comparing observer judgments of subjects' (N=40) activity intensity level with min-by-min heart rate values. Results document the validity of the instrument for observing physical

O'Hara, Nancy M.; And Others

1989-01-01

33

Protoplanetary Disks: Observations and Physical Processes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Observations of disks around young premain stars are reviewed. A summary of disk properties is presented. The disks are the most likely environment for planet formation. The observations are interpreted in the context of steady accretion disk models. Obse...

G. E. Morfill M. Sterzik

1990-01-01

34

Quantities, Units, and Symbols.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet provides a reference to the quantities, units, and their symbols which are used in physical science. It is a revision of a 1969 report and takes account of the progress which has been made in obtaining international agreement on the definitions, names, and symbols for units and on the rules for the expression of relations involving…

Royal Society, London (England).

35

Quantities, Units, and Symbols.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This booklet provides a reference to the quantities, units, and their symbols which are used in physical science. It is a revision of a 1969 report and takes account of the progress which has been made in obtaining international agreement on the definitions, names, and symbols for units and on the rules for the expression of relations involving…

Royal Society, London (England).

36

38 CFR 17.41 - Persons eligible for hospital observation and physical examination.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...eligible for hospital observation and physical examination. 17.41 Section 17...eligible for hospital observation and physical examination. Hospitalization for observation and physical (including mental) examination...

2013-07-01

37

Physical fitness training reference manual for security force personnel at fuel cycle facilities possessing formula quantities of special nuclear materials  

SciTech Connect

The recommendations contained throughout this NUREG are being provided to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) as a reference manual which can be used by licensee management as they develop a program plan for the safe participation of guards, Tactical Response Team members (TRTs), and all other armed response personnel in physical fitness training and in physical performance standards testing. The information provided in this NUREG will help licensees to determine if guards, TRTs, and other armed response personnel can effectively perform their normal and emergency duties without undue hazard to themselves, to fellow employees, to the plant site, and to the general public. The recommendations in this NUREG are similar in part to those contained within the Department of Energy (DOE) Medical and Fitness Implementation Guide which was published in March 1991. The guidelines contained in this NUREG are not requirements, and compliance is not required. 25 refs.

Arzino, P.A.; Caplan, C.S.; Goold, R.E. (California State Univ., Hayward, CA (United States). Foundation)

1991-09-01

38

19. Detail of southeast corner of physical plant showing observation ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

19. Detail of southeast corner of physical plant showing observation lookout (view is looking northwest) - Skinner Meat Packing Plant, Main Plant, 6006 South Twenty-seventh Street, Omaha, Douglas County, NE

39

THREE-DIMENSIONAL SIMULATIONS OF MAGNETIZED SUPERBUBBLES: NEW INSIGHTS INTO THE IMPORTANCE OF MHD EFFECTS ON OBSERVED QUANTITIES  

SciTech Connect

We present three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of superbubbles, to study the importance of MHD effects in the interpretation of images from recent surveys of the Galactic plane. These simulations focus mainly on atmospheres defined by an exponential density distribution and the Dickey and Lockman density distribution. In each case, the magnetic field is parallel to the Galactic plane and we investigate cases with either infinite scale height (constant magnetic field) or a constant ratio of gas pressure to magnetic pressure. The three-dimensional structure of superbubbles in these simulations is discussed with emphasis on the axial ratio of the cavity as a function of magnetic field strength and the age of the bubble. We investigate systematic errors in the age of the bubble and scale height of the surrounding medium that may be introduced by modeling the data with purely hydrodynamic models. Age estimates derived with symmetric hydrodynamic models fitted to an asymmetric magnetized superbubble can differ by up to a factor of 4, depending on the direction of the line of sight. The scale height of the surrounding medium based on the Kompaneets model may be up to 50% lower than the actual scale height. We also present the first ever predictions of Faraday rotation by a magnetized superbubble based on three-dimensional MHD simulations. We emphasize the importance of MHD effects in the interpretation of observations of superbubbles.

Stil, Jeroen; Wityk, Nicole; Ouyed, Rachid; Taylor, A. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta, T2N 1N4 (Canada)

2009-08-10

40

Searching for New Physics with Flavor Violating Observables  

SciTech Connect

In this talk, I review the status and prospects of several low energy flavor observables that are highly sensitive to New Physics effects. In particular I discuss the implications for possible New Physics in b {yields} s transitions coming from the recent experimental results on the B{sub s} mixing phase, the branching ratio of the rare decay B{sub s} {yields} {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -}, and angular observables in the B {yields} K* {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} decay. Also the recent evidence for direct CP violation in singly Cabibbo suppressed charm decays and its interpretation in the context of New Physics models is briefly discussed.

Altmannshofer, Wolfgang; /Fermilab

2012-06-01

41

The derivation of asteroid physical properties from Gaia observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gaia is expected to produce a major revolution in our knowledge of the asteroids. It will substantially move ahead the frontier of the domain of physical characterization of these bodies by means of remote observations. A list of physical properties that will be derived from analysis of the different observed transits of each object in the Gaia focal plane during 5 years of operational activity includes masses, sizes, average densities, spin properties, albedos, reflectance spectra, as well as a new taxonomic classification. The resulting post-Gaia scenario in asteroid science will be very much improved with respect to the current state of the art.

Cellino, A.; Dell'Oro, A.

2012-12-01

42

Determination of meteoroid physical properties from tristatic radar observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work we give a review of the meteor head echo observations carried out with the tristatic 930 MHz EISCAT UHF radar system during four 24 h runs between 2002 and 2005 and compare these with earlier observations. A total number of 410 tristatic meteors were observed. We describe a method to determine the position of a compact radar target in the common volume monitored by the three receivers and demonstrate its applicability for meteor studies. The inferred positions of the meteor targets have been utilized to estimate their velocities, decelerations and directions of arrival as well as their radar cross sections with unprecedented accuracy. The velocity distribution of the meteoroids is bimodal with peaks at 35 40 km/s and 55 60 km/s, and ranges from 19 70 km/s. The estimated masses are between 10-9 10-5.5 kg. There are very few detections below 30 km/s. The observations are clearly biased to high-velocity meteoroids, but not so biased against slow meteoroids as has been presumed from previous tristatic measurements. Finally, we discuss how the radial deceleration observed with a monostatic radar depends on the meteoroid velocity and the angle between the trajectory and the beam. The finite beamwidth leads to underestimated meteoroid masses if radial velocity and deceleration of meteoroids approaching the radar are used as estimates of the true quantities in a momentum equation of motion.

Kero, J.; Szasz, C.; Pellinen-Wannberg, A.; Wannberg, G.; Westman, A.; Meisel, D. D.

2008-08-01

43

A topos foundation for theories of physics: III. The representation of physical quantities with arrows {delta}{sup o}(A):{sigma} lowbar {yields}R{sup sccue} lowbar  

SciTech Connect

This paper is the third in a series whose goal is to develop a fundamentally new way of viewing theories of physics. Our basic contention is that constructing a theory of physics is equivalent to finding a representation in a topos of a certain formal language that is attached to the system. In Paper II, we studied the topos representations of the propositional language PL(S) for the case of quantum theory, and in the present paper we do the same thing for the, more extensive, local language L(S). One of the main achievements is to find a topos representation for self-adjoint operators. This involves showing that, for any physical quantity A, there is an arrow {delta}{sup o}(A):{sigma} lowbar {yields}R{sup sccue} lowbar , where R{sup sccue} lowbar is the quantity-value object for this theory. The construction of {delta}{sup o}(A) is an extension of the daseinisation of projection operators that was discussed in Paper II. The object R{sup sccue} lowbar is a monoid object only in the topos, {tau}{sub {phi}}=Sets{sup V(H){sup op}}, of the theory, and to enhance the applicability of the formalism, we apply to R{sup sccue} lowbar a topos analog of the Grothendieck extension of a monoid to a group. The resulting object, k(R{sup sccue} lowbar ), is an abelian group object in {tau}{sub {phi}}. We also discuss another candidate, R{sup {r_reversible}} lowbar , for the quantity-value object. In this presheaf, both inner and outer daseinisations are used in a symmetric way. Finally, there is a brief discussion of the role of unitary operators in the quantum topos scheme.

Doering, A.; Isham, C. J. [Theoretical Physics Group, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, South Kensington, London SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom)

2008-05-15

44

Short Gamma-ray Bursts: Observations and Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of the workshop, which will be held at the scenic Ringberg castle, is supposed to bring together astrophysicists, physicists, and astronomers from different fields in order to discuss recent observational and theoretical discoveries and developments on short gamma-ray bursts. In particular, we plan to address the following topics: * recent short GRB observations * environments and host galaxies of short GRBs * is there a 3rd class of GRBs? * modeling GRB engines and jet outflows * rate and redshift predictions for short GRBs * the fireball model and short GRBs * gravitational-wave signals from short GRBs * neutrino signals from short GRBs * microphysics needed for modeling short GRBs and their engines Scientific and Local organizing committee members: H.-Thomas Janka (Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics, Garching), Miguel Aloy (University of Valencia), Jochen Greiner (Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics), Sandra Savaglio (Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics), Shri Kulkarni (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena)

Janka, H.-Thomas

2007-04-01

45

Characteristic quantities and dimensional analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phenomena in the physical sciences are described with quantities that have a numerical value and a dimension, i.e., a physical unit. Dimensional analysis is a powerful aspect of modeling and simulation. Characteristic quantities formed by a combination of model parameters can give new insights without detailed analytic or numerical calculations. Dimensional requirements lead to Buckingham's ? theorem—a general mathematical structure of all models in physics. These aspects are illustrated with many examples of modeling, e.g., an elastic beam on supports, wave propagation on a liquid surface, the Lennard-Jones potential for the interaction between atoms, the Lindemann melting rule, and saturation phenomena in electrical and thermal conduction.

Grimvall, Göran

46

Characteristic quantities and dimensional analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phenomena in the physical sciences are described with quantities that have a numerical value and a dimension, i.e., a physical unit. Dimensional analysis is a powerful aspect of modeling and simulation. Characteristic quantities formed by a combination of model parameters can give new insights without detailed analytic or numerical calculations. Dimensional requirements lead to Buckingham's ? theorem - a general mathematical structure of all models in physics. These aspects are illustrated with many examples of modeling, e.g., an elastic beam on supports, wave propagation on a liquid surface, the Lennard-Jones potential for the interaction between atoms, the Lindemann melting rule, and saturation phenomena in electrical and thermal conduction.

Grimvall, Göran

47

Physical properties of Moving Magnetic Features observed around a pore  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Movies of magnetograms of sunspots often show small-size magnetic patches that move radially away and seem to be expelled from the field of the spot. These patches are named Moving Magnetic Features (MMFs). They have been mostly observed around spots and have been interpreted as manifestations of penumbral filaments. Nevertheless, few observations of MMFS streaming out from spots without penumbra have been reported. He we investigate the physical properties of MMFs observed around the field of a pore derived by the analyses of high spectral, spatial and temporal resolution data acquired at the Dunn Solar Telescope with IBIS. We find that the main properties of the investigated features agree with those reported for MMFs observed around regular spots. These results indicate that an improvement of current numerical simulations is required to understand the generation of MMFs in the lack of penumbrae.

Criscuoli, S.; Del Moro, D.; Giannattasio, F.; Viticchié, B.; Giorgi, F.; Ermolli, I.; Zuccarello, F.; Berrilli, F.

2012-06-01

48

To observe or not to observe peers when learning physical examination skills; that is the question  

PubMed Central

Background Learning physical examination skills is an essential element of medical education. Teaching strategies include practicing the skills either alone or in-group. It is unclear whether students benefit more from training these skills individually or in a group, as the latter allows them to observing their peers. The present study, conducted in a naturalistic setting, investigated the effects of peer observation on mastering psychomotor skills necessary for physical examination. Methods The study included 185 2nd-year medical students, participating in a regular head-to-toe physical examination learning activity. Students were assigned either to a single-student condition (n = 65), in which participants practiced alone with a patient instructor, or to a multiple-student condition (n = 120), in which participants practiced in triads under patient instructor supervision. The students subsequently carried out a complete examination that was videotaped and subsequently evaluated. Student’s performance was used as a measure of learning. Results Students in the multiple-student condition learned more than those who practiced alone (81% vs 76%, p < 0.004). This result possibly derived from a positive effect of observing peers; students who had the possibility to observe a peer (the second and third students in the groups) performed better than students who did not have this possibility (84% vs 76%, p <. 001). There was no advantage of observing more than one peer (83.7% vs 84.1%, p > .05). Conclusions The opportunity to observe a peer during practice seemed to improve the acquisition of physical examination skills. By using small groups instead of individual training to teach physical examination skills, health sciences educational programs may provide students with opportunities to improve their performance by learning from their peers through modelling.

2013-01-01

49

Physical Temperature Measurements of L1551 from NH3 Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present NH3 and HC7N images of dark cloud L1551 produced from archive observations of the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT). The observations were fully calibrated with the GBT pipeline, and the NH3 line strengths are used to compute the physical temperature and number density of NH3 in the region. The observations of dark cloud L1551 reveal regions of strong emission of NH3 (1,1) emission and much weaker emission of NH3 (2,2) and HC7N J=21-20 lines. We were able to determine a physical-temperature range of 11 to 19 Kelvin for this cloud, but feel that the methods used to obtain these data are applicable beyond this single object. Therefore, we further present our method for using the NH3 (1,1) line fits to constrain model fits of the density, velocity, and temperature distributions of the other transitions. These data were produced using the spectral-line data-reduction pipeline and are provided as examples of data available from the GBT archive.

Towner, Allison P.; Hosmer, L.; Langston, G.

2013-01-01

50

Extreme value laws in dynamical systems under physical observables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extreme value theory for chaotic deterministic dynamical systems is a rapidly expanding area of research. Given a system and a real function (observable) defined on its phase space, extreme value theory studies the limit probabilistic laws obeyed by large values attained by the observable along orbits of the system. Based on this theory, the so-called block maximum method is often used in applications for statistical prediction of large value occurrences. In this method, one performs statistical inference for the parameters of the Generalised Extreme Value (GEV) distribution, using maxima over blocks of regularly sampled observable values along an orbit of the system. The observables studied so far in the theory are expressed as functions of the distance with respect to a point, which is assumed to be a density point of the system's invariant measure. However, at least with respect to the ambient (usually Euclidean) metric, this is not the structure of the observables typically encountered in physical applications, such as windspeed or vorticity in atmospheric models. In this paper we consider extreme value limit laws for observables which are not expressed as functions of the distance (in the ambient metric) from a density point of the dynamical system. In such cases, the limit laws are no longer determined by the functional form of the observable and the dimension of the invariant measure: they also depend on the specific geometry of the underlying attractor and of the observable's level sets. We present a collection of analytical and numerical results, starting with a toral hyperbolic automorphism as a simple template to illustrate the main ideas. We then formulate our main results for a uniformly hyperbolic system, the solenoid map. We also discuss non-uniformly hyperbolic examples of maps (Hénon and Lozi maps) and of flows (the Lorenz63 and Lorenz84 models). Our purpose is to outline the main ideas and to highlight several serious problems found in the numerical estimation of the limit laws.

Holland, Mark P.; Vitolo, Renato; Rabassa, Pau; Sterk, Alef E.; Broer, Henk W.

2012-03-01

51

Physical models of ten asteroids from an observers' collaboration network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aims:We present physical models of ten asteroids obtained by means of lightcurve inversion. A substantial part of the photometric data was observed by amateur astronomers. We emphasize the importance of a coordinated network of observers that will be of extreme importance for future all-sky asteroid photometric surveys. Methods: The lightcurve inversion method was used to derive spin states and shape models of the asteroids. Results: We derived spin states and shape model for ten new asteroids: (110) Lydia, (125) Liberatrix, (130) Elektra, (165) Loreley, (196) Philomela, (218) Bianca, (306) Unitas, (423) Diotima, (776) Berbericia, and (944) Hidalgo. This increases the number of asteroid models up to nearly one hundred. Tables [see full text]-[see full text] are only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

?urech, J.; Kaasalainen, M.; Marciniak, A.; Allen, W. H.; Behrend, R.; Bembrick, C.; Bennett, T.; Bernasconi, L.; Berthier, J.; Bolt, G.; Boroumand, S.; Crespo da Silva, L.; Crippa, R.; Crow, M.; Durkee, R.; Dymock, R.; Fagas, M.; Fauerbach, M.; Fauvaud, S.; Frey, M.; Gonçalves, R.; Hirsch, R.; Jardine, D.; Kami?ski, K.; Koff, R.; Kwiatkowski, T.; López, A.; Manzini, F.; Micha?owski, T.; Pacheco, R.; Pan, M.; Pilcher, F.; Poncy, R.; Pray, D.; Pych, W.; Roy, R.; Santacana, G.; Slivan, S.; Sposetti, S.; Stephens, R.; Warner, B.; Wolf, M.

2007-04-01

52

A Roadmap to Fundamental Physics from LISA EMRI Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna is a future space-based gravitational-wave observatory (a joint mission between the European Space Agency and the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration) that is expected to be launched during the next decade. It will operate in the low-frequency gravitational-wave band, probably the richest part of the gravitational-wave spectrum in terms of science potential, where we find: massive black hole mergers as the outcome of galaxy collisions; many galactic compact binaries; the capture and subsequent inspiral of a stellar compact object into a massive black hole; and gravitational-wave signatures from early universe physical processes connected to high-energy physics and physics not yet fully understood. In this article we focus on the third type of source, the so-called extreme-mass-ratio inspirals, a high precision tool for gravitational wave astronomy that can be used, among other things, to advance in our understanding of fundamental physics questions like the nature and structure of black holes and the details of the gravitational interaction in regimes not yet proven by other experiments/observatories. Here, we give an account of some of the progress made in the development of tools to exploit the future LISA EMRI observations, we discuss what scientific questions we can try to answer from this information and, finally, we discuss the main theoretical challenges that we face in order to develop all the necessary tools to maximize the scientific outcome and some avenues that can be followed to make progress in the near future.

Sopuerta, Carlos F.

2010-09-01

53

Quantity Stickiness versus Stackelberg Leadership  

SciTech Connect

We study the endogenous Stackelberg relations in a dynamic market. We analyze a twice-repeated duopoly where, in the beginning, each firm chooses either a quantity-sticky production mode or a quantity-flexible production mode. The size of the market becomes observable after the first period. In the second period, a firm can adjust its quantity if, and only if, it has adopted the flexible mode. Hence, if one firm chooses the sticky mode whilst the other chooses the flexible mode, then they respectively play the roles of a Stackelberg leader and a Stackelberg follower in the second marketing period. We compute the supply quantities at equilibrium and the corresponding expected profits of the firms. We also analyze the effect of the slope parameter of the demand curve on the expected supply quantities and on the profits.

Ferreira, F. A. [ESEIG, Instituto Politecnico do Porto, Rua D. Sancho I, 981, 4480-876 Vila do Conde (Portugal)

2008-10-30

54

Spectrally resolved interferometric observations of ? Cephei and physical modeling of fast rotating stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. When a given observational quantity depends on several stellar physical parameters, it is generally very difficult to obtain observational constraints for each of them individually. Therefore, we studied under which conditions constraints for some individual parameters can be achieved for fast rotators, knowing that their geometry is modified by the rapid rotation which causes a non-uniform surface brightness distribution. Aims: We aim to study the sensitivity of interferometric observables on the position angle of the rotation axis (PA) of a rapidly rotating star, and whether other physical parameters can influence the determination of PA, and also the influence of the surface differential rotation on the determination of the ? exponent in the gravity darkening law that enters the interpretation of interferometric observations, using ? Cep as a test star. Methods: We used differential phases obtained from observations carried out in the H? absorption line of ? Cep with the VEGA/CHARA interferometer at high spectral resolution, R = 30 000 to study the kinematics in the atmosphere of the star. Results: We studied the influence of the gravity darkening effect (GDE) on the determination of the PA of the rotation axis of ? Cep and determined its value, PA = -157-10°+17°. We conclude that the GDE has a weak influence on the dispersed phases. We showed that the surface differential rotation can have a rather strong influence on the determination of the gravity darkening exponent. A new method of determining the inclination angle of the stellar rotational axis is suggested. We conclude that differential phases obtained with spectro-interferometry carried out on the H? line can in principle lead to an estimate of the stellar inclination angle i. However, to determine both i and the differential rotation parameter ?, lines free from the Stark effect and that have collision-dominated source functions are to be preferred.

Delaa, O.; Zorec, J.; Domiciano de Souza, A.; Mourard, D.; Perraut, K.; Stee, Ph.; Frémat, Y.; Monnier, J.; Kraus, S.; Che, X.; Bério, Ph.; Bonneau, D.; Clausse, J. M.; Challouf, M.; Ligi, R.; Meilland, A.; Nardetto, N.; Spang, A.; McAlister, H.; ten Brummelaar, T.; Sturmann, J.; Sturmann, L.; Turner, N.; Farrington, C.; Goldfinger, P. J.

2013-07-01

55

Seaglider observations of surface mixed layer physics and biogeochemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Ocean Surface Mixing, Ocean Sub-mesoscale Interaction Study (OSMOSIS) aims to develop new, physically-based parameterisations of processes that deepen and shoal the ocean surface boundary layer. As part of this project, 2 Seagliders were deployed in September 2012 at the Porcupine Abyssal Plain (PAP) site in the North Atlantic, to measure the structure and evolution of the ocean surface boundary layer over the seasonal cycle. The gliders measured temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, dive-averaged currents, chlorophyll fluorescence, CDOM fluorescence and PAR. We present results from the first 6 months of the Seaglider deployments, examining particular case studies of deepening/shoaling events and their impact on the biogeochemistry. Shoaling events appear to be more abrupt than deepening events. We also discuss the water masses found in the area, in particular, the occurrences of Mediterranean Water observed at a depth of approximately 800 m. As a contribution to the GROOM project, we assess the advantages and challenges of maintaining a continuous glider-based multidisciplinary observing system at the PAP site, with 2 gliders being turned around approximately every 4 months.

Damerell, Gillian; Heywood, Karen; Thompson, Andrew; Henson, Stephanie; Rumyantseva, Anya

2013-04-01

56

Some Exact Bianchi Type-V Perfect Fluid Cosmological Models with Heat Flow and Decaying Vacuum Energy Density ?: Expressions for Some Observable Quantities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we have obtained some new exact solutions of Einstein’s field equations in a spatially homogeneous and anisotropic Bianchi type-V space-time with perfect fluid distribution along with heat-conduction and decaying vacuum energy density ? by applying the variation law for generalized Hubble’s parameter that yields a constant value of deceleration parameter. We find that the constant value of deceleration parameter is reasonable for the present day universe. The variation law for Hubble’s parameter generates two types of solutions for the average scale factor, one is of power-law type and other is of the exponential form. Using these two forms, Einstein’s field equations are solved separately that correspond to expanding singular and non-singular models of the universe respectively. The cosmological constant ? is found to be a decreasing function of time and positive which is corroborated by results from recent supernovae Ia observations. Expressions for look-back time-redshift, neoclassical tests (proper distance d( z)), luminosity distance red-shift and event horizon are derived and their significance are described in detail. The physical and geometric properties of spatially homogeneous and anisotropic cosmological models are discussed.

Pradhan, Anirudh; Jotania, Kanti

2010-08-01

57

Characteristic quantities and dimensional analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phenomena in the physical sciences are described with quantities that have a numerical value and a dimension, i.e., a physical unit. Dimensional analysis is a powerful aspect of modeling and simulation. Characteristic quantities formed by a combination of model parameters can give new insights without detailed analytic or numerical calculations. Dimensional requirements lead to Buckingham’s ? theorem—a general mathematical structure of all models in physics. These aspects are illustrated with many examples of modeling, e.g., an elastic beam on supports, wave propagation on a liquid surface, the Lennard-Jones potential for the interaction between atoms, the Lindemann melting rule, and saturation phenomena in electrical and thermal conduction.

Grimvall, Göran

2008-04-01

58

Exploratory Observations of Physical Processes in the upper Sulu Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sulu Sea extends roughly 600 km in all directions, is up to 5 km deep, and is connected to the Pacific Ocean, but only via surrounding seas through several straits of varying width and depth. The Dipolog Strait between the Philippine islands of Mindanao and Negros connects the Sulu to the Bohol Sea. Straits between the islands of Panay, Palawan and Borneo connect the Sulu to the South China Sea. Straits between Borneo and Mindanao connect the Sulu to the Sulawesi Sea. External interactions with the Sulu Sea include strait currents, monsoon wind stress, tides and internal waves propagating into the sea from the perimeter. Mooring observations indicate large intraseasonal signals in currents through the Dipolog Strait and the Cuyo East Passage, west of Panay. Known impacts on the Sulu thus have timescales ranging from a day to a year. Currents through the boundary straits reverse direction with depth and so have a complex interaction with the Sulu Sea. To explore physical processes in the Sulu Sea, four in situ surveys were conducted between June 2007 and March 2009 during the Philippines Straits Dynamics Experiment (PhilEx). Observations collected include current from hull-mounted Doppler sonar and temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen and fluorescence from station casts and underway surface measurements. Horizontal shear dominates the surface current pattern. The shear’s horizontal scales are small compared to the Sulu Sea’s dimensions. The surface water also has significant density fronts at scales similar to the horizontal shear. This horizontal structure is described by viewing observed properties on maps and as a function of along-track position. Horizontal structure is quantified by computing basic statistics along-track and through spectral and wavelet analysis. A topic investigated is the relative role of boundary strait current variability and wind forcing in generating the observed horizontal shear and density fronts. When currents directed into the Sulu are stronger, more energy could be available for eddies in the sea and these eddies could have sizes related to strait dimensions. Sulu Sea water is traced to sources in boundary straits. One example is relatively warm and fresh surface water which appears to come from the Balabac Strait between Palawan and Borneo. A broader horizontal picture of the Sulu Sea is established by using remote sensing and numerical model output.

Martin, J. P.; Gordon, A. L.

2010-12-01

59

Observations and Inferred Physical Characteristics of Compact Intracloud Discharges  

SciTech Connect

Compact intracloud discharges (CIDS) represent a distinct class of electrical discharges that occur within intense regions of thunderstorms. They are singular discharges that produce brief (typically 3 µs in duration) broadband RF emissions that are 20 to 30 dB more powerful than radiation from all other recorded lightning processes in the HF and VHF radio spectrum. Far field electric field change recordings of CIDS consist of a single, large-amplitude bipolar pulse that begins to rise during the RF-producing phase of the CID and typically lasts for 20 µs. During the summer of 1998 we operated a 4-station array of electric field change meters in New Mexico to support FORTE satellite observations of transient RF and optical sources and to learn more about the phenomenology and physical characteristics of CIDS. Over 800 CIDS were detected and located during the campaign. The events were identified on the basis of their unique field change waveforms. CID source heights determined using the relative delays of ionospherically reflected source emissions were typically between 4 and 11 km above ground level. Events of both positive and negative polarity were observed with events' of initially- negative polarity (indicative of discharges occurring between underlying positive and overlying negative charge) occurring at slightly higher altitudes. Within CID field change waveforms the CID pulse was often followed within a few ms by one or more smaller-amplitude pulses. We associate these subsequent pulses with the initial activity of a "normal" intracloud flash, the inference being that some fraction of the time, a CID initiates an intracloud lightning flash.

Argo, P.E.; Eack, K.B.; Holden, D.N.; Massey, R.S.; Shao, X.; Smith, D.A.; Wiens, K.C.

1999-02-01

60

Physical Characterization of Warm Spitzer Observed Near-Earth Objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The majority of Near Earth Objects (NEOs) originated in collisions between bodies in the main asteroid belt and have found their way into near Earth space via complex and little understood dynamical interactions. This transport of material from the main belt into the inner Solar System has shaped the histories of the terrestrial planets. However, despite their scientific importance, key characteristics of the NEO population remain largely unexplored; some 99% of all presently known NEOs are essentially uncharacterized. We have an accepted Warm Spitzer Exploration Science Program (PI: Trilling) that allocates 500 hours of Spitzer time to observe ~700 NEOs. We will measure (1) the size distribution of this population; (2) the fraction of NEOs likely to be dead comets; (3) the albedo distribution of NEOs. We propose to gather spectroscopic data from a variety of telescopic facilities in order to physically characterize a significant subset of this Warm Spitzer NEO sample. By combining the size and albedo information from Spitzer with the compositional information from ground- based spectroscopy we hope to shed light on several questions about the evolution and origin of the near-Earth asteroid population.

Thomas, Cristina A.; Trilling, David E.; Emery, Joshua P.; Hora, Joseph L.

2011-02-01

61

Physical Characterization of Warm Spitzer Observed Near-Earth Objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The majority of Near Earth Objects (NEOs) originated in collisions between bodies in the main asteroid belt and have found their way into near Earth space via complex and little understood dynamical interactions. This transport of material from the main belt into the inner Solar System has shaped the histories of the terrestrial planets. However, despite their scientific importance, key characteristics of the NEO population remain largely unexplored; some 99% of all presently known NEOs are essentially uncharacterized. We have an accepted Warm Spitzer Exploration Science Program (PI: Trilling) that allocates 500 hours of Spitzer time to observe ~700 NEOs. We will measure (1) the size distribution of this population; (2) the fraction of NEOs likely to be dead comets; (3) the albedo distribution of NEOs. We propose to gather spectroscopic data from a variety of telescopic facilities in order to physically characterize a significant subset of this Warm Spitzer NEO sample. By combining the size and albedo information from Spitzer with the compositional information from telescope spectroscopy we hope to shed light on several questions about the evolution and origin of the near-Earth asteroid population.

Thomas, Cristina A.; Trilling, David E.; Emery, Joshua P.; Hora, Joseph L.; Delbo, Marco

2010-08-01

62

Assessing Children's Physical Activity in Their Homes: The Observational System for Recording Physical Activity in Children-Home  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The present study describes the development and pilot testing of the Observation System for Recording Physical Activity in Children-Home version. This system was developed to document physical activity and related physical and social contexts while children are at home. An analysis of interobserver agreement and a description of children's…

McIver, Kerry L.; Brown, William H.; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; Dowda, Marsha; Pate, Russell R.

2009-01-01

63

Radiometric quantities and units  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiometric quantities and units It is logical that in a single issue devoted to a specialist topic there should be, at the outset, a brief discussion of currently agreed terminology. This does not mean that each article will comply nor every author concur with the definitions below. However, there is fairly broad agreement on the quantities and units described in

Harry Moseley; David H. Sliney

1997-01-01

64

Physical Characterization of Tropical Oceanic Convection Observed in KWAJEX  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Kwajalein Experiment (KWAJEX) was designed to obtain an empirical physical characterization of precipitating convective clouds over the tropical ocean. Coordinated datasets were collected by three aircraft, one ship, five upper-air sounding sites, and a variety of continuously recording remote and in situ surface-based sensors, including scanning Doppler radars, profilers, disdrometers, and rain gauges. This

Sandra E. Yuter; ROBERT A. HOUZE JR; Eric A. Smith; Thomas T. Wilheit; Edward Zipser

2005-01-01

65

Extreme value laws in dynamical systems under physical observables  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extreme value theory for chaotic dynamical systems is a rapidly expanding area of research. Given a system and a real function (observable) defined on its phase space, extreme value theory studies the limit probabilistic laws obeyed by large values attained by the observable along orbits of the system. Based on this theory, the so-called block maximum method is often used

Mark P. Holland; Renato Vitolo; Pau Rabassa; Alef E. Sterk; Henk W. Broer

2011-01-01

66

Extreme value laws in dynamical systems under physical observables  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extreme value theory for chaotic deterministic dynamical systems is a rapidly expanding area of research. Given a system and a real function (observable) defined on its phase space, extreme value theory studies the limit probabilistic laws obeyed by large values attained by the observable along orbits of the system. Based on this theory, the so-called block maximum method is often

Mark P. Holland; Renato Vitolo; Pau Rabassa; Alef E. Sterk; Henk W. Broer

2012-01-01

67

Near-Earth Asteroid Physical Observations: 1993-1995  

Microsoft Academic Search

In September 1993, we initiated a regular program of photometric observations of Near-Earth objects. Since that time we have been allocated 5-7 nights per month at the 42'' Hall telescope at Anderson Mesa. There are three goals of our observing program for each asteroid: (1) to obtain an accurate rotation period and characterization of the lightcurve, (2) to obtain the

B. A. Skiff; M. W. Buie; E. Bowell

1996-01-01

68

The physics and modes of star cluster formation: observations.  

PubMed

Stellar clusters are born in cold and dusty molecular clouds and the youngest clusters are embedded to various degrees in a dusty dark molecular material. Such embedded clusters can be considered protocluster systems. The most deeply buried examples are so heavily obscured by dust that they are only visible at infrared wavelengths. These embedded protoclusters constitute the nearest laboratories for a direct astronomical investigation of the physical processes of cluster formation and early evolution. I review the present state of empirical knowledge concerning embedded-cluster systems and discuss the implications for understanding their formation and subsequent evolution to produce bound stellar clusters. PMID:20083503

Lada, Charles J

2010-02-28

69

Geometrical properties of Riemannian superspaces, observables and physical states  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Classical and quantum aspects of physical systems that can be described by Riemannian non-degenerate superspaces are analyzed from the topological and geometrical points of view. For the N=1 case the simplest supermetric introduced by Cirilo-Lombardo (Phys. Lett. B 661:186, 2008) have the correct number of degrees of freedom for the fermion fields and the super-momentum fulfills the mass shell condition, in sharp contrast with other cases in the literature where the supermetric is degenerate. This fact leads a deviation of the 4-impulse (e.g. mass constraint) that can be mechanically interpreted as a modification of the Newton law. Quantum aspects of the physical states and the basic states, and the projection relation between them, are completely described due the introduction of a new Majorana-Weyl representation of the generators of the underlying group manifold. A new oscillatory fermionic effect in the B 0 part of the vacuum solution involving the chiral and antichiral components of this Majorana bispinor is explicitly shown.

Cirilo-Lombardo, Diego Julio

2012-07-01

70

The JMU Mineral Museum - Observing Physical Properties of Minerals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Mineral museums provide a resourse for students to explore beautiful examples of minerals. During the exploration process, they can also apply or reinforce visual observation skills they have learned in lab. The James Madison University Mineral Museum (http://csm.jmu.edu/minerals/) provides educational opportunities for both introductory geology and earth science courses as well as advanced major. In this exercise, students have possibly their first opportunity to enjoy the wonderous world of minerals in an exhilerating display. During the exploration process, students are provided a reinforcment of visual observation skills previously experienced in lab and an introduction to mineral names and classifications.

Kearns, Cynthia A.

71

Physical Oceanography of the Caribbean Sea: Some Recent Observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent oceanographic observations in the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico (the Intra-Americas Sea) have contributed to our understanding of IAS circulation, the dynamics forcing the circulation, and the role of the IAS in hemispheric ocean processes. Specifically, recent results from several programs will be presented and discussed: The Windward Islands Passages Program, designed to measure upper ocean transport and

D. Wilson; W. E. Johns

2001-01-01

72

Spherical Unidentified Anomalous Phenomena: Scientific Observations and Physical Hypotheses, Danger Evaluation For Aviation and Future Observational Plans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spherical unidentified anomalous phenomena (UAP), of both plasma and solid-like kinds, have often been observed in the world. Several monitoring campaigns have permitted us to know better some structural properties and temporal behaviour of such phenomena. On the basis of what has been observed so far, and considering the deduced constants that characterize the phenomenon, and of the consequent physical working-hypotheses that results, possible dangers to aviation are examined from several point of view of physical science; both natural and non-natural features of these kind of UAP are considered. A systematic instrumented observational plan is proposed, involving both recurrence areas and time flaps of the phenomenon itself.

Teodorani, M.

2010-05-01

73

Learning Physics from the Real World by Direct Observation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is axiomatic that hands-on experience provides many learning opportunities, which lectures and textbooks cannot match. Moreover, experiments involving the real world are beneficial in helping students to gain a level of understanding that they might not otherwise achieve. One practical limitation with the real world is that simplifications and approximations are sometimes necessary to make the material accessible; however, these types of adjustments can be viewed with misgiving when they appear arbitrary and/or convenience-based. The present work describes a very familiar feature of everyday life, whose underlying physics is examined without modifications to mitigate difficulties from the lack of control in a non-laboratory environment. In the absence of any immediate formula to process results, students are encouraged to reach ab initio answers with guidance provided by a structured series of worksheets. Many of the latter can be completed as homework assignments prior to activity in the field. This approach promotes thinking and inquiry as valuable attributes instead of unquestioningly following a prescribed path.

Shaibani, Saami J.

2012-03-01

74

The physics and observational signatures of galaxy cluster mergers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structure of galaxy clusters has long been thought to scale with the system mass. However, recent X-ray observations by Chandra and XMM-Newton have revealed that cluster structure depends weakly on the mass. In this thesis, we study whether the departure from scale-free structure introduces a mass-dependence to the growth of clusters by collisions with similar systems, called mergers. We have compiled a library of 156 simulations of binary cluster mergers, the Simulation Library of Astrophysical galaxy cluster Mergers (SLAM) database, that covers an unprecedented parameter space volume. The structures of our initial models are in excellent agreement with recent X-ray observations. We utilize one million particles to resolve the more massive of the clusters, each composed of dark matter and gas. We conduct our simulations with the TreeSPH simulation code Gadget-2. Our simulations are fully converged. We compare the evolution of mergers across the parameter space covered by our simulations and find evidence that the merging process is not self-similar, due to differences in the initial cluster structures. All remnants experience mass loss that depends on the merger configuration, and has a different dependence on the initial mass ratio for the gas and dark matter. Equal-mass mergers lead to substantial dark matter loss, due to violent relaxation. Gas mass loss is more significant for high mass ratios, due to ram pressure variability during the merger. The properties of the gas core depend sensitively on the initial merger parameters. However, beyond the core the cluster structure is independent of the remnant's merger history. We quantify substructure in X-ray images, and find that it is not intimately linked to the dynamical state of the cluster. However, substructure may survive in X-ray images for up to 5 Gyr complicating the interpretation of X-ray images. We conclude that substructure seen in low-redshift images of X-ray faint clusters may be due to high-redshift mergers.

Chatzikos, Marios

75

Radar observations and a physical model of Asteroid 1580 Betulia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report Arecibo (2380-MHz, 13-cm) observations of Asteroid 1580 Betulia in May-June 2002. We combine these continuous-wave Doppler spectra and delay-Doppler images with optical lightcurves from the 1976 and 1989 apparitions in order to estimate Betulia's shape and spin vector. We confirm the spin vector solution of Kaasalainen et al. [Kaasalainen, M., and 21 colleagues, 2004. Icarus 167, 178-196], with sidereal period P=6.13836 h and ecliptic pole direction (?,?)=(136°,+22°), and obtain a model that resembles the Kaasalainen et al. convex-definite shape reconstruction but is dominated by a prominent concavity in the southern hemisphere. We find that Betulia has a maximum breadth of 6.59±0.66 km and an effective diameter of 5.39±0.54 km. These dimensions are in accord with reanalyzed polarimetric and radar data from the 1970s. Our effective diameter is 15% larger than the best radiometric estimate of Harris et al. [Harris, A.W., Mueller, M., Delbó, M., Bus, S.J., 2005. Icarus 179, 95-108], but this difference is much smaller than the size differences between past models. Considering orbits of test particles around Betulia, we find that this asteroid's unusual shape results in six equilibrium points close to its equatorial plane rather than the usual four points; two of these six points represent stable synchronous orbits while four are unstable. Betulia's close planetary encounters can be predicted for over four thousand years into the future.

Magri, Christopher; Ostro, Steven J.; Scheeres, Daniel J.; Nolan, Michael C.; Giorgini, Jon D.; Benner, Lance A. M.; Margot, Jean-Luc

2007-01-01

76

Modulation of Motor Cortex Excitability by Physical Similarity with an Observed Hand Action  

Microsoft Academic Search

The passive observation of hand actions is associated with increased motor cortex excitability, presumably reflecting activity within the human mirror neuron system (MNS). Recent data show that in-group ethnic membership increases motor cortex excitability during observation of culturally relevant hand gestures, suggesting that physical similarity with an observed body part may modulate MNS responses. Here, we ask whether the MNS

Marie-Christine Désy; Hugo Théoret; Edwin Robertson

2007-01-01

77

The Observation and Description of Teaching Behavior and Interaction of Selected Physical Education Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to observe and describe the teaching behavior and interaction patterns of four elementary school physical education teachers longitudinally. Each teacher was observed twice a day (AM and PM) for a period of 20 consecutive days, resulting in 40 observations per subject. The following conclusions were reached: (1)…

Cheffers, John T. F.; Lombardo, Bennett J.

78

Nonclassical transport processes in geologic media: Review of field and laboratory observations and basic physical concepts  

SciTech Connect

We present an overview of the problem of solute transport in unsaturated heterogeneous media. We first review field and laboratory observations that demonstrate nonclassical flow and transport behavior. The main physical principles causing anomalous transport regimes in fractured rock media are identified. The basic factors and physical concepts needed to describe anomalous transport in saturated and unsaturated fractured rock are discussed in detail.

Bolshov, L.; Kondratenko, P.; Pruess, K.; Semenov, V.

2008-09-01

79

Physical Therapy Observation and Assessment in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article presents the elements of the Observation and Assessment section of the Infant Care Path for Physical Therapy in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). The types of physical therapy assessments presented in this path are evidence-based and the suggested timing of these assessments is primarily based on practice knowledge from expert…

Byrne, Eilish; Campbell, Suzann K.

2013-01-01

80

Latency-Information Theory: The Mathematical-Physical Theory of Communication-Observation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this paper the mathematical-physical theory of communication- observation that is part of latency-information theory (LIT) is reviewed. LIT surfaced from the confluence of classical information theory, relativity theory, quantum mechanics, statistical ...

E. H. Feria

2010-01-01

81

Quantity-Distance Criteria for Small Net Explosives Quantities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) document AASTP1, 'Safety Principles for the Storage of Military Ammunition and Explosives' does not provide quantity-distance criteria guidance for net explosive quantities (NEQ) less than 5OO kilograms -sitin...

J. J. Goold J. M. Ward M. J. Gould

1994-01-01

82

Physical and orbital properties of micrometeors observed using the 430 MHz Arecibo observatory radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physical and orbital properties of 1200+ radar micrometeors are deduced from more than 8000+ event detections using the 430 MHz Arecibo radar in Puerto Rico. These results are very distinct from classical HF\\/VHF radar observations in that the head-echo (radar scattering from the region immediately surrounding the meteoroid) is always observed, leading uniquely to very accurate Doppler speed determinations. A

Diego Janches

2000-01-01

83

What Preservice Physical Educators Observe about Lessons in Progressive Field Experiences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Freshmen through senior physical education majors' observation and interpretation of a videotaped soccer skill lesson indicated that over time they tended to observe the lesson more congruently with program goals and reflect the targeted teaching skills in the current field experience. The quality and clarity of responses improved as the subjects…

Belka, David E.

1988-01-01

84

Testing Gravitational Physics with Space-based Gravitational-wave Observations.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gravitational wave observations provide exceptional and unique opportunities for precision tests of gravitational physics, as predicted by general relativity (GR). Space-based gravitational wave measurements, with high signal-to-noise ratios and large numbers of observed events may provide the best-suited gravitational-wave observations for testing GR with unprecedented precision. These observations will be especially useful in testing the properties of gravitational waves and strong-field aspects of the theory which are less relevant in other observations. We review the proposed GR test based on observations of massive black hole mergers, extreme mass ratio insprials, and galactic binary systems.

Baker, John G.; Gair, J.; Larson, S.; Vallisneri, M.

2012-01-01

85

Lunatics in Introductory Physics: Using Collectivized Student Moon Position Observations To Teach Basic Orbital Mechanics In Calculus Based Introductory Physics.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A large (74 student) calculus based physics class was required to make observations of the moon over two lunar cycles using a small telescope equipped with mechanical setting circles. The data was collectivized and then analyzed in the laboratory to determine the period of the moon and to search for evidence of the eccentricity of the moon's orbit. These results were used in conjunction with the simple pendulum experiment in which the students inferred the acceleration due to gravity. The student inferred lunar orbital period and acceleration due to gravity (augmented with the radius of the Earth) enabled the students to infer the average Earth to moon distance. Class lectures, activities, and homework on gravitation and orbits were tailored to this observational activity thereby forming a learning module. A basic physics and orbital mechanics knowledge questionnaire was administered before and after the learning module. The resulting learning gains are reported here.

Bottorff, Mark

2012-01-01

86

Features and amenities of school playgrounds: A direct observation study of utilization and physical activity levels outside of school time  

PubMed Central

Background A significant amount of research has examined whether park or playground availability is associated with physical activity. However, little research has examined whether specific features or amenities of parks or playgrounds, such as the number of unique types of playground equipment or the safety of the equipment is associated with utilization of the facility or physical activity levels while at the facility. There are no studies that use direct observation and a detailed park assessment to examine these associations. Methods Twenty urban schoolyards in the Midwest, ten of which were renovated, were included in this study. Using a detailed environmental assessment tool (i.e., Environmental Assessment of Public Recreation Spaces), information on a variety of playground attributes was collected. Using direct observation (i.e., System for Observing Play and Leisure Activity in Youth), the number of adults, girls and boys attending each schoolyard and their physical activity levels were recorded. Each schoolyard was observed ten times for 90 minutes each time outside of school hours. Clustered multivariable negative binomial regressions and linear regressions were completed to examine the association between playground attributes and utilization of the schoolyard and the proportion active on the playground, respectively. Effect modification by renovation status was also examined. Results At renovated schoolyards, the total number of play features was significantly associated with greater utilization in adults and girls; overall cleanliness was significantly associated with less utilization in girls and boys; and coverage/shade for resting features was significantly associated with greater utilization in adults and boys. At unrenovated schoolyards, overall safety was significantly associated with greater utilization in boys. No playground attribute was associated with the proportion active on the playground after adjusting for all other significant playground attributes. Conclusions Having a large quantity of play features and shade at renovated playgrounds were positively associated with utilization of the schoolyard. Modifying playgrounds to have these features may increase the utilization of these facilities outside of school time. Additional research should explore what features and amenities are associated with increased physical activity levels of children and adults who utilize the facilities.

2011-01-01

87

Leisure-Time Physical Activity in School Environments: An Observational Study Using SOPLAY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Schools provide settings for physical activity (PA), but objective tools for measuring PA are lacking. We assessed an instrument to directly observe group PA and measured the leisure-time PA of adolescents throughout the school day.Methods. Leisure-time PA was studied by direct observation in 24 middle schools in Southern California using SOPLAY (System for Observing Play and Leisure Activity in

Thomas L. McKenzie; Simon J. Marshall; James F. Sallis; Terry L. Conway

2000-01-01

88

Models of Laterally Variable Viscous Flow in the Earth's Mantle With Constraints From Mineral Physics and Surface Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earth's mantle viscosity is commonly assessed by mineral physics, studies of post-glacial rebound and models of global mantle flow. As has been shown in previous studies of large-scale mantle flow, details of the viscous stratification may not be deduced unambiguously under the commonly employed constraint of static geoid, Haskell constraint of PGR, observed plate motions and estimates of dynamic topography. However, the added difficulty of the inferior determination of observable fields other than the geoid and/or artificialities inherent in their implementation in flow calculations (e.g. boundary conditions for plate tectonic behaviour) serves to complicate the interpretation of flow models by introducing artifacts which are very difficult to assess, rendering a mere addition offurther observables to fit, such as core-mantle boundary topography, lithospheric stresses, radial heat flow, in an effort to reduce this ambiguity, unfeasible. B. Steinberger and A. Calderwood [1] deduced detailed radially averaged temperature-dependent viscosity variations from independent mineral physics results and, assuming density heterogeneities and seismic tomography anomalies to be of thermal origin, computed conversion profiles for these quantities. Here, their recent study is extended to laterally variable viscosities (LVV) using an analytical spherical code. For laterally variable viscosity, each spherical harmonic mode is treated separately under the assumption of a suitable laterally averaged viscous stratification, while the mode-coupling is accounted for iteratively in terms of a viscous-load term on the right-hand side of the set ofODEs describing the flow field [2]. Lateral viscosity contrasts of up to a factor of 103 can be treated. This range of viscosity variation suffices for the modeling of tomography- and upper-mantle slab sinking model-derived temperature-dependent LVV. We optimize the viscosity profiles obtained from mineral physics by dynamic modeling of geoid, surface motion and dynamic topography while satisfying the Haskell constraint, employing a minimum of fitting variables (3-4 anchor viscosities within the upper mantle, an additional factor balancing the laterally variable viscosity to account for errors entering this quantity). We find that inclusion of LVV necessitates a modification to our previously optimized, merely radially stratified, viscosities. While the latter displayed no clear preference for the location with depth of the lowest viscosities, models with LVV seem to favor the occurence of a soft layer just below the lithosphere over one in the transition zone. The misfit between predicted and constraining surface observables varies little between the cases radially and laterally variable viscosity, while differences are more pronounced between input tomographies themselves. [1] B. Steinberger and A. Calderwood. Models of viscous flow in the Earth's mantle with constraints from mineral physics and surface observations. GJI, 2005, submitted. [2] S. Zhang and U. Christensen. Some effects of lateral variations on geoid and surface velocities induced by density anomalies in the mantle. Geophys. J. Int., 114:531-547, 1993.

Niehuus, K.; Schmeling, H.

2005-12-01

89

In situ observation of a soap-film catenoid—a simple educational physics experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The solution to the Euler-Lagrange equation is an extremal functional. To understand that the functional is stationary at local extrema (maxima or minima), we propose a physics experiment that involves using a soap film to form a catenoid. A catenoid is a surface that is formed between two coaxial circular rings and is classified mathematically as a minimal surface. Using the soap film, we create catenoids between two rings and characterize the catenoid in situ while varying the distance between the rings. The shape of the soap film is very interesting and can be explained using dynamic mechanics. By observing the catenoid, physics students can observe local extrema phenomena. We stress that in situ observation of soap-film catenoids is an appropriate physics experiment that combines theory and experimentation.

Ito, Masato; Sato, Taku

2010-03-01

90

Assessing Physical Activity in Public Parks in Brazil Using Systematic Observation  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We assessed park use in Recife, Brazil, and differences in physical activity and occupation rates in public parks with and without the Academia da Cidade Program (ACP), which provides cost-free, supervised physical activity classes. Methods. We used the System for Observing Play and Recreation in Communities (SOPARC) in 128 targeted areas in 10 park sites (5 ACP sites, 5 non-ACP sites) to obtain data on the number of users and their physical activity levels and estimated age. Each area was assessed 4 times a day for 11 days over a 4-week period. Results. A total of 32 974 people were observed during 5589 observation visits to target areas. People using ACP parks were more likely to be seen engaging in moderate-to-vigorous (64% vs 49%) and vigorous (25% vs 10%) physical activity. Relatively more participants in ACP sites than in non-ACP sites were females (45% vs 42% of park users) and older adults (14.7% vs 5.7% of park users). Conclusions. On the basis of systematic observation, ACP appears to be a useful strategy in promoting park use and physical activity among the population in Recife.

McKenzie, Thomas L.; Ribeiro, Isabela C.; Ferreira Hino, Adriano A.; Dreisinger, Mariah; Coniglio, Kathryn; Munk, Marcia; Brownson, Ross C.; Pratt, Michael; Hoehner, Christine M.; Simoes, Eduardo J.

2010-01-01

91

Viking landing sites, remote-sensing observations, and physical properties of Martian surface materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Consideration is given to the relations between the physical properties of the surface materials at Viking landing sites, the physical properties of other Martian surfaces inferred from radar observations from earth and thermal observations from orbit, and the geological processes that formed the materials and shaped the surfaces. The radar and thermal remote-sensing signatures of the landing site surface materials are estimated and compared with the thermal and radar measurements for the entire planet. It is shown that the surface materials at the landing sites are good analogs for the materials in most of the Martian equatorial regions.

Moore, H. J.; Jakosky, B. M.

1989-09-01

92

Physical features observation: is it repeatable in zygosity determination of Chinese adult twins?  

PubMed

This study reports on the inter- and intrarater reliability of physical features observation. Study subjects were 176 Chinese adult persons, consisting of 89 males and 87 females. Three trained research assistants responded simultaneously and respectively to 12 items regarding the subject's physical features including 'hair', 'Mongoloid folds', left and right 'ear lobes', 'earwax', 'nostril shape', 'tongue rolling', left and right 'hitchhiker's thumb', 'mid-digital hair' and left and right 'simian crease' at the moment of interview. And 14 days later, these subjects received the same observation once again. The results showed that the inter- and intra-observer agreements of 'hair', 'earwax', 'tongue rolling', 'mid-digital hair' and 'simian crease' were almost perfect with most kappa (kappa) coefficients >or= .80, while 'Mongoloid fold' and 'nostril shape' showed poor inter-observer agreement and 'nostril shape' showed poor intra-observer agreement (kappa < .40). Two other physical features, 'hitchhiker's thumb' and 'ear lobes' showed moderate inter-observer agreement and three features, 'hitchhiker's thumb', 'ear lobes' and 'Mongoloid fold', showed moderate intra-observer agreement (.40

Gao, Wenjing; Li, Liming; Cao, Weihua; Zhan, Siyan; Zhao, Yunlong; Wang, Hui; Hu, Yonghua

2010-02-01

93

SuperIso Relic: A program for calculating relic density and flavor physics observables in Supersymmetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe SuperIso Relic, a public program for evaluation of relic density and flavor physics observables in the minimal supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model (MSSM). SuperIso Relic is an extension of the SuperIso program which adds to the flavor observables of SuperIso the computation of all possible annihilation and coannihilation processes of the LSP which are required for the

A. Arbey; F. Mahmoudi

2010-01-01

94

2009 C. H. McCloy Lecture. Seeing Is Believing: Observing Physical Activity and Its Contexts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Direct (systematic) observation has been a mainstay of my research for over three decades. I believe it is an important tool for assessing physical activity, because it can simultaneously provide contextually rich data on the setting in which the activity occurs. It is particularly useful for those interested in using ecological and…

McKenzie, Thomas L.

2010-01-01

95

Feedback Schedules for Motor-Skill Learning: The Similarities and Differences between Physical and Observational Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2 experiments, the authors assessed different knowledge of results (KR) schedules for observational and physical practice. In Experiment 1, participants had to learn a sequence timing task under either a bandwidth (KR being delivered when participants’ performance was outside a predefined bandwidth or range) or yoked (same number of KRs provided as the bandwidth group) KR procedure. The results

Arnaud Badets; Yannick Blandin

2010-01-01

96

School sport policy and school-based physical activity environments and their association with observed physical activity in middle school children.  

PubMed

Empirical research on the effects of school sport policies on children's physical activity is limited. This study examined sport policies (intramural vs. varsity), physical settings within schools, and supervision in relation to physical activity using the System for Observing Play and Leisure in Youth (SOPLAY). Data were collected on physical activity levels of children in four middle schools. Regression analyses assessed the main effects of sport policy, type of physical activity setting, and supervision as well as interactions. Regression models were stratified by gender. Children in intramural schools were more likely to use indoor spaces and be boys. Regression models indicated that varsity sport programs were associated with lower physical activity levels among boys but not girls. Significant associations between type of physical activity settings and physical activity levels were observed only for boys. Adult supervision was not associated with children's physical activity levels. Finally, descriptive results showed athletic facilities were under-utilized in all schools. PMID:21900034

Bocarro, Jason N; Kanters, Michael A; Cerin, Ester; Floyd, Myron F; Casper, Jonathan M; Suau, Luis J; McKenzie, Thomas L

2011-08-23

97

Tri-Axial Accelerometry and Heart Rate Telemetry: Relation and Agreement with Behavioral Observation in Elementary Physical Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The relation and agreement of tri-axial accelerometry and heart rate telemetry in measuring moderate to vigorous physical activity were examined in association to behavioral observation during 1st- and 2nd-grade physical education. In Study 1, physical activity measures of heart rate and behavioral observation were collected on 346 participants…

Scruggs, Philip W.; Beveridge, Sandy K.; Clocksin, Brian D.

2005-01-01

98

Observational Evidence for Two Cosmological Predictions Made by Bit-String Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research program has a long history, starting with the discovery of the combinatorial hierarchy by A.F. Parker-Rhodes in 1961, but has not attracted much attention in the mainstream literature. One difficulty, according to several of our critics, is that although BSP has produced approximate values for well known physical parameters it has not led to quantitative predictions prior to observation. Here we meet this difficulty in an unexpected manner by showing that recent cosmological observations support two predictions made about a decade ago when there was no available way to compare them with observation.

Noyes, H. P.

2001-03-01

99

MOND's acceleration scale as a fundamental quantity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some quantum-cosmic scaling relations indicate that the MOND acceleration parameter a0 could be a fundamental quantity ruling the self-gravitating structures, ranging from globular clusters up to clusters of galaxies and the whole observed universe. We discuss such coincidence relations starting from the Dirac quantization condition ruling the masses of primordial black holes.

Bernal, T.; Capozziello, S.; Cristofano, G.; De Laurentis, M.

2012-07-01

100

Mond's Acceleration Scale as a Fundamental Quantity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some quantum-cosmic scaling relations indicate that the MOND acceleration parameter a0 could be a fundamental quantity ruling the self-gravitating structures, ranging from stars and globular clusters up to superclusters of galaxies and the whole observed universe. We discuss such coincidence relations starting from the Dirac quantization condition ruling the masses of primordial black holes.

Bernal, Tula; Capozziello, Salvatore; Cristofano, Gerardo; de Laurentis, Mariafelicia

101

Handheld Computers for Direct Observation of the Social and Physical Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article evaluates the use of handheld computers for systematic observation of the social and physical environments. Handheld computers, also known as personal digital assistants (PDAs), make the advantages of computer-assisted data collection (CADC) more accessible to field-based researchers. In particular, CADC with handheld computers may improve data quality, reduce turnaround time, and enhance research capacity for community-academic partnerships. Here,

Clarence C. Gravlee; Shannon N. Zenk; Sachiko Woods; Zachary Rowe; Amy J. Schulz

2006-01-01

102

Physical Processes of Substorm Onset and Current Disruption Observed by AMPTE\\/CCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new scenario of AMPTE\\/CCE observation of substorm onset and current disruption and the corresponding physical processes is presented. Toward the end of the late growth phase, plasma beta increases to greater than or equal to 50 and a low-frequency instability with a wave period of 50-75 seconds is excited and grows exponentially to a large amplitude at the onset

C. Z. Cheng; A. T. Y. Lui

1998-01-01

103

Physical State of the ``Bright'' South Seasonal Polar Cap From OMEGA Observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The composition, physical state and texture of the South Seasonal Polar Cap (SSPC) have important consequences on energy balance. The imaging spectrometer OMEGA on board Mars Express has acquired the most comprehensive set of observations to date in the near-infrared (0.93-5.1 microns) on the SSPC from mid-winter solstice (Ls=110° , December 2004) to the end of the recession at Ls=320°

S. Doute; F. Schmidt; B. Schmitt; M. Vincendon; Y. Langevin; B. Gondet; J. Bibring

2009-01-01

104

Assimilation of MODIS and AMSR-E Snow Parameter Observations into a Physical Snow Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The assimilation of binary (yes/no) type observations of non-state variables, as well as lower resolution observations of state variables, into any data assimilation scheme poses a significant problem to the scheme. However, these data may still be of use to the assimilation scheme. In the problem of modeling the evolution of snow there are high spatial resolution snow cover observations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), which is not a state variable of the numerical model but is a binary function of the state variable, Snow Water Equivalent (SWE). An addition problem with these data is that this binary function is non-unique, as a positive snow cover signal will correspond to any value of SWE potentially. Direct observations of SWE are available from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - for the Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) but are at a coarse spatial and temporal resolution, introducing another non-unique function between SWE and the a set of observations. In this paper we present some data assimilation schemes to assimilate MODIS snow cover and AMSR-E SWE observations; firstly on their own into a high resolution physical snow model and then through different combinations of the two. The results from these experiments help demonstrate that we can assimilate binary type observations if we can constrain the non-uniquessness and that they have a positive impact on the modeled snow evolution and to have better agreement with future MODIS snow cover observations.

Fletcher, S. J.; Liston, G. E.; Hiemstra, C. A.; Miller, S. D.

2011-12-01

105

Strategies for Estimating Discrete Quantities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the benchmark and decomposition-recomposition estimation strategies and presents five techniques to develop students' estimation ability. Suggests situations involving quantities of candy and popcorn in which the teacher can model those strategies for the students. (MDH)

Crites, Terry W.

1993-01-01

106

Cool atmosphere models and observations: liability and limits of brown dwarfs and exoplanets physical parameters determination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of cool atmospheres is currently a fruitful field of interaction between theorists developing better atmosphere models and observers discovering new cool objects and analysing their emission spectrum. Save for a few close binaries with known parallax and a dynamical mass determination, comparison of spectra to models is the only method available to observers to derive the fundamental physical parameters of a substellar object, such as mass, temperature, age or metallicity. Most of our knowledge of key substellar parameters thus rests upon theoretical models reliability. This issue is particularly acute for the newly imaged exoplanets, whose parameter range of youth and extreme low-mass has not been probed before, but we show that model reliability remains problematic even for field L and T dwarfs, whose observed spectra have guided the model development over the past fifteen years. We present several models-to-observations comparisons, which remind that even the last-generation atmosphere models keep having trouble quantitatively reproducing overall spectral parameters such as absorption band strength measured through spectral indices and broad band absolute magnitudes. These tests confirm that the models cannot yet be used at face value to read off physical parameters, and need empirical calibration on well constrained benchmarks. While the models are sufficiently predictive to produce useful differential measurements over limited parameter ranges, using them without empirical rescaling and anchoring generally leads to significantly inaccurate results.

Delorme, P.; Weidner, C.

2010-10-01

107

Satellite observations of asymmetrical physical and biological responses to Hurricane Earl  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Asymmetrical physical and biological responses to Hurricane Earl in 2010 are revealed with a combined data set of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) ocean color and Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer EOS (AMSR-E) SST observations onboard the satellite Aqua. Hurricane Earl induced broad SST drops and elevated chlorophyll-a concentrations along its track. The ocean's physical and biological responses are notably right-biased when the hurricane passed along the U.S. East Coast. In the ranges within 100 km off the track, the SST dropped 1.85°C and 1.23°C on the right and left sides, respectively. On the other hand, the ratios of the chlorophyll-a concentration before and after the passage of Hurricane Earl are 2.04 on the right side and 1.33 on the left. In addition to the satellite-observed sea surface changes, temperature and salinity profiles of an Argo float on Earl's track show the ocean's physical response occurred mostly within the mixed layer and thermocline in the upper 70 m water column.

Shi, Wei; Wang, Menghua

2011-02-01

108

Probing the Fundamental Physics of the Solar Corona with Lunar Solar Occultation Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Imaging and spectroscopy of the solar corona, coupled with polarimetry, are the only tools available at present to capture signatures of physical processes responsible for coronal heating and solar wind acceleration within the first few solar radii above the solar limb. With the recent advent of improved detector technology and image processing techniques, broad-band white light and narrow-band multi-wavelength observations of coronal forbidden lines, made during total solar eclipses, have started to yield new views about the thermodynamic and magnetic properties of coronal structures. This paper outlines these unique capabilities, which until present, have been feasible primarily with observations during natural total solar eclipses. This work also draws attention to the exciting possibility of greatly increasing the frequency and duration of solar eclipse observations with Moon orbiting observatories utilizing lunar limb occultation of the solar disk for coronal measurements.

Habbal, S. Rifai; Morgan, H.; Druckmüller, M.; Ding, A.; Cooper, J. F.; Daw, A.; Sittler, E. C.

2013-07-01

109

Feedback schedules for motor-skill learning: the similarities and differences between physical and observational practice.  

PubMed

In 2 experiments, the authors assessed different knowledge of results (KR) schedules for observational and physical practice. In Experiment 1, participants had to learn a sequence timing task under either a bandwidth (KR being delivered when participants’ performance was outside a predefined bandwidth or range) or yoked (same number of KRs provided as the bandwidth group) KR procedure. The results show that for both practice conditions the bandwidth KR schedule was more effective in promoting learning than the yoked schedule. During Experiment 2, a KR frequency was controlled (100% or 33% KR) and the data indicate that a reduced KR frequency only enhanced the learning of observers. Because a low KR frequency improves the sensory process controlling motor learning, the authors propose that action observation may be perceptual in nature. PMID:20862778

Badets, Arnaud; Blandin, Yannick

110

Coronal loop physical parameters from the analysis of multiple observed transverse oscillations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The analysis of quickly damped transverse oscillations of solar coronal loops using magneto-hydrodynamic seismology allows us to infer physical parameters that are difficult to measure otherwise. Under the assumption that such damped oscillations are due to the resonant conversion of global modes into Alfvén oscillations of the tube surface, we carry out a global seismological analysis of a large set of coronal loops. A Bayesian hierarchical method is used to obtain distributions for coronal loop physical parameters by means of a global analysis of a large number of observations. The resulting distributions summarize global information and constitute data-favoured information that can be used for the inversion of individual events. The results strongly suggest that internal Alfvén travel times along the loop are longer than 100 s and shorter than 540 s with 95% probability. Likewise, the density contrast between the loop interior and the surrounding is larger than 2.3 and below 6.9 with 95% probability.

Asensio Ramos, A.; Arregui, I.

2013-06-01

111

Nonuniversal quantities from dual renormalization group transformations  

SciTech Connect

Using a simplified version of the renormalization group (RG) transformation of Dyson[close quote]s hierarchical model, we show that one can calculate all the nonuniversal quantities entering into the scaling laws by combining an expansion about the high-temperature fixed point with a dual expansion about the critical point. The magnetic susceptibility is expressed in terms of two dual quantities transforming covariantly under an RG transformation and has a smooth behavior in the high-temperature limit. Using the analogy with Hamiltonian mechanics, the simplified example discussed here is similar to the anharmonic oscillator, while more realistic examples can be thought of as coupled oscillators, allowing resonance phenomena. [copyright] [ital 1999] [ital The American Physical Society

Meurice, Y.; Niermann, S. (Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States))

1999-09-01

112

Organizations for Standardization of Quantities and Units  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many international organizations have contributed to the development of the International System of Units (SI). The highest international authority on units is the General Conference on Weights and Measures (CGPM), which is an intergovernmental body. Legal aspects of units and metrology are dealt with by the International Organization of Legal Metrology (OIML), whereas scientific questions in this field are dealt with by scientific unions such as the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP), and the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC). Among their many tasks the international standards organizations, i.e. the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), implement the SI as adopted by the CGPM. They also standardize quantities, i.e. their definitions, names, and letter symbols. The main purpose of this article is to present these two organizations for standardization and to describe their role in the standardization of quantities and units.

Højgaard Jensen, H.; Thor, A. J.

1995-01-01

113

Assessing agreement of self-reported and observed physical exposures of the upper extremity  

PubMed Central

Assessment of workplace physical exposures by self-reported questionnaires has logistical advantages in population studies but is subject to exposure misclassification. This study measured agreement between eight self-reported and observer-rated physical exposures to the hands and wrists, and evaluated predictors of inter-method agreement. Workers (n=341) from three occupational categories (clerical/technical, construction, and service) completed self-administered questionnaires and worksite assessments. Analyses compared self-reported and observed ratings using a weighted kappa coefficient. Personal and psychosocial factors, presence of upper extremity symptoms and job type were evaluated as predictors of agreement. Weighted kappa values were substantial for lifting (0.67) and holding vibrating tools (0.61), moderate for forceful grip (0.58) and fair to poor for all other exposures. Upper extremity symptoms did not predict greater disagreement between self-reported and observed exposures. Occupational category was the only significant predictor of inter-method agreement. Self-reported exposures may provide a useful estimate of some work exposures for population studies.

Dale, Ann Marie; Strickland, Jaime; Gardner, Bethany; Symanzik, Jurgen; Evanoff, Bradley

2012-01-01

114

Electroweak precision observables, new physics and the nature of a 126 GeV Higgs boson  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We perform the fit of electroweak precision observables within the Standard Model with a 126 GeV Higgs boson, compare the results with the theoretical predictions and discuss the impact of recent experimental and theoretical improvements. We introduce New Physics contributions in a model-independent way and fit for the S, T and U parameters, for the ? 1,2,3, b ones, for modified couplings and for a modified Higgs coupling to vector bosons. We point out that composite Higgs models are very strongly constrained. Finally, we compute the bounds on dimension-six operators relevant for the electroweak fit.

Ciuchini, Marco; Franco, Enrico; Mishima, Satoshi; Silvestrini, Luca

2013-08-01

115

Test for entanglement using physically observable witness operators and positive maps  

SciTech Connect

Motivated by the Peres-Horodecki criterion and the realignment criterion we develop a more powerful method to identify entangled states for any bipartite system through a universal construction of the witness operator. The method also gives a new family of positive but noncompletely positive maps of arbitrary high dimensions, which provide a much better test than the witness operators themselves. Moreover, we find that there are two types of positive maps that can detect 2xN and 4xN bound entangled states. Since entanglement witnesses are physical observables and may be measured locally our construction could be of great significance for future experiments.

Chen Kai; Wu Lingan [Laboratory of Optical Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China)

2004-02-01

116

Dust masses and star formation in bright IRAS galaxies. Application of a physical model for the interpretation of FIR observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We address the problem of modeling the far-infrared (FIR) spectrum and deriving the star-formation rate (SFR) and the dust mass of spiral galaxies. We use the realistic physical model of Popescu et al. (\\cite{popescu}) to describe the overall ultra-violet (UV), optical and FIR spectral energy distribution (SED) of a spiral galaxy. The model takes into account the 3-dimensional old and young stellar distributions in the bulge and the disk of a galaxy, together with the dust geometry. The geometrical characteristics of the galaxy and the intrinsic optical and near-infrared spectra are determined by the galaxy's observed K-band photometry. The UV part of the spectrum is assumed to be proportional to the SFR through the use of population synthesis models. By solving the radiative transfer equation, we are able to determine the absorbed energy, the dust temperature and the resulting FIR spectrum. The model has only three free parameters: SFR, dust mass, and the fraction of the UV radiation which is absorbed locally by dense dust in the HII regions. Using this model, we are able to fit well the FIR spectra of 62 bright IRAS galaxies from the ``SCUBA Local Universe Galaxy Survey" of Dunne et al. (\\cite{dunne1}). As a result, we are able to determine, among others, their SFR and dust mass. We find that, on average, the SFR (in absolute units), the star-formation efficiency, the SFR surface density and the ratio of FIR luminosity over the total intrinsic luminosity, are larger than the respective values of typical spiral galaxies of the same morphological type. We also find that the mean gas-to-dust mass ratio is close to the Galactic value, while the average central face-on optical depth of these galaxies in the V band is 2.3. Finally, we find a strong correlation between SFR or dust mass and observed FIR quantities like total FIR luminosity or FIR luminosity at 100 and 850 ?m. These correlations yield well-defined relations, which can be used to determine a spiral galaxy's SFR and dust-mass content from FIR observations.

Misiriotis, A.; Papadakis, I. E.; Kylafis, N. D.; Papamastorakis, J.

2004-04-01

117

Far-Infrared and Submillimeter Observations and Physical Models of the Reflection Nebula Cederblad 201  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) [C II] 158 mum, [O I] 63 mum, and H_2 9 and 17 ?m observations are presented of the reflection nebula Ced 201, which is a photon-dominated region (PDR) illuminated by a B9.5 star with a color temperature of 10,000 K (a cool PDR). In combination with ground-based [C I] 609 mum, CO, ^13CO, CS, and HCO^+ data, the carbon budget and physical structure of the reflection nebula are constrained. The obtained data set is the first one to contain all important cooling lines of a cool PDR and allows a comparison to be made with classical PDRs. To this effect one- and three-dimensional PDR models are presented that incorporate the physical characteristics of the source and are aimed at understanding the dominant heating processes of the cloud. The contribution of very small grains to the photoelectric heating rate is estimated from these models and is used to constrain the total abundance of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and small grains. Observations of the pure rotational H_2 lines with ISO, in particular the S(3) line, indicate the presence of a small amount of very warm ~330 K molecular gas. This gas cannot be accommodated by the presented models.

Kemper, Ciska; Spaans, Marco; Jansen, David J.; Hogerheijde, Michiel R.; van Dishoeck, Ewine F.; Tielens, Alexander G. G. M.

1999-04-01

118

A physical model to estimate snowfall over land using AMSU-B observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we present a physical model to retrieve snowfall rate over land using brightness temperature observations from NOAA's Advanced Microwave Sounder Unit-B (AMSU-B) at 89 GHz, 150 GHz, 183.3 ± 1 GHz, 183.3 ± 3 GHz, and 183.3 ± 7 GHz. The retrieval model is applied to the New England blizzard of 5 March 2001 which deposited about 75 cm of snow over much of Vermont, New Hampshire, and northern New York. In this physical model, prior retrieval assumptions about snowflake shape, particle size distributions, environmental conditions, and optimization methodology have been updated. Here, single scattering parameters for snow particles are calculated with the discrete-dipole approximation (DDA) method instead of assuming spherical shapes. Five different snow particle models are considered. Snow particle size distributions are assumed to vary with air temperature and to follow aircraft measurements described by previous studies. Brightness temperatures at AMSU-B frequencies for the New England blizzard are calculated using these DDA calculated single scattering parameters and particle size distributions. The vertical profiles of pressure, temperature, relative humidity and hydrometeors are provided by MM5 model simulations. These profiles are treated as the a priori database in the Bayesian retrieval algorithm. In algorithm applications to the blizzard data, calculated brightness temperatures associated with selected database profiles agree with AMSU-B observations to within about ±5 K at all five frequencies. Retrieved snowfall rates compare favorably with the near-concurrent National Weather Service (NWS) radar reflectivity measurements. The relationships between the NWS radar measured reflectivities Ze and retrieved snowfall rate R for a given snow particle model are derived by a histogram matching technique. All of these Ze-R relationships fall in the range of previously established Ze-R relationships for snowfall. This suggests that the current physical model developed in this study can reliably estimate the snowfall rate over land using the AMSU-B measured brightness temperatures.

Kim, Min-Jeong; Weinman, J. A.; Olson, W. S.; Chang, D.-E.; Skofronick-Jackson, G.; Wang, J. R.

2008-05-01

119

10 CFR 73.6 - Exemptions for certain quantities and kinds of special nuclear material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...for certain quantities and kinds of special nuclear material. 73.6 Section 73.6 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL...for certain quantities and kinds of special nuclear material. A licensee is exempt...

2013-01-01

120

Seasoning Small Quantities of Lumber.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The owner of a small quantity of green lumber or logs is often confronted with seasoning it to a state of dryness suitable for use in furniture, wood carving, or other handiwork. He cannot follow the practice of commercial mills, which employ dry kilns fo...

E. F. Rassmussen

1965-01-01

121

Relative merits of different types of rest-frame optical observations to constrain galaxy physical parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a new approach to constrain galaxy physical parameters from the combined interpretation of stellar and nebular emission in wide ranges of observations. This approach relies on the Bayesian analysis of any type of galaxy spectral energy distribution using a comprehensive library of synthetic spectra assembled using state-of-the-art models of star formation and chemical enrichment histories, stellar population synthesis, nebular emission and attenuation by dust. We focus on the constraints set by five-band ugriz photometry and low- and medium-resolution spectroscopy at rest wavelengths ?= 3600-7400 Å on a few physical parameters of galaxies: the observer-frame absolute r-band stellar mass-to-light ratio, M*/Lr; the fraction of a current galaxy stellar mass formed during the last 2.5 Gyr, fSFH; the specific star formation rate, ?S; the gas-phase oxygen abundance, 12 + log(O/H); the total effective V-band absorption optical depth of the dust, ?; and the fraction of this arising from dust in the ambient interstellar medium, ?. Since these parameters cannot be known a priori for any galaxy sample, we assess the accuracy to which they can be retrieved from observations by simulating 'pseudo-observations' using models with known parameters. Assuming that these models are good approximations of true galaxies, we find that the combined analysis of stellar and nebular emission in low-resolution [50 Å full width at half-maximum (FWHM)] galaxy spectra provides valuable constraints on all physical parameters. The typical uncertainties in high-quality spectra are about 0.13 dex for M*/Lr, 0.23 for fSFH, 0.24 dex for ?S, 0.28 for 12 + log(O/H), 0.64 for ? and 0.16 for ?. The uncertainties in 12 + log(O/H) and ? tighten by about 20 per cent for galaxies with detectable emission lines and by another 45 per cent when the spectral resolution is increased to 5 Å FWHM. At this spectral resolution, the analysis of the combined stellar and nebular emission in the high-quality spectra of 12 660 Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) star-forming galaxies using our approach yields likelihood distributions of M?, 12 + log(O/H), ? and ?S similar to those obtained in previous separate analyses of the stellar and nebular emission at the original (twice higher) SDSS spectral resolution. Meanwhile, rest-frame ugriz photometry provides competitive constraints on M*/Lr. We show that the constraints derived on galaxy physical parameters from these different types of observations depend sensitively on signal-to-noise ratio. Our approach can be extended to the analysis of any type of observation across the wavelength range covered by spectral evolution models.

Pacifici, Camilla; Charlot, Stéphane; Blaizot, Jérémy; Brinchmann, Jarle

2012-04-01

122

Use of Plot Scale Observations to gauge the applicability of Physically-Based Models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Catchment hydrologic modeling efforts should be initiated with a comparison between a perceptual model of how the basin functions, and what processes the numerical hydrologic model represents. The majority of recent attention in literature has been focused on using this process to inform conceptual model structures aimed at predicting streamflow from precipitation events. However, this method may also be used to assess the applicability of physically-based models when lumped parameter models are insufficient for research questions. Physically-based models are chosen over lumped parameter conceptual models for their ability to provide detailed spatial information on soil moisture, ephemeral streamflow, and differential snow melt. A plot scale study was conducted in a 0.02 km2 headwater catchment to build a perceptual model of the Tree Line (TL) Experimental Catchment within the Dry Creek Experimental Watershed (DCEW) in the semi-arid foothills north of Boise, ID. Overland flow, through flow, and radiation flux measurements were taken in addition to existing weather station variables (air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction, snow depth, and soil moisture) for the 2011 water year. The 2011 water year is typical of this study site and is characterized by a shallow snowpack that lasts from the late fall to early spring and includes several rain-on-snow events. A soil storage field capacity threshold in the upper highly conductive soil (approximately 145 mm) must be crossed before lateral flow is observed. The total soil storage threshold for lateral flow slowly increases from 253 mm during a December rain-on-snow event, to 269 mm during the spring melt event as deeper, less conductive soils wet up. Lateral flow primarily takes place as overland flow and as concentrated flow paths at the soil-bedrock interface, which are controlled by bedrock topography. Results suggest that the watershed models used in TL need to account for unsaturated soil storage, the development of a shallow hillslope saturated zone, and lateral flow at the soil-bedrock interface. Both the snowmelt model and the watershed model need to account for commonly observed aspect differences in vegetation and insolation. Future work will assess the applicability of the coupled physically-based snowmelt model (SNOBAL) and physically-based watershed model (PIHM) to the 26.9 km2 DCEW.

Kormos, P. R.; McNamara, J. P.; Marks, D. G.; Flores, A. N.; Marshall, H.; Boe, E.

2011-12-01

123

Discerning new physics in toverline t production using top spin observables at hadron colliders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Copious production of top-anti top quark pairs at hadron colliders has enabled various probes into the properties and interactions of top quarks. Among the various presently measured observables, the forward-backward asymmetry (FBA) in toverline t production measured at the Tevatron significantly deviates from the standard model predictions, and many models of new physics have been invented to explain the puzzle. We consider the consistency of the simplified single-resonance models containing a color octet axial-vector ("axigluon"), color triplet or sextet weak singlet scalars, weak isodoublet scalar, flavor-changing neutral Z ', or charged W ' vector boson with existing toverline t production measurements. Among the considered models only an axigluon can reproduce all Tevatron observables, without being in severe tension with the recent LHC results on toverline t production cross section, charge asymmetry and top-spin correlations. The LHC charge asymmetry measurements exclude the W ' and Z ' explanations of the Tevatron FBA anomaly. On the other hand, all scalar models predict notable deviations in several top spin observables, and the recent top spin correlation measurement using the "helicity" spin quantization axis by ATLAS already provides a significant constraint on possible explanations of the Tevatron FBA anomaly. Future precise measurements of top spin correlations and especially top polarization could differentiate between scalar t-channel models, while they are less sensitive to pure axigluon contributions.

Fajfer, Svjetlana; Kamenik, Jernej F.; Meli?, Blaženka

2012-08-01

124

A comparison of protocols and observer precision for measuring physical stream attributes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Stream monitoring programs commonly measure physical attributes to assess the effect of land management on stream habitat. Variability associated with the measurement of these attributes has been linked to a number of factors, but few studies have evaluated variability due to differences in protocols. We compared six protocols, five used by the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service and one by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, on six streams in Oregon and Idaho to determine whether differences in protocol affect values for 10 physical stream attributes. Results from Oregon and Idaho were combined for groups participating in both states, with significant differences in attribute means for 9 out of the 10 stream attributes. Significant differences occurred in 5 of 10 in Idaho, and 10 of 10 in Oregon. Coefficients of variation, signal-to-noise ratio, and root mean square error were used to evaluate measurement precision. There were differences among protocols for all attributes when states were analyzed separately and as a combined dataset. Measurement differences were influenced by choice of instruments, measurement method, measurement location, attribute definitions, and training approach. Comparison of data gathered by observers using different protocols will be difficult unless a core set of protocols for commonly measured stream attributes can be standardized among monitoring programs. ?? 2007 American Water Resources Association.

Whitacre, H. W.; Roper, B. B.; Kershner, J. L.

2007-01-01

125

Observation and identification of zonal flows in a basic plasma physics experiment  

SciTech Connect

The role of self-generated zonal flows (ZF) in transport regulation in magnetic confinement devices via its shear is a potent concept and a physics issue [P. H. Diamond, S-I Itoh, K. Itoh, and T. S. Hahm, Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 47, R35 (2005)]. A basic physics experimental study of ZF associated with ITG (ion temperature gradient) drift modes has been performed in the Columbia Linear Machine [R. Scarmozzino, A. K. Sen, and G. A. Navratil, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 1729 (1986)]. The difficult problem of detection of ZF has been solved via a novel diagnostic using the paradigm of FM (frequency modulation) in radio transmission. Using this and discrete short time Fourier transform, a power spectrum peak was found at an ITG (''carrier'') frequency of {approx}120 kHz and FM sidebands at a frequency of {approx}2 kHz. ZF was definitively identified with azimuthal (poloidal) and axial (toroidal) symmetry (k{sub {theta}}{approx_equal}0,k{sub parallel}{approx_equal}0) and radially inhomogeneous (k{sub r}{ne}0) flow structures in cylindrical plasmas. However, the stabilizing effect of ZF shear appears to be small and no significant isotopic effects are observed.

Sokolov, V.; Wei, X.; Sen, A. K. [Plasma Physics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States)

2007-05-15

126

Parameterization of Stratospheric Aerosol Physical Properties on the Basis of Nd:YAG Lidar Observations.  

PubMed

An extension to the 355- and 1064-nm wavelengths of a numerical optical model originally developed at 532 nm is presented. The resulting parameterization allows estimates of stratospheric aerosol surface area, volume, and extinction-to-backscatter ratio from lidar measurements obtained at one of the two Nd:YAG laser wavelengths. Functional relationships that link single-wavelength backscatter to each of the physical variables are provided for sulfate aerosol types ranging from background to heavy volcanic under environmental conditions representative of the global lower stratosphere. The behavior of the functional relationships at the three Nd:YAG wavelengths is compared. Relative errors of model estimates range between 10% and 50%, depending on wavelength and backscatter cross sections. These values are comparable with the ones that characterize in situ particle counters. The inference of particle effective radius and the application of the method to the interpretation of supercooled polar stratospheric cloud observations are discussed. PMID:18285928

Gobbi, G P

1998-07-20

127

Oscillating current observed in field emission from a single zinc oxide nanostructure and the physical mechanism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A phenomenon of field emission instability is reported. Field emission current oscillation was observed when a single zinc oxide (ZnO) one dimensional nanostructure operated at high current density. As a result, the radius curvature of the nanoemitter apex was sharpened to less than 15 nm. This indicates the oscillation was associated with melting of the emitter material. We found that the oscillation may be ascribed to (i) the behavior of charging and (ii) the shape changing of a metallic liquid ball that exists at the tip apex under high electric field. The net force of electric force and surface tension modifies the radius of the apex periodically, which results in the oscillation of field emission current. This finding may enhance the understanding of the physical process of field emission from ZnO nanostructures.

Xiao, Z. M.; She, J. C.; Li, Z. B.; Yang, Y. H.; Yang, G. W.; Deng, S. Z.; Chen, Jun; Xu, N. S.

2009-07-01

128

Constraints on physics beyond the Standard Model and its observable effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, we describe three analyses, all of which involve physics beyond the Standard Model. The first two discussed here are closely related; they use effective operator analyses to constrain the contributions of physics beyond the SM to observable processes. The third project involves the investigations of a particular extra-dimensions model which addresses the cosmological constant problem.The first project which we will discuss uses the scale of neutrino mass to place model-independent constraints on the coefficients of the chirality-changing terms in the muon decay Lagrangian. We list all of the dimension-six effective operators which contribute to muon decay and Dirac mass for the neutrino. We then calculate the one-loop contributions that each of these operators makes to neutrino mass. Taking a generic element of the neutrino mass matrix to be of order [...] 1 eV, we derive limits on the contributions of these operators to the muon Michel parameters which are approximately four orders of magnitude more stringent than the current experimental results, and well below near-future experimental sensitivity. We also find two chirality-changing operators, which, due to their flavor structure, are unconstrained by neutrino mass yet contribute to muon decay. However, as these two operators differ from those constrained by neutrino mass only by their flavor indices, we naively expect their contributions to also be small; if their effects instead turn out to be observable, this may be an indication of beyond-the-Standard-Model physics with an interesting flavor structure.In the second analysis, we again perform an effective operator analysis, this time applied to Higgs production at a linear collider. Here we include all dimension-six operators containing fermions which contribute to Higgs production. We again include operators that contain right-handed Dirac neutrinos. We obtain limits on these operators from electroweak precision observables, the scale of neutrino mass, and limits on neutrino magnetic moments, and use these limits to constrain the contributions of these operators to the Higgs production cross-section. Although we find that all operators containing right-handed neutrinos contribute negligibly to Higgs production, we do find three operators containing only SM fields which could have observable contributions at an [...] linear collider.Lastly, we discuss the characteristics of a particular extra-dimensions model originally proposed by Carroll and Guica [54]. This model has two extra dimensions compactified into a sphere, a bulk magnetic field, and a bulk cosmological constant. In this model, the cosmological constant seen by a four-dimensional observer can be set to zero by fine-tuning the bulk magnetic field against the bulk cosmological constant. If branes with a tension are added at each of the poles of the two-sphere, solutions with zero four-dimensional cosmological constant are still possible, but the compactified dimensions must acquire a deficit angle which depends on the brane tension. However, the brane tension does not affect the fine-tuning relationship between the bulk cosmological constant and the bulk magnetic field. This feature led to the hope that, after this fine-tuning, the model might self-tune, keeping the four-dimensional cosmological constant zero regardless of what happens to the brane tension by adjusting the deficit angle. We speculated that this self-tuning property would imply a massless scalar mode in the perturbed Einstein's equations; as there exist very stringent limits on scalar-tensor theories of gravity, a massless scalar mode would make this model incompatible with observation. We conducted a search for such modes, and found none which satisfied the boundary conditions. This finding led us to speculate that this model does not, in fact, have a self-tuning property.

Kile, Jennifer

129

The Role of Physical Attractiveness in the Observation of Adult-Child Interactions: Eye of the Beholder or Behavioral Reality?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies of the susceptibility of observations of adult-child interactions to bias because of the physical attractiveness of target persons indicated that when making global ratings observers were significantly and favorably biased toward attractive women. No bias was obtained when observers used a molecular coding strategy. (RH)

Ritter, Jean M.; Langlois, Judith H.

1988-01-01

130

Physical Properties of the Saturnian Ring System Inferred from Cassini VIMS Opposition Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Much can be learned about the nature of Saturn's ring particles and their regoliths by studying the wavelength dependence of their reflectance as a function of phase angle. At small phase angles the reflectance of the rings exhibits the opposition effect (OE) a significant increase in reflectance as phase angle approaches zero degrees. The wavelength dependence of the width and the peak of the OE are indicators of important physical properties of the regoliths of the ring particles such as particle size, particle shape, packing density and albedo. The Cassini VIMS multi spectral imaging spectrometer obtained low phase observations of the Saturnian ring system from 0.4-5.2 microns during 2005. These data clearly show a pronounced (OE). Cassini VIMS opposition surge data indicate a wavelength dependence of the OE that relates to the size and separation of the scattering centers on the surface of the ring particles. Laboratory studies and theoretical models of the OE relate the size and shape of the reflectance increase to physical properties of the medium (Nelson et al, 2002; Spilker et al. 1995; Hapke et al., 1993)). The OE arises from two processes, shadow hiding (SH) and coherent backscattering (CB). The SHOE is observed because shadows cast by the particulate grains on one another are eliminated as phase angle approaches zero degrees. The CBOE is due to constructive interference between light rays traveling in opposite paths through the medium as the path length decreases with decreasing phase angle. The VIMS data at 1.9 microns, where the rings are highly reflective, indicate a strong CBOE effect, however, at 2.1 microns, where the rings are very absorbing, the shape of the phase curve is consistent with SHOE. Hapke et al. 1993,Science, 260, 509-511 Nelson, R. M. et al., 2002. Planetary and Space Science, 50, 849-856 Spilker aka Horn, L.J et al., 1995. IAU Colloquium #150 This work done at JPL under contract with NASA

Hapke, B.; Nelson, R. M.; Brown, R. H.; Spilker, L. J.; Smythe, W. D.; Kamp, L.; Boryta, M.; Leader, F.; Matson, D. L.; Edgington, S.; Nicholson, P. D.; Filacchione, G.; Clark, R. N.; Bibring, J.; Baines, K. H.; Buratti, B. J.; Bellucci, G.; Capaccioni, F.; Cerroni, P.; Combes, M.; Coradini, A.; Cruikshank, D. P.; Drossart, P.; Formisano, V.; Jaumann, R.; Langevin, Y.; McCord, T.; Menella, V.; Sicardy, B.

2005-12-01

131

Assimilation of streamflow and soil moisture observations in a distributed physically-based hydrological model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data assimilation techniques not only enhance model simulations and predictions, they also give the opportunity to pose a diagnostic on both model and observations used in the assimilation process. The goal of this research is to assimilate streamflow and soil moisture in a distributed physically-based hydrological model, CATHY (CATchment HYdrology). The study site is the des Anglais Watershed, a 690-km2 river basin located in southern Québec, Canada. An ensemble Kalman filter was used to assimilate streamflow observations at the basin outlet and at interior locations, as well as soil moisture at different depths (15, 45, and 90 cm) measured with probes (6 stations) and surface soil moisture estimated from radar remote sensing. The use of a Latin hypercube sampling instead of the Monte Carlo method to generate the ensemble reduced the size of ensemble, and therefore the calculation time. An important issue in data assimilation is the estimation of error covariance matrices. Different post-assimilation diagnostics, based on innovations (observation-minus-background), analysis residuals (observation-minus-analysis) and analysis increments (analysis-minus-background) were used to evaluate assimilation optimality. A calibration approach was performed to determine the standard deviation of model parameters, forcing data and observations that lead to optimal assimilations. The analysis of innovations showed a lag between the model prediction and the observation during rainfall events. The assimilation of streamflow observations (outlet or interior locations) corrected this discrepancy. The assimilation of outlet streamflow observations improved the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiencies (NSE) at both outlet and interior point locations. The structure of the state vector used in this study allowed the assimilation of outlet streamflow observations to have an impact over streamflow simulations at interior point locations. Indeed, the state vector contains the outlet streamflow (Qout) and the incoming streamflow (Qin), since both these informations are used by the Muskingum-Cunge surface routing equation in CATHY. However, assimilation of streamflow observations increased systematically the soil moisture values simulated at 15 and 45 cm. The combined assimilation of outlet streamflow and soil moisture improved the NSE of streamflow without degrading the simulation of soil moisture. Moreover, the assimilation of streamflow and soil moisture observations from one station (at 45 cm depth) appeared to have a similar impact on soil moisture simulations compared to a combined assimilation of streamflow and soil moisture observations from five stations. Finally, it was found that the frequency of the assimilation of soil moisture observations has a greater impact on the results than the spatial coverage of the assimilation: assimilation of daily soil moisture measured with probes at six stations gives better results than the assimilation of surface soil moisture estimated from radar remote sensing 8 times over the course of a summer season.

Trudel, M.; Leconte, R.; Paniconi, C.

2012-04-01

132

SPITZER OBSERVATIONS OF SUPERNOVA REMNANTS. II. PHYSICAL CONDITIONS AND COMPARISON WITH HH7 AND HH54  

SciTech Connect

We have studied the shock-excited molecular regions associated with four supernova remnants (SNRs)-IC443C, W28, W44, and 3C391-and two Herbig-Haro objects-HH7 and HH54-using Spitzer's Infrared Spectrograph (IRS). The physical conditions within the observed areas (roughly {approx}1' x 1' in size) are inferred from spectroscopic data obtained from IRS and from the Short and Long Wavelength Spectrometers on board the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO), together with photometric data from Spitzer's Infrared Array Camera. Adopting a power-law distribution for the gas temperature in the observed region, with the mass of gas at temperature T to T+dT assumed proportional to T{sup -b} dT, the H{sub 2} S(0) to S(7) spectral line maps obtained with IRS were used to constrain the gas density, yielding estimated densities n(H{sub 2}) in the range of {approx} (2-4)x10{sup 3} cm{sup -3}. The excitation of H{sub 2} S(9) to S(12) and high-J CO pure rotational lines, however, require environments several times denser. The inconsistency among the best-fit densities estimated from different species can be explained by density fluctuations within the observed regions. The best-fit power-law index b is smaller than the value 3.8 predicted for a paraboloidal C-type bow shock, suggesting that the shock front has a 'flatter' shape than that of a paraboloid. The best-fit parameters for SNRs and Herbig-Haro objects do not differ significantly between the two classes of sources, except that for the SNRs the ortho-to-para ratio (OPR) of hot gas (T> 1000 K) is close to the local thermal equilibrium value 3, while for HH7 and HH54 even the hottest gas exhibits an OPR smaller than 3; we interpret this difference as resulting from environmental differences between these classes of sources, molecular material near SNRs being subject to stronger photodissociation that results in faster para-to-ortho conversion. Finally, we mapped the physical parameters within the regions observed with IRS and found that the mid-lying H{sub 2} emissions-S(3) to S(5)-tend to trace the hot component of the gas, while the intensities of S(6) and S(7) are more sensitive to the density of the gas compared to S(3) to S(5).

Yuan Yuan; Neufeld, David A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

2011-01-10

133

Physical Behavior of Precipitation Extremes in CMIP5 GCMs and Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extreme precipitation events can cause costly and sometimes catastrophic floods in regions that may not be adequately prepared to combat such events. Therefore, adequate simulations by models are vital, a need which has prompted substantial interest in the science community. In order to gain confidence in climate models' ability to simulate the environment when these extreme precipitation events are occurring, simulations need to be compared to observational data. By using projections, based on validated models, decisions and analysis with regard to future climate change can be made with much higher confidence. One source of model analysis lies in analyzing global climate models (GCM). We analyze the ability of sixteen CMIP5 GCMs to simulate extreme daily precipitation and supporting processes for regions of North America. The combined analysis allows us to assess added value of finer resolution in simulating extreme precipitation. Analysis focuses on selected regions of North America for winter (DJF) and summer (JJA), building on several previous analyses focused on this area. In addition to comparing results from the different models, we also compare simulated precipitation and supporting processes with those obtained from observed precipitation and reanalysis atmospheric states. Precipitation observations are from the University of Washington gridded data set. Reanalysis fields come from the North American Regional Reanalysis. In both seasons, higher resolution models generally reproduce well the precipitation-vs.-intensity spectrum seen in observations, with a tendency toward producing overly strong precipitation at high intensity thresholds, such as the 95, 99 and 99.5 percentiles. Coarse-resolution global model output shows threshold values that are roughly one half the magnitudes of those in the higher resolution models and observations, most likely because of the coarser resolution. Further analysis focuses on precipitation events exceeding the 99.5 percentile that occur simultaneously at several points in the region, yielding so-called "widespread events". Collectively, the models tend to produce widespread events with larger spatial scale than observations, with coarser GCMs tending to produces extremes with the largest scales. Analysis of 500 hPa heights, near-surface circulation and temperature and humidity fields are also analyzed. They reveal processes leading to extreme events in the models and observations. The higher resolution models generally reproduce the physical behavior leading to extreme events, especially in DJF, with the coarser models showing smoother fields, especially in summer. Further analysis will consider future extremes and their consistency with present extremes.

Kawazoe, S.; Gutowski, W.

2012-04-01

134

Construct validity of the DynaPort ®KneeTest: a comparison with observations of physical therapists  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Objective: To assess the construct validity of the DynaPortKneeTest (KneeTest), which is a performance-based test to assess functioning of patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Scores on the KneeTest (KneeScore) were compared with observations of physical therapists of the patients' functional disability. The reliability of these observations was also assessed. Method: Twelve physical therapists received identical video tapes showing the

Lidwine B. Mokkink; Caroline B. Terwee; Rob C. van Lummel; Simon J. de Witte; Leo Wetzels; Lex M. Bouter; Henrica C. W. de Vet

2005-01-01

135

Physically Consistent Responses of the Global Atmospheric Hydrological Cycle in Models and Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Robust and physically understandable responses of the global atmospheric water cycle to a warming climate are presented. By considering interannual responses to changes in surface temperature (T), observations and AMIP5 simulations agree on an increase in column integrated water vapor at the rate 7 %/K (in line with the Clausius-Clapeyron equation) and of precipitation at the rate 2-3 %/K (in line with energetic constraints). Using simple and complex climate models, we demonstrate that radiative forcing by greenhouse gases is currently suppressing global precipitation (P) at ˜-0.15 %/decade. Along with natural variability, this can explain why observed trends in global P over the period 1988-2008 are close to zero. Regional responses in the global water cycle are strongly constrained by changes in moisture fluxes. Model simulations show an increased moisture flux into the tropical wet region at 900 hPa and an enhanced outflow (of smaller magnitude) at around 600 hPa with warming. Moisture transport explains an increase in P in the wet tropical regions and small or negative changes in the dry regions of the subtropics in CMIP5 simulations of a warming climate. For AMIP5 simulations and satellite observations, the heaviest 5-day rainfall totals increase in intensity at ˜15 %/K over the ocean with reductions at all percentiles over land. The climate change response in CMIP5 simulations shows consistent increases in P over ocean and land for the highest intensities, close to the Clausius-Clapeyron scaling of 7 %/K, while P declines for the lowest percentiles, indicating that interannual variability over land may not be a good proxy for climate change. The local changes in precipitation and its extremes are highly dependent upon small shifts in the large-scale atmospheric circulation and regional feedbacks.

Allan, Richard P.; Liu, Chunlei; Zahn, Matthias; Lavers, David A.; Koukouvagias, Evgenios; Bodas-Salcedo, Alejandro

2013-01-01

136

Green space and physical activity: an observational study using Health Survey for England data.  

PubMed

Past studies have suggested that a link between health outcomes and green space is due to increased levels of physical activity of individuals living in areas with more green space. We found a positive association between green space and physical activity levels. The odds of achieving the recommended amount of physical activity was 1.27 (95% CI: 1.13-1.44) for people living in the greenest quintile in England compared to those living in the least green quintile, after controlling for individual and environmental factors. However, no association was found between green space and types of physical activity normally associated with green space. An association was found with other types of physical activity (gardening and do-it-yourself, and occupational physical activity). These findings suggest that although there is a positive association between physical activity and green space it may not be explained by individuals using green space for recreation. PMID:22795498

Mytton, Oliver T; Townsend, Nick; Rutter, Harry; Foster, Charlie

2012-06-17

137

Green space and physical activity: An observational study using Health Survey for England data  

PubMed Central

Past studies have suggested that a link between health outcomes and green space is due to increased levels of physical activity of individuals living in areas with more green space. We found a positive association between green space and physical activity levels. The odds of achieving the recommended amount of physical activity was 1.27 (95% CI: 1.13–1.44) for people living in the greenest quintile in England compared to those living in the least green quintile, after controlling for individual and environmental factors. However, no association was found between green space and types of physical activity normally associated with green space. An association was found with other types of physical activity (gardening and do-it-yourself, and occupational physical activity). These findings suggest that although there is a positive association between physical activity and green space it may not be explained by individuals using green space for recreation.

Mytton, Oliver T; Townsend, Nick; Rutter, Harry; Foster, Charlie

2012-01-01

138

Physical and orbital properties of micrometeors observed using the 430 MHz Arecibo observatory radar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Physical and orbital properties of 1200+ radar micrometeors are deduced from more than 8000+ event detections using the 430 MHz Arecibo radar in Puerto Rico. These results are very distinct from classical HF/VHF radar observations in that the head-echo (radar scattering from the region immediately surrounding the meteoroid) is always observed, leading uniquely to very accurate Doppler speed determinations. A multi-pulse technique has been developed that permits the direct measurement of Doppler velocities from the micrometeor leading-edge (or head-echo), and in some 26% of the sample, micrometeor deceleration is also accurately measured. The results from those showing decelerations are described in some detail. The average measured micrometeor velocity is around ˜50 km/sec unlike that obtained with classical low-power VHF radars which is nearly a factor of two lower. The observed micrometeor decelerations range from a few km/sec2 to ˜1000 km/sec2. The measurements of highly resolved meteor altitudes, velocities and decelerations are crucial for understanding a number of aeronomical and astronomical problems in meteor science. One important property, the particle meteor ballistic parameter (BP)---the ratio of the meteoroid mass to cross-sectional area---gives a physical characterization of the decelerating particles independent of any assumption about meteoroid shape and mass density. The BP calculation for these micrometeors results in a distribution that covers a wide range (10-4--10 -1gm/cm2). The sizes and masses that these results represent, when the meteoroid is assumed to be a sphere of density 3 gm/cm3, are radii ˜0.5 x 10-4--2 x 10-2 cm and masses of a fraction of a nanogram to 10 mugm. An original criterion to separate particles that are travelling down-the-beam from those with a more significant across-the-beam velocity component was developed. This criterion is based on the variation of the meteor BP during the time the particles are observed by the AO radar. The particle size estimates given above were obtained using the air densities from the MSIS-E-90 model atmosphere and the measured decelerations. Upward numerical integration of the standard drag equation gives the meteor extra-atmospheric speeds for those particles which by the criterion are considered to be most directly travelling in the down-the-beam. In addition, the accurate AO (narrow beam) pointing information provides similarly precise meteoroid radiants. The meteoroid extra-atmospheric velocity and radiant positions are then used to calculate present day orbital elements at 1 AU. The results have not been corrected for perturbation effects such as radiation pressure, Poynting-Robertson, attraction by the planets and particle charging effects. Such calculations are very complicated, require massive supercomputer time with many months of effort to investigate fully, and were not attempted here. Even without the inclusion of perturbative effects, several important and hitherto unknown, statistical orbit properties of particles larger than 0.5 mum have been discovered. The most important of these are probably (a) a depletion of post-perihelion particles with small perihelion distance suggesting the possibility of collisional and thermal destruction into smaller ones and (b) an enhancement of particles with perihelia in the zone between Mercury and Venus. Also discussed are a group 40 hyperbolic beta-meteoroids (all with radii less than 0.5 mum) that appear dynamically related to the elliptical orbit population with q < 0.7 AU. These are semi-qualitatively interpreted on the basis of Poynting-Robertson and the solar activity electromagnetic resonant effects as proposed by Morfill and Grun [65].

Janches, Diego

139

On-site observations of physical work demands of train conductors and service electricians in the Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the present study was to assess the exposure to physical work demands of train conductors and service electricians at a railway company in the Netherlands. On-site observations were performed using the Task Recording and Analysis on Computer observation system to identify the mean duration and frequency of tasks, activities and body postures. In total, 36 train conductors

Daan Botje; Ilona Zoer; Martijn M. Ruitenburg; Monique H. W. Frings-Dresen; Judith K. Sluiter

2010-01-01

140

Environmental and Social Correlates of Physical Activity in Neighborhood Parks: An Observational Study in Tampa and Chicago  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study used observational methods to examine physical activity (PA) and selected correlates in 28 parks in Tampa, Florida, and Chicago, Illinois. We observed 9,454 park users within predetermined activity zones and coded their activity as sedentary, walking (i.e., moderate intensity), or vigorous PA. In Tampa, higher temperature, unorganized activity, lower amounts of shade, lower neighborhood income, Hispanic neighborhood ethnicity,

Myron F. Floyd; J. O. Spengler; Jay E. Maddock; Paul H. Gobster; Luis Suau

2008-01-01

141

Observed and modeled bio-optical, bioluminescent, and physical properties during a coastal upwelling event in Monterey Bay, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

During spring and summer time, coastal upwelling influences circulation and ecosystem dynamics of the Monterey Bay, California, which is recognized as a National Marine Sanctuary. Observations of physical, bio-optical properties (including bioluminescence) together with results from dynamical biochemical and bioluminescence models are used to interpret the development of the upwelling event during August 2003 in Monterey Bay, California. Observations and

Igor Shulman; Mark A. Moline; Bradley Penta; Stephanie Anderson; Matthew Oliver; Steven H. D. Haddock

2011-01-01

142

Physical Processes of Substorm Onset and Current Disruption Observed by AMPTE/CCE  

SciTech Connect

A new scenario of AMPTE/CCE observation of substorm onset and current disruption and the corresponding physical processes is presented. Toward the end of the late growth phase, plasma beta increases to greater than or equal to 50 and a low-frequency instability with a wave period of 50-75 seconds is excited and grows exponentially to a large amplitude at the onset of current disruption. At the current disruption onset, higher-frequency instabilities are excited so that the plasma and electromagnetic field form a turbulent state. Plasma transport and heating take place to reduce plasma beta and modify the ambient plasma pressure and velocity profiles so that the ambient magnetic field recovers from a tail-like geometry to a more dipole- like geometry. To understand the excitation of the low-frequency global instability, a new theory of kinetic ballooning instability (KBI) is proposed to explain the high critical beta threshold (greater than or equal to 50) of the low-frequency global instability observed by the AMPTE/CCE. The stabilization kinetic effects of trapped electron and finite ion Larmor radii give rise to a large parallel electric field and hence a parallel current that greatly enhances the stabilizing effect of field line tension to the ballooning mode. As a result, the high critical beta threshold for excitation of KBI is greatly increased over the ideal MHD ballooning instability threshold by greater than O(10 squared). The wave-ion magnetic drift resonance effect typically reduces the high critical beta threshold by up to 20% and produces a perturbed resonant ion velocity distribution with a duskward velocity roughly equal to the average ion magnetic drift velocity as the KBI grows to a large amplitude. Higher-frequency instabilities, such as the cross-field current instability (CCI), can be excited by the additional velocity space free energy associated with the positive slope in the perturbed resonant ion velocity distribution.

Cheng, C.Z. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ (United States); Lui, A.T.Y. [Applied Physics Laboratory, Johns Hopkins Uniersity, Laurel, MD (United States)

1998-03-01

143

Physical properties of young stellar populations in 24 starburst galaxies observed with FUSE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the main physical properties of very young stellar populations seen with the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer in 24 individual starbursts. These characteristics have been obtained using the evolutionary spectral synthesis technique in the far-ultraviolet range with the LAVALSB code. For each starburst, quantitative values for age, metallicity, initial mass function slope, stellar mass and internal extinction have been obtained and discussed in details. Limits of the code have been tested. One main conclusion is that most starbursts (and probably all of them) cannot be represented by any continuous star formation burst in the far ultraviolet. Also, quantitative values of various optical diagnostics related to these stellar populations have been predicted. Underlying stellar populations, dominated by B-type stars, have been detected in NGC1140, NGC4449 and possibly NGC3991. We characterized the young stellar populations of less than 5Myr in Seyfert2 nuclei. Based on observations made with the NASA-CNES-CSA Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer. Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) is operated for NASA by the Johns Hopkins University under NASA contract NAS5-32985. E-mail: pellerin@stsci.edu (AP); carobert@phy.ulaval.ca (CR)

Pellerin, Anne; Robert, Carmelle

2007-10-01

144

PHYSICAL CONDITIONS IN A CORONAL MASS EJECTION FROM HINODE, STEREO, AND SOHO OBSERVATIONS  

SciTech Connect

In the present work, we analyze multiwavelength observations from Hinode, Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), and STEREO of the early phases of a coronal mass ejection (CME). We use Hinode/EIS and SOHO/UVCS high-resolution spectra to measure the physical properties of the CME ejecta as a function of time at 1.1 and 1.9 solar radii. Hinode/XRT images are used in combination with EIS spectra to constrain the high temperature plasma properties of the ejecta. SECCHI/EUVI, SECCHI/COR 1, SOHO/EIT, and SOHO/LASCO images are used to measure the CME trajectory, velocity, and acceleration. The combination of measurements of plane of the sky velocities from two different directions allows us to determine the total velocity of the CME plasma up to 5 solar radii. Plasma properties, dynamical status, thermal structure, and brightness distributions are used to constrain the energy content of the CME plasma and to determine the heating rate. We find that the heating is larger than the kinetic energy, and compare it to theoretical predictions from models of CME plasma heating and acceleration.

Landi, E. [Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Raymond, J. C.; Miralles, M. P. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Hara, H. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

2010-03-01

145

Dose quantities in radiation protection and their limitations.  

PubMed

For more than 50 years the quantity absorbed dose has been the basic physical quantity in the medical applications of ionising radiation as well as radiological protection against harm from ionising radiation. In radiotherapy relatively high doses are applied (to a part of the human body) within a short period and the absorbed dose is mainly correlated with deterministic effects such as cell killing and tissue damage. In contrast, in radiological protection one is dealing with low doses and low dose rates and long-term stochastic effects in tissue such as cancer induction. The dose quantity (absorbed dose) is considered to be correlated with the probability of cancer incidence and thus risk induced by exposure. ICRP has developed specific dosimetric quantities for radiological protection that allow the extent of exposure to ionising radiation from whole and partial body external radiation as well as from intakes of radionuclides to be taken into account by one quantity. Moreover, radiological protection quantities are designed to provide a correlation with risk of radiation induced cancer. In addition, operational dose quantities have been defined for use in measurements of external radiation exposure and practical applications. The paper describes the concept and considerations underlying the actual system of dose quantities, and discusses the advantage as well as the limitations of applicability of such a system. For example, absorbed dose is a non-stochastic quantity defined at any point in matter. All dose quantities in use are based on an averaging procedure. Stochastic effects and microscopic biological and energy deposition structures are not considered in the definition. Absorbed dose is correlated to the initial very short phase of the radiation interaction with tissue while the radiation induced biological reactions of the tissue may last for minutes or hours or even longer. There are many parameters other than absorbed dose that influence the process of cancer induction, which may influence the consideration of cells and/or tissues at risk which are most important for radiological protection. PMID:15623879

Dietze, G; Menzel, H-G

2004-01-01

146

Arctic daily temperature and precipitation extremes: Observed and simulated physical behavior  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Simulations using a six-member ensemble of Pan-Arctic WRF (PAW) were produced on two Arctic domains with 50-km resolution to analyze precipitation and temperature extremes for various periods. The first study used a domain developed for the Regional Arctic Climate Model (RACM). Initial simulations revealed deep atmospheric circulation biases over the northern Pacific Ocean, manifested in pressure, geopotential height, and temperature fields. Possible remedies to correct these large biases, such as modifying the physical domain or using different initial/boundary conditions, were unsuccessful. Spectral (interior) nudging was introduced as a way of constraining the model to be more consistent with observed behavior. However, such control over numerical model behavior raises concerns over how much nudging may affect unforced variability and extremes. Strong nudging may reduce or filter out extreme events, since the nudging pushes the model toward a relatively smooth, large-scale state. The question then becomes---what is the minimum spectral nudging needed to correct biases while not limiting the simulation of extreme events? To determine this, we use varying degrees of spectral nudging, using WRF's standard nudging as a reference point during January and July 2007. Results suggest that there is a marked lack of sensitivity to varying degrees of nudging. Moreover, given that nudging is an artificial forcing applied in the model, an important outcome of this work is that nudging strength apparently can be considerably smaller than WRF's standard strength and still produce reliable simulations. In the remaining studies, we used the same PAW setup to analyze daily precipitation extremes simulated over a 19-year period on the CORDEX Arctic domain for winter and summer. We defined these seasons as the three-month period leading up to and including the climatological sea ice maximum and minimum, respectively. Analysis focused on four North American regions defined using climatological records, regional weather patterns, and geographical/topographical features. We compared simulated extremes with those occurring at corresponding observing stations in the U.S. National Climate Data Center's (NCDC's) Global Summary of the Day. Our analysis focused on variations in features of the extremes such as magnitudes, spatial scales, and temporal regimes. Using composites of extreme events, we also analyzed the processes producing these extremes, comparing circulation, pressure, temperature and humidity fields from the ERA-Interim reanalysis and the model output. The analysis revealed the importance of atmospheric convection in the Arctic for some extreme precipitation events and the overall importance of topographic precipitation. The analysis established the physical credibility of the simulations for extreme behavior, laying a foundation for examining projected changes in extreme precipitation. It also highlighted the utility of the model for extracting behavior that one cannot discern directly from the observations, such as summer convective precipitation.

Glisan, Justin Michael

147

Balancing Teacher Quality and Quantity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The world is facing a shortage of trained teachers. According to the 2010 Global Monitoring Report approximately 10.3 million teachers will be needed globally to staff classrooms from Bangkok to Canada. The situation is worse in Sub-Saharan Africa. Estimates suggest that approximately 1.2 million new teachers will be needed in Sub-Saharan Africa alone to achieve universal primary education goals by 2015. Increases in primary school enrollments, drought, and HIV-AIDS have exacerbated the need for well trained teachers. Despite the need, the focus is on balancing quality with quantity. An effective teacher is deemed a critical element, although not the only one, in a student's success in the classroom. This paper focuses on the dilemma of meeting universal primary education goals in Sub-Saharan Africa, while maintaining teacher quality in fragile contexts.

Bond, Helen

148

Staging Aristotle and natural observation against Galileo and (stacked) scientific experiment or physics lectures as rhetorical events  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This study was designed to understand lectures in a redesigned physics course for prospective elementary teachers. Our understanding was based on videotaped lectures and interviews with students and the professor. We show that the lectures can be understood as a rhetorical move. The professor staged Aristotle, natural philosophy, and students' observations and intuitive knowledge in opposition to Galileo, controlled (stacked) experiment, and mathematical inscriptions in the form of numbers, plotted data pairs, and curves. We conclude that this form of instructional delivery does not help students to become proficient in physics discourse, and offer alternatives that would facilitate students' construction and appropriation of physics discourse.

Roth, Wolff-Michael; Tobin, Kenneth

2005-11-23

149

Plankton dynamics: observed and modelled responses to physical conditions in Prince William Sound, Alaska  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plankton populations in Prince William Sound, Alaska, exhibited pronounced seasonal, annual and longer-period variability in composition and standing stock in response to physically influenced differences in nutrient availabil- ity, and possibly currents that modify local biomass by exchanges with water from the bordering Gulf of Alaska. During springs in which early, strong physical stratifica- tion developed, intense, short-lived phytoplankton blooms

DAVID L. ESLINGER; R. TED COONEY; C. PETER MCROY; ALISON WARD; THOMAS C. KLINE; E. PAUL SIMPSON; JIA WANG; JENNIFER R. ALLEN

2002-01-01

150

Physical State of the ``Bright'' South Seasonal Polar Cap From OMEGA Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The composition, physical state and texture of the South Seasonal Polar Cap (SSPC) have important consequences on energy balance. The imaging spectrometer OMEGA on board Mars Express has acquired the most comprehensive set of observations to date in the near-infrared (0.93-5.1 microns) on the SSPC from mid-winter solstice (Ls=110° , December 2004) to the end of the recession at Ls=320° (November 2005) [1]. The time resolution is 3 days to one month and the spatial resolution ranges from 700m to 10 km/pixel. [1] showed that during southern spring and summer, there is a very complex evolution in terms of effective grain size of CO2 ice and contamination by dust or H2O ice. H2O ice does not play a significant role except close to the end of the recession. [2] systematically segmented the South Seasonal Polar Cap into different spectral units and tested diverse surface representations by the modeling of spectral end-members and average unit spectra. Here we focus on the “bright” part of the SSPC corresponding to spectral unit SSPC1 (I.b of [1]). Regions belonging to this unit have a very bright albedo (? 0.6-0.8) associated with strong CO2 ice absorption features. According to [1] such characteristics are compatible with granular CO2 deposits with grain size in the range of 5 cm implying an extremely low contamination by dust and water ice. Furthermore, from their study of a representative region at 34° E, 76° S, the albedo increases from Ls=223° up to a maximum at Ls=240° and then decreases until total disappearance of the ice. The albedo increase would require a decrease of grain size if the granular model is really relevant. However the mean free path within CO2 ice as well as its thermodynamic behavior would rather favor a porous CO2 slab model [3]. Then photometric effects could be expected that could explain the brightening. In this paper we propose to further study the physical state of the “bright” part of the SSPC and its evolution by monitoring two reference regions from Ls 223° to 260° of martian year 27. We remove the aerosol effects on the spectra using radiative properties and maps of total column optical depth evaluated by [4] for the aerosols over large portions of the SSPC. Spectral modeling suggests that the upper 1 to 4 centimeters of the CO2 deposits form a slab of very compact ice. The slab thickness increases with time until CO2 ice demise. Increase of albedo due to a decreasing dust contamination first comes with this evolution, before the appearance of ice-free patches within the pixels that reverses the trend. Existence of the slab implies photometric and radiative effects. We have not be able to detect unambiguously the former, likely because the range of phase angles covered by our selected observations is too limited and the sun illumination is rather diffuse. [1] Langevin, Y., et al., 2007, J. Geophys. Res., 112, [2] Douté, S., et al., 2008, in LPSC Abstracts, vol. 39, 1736-+.[3] Eluszkiewicz, et al., 2005, Icarus, 174, 524. [4] Vincendon, et al., 2008, Icarus 196, 488.

Doute, S.; Schmidt, F.; Schmitt, B.; Vincendon, M.; Langevin, Y.; Gondet, B.; Bibring, J.

2009-12-01

151

Global Joule heating index derived from thermospheric density physics-based modeling and observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary operational impact of upper atmospheric neutral density variability is on satellite drag. Drag is the most difficult force to model mainly because of the complexity of neutral atmosphere variations driven by solar UV and EUV radiation power, magnetospheric energy input, and the propagation from below of lower atmosphere waves. Taking into account the self-consistent interactions between neutral winds, composition, ion drifts, and ionization densities, first-principles models are able to provide a more realistic representation of neutral density than empirical models in the upper atmosphere. Their largest sources of uncertainty, however, are the semiannual variations in neutral density and the magnitude, spatial distribution, and temporal evolution of the magnetospheric energy input. In this study, results from the physics-based coupled thermosphere-ionosphere-plasmasphere electrodynamics (CTIPe) model and measurements from the CHAMP satellite are compared and used to improve the modeled thermospheric neutral density estimates. The good agreement between modeled and observed densities over an uninterrupted yearlong period of variable conditions gives confidence that the thermosphere-ionosphere system energy influx from solar radiation and magnetospheric sources is reasonable and that Joule heating, the dominant source during geomagnetically disturbed conditions, is appropriately estimated. On the basis of the correlation between neutral density and energy injection, a global time-dependent Joule heating index (JHI) is derived from the relationship between Joule heating computed by the CTIPe model and neutral density measured by the CHAMP satellite. Preliminary results show an improvement in density estimates using CTIPe JHI, demonstrating its potential for neutral density modeling applied to atmospheric drag determination.

Fedrizzi, Mariangel; Fuller-Rowell, Tim J.; Codrescu, Mihail V.

2012-03-01

152

Aircraft observations of the physical and radiative properties of biomass aerosol particles during SAFARI-2000.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An initial analysis will be shown from the ~80 h of data collected between 2--18 September 2000 by the UK Met Office C-130 aircraft during the dry season campaign of the Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI-2000). The talk will concentrate on the physical and optical properties of the biomass aerosol. The evolution of the particle size spectrum and its optical properties at emission and after ageing will be shown. The vertical distribution of the biomass plume over the land and sea will be compared in view of the local meteorology. A generalised three log-normal model is shown to represent aged biomass aerosol over the sea areas, both in terms of the number and mass particle size spectra, but also derived optical properties (e.g. asymmetry factor, single scatter albedo (? 0) and extinction coefficient) as calculated using Mie theory and appropriate refractive indices. ? 0 was determined independently using a particle soot absorption photometer (giving the absorption coefficient at a wavelength of 0.567 ? m) and a nephelometer (giving the scattering coefficients at 0.45, 0.55 and 0.65 ? m). Good agreement was found between the measurements and those obtained from the Mie calculations and observed size distributions. A typical value of ? 0 at 0.55 ? m for aged biomass aerosol was 0.90. The radiative properties of the biomass aerosol over both land and sea will be summarised. Stratocumulus cloud was present on some of the days over the sea and the surprising lack of interaction between the elevated biomass plume (containing significant levels of cloud condensation nuclei) and the cloud capping the marine boundary layer will be illustrated. Using the cloud-free and cloudy case studies we can begin to elucidate the levels of direct and indirect forcing of the biomass aerosol on a regional scale. >http://www.mrfnet.demon.co.uk/africa/SAFARI2000.htm

Osborne, S. R.; Haywood, J. M.

2001-12-01

153

SHORT COMMUNICATION: On (kinds of) quantities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The third edition of the International Vocabulary of Metrology (VIM) has introduced the concept of kind of quantity as the 'aspect common to mutually comparable quantities'. While the concept is a fundamental one, as it is relevantly used in several definitions throughout VIM, its definition is critical for several reasons. Not only is the division of the concept of 'quantity' according to 'kind of quantity' to some extent arbitrary, as noted in the Vocabulary, but also the distinction between the concepts of 'quantity' and 'kind of quantity' is to some extent arbitrary. This article discusses this subject and suggests a possible solution to some of the issues identified.

Mari, Luca

2009-06-01

154

DENSITY ESTIMATION FOR PROJECTED EXOPLANET QUANTITIES  

SciTech Connect

Exoplanet searches using radial velocity (RV) and microlensing (ML) produce samples of 'projected' mass and orbital radius, respectively. We present a new method for estimating the probability density distribution (density) of the unprojected quantity from such samples. For a sample of n data values, the method involves solving n simultaneous linear equations to determine the weights of delta functions for the raw, unsmoothed density of the unprojected quantity that cause the associated cumulative distribution function (CDF) of the projected quantity to exactly reproduce the empirical CDF of the sample at the locations of the n data values. We smooth the raw density using nonparametric kernel density estimation with a normal kernel of bandwidth {sigma}. We calibrate the dependence of {sigma} on n by Monte Carlo experiments performed on samples drawn from a theoretical density, in which the integrated square error is minimized. We scale this calibration to the ranges of real RV samples using the Normal Reference Rule. The resolution and amplitude accuracy of the estimated density improve with n. For typical RV and ML samples, we expect the fractional noise at the PDF peak to be approximately 80 n{sup -log2}. For illustrations, we apply the new method to 67 RV values given a similar treatment by Jorissen et al. in 2001, and to the 308 RV values listed at exoplanets.org on 2010 October 20. In addition to analyzing observational results, our methods can be used to develop measurement requirements-particularly on the minimum sample size n-for future programs, such as the microlensing survey of Earth-like exoplanets recommended by the Astro 2010 committee.

Brown, Robert A., E-mail: rbrown@stsci.edu [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

2011-05-20

155

Physical Function and Independence One Year Following Myocardial Infarction: Observations from the TRIUMPH Registry  

PubMed Central

Background Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) may contribute to health status declines including independence loss and physical function decline. Despite the importance of these outcomes for prognosis and quality of life, their incidence and predictors have not been well described. Methods We studied 2002 patients with AMI enrolled across 24 sites in the TRIUMPH registry who completed assessments of independence and physical function at the time of AMI and one year later. Independence was evaluated by the EQ-5D (mobility, self care, usual activities), and physical function was assessed with the SF-12 Physical Component Summary (PCS). A decline in ?1 level on EQ-5D and >5 points in PCS were considered clinically significant changes. Hierarchical, multivariable modified Poisson regression models accounting for within-site variability were used to identify predictors of independence loss and physical function decline. Results One year post-AMI, 43.0% of patients experienced health status declines: 12.8% independence loss alone, 15.2% physical function decline alone, and 15.0% both. After adjustment, variables that predicted independence loss included female sex, non-Caucasian race, unmarried status, uninsured status, end-stage renal disease, and depression. Variables that predicted physical function decline were uninsured status, lack of cardiac rehabilitation referral, and absence of pre-AMI angina. Age was not predictive of either outcome after adjustment. Conclusions More than 40% of patients experience independence loss or physical function decline one year following AMI. These changes are distinct but can occur simultaneously. While some risk factors are not modifiable, others suggest potential targets for strategies to preserve patients’ health status.

Dodson, John A.; Arnold, Suzanne V.; Reid, Kimberly J.; Gill, Thomas M.; Rich, Michael W.; Masoudi, Frederick A.; Spertus, John A.; Krumholz, Harlan M.; Alexander, Karen P.

2012-01-01

156

Physical mechanism of strong negative storm effects in the daytime ionospheric F2 region observed with EISCAT  

Microsoft Academic Search

A self-consistent method for daytime F-region modelling was applied to EISCAT observations during two periods comprising the very disturbed days 3 April 1992 and 10 April 1990. The observed strong Ne decrease at F2-layer heights originated from different physical mechanisms in the two cases. The negative F2-layer storm effect with an NmF2 decrease by a factor of 6.4 on 3

A. Mikhailov; K. Schlegel

1998-01-01

157

Interobserver repeatability and validity of an observation method to assess physical loads imposed on the upper extremities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interobserver repeatability and validity were assessed for a new semiquantitative, time-based observation method for the estimation of physical loads imposed on the upper extremities. Six risk factors of upper extremity disorders were included in the method: repetitive use of hand, use of hand force, pinch grip, non-neutral wrist posture, elevation of upper arm, local mechanical pressure. Two occupational health nurses

Ritva Ketola; Risto Toivonen IV; Eira Viikari-Juntura II

2001-01-01

158

ESO Large Program on physical studies of Trans-Neptunian objects and Centaurs: Final results of the visible spectrophotometric observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Large Program on physical studies of TNOs and Centaurs, started at ESO Cerro Paranal on April 2001, has recently been concluded. This project was devoted to the investigation of the surface properties of these icy bodies through photometric and spectroscopic observations. In this paper we present the latest results on these pristine bodies obtained from the spectrophotometric investigation in

S. Fornasier; A. Doressoundiram; G. P. Tozzi; M. A. Barucci; H. Boehnhardt; C. de Bergh; A. Delsanti; J. Davies; E. Dotto

2004-01-01

159

The Role of Physical Attractiveness in the Observation of Adult-Child Interactions: Eye of the Beholder or Behavioral Reality?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The susceptibility of observations of adult-child interactions to bias due to the physical attractiveness of target persons was examined. Facial features of target persons were occluded in one version of a videotape and unoccluded in another, otherwise identical version. Using a global rating system and a molecular coding strategy, 38 trained…

Ritter, Jean M.; Langlois, Judith H.

160

Studying the Space Weather Features of the High-Latitude Ionosphere by Using a Physics-Based Data Assimilation Model and Observational Data from Ground Magnetometer Arrays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The high-latitude ionosphere is a very dynamic region in the solar-terrestrial environment. Frequent disturbances in the region can adversely affect numerous military and civilian technologies. Accurate specifications and forecasts of the high-latitude electrodynamic and plasma structures have fundamental space weather importance for enabling mitigation of adverse effects. Presently, most of the space-weather models use limited observations and/or indices to define a set of empirical drivers for physical models to move forward in time. Since the empirical drivers have a "climatological" nature and there are significant physical inconsistencies among various empirical drivers due to independent statistical analysis of different observational data, the specifications of high-latitude space environment from these space weather models cannot truthfully reflect the weather features. In fact, unrealistic small- and large-scale structures could be produced in the specifications and forecasts from these models. We developed a data assimilation model for the high-latitude ionospheric plasma dynamics and electrodynamics to overcome these hurdles. With a set of physical models and an ensemble Kalman filter, the data assimilation model can determine the self-consistent structures of the high-latitude convection electric field, ionospheric conductivity, and the key drivers associated with these quantities by ingesting data from multiple observations. These ingested data include the magnetic perturbation from the ground-based magnetometers in the high-latitude regions, magnetic measurements of IRIDIUM satellites, SuperDARN line-of-sight velocity, and in-situ drift velocity measured by DMSP satellites. As a result, the assimilation model can capture the small- and large-scale plasma structures and sharp electrodynamic boundaries, thus, can provide a more accurate picture of the high-latitude space weather. In this presentation, we will first briefly describe the data-assimilation model of high-latitude electrodynamics and its strengths over the other space-weather models. Then we will present the space weather features produced by the model for quiet and storm periods constrained by the data from ground magnetometer arrays. This will demonstrate the dynamic variability of the high-latitude ionosphere. Finally, we will present high-resolution ionospheric modeling results of the time-evolution and spatial features of the high-latitude plasma structures to further demonstrate the model's capability in producing the space weather features in the high-latitude ionosphere. These results will illuminate the importance of real-time data availability and data assimilation models for accurate specification and forecasting of space weather.

Zhu, L.; Schunk, R. W.; Scherliess, L.; Sojka, J. J.; Eccles, J. V.

2011-12-01

161

Dissociable substrates for body motion and physical experience in the human action observation network  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observation of human actions recruits a well-defined network of brain regions, yet the purpose of this action observation network (AON) remains under debate. Some authors contend that this network has developed to respond specifically to observation of human actions. Conversely, others suggest that this network responds in a similar manner to actions prompted by human and non-human cues, and that

Emily S. Cross; Antonia F. de C. Hamilton; David J. M. Kraemer; William M. Kelley; Scott T. Grafton

2009-01-01

162

"In Situ" Observation of a Soap-Film Catenoid--A Simple Educational Physics Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The solution to the Euler-Lagrange equation is an extremal functional. To understand that the functional is stationary at local extrema (maxima or minima), we propose a physics experiment that involves using a soap film to form a catenoid. A catenoid is a surface that is formed between two coaxial circular rings and is classified mathematically as…

Ito, Masato; Sato, Taku

2010-01-01

163

Interactions Between Teacher and Students in a Physical Education Setting Observation of Students' Behaviors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An investigation was made into the dependency of student behaviors on teacher behaviors in a physical education setting. It was assumed that the interaction between students and teachers as well as the time spent in skill-practice play a prominent role in learning. An effort was made to determine if students' behavior profiles differ in male,…

Pieron, Maurice; Haan, Jean-Marie

164

Recent advances in observing the physical oceanography of the western Mediterranean Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mediterranean Sea has been investigated intensively since the early nineties, using modern techniques and collaborative approaches. This overview summarizes some of the resulting advances that were made concerning the physical oceanography of the western Mediterranean. The water mass formation processes are now much better understood and have been quantified to a large extent. The boundary conditions of the system

Uwe Send; Gerd Krahmann; Claude Millot; Monika Rhein; Joaquin Tintoref

1999-01-01

165

Aircraft observations of the physical and radiative properties of biomass aerosol particles during SAFARI2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

An initial analysis will be shown from the ~80 h of data collected between 2--18 September 2000 by the UK Met Office C-130 aircraft during the dry season campaign of the Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI-2000). The talk will concentrate on the physical and optical properties of the biomass aerosol. The evolution of the particle size spectrum and its

S. R. Osborne; J. M. Haywood

2001-01-01

166

``Observation, Experiment, and the Future of Physics'' John G. King's acceptance speech for the 2000 Oersted Medal presented by the American Association of Physics Teachers, 18 January 2000  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Looking at our built world, most physicists see order where many others see magic. This view of order should be available to all, and physics would flourish better in an appreciative society. Despite the remarkable developments in the teaching of physics in the last half century, too many people, whether they've had physics courses or not, don't have an inkling of the power and value of our subject, whose importance ranges from the practical to the psychological. We need to supplement people's experiences in ways that are applicable to different groups, from physics majors to people without formal education. I will describe and explain an ambitious program to stimulate scientific, engineering, and technological interest and understanding through direct observation of a wide range of phenomena and experimentation with them. For the very young: toys, playgrounds, kits, projects. For older students: indoor showcases, projects, and courses taught in intensive form. For all ages: more instructive everyday surroundings with outdoor showcases and large demonstrations.

King, John G.

2001-01-01

167

The relationship between physical activity and low back pain outcomes: a systematic review of observational studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although clinical guidelines advocate exercise and activity in the management of non-specific low back pain (NSLBP), the link\\u000a between levels of physical activity and outcomes is unclear. This systematic review investigated the relationships between\\u000a free living activity levels after onset of low back pain (LBP) and measures of pain, and disability in patients with NSLBP.\\u000a Cohort and cross-sectional studies were

Paul HendrickS; S. Milosavljevic; L. Hale; D. A. Hurley; S. McDonough; B. Ryan; G. D. Baxter

2011-01-01

168

Physical Units  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page describes units of measurement, unit conversions, dimensional analysis and basic mechanical quantities. Length, Mass and Time link to separate pages that go into more detail on the physical quantities and their definitions. Also included is a link to a page that does unit conversions for the user.

Nave, Carl R.

2004-12-15

169

Observation of steric hindrance effect controlling crystal packing structures and physical properties in three new isomeric nitronyl nitroxide radicals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three isomeric nitronyl nitroxide radical compounds, 2-[n-(N-benzyl)pyridinium]-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide bromide (n=2, 3 and 4 for 1, 2 and 3, respectively), have been synthesized and structurally characterized. The influence of steric hindrance on the molecular packing structures and physical properties has been observed. In the radical 1, such steric hindrance leads to a folding conformation of the imidazoline and benzene rings and the

Hai-Rong Zhao; Jia-Sen Sun; Yun-Xia Sui; Xiao-Ming Ren; Bin-Qian Yao; Lin-Jiang Shen; Qing-Jin Meng

2009-01-01

170

Observation of Hypervelocity Dust in Dense Supersonic Plasma Flows: Physics and Applications  

SciTech Connect

Synthetic diamond and graphite dust powders with a wide range of sizes, from a few to several tens of microns in diameter were accelerated to velocities up to 4 km/s in vacuum by plasma jet produced in a coaxial gun. Some of the key features of the plasma flow are high density, of the order of 10{sup 22} m{sup -3}, low ion and electron temperatures, of only a few eV, and good collimation over a distance of {approx_equal}2 m due to confinement by the self-generated magnetic field. The main features of this plasma-drag acceleration technique are presented and discussed. From basic science point of view hypervelocity dust is useful for studying the physics of dust interaction with energetic plasma flows at microscopic level. In physical applications, it has been proposed to use hypervelocity dust for diagnostic or control of magnetically confined fusion plasmas. In engineering, hypervelocity dusty plasmas are extensively employed in industrial processes involved in the processing of surfaces.

Ticos, C. M. [National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Bucharest (Romania); Wang, Z.; Wurden, G. A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Shukla, P. K. [Institut fuer Teoretische Physik IV, Fakueltat fuer Physik und Astronomie, Ruhr-Universtaet Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany)

2008-10-15

171

Large quantity discrimination by North Island robins (Petroica longipes).  

PubMed

While numerosity-representation and enumeration of different numbers of objects-and quantity discrimination in particular have been studied in a wide range of species, very little is known about the numerical abilities of animals in the wild. This study examined spontaneous relative quantity judgments (RQJs) by wild North Island robins (Petroica longipes) of New Zealand. In Experiment 1, robins were tested on a range of numerical values of up to 14 versus 16 items, which were sequentially presented and hidden. In Experiment 2, the same numerical contrasts were tested on a different group of subjects but quantities were presented as whole visible sets. Experiment 3 involved whole visible sets that comprised of exceedingly large quantities of up to 56 versus 64 items. While robins shared with other species a ratio-based representation system for representing very large values, they also appeared to have developed an object indexing system with an extended upper limit (well beyond 4) that may be an evolutionary response to ecological challenges faced by scatter-hoarding birds. These results suggest that cognitive mechanism influencing an understanding of physical quantity may be deployed more flexibly in some contexts than previously thought, and are discussed in light of findings across other mammalian and avian species. PMID:22825034

Garland, Alexis; Low, Jason; Burns, Kevin C

2012-07-24

172

Quantity-activity relationship of denitrifying bacteria and environmental scaling in streams of a forested watershed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spatial variability of subreach denitrification rates in streams was evaluated with respect to controlling environmental conditions, molecular examination of denitrifying bacteria, and dimensional analysis. Denitrification activities ranged from 0 and 800 ng-N gsed-1 d-1 with large variations observed within short distances (<50 m) along stream reaches. A log-normal probability distribution described the range in denitrification activities and was used to define low (16% of the probability distribution), medium (68%), and high (16%) denitrification potential groups. Denitrifying bacteria were quantified using a competitive polymerase chain reaction (cPCR) technique that amplified the nirK gene that encodes for nitrite reductase. Results showed a range of nirK quantities from 103 to 107 gene-copy-number gsed-1. A nonparametric statistical test showed no significant difference in nirK quantities among stream reaches, but revealed that samples with a high denitrification potential had significantly higher nirK quantities. Denitrification activity was positively correlated with nirK quantities with scatter in the data that can be attributed to varying environmental conditions along stream reaches. Dimensional analysis was used to evaluate denitrification activities according to environmental variables that describe fluid-flow properties, nitrate and organic material quantities, and dissolved oxygen flux. Buckingham's pi theorem was used to generate dimensionless groupings and field data were used to determine scaling parameters. The resulting expressions between dimensionless NO3- flux and dimensionless groupings of environmental variables showed consistent scaling, which indicates that the subreach variability in denitrification rates can be predicted by the controlling physical, chemical, and microbiological conditions.

O'Connor, Ben L.; Hondzo, Miki; Dobraca, Dina; Lapara, Timothy M.; Finlay, Jacques C.; Brezonik, Patrick L.

2006-12-01

173

Evidence that women meeting physical activity guidelines do not sit less: An observational inclinometry study  

PubMed Central

Background The inactivity physiology paradigm proposes that sedentary behaviors, including sitting too much, are independent of the type of physical activity delineated for health in the Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. Thus, we hypothesized that, when accounting for behaviors across the entire day, variability in the amount of time spent sitting would be independent of the inter-and intra-individual time engaged in sustained moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Methods Ninety-one healthy women, aged 40–75 years, completed a demographic questionnaire and assessment of height and weight. Participants wore the activPAL activity monitor for one week and time (minutes/day) spent sitting, standing, stepping, and in sustained bouts (bouts ?10 minutes) of MVPA were quantified. The women were then stratified into groups based on weekly sustained MVPA. Additionally, each day of data collection for each participant was classified as either a “sufficient” MVPA day (? 30 min of MVPA) or an “insufficient” MVPA day for within-participant analyses. Results Time spent sitting, standing, and in incidental non-exercise stepping averaged 64, 28, and 11 hrs/week, respectively, and did not differ between groups with individuals meeting/exceeding the current exercise recommendation of 150 min/week of sustained MVPA in ?10 minutes bouts (M = 294 min/week, SD = 22) compared to those with none or minimal levels (M= 20min/week, SD = 4). Time spent sitting (M = 9.1 hr/day, SD = 0.19 vs. M = 8.8 hr/day, SD = 0.22), standing (M = 3.9 hr/day, SD = 0.16 vs. M = 3.9 hr/day, SD = 0.15), and in intermittent stepping (M = 1.6 hr/day, SD = 0.07 vs. M = 1.6 hr/day, SD = 0.06) did not differ between days with (~55 min/day) and without recommended MVPA. Conclusions This study provides the first objective evidence that participation in sustained MVPA is unrelated to daily sitting duration in relatively healthy, middle and older-aged women. More research is needed to extend these findings to other populations and to inform distinct behavioral recommendations focused on sedentary time.

2012-01-01

174

Satellite observations of plasma physics near the magnetic field reconnection X line  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Satellite observations near the X line are required to understand electromagnetic energy conversion and particle acceleration resulting from magnetic field reconnection. More than 900 orbits of Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) spacecraft across the low-latitude dayside magnetopause, involving more than 4000 magnetopause crossings and 5000 h of data, were searched for examples of magnetic field reconnection within a few electron skin depths of the X line. Evidence that the X line was crossed in the best of these events comes from observations of DC electric and magnetic fields, electrostatic and electromagnetic lower hybrid waves, magnetosheath electrons flowing along the separatricies, and a super-Alfvenic electron jet flowing perpendicular to the magnetic field. A dispersion analysis identifies properties of the wave that are in agreement with the experiment. Neither these waves nor the DC electric field were sufficient to account for acceleration of the electron jet. The anomalous drag was not an important source of the observed DC electric field. The observed pressure gradient is a possible candidate for maintaining the electric field.

Mozer, F. S.; Sundkvist, D.; McFadden, J. P.; Pritchett, P. L.; Roth, I.

2011-12-01

175

Observable n-n oscillations with new physics at the LHC  

SciTech Connect

We explore extensions of the minimal supersymmetric standard model in which TeV scale vectorlike multiplets can mediate observable n-n oscillations, without causing conflict with the proton decay experiments, with a U(1) symmetry playing an important role. The colored vectorlike particles, in particular, may be found at the LHC through some decay modes arising from their direct couplings to quarks.

Ajaib, M. Adeel; Gogoladze, I.; Shafi, Q. [Bartol Research Institute, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States); Mimura, Yukihiro [Department of Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)

2009-12-15

176

Physical Oceanographic Observations Off the Oregon Coast, 1975. WISP and UP-75.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents observations from two programs in 1975, WISP and UP-75 to study circulation off Oregon. WISP was a study of the transition between the winter and spring regimes, and UP-75 was designed to determine whether there is a poleward undercurr...

W. E. Gilbert A. Huyer E. D. Barton R. L. Smith

1976-01-01

177

Rethinking Intensive Quantities via Guided Mediated Abduction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Some intensive quantities, such as slope, velocity, or likelihood, are perceptually privileged in the sense that they are experienced as holistic, irreducible sensations. However, the formal expression of these quantities uses "a/b" analytic metrics; for example, the slope of a line is the quotient of its rise and run. Thus, whereas students'…

Abrahamson, Dor

2012-01-01

178

Quantity Discounts: Managerial Issues and Research Opportunities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marketing managers frequently administer pricing policies involving substantial quantity discounts. However, our understanding of the precise role of these discounts, and their design, is quite limited. This paper reviews and integrates the economics and marketing literature and presents a detailed analysis of the policies of four firms in order to: (i) specify the variety of motivations for quantity discounts, (ii)

Robert J. Dolan

1987-01-01

179

Herschel observations of EXtra-Ordinary Sources (HEXOS): Methanol as a probe of physical conditions in Orion KL  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have examined methanol emission from Orion KL withthe Herschel/HIFI instrument, and detected two methanol bands centered at 524 GHz and 1061 GHz. The 524 GHz methanol band (observed in HIFI band 1a) is dominated by the isolated ?J = 0, K = -4 ? -3, vt = 0 Q branch, and includes 25 E-type and 2 A-type transitions. The 1061 GHz methanol band (observed in HIFI band 4b) is dominated by the ?J = 0, K = 7 ? 6, vt = 0 Q branch transitions which are mostly blended. We have used the isolated E-type vt = 0 methanol transitions to explore the physical conditions in the molecular gas. With HIFI's high velocity resolution, the methanol emission contributed by different spatial components along the line of sight toward Orion KL (hot core, low velocity flow, and compact ridge) can be distinguished and studied separately. The isolated transitions detected in these bands cover a broad energy range (upper state energy ranging from 80 K to 900 K), which provides a unique probe of the thermal structure in each spatial component. The observations further show that the compact ridge is externally heated. These observations demonstrate the power of methanol lines as probes of the physical conditions in warm regions in close proximity to young stars. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

Wang, S.; Bergin, E. A.; Crockett, N. R.; Goldsmith, P. F.; Lis, D. C.; Pearson, J. C.; Schilke, P.; Bell, T. A.; Comito, C.; Blake, G. A.; Caux, E.; Ceccarelli, C.; Cernicharo, J.; Daniel, F.; Dubernet, M.-L.; Emprechtinger, M.; Encrenaz, P.; Gerin, M.; Giesen, T. F.; Goicoechea, J. R.; Gupta, H.; Herbst, E.; Joblin, C.; Johnstone, D.; Langer, W. D.; Latter, W. B.; Lord, S. D.; Maret, S.; Martin, P. G.; Melnick, G. J.; Menten, K. M.; Morris, P.; Müller, H. S. P.; Murphy, J. A.; Neufeld, D. A.; Ossenkopf, V.; Pérault, M.; Phillips, T. G.; Plume, R.; Qin, S.-L.; Schlemmer, S.; Stutzki, J.; Trappe, N.; van der Tak, F. F. S.; Vastel, C.; Yorke, H. W.; Yu, S.; Zmuidzinas, J.

2011-03-01

180

Environmental and social-motivational contextual factors related to youth physical activity: systematic observations of summer day camps  

PubMed Central

Background Youth risk of obesity is high during the summer months. Summer day camps can be ideal settings for preventing obesity through reducing youth summer sedentary behaviors. However, with limited research on camp settings, the mechanisms by which these programs promote children’s physical activity (PA) remains largely unknown. The current study was designed to take a first step in addressing this gap in research through systematic observations of 4 summer day camps. Methods Systematic observations of 4 summer day camps was conducted using the System for Observing Play and Leisure Activity in Youth (SOPLAY) and a social-motivational climate supplemental observation tool founded on Self-Determination Theory and previous research developed by the authors. Teams of two coders observed daily activities for four days across two-week periods at each camp. On 15 minute intervals throughout each day, camps were assessed on level of youth PA (e.g., sedentary, moderate, vigorous), five physical features (e.g., equipment), eight staff interactions (e.g., encourage PA), and six social climate components (e.g., inclusive game). Results Across the sample, highly engaging games [F(1,329)?=?17.68, p?physical-environmental effects of temperature [F(1,328)?=?1.54, p?observations of the physical and social resources of summer day camps and contributes to our understanding of the strengths and needs of camps to effectively promote PA in both boys and girls during the summer months when risks for obesity are high.

2013-01-01

181

Environmental and social-motivational contextual factors related to youth physical activity: systematic observations of summer day camps.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: Youth risk of obesity is high during the summer months. Summer day camps can be ideal settings for preventing obesity through reducing youth summer sedentary behaviors. However, with limited research on camp settings, the mechanisms by which these programs promote children's physical activity (PA) remains largely unknown. The current study was designed to take a first step in addressing this gap in research through systematic observations of 4 summer day camps. METHODS: Systematic observations of 4 summer day camps was conducted using the System for Observing Play and Leisure Activity in Youth (SOPLAY) and a social-motivational climate supplemental observation tool founded on Self-Determination Theory and previous research developed by the authors. Teams of two coders observed daily activities for four days across two-week periods at each camp. On 15 minute intervals throughout each day, camps were assessed on level of youth PA (e.g., sedentary, moderate, vigorous), five physical features (e.g., equipment), eight staff interactions (e.g., encourage PA), and six social climate components (e.g., inclusive game). RESULTS: Across the sample, highly engaging games [F(1,329) = 17.68, p < .001], positive peer interactions [F(1,329) = 8.43, p < .01], and bullying [F(1,329) = 9.39, p < .01] were significantly related to higher PA participation rates, and clarity of rules [F(1,329) = 11.12, p < .001] was related to fewer youth participating in PA. Separate analyses for males and females indicated some sex differences with highly engaging games [F(1,329) = 23.10, p < .001] and bullying [F(1,329) = 10.00, p < .01] related to males' but not females' PA, and positive peer interactions related to only females' PA [F(1,329) = 9.58, p < .01]. Small, yet significant physical-environmental effects of temperature [F(1,328) = 1.54, p < .05] and equipment [F(1,328) = 4.34, p = .05] for girls also suggests that activities offered indoors (which was most common during high temperatures), and provision of equipment may also be important considerations for promoting girls' PA. Staff behaviors were minimally predictive of youth PA. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to conduct systematic observations of the physical and social resources of summer day camps and contributes to our understanding of the strengths and needs of camps to effectively promote PA in both boys and girls during the summer months when risks for obesity are high. PMID:23688205

Zarrett, Nicole; Sorensen, Carl; Skiles, Brittany

2013-05-20

182

Physical and chemical processes of the inner coma observed in mid-ultraviolet cometary spectra  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate measurement of cometary H2O is essential for comparing the compositions and understanding the properties of cometary nuclei. Water production rates QH2O are easily derived from observations of OH solar resonance fluorescence with the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) satellite. Variable solar activity and several inner coma processes affect the estimates of QH2O using IUE. Water photodissociation by solar Lyman-alpha radiation

Scott Alan Budzien

1992-01-01

183

Panchromatic observations of the textbook GRB 110205A: constraining physical mechanisms of prompt emission and afterglow  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a comprehensive analysis of a bright, long duration (T90 ~ 257 s) GRB 110205A at redshift z= 2.22. The optical prompt emission was detected by Swift\\/UVOT, ROTSE-IIIb and BOOTES telescopes when the GRB was still radiating in the gamma-ray band. Nearly 200 s of observations were obtained simultaneously from optical, X-ray to gamma-ray, which makes it one of

W. Zheng; R. F. Shen; T. Sakamoto; A. P. Beardmore; M. Pasquale; X. F. Wu; J. Gorosabel; Y. Urata; S. Sugita; B. Zhang; A. Pozanenko; M. Nissinen; D. K. Sahu; M. Im; T. N. Ukwatta; M. Andreev; E. Klunko; A. Volnova; C. W. Akerlof; P. Anto; S. D. Barthelmy; A. Breeveld; U. Carsenty; S. Castillo-Carri'on; A. J. Castro-Tirado; M. M. Chester; C. J. Chuang; R. Cunniffe; A. Postigo; R. Duffard; H. Flewelling; N. Gehrels; T. Guver; S. Guziy; V. P. Hentunen; K. Y. Huang; M. Jelínek; T. S. Koch; P. Kub'anek; P. Kuin; T. A. McKay; S. Mottola; S. R. Oates; P. O'Brien; M. J. Page; S. B. Pandey; C. Pulgar; W. Rujopakarn; E. Rykoff; T. Salmi; R. S'anchez-Ramírez; B. E. Schaefer; A. Sergeev; E. Sonbas; A. Sota; J. C. Tello; K. Yamaoka; S. A. Yost; F. Yuan

2011-01-01

184

Understanding the Sunrise Peak in Rural NOX: Physical and Chemical Factors Observed during PROPHET Summer Intensives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The PROPHET tower provides measurements of rural air chemistry at the top of a mixed deciduous forest canopy in Northern Lower Michigan. Using data from summer intensives in 2000 and 2001, we have identified a number of mornings with significant peaks (~3000 ppt or greater) in NOx. This analysis describes the temporal evolution of these features, and evaluates a number of mechanisms that may explain this behavior. An NCAR Integrated Sounding System (ISS) with a Doppler Wind Profiler and Radio Acoustic Sounder provided measurements of boundary layer behavior from ~200 meters and above. However, during the night, the NBL was typically below the height of the lowest range gates of the ISS. To observe characteristics of the NBL a tether system was used to raise/lower standard rawinsondes throughout several nights. Ultimately, the transition from the stable nocturnal boundary layer (NBL) to the daytime convective mixed layer is shown to determine the erosion of the morning chemical maxima. This occurs as the mixed layer deepens and entrains an increasing volume of air from aloft, the concentrations drop significantly, and corresponding changes are observed in the concentrations of other trace gases. Multiple mechanisms may explain the initial chemical increase that typically begins at first light, when net solar radiation becomes positive. On nights with tethersonde data, we have observed that the initial erosion of the NBL at sunrise corresponds with the timing of significant increase in NOx at the tower. However, observations indicate that a number of these peaks occur on saturated mornings. Therefore, we also consider the role of fog and dew formation as a reservoir that potentially liberates NOx in the early morning as moist air in the NBL begins to evaporate.

Moody, J. L.; Carroll, M. A.; Lilly, M. A.; Thornberry, T.; Wimmers, A.; Mitchell, M.; Seaman, C.; L'Heureux, M.; Yageman, L.; Campbell, C.; Yip, G.; Hengel, S.; Fortner, E.

2002-12-01

185

Observations on the relation of the shortwave reflectivity of recently deposited snow to its physical properties  

SciTech Connect

The integrated albedo for solar radiation in the 0.4--0.7 ..mu..m wavlength range was measured near noon over a wet snow cover before and after a new snowfall. Observed values were compared with those estimated from measurements of surface density, air permeability, and the total-to-diffuse-flux ratio by means of five models described in the literature and by using empirical correlations to estimate grain size.

Bergen, J.D.; Hutchison, B.A.; McMillen, R.T.; Ozment, A.D.; Gottfried, G.J.

1983-02-01

186

W, F, and I: Three quantities basic to radiation physics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The W value is an index of the mean number of ions produced in a gas subjected to ionizing radiation. Formally, it is defined as the radiation energy absorbed (usually expressed in units of eV) 'per ion pair of either sign produced', or, in a simpler lang...

M. Inokuti

1998-01-01

187

PANCHROMATIC OBSERVATIONS OF THE TEXTBOOK GRB 110205A: CONSTRAINING PHYSICAL MECHANISMS OF PROMPT EMISSION AND AFTERGLOW  

SciTech Connect

We present a comprehensive analysis of a bright, long-duration (T{sub 90} {approx} 257 s) GRB 110205A at redshift z = 2.22. The optical prompt emission was detected by Swift/UVOT, ROTSE-IIIb, and BOOTES telescopes when the gamma-ray burst (GRB) was still radiating in the {gamma}-ray band, with optical light curve showing correlation with {gamma}-ray data. Nearly 200 s of observations were obtained simultaneously from optical, X-ray, to {gamma}-ray (1 eV to 5 MeV), which makes it one of the exceptional cases to study the broadband spectral energy distribution during the prompt emission phase. In particular, we clearly identify, for the first time, an interesting two-break energy spectrum, roughly consistent with the standard synchrotron emission model in the fast cooling regime. Shortly after prompt emission ({approx}1100 s), a bright (R = 14.0) optical emission hump with very steep rise ({alpha} {approx} 5.5) was observed, which we interpret as the reverse shock (RS) emission. It is the first time that the rising phase of an RS component has been closely observed. The full optical and X-ray afterglow light curves can be interpreted within the standard reverse shock (RS) + forward shock (FS) model. In general, the high-quality prompt and afterglow data allow us to apply the standard fireball model to extract valuable information, including the radiation mechanism (synchrotron), radius of prompt emission (R{sub GRB} {approx} 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 13} cm), initial Lorentz factor of the outflow ({Gamma}{sub 0} {approx} 250), the composition of the ejecta (mildly magnetized), the collimation angle, and the total energy budget.

Zheng, W. [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, 450 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Shen, R. F. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3H4 (Canada); Sakamoto, T. [Center for Research and Exploration in Space Science and Technology (CRESST), NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Beardmore, A. P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); De Pasquale, M. [Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, Holmbury Road, Holmbury St. Mary, Dorking RH5 6NT (United Kingdom); Wu, X. F.; Zhang, B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nevada Las Vegas, Las Vegas, NV 89154 (United States); Gorosabel, J. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia (IAA-CSIC), 18008 Granada (Spain); Urata, Y. [Institute of Astronomy, National Central University, Chung-Li 32054, Taiwan (China); Sugita, S. [EcoTopia Science Institute, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, chikusa, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Pozanenko, A. [Space Research Institute (IKI), 84/32 Profsoyuznaya St., Moscow 117997 (Russian Federation); Nissinen, M. [Taurus Hill Observatory, Haerkaemaeentie 88, 79480 Kangaslampi (Finland); Sahu, D. K. [CREST, Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Koramangala, Bangalore 560034 (India); Im, M. [Center for the Exploration of the Origin of the Universe, Department of Physics and Astronomy, FPRD, Seoul National University, Shillim-dong, San 56-1, Kwanak-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ukwatta, T. N. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Andreev, M. [Terskol Branch of Institute of Astronomy of RAS, Kabardino-Balkaria Republic 361605 (Russian Federation); Klunko, E., E-mail: zwk@umich.edu, E-mail: rfshen@astro.utoronto.ca, E-mail: zhang@physics.unlv.edu [Institute of Solar-Terrestrial Physics, Lermontov St., 126a, Irkutsk 664033 (Russian Federation); and others

2012-06-01

188

Panchromatic Observations of the Textbook GRB 110205A: Constraining Physical Mechanisms of Prompt Emission and Afterglow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a comprehensive analysis of a bright, long-duration (T 90 ~ 257 s) GRB 110205A at redshift z = 2.22. The optical prompt emission was detected by Swift/UVOT, ROTSE-IIIb, and BOOTES telescopes when the gamma-ray burst (GRB) was still radiating in the ?-ray band, with optical light curve showing correlation with ?-ray data. Nearly 200 s of observations were obtained simultaneously from optical, X-ray, to ?-ray (1 eV to 5 MeV), which makes it one of the exceptional cases to study the broadband spectral energy distribution during the prompt emission phase. In particular, we clearly identify, for the first time, an interesting two-break energy spectrum, roughly consistent with the standard synchrotron emission model in the fast cooling regime. Shortly after prompt emission (~1100 s), a bright (R = 14.0) optical emission hump with very steep rise (? ~ 5.5) was observed, which we interpret as the reverse shock (RS) emission. It is the first time that the rising phase of an RS component has been closely observed. The full optical and X-ray afterglow light curves can be interpreted within the standard reverse shock (RS) + forward shock (FS) model. In general, the high-quality prompt and afterglow data allow us to apply the standard fireball model to extract valuable information, including the radiation mechanism (synchrotron), radius of prompt emission (R GRB ~ 3 × 1013 cm), initial Lorentz factor of the outflow (?0 ~ 250), the composition of the ejecta (mildly magnetized), the collimation angle, and the total energy budget.

Zheng, W.; Shen, R. F.; Sakamoto, T.; Beardmore, A. P.; De Pasquale, M.; Wu, X. F.; Gorosabel, J.; Urata, Y.; Sugita, S.; Zhang, B.; Pozanenko, A.; Nissinen, M.; Sahu, D. K.; Im, M.; Ukwatta, T. N.; Andreev, M.; Klunko, E.; Volnova, A.; Akerlof, C. W.; Anto, P.; Barthelmy, S. D.; Breeveld, A.; Carsenty, U.; Castillo-Carrión, S.; Castro-Tirado, A. J.; Chester, M. M.; Chuang, C. J.; Cunniffe, R.; De Ugarte Postigo, A.; Duffard, R.; Flewelling, H.; Gehrels, N.; Güver, T.; Guziy, S.; Hentunen, V. P.; Huang, K. Y.; Jelínek, M.; Koch, T. S.; Kubánek, P.; Kuin, P.; McKay, T. A.; Mottola, S.; Oates, S. R.; O'Brien, P.; Ohno, M.; Page, M. J.; Pandey, S. B.; Pérez del Pulgar, C.; Rujopakarn, W.; Rykoff, E.; Salmi, T.; Sánchez-Ramírez, R.; Schaefer, B. E.; Sergeev, A.; Sonbas, E.; Sota, A.; Tello, J. C.; Yamaoka, K.; Yost, S. A.; Yuan, F.

2012-06-01

189

Space plasma physics: electron flux intensity distributions observed in response to particle beam emissions.  

PubMed

Modifications of the suprathermal electron population were observed by an electron spectrometer on Spacelab 1 during electron beam injections. The instrument covered its energy range (100 to 12,500 electron volts) and field of view ( approximately 2pi) with high energy, angle, and time resolution. The measurements demonstrate the presence of strong beam-plasma interactions during high-current modes of accelerator operations. Spacecraft charging could be studied as well as processes that accelerated electrons to more than four times the injection energy. PMID:17837935

Wilhelm, K; Stüdemann, W; Riedler, W

1984-07-13

190

Number versus Continuous Quantity in Numerosity Judgments by Fish  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In quantity discrimination tasks, adults, infants and animals have been sometimes observed to process number only after all continuous variables, such as area or density, have been controlled for. This has been taken as evidence that processing number may be more cognitively demanding than processing continuous variables. We tested this hypothesis…

Agrillo, Christian; Piffer, Laura; Bisazza, Angelo

2011-01-01

191

A high order numerical method for computing physical observables in the semiclassical limit of the one dimensional linear Schrodinger equation with discontinuous potentials  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop a fourth order numerical method for the computation of mul- tivalued physical observables (density, momentum, etc.) in the semiclassical limit of the one dimensional linear Schrodinger equation in the case of dis- continuous potentials. We adopt the level set framework developed in (21) which allows one to compute the multivalued physical observables via solving the classical Liouville equation

Xin Wen

192

Physical Property Changes in Plutonium Observed from Accelerated Aging using Pu-238 Enrichment  

SciTech Connect

We present changes in volume, immersion density, and tensile property observed from accelerated aged plutonium alloys. Accelerated alloys (or spiked alloys) are plutonium alloys enriched with approximately 7.5 weight percent of the faster-decaying {sup 238}Pu to accelerate the aging process by approximately 17 times the rate of un-aged weapons-grade plutonium. After sixty equivalent years of aging on spiked alloys, the dilatometry shows the samples at 35 C have swelled in volume by 0.15 to 0.17 % and now exhibit a near linear volume increase due to helium in-growth. The immersion density of spiked alloys shows decrease in density, similar normalized volumetric changes (expansion) for spiked alloys. Tensile tests show increasing yield and engineering ultimate strength as spiked alloys are aged. (authors)

Chung, Brandon W.; Choi, Bill; Saw, Cheng; Thompson, Stephen; Woods, Conrad; Hopkins, David; Ebbinghaus, Bartley [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California (United States)

2007-07-01

193

Composition of Mars constrained using geophysical observations and mineral physics modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use the total mass, possible core radius and the observed mean moment of inertia factor of Mars to constrain mineralogical and compositional structures of Mars. We adopt a liquid Fe–S system for the Martian core and construct density models of the interior of Mars for a series of mantle compositions, core compositions and temperature profiles. The moment of inertia factor of the planet is then calculated and compared to the observation to place constraints on Mars composition. Based on the independent constraints of total mass, possible core radius of 1630–1830 km, and the mean moment of inertia factor (0.3645±0.0005) of Mars, we find that Fe content in the Martian mantle is between 9.9 and 11.9 mol%, Al content in the Martian mantle smaller than 1.5 mol%, S content in the Martian core between 10.6 and 14.9 wt%. The inferred Fe content in the bulk Mars lies between 27.3 and 32.0 wt%, and the inferred Fe/Si ratio in Mars between 1.55 and 1.95, within a range too broad to make a conclusion whether Mars has the same nonvolatile bulk composition as that of CI chondrite. We also conclude that no perovskite layer exists in the bottom of the Martian mantle. Based on the inferred density models, we estimate the flattening factor and J2 gravitational potential related to the hydrostatic figure of the rotating Mars to be (5.0304±0.0098)×10-3 and (1.8151±0.0065)×10-3, respectively. We also discuss implications of these compositional models to the understanding of formation and evolution of the planet.

Wang, Yi; Wen, Lianxing; Weidner, Donald J.

2013-11-01

194

Some qualitative manifestations of the physical libration of the Moon by observing stars from the lunar surface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Targets and problems of the future Japanese project ILOM (In situ Lunar Orientation Measurement), which is planned to be realized as one kind of observations of lunar rotation at the second stage of SELENE-2 mission, are briefly described in the article. Inverse problem of lunar physical libration is formulated and solved. Accuracy of libration angles depending on accuracy of measuring selenographic coordinates is estimated. It is shown that selenographic coordinates of polar stars are insensitive to longitudinal librations ?(t). Comparing coordinates calculated for two models of a rigid and deformable Moon is carried out and components sensitive to Love number k2 and to anelastic time delay are revealed.

Petrova, N.; Abdulmyanov, T.; Hanada, H.

2012-12-01

195

Combining simultaneous seismic reflection and physical oceanographic observations of shelf-slope processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the Dense Shelf Water Cascades (DSWC) role in the oceans is regarded as one of the main drivers of oceanic margins; these dense water pools spill over the shelf edges, flow along topographic feature and mix with ambient waters, playing a crucial role in the Earth's long term climate. During the international collaborative field experiment of Seismic Oceanography ADRIASEISMIC-09, carried out on board the CNR R/V Urania in the southern Adriatic Sea in the period March 3-16, 2009, a mix of classical and innovative sampling methods was tried in order to characterize the details of the North Adriatic Dense Water (NAdDW) mass structures and test the feasibility of the seismic approach in shallow basins. Seismic Oceanography (SO) is particularly well suited for study of the dynamics of bottom-trapped water masses as compared to classic techniques because it measures the full water column at ~10 m horizontal resolution, can acquire remotely and measurements are not hampered by a sloping bottom or concerns of instrument bottom impact, and it can operate successfully over the entire range from 100 m to 1000 m for tracking water-masses evolution down a slope (shown for the first time in this cruise). During ADRIASEISMIC-09 we adopted SO techniques to follow the NAdDW masses flowing southward, testing this approach on a shallow basin with the use of a "light" seismic system that could be deployed quickly, using only two air-guns. The resulting seismic sections were used to image thermal gradients at a scale of several meters, both vertically and horizontally. However, since SO measurements alone are not sufficient to characterize such complex processes, the resulting seismic reflection data were combined with a series of physical oceanography measurements, e.g. classical CTDs, ADCP data, 232 XBT casts and -for the first time- also microstructure measurements acquired via free-falling profiler (101 casts), that allow to estimate how fast water masses are mixing. Together, the direct oceanographic samplings provide a full range of vertical resolutions down to extremely fine detail (order of millimeters) to compliment the high lateral resolution of the seismic image. The high quality data set collected demonstrated that SO campaigns can be carried out from oceanographic vessels of medium size with relatively light equipment, and that the seismic approach can be performed also in relatively shallow basins. This is an important finding, as the use of a large seismic vessel would have prohibited the kind of classic oceanography sampling that is characterizing any study of DSWC. The seismic measurements allowed us to track a cold, thin bottom-boundary layer descending down the slope near Palagruza sill, demonstrating that these complex water pools require very high-resolution sampling near the bottom to be detected and successfully tracked in their intrusions and internal waves. Preliminary results therefore suggest that SO can provide a new and powerful tool for understanding the detailed horizontal structure of DSWC processes.

Carniel, Sandro; Book, Jeffrey; Hobbs, Richard; Wood, Warren; Bergamasco, Andrea; Schroeder, Katrin; Bortoluzzi, Giovanni; Prandke, Hartmut; Sclavo, Mauro

2010-05-01

196

The Physical Structure and Chemical Composition of Neptune's Atmosphere from Combined Herschel and Spitzer Spectral Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the analysis of thermal-infrared observations of Neptune's disk by experiments on the Spitzer and Herschel Space Telescopes. The Spitzer data were obtained by the IRS instrument at wavelengths between 5.2 and 21.5 microns at a spectral resolving power, R 70, and at wavelengths between 10 and 21.5 microns at R 600. The Herschel observations were made by the PACS instrument's integral field spectrometer between 51 and 220 microns at R 3000, within the framework of the Key Project, ``Water and Related Chemistry in the Solar System''. Our analysis is set in the context of lower-resolution spectra obtained by the ISO LWS and SWS spectrometers covering wavelengths between 28 and 185 microns and the Akari IRC spectrometer covering wavelengths between 5.8 and 13.3 microns at R 40, together with spatially resolved ground-based studies of thermal emission. Our results indicate that that global-mean tropospheric temperatures are lower than those derived from the Voyager radio-occultation experiment, and consistent with the ISO results. Preliminary results (Lellouch et al. 2010 Astron. & Astrophys. In press) indicate that the D/H ratio is 4.5±1.0 x 10-5, consistent with enrichment of deuterium over the protosolar value, and the stratospheric column of H2O is 2.1±0.5 x 1014 cm-2. The peak CH4 abundance in the stratosphere is orders of magnitude larger than if it were cold-trapped below the mean 54-Kelvin tropopause minimum temperature - but consistent with injection from Neptune's warmer south polar region. Good fits to a variety of other stratospheric emission features are obtained: CO, CH3, CO2, C2H2, C2H4, C2H6, C3H8, C4H2. It is also possible to obtain a better fit to a spectral region dominated by C2H6 emission by adding 50-100 ppt of C6H6.

Orton, Glenn S.; Moreno, R.; Lellouch, E.; Fletcher, L. N.; Hartogh, P.; Feuchtgruber, H.; Jarchow, C.; Cavalie, T.; Lara, L.; Rengel, M.; Gonzalez, A.; Line, M.; Herschel HssO Key Project Team

2010-10-01

197

Physical parameterization of Strombolian eruptions via experimentally-validated modeling of high-speed observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pressurized gas drives explosive volcanic eruptions. Existing models can predict the amount and pressure of gas in erupting magma, but application and testing of such models is currently limited by the accuracy of input parameters from natural systems. Here, we present a new methodology, based on a novel integration of 1) high-speed imaging and 2) shock-tube modeling of volcanic activity in order to derive estimates of sub-second variations in the pressure, mass, and volume of gas that drive the dynamics of unsteady eruptions. First, we validate the method against laboratory-scale shock-tube experiments. Having validated the method we then apply it to observations of eruptions at Stromboli volcano (Italy). Finally, we use those results for a parametric study of the weight of input parameters on final outputs. We conclude that Strombolian explosions, with durations of seconds, result from discrete releases of gas with mass and pressure in the 4-714 kg and 0.10-0.56 MPa range, respectively, and which occupy the volcano conduit to a depth of 4-190 m. These variations are present both among and within individual explosions.

Taddeucci, J.; Alatorre-Ibargüengoitia, M. A.; Moroni, M.; Tornetta, L.; Capponi, A.; Scarlato, P.; Dingwell, D. B.; De Rita, D.

2012-08-01

198

Physics of the weird solar minimum: New observations of the Sun  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While solar physicists expected more sunspots, flares, and coronal mass ejections by now, the Sun has defied most predictions by persisting in a relatively quiet state for an unusually long time. Can we tell whether this solar minimum is likely to ease in the next decade, or if it may become a Maunder-type minimum? What evidence is there for mechanisms that might explain the observed delayed and low-amplitude magnetic activity? What effects could decreased solar activity have on Earth's climate? Evergreen undergraduates study the Sun with colleagues who built the new Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). Students analyzed flow velocities with respect to magnetic field tilts; analyzed waves of UV light in active regions; developed a software suite to enable the public to engage with solar dynamics; and cataloged movies of solar events for public release. We use data from the high-resolution HINODE satellite and from the new full-disk SDO. Zita studied the solar dynamo, and found that resistivity gradients can drive magnetic advection. We summarize our work and the light it may shed on questions such as those above.

Zita, E.; Smith, C.; Ballou, C.; Friedman, B.; Showalter, C.; Rex, R.; Hurlburt, N.

2010-10-01

199

Stereoscopic correspondence by applying physical constraints and statistical observations to dissimilarity map  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To deal with the correspondence problem in stereo imaging, a new approach is presented to find the disparity information on a newly defined dissimilarity map (DSMP). Base don an image formation model of stereo images and some statistical observations, two constraints and four assumptions are adopted. In addition, a few heuristic criteria are developed to define a unique solution. All these constraints, assumptions and criteria are applied to the DSMP to find the correspondence. At first, the Epipolar Constraint, the Valid Pairing Constraint and the Lambertian Surface Assumption are applied to DSMP to locate the Low Dissimilarity Zones (LDZs). Then, the Opaque Assumption and the Minimum Occlusion Assumption are applied to LDZs to obtain the admissible LDZ sets. Finally, the Depth Smoothness Assumption and some other criteria are applied to the admissible LDZ sets to produce the final answer. The focus of this paper is to find the constraints and assumptions in the stereo correspondence problem and then properly convert these constraints and assumptions into executable procedures on the DSMP. In addition to its ability in estimating occlusion accurately, this approach works well even when the commonly used monotonic ordering assumption is violated. The simulation results show that occlusions can be properly handled and the disparity map can be calculated with a fairly high degree of accuracy.

Chao, Tsi Y.; Wang, Sheng-Jyh; Hang, Hsueh-Ming

2000-05-01

200

On the Transitional Disk Class: Linking Observations of T Tauri Stars and Physical Disk Models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two decades ago "transitional disks" (TDs) described spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of T Tauri stars with small near-IR excesses, but significant mid- and far-IR excesses. Many inferred this indicated dust-free holes in disks possibly cleared by planets. Recently, this term has been applied disparately to objects whose Spitzer SEDs diverge from the expectations for a typical full disk (FD). Here, we use irradiated accretion disk models to fit the SEDs of 15 such disks in NGC 2068 and IC 348. One group has a "dip" in infrared emission while the others' continuum emission decreases steadily at all wavelengths. We find that the former have an inner disk hole or gap at intermediate radii in the disk and we call these objects "transitional disks" and "pre-transitional disks" (PTDs), respectively. For the latter group, we can fit these SEDs with FD models and find that millimeter data are necessary to break the degeneracy between dust settling and disk mass. We suggest that the term "transitional" only be applied to objects that display evidence for a radical change in the disk's radial structure. Using this definition, we find that TDs and PTDs tend to have lower mass accretion rates than FDs and that TDs have lower accretion rates than PTDs. These reduced accretion rates onto the star could be linked to forming planets. Future observations of TDs and PTDs will allow us to better quantify the signatures of planet formation in young disks.

Espaillat, C.; Ingleby, L.; Hernández, J.; Furlan, E.; D'Alessio, P.; Calvet, N.; Andrews, S.; Muzerolle, J.; Qi, C.; Wilner, D.

2012-03-01

201

Magnetar Oscillations: Observing the Physics of the Magnetized Neutron Star Crust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Highly magnetized neutron stars, magnetars, emit irregular and extremely energetic gamma ray flares. These flares are thought to be powered by fracturing and restructuring of the neutron star crust, i.e., a starquake. During some giant flares, quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) are observed, and these have been identified with torsional modes excited by the starquake. We construct a new neutron star crust model which predicts nuclear masses with an accuracy very close to that of the Finite Range Droplet Model and also includes the effect of the strong magnetic field on the electrons. Torsional oscillation frequencies are computed from the crust model, and the impact of nuclear shell effects and the magnetic field on the oscillation frequencies is delineated. QPO predictions are sensitive to the crust thickness of the neutron star, and we determine the extent to which these QPOs might be used to constrain magnetar masses and radii. This work is supported by NASA ATFP grant NNX08AG76G, by Chandra grant TM1-12003X, and by the Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics at MSU under NSF PHY grant 08-22648.

Deibel, Alex; Steiner, A. W.

2011-09-01

202

Multimodal Semantic Quantity Representations: Further Evidence from Korean Sign Language  

PubMed Central

Korean deaf signers performed a number comparison task on pairs of Arabic digits. In their response times profiles, the expected magnitude effect was systematically modified by properties of number signs in Korean sign language in a culture-specific way (not observed in hearing and deaf Germans or hearing Chinese). We conclude that finger-based quantity representations are automatically activated even in simple tasks with symbolic input although this may be irrelevant and even detrimental for task performance. These finger-based numerical representations are accessed in addition to another, more basic quantity system which is evidenced by the magnitude effect. In sum, these results are inconsistent with models assuming only one single amodal representation of numerical quantity.

Domahs, Frank; Klein, Elise; Moeller, Korbinian; Nuerk, Hans-Christoph; Yoon, Byung-Chen; Willmes, Klaus

2012-01-01

203

Observational constraints on the physics behind the evolution of active galactic nuclei since z˜ 1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We explore the evolution with redshift of the rest-frame colours and space densities of active galactic nuclei (AGN) hosts (relative to normal galaxies) to shed light on the dominant mechanism that triggers accretion on to supermassive black holes as a function of cosmic time. Data from serendipitous wide-area XMM surveys of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) footprint (XMM/SDSS; Needles in the Haystack Survey) are combined with Chandra deep observations in the All-wavelength Extended Groth Strip International Survey (AEGIS), GOODS-North and GOODS-South to compile uniformly selected samples of moderate-luminosity X-ray AGN [LX(2-10 keV) = 1041-1044 erg s-1] at redshifts 0.1, 0.3 and 0.8. It is found that the fraction of AGN hosted by red versus blue galaxies does not change with redshift. Also, the X-ray luminosity density associated with either red or blue AGN hosts remains nearly constant since z= 0.8. X-ray AGN represent a roughly fixed fraction of the space density of galaxies of given optical luminosity at all redshifts probed by our samples. In contrast the fraction of X-ray AGN among galaxies of a given stellar mass decreases with decreasing redshift. These findings suggest that the same process or combination of processes for fuelling supermassive black holes is in operation in the last 5 Gyr of cosmic time. The data are consistent with a picture in which the drop of the accretion power during that period (1 dex since z= 0.8) is related to the decline of the space density of available AGN hosts, as a result of the evolution of the specific star formation rate of the overall galaxy population. Scenarios which attribute the evolution of moderate-luminosity AGN since z? 1 to changes in the suppermassive black hole accretion mode are not favoured by our results.

Georgakakis, A.; Coil, A. L.; Willmer, C. N. A.; Nandra, K.; Kocevski, D. D.; Cooper, M. C.; Rosario, D. J.; Koo, D. C.; Trump, J. R.; Juneau, S.

2011-12-01

204

49 CFR 172.315 - Limited quantities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...a) or (b) of this section. (d) Transitional exception. Except for transportation by aircraft, until December 31, 2013, a package properly marked in accordance with § 172.316 is not required to be marked with the limited quantity marking...

2011-10-01

205

Quantity Feeding During the American Civil War  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantity feeding has always been an integral part of hospitality. This chapter provides a historic description of the food production, quality, and safety challenges facing those individuals who fed Union and\\/or Confederate soldiers during 1861-1865.

Danielle M. Torisky; Reginald R Foucar-Szocki; Jacqueline B. Walker

1998-01-01

206

Arsenic Treatment Residuals: Quantities, Characteristics and Disposal  

EPA Science Inventory

This presentation provides information on the quantities, the characteristics and the disposal options for the common arsenic removal technologies. The technologies consist of adsorption media, iron removal, coagulation/filtration and ion exchange. The information for the prese...

207

More Ado About Economic Order Quantities (Eoq).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper is concerned with the determination of explicit expressions for economic order quantities and reorder levels, such that the cost of ordering and holding inventory is minimized for specific backorder constraints. Holding costs are applied either ...

V. J. Presutti R. C. Trepp

1970-01-01

208

Prediction of Seasonal-Low Streamflow Quantities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An attempt was made to understand the hydrologic characteristics of streamflow under dry weather conditions and to develop from this knowledge some means for prediction of seasonal-low streamflow quantities. 'Drought frequency plots' for a number of water...

J. C. Campbell

1971-01-01

209

Lighting Quantity and Quality in Educational Facilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses educational facility lighting management, and examines how light quantity, distribution, and quality-enhancement strategies can improve the indoor environment while reducing lighting costs. Informational tables provide lighting pattern, color, and illuminance data. (GR)

Elwazanim, Salim A.

1998-01-01

210

An injection quantity sensor for automotive applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

For a further optimization of the internal combustion process of automobiles, a miniaturized injection quantity sensor based on the electro-thermal measurement principle was developed. It consists of a thin film metallization of titanium\\/platinum on a low temperature cofired ceramics (LTCC) substrate. For high-precision fuel quantity measurements, the sensor chip was integrated into a finished common rail diesel injection nozzle. The

U. Schmid; H. Seidel

2005-01-01

211

Observations of seismic anisotropy above/below D" discontinuity and its mineral physics interpretation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many studies have reported a VSV < VSH anisotropy in various places of the D" layer. However, the depth distribution of the anisotropy is still unclear because the anisotropy has not been investigated above the D" layer. Here, to get a large number of data sets, we used seismic data recorded by new five broad-band stations at East Antarctica. Then we carefully analyzed the shear wave splitting focusing above the D" layer beneath the Antarctic Ocean. Most of the data showed that SH waves arrive earlier than SV waves. We also found that shear wave splitting occurs even above the D" discontinuity. Although the lattice preferred orientation (LPO) of MgSiO3 post-perovskite (PPv) is now thought to be the major source of anisotropy below the discontinuity, this strongly suggests that the anisotropy is caused not only by the PPv phase. The root mean square minimization using seismic waveform modeling has been performed to construct a new transverse isotropic shear wave velocity model. The obtained velocity model has a 2.0 % velocity discontinuity at 2500 km for VSH and undetectable discontinuity for VSV. The anisotropy is estimated to be about 0.5% and 2.5% above and below the discontinuity, respectively. Since perovskite (Pv) and MgO are expected as the primary lower mantle phases and also anisotropic, they could be a source of the anisotropy. However deformation mechanisms of the minerals under high-P,T condition are still under debate. In order to clarify the origin of the anisotropy above/below the discontinuity, we examined the elastic anisotropy of two phase polycrystalline aggregates (Pv + MgO) and (PPv + MgO). We modeled the anisotropy in several different LPO directions with different degree. Results suggest that transversely isotropic aggregate (TIA) of MgO[100] in two phase aggregates (Pv + MgO) reproduces the anisotropy above the discontinuity. This is consistent with a (100) slip plane determined by experiments [Karato, 1998]. Since this system corresponds to TIA of MgO with [100] oriented vertically, the MgO LPO model could explain the anisotropy above the discontinuity. On the other hand, we found that TIA of PPv[001] in the aggregates (PPv + MgO) can explain the anisotropy below the discontinuity. Recent deformation experiment [Miyagi et al., 2010] and theoretical calculation [Metsue and Tsuchiya, 2011] suggest that the deformation texture of PPv is dominated by the (001) slip plane under the lowermost mantle condition. This slip system can make the TIA of PPv with [001] oriented vertically under the stressed condition. Therefore, the TIA of PPv[001] could be a main cause of the anisotropy in the D" layer. The LPO pattern is very limited to explain the observation. The VSV < VSH anisotropy could be caused by horizontal shear in the lowermost mantle. Thus, the shear stress may exist even above D" layer. Research supported by the Ehime Univ. G-COE program "Deep Earth Mineralogy".

Usui, Y.; Tsuchiya, T.

2011-12-01

212

Extreme Physics and Informational/Computational Limits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A sector of the current theoretical physics, even called "extreme physics", deals with topics concerning superstring theories, multiverse, quantum teleportation, negative energy, and more, that only few years ago were considered scientific imaginations or purely speculative physics. Present experimental lines of evidence and implications of cosmological observations seem on the contrary support such theories. These new physical developments lead to informational limits, as the quantity of information, that a physical system can record, and computational limits, resulting from considerations regarding black holes and space-time fluctuations. In this paper I consider important limits for information and computation resulting in particular from string theories and its foundations.

Di Sia, Paolo

2011-07-01

213

Quantity-activity relationship of denitrifying bacteria and environmental scaling in streams of a forested watershed  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The spatial variability of subreach denitrification rates in streams was evaluated with respect to controlling environmental conditions, molecular examination of denitrifying bacteria, and dimensional analysis. Denitrification activities ranged from 0 and 800 ng-N gsed-1 d-1 with large variations observed within short distances (<50 m) along stream reaches. A log-normal probability distribution described the range in denitrification activities and was used to define low (16% of the probability distributibn), medium (68%), and high (16%) denitrification potential groups. Denitrifying bacteria were quantified using a competitive polymerase chain reaction (cPCR) technique that amplified the nirK gene that encodes for nitrite reductase. Results showed a range of nirK quantities from 103 to 107 gene-copy-number gsed.-1 A nonparametric statistical test showed no significant difference in nirK quantifies among stream reaches, but revealed that samples with a high denitrification potential had significantly higher nirK quantities. Denitrification activity was positively correlated with nirK quantities with scatter in the data that can be attributed to varying environmental conditions along stream reaches. Dimensional analysis was used to evaluate denitrification activities according to environmental variables that describe fluid-flow properties, nitrate and organic material quantities, and dissolved oxygen flux. Buckingham's pi theorem was used to generate dimensionless groupings and field data were used to determine scaling parameters. The resulting expressions between dimensionless NO3- flux and dimensionless groupings of environmental variables showed consistent scaling, which indicates that the subreach variability in denitrification rates can be predicted by the controlling physical, chemical, and microbiological conditions. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

O'Connor, B. L.; Hondzo, M.; Dobraca, D.; LaPara, T. M.; Finlay, J. A.; Brezonik, P. L.

2006-01-01

214

History matching for exploring and reducing climate model parameter space using observations and a large perturbed physics ensemble  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We apply an established statistical methodology called history matching to constrain the parameter space of a coupled non-flux-adjusted climate model (the third Hadley Centre Climate Model; HadCM3) by using a 10,000-member perturbed physics ensemble and observational metrics. History matching uses emulators (fast statistical representations of climate models that include a measure of uncertainty in the prediction of climate model output) to rule out regions of the parameter space of the climate model that are inconsistent with physical observations given the relevant uncertainties. Our methods rule out about half of the parameter space of the climate model even though we only use a small number of historical observations. We explore 2 dimensional projections of the remaining space and observe a region whose shape mainly depends on parameters controlling cloud processes and one ocean mixing parameter. We find that global mean surface air temperature (SAT) is the dominant constraint of those used, and that the others provide little further constraint after matching to SAT. The Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) has a non linear relationship with SAT and is not a good proxy for the meridional heat transport in the unconstrained parameter space, but these relationships are linear in our reduced space. We find that the transient response of the AMOC to idealised CO2 forcing at 1 and 2 % per year shows a greater average reduction in strength in the constrained parameter space than in the unconstrained space. We test extended ranges of a number of parameters of HadCM3 and discover that no part of the extended ranges can by ruled out using any of our constraints. Constraining parameter space using easy to emulate observational metrics prior to analysis of more complex processes is an important and powerful tool. It can remove complex and irrelevant behaviour in unrealistic parts of parameter space, allowing the processes in question to be more easily studied or emulated, perhaps as a precursor to the application of further relevant constraints.

Williamson, Daniel; Goldstein, Michael; Allison, Lesley; Blaker, Adam; Challenor, Peter; Jackson, Laura; Yamazaki, Kuniko

2013-10-01

215

History matching for exploring and reducing climate model parameter space using observations and a large perturbed physics ensemble  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We apply an established statistical methodology called history matching to constrain the parameter space of a coupled non-flux-adjusted climate model (the third Hadley Centre Climate Model; HadCM3) by using a 10,000-member perturbed physics ensemble and observational metrics. History matching uses emulators (fast statistical representations of climate models that include a measure of uncertainty in the prediction of climate model output) to rule out regions of the parameter space of the climate model that are inconsistent with physical observations given the relevant uncertainties. Our methods rule out about half of the parameter space of the climate model even though we only use a small number of historical observations. We explore 2 dimensional projections of the remaining space and observe a region whose shape mainly depends on parameters controlling cloud processes and one ocean mixing parameter. We find that global mean surface air temperature (SAT) is the dominant constraint of those used, and that the others provide little further constraint after matching to SAT. The Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) has a non linear relationship with SAT and is not a good proxy for the meridional heat transport in the unconstrained parameter space, but these relationships are linear in our reduced space. We find that the transient response of the AMOC to idealised CO2 forcing at 1 and 2 % per year shows a greater average reduction in strength in the constrained parameter space than in the unconstrained space. We test extended ranges of a number of parameters of HadCM3 and discover that no part of the extended ranges can by ruled out using any of our constraints. Constraining parameter space using easy to emulate observational metrics prior to analysis of more complex processes is an important and powerful tool. It can remove complex and irrelevant behaviour in unrealistic parts of parameter space, allowing the processes in question to be more easily studied or emulated, perhaps as a precursor to the application of further relevant constraints.

Williamson, Daniel; Goldstein, Michael; Allison, Lesley; Blaker, Adam; Challenor, Peter; Jackson, Laura; Yamazaki, Kuniko

2013-08-01

216

Physical properties of OSIRIS-REx target asteroid (101955) 1999 RQ36. Derived from Herschel, VLT/ VISIR, and Spitzer observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In September 2011, the Herschel Space Observatory performed an observation campaign with the PACS photometer observing the asteroid (101955) 1999 RQ36 in the far infrared. The Herschel observations were analysed, together with ESO VLT/VISIR and Spitzer/IRS data, by means of a thermophysical model in order to derive the physical properties of 1999 RQ36. We find the asteroid has an effective diameter in the range 480 to 511 m, a slightly elongated shape with a semi-major axis ratio of a/b = 1.04, a geometric albedo of 0.045+0.015-0.012, and a retrograde rotation with a spin vector between -70 and -90° ecliptic latitude. The thermal emission at wavelengths below 12 ?m-originating in the hot sub-solar region- shows that there may be large variations in roughness on the surface along the equatorial zone of 1999 RQ36, but further measurements are required for final proof. We determine that the asteroid has a disk-averaged thermal inertia of ? = 650 Jm-2 s-0.5 K-1 with a 3-? confidence range of 350 to 950 Jm-2 s-0.5 K-1, equivalent to what is observed for 25143 Itokawa and suggestive that 1999 RQ36 has a similar surface texture and may also be a rubble-pile in nature. The low albedo indicates that 1999 RQ36 very likely contains primitive volatile-rich material, consistent with its spectral type, and that it is an ideal target for the OSIRIS-REx sample return mission. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.Analysis is also based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Chile; ESO, No. 287.C-5045(A).

Müller, T. G.; O'Rourke, L.; Barucci, A. M.; Pál, A.; Kiss, C.; Zeidler, P.; Altieri, B.; González-García, B. M.; Küppers, M.

2012-12-01

217

Probing the physical and chemical structure of the CS core in LDN 673: multitransitional and continuum observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High angular resolution observations of dense molecular cores show that these cores can be clumpier at smaller scales and that some of these clumps can also be unbound or transient. The use of chemical models of the evolution of the molecular gas provides a way to probe the physical properties of the clouds. We study the properties of the clump and interclump medium in the starless CS core in LDN 673 by carrying out a molecular line survey with the IRAM 30-m telescope towards two clumps and two interclump positions. We also observed the 1.2-mm continuum with the MAMBO-II bolometer at IRAM. The dust continuum map shows four condensations, three of them centrally peaked, coinciding with previously identified submillimetre sources. We confirm that the denser clump of the region, n ˜ 3.6 × 105 cm-3, is also the more chemically evolved, and it could still undergo further fragmentation. The interclump medium positions are denser than previously expected, likely n ˜ 1 × 103-1 × 104 cm-3 due to contamination, and are chemically young, similar to the gas in the lower density clump position. We argue that the density contrast between these positions and their general young chemical age would support the existence of transient clumps in the lower density material of the core. We were also able to find reasonable fits of the observationally derived chemical abundances to models of the chemistry of transient clumps.

Morata, Oscar; Girart, Josep Miquel; Estalella, Robert; Garrod, Robin T.

2012-09-01

218

Exact cosmological solutions from Hojman conservation quantities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a new approach to find exact solutions for cosmological models. By requiring the existence of a symmetry transformation vector for the equations of motion of the given cosmological model (without using either Lagrangian or Hamiltonian), one can find corresponding Hojman conserved quantities. With the help of these conserved quantities, the analysis of the cosmological model can be simplified. In the case of quintessence scalar-tensor models, we show that the Hojman conserved quantities exist for a wide range of V(?)-potentials and allow to find exact solutions for the cosmic scale factor and the scalar field. Finally, we investigate the general cosmological behavior of solutions by adopting a phase-space view.

Capozziello, Salvatore; Roshan, Mahmood

2013-10-01

219

Physical activity patterns of rural Senegalese adolescent girls during the dry and rainy seasons measured by movement registration and direct observation methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To study the physical activity patterns and daily estimates of energy expenditure (EE) of rural adolescent Senegalese girls.Design: Physical activity was monitored using a portable accelerometer during four consecutive days and within the same time, by direct observation during two consecutive days. Adolescent girls were followed during the dry season (June, n=40) and again during the rainy season (September,

E Bénéfice; C Cames

1999-01-01

220

[Significance of microvessel quantity in metastasis of invasive breast carcinoma].  

PubMed

Microvessel quantity(MVQ), expression of CD44V6 and EGFR were studied in 48 patients with invasive breast carcinoma by CD31 immunohistochemistry. Significant differences of MVQ, CD44V6 and EGFR were observed (P < 0.01) between the groups with and without metastasis. The results suggest that angiogeneses and activation of tumor metastasis associated gene play an important role in tumor metastasis. PMID:10681748

Wei, Q; Zhang, L; Zhou, J

1998-01-01

221

Beginning to edit physics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A physicist-turned-editor shows you the basics required for copyediting physics papers (physical quantities, symbols, units, scientific notation, the structure of mathematical expressions, the nature of graphs), and points the way to learning enough ''edi...

P. W. Murphy

1995-01-01

222

Malting extremely small quantities of barley  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Micromalting procedures for malt quality analysis typically use 50 – 500 g of barley and are used to produce malt with characteristics suitable for malting quality analysis. Modifications to routine micromalting protocols in which small quantities of grain within inexpensive mesh containers are surr...

223

Thermodynamic Partial Derivatives and Experimentally Measurable Quantities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Proposed is a flow-chart and related formulas to obtain expressions for the derivatives of the old thermodynamic function in terms of new variables, the new function and its derivatives, and derivatives of the old function, involving only measurable quantities. (CW)|

Estevez, Gentil A.; And Others

1989-01-01

224

Practice Makes Perfect: Contracting Quantity and Quality.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses how contract grading promotes quality writing as well as a larger quantity of writing. Considers how teachers can use contract grading to support and promote the behaviors, thinking skills, and writing skills they believe will help students create quality writing. Notes that contract grading leads students to write more, to have fewer…

Reichert, Nancy

2003-01-01

225

On the optimum quantity of money  

Microsoft Academic Search

t is pretty well established within Austrian economics that the optimum quantity of money is whatever level is established at any given time. The logical implication of this claim is that any amount of the commodity that intermediates trade will do as well as any other in acquitting this task. This being the case, there is no social or even

WILLIAM BARNETT II; Walter Block

2004-01-01

226

The Open Classroom: Quantity and Quality Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Proposes a paradigm, built around such parameters as teacher-preferences for teaching strategies that are teacher-centered with cognitive objectives and strategies that are student-centered with affective objectives, predicting the quantity-quality aspects of "openness." By trial and error, teachers develop managerial skills compatible with…

Sonnier, Isadore L.

1981-01-01

227

Units for quantities of dimension one  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

All quantities of dimension one are said to have the SI coherent derived unit "one" with the symbol '1'. (Single quotation marks are used here sometimes to indicate a quote, name, term or symbol; double quotation marks flag a concept when necessary.) Conventionally, the term and symbol may not be combined with the SI prefixes (except for the special terms and symbols for one and 1: radian, rad, and steradian, sr). This restriction is understandable, but leads to correct yet impractical alternatives and ISO deprecated symbols such as ppm or in some cases redundant combinations of units, such as mg/kg. "Number of entities" is dimensionally independent of the current base quantities and should take its rightful place among them. The corresponding base unit is "one". A working definition is given. Other quantities of dimension one are derived as fraction, ratio, efficiency, relative quantity, relative increment or characteristic number and may also use the unit "one", whether considered to be base or derived. The special term 'uno' and symbol 'u' in either case are proposed, allowing combination with SI prefixes.

Dybkaer, René

2004-02-01

228

Physical and bio-optical observations of oceanic cyclones west of the island of Hawai’i  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interdisciplinary observations of mesoscale eddies were made to the west of the island of Hawai'i. A central goal of the studies is to improve our understanding of the coupling of physical, biological, and biogeochemical processes that occur within these eddies. A specific objective was to test the hypothesis that the physical mechanisms of mesoscale eddies result in increases in nutrient availability to the euphotic layer, increases in primary production, changes in biological community compositions and size distributions, and increases in carbon flux to the deep sea. Data were obtained from ships, surface drifters, and satellite sensors during three separate field experiments. Variability was associated with two well-developed cyclonic, cold-core mesoscale eddies, Cyclone Noah and Cyclone Opal, which were observed during the E-Flux I (survey November 6-20, 2004) and E-Flux III (survey March 10-27, 2005) field campaigns, respectively. No mesoscale eddies were found during E-Flux II (survey January 10-19) when winds were erratic in magnitude and direction, supporting the hypothesis that persistent trade winds drive the production of cold-core mesoscale eddies in the lee of the Hawaiian Islands. Cold-core eddies were present in the E-Flux study area for about 2/3 of a year beginning May 1, 2004 and trade winds prevailed for about 3/4 of the same year. Both Cyclone Noah and Cyclone Opal were generated during strong, persistent northeasterly trade wind conditions and appeared downwind of the 'Alenuihaha Channel separating the islands of Maui and Hawai'i. The likely production mechanism for both mesoscale cold-core eddies involves localized wind-stress-curl-induced upwelling produced by trade wind forcing. Cyclone Noah was likely spun up by strong trade winds just to the southwest of the 'Alenuihaha Channel ( ˜20.10?N, 156.40?W) between August 13 and 21, 2004 based on MODIS satellite sea-surface temperature (SST) imagery and QuikScat satellite wind data, and apparently began to dissipate by mid-December 2004. Cyclone Opal was likely spun up by strong trade winds between February 2 and 18, 2005 southwest of the 'Alenuihaha Channel ( ˜20.30?N, 156.30?W), but was no longer evident in April 2005. Both Cyclone Noah and Cyclone Opal had strong physical, chemical, and biological expressions and displayed similar maximum tangential current speeds of ˜60cms-1. However, Cyclone Opal was more symmetric and larger in scale (roughly 180-200 km in diameter compared to ˜160km in horizontal scale for Cyclone Noah). Both mesoscale eddies displayed significant doming in their centers and in some cases outcroppings of isothermal, isopycnal, nutrient, and chlorophyll a isopleths. After formation and a slow drift southward, Cyclone Noah remained in nearly the same location (roughly 19.60?N, 156.50?W) during the 3-week in situ sampling period, whereas Cyclone Opal drifted southward by ˜165km over a similar time span of sampling. Interestingly, the physical manifestations of both features were relatively unchanged during the ship-based surveys; however, the biology appears to have evolved within Cyclone Opal. The present report sets the context for several other E-Flux studies.

Dickey, Tommy D.; Nencioli, Francesco; Kuwahara, Victor S.; Leonard, Carrie; Black, Wil; Rii, Yoshimi M.; Bidigare, Robert R.; Zhang, Qin

2008-05-01

229

Models of large-scale viscous flow in the Earth's mantle with constraints from mineral physics and surface observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modelling the geoid has been a widely used and successful approach in constraining flow and viscosity in the Earth's mantle. However, details of the viscosity structure cannot be tightly constrained with this approach. Here, radial viscosity variations in four to five mantle layers (lithosphere, upper mantle, one to two transition zone layers, lower mantle) are computed with the aid of independent mineral physics results. A density model is obtained by converting s-wave anomalies from seismic tomography to density anomalies. Assuming both are of thermal origin, conversion factors are computed based on mineral physics results. From the density and viscosity model, a model of mantle flow, and the resulting geoid and radial heat flux profile are computed. Absolute viscosity values in the mantle layers are treated as free parameters and determined by minimizing a misfit function, which considers fit to geoid, `Haskell average' determined from post-glacial rebound and the radial heat flux profile and penalizes if at some depth computed heat flux exceeds the estimated mantle heat flux 33 TW. Typically, optimized models do not exceed this value by more than about 20 per cent and fit the Haskell average well. Viscosity profiles obtained show a characteristic hump in the lower mantle, with maximum viscosities of about 1023 Pa s just above the D'' layer- several hundred to about 1000 times the lowest viscosities in the upper mantle. This viscosity contrast is several times higher than what is inferred when a constant lower mantle viscosity is assumed. The geoid variance reduction obtained is up to about 80 per cent-similar to previous results. However, because of the use of mineral physics constraints, a rather small number of free model parameters is required, and at the same time, a reasonable heat flux profile is obtained. Results are best when the lowest viscosities occur in the transition zone. When viscosity is lowest in the asthenosphere, variance reduction is about 70-75 per cent. Best results were obtained with a viscous lithosphere with a few times 1022 Pa s. The optimized models yield a core-mantle boundary excess ellipticity several times higher than observed, possibly indicating that radial stresses are partly compensated due to non-thermal lateral variations within the lowermost mantle.

Steinberger, Bernhard; Calderwood, Arthur R.

2006-12-01

230

Towards more sensible physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

To make physics more sensible it should be recognized that physics along with all other sciences deals with information in the form of sense impressions. With displacement, time and force as basic undefined quantities the subject of mechanics can be described in a more sensible manner than is possible with length, time and mass as basic quantities. All of mechanics

J G Winans

1972-01-01

231

Empirical Relationships Between Gust Intensity in Clear-Air Turbulence and Certain Meteorological Quantities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to a lack of observational data, little information exists in the literature concerning quantitative relationships between turbulent gust intensity in the free atmosphere and commonly measured meteorological quantities. Measurements of turbulence, wind, and temperature made by a B-47 research aircraft are used to investigate such relationships in order to satisfy several practical needs. It is found that a quantity

R. M. Endlich; G. S. McLean

1965-01-01

232

48 CFR 1852.214-72 - Full quantities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Full quantities. 1852.214-72 Section...Provisions and Clauses 1852.214-72 Full quantities. As prescribed in 1814...b), insert the following provision: Full Quantities (DEC 1988) The...

2011-10-01

233

48 CFR 1852.214-72 - Full quantities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Full quantities. 1852.214-72 Section...Provisions and Clauses 1852.214-72 Full quantities. As prescribed in 1814...b), insert the following provision: Full Quantities (DEC 1988) The...

2012-10-01

234

48 CFR 14.212 - Economic purchase quantities (supplies).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Economic purchase quantities (supplies). ...BIDDING Solicitation of Bids 14.212 Economic purchase quantities (supplies). Contracting officers shall comply with the economic purchase quantity planning...

2012-10-01

235

48 CFR 14.212 - Economic purchase quantities (supplies).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Economic purchase quantities (supplies). ...BIDDING Solicitation of Bids 14.212 Economic purchase quantities (supplies). Contracting officers shall comply with the economic purchase quantity planning...

2011-10-01

236

Infants make quantity discriminations for substances.  

PubMed

Infants can track small groups of solid objects, and infants can respond when these quantities change. But earlier work is equivocal about whether infants can track continuous substances, such as piles of sand. Experiment 1 (N = 88) used a habituation paradigm to show infants can register changes in the size of piles of sand that they see poured from a container when there is a 1-to-4 ratio. Experiment 2 (N = 82) tested whether infants could discriminate a 1-to-2 ratio. The results demonstrate that females could discriminate the difference but males could not. These findings constitute the youngest evidence of successful quantity discriminations for a noncohesive substance and begin to characterize the nature of the representation for noncohesive entities. PMID:22181851

Hespos, Susan J; Dora, Begum; Rips, Lance J; Christie, Stella

2011-12-19

237

Time Series of Physical and Optical Parameters off Shimane, Japan, during Fall of 1993: First Observation by Moored Optical Buoy System for ADEOS Data Verification  

Microsoft Academic Search

A moored optical buoy system has been developed by the National Space Developmental Agency of Japan (NASDA) for verification of the ocean-observing sensors of the Advanced Earth Observation Satellite (ADEOS). The buoy was operated from August 25 to November 26, 1993, in the Japan Sea, off Shimane, Japan. Three-months time series of physical parameters indicate that the decrease of insolation

J. ISHIZAKA; I. ASANUMA; N. EBUCHI; H. FUKUSHIMA; H. KAWAMURA; K. KAWASAKI

1997-01-01

238

Enzyme catalysis with small ionic liquid quantities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enzyme catalysis with minimal ionic liquid quantities improves reaction rates, stereoselectivity and enables solvent-free\\u000a processing. In particular the widely used lipases combine well with many ionic liquids. Demonstrated applications are racemate\\u000a separation, esterification and glycerolysis. Minimal solvent processing is also an alternative to sluggish solvent-free catalysis.\\u000a The method allows simplified down-stream processing, as only traces of ionic liquids have to

Fabian Fischer; Julien Mutschler; Daniel Zufferey

2011-01-01

239

Quantity Flexibility Contracts and Supply Chain Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Quantity Flexibility (QF) contract is a method for coordinating materials and information flows in supply chains operating under rolling-horizon planning. It stipulates a maximum percentage revision each element of the period-by-period replenishment schedule is allowed per planning iteration. The supplier is obligated to cover any requests that remain within the upside limits. The bounds on reductions are a form

A. A. Tsay; W. S. Lovejoy

1999-01-01

240

Shielded radiation protection quantities beyond LEO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) has recommended that the quantities used to evaluate health risk to astronauts due to radiation exposure be effective dose and gray-equivalent. The NCRP recommends that effective dose be the limiting quantity for prevention of stochastic effects. Effective dose is a measure of whole body exposure, a weighted average of dose equivalent to a number body tissues for which the NCRP has adopted tissue weighting factors recommended by the International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP). For deterministic effects, the NCRP has recommended that gray-equivalent be used. Gray-equivalent is evaluated for specific critical organs and is the weighted sum of absorbed dose from field components to that organ using the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) number for that field component. RBE numbers recommended by the NCRP are used. The NCRP has provided effective dose limits as well as limits for gray-equivalent to eyes, skin, and blood forming organs (BFO) for astronauts in low earth orbit (LEO). As yet, no such limits have been defined for astronaut operations beyond LEO. In this study, the radiation protection quantities, effective dose and gray-equivalent to the eyes, skin, and BFO, are calculated for several environments beyond LEO. The lunar surface and Martian environments are included. For each environment, these radiation protection quantities are calculated behind varying amounts of various types of shielding materials. The results are compared to the exposure limits for LEO, since limits have not yet been defined for interplanetary missions. The benefits of using shielding material containing hydrogen and choosing optimal mission times are discussed.

Clowdsley, M. S.; Wilson, J. W.; Kim, M. Y.; Anderson, B. M.; Nealy, J. E.

241

Conserved quantities and electroweak phase transitions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some cosmological consequences of including the adequate conserved quantities in the density matrix of the electroweak theory are investigated. Several arguments against including the charges associated to the spontaneously broken symmetry are presented. Special attention is focused on the phenomenon of W-boson condensation and its interplay with the phase transition for the symmetry restoration is considered. The emerging cosmological implications, such as on the baryon and lepton number densities, are of interest.

Chaichian, M.; Felipe, R. Gonzalez; Rojas, H. Perez

1995-02-01

242

Fundamental Physics Observed by Three-Dimensional Imaging of Single Ionized Electrons by Ion-Atom Collisions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three-dimensional fully-differential cross sections (FDCS) have provide insight into the mechanisms that contribute to interesting new physics (M. Schulz et al., Nature 422, 48 (2003)). Experiments have observed unique ring-like structures for the traditional "recoil lobe" for single ionization of helium by a 100 MeV/amu C^6+. The ring-shaped structure is not predicted by theory at this energy. However, recent new measurements have been made for 2 MeV/amu that also contained a similar shaped structure. Surprisingly, this structure is now predicted by the Continuum-Distorted-Wave-Eikonal-Initial-State model (CDW-EIS). The first-Born approximation (FBA) which should be valid for high energy approximations does not contain the ring like structure. The FBA is cylindrically symmetric about the momentum, q, transferred to the target atom and could never predict a ring structure centered on the beam axis. The mechanisms that caused both the ring structures and the failure of the theory for higher energies will be discussed.

Foster, M.; Madison, D. H.; Jones, S.; Schulz, M.

2003-10-01

243

Observations and Modeling of Long Negative Laboratory Discharges: Identifying the Physics Important to an Electrical Spark in Air  

SciTech Connect

There are relatively few reports in the literature focusing on negative laboratory leaders. Most of the reports focus exclusively on the simpler positive laboratory leader that is more commonly encountered in high voltage engineering [Gorin et al., 1976; Les Renardieres Group, 1977; Gallimberti, 1979; Domens et al., 1994; Bazelyan and Raizer 1998]. The physics of the long, negative leader and its positive counterpart are similar; the two differ primarily in their extension mechanisms [Bazelyan and Raizer, 1998]. Long negative sparks extend primarily by an intermittent process termed a 'step' that requires the development of secondary leader channels separated in space from the primary leader channel. Long positive sparks typically extend continuously, although, under proper conditions, their extension can be temporarily halted and begun again, and this is sometimes viewed as a stepping process. However, it is emphasized that the nature of positive leader stepping is not like that of negative leader stepping. There are several key observational studies of the propagation of long, negative-polarity laboratory sparks in air that have aided in the understanding of the stepping mechanisms exhibited by such sparks [e.g., Gorin et al., 1976; Les Renardieres Group, 1981; Ortega et al., 1994; Reess et al., 1995; Bazelyan and Raizer, 1998; Gallimberti et al., 2002]. These reports are reviewed below in Section 2, with emphasis placed on the stepping mechanism (the space stem, pilot, and space leader). Then, in Section 3, reports pertaining to modeling of long negative leaders are summarized.

Biagi, C J; Uman, M A

2011-12-13

244

Quantity Discrimination in Wolves (Canis lupus).  

PubMed

Quantity discrimination has been studied extensively in different non-human animal species. In the current study, we tested 11 hand-raised wolves (Canis lupus) in a two-way choice task. We placed a number of food items (one to four) sequentially into two opaque cans and asked the wolves to choose the larger amount. Moreover, we conducted two additional control conditions to rule out non-numerical properties of the presentation that the animals might have used to make the correct choice. Our results showed that wolves are able to make quantitative judgments at the group, but also at the individual level even when alternative strategies such as paying attention to the surface area or time and total amount are ruled out. In contrast to previous canine studies on dogs (Canis familiaris) and coyotes (Canis latrans), our wolves' performance did not improve with decreasing ratio, referred to as Weber's law. However, further studies using larger quantities than we used in the current set-up are still needed to determine whether and when wolves' quantity discrimination conforms to Weber's law. PMID:23181044

Utrata, Ewelina; Virányi, Zsófia; Range, Friederike

2012-11-16

245

Quantity Discrimination in Wolves (Canis lupus)  

PubMed Central

Quantity discrimination has been studied extensively in different non-human animal species. In the current study, we tested 11 hand-raised wolves (Canis lupus) in a two-way choice task. We placed a number of food items (one to four) sequentially into two opaque cans and asked the wolves to choose the larger amount. Moreover, we conducted two additional control conditions to rule out non-numerical properties of the presentation that the animals might have used to make the correct choice. Our results showed that wolves are able to make quantitative judgments at the group, but also at the individual level even when alternative strategies such as paying attention to the surface area or time and total amount are ruled out. In contrast to previous canine studies on dogs (Canis familiaris) and coyotes (Canis latrans), our wolves’ performance did not improve with decreasing ratio, referred to as Weber’s law. However, further studies using larger quantities than we used in the current set-up are still needed to determine whether and when wolves’ quantity discrimination conforms to Weber’s law.

Utrata, Ewelina; Viranyi, Zsofia; Range, Friederike

2012-01-01

246

An Investigation of Relationships Between Fifth Grade Students' Perception of the Physical Classroom Environment and Observed Environmental Factors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An exploratory field study was conducted in 42 self-contained, elementary grade classrooms in 18 school buildings. Subjects were 1,030 fifth-grade students. The purpose of the study was to determine the range of physical environmental conditions in the classrooms; and how students' perceptions of the physical environment (1) describe the…

Faust, Russell Weidner

247

An Investigation of Relationships Between Fifth Grade Students' Perception of the Physical Classroom Environment and Observed Environmental Factors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An exploratory field study was conducted in 42 self-contained, elementary grade classrooms in 18 school buildings. Subjects were 1,030 fifth-grade students. The purpose of the study was to determine the range of physical environmental conditions in the classrooms; and how students' perceptions of the physical environment (1) describe the…

Faust, Russell Weidner

248

Verbal and physical violence towards hospital- and community-based physicians in the Negev: an observational study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Over recent years there has been an increasing prevalence of verbal and physical violence in Israel, including in the work place. Physicians are exposed to violence in hospitals and in the community. The objective was to characterize acts of verbal and physical violence towards hospital- and community-based physicians. METHODS: A convenience sample of physicians working in the hospital and

Tal Carmi-Iluz; Roni Peleg; Tami Freud; Pesach Shvartzman

2005-01-01

249

Time averaging of instantaneous quantities in HYDRA  

SciTech Connect

For turbulent flow the evaluation of direct numerical simulations (DNS) where all scales are resolved and large-eddy simulation (LES) where only large-scales are resolved is difficult because the results are three-dimensional and transient. To simplify the analysis, the instantaneous flow field can be averaged in time for evaluation and comparison to experimental results. The incompressible Navier-Stokes flow code HYDRA has been modified for calculation of time-average quantities for both DNS and LES. This report describes how time averages of instantaneous quantities are generated during program execution (i.e., while generating the instantaneous quantities, instead of as a postprocessing operation). The calculations are performed during program execution to avoid storing values at each time step and thus to reduce storage requirements. The method used in calculating the time-average velocities, turbulent intensities, <{ital u}{sup ``}{sup 2}>, <{ital va}{sup ``}{sup 2}>, and <{ital w}{sup ``}{sup 2}>, and turbulent shear, <{ital u}{sup ``}{ital v}{sup ``}> are outlined. The brackets <> used here represent a time average. the described averaging methods were implemented in the HYDRA code for three-dimensional problem solutions. Also presented is a method for taking the time averages for a number of consecutive intervals and calculating the time average for the sum of the intervals. This method could be used for code restarts or further postprocessing of the timer averages from consecutive intervals. This method was not used in the HYDRA implementation, but is included here for completeness. In HYDRA, the running sums needed fro time averaging are simply written to the restart dump.

McCallen, R.C.

1996-09-01

250

ECOSYSTEM RESPONSES TO RAINFALL QUANTITY AND VARIABILITY IN MODEL GRASSLAND ASSEMBLAGES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Global climate change scenarios and climate observations suggest increased variability in the total quantity, frequency, and event sizes in future precipitation patterns. Resulting changes in photosynthetic carbon gain, net primary production, or soil respiration are likely to have important conseq...

251

Non-Gaussianity effects in petrophysical quantities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been proved that there are many indicators (petrophysical quantities) for the estimation of petroleum reservoirs. The value of information contained in each indicator is yet to be addressed. In this work, the most famous and applicable petrophysical quantities for a reservoir, which are the gamma emission (GR), sonic transient time (DT), neutron porosity (NPHI), bulk density (RHOB), and deep induced resistivity (ILD), have been analyzed in order to characterize a reservoir. The implemented technique is the well-logging method. Based on the log-normal model defined in random multiplicative processes, the probability distribution function (PDF) for the data sets is described. The shape of the PDF depends on the parameter ?2 which determines the efficiency of non-Gaussianity. When non-Gaussianity appears, it is a sign of uncertainty and phase transition in the critical regime. The large value and scale-invariant behavior of the non-Gaussian parameter ?2 is an indication of a new phase which proves adequate for the existence of petroleum reservoirs. Our results show that one of the indicators (GR) is more non-Gaussian than the other indicators, scale wise. This means that GR is a continuously critical indicator. But by moving windows with various scales, the estimated ?2 shows that the most appropriate indicator for distinguishing the critical regime is ILD, which shows an increase at the end of the measured region of the well.

Koohi Lai, Z.; Jafari, G. R.

2013-10-01

252

Quantity judgments and individuation: evidence that mass nouns count.  

PubMed

Three experiments explored the semantics of the mass-count distinction in young children and adults. In Experiments 1 and 2, the quantity judgments of participants provided evidence that some mass nouns refer to individuals, as such. Participants judged one large portion of stuff to be "more" than three tiny portions for substance-mass nouns (e.g. mustard, ketchup), but chose according to number for count nouns (e.g. shoes, candles) and object-mass nouns (e.g. furniture, jewelry). These results suggest that some mass nouns quantify over individuals, and that therefore reference to individuals does not distinguish count nouns from mass nouns. Thus, Experiments 1 and 2 failed to support the hypothesis that there exist one-to-one mappings between mass-count syntax and semantics for either adults or young children. In Experiment 3, it was found that for mass-count flexible terms (e.g. string, stone) participants based quantity judgments on number when the terms were used with count syntax, but on total amount of stuff when used with mass syntax. Apparently, the presence of discrete physical objects in a scene (e.g. stones) is not sufficient to permit quantity judgments based on number. It is proposed that object-mass nouns (e.g. furniture) can be used to refer to individuals due to lexically specified grammatical features that normally occur in count syntax. Also, we suggest that children learning language parse words that refer to individuals as count nouns unless given morpho-syntactic and referential evidence to the contrary, in which case object-mass nouns are acquired. PMID:16139586

Barner, David; Snedeker, Jesse

2004-12-24

253

Evaluation of Specific Absorption Rate as a Dosimetric Quantity for Electromagnetic Fields Bioeffects  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluate SAR as a dosimetric quantity for EMF bioeffects, and identify ways for increasing the precision in EMF dosimetry and bioactivity assessment. Methods We discuss the interaction of man-made electromagnetic waves with biological matter and calculate the energy transferred to a single free ion within a cell. We analyze the physics and biology of SAR and evaluate the methods of its estimation. We discuss the experimentally observed non-linearity between electromagnetic exposure and biological effect. Results We find that: a) The energy absorbed by living matter during exposure to environmentally accounted EMFs is normally well below the thermal level. b) All existing methods for SAR estimation, especially those based upon tissue conductivity and internal electric field, have serious deficiencies. c) The only method to estimate SAR without large error is by measuring temperature increases within biological tissue, which normally are negligible for environmental EMF intensities, and thus cannot be measured. Conclusions SAR actually refers to thermal effects, while the vast majority of the recorded biological effects from man-made non-ionizing environmental radiation are non-thermal. Even if SAR could be accurately estimated for a whole tissue, organ, or body, the biological/health effect is determined by tiny amounts of energy/power absorbed by specific biomolecules, which cannot be calculated. Moreover, it depends upon field parameters not taken into account in SAR calculation. Thus, SAR should not be used as the primary dosimetric quantity, but used only as a complementary measure, always reporting the estimating method and the corresponding error. Radiation/field intensity along with additional physical parameters (such as frequency, modulation etc) which can be directly and in any case more accurately measured on the surface of biological tissues, should constitute the primary measure for EMF exposures, in spite of similar uncertainty to predict the biological effect due to non-linearity.

Panagopoulos, Dimitris J.; Johansson, Olle; Carlo, George L.

2013-01-01

254

Correlation of photospheric quantities in the ANTARES model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to analyse in-depth stellar thermodynamic quantities which otherwise would require much more complex and time consuming observations and measurements numeric models have been developed. The present work is based on data retrieved from the ANTARES model, a 3D radiation hydrodynamics Fortran90-code modelling solar surface convection. The main focus in this paper lies on the determination of the structure of the photosphere. Results have been obtained by calculating and comparing correlation height-functions. These calculations were performed with a model data set with an extended time domain compared to former research carried out by Leitner (2009). As a verification, results were compared to the former mentioned correlations and observational findings. The correlations showed no significant deviation from data sets with extended time domain and support the mentioned observational results.

Lemmerer, B.; Hanslmeier, A.; Muthsam, H.; Leitner, P.

255

Reliability of job-title based physical work exposures for the upper extremity: comparison to self-reported and observed exposure estimates  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesTo evaluate the agreement between job-title based estimates for upper extremity physical work exposures and exposure estimates from work observation and worker self-report.MethodsSelf-reported exposure questionnaires were completed by 972 workers, and exposure estimates based on worksite observation were completed for a subset of 396 workers. Job-title based estimates were obtained from O*NET, an American database of job demands. Agreement between

Bethany T Gardner; David A Lombardi; Ann Marie Dale; Alfred Franzblau; Bradley A Evanoff

2010-01-01

256

Expanded uncertainty regions for complex quantities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The expanded measurement uncertainty of a complex quantity is a region in the complex plane surrounding the measured value. This paper considers different shaped uncertainty regions in the form of ellipses, circles, rectangles and parallelograms. The different types of region are compared, under a variety of measurement error conditions, with regard to coverage probability and relative area. Elliptical confidence regions are commonly used in multivariate statistics. However, this shape has not been adopted widely in metrology, perhaps because there is no simple way to report the extent of an elliptical region. The other shapes considered are easier to use. Unfortunately, the coverage probability of circular uncertainty regions is found to be sensitive to both the form of the distribution of measurement errors and to the number of degrees of freedom, making this shape a poor choice. Parallelograms and rectangles both performed well, with parallelograms giving the best results overall.

Hall, B. D.

2013-10-01

257

Verbal and physical violence towards hospital- and community-based physicians in the Negev: an observational study  

PubMed Central

Background Over recent years there has been an increasing prevalence of verbal and physical violence in Israel, including in the work place. Physicians are exposed to violence in hospitals and in the community. The objective was to characterize acts of verbal and physical violence towards hospital- and community-based physicians. Methods A convenience sample of physicians working in the hospital and community completed an anonymous questionnaire about their experience with violence. Data collection took place between November 2001 and July 2002. One hundred seventy seven physicians participated in the study, 95 from the hospital and 82 from community clinics. The community sample included general physicians, pediatricians, specialists and residents. Results Ninety-nine physicians (56%) reported at least one act of verbal violence and 16 physicians (9%) reported exposure to at least one act of physical violence during the previous year. Fifty-one hospital physicians (53.7%) were exposed to verbal violence and 9 (9.5%) to physical violence. Forty-eight community physicians (58.5%) were exposed to verbal violence and 7 (8.5%) to physical violence. Seventeen community physicians (36.2%) compared to eleven hospital physicians (17.2%) said that the violence had a negative impact on their family and on their quality of life (p < 0.05). The most common causes of violence were long waiting time (46.2%), dissatisfaction with treatment (15.4%), and disagreement with the physician (10.3%). Conclusion Verbal and/or physical violence against physicians is common in both the hospital and in community clinics. The impatience that accompanies waiting times may have a cultural element. Shortening waiting times and providing more information to patients and families could reduce the rate of violence, but a cultural change may also be required.

Carmi-Iluz, Tal; Peleg, Roni; Freud, Tami; Shvartzman, Pesach

2005-01-01

258

LTU Physlet: Vector Quantities in Simple Kinematics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This applet is an animation of an object moving with a constant acceleration in one dimension. It shows the velocity and acceleration vectors on the animation in real-time, as well as the position, velocity, and acceleration graphs as a function of time. The applet offers four distinct scenarios with different accelerations and initial positions and velocities. Standard controls allow the user to start, pause, step, and reset the animation. This is part of a large collection of Physlet-based (Physics Java Applet) illustrations and tutorials covering introductory physics.

Schneider, Scott

2006-09-02

259

ISO terminological analysis of the VIM3 concepts 'quantity' and 'kind-of-quantity'  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent third edition of the International Vocabulary of Metrology—Basic and General Concepts and Associated Terms (VIM3) (JCGM 200:2008 (Sèvres: BIPM); also ISO/IEC Guide 99:2007 3rd edn (Geneva: ISO)) has undergone important changes, not least by adhering to ISO International Standards on terminology work (ISO 704:2000 Terminology Work—Principles and Methods; ISO 1087-1:2000 Terminology Work—Vocabulary—Part 1: Theory and Application; ISO 10241:1992 International Terminology Standards—Preparation and Layout). A recent critique (Mari 2009 Metrologia 46 L11-L15)—based on Object-Oriented Analysis—centres on the meaning and relation of the two first and fundamental concepts 'quantity'Single quotation marks ('...') or bold type indicate a concept when necessary, double quotation marks ("...") a term or quotation. and the new entry 'kind-of-quantity'. This makes it timely to analyse the two concepts, their relation and their respective role in forming the generic hierarchical concept system of VIM3 from 'property' to individual quantities. It is suggested that 'kind-of-quantity' acts as a division criterionSynonyms are "criterion of subdivision", "type of characteristic(s)", see the annexe..

Dybkaer, René

2010-06-01

260

MAY HISTORY AND PHYSICS PROVIDE A USEFUL AID FOR INTRODUCING BASIC STATISTICAL CONCEPTS? SOME EPISTEMOLOGICAL REMARKS AND CLASROOM OBSERVATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

EXTENDED ABSTRACT The present work explores the possibilities to integrate historical and epistemological aspects of the development of Statistics, in its teaching, with emphasis on its relation to physical problems and models. At the same time, it reports on the actual classroom implementation of certain of these possibilities, for introducing Statistics to prospective schoolteachers. 1. The role of history: As

Constantinos Tzanakis; Michael Kourkoulos

261

Observation and Analysis of N[subscript 2]O Rotation-Vibration Spectra: A Physical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The linear molecule N[subscript 2]O is presented as an alternative gas-phase species for the ubiquitous undergraduate physical chemistry rotation-vibration spectroscopy experiment. Utilizing a 0.5 cm[superscript -1] resolution teaching grade FTIR spectrometer, 15 vibrational bands, corresponding to 1229 rotation-vibration transitions, have been…

Bryant, Mark S.; Reeve, Scott W.; Burns, William A.

2008-01-01

262

Individualized Instruction in Science, Introductory Physical Science, Learning Activity Packages.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Learning Activity Packages (LAP) mostly relating to the Introductory Physical Science Text are presented in this manual for use in sampling a new type of instruction. The total of 14 topics are incorporated into five units: (1) introduction to individualized learning; (2) observation versus interpretation; (3) quantity of matter; (4) introduction…

Kuczma, R. M.

263

Social Support in Women with Fibromyalgia: Is Quality More Important than Quantity?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The present study is an examination of the effects of quality and quantity of social support on the psychological and physical well-being of women with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). Participants were 568 women who were members of a health maintenance organization (HMO) with a confirmed diagnosis of FMS. Participants were administered a battery of…

Franks, Heather M.; Cronan, Terry A.; Oliver, Karen

2004-01-01

264

Construction of Fuel and Oil Quantity Sensors for High-Performance Aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the materials and methods of construction of fuel and oil quantity sensors designed to be used in the severe environments of todays high-performance aircraft. The sensors are based on the use of magnetically activated reed switches suitably compensated by resistors. In order to provide physical and electrical protection, the switches and resistors are encapsulated in a fuel

J. A. Warburton

1973-01-01

265

Implementing ILDs and Assessment in Small-enrollment, Calculus-based Physics Classes -- Lessons, Observations and Open Questions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At Salem State, we offer a Physics minor, but most of our teaching load is support courses for other science majors and a lab sequence which satisfies the University's core education requirement. In three years of using assessments and ILDs in small-enrollment calculus-based Physics classes, there has been a significant implementation learning curve, there are encouraging results, a few cautions, and still some open questions to report. ILDs can be highly effective teaching tools. They do require significant advance preparation as well as a safe environment for student participation. Motivating students to do their best on assessment pre- and post-tests can also be difficult. Strategies for motivating assessment performance, experiments using clickers to encourage participation in ILDs, and modifying and developing home-grown ILDs are discussed.

Mason-McCaffrey, Deborah

2011-04-01

266

The Consequences of Victim Physical Attractiveness on Reactions to Injustice: The Role of Observers’ Belief in a Just World  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two studies explored Dion and Dion’s (Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52, 775–780, 1987) suggestion that the belief in a just world may contribute to the “beauty is good” stereotype. In Study 1, we found that\\u000a participants rated the death of a woman as more tragic and unfair when she was physically attractive than less attractive.\\u000a Participants were also

Mitchell J. Callan; Nathaniel G. Powell; John H. Ellard

2007-01-01

267

Physical conditions in high-redshift GRB-DLA absorbers observed with VLT\\/UVES: implications for molecular hydrogen searches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: We aim to understand the nature of the absorbing neutral gas in the galaxies hosting high-redshift long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and to determine their physical conditions. Methods: A detailed analysis of high-quality VLT\\/UVES spectra of the optical afterglow of GRB 050730 and other Swift-era bursts is presented. Results: We report the detection of a significant number of previously unidentified

C. Ledoux; P. M. Vreeswijk; A. Smette; A. J. Fox; P. Petitjean; S. L. Ellison; J. P. U. Fynbo; S. Savaglio

2009-01-01

268

HAZARDOUS WASTE FROM SMALL QUANTITY GENERATORS IN THE UNITED STATES  

EPA Science Inventory

The EPA must evaluate the potential impact of small quantity generator hazardous waste on groundwater contamination in the United States, focusing on potential groundwater contamination due to small quantity generator hazardous waste disposal in municipal sanitary landfills. Data...

269

7 CFR 1207.511 - Determination of assessable quantity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Rules and Regulations Assessments...Determination of assessable quantity. The assessable quantity of potatoes in any lot shall be determined on the basis of...

2012-01-01

270

48 CFR 16.504 - Indefinite-quantity contracts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...on market research, trends on recent contracts for similar supplies or services, survey of potential users, or any other rational basis. (2) To ensure that the contract is binding, the minimum quantity must be more than a nominal quantity, but...

2011-10-01

271

27 CFR 555.213 - Quantity and storage restrictions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Quantity and storage restrictions. 555.213 Section 555.213...JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Storage § 555.213 Quantity and storage restrictions. (a) Explosive...

2013-04-01

272

21 CFR 1314.20 - Restrictions on sales quantity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Restrictions on sales quantity. 1314.20...DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RETAIL SALE OF SCHEDULED LISTED CHEMICAL...20 Restrictions on sales quantity. (a) Without...seller (including a mobile retail vendor) may not...

2013-04-01

273

10 CFR 40.22 - Small quantities of source material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Small quantities of source material. 40.22 Section 40.22 Energy...COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SOURCE MATERIAL General Licenses § 40.22 Small quantities of source material. (a) A general license...

2013-01-01

274

7 CFR 1427.170 - Quantity for loan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Recourse Seed Cotton Loans § 1427.170 Quantity for loan. (a) The quantity of lint cotton in each lot of seed cotton tendered for loan shall be...

2012-01-01

275

27 CFR 555.213 - Quantity and storage restrictions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Quantity and storage restrictions. 555.213 Section 555.213...JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Storage § 555.213 Quantity and storage restrictions. (a) Explosive...

2011-04-01

276

16 CFR 300.28 - Undetermined quantities of reclaimed fibers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Undetermined quantities of reclaimed fibers. 300.28 Section 300.28 ...Undetermined quantities of reclaimed fibers. (a) Where a wool product is composed in part of various man-made fibers recovered from textile products...

2013-01-01

277

7 CFR 61.102 - Determination of quantity index.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...follows: (a) For upland cottonseed the quantity index shall...four times percentage of oil plus six times percentage...b) For American Pima cottonseed the quantity index shall...four times percentage of oil, plus six times...

2013-01-01

278

7 CFR 760.1307 - Dairy operation payment quantity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dairy operation payment quantity. 760.1307...PROGRAMS INDEMNITY PAYMENT PROGRAMS Dairy Economic Loss Assistance Payment Program § 760.1307 Dairy operation payment quantity....

2010-01-01

279

A Five-Stage Process for the Development and Validation of a Systematic Observation Instrument: The System for Observing the Teaching of Games in Physical Education (SOTG-PE)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The primary purpose of this study was to develop and validate a System for Observing the Teaching of Games in Physical Education (SOTG-PE). Primary pilot testing of the SOTG-PE was conducted in a large, selective, all-boys secondary school in the north-west of England. Two hundred and eighty three pupils aged 11-16 volunteered as participants for…

Roberts, Simon; Fairclough, Stuart

2012-01-01

280

Thermodynamical Quantities of Horava-Lifshitz Black Hole  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we consider Horava-Lifshitz black hole and obtain thermodynamical quantities. Such quantities already obtained for KS and LMP solutions of Horava-Lifshitz black hole in spherical space. Now, we calculate thermodynamical quantities of LMP solutions of Horava-Lifshitz black hole in arbitrary space with k=0 and k=±1. So, we can investigate effect of cosmological constant on thermodynamical quantities.

Sadeghi, J.; Jafarzade, K.; Pourhassan, B.

2012-12-01

281

Fundamental contributions of the solar eclipse observations to solar physics in the second half of the 20th century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Astrophysical observations of solar eclipses began in the middle of the 19th century. The most important observations for the 100 years from 1851 to 1952 have been listed in well-known compilations by S. A. Mitchell, complemented by H. C. van de Hulst. The second half of the 20th century is also marked by a number of important scientific findings from

R. A. Gulyaev

1997-01-01

282

Beginning to edit physics  

SciTech Connect

A physicist-turned-editor shows you the basics required for copyediting physics papers (physical quantities, symbols, units, scientific notation, the structure of mathematical expressions, the nature of graphs), and points the way to learning enough ``editorial physics`` to begin substantive editing.

Murphy, P.W.

1995-02-01

283

Beginning to edit physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A physicist-turned-editor shows you the basics required for copyediting physics papers (physical quantities, symbols, units, scientific notation, the structure of mathematical expressions, the nature of graphs), and points the way to learning enough ``editorial physics`` to begin substantive editing.

1995-01-01

284

Competencies of professional quantity surveyors: A South African perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

A competency?based review of professional quantity surveying is important for service excellence and has continuing relevance in the built environment of the 21 century. A survey of quantity surveyors in professional practice in South Africa has provided a new perspective on the relative importance of competencies required for current and future quantity surveying services, and revealed notable gaps between the

Raymond Nkado; Terry Meyer

2001-01-01

285

Competencies of professional quantity surveyors: A South African perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

A competency-based review of professional quantity surveying is important for service excellence and has continuing relevance in the built environment of the 21st century. A survey of quantity surveyors in professional practice in South Africa has provided a new perspective on the relative importance of competencies required for current and future quantity surveying services, and revealed notable gaps between the

Raymond Nkado; Terry Meyer

2001-01-01

286

Price and Quantity Competition in a Differentiated Duopoly  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article analyzes the duality of prices and quantities in a differentiated duopoly. It is shown that if firms can only make two types of binding contracts with consumers, the price contract and the quantity contract, it is a dominant strategy for each firm to choose the quantity (price) contract, provided the goods are substitutes (complements).

Nirvikar Singh; Xavier Vives

1984-01-01

287

PROFILE OF THE QUANTITY SURVEYING PRACTICE IN MALAYSIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides an insight on the findings of a survey undertaken on the profile of the quantity surveying practice in Malaysia. The framework of the survey is to examine current scenario and identify perceptions on future directions of quantity surveying practice in Malaysia. This was based on a survey of quantity surveying firms using semi-structured self-administered postal questionnaires. The

Fadhlin Abdullah; Ismail Haron

288

Operational Health Physics Training.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The initial four sections treat basic information concerning atomic structure and other useful physical quantities, natural radioactivity, the properties of alpha , beta , gamma , x rays and neutrons, and the concepts and units of radiation dosimetry (inc...

1988-01-01

289

Using a physics-based reflection model to study the reddening effect observed in spectrometric measurements of artificial space objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Almost all remote spectrometric measurements obtained of artificial space objects in the last decade contained an unexpected and unexplained reddening of reflectance spectra when compared to either modelled predictions or ground truth measurements of sample spacecraft material. During the spectrometric characterization experiment of an engineering model (EM) of the CanX-1 nanosatellite, an increase of the slope of the overall reflectance curve was observed in various illumination and sensor geometries. Observation of the reddening effect such as was seen during the CanX-1 EM experiment has not been reported to have been observed in a laboratory environment before. With this in mind, a study was initiated to assess how the specular component of the spectral reflectance, from metallic surfaces and photovoltaic cells, varied as a function of changing illumination and sensor geometry. This paper presents the preliminary results of a new approach aimed at explaining the reddening effect commonly observed in remote spectrometric measurements of artificial space objects.

Bedard, D.

2011-09-01

290

Responses to Interpersonal and Physically Provoking Situations: The utility and application of an observation schedule for school?aged students with and without attention deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present research describes the development and pilot testing of a new instrument, the Responses to Interpersonal and Physically Provoking Situations Schedule (RIPPS), designed to measure the reactivity of students with and without attention deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (AD\\/HD) in the naturalistic setting of the classroom. For this study, 29 pre?service teachers from one university graduate school of education conducted structured observations

Annemaree Carroll; Stephen Houghton; Myra Taylor; John West

2006-01-01

291

The Role of Laboratory-Based Studies of the Physical and Biological Properties of Sea Ice in Supporting the Observation and Modeling of Ice Covered Seas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laboratory-based studies of the physical and biological properties of sea ice are an essential link between high latitude field observations and existing numerical models. Such studies promote improved understanding of climatic variability and its impact on sea ice and the structure of ice-dependent marine ecosystems. Controlled laboratory experiments can help identify feedback mechanisms between physical and biological processes and their response to climate fluctuations. Climatically sensitive processes occurring between sea ice and the atmosphere and sea ice and the ocean determine surface radiative energy fluxes and the transfer of nutrients and mass across these boundaries. High temporally and spatially resolved analyses of sea ice under controlled environmental conditions lend insight to the physics that drive these transfer processes. Techniques such as optical probing, thin section photography, and microscopy can be used to conduct experiments on natural sea ice core samples and laboratory-grown ice. Such experiments yield insight on small scale processes from the microscopic to the meter scale and can be powerful interdisciplinary tools for education and model parameterization development. Examples of laboratory investigations by the authors include observation of the response of sea ice microstructure to changes in temperature, assessment of the relationships between ice structure and the partitioning of solar radiation by first-year sea ice covers, observation of pore evolution and interfacial structure, and quantification of the production and impact of microbial metabolic products on the mechanical, optical, and textural characteristics of sea ice.

Light, B.; Krembs, C.

2003-12-01

292

Physical Properties of Molecular Couds in the Magellanic Clouds Revealed by Observations in Multi-transition CO Molecular Lines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Magellanic Clouds offer an ideal laboratory to study how the interstellar medium evolves and how stars are formed throughout a galaxy at an unrivaled closeness to us. It is known that young populous clusters like R136 are still being formed, making it possible to study cluster formation and its effects to the surrounding medium. We have established a catalog of the molecular clouds through the 12CO J = 1-0 observations by NANTEN. We have been extending our observations to higher transition lines of CO in submm by ASTE and NANTEN2. More detailed structure and properties of the GMCs are obtained by the Mopra observations. These datasets are combined and compared with LVG calculations to derive the density and temperature of clumps. The derived density and temperature are distributed in wide ranges. We suggest that these differences of clump properties represent an evolutionary sequence of GMCs in terms of density increase leading to star formation.

Kawamura, A.; Minamidani, T.; Onishi, T.; Mizuno, T.; Kizawa, J.; Mizuno, N.; Fukui, Y.

2013-10-01

293

The Nexus between Cosmology and Elementary Particle Physics: Testing Theoretical Speculations through Observations of the Cosmic Microwave Background Anisotropies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The origin of the large scale structure in the universe - galaxies, quasars, clusters, voids, sheets - is one of the most important questions in cosmology. One can show that some non-thermal energy density fluctuations must have been present in the early universe. These fluctuations grew by gravitational instability to form the observed structures. There are at present two families of models to explain the origin of these initial fluctuations: inflationary models and topological defect scenarios. Current observational developments provide a link with theoretical predictions, allowing us to test our theoretical models. In this contribution, I present a sketch of the current status of the origin of cosmological structure formation.

Sakellariadou, Mairi

1997-08-01

294

Relations between physical properties of local and global image-based elements and the performance of human observers in lung nodule detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aim: The study aims to help our understanding of the relationship between physical characteristics of local and global image features and the location of visual attention by observers. Background: Neurological visual pathways are specified at least in part by particular spatial frequency ranges at different orientations. High spatial frequencies, which carry the information of local perturbations like edges, are assembled mainly by foveal vision, whereas peripheral vision provides more global information coded by low frequencies. Recent visual-search studies in mammography (C Mello-Thoms et al) have shown that observers allocate visual attention to regions of the image depending on; i) spatial frequency characteristics of regions that capture attention and ii) the level of experience of the observer. Both aspects are considered in this study. Methods: A spatial frequency analysis of postero-anterior (PA) chest images containing pulmonary nodules has been performed by wavelet packet transforms at different scales. This image analysis has provided regional physical information over the whole image field on locations both with nodules present and nodules absent. The relationship between such properties as spatial frequency, orientation, scales, contrast, and phase of localised perturbations has been compared with eye-tracked search strategies and decision performance of observers with different levels of expertise. Results: The work is in progress and the results of this initial stage of the project will be presented with a critical appraisal of the methods used.

Pietrzyk, Mariusz W.; Manning, David J.; Dix, Alan; Donovan, Tim

2008-04-01

295

Observation and manipulation of subsurface hydride in Pd{111} and its effect on surface chemical, physical, and electronic properties  

PubMed Central

We report the observation and manipulation of hydrogen atoms beneath the surface of a Pd{111} crystal by using low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy. These subsurface hydride sites have been postulated to have critical roles in hydrogen storage, metal embrittlement, fuel cells, and catalytic reactions, but they have been neither observed directly nor selectively populated previously. We demonstrate that the subsurface region of Pd can be populated with hydrogen atoms from the bulk by applying voltage pulses from a scanning tunneling microscope tip. This phenomenon is explained with an inelastic excitation mechanism, whereby hydrogen atoms in the bulk are excited by tunneling electrons and are promoted to more stable sites in the subsurface region. We show that this selectively placed subsurface hydride affects the electronic, geometric, and chemical properties of the surface. Specifically, we observed the effects of hydride formation on surface deformation and charge and on adsorbed hydrogen on the surface. Hydrogen segregation and overlayer vacancy ordering on the Pd{111} have been characterized and explained in terms of the surface changes attributable to selective hydrogen occupation of subsurface hydride sites in Pd{111}.

Sykes, E. Charles H.; Fernandez-Torres, Luis C.; Nanayakkara, Sanjini U.; Mantooth, Brent A.; Nevin, Ryan M.; Weiss, Paul S.

2005-01-01

296

Observation and manipulation of subsurface hydride in Pd[111] and its effect on surface chemical, physical, and electronic properties.  

PubMed

We report the observation and manipulation of hydrogen atoms beneath the surface of a Pd[111] crystal by using low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy. These subsurface hydride sites have been postulated to have critical roles in hydrogen storage, metal embrittlement, fuel cells, and catalytic reactions, but they have been neither observed directly nor selectively populated previously. We demonstrate that the subsurface region of Pd can be populated with hydrogen atoms from the bulk by applying voltage pulses from a scanning tunneling microscope tip. This phenomenon is explained with an inelastic excitation mechanism, whereby hydrogen atoms in the bulk are excited by tunneling electrons and are promoted to more stable sites in the subsurface region. We show that this selectively placed subsurface hydride affects the electronic, geometric, and chemical properties of the surface. Specifically, we observed the effects of hydride formation on surface deformation and charge and on adsorbed hydrogen on the surface. Hydrogen segregation and overlayer vacancy ordering on the Pd[111] have been characterized and explained in terms of the surface changes attributable to selective hydrogen occupation of subsurface hydride sites in Pd[111]. PMID:16322103

Sykes, E Charles H; Fernández-Torres, Luis C; Nanayakkara, Sanjini U; Mantooth, Brent A; Nevin, Ryan M; Weiss, Paul S

2005-12-01

297

Physical and biogeochemical observations of the Ross Sea polynya using Seagliders during the 2010-2011 austral spring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Antarctic is critical in regulating the global marine carbon cycle through its interactions with the atmosphere and its export of deep water. In particular, the Ross Sea is known to be one of the most productive regions of the Southern Ocean, partly due to the persistent large areas of open water, or polynyas, present there. It has been suggested that it is responsible for 28% of the total flux of atmospheric CO2 and thus has a dominant role in global carbon sequestration. The polynyas remain largely under-sampled due to the challenges caused by sea-ice and weather conditions. From November 2010 to February 2011, two Seagliders were deployed in the Ross polynya to observe the initiation and evolution of the spring bloom. Seagliders were a novel and effective tool to bypass the sampling difficulties at a fraction of the cost and inconvenience. Equipped with fluorometers, oxygen sensors, CTDs, and the ability to estimate current speeds, the gliders were able to obtain data in the polynya before access was possible by oceanographic vessels. Observations were also obtained along a 40 km transect under pack ice and during a 2 day excursion under the ice shelf. We present observations of phytoplankton dynamics, export of organic matter and related fluctuations in dissolved oxygen concentrations during the spring bloom in the polynya. A bloom was first observed at the end of November in the McMurdo polynya whilst a much larger diatom bloom began the second week of December in the Ross polynya. A second bloom then started the second week of January with a different planktonic composition at the same location. A small decrease in dissolved oxygen saturation was present as this organic matter was exported. Alongside these data, we show hydrographic sections under the sea ice and the ice shelf. Oceanographic features identified by the Seagliders include mesoscale fronts and eddies. A thermocline formed gradually deepening to about 50m as the sea-ice melted. Strong vertical mixing was observed injecting warm fresh water down to 400m and carrying phytoplankton as far down as 200m. The high spatial and temporal sampling frequency of Seagliders is compared with what would have been obtained using conventional ship-based surveys, highlighting the importance of scale in oceanographic surveys.

Queste, B. Y.; Smith, W. O., Jr.; Asper, V. L.; Lee, C. M.; Dinniman, M. S.; Gobat, J. I.; Heywood, K. J.

2012-04-01

298

An innovative physical scheme to retrieve simultaneously surface temperature and emissivities using high spectral infrared observations from IASI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Retrieving atmospheric temperature and water vapor profiles from infrared satellite observations over continental surfaces is a complex problem because of the heterogeneity of land surfaces and the difficulty of modeling their interaction with the radiation. This results in the surface-sensitive observations from sounding instruments over land usually not being assimilated into numerical prediction systems at meteorological operational centers. Correct characterization of the interaction between the atmosphere and the surface would allow considering the information contained in those channels. This requires accurate estimates of the surface emissivities at the spectral resolution of recent instruments such as Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) or Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS). An emissivity interpolator is developed in this study to estimate the land surface emissivities at a high spectral resolution compatible with IASI or AIRS instrument channels. It is based on Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) retrieved emissivities. This surface emissivity is used as a first guess in an innovative surface parameter inversion scheme that simultaneously retrieves the surface emissivity and temperature. Radiative transfer calculations with the resulting surface information show a significantly better agreement with the observations (root mean square error of 1.7 K on average over bands 1 and 2 of the IASI spectrum), as compared to calculations using the first guess information (root mean square error of 3.5 K). The retrieved surface skin temperatures are compared to the Land Surface Analysis Satellite Applications Facility (LSA SAF) estimates derived from Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) measurements, and the root mean square difference is below 2 K.

Paul, M.; Aires, F.; Prigent, C.; Trigo, I. F.; Bernardo, F.

2012-06-01

299

Quantity-Quality and the One Child Policy: The postive effect of family size on education in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a negative correlation between quantity and quality of chil- dren across countries and across households within a country. How- ever, because parents simultaneously choose the quantity and quality of their children, the observed correlation between family size and child outcomes cannot be interpreted as causal. This paper exploits exoge- nous changes in family size caused by relaxations in

Nancy Qian

300

Losing Sleep over It: Daily Variation in Sleep Quantity and Quality in Canadian Students' First Semester of University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Daily covariation of sleep quantity and quality with affective, stressful, academic, and social experiences were observed in a sample of Canadian 17-19-year-olds in their first year of university. Participants (N = 191) completed web-based checklists for 14 consecutive days during their first semester. Multilevel models predicting sleep quantity

Galambos, Nancy L.; Dalton, Andrea L.; Maggs, Jennifer L.

2009-01-01

301

Losing Sleep over It: Daily Variation in Sleep Quantity and Quality in Canadian Students' First Semester of University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Daily covariation of sleep quantity and quality with affective, stressful, academic, and social experiences were observed in a sample of Canadian 17-19-year-olds in their first year of university. Participants (N = 191) completed web-based checklists for 14 consecutive days during their first semester. Multilevel models predicting sleep quantity

Galambos, Nancy L.; Dalton, Andrea L.; Maggs, Jennifer L.

2009-01-01

302

Intuitive ontologies for energy in physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nature of energy is not typically an explicit topic of physics instruction. Nonetheless, participants in physics courses that involve energy are frequently saying what kind of thing they think energy is, both verbally and nonverbally. Physics textbooks also provide discourse suggesting the nature of energy as conceptualized by disciplinary experts. The premise of an embodied cognition theoretical perspective is that we understand the kinds of things that may exist in the world (ontology) in terms of sensorimotor experiences such as object permanence and movement. We offer examples of intuitive ontologies for energy that we have observed in classroom contexts and physics texts, including energy as a quasi-material substance; as a stimulus to action; and as a vertical location. Each of the intuitive ontologies we observe has features that contribute to a valid understanding of energy. The quasi-material substance metaphor best supports understanding energy as a conserved quantity.

Scherr, Rachel E.; Close, Hunter G.; McKagan, Sarah B.

2012-02-01

303

Coefficient of restitution as a fluctuating quantity.  

PubMed

The coefficient of restitution of a spherical particle in contact with a flat plate is investigated as a function of the impact velocity. As an experimental observation we notice nontrivial (non-Gaussian) fluctuations of the measured values. For a fixed impact velocity, the probability density of the coefficient of restitution, p(?), is formed by two exponential functions (one increasing, one decreasing) of different slope. This behavior may be explained by a certain roughness of the particle which leads to energy transfer between the linear and rotational degrees of freedom. PMID:22181134

Montaine, Marina; Heckel, Michael; Kruelle, Christof; Schwager, Thomas; Pöschel, Thorsten

2011-10-21

304

Effects of insemination quantity on honey bee queen physiology.  

PubMed

Mating has profound effects on the physiology and behavior of female insects, and in honey bee (Apis mellifera) queens, these changes are permanent. Queens mate with multiple males during a brief period in their early adult lives, and shortly thereafter they initiate egg-laying. Furthermore, the pheromone profiles of mated queens differ from those of virgins, and these pheromones regulate many different aspects of worker behavior and colony organization. While it is clear that mating causes dramatic changes in queens, it is unclear if mating number has more subtle effects on queen physiology or queen-worker interactions; indeed, the effect of multiple matings on female insect physiology has not been broadly addressed. Because it is not possible to control the natural mating behavior of queens, we used instrumental insemination and compared queens inseminated with semen from either a single drone (single-drone inseminated, or SDI) or 10 drones (multi-drone inseminated, or MDI). We used observation hives to monitor attraction of workers to SDI or MDI queens in colonies, and cage studies to monitor the attraction of workers to virgin, SDI, and MDI queen mandibular gland extracts (the main source of queen pheromone). The chemical profiles of the mandibular glands of virgin, SDI, and MDI queens were characterized using GC-MS. Finally, we measured brain expression levels in SDI and MDI queens of a gene associated with phototaxis in worker honey bees (Amfor). Here, we demonstrate for the first time that insemination quantity significantly affects mandibular gland chemical profiles, queen-worker interactions, and brain gene expression. Further research will be necessary to elucidate the mechanistic bases for these effects: insemination volume, sperm and seminal protein quantity, and genetic diversity of the sperm may all be important factors contributing to this profound change in honey bee queen physiology, queen behavior, and social interactions in the colony. PMID:17912357

Richard, Freddie-Jeanne; Tarpy, David R; Grozinger, Christina M

2007-10-03

305

Observations, compositional, and physical characterization of near-Earth and Mars-crosser asteroids from a spectroscopic survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aims: We analyse a significantly large sample of spectroscopic data to provide a compositional characterization of the near-Earth asteroid population. We present visible and near-infrared spectra of a total of 74 near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) and Mars-crossers (MCs), covering the wavelength region from 0.5 to 2.5 ?m. Using spectra of NEAs from other databases to enlarge our sample, and compiling two comparison samples of main belt asteroids (MBs) and ordinary chondrites (OCs), we analyse a total of 79 NEAs, 91 MBs, and 103 OCs. Methods: We obtained our visible and near-infrared spectra using the instruments and the telescopes located at “El Roque de los Muchachos” Observatory, in the island of La Palma (Spain). We compute several diagnostic spectral parameters from the reflectance spectra of NEAs, MBs, and OCs, that are used to infer the mineralogical composition. The distribution of the obtained values are analysed in 2 different parameter spaces. We also apply a robust statistical method based on neuronal networks to those spectral parameters, to compare the NEAs with OCs. Space weathering effects and dynamical and physical properties of NEAs and MBs are also studied. Results: Compositional differences between MBs and NEAs are inferred from the mineralogical analysis. The most remarkable results are: (1) the high olivine content of the NEAs; (2) the compositional similarity between NEAs and a small group of meteorites, the LL ordinary chondrites; and (3) that NEAs are not compositionally similar to OCs, implying that they are not the most likely parent bodies of those meteorites, as has been widely believed. To explain their apparently fresh surfaces (NEAs are on average less red than MBs), a combination of composition and size distribution (NEAs have diameters of some kilometres) should be invoked. Dynamical models applied to our sample of NEAs indicate that most of them originate in the inner part of the main belt, as expected. Appendices are only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

de León, J.; Licandro, J.; Serra-Ricart, M.; Pinilla-Alonso, N.; Campins, H.

2010-07-01

306

General Mills Announces Voluntary Recall of Limited Quantity ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... General Mills Announces Voluntary Recall of Limited Quantity of Refrigerated Pillsbury Cinnamon Rolls With Icing. No Other ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/recallsoutbreaksemergencies/recalls

307

Tracking of food quantity by coyotes (Canis latrans).  

PubMed

Previous studies have demonstrated that Weber's Law mediates quantitative discrimination abilities across various species. Here, we tested coyotes' (Canis latrans) ability to discriminate between various quantities of food and investigated whether this ability conforms to predictions of Weber's Law. We demonstrate herein that coyotes are capable of reliably discriminating large versus small quantities of discrete food items. As predicted by Weber's Law, coyotes' quantitative discrimination abilities are mediated by the ratio between the large and small quantities of food and exhibit scalar variability. Furthermore, in this task coyotes were not discriminating large versus small quantities based on olfactory cues alone. PMID:21856389

Baker, Joseph M; Shivik, John; Jordan, Kerry E

2011-08-19

308

Physical properties of Amazonian soils: A modeling study using the Anglo-Brazilian Amazonian Climate Observation Study data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hydraulic properties of some Amazonian soils differ significantly from the properties of the temperate soils. Most of the soil water release functions implemented in the atmospheric models used in deforestation studies were developed for temperate soils. It is necessary to check the validity of these soil water models with in situ data. In this study, the Anglo-Brazilian Amazonian Climate Observation Study (ABRACOS) soil data have been used to modify the parameter values of Clapp and Hornberger's water release model. Different relations between hydraulic parameters and texture are proposed. These relations are included in the ISBA land surface scheme which is used to simulate the longterm evolution of the soil water content and the surface energy balance of three contrasting ABRACOS sites: two pasture sites with distinct soil properties and a forest site. The sensitivity of the simulations to the use of either the original Clapp and Hornberger water release model or the ABRACOS-derived one is shown.

Delire, C.; Calvet, J.-C.; Noilhan, J.; Wright, I.; Manzi, A.; Nobre, C.

1997-12-01

309

HYBRID {gamma} DORADUS-{delta} SCUTI PULSATORS: NEW INSIGHTS INTO THE PHYSICS OF THE OSCILLATIONS FROM KEPLER OBSERVATIONS  

SciTech Connect

Observations of the pulsations of stars can be used to infer their interior structure and test theoretical models. The main-sequence {gamma} Doradus (Dor) and {delta} Scuti (Sct) stars with masses 1.2-2.5 M {sub sun} are particularly useful for these studies. The {gamma} Dor stars pulsate in high-order g-modes with periods of order 1 day, driven by convective blocking at the base of their envelope convection zone. The {delta} Sct stars pulsate in low-order g- and p-modes with periods of order 2 hr, driven by the {kappa} mechanism operating in the He II ionization zone. Theory predicts an overlap region in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram between instability regions, where 'hybrid' stars pulsating in both types of modes should exist. The two types of modes with properties governed by different portions of the stellar interior provide complementary model constraints. Among the known {gamma} Dor and {delta} Sct stars, only four have been confirmed as hybrids. Now, analysis of combined Quarter 0 and Quarter 1 Kepler data for hundreds of variable stars shows that the frequency spectra are so rich that there are practically no pure {delta} Sct or {gamma} Dor pulsators, i.e., essentially all of the stars show frequencies in both the {delta} Sct and the {gamma} Dor frequency range. A new observational classification scheme is proposed that takes into account the amplitude as well as the frequency and is applied to categorize 234 stars as {delta} Sct, {gamma} Dor, {delta} Sct/{gamma} Dor or {gamma} Dor/{delta} Sct hybrids.

Grigahcene, A.; Monteiro, M. J. P. F. G. [Centro de Astrofisica, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade do Porto, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto (Portugal); Antoci, V.; Handler, G.; Houdek, G. [Institut fuer Astronomie, Tuerkenschanzstr. 17, A-1180 Wien (Austria); Balona, L. [South African Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 9, Observatory 7935 (South Africa); Catanzaro, G. [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, Via S. Sofia 78, 95123 Catania (Italy); Daszynska-Daszkiewicz, J. [Instytut Astronomiczny, Uniwersytet Wroclawski, Kopernika 11, 51-622 Wroclaw (Poland); Guzik, J. A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, X-2 MS T-086, Los Alamos, NM 87545-2345 (United States); Kurtz, D. W. [Jeremiah Horrocks Institute of Astrophysics, University of Central Lancashire, Preston PR1 2HE (United Kingdom); Marconi, M.; Ripepi, V. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, Via Moiariello 16, 80131 Naples (Italy); Moya, A. [Laboratorio de Astrofisica Estelar y Exoplanetas, LAEX-CAB (INTA-CSIC), P.O. Box 78, 28691 Villanueva de la Canada, Madrid (Spain); Suarez, J.-C. [Instituto de Astrofisica de AndalucIa (CSIC), CP3004, Granada (Spain); Uytterhoeven, K. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM CNRS-Universite Paris Diderot, IRFU/SAp, Centre de Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Borucki, W. J. [NASA Ames Research Center, MS 244-30, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Brown, T. M. [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope, Goleta, CA 93117 (United States); Christensen-Dalsgaard, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Gilliland, R. L. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Jenkins, J. M. [SETI Institute/NASA Ames Research Center, MS 244-30, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States)] (and others)

2010-04-20

310

Socioeconomic and physical distance to the maternity hospital as predictors for place of delivery: an observation study from Nepal  

PubMed Central

Background Although the debate on the safety and women's right of choice to a home delivery vs. hospital delivery continues in the developed countries, an undesirable outcome of home delivery, such as high maternal and perinatal mortality, is documented in developing countries. The objective was to study whether socio-economic factors, distance to maternity hospital, ethnicity, type and size of family, obstetric history and antenatal care received in present pregnancy affected the choice between home and hospital delivery in a developing country. Methods This cross-sectional study was done during June, 2001 to January 2002 in an administratively and geographically well-defined territory with a population of 88,547, stretching from urban to adjacent rural part of Kathmandu and Dhading Districts of Nepal with maximum of 5 hrs of distance from Maternity hospital. There were no intermediate level of private or government hospital or maternity homes in the study area. Interviews were carried out on 308 women who delivered within 45 days of the date of the interview with a pre-tested structured questionnaire. Results A distance of more than one hour to the maternity hospital (OR = 7.9), low amenity score status (OR = 4.4), low education (OR = 2.9), multi-parity (OR = 2.4), and not seeking antenatal care in the present pregnancy (OR = 4.6) were statistically significantly associated with an increased risk of home delivery. Ethnicity, obstetric history, age of mother, ritual observance of menarche, type and size of family and who is head of household were not statistically significantly associated with the place of delivery. Conclusions The socio-economic standing of the household was a stronger predictor of place of delivery compared to ethnicity, the internal family structure such as type and size of family, head of household, or observation of ritual days by the mother of an important event like menarche. The results suggested that mothers, who were in the low-socio-economic scale, delivered at home more frequently in a developing country like Nepal.

Wagle, Rajendra Raj; Sabroe, Svend; Nielsen, Birgitte Bruun

2004-01-01

311

Chromosome Complement of the Fungal Plant Pathogen Fusarium graminearum Based on Genetic and Physical Mapping and Cytological Observations  

PubMed Central

A genetic map of the filamentous fungus Fusarium graminearum (teleomorph: Gibberella zeae) was constructed to both validate and augment the draft whole-genome sequence assembly of strain PH-1. A mapping population was created from a cross between mutants of the sequenced strain (PH-1, NRRL 31084, originally isolated from Michigan) and a field strain from Minnesota (00-676, NRRL 34097). A total of 111 ascospore progeny were analyzed for segregation at 235 loci. Genetic markers consisted of sequence-tagged sites, primarily detected as dCAPS or CAPS (n = 131) and VNTRs (n = 31), in addition to AFLPs (n = 66) and 7 other markers. While most markers exhibited Mendelian inheritance, segregation distortion was observed for 25 predominantly clustered markers. A linkage map was generated using the Kosambi mapping function, using a LOD threshold value of 3.5. Nine linkage groups were detected, covering 1234 cM and anchoring 99.83% of the draft sequence assembly. The nine linkage groups and the 22 anchored scaffolds from the sequence assembly could be assembled into four chromosomes, leaving only five smaller scaffolds (59,630 bp total) of the nuclear DNA unanchored. A chromosome number of four was confirmed by cytological karyotyping. Further analysis of the genetic map data identified variation in recombination rate in different genomic regions that often spanned several hundred kilobases.

Gale, L. R.; Bryant, J. D.; Calvo, S.; Giese, H.; Katan, T.; O'Donnell, K.; Suga, H.; Taga, M.; Usgaard, T. R.; Ward, T. J.; Kistler, H. C.

2005-01-01

312

A Unified Empirical Model for Infrared Galaxy Counts Based on the Observed Physical Evolution of Distant Galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We reproduce the mid-infrared to radio galaxy counts with a new empirical model based on our current understanding of the evolution of main-sequence (MS) and starburst (SB) galaxies. We rely on a simple spectral energy distribution (SED) library based on Herschel observations: a single SED for the MS and another one for SB, getting warmer with redshift. Our model is able to reproduce recent measurements of galaxy counts performed with Herschel, including counts per redshift slice. This agreement demonstrates the power of our 2-Star-Formation Modes (2SFM) decomposition in describing the statistical properties of infrared sources and their evolution with cosmic time. We discuss the relative contribution of MS and SB galaxies to the number counts at various wavelengths and flux densities. We also show that MS galaxies are responsible for a bump in the 1.4 GHz radio counts around 50 ?Jy. Material of the model (predictions, SED library, mock catalogs, etc.) is available online.

Béthermin, Matthieu; Daddi, Emanuele; Magdis, Georgios; Sargent, Mark T.; Hezaveh, Yashar; Elbaz, David; Le Borgne, Damien; Mullaney, James; Pannella, Maurilio; Buat, Véronique; Charmandaris, Vassilis; Lagache, Guilaine; Scott, Douglas

2012-10-01

313

A UNIFIED EMPIRICAL MODEL FOR INFRARED GALAXY COUNTS BASED ON THE OBSERVED PHYSICAL EVOLUTION OF DISTANT GALAXIES  

SciTech Connect

We reproduce the mid-infrared to radio galaxy counts with a new empirical model based on our current understanding of the evolution of main-sequence (MS) and starburst (SB) galaxies. We rely on a simple spectral energy distribution (SED) library based on Herschel observations: a single SED for the MS and another one for SB, getting warmer with redshift. Our model is able to reproduce recent measurements of galaxy counts performed with Herschel, including counts per redshift slice. This agreement demonstrates the power of our 2-Star-Formation Modes (2SFM) decomposition in describing the statistical properties of infrared sources and their evolution with cosmic time. We discuss the relative contribution of MS and SB galaxies to the number counts at various wavelengths and flux densities. We also show that MS galaxies are responsible for a bump in the 1.4 GHz radio counts around 50 {mu}Jy. Material of the model (predictions, SED library, mock catalogs, etc.) is available online.

Bethermin, Matthieu; Daddi, Emanuele; Sargent, Mark T.; Elbaz, David; Mullaney, James; Pannella, Maurilio [Laboratoire AIM-Paris-Saclay, CEA/DSM/Irfu - CNRS - Universite Paris Diderot, CEA-Saclay, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Magdis, Georgios [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Keble Road, Oxford, OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Hezaveh, Yashar [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 Rue University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 2T8 (Canada); Le Borgne, Damien [UPMC Univ. Paris 06, UMR7095, Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, F-75014 Paris (France); Buat, Veronique [Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille, OAMP, Universite Aix-Marseille, CNRS, 38 rue Frederic Joliot-Curie, F-13388 Marseille Cedex 13 (France); Charmandaris, Vassilis [Department of Physics and Institute of Theoretical and Computation Physics, University of Crete, 71003 Heraklion (Greece); Lagache, Guilaine [Institut d'Astrophysique Spatiale (IAS), batiment 121, Universite Paris-Sud 11 and CNRS (UMR 8617), F-91405 Orsay (France); Scott, Douglas, E-mail: matthieu.bethermin@cea.fr [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada)

2012-10-01

314

Cosmic physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Classical physics is determined by the scale on which matter can be handled in everyday use; quantum physics results from the study of the interaction of matter on this scale with matter on smaller scales; cosmic physics is the study of matter on much greater scales, and there are many properties of matter that are observable and significant only on

W H McCrea

1968-01-01

315

Comparing results from a physical model with satellite and in situ observations to determine whether biomass burning aerosols over the Amazon brighten or burn off clouds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biomass burning (BB) aerosol particles affect clouds through competing microphysical and radiative (semi-direct and cloud absorption) effects, each of which dominates at different degrees of aerosol loading. Here, we analyze the influence of competing aerosol effects on mixed-phase clouds, precipitation, and radiative fields over the Amazon with a climate-air pollution-weather forecast model that treats aerosol-cloud-radiative interactions physically. Extensive comparisons with remotely sensed observations and in situ measurements are performed. Both observations and model results suggest an increase in cloud optical depth (COD) with increasing aerosol optical depth (AOD) at low AODs, and a decrease in COD with increasing AOD at higher AODs in accord with previous observational and modeling studies. The increase is attributed to a combination of microphysical and dynamical effects, whereas the decrease is attributed to a dominance of radiative effects that thin and darken clouds. An analogous relationship is shown for other modeled cloud variables as well. The similarity between the remotely sensed observations and model results suggests that these correlations are physically based and are not dominated by satellite retrieval artifacts. Cloud brightening due to BB is found to dominate in the early morning, whereas cloud inhibition is found to dominate in the afternoon and at night. BB decreased the net top of the atmosphere solar+IR irradiance modestly, but with large diurnal variation. We conclude that models that exclude treatment of aerosol radiative effects are likely to over-predict the microphysical effects of aerosols and underestimate the warming due to aerosols containing black and brown carbon.

Ten Hoeve, John E.; Jacobson, Mark Z.; Remer, Lorraine A.

2012-04-01

316

Price and quantity in international comparisons of health care expenditure  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important omission from earlier cross-national comparisons of health care expenditure has been the failure to distinguish between price and quantity. Using recent data on purchasing power parities, the purpose of this article is to report some preliminary results regarding health care expenditure and quantity across 22 OECD countries. The article concludes that, contrary to what has been suggested in

Ulf-G. Gerdtham; Bengt Jönsson

1991-01-01

317

Judgments of Discrete and Continuous Quantity: An Illusory Stroop Effect  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Evidence from human cognitive neuroscience, animal neurophysiology, and behavioral research demonstrates that human adults, infants, and children share a common nonverbal quantity processing system with nonhuman animals. This system appears to represent both discrete and continuous quantity, but the proper characterization of the relationship…

Barth, Hilary C.

2008-01-01

318

Prices vs. Quantities Revisited: The Case of Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uncertainty about compliance costs causes otherwise equivalent price and quantity controls to behave differently. Price controls ? in the form of taxes ? fix the marginal cost of compliance and lead to uncertain levels of compliance. Meanwhile quantity controls ? in the form of tradable permits or quotas ? fix the level of compliance but result in uncertain marginal costs.

William A. Pizer

1997-01-01

319

Tracking of food quantity by coyotes ( Canis latrans)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have demonstrated that Weber's Law mediates quantitative discrimination abilities across various species. Here, we tested coyotes’ (Canis latrans) ability to discriminate between various quantities of food and investigated whether this ability conforms to predictions of Weber's Law. We demonstrate herein that coyotes are capable of reliably discriminating large versus small quantities of discrete food items. As predicted by

Joseph M. Baker; John Shivik; Kerry E. Jordan

2011-01-01

320

Judgments of Discrete and Continuous Quantity: An Illusory Stroop Effect  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evidence from human cognitive neuroscience, animal neurophysiology, and behavioral research demonstrates that human adults, infants, and children share a common nonverbal quantity processing system with nonhuman animals. This system appears to represent both discrete and continuous quantity, but the proper characterization of the relationship…

Barth, Hilary C.

2008-01-01

321

Approximate quantities and exact number words: dissociable systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerical abilities are thought to rest on the integration of two distinct systems, a verbal system of number words and a non-symbolic representation of approximate quantities. This view has lead to the classification of acalculias into two broad categories depending on whether the deficit affects the verbal or the quantity system. Here, we test the association of deficits predicted by

Cathy Lemer; Stanislas Dehaene; Elizabeth Spelke; Laurent Cohen

2003-01-01

322

Are Physical Activity, Smoking and Alcohol Drinking Associated with the Development of Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms in Men or Women? Results from a Population-Based Observational Study  

PubMed Central

Purpose Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms (LUTS) are highly prevalent and reduce quality of life. Lifestyle behaviors and LUTS development are largely unexamined. The objective of this study was to investigate physical activity, smoking, and alcohol drinking and LUTS development in men and women. Materials and Methods Data were from a longitudinal observational study, the Boston Area Community Health Survey. Baseline (2002–2005) in-person interviews assessed activity, smoking and alcohol. Five-year follow-up interviews (2006–2010, N=4,145) assessed new reports of moderate-to-severe LUTS, defined by the American Urological Association Symptom Index (AUASI). Analysis used multivariable logistic regression. Results LUTS developed among 7.7% and 12.7% of at-risk men and women, respectively. Women were 68% less likely to develop LUTS (OR=0.32, 95% CI: 0.17–0.60, P<0.001) if they had high vs. low physically activity. Although the association was similar among men, it was not statistically significant upon adjustment for medical or sociodemographic characteristics in the multivariable model. Women smokers were twice as likely to develop LUTS, particularly storage symptoms (OR=2.15, 95% CI: 1.30–3.56, P=0.003), compared to never-smokers. Among men, smoking was not associated with LUTS. Results for alcohol intake were inconsistent by intake level and symptom subtype. Conclusions Low physical activity was associated with 2–3 times higher likelihood of LUTS development. Smoking may contribute to LUTS development in women, but not men. Clinicians should continue to promote physical activity and smoking cessation noting the additional potential benefits of LUTS prevention, particularly for women.

Maserejian, Nancy N.; Kupelian, Varant; Miyasato, Gavin; McVary, Kevin T.; McKinlay, John B.

2012-01-01

323

An evaluation of the efficacy of the exercise on referral scheme in Northumberland, UK: association with physical activity and predictors of engagement. A naturalistic observation study  

PubMed Central

Objectives Exercise on referral schemes (ERS) are widely commissioned in the UK but there is little evidence of their association with physical activity levels. We sought to assess the Northumberland exercise on referral scheme in terms of increased levels of physical activity and identify predictors of engagement. Design A naturalistic observational study. Setting 9 local authority leisure sites in Northumberland. Participants 2233 patients referred from primary and secondary care between July 2009 and September 2010. Intervention A 24-week programme including motivational consultations and supervised exercise sessions for participants. Outcome measures Uptake, 12-week adherence, 24-week completion, changes in Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire scores after 24-weeks and attendance levels at supervised exercise sessions during the scheme. Three binary logistic regressions were used to examine demographic and referral factors associated with initial uptake, 12-week adherence and 24-week completion. Results Uptake was 81% (n=1811), 12-week adherence was 53.5% (n=968) and 24-week completion was 42.9% (n=777). Participants who completed significantly increased their self-reported physical activity levels at 24-weeks t (638)=?11.55, p<0.001. Completers attended a mean of 22.87 (12.47 SD) of a target 48 supervised sessions. Increasing age, being female and leisure site were associated with uptake, increasing age, Index of Multiple Deprivation and leisure site were associated with 12-week adherence and Body Mass Index and leisure site were associated with 24-week completion. Each regression significantly increased the prediction accuracy of stage of exit (non-starters vs starters 81.5%, dropouts before 12?weeks vs 12-week adherers 66.9%, and dropouts between 13 and 24?weeks 82.2%). Conclusions Completers of the Northumberland ERS increased physical activity at 24?weeks, although the levels achieved were below the current UK guidelines of 150?min of moderate exercise per week. Leisure site was associated with uptake, adherence and completion.

Hanson, Coral L; Allin, Linda J; Ellis, Jason G; Dodd-Reynolds, Caroline J

2013-01-01

324

Observations and physical interpretations of the solar wind flow properties as obtained from white light coronagraph aboard SPARTAN 201-01  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The solar corona was observed with an externally occulted White Light Coronagraph (WLC) carried on the SPARTAN 201-1 spacecraft on 11-12 Apr. 1993. With observations from WLC and the ground based Mauna Loa White Light Coronagraph, a large number of polar plumes both in the north and south polar holes were traced from 1.16 to 5.5 Rs. Flow properties of the solar wind in coronal holes have been determined (Habbal et al., 1995) by using a two fluid model constrained by density profiles and scale height temperatures from the white light observations, and interplanetary measurements of the flow speed and proton mass flux from Ulysses' south polar passage. Provisions for acceleration by Alfven waves, as well as electron and proton heating, are included in the momentum and the energy equations respectively. The model computations fit remarkably well the empirical constraints of the two different density structures (plumes and coronal holes) for a range of input parameters. In this study we investigate the physical nature of the heating function used in the two-fluid model. Alfven waves have been suggested as the possible source of heating that accelerates the solar wind (Ofman and Davila, 1995). We utilize the density contrast observed in WLC data in the plume and ambient coronal hole region to estimate the Alfven wave frequencies responsible for heating these structures. The source heating function utilized in the two fluid model of the solar wind acceleration will be compared with the resonant Alfven wave heating function.

Guhathakurta, Madhulika; Fisher, Richard; Ofman, Leon

1995-06-01

325

Forage quantity estimation from MERIS using band depth parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Saleem Ullah1 , Si Yali1 , Martin Schlerf1 Forage quantity is an important factor influencing feeding pattern and distribution of wildlife. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the predictive performance of vegetation indices and band depth analysis parameters for estimation of green biomass using MERIS data. Green biomass was best predicted by NBDI (normalized band depth index) and yielded a calibration R2 of 0.73 and an accuracy (independent validation dataset, n=30) of 136.2 g/m2 (47 % of the measured mean) compared to a much lower accuracy obtained by soil adjusted vegetation index SAVI (444.6 g/m2, 154 % of the mean) and by other vegetation indices. This study will contribute to map and monitor foliar biomass over the year at regional scale which intern can aid the understanding of bird migration pattern. Keywords: Biomass, Nitrogen density, Nitrogen concentration, Vegetation indices, Band depth analysis parameters 1 Faculty of Geo-Information Science and Earth Observation (ITC), University of Twente, The Netherlands

Ullah, Saleem; Yali, Si; Schlerf, Martin

326

AKARI OBSERVATIONS OF BROWN DWARFS. III. CO, CO{sub 2}, AND CH{sub 4} FUNDAMENTAL BANDS AND PHYSICAL PARAMETERS  

SciTech Connect

We investigate variations in the strengths of three molecular bands, CH{sub 4} at 3.3 {mu}m, CO at 4.6 {mu}m, and CO{sub 2} at 4.2 {mu}m, in 16 brown dwarf spectra obtained by AKARI. Spectral features are examined along the sequence of source classes from L1 to T8. We find that the CH{sub 4} 3.3 {mu}m band is present in the spectra of brown dwarfs later than L5, and the CO 4.6 {mu}m band appears in all spectral types. The CO{sub 2} absorption band at 4.2 {mu}m is detected in late-L and T-type dwarfs. To better understand brown dwarf atmospheres, we analyze the observed spectra using the Unified Cloudy Model. The physical parameters of the AKARI sample, i.e., atmospheric effective temperature T {sub eff}, surface gravity log g, and critical temperature T {sub cr}, are derived. We also model IRTF/SpeX and UKIRT/CGS4 spectra in addition to the AKARI data in order to derive the most probable physical parameters. Correlations between the spectral type and the modeled parameters are examined. We confirm that the spectral-type sequence of late-L dwarfs is not related to T {sub eff}, but instead originates as a result of the effect of dust.

Sorahana, S. [Department of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Yamamura, I., E-mail: sorahana@ir.isas.jaxa.jp [Department of Space Astronomy and Astrophysics, Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS), Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan)

2012-12-01

327

Ocean physical and biogeochemical responses to the passage of Typhoon Meari in the East China Sea observed from Argo float and multiplatform satellites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We elucidated ocean physical and biogeochemical responses to slow-moving Typhoon Meari using a new method combining Argo float and satellite observations. Meari-driven upwelling brought colder, nutrient-rich deep water to the surface layer, causing sea surface cooling (3-6°C) and threefold enhancement of primary production (PP). Maximum surface cooling (and hence nutrient injection) and peak PP enhancement lagged Meari's passage by 1 and 3 days, respectively, implying that remarkable PP enhancement was attributed to new production (NP). This NP accounted for approximately 3.8% of annual carbon export in the East China Sea (ECS) outer shelf, suggesting that typhoon-driven upwelling is important for biogeochemical processes in the ECS. Given the wide coverage of Argo float and satellite data, our new approach may prompt comparative studies in other basins and advance the understanding of the role of tropical cyclones in the global ocean biogeochemical cycle.

Siswanto, Eko; Ishizaka, Joji; Morimoto, Akihiko; Tanaka, Katsuhisa; Okamura, Kazumaro; Kristijono, Agus; Saino, Toshiro

2008-08-01

328

Apparatus for controlling the recirculated exhaust gas quantities and the injection quantity in auto-igniting internal combustion engines  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus is proposed which serves the purpose of controlling the exhaust gas recirculation quantity and the injection quantity in auto-igniting internal combustion engines. In this apparatus, an arbitrarily actuatable throttle valve is provided in the intake manifold, downstream of which a control pressure is withdrawn from the intake manifold and used to actuate a pneumatic adjustment device which determines the position of the quantity adjustment device of a fuel injection pump. This control pressure simultaneously serves to actuate an exhaust gas recirculation valve and acts counter to the force of a restoring spring in the work chamber of a second pneumatic adjustment device. Thus, during idling and at full-load of the engine, little exhaust gas or none at all is recirculated and at mediumload and rpm the exhaust gas recirculation quantity is controlled in accordance with the induced air quantity, that is, according to load and rpm; at the same time, in the same sense, the suction pressure which actuates the quantity adjustment device is a standard for load and rpm, that is, for the induced air quantity. Thus with increasing suction pressure less fuel is injected, and more exhaust gas is recirculated, and at a desired high load level the power output of the engine is not impaired by exhaust gas recirculation.

Straubel, M.

1981-12-08

329

Apparatus for controlling the recirculated exhaust gas quantities and the injection quantity in auto-igniting internal combustion engines  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus is proposed which serves the purpose of controlling the exhaust gas recirculation quantity and the injection quantity in auto-igniting internal combustion engines. In this apparatus, an arbitrarily actuatable throttle valve is provided in the intake manifold, downstream of which a control pressure is withdrawn from the intake manifold and used to actuate a pneumatic adjustment device which determines the position of the quantity adjustment device of a fuel injection pump. This control pressure simultaneously serves to actuate an exhaust gas recirculation valve and acts counter to the force of a restoring spring in the work chamber of a second pneumatic adjustment device. Thus, during idling and at full-load of the engine, little exhaust gas or none at all is recirculated and at mediumload and rpm the exhaust gas recirculation quantity is controlled in accordance with the induced air quantity, that is, according to load and rpm; at the same time, in the same sense, the suction pressure which actuates the quantity adjustment device is a standard for load and rpm, that is, for the induced air quantity. Thus with increasing suction pressure less fuel is injected, and more exhaust gas is recirculated, and at a desired high load level the power output of the engine is not impaired by exhaust gas recirculation.

Straubel, M.

1982-10-19

330

48 CFR 916.504 - Indefinite-quantity contracts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...contracts. 916.504 Section 916.504 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Indefinite-Delivery Contracts 916.504 Indefinite-quantity...

2011-10-01

331

48 CFR 916.504 - Indefinite-quantity contracts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...contracts. 916.504 Section 916.504 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Indefinite-Delivery Contracts 916.504 Indefinite-quantity...

2012-10-01

332

48 CFR 16.504 - Indefinite-quantity contracts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...may be stated as number of units or as dollar values...stated minimum quantity of supplies or services...similar supplies or services, survey of potential users, or any...Include the name, address, telephone number, facsimile...

2012-10-01

333

21 CFR 316.36 - Insufficient quantities of orphan drugs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Insufficient quantities of orphan drugs. 316.36 Section 316.36 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...the approval of other marketing applications for the...

2013-04-01

334

7 CFR 1435.303 - Overall allotment quantity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.303 Overall allotment quantity...calculated by deducting from the sum of estimated sugar consumption and reasonable carryover stocks:...

2009-01-01

335

7 CFR 983.53 - Testing of minimal quantities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Testing of minimal quantities. (a) Aflatoxin. Handlers who handle less than...the following methods for testing for aflatoxin: (1) The handler may have an inspector...of hulled and dried pistachios for the aflatoxin certification before further...

2013-01-01

336

26 CFR 50.6 - Ascertainment of quantity mined.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...THE TAX IMPOSED WITH RESPECT TO CERTAIN HYDRAULIC MINING § 50.6 Ascertainment of quantity mined. Each person engaged in hydraulic mining operations within the scope...surveys of the premises on which such hydraulic mining operations are conducted...

2013-04-01

337

48 CFR 816.504 - Indefinite-quantity contracts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...The contracting officer shall insert the Alternate II clause at 852.216-70 in solicitations for estimated quantities of orthopedic, prosthetic, and optical supplies. (d) The contracting officer shall insert the Alternate III clause at...

2012-10-01

338

48 CFR 816.504 - Indefinite-quantity contracts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...The contracting officer shall insert the Alternate II clause at 852.216-70 in solicitations for estimated quantities of orthopedic, prosthetic, and optical supplies. (d) The contracting officer shall insert the Alternate III clause at...

2011-10-01

339

Resolution of Disputes Involving Variations in Estimated Quantities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis investigated the legal criteria involved in deciding variation in estimated quantity disputes in construction contracting. It was written by an engineering student and is not intended to be a legal reference document. Legal precedent was resea...

C. S. Willmore

2000-01-01

340

7 CFR 1434.9 - Determination of quantity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...MARKETING ASSISTANCE LOAN AND LDP REGULATIONS FOR HONEY § 1434.9 Determination of quantity. ...and verified by the county office representative for honey on Form CCC-633 (Honey) that is eligible to be pledged as security...

2012-01-01

341

7 CFR 1434.9 - Determination of quantity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...MARKETING ASSISTANCE LOAN AND LDP REGULATIONS FOR HONEY § 1434.9 Determination of quantity. ...and verified by the county office representative for honey on Form CCC-633 (Honey) that is eligible to be pledged as security...

2013-01-01

342

33 CFR 183.105 - Quantity of flotation required.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Flotation Requirements for Inboard Boats, Inboard/Outdrive Boats, and Airboats § 183.105 Quantity of flotation required....

2013-07-01

343

Demand for Food Quantity and Quality in China.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As their incomes rise, Chinese consumers are changing their diets and demanding greater quality, convenience, and safety in food. Food expenditures grow faster than quantities purchased as income rises, suggesting that consumers with higher incomes purcha...

2007-01-01

344

Quantities of Actinides in Nuclear Reactor Fuel Cycles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The quantities of plutonium and other fuel actinides have been calculated for equilibrium fuel cycles for 1000 MW reactors of the following types: water reactors fueled with slightly enriched uranium, water reactors fueled with plutonium and natural urani...

K. P. Ang

1975-01-01

345

Partial molar quantity of an intensive mother function  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new formal definition is given to the partial molar quantity of a component i for an intensive mother function. We perturb the entire system by increasing the amount of the target component by ?ni keeping others constant and measure the response of the system in terms of an intensive mother function, ?, ??. We then define its partial molar quantity of the ith component, ?i, as ?i = [??/{?ni/(N + ?ni)

Koga, Yoshikata

2012-09-01

346

Effect of aquatic macrophytes on the quantity of bacterioplankton.  

PubMed

The authors investigated the effect of aquatic macrophytes on the quantity of bacterioplankton. Among the 7 species of aquatic macrophytes the most pronounced effect on bacterioplankton is exerted by Potamogeton crispus, causing a decrease in its quantity to 53.28%. Polygonum amphibium stimulates the growth of bacteria to 121.96%. Under the influence of macrophytes the spherical to cylindrical ratio changes from 1:1.31 (Lemna minor) to 1:2.07 (Potamogeton crispus). PMID:11712444

Czeczuga, B; Chomutowska, H

2000-01-01

347

Physical And Thermal Properties Of The Centaurs 2060 Chiron And 10199 Chariklo: Results From Far-infrared Observations With The Herschel Space Observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Centaurs are trans-Neptunian Objects (TNOs) on unstable orbits between Jupiter and Neptune. Centaurs may show activity and some of them are classified also as comets. In order to better investigate the albedo, size distribution and thermal properties of TNOs and Centaurs an Open Time Key Program entitled "TNOs are Cool: A survey of the Transneptunian Region" was submitted to the Herschel Space telescope (Muller et al. 2009, EM&P, 105, 209). This proposal was awarded 372.7 hours to perform radiometric measurements of a large sample of 140 TNOs/Centaurs. Eighteen Centaurs were observed within this program with the PACS instrument in 3 bands (70, 100, and 160 micron), and two of them (Chiron and Chariklo), were observed also at longer wavelengths (250, 350, and 500 micron) with the SPIRE instrument. In this work we present the results of the combined SPIRE and PACS instruments observations of 2060 Chiron and 10199 Chariklo. The Herschel data, coupled with those obtained by Spitzer-MIPS at 24 and 70 micron, have been modeled with both NEATM (Harris 1998, Icarus 131) and thermophysical models in order to derive their albedo, diameter and thermal properties, including thermal inertia and emissivity. Particular care was taken in estimating the absolute magnitude from new and literature data of the two Centaurs during the Herschel observations, as both bodies show brightness variation with the heliocentric distance caused by their cometary activity. Chiron and Chariklo have very similar sizes, and both show a decrease of their emissivity with wavelength, decrease which is particularly strong on Chiron. No coma was detected in the far-infrared images for these two Centaurs. We will present the derived physical and thermal properties for both targets and discuss the possible cause for the emissivity drop at submm-wavelengths.

Fornasier, Sonia; Lellouch, E.; Mueller, T.; Panuzzo, P.; Kiss, C.; Santos-Sanz, P.; Lim, T.; Vilenius, E.; Stansberry, J.; Mommert, M.; Tozzi, G.; Bockelee-Morvan, D.; Duffard, R.; Mottola, S.; TNOs are Cool Team

2012-10-01

348

Physics for Physical Sciences: Graphing Motion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This introductory tutorial provides examples and visualizations for beginners in the fundamentals of graphing Velocity vs. Time and Position vs. Time. Physical quantities are related to graphical features, such as the relationship between slope and velocity. Images and Flash animations are used to present the material, along with examples that demonstrate problem-solving using formulas relating to displacement and constant velocity.

Dicker, Jason; Love, Ed

349

Planning a School Physics Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents a model for planning the measurement of physical quantities. Provides two examples of optimizing the conditions of indirect measurement for laboratory experiments which involve measurements of acceleration due to gravity and of viscosity by means of Stokes' formula. (ML)|

Blasiak, Wladyslaw

1986-01-01

350

The long-term rheology of continental lithosphere: validating experimental data from real-scale observations and physically consistent models of geodynamic processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lithosphere may exhibit elastic, brittle-plastic and viscous-ductile properties. Rock mechanics experiments infer that a large part of the long-term lithospheric strength may be supported in the visco(ductile)-elastic regime. Yet, rock mechanics data refer to very high strain rates (10 orders of magnitude faster than natural ones), small, often mono-mineral, rock samples, simple loading conditions and specific fluid contents. Therefore they cannot be univocally applied to aggregated rocks at real conditions, geological time and spatial scales without additional parameterization. The only adequate parameterization would be based on real-time and space scale observations of lithosphere deformation in-situ. On practice, such observations refer to indirect interpretations of various kinds of data. New, solid insights may be obtained from large-scale thermo-mechanical models that reproduce lithospheric behavior while fitting multi-disciplinary sets of large-scale geophysical and geological data. For oceans, Goetze and Evan's brittle-elastic-ductile yield strength envelopes were successfully validated by models of plate flexure that have yielded robust estimates for the integrated strength of the lithosphere (EET) through correlating the observed gravity and bathymetry. In continents, the uncertainties of flexural models and of other data are much stronger due to the complex structure and history of continental plates. We suggest that continental rheology can be assessed and validated from a direct physical approach. For that we explore, by numerical thermo-mechanical modeling, the implications of a weak and strong mantle for tectonic structural styles to show which experimental rheology data sets are more physically compatible with tectonic scale deformation. We therefore suggest a new approach allowing for validation of extrapolations of the experimental rock mechanics data. We show, in particular, that the evolution of most continental convergence zones appeal for generalized "Jelly-Sandwich" rheology (strong mantle and strong upper crust with various possibilities for the intermediate and lower crust), which parameters can be robustly constrained , for each particular geodynamic context, from coupled dynamic thermo-mechanical models.

Burov, Evgueni

2010-05-01

351

Introducing physics students to symbolic computation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two projects are described that employ the REDUCE language for symbolic computation. In the first a program is produced which gives the correct 'product of powers' form of a 'target' physical quantity in terms of other relevant physical quantities and which detects dimensionless groups. The other yields programs to verify the closure under commutation of sets of operators which are

N. MacDonald

1991-01-01

352

Vectorial and Plane Energy Fluences - Useful Concepts in Radiation Physics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The vectorial physical quantities describing the radiation field are defined in this report. The use of these quantities is rare in the radiation dosimetry literature since a knowledge of the directions of motion of the ionizing particle is often unintere...

C. A. Carlsson

1977-01-01

353

Can One Take the Logarithm or the Sine of a Dimensioned Quantity or a Unit? Dimensional Analysis Involving Transcendental Functions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The fate of dimensions of dimensioned quantities that are inserted into the argument of transcendental functions such as logarithms, exponentiation, trigonometric, and hyperbolic functions is discussed. Emphasis is placed on common misconceptions that are not often systematically examined in undergraduate courses of physical sciences. The…

Matta, Cherif F.; Massa, Lou; Gubskaya, Anna V.; Knoll, Eva

2011-01-01

354

Associations between objectively measured physical activity intensity in childhood and measures of subclinical cardiovascular disease in adolescence: prospective observations from the European Youth Heart Study.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND AND AIM: No prospective studies have investigated the association between physical activity (PA) and carotid subclinical cardiovascular disease across childhood. Therefore, the primary aim was to investigate the association between PA intensity across childhood and carotid intima media thickness (cIMT) and stiffness in adolescence. Second, we included a clustered cardiovascular disease risk score as outcome. METHODS: This was a prospective study of a sample of 254 children (baseline age 8-10 years) with a 6-year follow-up. The mean exposure and the change in minutes of moderate-and-vigorous and vigorous PA intensity were measured using the Actigraph activity monitor. Subclinical cardiovascular disease was expressed as cIMT, carotid arterial stiffness and secondarily as a metabolic risk z-score including the homoeostasis model assessment score of insulin resistance, triglycerides, total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein ratio, inverse of cardiorespiratory fitness, systolic blood pressure and the sum of four skinfolds. RESULTS: No associations were observed between PA intensity variables and cIMT or carotid arterial stiffness (p>0.05). Neither change in PA intensity (moderate-and-vigorous nor vigorous) nor mean minutes of moderate-and-vigorous PA intensity was associated to the metabolic risk z-score in adolescence (p>0.05). However, a significant inverse association was observed between mean minutes of vigorous PA and the metabolic risk z-score in adolescence independent of gender and biological maturity (standard ?=-0.19 p=0.007). CONCLUSIONS: A high mean exposure to, or changes in, minutes spent at higher PA intensities across childhood was not associated to cIMT or stiffness in the carotid arteries in adolescence. Our observations suggest that a high volume of vigorous PA across childhood independently associated with lower metabolic cardio vascular disease risk in adolescence. PMID:23584828

Ried-Larsen, Mathias; Grøntved, Anders; Møller, Niels Christian; Larsen, Kristian Traberg; Froberg, Karsten; Andersen, Lars Bo

2013-04-13

355

Physics of the gluon-helicity contribution to proton spin.  

PubMed

The total gluon helicity in a polarized proton, measurable in high-energy scattering, is shown to be the large momentum limit of a gauge-invariant but nonlocal, frame-dependent gluon spin E[over ?]×A[over ?]_{?} in QCD. This opens a door for a nonperturbative calculation of this quantity in lattice QCD and also justifies using free-field expressions in the light-cone gauge as physical observables. PMID:24074075

Ji, Xiangdong; Zhang, Jian-Hui; Zhao, Yong

2013-09-10

356

Physics of the Gluon-Helicity Contribution to Proton Spin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The total gluon helicity in a polarized proton, measurable in high-energy scattering, is shown to be the large momentum limit of a gauge-invariant but nonlocal, frame-dependent gluon spin E?×A?? in QCD. This opens a door for a nonperturbative calculation of this quantity in lattice QCD and also justifies using free-field expressions in the light-cone gauge as physical observables.

Ji, Xiangdong; Zhang, Jian-Hui; Zhao, Yong

2013-09-01

357

The effects of meal schedule and quantity on problematic behavior.  

PubMed Central

We present 2 case examples that illustrate the effects of meal schedule and quantity on displays of problematic behavior. In the first example, self-injury displayed by a toddler with severe developmental delays was maintained by parent attention, but only when he was satiated for food. When he was food deprived, self-injury decreased but did not appear to be differentiated across low or high social conditions. In the second example, crying and self-injury displayed by an elementary-aged girl with severe disabilities were correlated: Both behaviors were associated with food quantity, and neither behavior was responsive to social stimuli. These results replicate and extend previous findings demonstrating that meal schedule or food quantity can affect problematic behavior. In the present studies, brief functional analyses of aberrant behavior provided useful information for interpreting distinct patterns of behavior displayed by each child. We discuss these results in terms of the concept of establishing operations.

Wacker, D P; Harding, J; Cooper, L J; Derby, K M; Peck, S; Asmus, J; Berg, W K; Brown, K A

1996-01-01

358

Quality control by a mobile molecular workshop: Quality versus quantity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ribosome is a molecular machine that moves on a messenger RNA (mRNA) track while, simultaneously, polymerizing a protein using the mRNA also as the corresponding template. We define, and analytically calculate, two different measures of the efficiency of this machine. However, we argue that its performance is evaluated better in terms of the translational fidelity and the speed with which it polymerizes a protein. We define both these quantities and calculate these analytically. Fidelity is a measure of the quality of the products, while the total quantity of products synthesized in a given interval depends on the speed of polymerization. We show that for synthesizing a large quantity of proteins, it is not necessary to sacrifice the quality. We also explore the effects of the quality control mechanism on the strength of mechanochemical coupling. We suggest experiments for testing some of the ideas presented here.

Sharma, Ajeet K.; Chowdhury, Debashish

2010-09-01

359

Exact calculations of first-passage quantities on recursive networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present general methods to exactly calculate mean first-passage quantities on self-similar networks defined recursively. In particular, we calculate the mean first-passage time and the splitting probabilities associated to a source and one or several targets; averaged quantities over a given set of sources (e.g., same-connectivity nodes) are also derived. The exact estimate of such quantities highlights the dependency of first-passage processes with respect to the source-target distance, which has recently revealed to be a key parameter in characterizing transport in complex media. We explicitly perform calculations for different classes of recursive networks [finitely ramified fractals, scale-free (trans)fractals, nonfractals, mixtures between fractals and nonfractals, nondecimable hierarchical graphs] of arbitrary size. Our approach unifies and significantly extends the available results in the field.

Meyer, B.; Agliari, E.; Bénichou, O.; Voituriez, R.

2012-02-01

360

A shared system of representation governing quantity discrimination in canids.  

PubMed

One way to investigate the evolution of cognition is to compare the abilities of phylogenetically related species. The domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris), for example, still shares cognitive abilities with the coyote (Canis latrans). Both of these canids possess the ability to make psychophysical "less/more" discriminations of food based on quantity. Like many other species including humans, this ability is mediated by Weber's Law: discrimination of continuous quantities is dependent on the ratio between the two quantities. As two simultaneously presented quantities of food become more similar, choice of the large or small option becomes random in both dogs and coyotes. It remains unknown, however, whether these closely related species within the same family - one domesticated, and one wild - make such quantitative comparisons with comparable accuracy. Has domestication honed or diminished this quantitative ability? Might different selective and ecological pressures facing coyotes drive them to be more or less able to accurately represent and discriminate food quantity than domesticated dogs? This study is an effort to elucidate this question concerning the evolution of non-verbal quantitative cognition. Here, we tested the quantitative discrimination ability of 16 domesticated dogs. Each animal was given nine trials in which two different quantities of food were simultaneously displayed to them. The domesticated dogs' performance on this task was then compared directly to the data from 16 coyotes' performance on this same task reported by Baker et al. (2011). The quantitative discrimination abilities between the two species were strikingly similar. Domesticated dogs demonstrated similar quantitative sensitivity as coyotes, suggesting that domestication may not have significantly altered the psychophysical discrimination abilities of canids. Instead, this study provides further evidence for similar non-verbal quantitative abilities across multiple species. PMID:23060847

Baker, Joseph M; Morath, Justice; Rodzon, Katrina S; Jordan, Kerry E

2012-10-08

361

Determination of Fuel Quantities with a Micromachined Injection Rate Sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

To detect the injected fuel quantities “on board” of passenger cars at each cylinder, a novel micromachined mass flow sensor\\u000a on an LTCC (Low Temperature Cofired Ceramic)-substrate is presented for high-pressure automotive applications. With the thermal\\u000a injection rate sensor, fuel quantity measurements are performed at fuel pressures of 25MPa to 135MPa, whereas the drive pulses\\u000a vary between 0.3ms and 1.5ms.

Ulrich Schmid; EADS Deutschland

362

Chemical Waste Management for the Conditionally Exempt Small Quantity Generator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Management of hazardous chemical wastes generated as a part of the curriculum poses a significant task for the individual responsible for maintaining compliance with all rules and regulations from the Environmental Protection Agency and the Department of Transportation while maintaining the principles of OSHA's Lab Standard and the Hazard Communication Standard. For schools that generate relatively small quantities of waste, an individual can effectively manage the waste program without becoming overly burdened by the EPA regulations required for those generating large quantities of waste, if given the necessary support from the institution.

Zimmer, Steven W.

1999-06-01

363

A Physical Mechanism to Explain the Delivery of Chemical Penetration Enhancers into Skin during Transdermal Sonophoresis - Insight into the Observed Synergism  

PubMed Central

The synergism between low-frequency sonophoresis (LFS) and chemical penetration enhancers (CPEs), especially surfactants, in transdermal enhancement has been investigated extensively since this phenomenon was first observed over a decade ago. In spite of the identifying that the origin of this synergism is the increased penetration and subsequent dispersion of CPEs in the skin in response to LFS treatment, to date, no mechanism has been directly proposed to explain how LFS induces the observed increased transport of CPEs. In this study, we propose a plausible physical mechanism by which the transport of all CPEs is expected to have significantly increased flux into the localized-transport regions (LTRs) of LFS-treated skin. Specifically, the collapse of acoustic cavitation microjets within LTRs induces a convective flux. In addition, because amphiphilic molecules preferentially adsorb onto the gas/water interface of cavitation bubbles, amphiphiles have an additional adsorptive flux. In this sense, the cavitation bubbles effectively act as carriers for amphiphilic molecules, delivering surfactants directly into the skin when they collapse at the skin surface as cavitation microjets. The flux equations derived for CPE delivery into the LTRs and non-LTRs during LFS treatment, compared to that for untreated skin, explain why the transport of all CPEs, and to an even greater extent amphiphilic CPEs, is increased during LFS treatment. The flux model is tested with a non-amphiphilic CPE (propylene glycol) and both nonionic and ionic amphiphilic CPEs (octyl glucoside and sodium lauryl sulfate, respectively), by measuring the flux of each CPE into untreated skin and the LTRs and non-LTRs of LFS-treated skin. The resulting data shows very good agreement with the proposed flux model.

Polat, Baris E.; Deen, William M.; Langer, Robert; Blankschtein, Daniel

2011-01-01

364

Finite groups and quantum physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Concepts of quantum theory are considered from the constructive "finite" point of view. The introduction of a continuum or other actual infinities in physics destroys constructiveness without any need for them in describing empirical observations. It is shown that quantum behavior is a natural consequence of symmetries of dynamical systems. The underlying reason is that it is impossible in principle to trace the identity of indistinguishable objects in their evolution—only information about invariant statements and values concerning such objects is available. General mathematical arguments indicate that any quantum dynamics is reducible to a sequence of permutations. Quantum phenomena, such as interference, arise in invariant subspaces of permutation representations of the symmetry group of a dynamical system. Observable quantities can be expressed in terms of permutation invariants. It is shown that nonconstructive number systems, such as complex numbers, are not needed for describing quantum phenomena. It is sufficient to employ cyclotomic numbers—a minimal extension of natural numbers that is appropriate for quantum mechanics. The use of finite groups in physics, which underlies the present approach, has an additional motivation. Numerous experiments and observations in the particle physics suggest the importance of finite groups of relatively small orders in some fundamental processes. The origin of these groups is unclear within the currently accepted theories—in particular, within the Standard Model.

Kornyak, V. V.

2013-02-01

365

Electron spin resonance and luminescence spectroscopic observation and kinetic study of chemical and physical singlet oxygen quenching by resveratrol in methanol.  

PubMed

Electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy and near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence spectroscopy were performed to observe singlet oxygen quenching by resveratrol. Resveratrol greatly decreased the 2,2,6,6-Tetramethyl-4-piperidone-N-oxyl radical signal as determined by ESR spectroscopy. Resveratrol also efficiently decreased luminescence emission at 1268 nm as studied with a NIR spectrofluorometer, showing positive evidence of singlet oxygen quenching by resveratrol. The total singlet oxygen quenching rate constant (kr+kq) of resveratrol in methanol was determined to be 2.55×10(7) M(-1) s(-1). The singlet oxygen chemical quenching rate constant (kr) of resveratrol was calculated by measuring its reaction rate with singlet oxygen relative to that of ?-terpinene in the same solution under light illumination. The kr value of resveratrol was 1.15×10(6) M(-1) s(-1). The percent partition of chemical quenching over total singlet oxygen quenching (kr×100)/(kr+kq) for resveratrol was 5.11%. The results showed that resveratrol quenches singlet oxygen almost exclusively through the mechanism of physical quenching. Resveratrol showed a protective activity similar to that of BHA on the methylene blue sensitized photooxidation of ?-terpinene. This unambiguously explains the mechanism of how resveratrol protects tissues and cells in biological systems or important nutrients in food systems against their photosensitized oxidations. PMID:21038912

Jung, Mun Yhung; Choi, Dong Seong

2010-11-01

366

Conditional probabilities with Dirac observables and the problem of time in quantum gravity  

SciTech Connect

We combine the 'evolving constants' approach to the construction of observables in canonical quantum gravity with the Page-Wootters formulation of quantum mechanics with a relational time for generally covariant systems. This overcomes the objections levied by Kuchar against the latter formalism. The construction is formulated entirely in terms of Dirac observables, avoiding in all cases the physical observation of quantities that do not belong in the physical Hilbert space. We work out explicitly the example of the parametrized particle, including the calculation of the propagator. The resulting theory also predicts a fundamental mechanism of decoherence.

Gambini, Rodolfo; Torterolo, Sebastian [Instituto de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Igua 4225, esq. Mataojo, Montevideo (Uruguay); Porto, Rafael A. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Pullin, Jorge [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803-4001 (United States)

2009-02-15

367

Quantity quotient reporting. A proposal for a standardized presentation of laboratory results.  

PubMed

Laboratory results are reported in different units (despite international recommendations for SI units) together with different reference limits, of which several exist for many quantities. It is proposed to adopt the concept of the intelligence quotient and to report quantitative results as a quantity quotient (QQ) in laboratory medicine. This quotient is essentially the difference (measured result minus mean or mode value of the reference interval) divided by the observed biological variation CV(o). Thus, all quantities are reported in the same unit system with the same reference limits (for convenience shifted to e.g., 80-120). The critical difference can also be included in this standardization concept. In this way the information of reference intervals and the original result are integrated into one combined value, which has the same format for all quantities suited for quotient reporting (QR). The proposal of QR does not interfere with neither the current concepts of traceability, SI units or method standardization. This proposal represents a further step towards harmonization of reporting. It provides simple values which can be interpreted easily by physicians and their patients. PMID:19803808

Haeckel, Rainer; Wosniok, Werner

2009-01-01

368

The effect of methadone treatment on the quantity and quality of human fetal movement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate the effect of daily maternal methadone maintenance treatment on the quality and quantity of fetal movement. Methods: At 34–37 weeks gestation, real-time ultrasound recordings were obtained from 17 methadone treated and 17 non-opioid-dependent mothers at two time points relative to the methadone mothers' daily dose of methadone. The first observation was just prior to the mother taking

Trecia A Wouldes; Alistair B Roberts; Jan E Pryor; Carol Bagnall; Tania R Gunn

2004-01-01

369

IRRIGATION MANAGEMENT AFFECTING QUALITY AND QUANTITY OF RETURN FLOW  

EPA Science Inventory

Management practices for control of quality and quantity of return subsurface flow were studied theoretically, in the laboratory, and full scale in the field. Field water management studies using waters of different qualities and different leaching fractions showed that the soil ...

370

A Quantity Discount Pricing Model to Increase Vendor Profits  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we analyze how a supplier can structure the terms of an optimal quantity discount schedule. The vendor's challenge is to adjust his present pricing schedule to entice his major customer to increase his present order size by a factor of \\

James P. Monahan

1984-01-01

371

A Generalized Quantity Discount Pricing Model to Increase Supplier's Profits  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the joint problem of ordering and offering price discount by a supplier to his sole\\/major buyer is analyzed. The objective is to induce the buyer to alter his order schedule and size so that the supplier can benefit from lower set up, ordering, and inventory holding costs. We generalize the quantity discount pricing model of Monahan (Monahan,

Hau L. Lee; Meir J. Rosenblatt

1986-01-01

372

Quantity Recognition among Speakers of an Anumeric Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent research has suggested that the Piraha, an Amazonian tribe with a number-less language, are able to match quantities greater than 3 if the matching task does not require recall or spatial transposition. This finding contravenes previous work among the Piraha. In this study, we re-tested the Pirahas' performance in the crucial one-to-one…

Everett, Caleb; Madora, Keren

2012-01-01

373

Procedure for malting extremely small quantities of barley  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Micromalting procedures for malt quality analysis typically use 50 – 500 g of barley, and can produce malt with characteristics representative of those produced at a commercial scale. Modifications to routine micromalting protocols in which small quantities of grain within inexpensive mesh container...

374

Price vs. quantity-based approaches to airport congestion management  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes price and quantity-based approaches to management of airport congestion, using a model where airlines are asymmetric and internalize congestion. Under these circumstances, optimal congestion tolls are differentiated across carriers, and a uniformity requirement on airport charges (as occurs when slots are sold or tolls are uniform) distorts carrier flight choices. Flight volumes tend to be too low

Jan K. Brueckner

2009-01-01

375

Effects of Anxiety on Quantity of Examination Preparation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Undergraduates who were anticipating a one semester course final were used as subjects in this investigation of the relationship between pretest anxiety and the amount of preparation for the test. In addition, the authors examined the relationship between anxiety and performance and between quantity of preparation and performance. Both trait and…

Martin, Roy; Meyers, Joel

376

How Do Our Actions Affect Water Quantity and Quality?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Water is an essential resource for all living things. How we live on our watershed can impact water quantity and quality. It is important to recognize how humans alter watershed dynamics, but students often find it challenging to visualize watershed processes and understand how decisions that they make as individuals and together as a community…

Gordon, Jessica

2008-01-01

377

Quantity of food ingested as a measure of relative acceptability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several experiments designed to evaluate different methods of determining food acceptability are reported. Rats are used as subjects and sucrose solutions as food. Brief exposure preference methods show acceptability of sugar to be directly proportional to log concentration; one-hour exposure to single solutions showed quantity of fluid ingested to vary inversely with concentration. In the latter method, however, the total

Paul Thomas Young; John T. Greene

1953-01-01

378

Quantity Judgments and Individuation: Evidence that Mass Nouns Count  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Three experiments explored the semantics of the mass-count distinction in young children and adults. In Experiments 1 and 2, the quantity judgments of participants provided evidence that some mass nouns refer to individuals, as such. Participants judged one large portion of stuff to be ''more'' than three tiny portions for substance-mass nouns…

Barner, David; Snedeker, Jesse

2005-01-01

379

Neural correlates of quantity processing of numeral classifiers.  

PubMed

Objective: Classifiers play an important role in describing the quantity information of objects. Few studies have been conducted to investigate the brain organization for quantity processing of classifiers. In the current study, we investigated whether activation of numeral classifiers was specific to the bilateral inferior parietal areas, which are believed to process numerical magnitude. Method: Using functional MRI, we explored the neural correlates of numeral classifiers, as compared with those of numbers, dot arrays, and nonquantity words (i.e., tool nouns). Results: Our results showed that numeral classifiers and tool nouns elicited greater activation in the left inferior frontal lobule and left middle temporal gyrus than did numbers and dot arrays, but numbers and dot arrays had greater activation in the middle frontal gyrus, precuneus, and the superior and inferior parietal lobule in the right hemisphere. No differences were found between numeral classifiers and tool nouns. Conclusion: The results suggest that quantity processing of numeral classifiers is independent of that of numbers and dot arrays, supporting the notation-dependent hypothesis of quantity processing. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:23937482

Cui, Jiaxin; Yu, Xiaodan; Yang, Hong; Chen, Chuansheng; Liang, Peipeng; Zhou, Xinlin

2013-08-12

380

An alternative approach to computing economic run quantity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our primary objective is to consider an alternative approach to computing an economic run quantity (ERQ) based on profit maximization. We first develop a general profit function for a firm that includes both production and inventory costs. We then use classical optimization techniques to establish an annual production level that will maximize profit, and use this value to determine an

D. Simmons; J. Cheng

2008-01-01

381

How Do Our Actions Affect Water Quantity and Quality?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Water is an essential resource for all living things. How we live on our watershed can impact water quantity and quality. It is important to recognize how humans alter watershed dynamics, but students often find it challenging to visualize watershed processes and understand how decisions that they make as individuals and together as a community…

Gordon, Jessica

2008-01-01

382

Carbohydrate Quantity and Quality in Relation to Body Mass Index  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increased prevalence of overweight and obesity in the United States since approximately 1980 is temporally associated with an increase in carbohydrate intake, with no appreciable change in absolute intake of fat. Despite speculation that both carbohydrate quantity and quality have contributed significantly to excess weight gain, the relationship between carbohydrate intake and body mass index (BMI) is controversial. A

Glenn A. Gaesser

2007-01-01

383

Children's Multiplicative Transformations of Discrete and Continuous Quantities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Recent studies have documented an evolutionarily primitive, early emerging cognitive system for the mental representation of numerical quantity (the analog magnitude system). Studies with nonhuman primates, human infants, and preschoolers have shown this system to support computations of numerical ordering, addition, and subtraction involving…

Barth, Hilary; Baron, Andrew; Spelke, Elizabeth; Carey, Susan

2009-01-01

384

Photometric determination of trace quantities of phenol in hydrophilic extracts  

SciTech Connect

An extraction-photometric method has been developed for determination of trace quantities of phenol in aqueous solutions. Phenol is extracted with hydrophilic solvents (aliphatic alcohols C{sub 2}-C{sub 4}, acetone, methyl ethyl ketone) followed by photometric analysis of the extract.

Korenman, Ya.I.; Ermolaeva, T.N.; Kuchmenko, T.A.; Mishina, A.V.

1994-03-10

385

Bibliographic Control of Large Quantities of Research Material  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the term bibliographic control usually refers to methods libraries employ to manage their holdings, it is also applicable to the management of large quantities of research material. Effective bibliographic control is a particular problem for the individual researcher involved in the construction of a bibliography ranging from several hundred to several thousand items. This article describes bibliographic methods for

Martha M. Evans

1983-01-01

386

An economic order quantity model with defective items and shortages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fundamental assumption of an economic order quantity (EOQ) model is that 100% of items in an ordered lot are perfect. This assumption is not always pertinent for production processes because of process deterioration or other factors. This paper develops an EOQ model for that each ordered lot contains some defective items and shortages backordered. It is assumed that 100%

Abdullah Eroglu; Gultekin Ozdemir

2007-01-01

387

A Stochastic Perishable Inventory System with Random Supply Quantity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers a continuous review perishable inventory system with demands ar- rive according to a Markovian arrival process (MAP). We model, in this paper, the situation in which not all the ordered items are usable and the supply may contain a fraction of defec- tive items. The number of usable items is a random quantity. We consider a modified

G. Arivarignan

2007-01-01

388

Unraveling water quality and quantity effects of biofuels production  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Developing a sustainable biofuels industry is crucial for several reasons, but what impact will it have on soil water quantity and quality? This popular press article for ISU alumni, teachers, middle/high school students and others is written to help them understand the complexity of this seemingly ...

389

Perceptions of Brainstorming in Groups: The Quality over Quantity Hypothesis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four studies of undergraduates were conducted to assess the relative importance of quality and quantity as goals of brainstorming. Participants (n=65) believed it was more important to produce creative and high-quality ideas than to generate many ideas and believed brainstorming would enhance the quality of others' ideas (n=109). (Author/CR)

Rowatt, Wade C.; And Others

1997-01-01

390

Forage quantity estimation from MERIS using band depth parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Saleem Ullah1 , Si Yali1 , Martin Schlerf1 Forage quantity is an important factor influencing feeding pattern and distribution of wildlife. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the predictive performance of vegetation indices and band depth analysis parameters for estimation of green biomass using MERIS data. Green biomass was best predicted by NBDI (normalized band depth index)

Saleem Ullah; Si Yali; Martin Schlerf

2010-01-01

391

14 CFR 25.1551 - Oil quantity indication.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

14 Ç Aeronautics and Space Ç 1 Ç 2013-01-01 Ç 2013-01-01 Ç false Ç Oil quantity indication. Ç 25.1551 Ç Section 25.1551 Ç Aeronautics and Space Ç FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Ç AIRCRAFT Ç AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Ç Operating...

2013-01-01

392

14 CFR 27.1551 - Oil quantity indicator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

14 Ç Aeronautics and Space Ç 1 Ç 2013-01-01 Ç 2013-01-01 Ç false Ç Oil quantity indicator. Ç 27.1551 Ç Section 27.1551 Ç Aeronautics and Space Ç FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Ç AIRCRAFT Ç AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Ç Operating Limitations...

2013-01-01

393

Prospective observational study of physical functioning, physical activity, and time outdoors and the risk of hip fracture: A population-based cohort study of 158,057 older adults in the 45 and up study.  

PubMed

Low levels of physical activity or sun exposure and limitations to physical functioning (or disability) have been identified as possible risk factors for hip fracture. However, these factors are closely related, and data on their independent and joint association with risk of hip fracture are limited. A total of 158,057 individuals aged ?45 years sampled from the general population of New South Wales, Australia, from the prospective 45 and Up Study completed a baseline postal questionnaire in 2006 to 2009 including data on physical activity (Active Australia questionnaire); sun exposure (usual time outdoors); and physical functioning (Medical Outcomes Score-Physical Functioning; scored 0 to 100). Incident first hip fractures were ascertained by linkage to administrative hospital data (n?=?293; average follow-up 2.3 years). The relative risk (RR) of hip fracture was estimated using Cox proportional hazards. Poorer physical functioning, lower physical activity, and less time outdoors were positively related to each other at baseline and individually associated with significantly increased hip fracture risk. However, physical activity and time outdoors were not significantly related to hip fracture risk after adjustment for baseline physical functioning or when analysis was restricted to those with no or mild baseline physical limitation. In contrast, physical functioning remained strongly related to hip fracture risk after adjustment for the other two factors; compared with the group without limitation (100), the RR of hip fracture among those with mild (75-95), moderate (50-70), severe (25-45), and greatest (0-20) level of physical limitation was 1.38 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.88-2.14), 2.14 (1.29-3.53), 3.87 (2.31-6.44), and 5.61 (3.33-9.42), respectively. The findings suggest that limitation in physical functioning, but not physical activity or time outdoors, is strongly related to hip fracture risk. The apparent increased risk of hip fracture previously described for low physical activity or sun exposure may be, at least in part due to uncontrolled confounding. © 2013 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. PMID:23609238

Lai, Jeffrey K C; Lucas, Robyn M; Armstrong, Miranda; Banks, Emily

2013-10-01

394

SUB-ALFVENIC NON-IDEAL MHD TURBULENCE SIMULATIONS WITH AMBIPOLAR DIFFUSION. II. COMPARISON WITH OBSERVATION, CLUMP PROPERTIES, AND SCALING TO PHYSICAL UNITS  

SciTech Connect

Ambipolar diffusion (AD) is important in redistributing magnetic flux and in damping Alfven waves in molecular clouds. The importance of AD on a length scale l is governed by the AD Reynolds number, R {sub AD} = l/l{sub AD}, where l{sub AD} is the characteristic length scale for AD. The logarithmic mean of the AD Reynolds number in a sample of 15 molecular clumps with measured magnetic fields is 17, comparable to the theoretically expected value. We identify several regimes of AD in a turbulent medium, depending on the ratio of the flow time to collision times between ions and neutrals; the clumps observed by Crutcher in 1999 are all in the standard regime of AD, in which the neutrals and ions are coupled over a flow time. We have carried out two-fluid simulations of AD in isothermal, turbulent boxes for a range of values of R {sub AD}. The mean Mach numbers were fixed at M=3 and M{sub A}=0.67; self-gravity was not included. We study the properties of overdensities-i.e., clumps-in the simulation and show that the slope of the higher-mass portion of the clump mass spectrum increases as R {sub AD} decreases, which is qualitatively consistent with Padoan et al.'s finding that the mass spectrum in hydrodynamic turbulence is significantly steeper than in ideal MHD turbulence. For a value of R {sub AD} similar to the observed value, we find a slope that is consistent with that of the high-mass end of the initial mass function (IMF) for stars. However, the value we find for the spectral index in our ideal MHD simulation differs from theirs, presumably because our simulations have different initial conditions. This suggests that the mass spectrum of the clumps in the Padoan et al. turbulent fragmentation model for the IMF depends on the environment, which would conflict with evidence for a universal IMF. In addition, we give a general discussion of how the results of simulations of magnetized, turbulent, isothermal boxes can be scaled to physical systems. Each physical process that is introduced into the simulation, such as AD, introduces a dimensionless parameter, such as R {sub AD}, which must be fixed for the simulation, thereby reducing the number of scaling parameters by one. We show that the importance of self-gravity is fixed in any simulation of AD; it is not possible to carry out a simulation in which self-gravity and AD are varied independently unless the ionization is a free parameter. We show that our simulations apply to small regions in molecular clouds, generally with l{sub 0} {approx}< 0.4 pc and M {approx}< 25 M {sub sun}. A general discussion of the scaling relations for magnetized, isothermal, turbulent boxes, including self-gravitating systems, is given in the appendix.

McKee, Christopher F. [Physics Department and Astronomy Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Li, Pak Shing; Klein, Richard I., E-mail: cmckee@astro.berkeley.ed, E-mail: psli@astron.berkeley.ed, E-mail: klein@astron.berkeley.ed [Astronomy Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

2010-09-10

395

Sub-Alfvénic Non-ideal MHD Turbulence Simulations with Ambipolar Diffusion. II. Comparison with Observation, Clump Properties, and Scaling to Physical Units  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ambipolar diffusion (AD) is important in redistributing magnetic flux and in damping Alfvén waves in molecular clouds. The importance of AD on a length scale ell is governed by the AD Reynolds number, R AD = ell/ellAD, where ellAD is the characteristic length scale for AD. The logarithmic mean of the AD Reynolds number in a sample of 15 molecular clumps with measured magnetic fields is 17, comparable to the theoretically expected value. We identify several regimes of AD in a turbulent medium, depending on the ratio of the flow time to collision times between ions and neutrals; the clumps observed by Crutcher in 1999 are all in the standard regime of AD, in which the neutrals and ions are coupled over a flow time. We have carried out two-fluid simulations of AD in isothermal, turbulent boxes for a range of values of R AD. The mean Mach numbers were fixed at M=3 and M_A=0.67; self-gravity was not included. We study the properties of overdensities—i.e., clumps—in the simulation and show that the slope of the higher-mass portion of the clump mass spectrum increases as R AD decreases, which is qualitatively consistent with Padoan et al.'s finding that the mass spectrum in hydrodynamic turbulence is significantly steeper than in ideal MHD turbulence. For a value of R AD similar to the observed value, we find a slope that is consistent with that of the high-mass end of the initial mass function (IMF) for stars. However, the value we find for the spectral index in our ideal MHD simulation differs from theirs, presumably because our simulations have different initial conditions. This suggests that the mass spectrum of the clumps in the Padoan et al. turbulent fragmentation model for the IMF depends on the environment, which would conflict with evidence for a universal IMF. In addition, we give a general discussion of how the results of simulations of magnetized, turbulent, isothermal boxes can be scaled to physical systems. Each physical process that is introduced into the simulation, such as AD, introduces a dimensionless parameter, such as R AD, which must be fixed for the simulation, thereby reducing the number of scaling parameters by one. We show that the importance of self-gravity is fixed in any simulation of AD; it is not possible to carry out a simulation in which self-gravity and AD are varied independently unless the ionization is a free parameter. We show that our simulations apply to small regions in molecular clouds, generally with ell0 <~ 0.4 pc and M <~ 25 M sun. A general discussion of the scaling relations for magnetized, isothermal, turbulent boxes, including self-gravitating systems, is given in the appendix.

McKee, Christopher F.; Li, Pak Shing; Klein, Richard I.

2010-09-01

396

Searches for physics beyond the standard model in ttbar events  

SciTech Connect

The top quark is currently only observed at the Tevatron, where it is mainly produced in t{bar t} pairs. Due to the very high mass of the top quark compared to the other quarks and the gauge bosons, it is expected to play a special role in electroweak symmetry breaking. Therefore it might be especially sensitive to new physics. Measurements of various production and decay quantities of the top quark could lead to discoveries of physics beyond the standard model. Several such measurements were performed by the CDF collaboration during Run1 of the Tevatron. These measurements and first results from CDF in Run2 are presented.

P. Merkel

2004-02-24

397

Progress in the magnetic helicity studies in solar physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reviews the history of magnetic helicity studies and its concepts introduced into solar physics. With the physical discussions on a new measurable quantity (relative magnetic helicity), some problems in both theory and observations are pointed out. The balance of magnetic helicity attracts much attention during recent helicity research, which is discussed in detail. Both the relationship between magnetic and current helicity, and research progress in helicity's hemispheric chirality are briefly discussed. This paper summarizes the role of helicity in some solar activities, keeping an eye on the restrictive effect of helicity in solar explosive events. Some unresolved problems and highlights are also drawn.

Wang, Xiao-Fan; Zhang, Hong-Qi

2005-03-01

398

Monitoring quantity and characteristics of municipal solid waste in Dhaka City.  

PubMed

A reliable estimate of the quantity of solid waste generation in the city is very important for proper solid waste planning and management. However, reported estimates of solid waste generation vary widely and lead to questionability. The reported values have been derived on the assumption of demography, standard rate of waste generation by households, density values, number of trucks engaged for waste transportation and monitoring of truck movement at dump sites, etc. This diverse nature of the available data and the question of accuracy necessitate a rigorous study that has tried to document the waste quantity in the recently formulated master plan of Dhaka City. The socio-economic parameters, behavioral characteristics, generation sources, seasonality, and per capita growth rate are considered in estimating the waste quantity along with its future projections. The findings from the estimation of waste quantities state that seasonal differences in the municipal solid waste stream are not substantial. The most seasonably variable material in the municipal solid waste stream is food waste. Residential waste is relatively homogeneous. Although there are some differences in waste generation depending on demographic and other local factors, most households dispose of essentially similar types of wastes. Variation occurs in waste composition dependent upon income levels and category of sources. Variation also occurs based upon the extent of source reduction and recycling opportunities. As opportunities exist to recycle wastes, the recycling facilities might have to grow at a similar pace to the generation of waste. Physical and chemical characteristics of solid waste are important to implement the waste disposal and management plan for the selection of resource and energy recovery potentials. A number of studies have been conducted to determine the composition of wastes including moisture content and calorific value. The data show that the moisture content in city waste is significantly higher and the calorific value is much lower, which determines the viability of composting or anaerobic digestions rather than waste combustion. PMID:17503211

Yousuf, Tariq Bin; Rahman, Mostafizur

2007-05-15

399

Fluctuations in Total Quantities as a Probe of Complex Behaviour  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Very frequently in physics one studies a macroscopic variable which averages the effect of N microscopic degrees of freedom (dof). In equilibrium systems, where the dof are uncorrelated, the fluctuations are forced to a Gaussian form quite rapidly with increasing N by the central limit theorem. Increasingly, however, attention is focused on the non-Gaussian fluctuations seen in long-range correlated, critical systems. Recent progress was made by Bramwell et \\ al [Nature, 1998; PRL, 2000] who observed a particular non-Gaussian fluctuation probability density (pdf) in both confined laboratory turbulence and the XY model of critical phenomena, subsequently reporting it in many other critical models such as sandpiles. Chapman et al [2000] proposed that the similar functional form of this pdf to the Gumbel distribution of extreme statistics might be due to the fluctuations in patches of activity in a complex system being dominated by the largest event. This is counter-intuitive, because of the behaviour of the short-ranged distributions with which we are more familiar, but similar questions been the subject of recent interest in solid state physics [Romeo et al, Eur. Phys. J. B, 2003]. We here examine this idea using a lognormal random process, showing under which circumstances the sums and maxima are similarly distributed. We also examine the effect of breaking statistical independence by means of a Hurst exponent not equal to 0.5. We also discuss applications to burst pdfs of the type first calculated for the auroral indices by Takalo [1993] and Consolini [1997].

McRobie, F.; Watkins, N. W.; Chapman, S. C.; Rowlands, G.

2004-12-01

400

Quantum Physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Quantum Mechanics operators must be hermitian and, in a direct product space, symmetric. These properties are saved by Lie algebra operators but not by those of quantum algebras. A possible correspondence between observables and quantum algebra operators is suggested by extending the definition of matrix el- ements of a physical observable, including the eventual projection on the appro- priate

E. Celeghini; M. A. del Olmo

1969-01-01

401

48 CFR 52.247-8 - Estimated Weights or Quantities Not Guaranteed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Estimated Weights or Quantities Not Guaranteed. 52...and Clauses 52.247-8 Estimated Weights or Quantities Not Guaranteed. As...transportation-related services when weights or quantities are estimates:...

2012-10-01

402

77 FR 43077 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Economic Purchase Quantity-Supplies  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Regulation; Information Collection; Economic Purchase Quantity--Supplies AGENCIES...information collection requirement concerning Economic Purchase Quantity--Supplies. Public...Information Collection 9000- 0082, Economic Purchase Quantity--Supplies, by...

2012-07-23

403

78 FR 5448 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Economic Purchase Quantity-Supplies  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Economic Purchase Quantity--Supplies AGENCY...information collection requirement concerning Economic Purchase Quantity--Supplies. A notice...Information Collection 9000- 0082, Economic Purchase Quantity--Supplies, by...

2013-01-25

404

Inventory management - More than reorder points and quantities  

SciTech Connect

In today's competitive environment, many companies, including utilities, are looking for ways to keep costs down so as to maintain or improve their market position. One of the significant costs for a nuclear utility is its material and supplies inventory, which, for many, has continually escalated. Many of us recognize that one element of any good materials management system is the ability to calculate the reorder point (ROP) and reorder quantity (ROQ) for the material so as to establish proper inventory levels and quantities. Nevertheless, when beginning to consider the elements contained in these algorithms, it is obvious that many additional factors constitute good inventory management. This paper conveys some of the necessary elements of an effective inventory system and the actions which should be taken to effectuate such a system. Furthermore, the interrelationship of these elements are demonstrated by considering the key facets of a good materials system.

Bromenschenkel, K.E. (Tennessee Valley Authority, Chattanooga (United States)); Hicks, R.D. (Tennessee Valley Authority, Decatur, AL (United States)); Wheeler, L.J. (Tennessee Valley Authority, Soddy-Daisy (United States))

1992-01-01

405

Provider-client interactions and quantity of health care use.  

PubMed

This paper considers three types of provider-client interactions that influence quantity of health care use: rationing, effort, and persuasion. By rationing, we refer to a quantity limit set by a provider; effort, the productive inputs supplied by a provider to increase a client's demand; persuasion, the unproductive inputs used by a provider to induce a client's demand. We construct a theoretical model incorporating all three mechanisms as special cases. When the general model is specialized into one of three mechanisms, a set of empirical implications emerges. We test for the presence of each mechanism using data of patients receiving outpatient treatment for alcohol abuse in the Maine Addiction Treatment System. We find evidence for rationing and persuasion, but not effort. PMID:15556245

Lien, Hsien-Ming; Albert Ma, Ching-To; McGuire, Thomas G

2004-11-01

406

Does quantity generate quality? Testing the fundamental principle of brainstorming.  

PubMed

The purpose of this work is to test the chief principle of brainstorming, formulated as "quantity generates quality." The study is included within a broad program whose goal is to detect the strong and weak points of creative techniques. In a sample of 69 groups, containing between 3 and 8 members, the concurrence of two commonly accepted criteria was established as a quality rule: originality and utility or value. The results fully support the quantity-quality relation (r = .893): the more ideas produced to solve a problem, the better quality of the ideas. The importance of this finding, which supports Osborn's theory, is discussed, and the use of brainstorming is recommended to solve the many open problems faced by our society. PMID:16255388

Muñoz Adánez, Alfredo

2005-11-01

407

Device for correcting functional quantities in an internal combustion engine  

SciTech Connect

A device for correcting functional quantities of a controlled-ignition internal combustion engine is described comprising transducers for signals of prechosen engine parameters, at least one engine vibratory signal transducer for sensing detonation and band-pass filter means for filtering the vibratory signal. A microprocessor is provided with a processing stage for calculating the functional quantities produced as a function of the prechosen engine parameters, with a processing stage for withdrawing the vibratory signal within a predetermined angular range of each engine cycle and for calculating a reference signal constituted by the mean value of the amplitude of the vibratory signal for a predetermined number of engine cycles. There are memory locations containing predetermined detonation sensitivity factors produced as a function of one of the prechosen engine parameters, and a processing stage for comparing the reference signal with the amplitude of a pulse of the vibratory signal emitted within a cycle subsequent to those of predetermined number and for correcting the calculated functional quantities when the result of the comparison is greater than a prechosen sensitivity factor. Actuator means, operationally connected to the microprocessor, are for causing the variation in the functional quantities to take place in accordance with the calculated and corrected values. The device is being characterized in that the microprocessor also comprises further memory locations containing predetermined constants for correcting the sensitivity factors in accordance with the reference signal, and a processing stage for identifying the corresponding correcting constant in the further memory locations and for manipulating by means of the correcting constant the sensitivity factor used in the comparison.

Ciccarone, A.

1987-11-10

408

Winter wheat quantity or quality? Assessing food security in Uzbekistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Winter wheat is the most important cereal in Uzbekistan. Although the processing industry recognizes the low quality of local\\u000a wheat, the present land use policy prioritizes production quantity, and wheat of better quality is imported to improve local\\u000a flour. Yet, with increasing world market prices, Uzbekistan has to decide whether to continue allocating considerable resources\\u000a for imports or to start

Kirsten Maren Kienzler; Inna Rudenko; Jumanazar Ruzimov; Nazar Ibragimov; John P. A Lamers

2011-01-01

409

Protection of Groundwater Resources Quality and Quantity in Mining Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This contribution provides an overview of the temporary and constant impacts of underground coal-ining activity on the environment\\u000a with a special emphasis on groundwater quality and quantity protection in the Czech Republic. Recommendations are made for\\u000a the monitoring of mining influences on water resources in the Ostrava-Karviná coal-mning district.

A. Grmela; N. Rapantová

410

The Quantity Flexibility Contract and Supplier-Customer Incentives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consider a supply chain consisting of two independent agents, a supplier (e.g., a manufacturer) and its customer (e.g., a retailer), the latter in turn serving an uncertain market demand. To reconcile manufacturing\\/procurement time lags with a need for timely response to the market, such supply chains often must commit resources to production quantities based on forecasted rather than realized demand.

Andy A. Tsay

1999-01-01

411

Monitoring the eye lens: which dose quantity is adequate?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent epidemiological studies suggest a rather low dose threshold (below 0.5 Gy) for the induction of a cataract of the eye lens. Some other studies even assume that there is no threshold at all. Therefore, protection measures have to be optimized and current dose limits for the eye lens may be reduced in the future. The question of which personal dose equivalent quantity is appropriate for monitoring the dose to the eye lens arises from this situation. While in many countries dosemeters calibrated in terms of the dose equivalent quantity Hp(0.07) have been seen as being adequate for monitoring the dose to the eye lens, this might be questionable in the case of reduced dose limits and, thus, it may become necessary to use the dose equivalent quantity Hp(3) for this purpose. To discuss this question, the dose conversion coefficients for the equivalent dose of the eye lens (in the following eye lens dose) were determined for realistic photon and beta radiation fields and compared with the values of the corresponding conversion coefficients for the different operational quantities. The values obtained lead to the following conclusions: in radiation fields where most of the dose comes from photons, especially x-rays, it is appropriate to use dosemeters calibrated in terms of Hp(0.07) on a slab phantom, while in other radiation fields (dominated by beta radiation or unknown contributions of photon and beta radiation) dosemeters calibrated in terms of Hp(3) on a slab phantom should be used. As an alternative, dosemeters calibrated in terms of Hp(0.07) on a slab phantom could also be used; however, in radiation fields containing beta radiation with the end point energy near 1 MeV, an overestimation of the eye lens dose by up to a factor of 550 is possible.

Behrens, R.; Dietze, G.

2010-07-01

412

Basic Monte Carlo Methods for Estimating Posterior Quantities  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The fundamental goal of Bayesian computation is to compute posterior quantities of interest. When the posterior distribution\\u000a ?(¸|D) is high dimensional, one is typically driven to do multidimensional integration to evaluate marginal posterior summaries\\u000a of the parameters. When a Bayesian model is complicated, analytical or exact numerical evaluation may fail to solve this computational\\u000a problem. In this regard, the Monte

Ming-Hui Chen; Qi-Man Shao; Joseph G. Ibrahim

413

WQM: A New Integrated Water Quality Monitoring Package for Long-Term In-Situ Observation of Physical and Biogeochemical Parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a collaborative effort to develop and implement a new integrated water quality monitoring package that provides continuous and simultaneous multi-parameter physical and biogeochemical measurements, including: conductivity, temperature, pressure, dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll fluorescence, and turbidity. The \\

C. M. Orrico; C. Moore; D. Romanko; A. Derr; A. H. Barnard; C. Janzen; N. Larson; D. Murphy; R. Johnson; J. Bauman

2007-01-01

414

Prosimian Primates Show Ratio Dependence in Spontaneous Quantity Discriminations  

PubMed Central

We directly tested the predictions of the approximate number system (ANS) and the object file system in the spontaneous numerical judgments of prosimian primates. Prior work indicates that when human infants and a few species of non-human animals are given a single-trial choice between two sequentially baited buckets they choose the bucket with the greater amount of food but only when the quantities are small. This pattern of results has been interpreted as evidence that a limited capacity object file system is used to track small numbers of objects and that the ANS is not invoked under these circumstances. Here we tested prosimian primates in food choice comparisons that were chosen to contrast predictions of the ANS and object file systems. We found that prosimian primates consistently chose the larger of two sets when they differed by a 1:3 ratio regardless of whether both values were small (?3), both values were large (>3), or there was one small and one large value. Prosimians were not able to robustly discriminate quantities that differed by a 1:2 ratio for the same three conditions, nor did they show a preference for small quantities that differed by a 2:3 ratio. These results implicate the ANS in the spontaneous numerical discriminations of non-human primates.

Jones, Sarah M.; Brannon, Elizabeth M.

2012-01-01

415

Physics and Automobile Safety Belts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This collection of problems and experiments related to automobile safety belt usage is intended to serve as a supplement to a standard physics course. Its purpose is to convince the students that the use of safety belts to prevent injury or death is firmly supported by the considerations of physical quantities and laws which apply in a collision…

Kortman, Peter; Witt, C. Edwin

416

Note: A frequency modulated wireless interrogation system exploiting narrowband acoustic resonator for remote physical quantity measurement.  

PubMed

We demonstrate the wireless conversion of frequency modulation to amplitude modulation by radio frequency resonators as means of accurately determining the resonance frequency of passive acoustoelectronic sensors. The emitted frequency modulated radio frequency pulses are generated by a pulsed radar for probing a surface acoustic wave based sensor. The sharp sign transition of the amplitude modulated received signal provides a signal on which a feedback loop is locked to monitor the resonance signal. The strategy is demonstrated using a full software implementation on a generic hardware, resulting in 2 Hz resolution at 1 s integration time limited by the proportional feedback loop. PMID:20515180

Droit, C; Martin, G; Ballandras, S; Friedt, J-M

2010-05-01

417

How to model connection wires in a circuit: From physical vector fields to circuit scalar quantities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Starting from the basic equations of electromagnetism, Maxwell's equations, the concepts of inductive coupling in a loop and capacitive coupling between two pieces of wire are formally explained. Inductive coupling is linked to Faraday's law and capacitive coupling to the Ampere-Maxwell law. Capacitive coupling is also inherently linked to the phenomenon of surface charges, which has been recently studied thoroughly in the literature, especially in static situations. It is shown that, when applied to the connecting wires in a circuit at higher frequencies, simple circuit theory must be significantly modified in order to take into account the effects of the two types of coupling between the wires.

Vandenbosch, Guy A. E.

2013-09-01

418

Quality and quantity of leachate in aerobic pilot-scale landfills.  

PubMed

In this study, two pilot-scale aerobic landfill reactors with (A1) and without (A2) leachate recirculation are used to obtain detailed information on the quantity and quality of leachate in aerobic landfills. The observed parameters of leachate quality are pH, chloride (Cl-), chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N), and nitrate (NO3(-)-N). pH values of the leachate increased to 7 after 50 days in reactor A1 and after 70 days in reactor A2. Cl- concentrations increased rapidly to 6100 (A1) and 6900 (A2) mg/L after 80 days, from initial values of 3000 and 2800 mg/L, respectively. COD and BOD values decreased rapidly in the A1 landfill reactor, indicating the rapid oxidation of organic matter. The BOD/COD ratio indicates that leachate recirculation slightly increases the degradation of solid waste in aerobic landfills. NH3-N concentrations decreased as a result of the nitrification process. Denitrification occurred in parts of the reactors as a result of intermittent aeration; this process causes a decrease in NO3(-) concentrations. There is a marked difference between the A1 and A2 reactors in terms of leachate quantity. Recirculated leachate made up 53.3% of the leachate generated from the A1 reactor during the experiment, while leachate quantity decreased by 47.3% with recirculation when compared with the aerobic dry landfill reactor. PMID:16788857

Bilgili, Memmet Sinan; Demir, Ahmet; Ozkaya, Bestamin

2006-08-01

419

Documentation and analysis for packaging limited quantity ice chests  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this Documentation and Analysis for Packaging (DAP) is to document that ice chests meet the intent of the International Air Transport Association (IATA) and the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) Code of Federal Regulations as strong, tight containers for the packaging of limited quantities for transport. This DAP also outlines the packaging method used to protect the sample bottles from breakage. Because the ice chests meet the DOT requirements, they can be used to ship LTD QTY on the Hanford Site.

Nguyen, P.M.

1995-01-31

420

Conserved quantities in non-Abelian monopole fields  

SciTech Connect

Van Holten's covariant Hamiltonian framework is used to find conserved quantities for an isospin-carrying particle in a non-Abelian monopolelike field. For a Wu-Yang monopole we find the most general scalar potential such that the combined system admits a conserved Runge-Lenz vector. In the effective non-Abelian field for nuclear motion in a diatomic molecule due to Moody, Shapere, and Wilczek, a conserved angular momentum is constructed, despite the nonconservation of the electric charge. No Runge-Lenz vector has been found.

Horvathy, P. A.; Ngome, J.-P. [Laboratoire de Mathematiques et de Physique Theorique, Universite de Tours, Parc de Grandmont, F-37200 Tours (France)

2009-06-15

421

Measurement of Quantity of Heat in Friction Welding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to measure the heat input (quantity of heat) generated during friction welding, a new type calorimeter of acryl resin was developed, and applied to friction welding of a stainless steel. The heat input measured during friction welding was in good agreement with the values calculated from the measured values of friction torque, burn-off length, rotation speed and pressure. Being classified into friction and deformation heat inputs, the friction heat input was much greater than the deformation heat input through the friction and upset stages.

Isshiki, Yoshihiro; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Kawai, Gosaku; Sawai, Takeshi; Ogawa, Koichi

422

Asymptotically Anti-de Sitter Space-times: Conserved Quantities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Asymptotically anti-de Sitter space-times are considered in a general\\u000adimension $d\\\\ge 4$. As one might expect, the boundary conditions at infinity\\u000aensure that the asymptotic symmetry group is the anti-de Sitter group (although\\u000athere is an interesting subtlety if d=4). Asymptotic field equations imply\\u000athat, associated with each generator $\\\\xi$ of this group, there is a quantity\\u000a$Q_\\\\xi$ which satisfies

Abhay Ashtekar; Saurya Das

1999-01-01

423

Drinking frequency and quantity and risk of suicide among men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Individuals who die from suicide commonly have consumed alcohol immediately beforehand, often in large quantities. However,\\u000a prospective cohort data on regular alcohol use as a risk factor for suicide are lacking.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method  As part of the Health Professionals Follow-up Study, 47,654 men free of cancer prospectively reported their drinking habits,\\u000a including average use, drinking frequency, and typical maximal use on repeated

Kenneth J. Mukamal; Ichiro Kawachi; Matthew Miller; Eric B. Rimm

2007-01-01

424

CROSS-DISCIPLINARY PHYSICS AND RELATED AREAS OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Observation of Hydration—Drying Effect on Clotrimazole—Carbopol System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The possibility to use the polyacrylic acid (carbopol) as polymeric matrix for the clotrimazole is analysed. The hydration—drying effect on the polymeric matrix is observed by Raman spectroscopy. Similar observations are obtained on the clotrimazole included in the polymeric matrix. No modifications of the properties of the clotrimazole and of the polymeric matrix are observed under the repeated action of water.

Todica, M.

2008-07-01

425

Irregular absorption profiles observed from diclofenac extended release tablets can be predicted using a dissolution test apparatus that mimics in vivo physical stresses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prediction of the in vivo drug release characteristics of modified release oral dosage forms by in vitro dissolution tests is a prerequisite for successful product development. A novel dissolution test apparatus that mimics the physical conditions experienced by an oral formulation during gastrointestinal transit was developed. This included the simulation of pressure forces exerted by gut wall motility, shear

Grzegorz Garbacz; Ralph-Steven Wedemeyer; Stefan Nagel; Thomas Giessmann; Hubert Mönnikes; Clive G. Wilson; Werner Siegmund; Werner Weitschies

2008-01-01

426

The effects of single-session music therapy interventions on the observed and self-reported levels of pain control, physical comfort, and relaxation of hospice patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the process and results of a three-month music therapy clinical effectiveness study conducted with terminally ill patients. The purpose of this study was to quantify and evaluate the effectiveness of single-session music therapy interventions with hospice patients in three patient problem areas: pain control; physical comfort; and relaxation. Data from a total of 90 sessions conducted with

Robert E. Krout

2001-01-01

427

Experimental observation of tool wear, cutting forces and chip morphology in face milling of cobalt based super-alloy with physical vapour deposition coated and uncoated tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cobalt base superalloys are used extensively in applications requiring good wear, corrosion and heat resistance. The main goal of this study is to examine the effect of machining conditions (cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut) on tool wear, chip morphology and cutting forces in symmetric face milling of cobalt base superalloy with physical vapour deposition coated and uncoated

?eref Aykut; Eyup Bagci; Aykut Kentli; Osman Yaz?c?o?lu

2007-01-01

428

ISBNPA 2007: Marketing, serious games and nanny states. Observations from the sixth annual meeting of the International Society of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, Oslo 2007  

PubMed Central

This commentary paper provides a selective overview of topics addressed at the sixth annual meeting of the International Society of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity (ISBNPA). With 31 symposiums, 42 free paper sessions and 236 poster presentations ISBNPA 2007 provided a comprehensive overview of the state of the art and of new avenues for behavioral nutrition and physical activity research. Research presented at the conference helps to identify and specify important nutrition and physical activity behaviors for health promotion, as well as the correlates, predictors and determinants of these behaviors, and to build and test intervention strategies that go beyond traditional health education. ISBNPA 2007 also indicates that ISBNPA should strive to become more international by inclusion of more scientists from countries outside North America, Western Europe and Australia. ISBNPA should maintain its encouragement of research that is firmly rooted in behavioral theory and research that goes beyond applying cross-sectional research designs, and that addresses the most important public health issues associated with behavioral nutrition and physical activity.

Brug, Johannes

2007-01-01

429

Cognition versus Constitution of Objects: From Kant to Modern Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Classical mechanics in phase space as well as quantum mechanics in Hilbert space lead to states and observables but not to objects that may be considered as carriers of observable quantities. However, in both cases objects can be constituted as new entities by means of invariance properties of the theories in question. We show, that this way of reasoning has a long history in physics and philosophy and that it can be traced back to the transcendental arguments in Kant’s critique of pure reason.

Mittelstaedt, Peter

2009-07-01

430

Bulky waste quantities and treatment methods in Denmark.  

PubMed

Bulky waste is a significant and increasing waste stream in Denmark. However, only little research has been done on its composition and treatment. In the present study, data about collection methods, waste quantities and treatment methods for bulky waste were obtained from two municipalities. In addition a sorting analysis was conducted on combustible waste, which is a major fraction of bulky waste in Denmark. The generation of bulky waste was found to be 150-250 kg capita(-1) year(-1), and 90% of the waste was collected at recycling centres; the rest through kerbside collection. Twelve main fractions were identified of which ten were recyclable and constituted 50-60% of the total quantity. The others were combustible waste for incineration (30-40%) and non-combustible waste for landfilling (10%). The largest fractions by mass were combustible waste, bricks and tile, concrete, non-combustible waste, wood, and metal scrap, which together made up more than 90% of the total waste amounts. The amount of combustible waste could be significantly reduced through better sorting. Many of the waste fractions consisted of composite products that underwent thorough separation before being recycled. The recyclable materials were in many cases exported to other countries which made it difficult to track their destination and further treatment. PMID:21890876

Larsen, Anna W; Petersen, Claus; Christensen, Thomas H

2011-09-02

431

Trabecular bone response to mechanical loading in ovariectomized Sprague-Dawley rats depends on baseline bone quantity.  

PubMed

Mechanical loading is one of the determining factors for bone modulation, and is therefore frequently used to treat or prevent bone loss; however, there appears to be no data on the effects of baseline bone quantity on this response. This study aimed to verify whether baseline bone quantity affects osteoporotic trabecular bone adaptive response to mechanical stimulation. Twenty-four female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were ovariectomized (OVX). After 3 weeks of OVX, rats were divided into a high bone quantity and a low bone quantity group, and rats in each group were then subdivided into 4 groups that were exposed to different loading strategies. In the loading groups, tibiae were stimulated through axial loading at 2000?? of strain, for 1500 cycles each of 75s, 150s, or 250s. The sham treatment groups received no loading. Changes in BV/TV for trabecular bone in the tibia were measured at the baseline (before loading), and at 3 weeks and 6 weeks after loading. BV/TVs in loading groups of the low baseline bone quantity group were significantly increased at 6 weeks, compared with those in the no-loading groups (p<0.05), while those in the high quantity groups were not increased (p>0.05). A significant negative correlation was observed between baseline BV/TV and its relative variations at 3 weeks or 6 weeks (p<0.05). These results indicate that adaptive responses of osteoporotic trabecular bone to mechanical loading depend on baseline bone quantity. PMID:22663762

Ko, Chang-Yong; Jung, Young Jin; Park, Ji Hyung; Seo, Donghyun; Han, Paul; Bae, Kiho; Schreiber, Jürgen; Kim, Han Sung

2012-06-02

432

Physical Activity Levels during Adventure-Physical Education Lessons  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Adventure-physical education has been proposed to promote adolescents' physical development, but little is known about physical activity levels during such lessons. Using the System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time, we observed students' (ages 11-14 years) physical activity levels in co-educational classes during 43 adventure-physical

Gehris, Jeffrey; Myers, Elizabeth; Whitaker, Robert

2012-01-01

433

LETTER TO THE EDITOR: Asymptotically anti-de Sitter spacetimes: conserved quantities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Asymptotically anti-de Sitter spacetimes are considered in a general dimension dicons/Journals/Common/ge" ALT="ge" ALIGN="TOP"/> 4. As one might expect, the boundary conditions at infinity ensure that the asymptotic symmetry group is the anti-de Sitter group (although there is an interesting subtlety if d = 4). Asymptotic field equations imply that, associated with each generator icons/Journals/Common/xi" ALT="xi" ALIGN="TOP"/> of this group, there is a quantity Qicons/Journals/Common/xi" ALT="xi" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> which satisfies the expected `balance equation' if there is a flux of physical matter fields across the boundary icons/Journals/Common/calI" ALT="calI" ALIGN="TOP"/> at infinity and is absolutely conserved in the absence of this flux. Irrespective of the dimension d , all of these quantities vanish if the spacetime under considerations is (globally) anti-de Sitter. Furthermore, this result is required by a general covariance argument. However, it contradicts some of the recent findings based on the conjectured ADS/CFT duality. This and other features of our analysis suggest that, if a consistent dictionary between gravity and conformal field theories does exist in fully non-perturbative regimes, it would have to be more subtle than the one used currently.

Ashtekar, Abhay; Das, Saurya

2000-01-01

434

Associations of health, physical activity and weight status with motorised travel and transport carbon dioxide emissions: a cross-sectional, observational study  

PubMed Central

Background Motorised travel and associated carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions generate substantial health costs; in the case of motorised travel, this may include contributing to rising obesity levels. Obesity has in turn been hypothesised to increase motorised travel and/or CO2 emissions, both because heavier people may use motorised travel more and because heavier people may choose larger and less fuel-efficient cars. These hypothesised associations have not been examined empirically, however, nor has previous research examined associations with other health characteristics. Our aim was therefore to examine how and why weight status, health, and physical activity are associated with transport CO2 emissions. Methods 3463 adults completed questionnaires in the baseline iConnect survey at three study sites in the UK, reporting their health, weight, height and past-week physical activity. Seven-day recall instruments were used to assess travel behaviour and, together with data on car characteristics, were used to estimate CO2 emissions. We used path analysis to examine the extent to which active travel, motorised travel and car engine size explained associations between health characteristics and CO2 emissions. Results CO2 emissions were higher in overweight or obese participants (multivariable standardized probit coefficients 0.16, 95% CI 0.08 to 0.25 for overweight vs. normal weight; 0.16, 95% CI 0.04 to 0.28 for obese vs. normal weight). Lower active travel and, particularly for obesity, larger car engine size explained 19-31% of this effect, but most of the effect was directly explained by greater distance travelled by motor vehicles. Walking for recreation and leisure-time physical activity were associated with higher motorised travel distance and therefore higher CO2 emissions, while active travel was associated with lower CO2 emissions. Poor health and illness were not independently associated with CO2 emissions. Conclusions Establishing the direction of causality between weight status and travel behaviour requires longitudinal data, but the association with engine size suggests that there may be at least some causal effect of obesity on CO2 emissions. More generally, transport CO2 emissions are associated in different ways with different health-related characteristics. These include associations between health goods and environmental harms (recreational physical activity and high emissions), indicating that environment-health ‘co-benefits’ cannot be assumed. Instead, attention should also be paid to identifying and mitigating potential areas of tension, for example by promoting low-carbon recreational physical activity.

2012-01-01

435

A moderated mediation of motivation on physical activity in the context of the Physical Activity Counseling randomized control trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesThe Physical Activity Counseling (PAC) randomized control trial examined the effects of a physical activity counseling intervention on physical activity motivation and on physical activity behavior. Results have shown that both quantity and quality motivation influenced physical activity levels at the end of the PAC intervention, however their combined influence has not been investigated and theory and past research point to

Michelle S. Fortier; Elizabeth Wiseman; Shane N. Sweet; Tracey L. O’Sullivan; Chris M. Blanchard; Ronald J. Sigal; William Hogg

2011-01-01

436

It's all in your head: the role of quantity estimation in sperm competition  

PubMed Central

The study of animal cognition has provided valuable data throughout the years, yet its reliance on laboratory work leaves some open questions. The main question is whether animals employ cognition in daily decision-making. The following discussion uses sperm competition (SC) as a test case for demonstrating the effect of cognition on routine choices, in this case, sexual selection. Cognition is manifested here by males' ability to represent the number of rivals competing with them. I claim that response to SC is driven by quantity estimation and the ability to assess competition magnitude cognitively. Hence, cognition can determine males' response to SC, and consequentially it can be selected within this context. This supports the argument that cognition constitutes an integral part of an individual's toolbox in solving real-life problems, and shows that physical and behavioural phenomena can expose cognition to selection and facilitate its evolution.

Shifferman, Eran M.

2012-01-01

437

Meeting Physical Activity Guidelines and Musculoskeletal Injury: The WIN Study  

PubMed Central

Introduction The United States Department of Health and Human Services disseminated physical activity guidelines for Americans in 2008. The guidelines are based on appropriate quantities of moderate-to-vigorous aerobic physical activity and resistance exercise associated with decreased morbidity and mortality risk and increased health benefits. However, increases in physical activity levels are associated with increased risk of musculoskeletal injuries. We related the amount and type of physical activity conducted on a weekly basis with the risk of musculoskeletal injury. Methods Prospective, observational study using weekly Internet tracking of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and resistance exercise behaviors and musculoskeletal injuries in 909 community-dwelling women for up to 3 years. Primary outcome was self-reported musculoskeletal injuries (total, physical activity-related, and non physical activity-related) interrupting typical daily work and/or exercise behaviors for ?2 days or necessitating health care provider visit. Results Meeting versus not meeting physical activity guidelines was associated with more musculoskeletal injuries during physical activity (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.39, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.05 – 1.85, P = 0.02), but was not associated with musculoskeletal injuries unrelated to physical activity (HR = 0.99, 95% CI = 0.75 – 1.29, P = 0.92), or with musculoskeletal injuries overall (HR = 1.15, 95% CI = 0.95 – 1.39, P = 0.14). Conclusions Results illustrate the risk of musculoskeletal injury with physical activity. Musculoskeletal injury risk rises with increasing physical activity. Despite this modest increase in musculoskeletal injuries, the known benefits of aerobic and resistance physical activities should not hinder physicians from encouraging patients to meet current physical activity guidelines for both moderate-to-vigorous exercise and resistance exercise behaviors with the intent of achieving health benefits.

Morrow, James R.; DeFina, Laura F.; Leonard, David; Trudelle-Jackson, Elaine; Custodio, Michelle A.

2012-01-01