Science.gov

Sample records for observable physical quantities

  1. Measurements, Physical Quantities, and Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Laurence E.

    1988-01-01

    Explains the significance of the mole as a unit of measure by showing the relationship between physical quantities and their mathematical representations. Offers a summary of the principles of metrology that make creation of physical quantities and units seem reasonable. A table of base physical quantities and units is included. (RT)

  2. Observable quantities for electrodiffusion processes in membranes.

    PubMed

    Garrido, Javier

    2008-03-13

    Electrically driven ion transport processes in a membrane system are analyzed in terms of observable quantities, such as the apparent volume flow, the time dependence of the electrolyte concentration in one cell compartment, and the electrical potential difference between the electrodes. The relations between the fluxes and these observable quantities are rigorously deduced from balances for constituent mass and solution volume. These relations improve the results for the transport coefficients up to 25% with respect to those obtained using simplified expressions common in the literature. Given the practical importance of ionic transport numbers and the solvent transference number in the phenomenological description of electrically driven processes, the transport equations are presented using the electrolyte concentration difference and the electric current as the drivers of the different constituents. Because various electric potential differences can be used in this traditional irreversible thermodynamics approach, the advantages of the formulation of the transport equations in terms of concentration difference and electric current are emphasized. PMID:18284224

  3. Average observational quantities in the timescape cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Wiltshire, David L.

    2009-12-15

    We examine the properties of a recently proposed observationally viable alternative to homogeneous cosmology with smooth dark energy, the timescape cosmology. In the timescape model cosmic acceleration is realized as an apparent effect related to the calibration of clocks and rods of observers in bound systems relative to volume-average observers in an inhomogeneous geometry in ordinary general relativity. The model is based on an exact solution to a Buchert average of the Einstein equations with backreaction. The present paper examines a number of observational tests which will enable the timescape model to be distinguished from homogeneous cosmologies with a cosmological constant or other smooth dark energy, in current and future generations of dark energy experiments. Predictions are presented for comoving distance measures; H(z); the equivalent of the dark energy equation of state, w(z); the Om(z) measure of Sahni, Shafieloo, and Starobinsky; the Alcock-Paczynski test; the baryon acoustic oscillation measure, D{sub V}; the inhomogeneity test of Clarkson, Bassett, and Lu; and the time drift of cosmological redshifts. Where possible, the predictions are compared to recent independent studies of similar measures in homogeneous cosmologies with dark energy. Three separate tests with indications of results in possible tension with the {lambda}CDM model are found to be consistent with the expectations of the timescape cosmology.

  4. Extracting physical quantities from BES data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, Michael; Field, Anthony; Schekochihin, Alexander; van Wyk, Ferdinand; MAST Team

    2015-11-01

    We propose a method to extract the underlying physical properties of turbulence from measurements, thereby facilitating quantitative comparisons between theory and experiment. Beam Emission Spectroscopy (BES) diagnostics record fluctuating intensity time series, which are related to the density field in the plasma through Point-Spread Functions (PSFs). Assuming a suitable form for the correlation function of the underlying turbulence, analytical expressions are derived that relate the correlation parameters of the intensity field: the radial and poloidal correlation lengths and wavenumbers, the correlation time and the fluctuation amplitude, to the equivalent correlation properties of the density field. In many cases, the modification caused by the PSFs is substantial enough to change conclusions about physics. Our method is tested by applying PSFs to the ``real'' density field, generated by non-linear gyrokinetic simulations of MAST, to create synthetic turbulence data, from which the method successfully recovers the correlation function of the ``real'' density field. This method is applied to BES data from MAST to determine the scaling of the 2D structure of the ion-scale turbulence with equilibrium parameters, including the ExB flow shear. Work funded by the Euratom research and training programme 2014-2018 under grant agreement No 633053 and from the RCUK Energy Programme [grant number EP/I501045].

  5. From measurements to inferences of physical quantities in numerical simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Tota

    2016-01-01

    We propose a change of style for numerical estimations of physical quantities from measurements to inferences. We estimate the most probable quantities for all the parameter region simultaneously by using the raw data cooperatively. Estimations with higher precisions are made possible. We can obtain a physical quantity as a continuous function, which is processed to obtain another quantity. We applied the method to the Heisenberg spin-glass model in three dimensions. A dynamic correlation-length scaling analysis suggests that the spin-glass and the chiral-glass transitions occur at the same temperature with a common exponent ν . The value is consistent with the experimental results. We explained a spin-chirality separation problem by a size-crossover effect.

  6. Can the Lorenz-Gauge Potentials Be Considered Physical Quantities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heras, Jose A.; Fernandez-Anaya, Guillermo

    2010-01-01

    Two results support the idea that the scalar and vector potentials in the Lorenz gauge can be considered to be physical quantities: (i) they separately satisfy the properties of causality and propagation at the speed of light and do not imply spurious terms and (ii) they can naturally be written in a manifestly covariant form. In this paper we…

  7. Approximating relational observables by absolute quantities: a quantum accuracy-size trade-off

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyadera, Takayuki; Loveridge, Leon; Busch, Paul

    2016-05-01

    The notion that any physical quantity is defined and measured relative to a reference frame is traditionally not explicitly reflected in the theoretical description of physical experiments where, instead, the relevant observables are typically represented as ‘absolute’ quantities. However, the emergence of the resource theory of quantum reference frames as a new branch of quantum information science in recent years has highlighted the need to identify the physical conditions under which a quantum system can serve as a good reference. Here we investigate the conditions under which, in quantum theory, an account in terms of absolute quantities can provide a good approximation of relative quantities. We find that this requires the reference system to be large in a suitable sense.

  8. Calculation of ex-core physical quantities using the 3D importance functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trakas, Christos; De Laubiere, Xavier

    2014-06-01

    Diverse physical quantities are calculated in engineering studies with penalizing hypotheses to assure the required operation margins for each reactor. Today, these physical quantities are obtained by direct calculations from deterministic or Monte Carlo codes. The related states are critical or sub-critical. The current physical quantities are for example: the SRD counting rates (source range detector) in the sub-critical state, the IRD (intermediary range detector) and PRD (power range detector) counting rates (neutron particles only), the deposited energy in the reflector (neutron + photon particles), the fluence or the DPA (displacement per atom) in the reactor vessel (neutron particles only). The reliability of the proposed methodology is tested in the EPR reactor. The main advantage of the new methodology is the simplicity to obtain the physical quantities by an easy matrix calculation importance linked to nuclear power sources for all the cycles of the reactor. This method also allows to by-pass the direct calculations of the physical quantity of irradiated cores by Monte Carlo Codes, these calculations being impossible today (too many isotopic concentrations / MCNP5 limit). This paper presents the first feasibility study for the physical quantities calculation outside of the core by the importance method instead of the direct calculations used currently by AREVA.

  9. A statistical law in the perception of risks and physical quantities in traffic.

    PubMed

    Elvik, Rune

    2015-09-01

    This paper suggests that a universal psychophysical law influences the perception of risks and physical quantities in traffic. This law states that there will be a tendency to overestimate low probabilities or small quantities, while high probabilities or large quantities may be underestimated. Studies of the perception of risk and physical quantities in traffic have found a highly consistent pattern, which shows that: 1. Pedestrians intending to cross the road overestimate the stopping distance of cars travelling at low speed and underestimate the stopping distance of cars travelling at high speed. 2. Car drivers intending to overtake overestimate the distance needed at low speed, but underestimate it at high speed. 3. Car drivers asked to accelerate from standstill to a given speed overshoot the target speed; when asked to slow down to a stated speed, drivers also overshoot the target speed. 4. When asked what speed to choose to save a given amount of time on a trip of given length, drivers overestimate target speed when initial speed is low and underestimate it when initial speed is high. 5. Drivers overestimate the increase in risk associated with a small increase in speed and underestimate the increase in risk associated with a larger increase in speed. 6. Drivers overestimate the risk of apprehension for traffic offences when it is low and underestimate it when it is high. 7. Road users overestimate the risk associated with comparatively safe modes of tr The paper gives examples of all these misperceptions of physical quantities and risk. PMID:26026971

  10. Physical quantities in the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formalisms for systems with constraints

    SciTech Connect

    Chaichian, M. Centre de Physique Theorique, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Luminy, Case 907, 13288 Marseille ); Martinez, D.L. Grupo de Fisica Teorica, Instituto de Cibernetica, Matematica y Fisica, Academia de Ciencias de Cuba, Calle E, No. 309, Vedado, Habana 4 )

    1992-08-15

    The conditions a function must obey to be considered as a physical quantity are studied in the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formalisms. A proof of the equivalence of these conditions is given for the systems having primary and secondary first-class Hamiltonian constraints.

  11. Quantity and Quality of Practice: Interrelationships between Task Organization and Student Skill Level in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastie, Peter A.; Calderon, Antonio; Palao, Jose; Ortega, Enrique

    2011-01-01

    In terms of planning and achieving student learning in physical education, important variables that influence this goal include task organization, quantity and quality of practice, task structure, communication with students or feedback, appropriateness of the skills, and motivational climate. With respect to the construct of quality practice…

  12. Quantity and Quality of Practice: Interrelationships between Task Organization and Student Skill Level in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastie, Peter A.; Calderon, Antonio; Palao, Jose; Ortega, Enrique

    2011-01-01

    In terms of planning and achieving student learning in physical education, important variables that influence this goal include task organization, quantity and quality of practice, task structure, communication with students or feedback, appropriateness of the skills, and motivational climate. With respect to the construct of quality practice

  13. 10 CFR 37.79 - Requirements for physical protection of category 1 and category 2 quantities of radioactive...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Requirements for physical protection of category 1 and category 2 quantities of radioactive material during shipment. 37.79 Section 37.79 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF CATEGORY 1 AND CATEGORY 2 QUANTITIES OF RADIOACTIVE...

  14. 10 CFR 37.73 - Applicability of physical protection of category 1 and category 2 quantities of radioactive...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Applicability of physical protection of category 1 and category 2 quantities of radioactive material during transit. 37.73 Section 37.73 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF CATEGORY 1 AND CATEGORY 2 QUANTITIES OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL...

  15. Solar Physics with Radio Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastian, T. S.; Gopalswamy, N.; Shibasaki, K.

    1999-12-01

    Radio observations contribute a unique perspective on the many physical phenomena, which occur on the Sun. From thermal bremsstrahlung emission in the quiet solar atmosphere and filaments, to thermal gyroresonance emission in strongly magnetized solar active regions, to the nonthermal emission from MeV electrons accelerated in flares, observations of radio emission provide a powerful probe of physical conditions on the Sun and provide an additional means of understanding the myriad phenomena which occur there. Moreover, radio observing techniques have led the way in developing and exploiting Fourier synthesis imaging techniques. The Nobeyama Radioheliograph, commissioned in June, 1992, soon after the launch of Yohkoh satellite in August, 1991, is the most powerful, solar-dedicated Fourier synthesis in the world, now capable of imaging the full disk of the Sun simultaneously at frequencies of 17 and 34 GHz, with an angular resolution as much as 10" and 5", respectively, and with a time resolution as fine as 100 msec. Between 27-30 October, 1998, the Nobeyama Radio Observatory and the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan hosted the Nobeyama Symposium on Solar Physics with Radio Observations, an international meeting bringing more than sixty participants together at the Seisenryo Hotel in Kiyosato, for a meeting devoted to reviewing recent progress in outstanding problems in solar physics. Emphasis was placed on radio observations and, in particular, radio observations from the very successful Nobeyama Radioheliograph. These results were compared and contrasted with those that have emerged from the Yohkoh mission. In addition, looking forward to the next solar maximum, new instruments, upgrades, and collaborative efforts were discussed. The result is the more than seventy invited and contributed papers that appear in this volume.

  16. The pλn fractal decomposition: Nontrivial partitions of conserved physical quantities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Morales, Vladimir

    2016-02-01

    A mathematical method for constructing fractal curves and surfaces, termed the $p\\lambda n$ fractal decomposition, is presented. It allows any function to be split into a finite set of fractal discontinuous functions whose sum is equal everywhere to the original function. Thus, the method is specially suited for constructing families of fractal objects arising from a conserved physical quantity, the decomposition yielding an exact partition of the quantity in question. Most prominent classes of examples are provided by Hamiltonians and partition functions of statistical ensembles: By using this method, any such function can be decomposed in the ordinary sum of a specified number of terms (generally fractal functions), the decomposition being both exact and valid everywhere on the domain of the function.

  17. Pyruvate dehydrogenase activity and quantity decreases after coronary artery bypass grafting: a prospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Lars W.; Liu, Xiaowen; Peng, Teng J.; Giberson, Tyler A.; Khabbaz, Kamal R.; Donnino, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) is a key gatekeeper enzyme in aerobic metabolism. The main purpose of this study was to determine if PDH activity is affected by major stress in the form of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) which has previously been used as a model of critical illness. Methods We conducted a prospective, observational study of patients undergoing CABG at an urban, tertiary care hospital. We included adult patients undergoing CABG with or without concomitant valve surgery. Measurements of PDH activity and quantity and thiamine were obtained prior to surgery, at the completion of surgery, and 6 hours post-surgery. Results Fourteen patients were enrolled (age: 67 ± 10 years, 21 % female). Study subjects had a mean 41.7 % (SD: 27.7) reduction in PDH activity after surgery and a mean 32.0% (SD: 31.4) reduction 6 hours after surgery (p < 0.001). Eight patients were thiamine deficient (≤ 7 nmol/L) after surgery compared to none prior to surgery (p = 0.002). Thiamine level was a significantly associated with PDH quantity at all time points (p = 0.01). Post-surgery lactate levels were inversely correlated with post-surgery thiamine levels (r = −0.58 and p = 0.04). Conclusion The stress of major surgery causes decreased PDH activity and quantity, and depletion of thiamine levels. PMID:25526377

  18. Theoretical and observational planetary physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldwell, J.

    1986-01-01

    This program supports NASA's deep space exploration missions, particularly those to the outer Solar System, and also NASA's Earth-orbital astronomy missions, using ground-based observations, primarily with the NASA IRTF at Mauna Kea, Hawaii, and also with such instruments as the Kitt Peak 4 meter Mayall telescope and the NRAO VLA facility in Socorro, New Mexico. An important component of the program is the physical interpretation of the observations. There were two major scientific discoveries resulting from 8 micrometer observations of Jupiter. The first is that at that wavelength there are two spots, one near each magnetic pole, which are typically the brightest and therefore warmest places on the planet. The effect is clearly due to precipitating high energy magnetospheric particles. A second ground-based discovery is that in 1985, Jupiter exhibited low latitude (+ or - 18 deg.) stratospheric wave structure.

  19. Nature of the Physical Observer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osoroma, Drahcir S.

    2010-12-01

    The nature of the observer has long plagued physical science. Here we review the current status of cognitive science in the context of a cosmology of mind in an Anthropic Multiverse. The concept of an élan vital or life force has long been considered the elementary action principle driving the evolution of living-systems by theologically minded scientists and individuals. Sufficiently extending Einstein's original model of a Static Universe, to a Holographic Anthropic Multiverse (HAM), provides a context for solving this centuries old problem for introducing this type of teleological principle into Physics, Biology, Medicine and Psychology. This means the contemporary framework of biological mechanism should no longer be considered the formal philosophical basis for describing living systems and contemporary allopathic (scientific) medicine. The new noetic action principle has far reaching implications for medicine and transpersonal psychology.

  20. A systematic review of mapping strategies for the sonification of physical quantities.

    PubMed

    Dubus, Gaël; Bresin, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    The field of sonification has progressed greatly over the past twenty years and currently constitutes an established area of research. This article aims at exploiting and organizing the knowledge accumulated in previous experimental studies to build a foundation for future sonification works. A systematic review of these studies may reveal trends in sonification design, and therefore support the development of design guidelines. To this end, we have reviewed and analyzed 179 scientific publications related to sonification of physical quantities. Using a bottom-up approach, we set up a list of conceptual dimensions belonging to both physical and auditory domains. Mappings used in the reviewed works were identified, forming a database of 495 entries. Frequency of use was analyzed among these conceptual dimensions as well as higher-level categories. Results confirm two hypotheses formulated in a preliminary study: pitch is by far the most used auditory dimension in sonification applications, and spatial auditory dimensions are almost exclusively used to sonify kinematic quantities. To detect successful as well as unsuccessful sonification strategies, assessment of mapping efficiency conducted in the reviewed works was considered. Results show that a proper evaluation of sonification mappings is performed only in a marginal proportion of publications. Additional aspects of the publication database were investigated: historical distribution of sonification works is presented, projects are classified according to their primary function, and the sonic material used in the auditory display is discussed. Finally, a mapping-based approach for characterizing sonification is proposed. PMID:24358192

  1. A Systematic Review of Mapping Strategies for the Sonification of Physical Quantities

    PubMed Central

    Dubus, Gaël; Bresin, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    The field of sonification has progressed greatly over the past twenty years and currently constitutes an established area of research. This article aims at exploiting and organizing the knowledge accumulated in previous experimental studies to build a foundation for future sonification works. A systematic review of these studies may reveal trends in sonification design, and therefore support the development of design guidelines. To this end, we have reviewed and analyzed 179 scientific publications related to sonification of physical quantities. Using a bottom-up approach, we set up a list of conceptual dimensions belonging to both physical and auditory domains. Mappings used in the reviewed works were identified, forming a database of 495 entries. Frequency of use was analyzed among these conceptual dimensions as well as higher-level categories. Results confirm two hypotheses formulated in a preliminary study: pitch is by far the most used auditory dimension in sonification applications, and spatial auditory dimensions are almost exclusively used to sonify kinematic quantities. To detect successful as well as unsuccessful sonification strategies, assessment of mapping efficiency conducted in the reviewed works was considered. Results show that a proper evaluation of sonification mappings is performed only in a marginal proportion of publications. Additional aspects of the publication database were investigated: historical distribution of sonification works is presented, projects are classified according to their primary function, and the sonic material used in the auditory display is discussed. Finally, a mapping-based approach for characterizing sonification is proposed. PMID:24358192

  2. THE QUANTITY OF INTRACLUSTER LIGHT: COMPARING THEORETICAL AND OBSERVATIONAL MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUES USING SIMULATED CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Rudick, Craig S.; Mihos, J. Christopher; McBride, Cameron K.

    2011-05-01

    Using a suite of N-body simulations of galaxy clusters specifically tailored to studying the intracluster light (ICL) component, we measure the quantity of ICL using a number of different methods previously employed in the literature for both observational and simulation data sets. By measuring the ICL of the clusters using multiple techniques, we are able to identify systematic differences in how each detection method identifies the ICL. We find that techniques which define the ICL solely based on the current position of the cluster luminosity, such as a surface brightness or local density threshold, tend to find less ICL than methods utilizing time or velocity information, including stellar particles' density history or binding energy. The range of ICL fractions (the fraction of the clusters' total luminosity found in the ICL component) we measure at z = 0 across all our clusters using any definition spans the range 9%-36%, and even within a single cluster different methods can change the measured ICL fraction by up to a factor of two. Separating the cluster's central galaxy from the surrounding ICL component is a challenge for all ICL techniques, and because the ICL is centrally concentrated within the cluster, the differences in the measured ICL quantity between techniques are largely a consequence of this central galaxy/ICL separation. We thoroughly explore the free parameters involved with each measurement method, and find that adjusting these parameters can change the measured ICL fraction by up to a factor of two. The choice of ICL definition does not strongly affect the ICL's ability to trace the major features of the cluster's dynamical evolution. While for all definitions the quantity of ICL tends to increase with time, the ICL fraction does not grow at a uniform rate, nor even monotonically under some definitions. Thus, the ICL can be used as a rough indicator of dynamical age, where more dynamically advanced clusters will on average have higher ICL fractions.

  3. Observational physics of mirror world

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khlopov, M. YA.; Beskin, G. M.; Bochkarev, N. E.; Pustilnik, L. A.; Pustilnik, S. A.

    1989-01-01

    The existence of the whole world of shadow particles, interacting with each other and having no mutual interactions with ordinary particles except gravity is a specific feature of modern superstring models, being considered as models of the theory of everything. The presence of shadow particles is the necessary condition in the superstring models, providing compensation of the asymmetry of left and right chirality states of ordinary particles. If compactification of additional dimensions retains the symmetry of left and right states, shadow world turns to be the mirror one, with particles and fields having properties strictly symmetrical to the ones of corresponding ordinary particles and fields. Owing to the strict symmetry of physical laws for ordinary and mirror particles, the analysis of cosmological evolution of mirror matter provides rather definite conclusions on possible effects of mirror particles in the universe. A general qualitative discussion of possible astronomical impact of mirror matter is given, in order to make as wide as possible astronomical observational searches for the effects of mirror world, being the unique way to test the existence of mirror partners of ordinary particles in the Nature.

  4. A wireless interrogation system exploiting narrowband acoustic resonator for remote physical quantity measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedt, J.-M.; Droit, C.; Martin, G.; Ballandras, S.

    2010-01-01

    Monitoring physical quantities using acoustic wave devices can be advantageously achieved using the wave characteristic dependence to various parametric perturbations (temperature, stress, and pressure). Surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonators are particularly well suited to such applications as their resonance frequency is directly influenced by these perturbations, modifying both the phase velocity and resonance conditions. Moreover, the intrinsic radio frequency (rf) nature of these devices makes them ideal for wireless applications, mainly exploiting antennas reciprocity and piezoelectric reversibility. In this paper, we present a wireless SAW sensor interrogation unit operating in the 434 MHz centered ISM band—selected as a tradeoff between antenna dimensions and electromagnetic wave penetration in dielectric media—based on the principles of a frequency sweep network analyzer. We particularly focus on the compliance with the ISM standard which reveals complicated by the need for switching from emission to reception modes similarly to radar operation. In this matter, we propose a fully digital rf synthesis chain to develop various interrogation strategies to overcome the corresponding difficulties and comply with the above-mentioned standard. We finally assess the reader interrogation range, accuracy, and dynamics.

  5. A wireless interrogation system exploiting narrowband acoustic resonator for remote physical quantity measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Friedt, J.-M; Droit, C.; Martin, G.; Ballandras, S.

    2010-01-15

    Monitoring physical quantities using acoustic wave devices can be advantageously achieved using the wave characteristic dependence to various parametric perturbations (temperature, stress, and pressure). Surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonators are particularly well suited to such applications as their resonance frequency is directly influenced by these perturbations, modifying both the phase velocity and resonance conditions. Moreover, the intrinsic radio frequency (rf) nature of these devices makes them ideal for wireless applications, mainly exploiting antennas reciprocity and piezoelectric reversibility. In this paper, we present a wireless SAW sensor interrogation unit operating in the 434 MHz centered ISM band--selected as a tradeoff between antenna dimensions and electromagnetic wave penetration in dielectric media--based on the principles of a frequency sweep network analyzer. We particularly focus on the compliance with the ISM standard which reveals complicated by the need for switching from emission to reception modes similarly to radar operation. In this matter, we propose a fully digital rf synthesis chain to develop various interrogation strategies to overcome the corresponding difficulties and comply with the above-mentioned standard. We finally assess the reader interrogation range, accuracy, and dynamics.

  6. A wireless interrogation system exploiting narrowband acoustic resonator for remote physical quantity measurement.

    PubMed

    Friedt, J-M; Droit, C; Martin, G; Ballandras, S

    2010-01-01

    Monitoring physical quantities using acoustic wave devices can be advantageously achieved using the wave characteristic dependence to various parametric perturbations (temperature, stress, and pressure). Surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonators are particularly well suited to such applications as their resonance frequency is directly influenced by these perturbations, modifying both the phase velocity and resonance conditions. Moreover, the intrinsic radio frequency (rf) nature of these devices makes them ideal for wireless applications, mainly exploiting antennas reciprocity and piezoelectric reversibility. In this paper, we present a wireless SAW sensor interrogation unit operating in the 434 MHz centered ISM band--selected as a tradeoff between antenna dimensions and electromagnetic wave penetration in dielectric media--based on the principles of a frequency sweep network analyzer. We particularly focus on the compliance with the ISM standard which reveals complicated by the need for switching from emission to reception modes similarly to radar operation. In this matter, we propose a fully digital rf synthesis chain to develop various interrogation strategies to overcome the corresponding difficulties and comply with the above-mentioned standard. We finally assess the reader interrogation range, accuracy, and dynamics. PMID:20113119

  7. Does pilates exercise increase physical activity, quality of life, latency, and sleep quantity in middle-aged people?

    PubMed

    García-Soidán, J L; Giraldez, V Arufe; Cachón Zagalaz, J; Lara-Sánchez, A J

    2014-12-01

    This prospective study assessed the effects of a 12-wk. exercise program based on the Pilates method (2 one-hr. sessions per week) on 99 sedentary middle-aged volunteers (M age = 47.6 yr., SD = 0.8), using an accelerometry, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and the SF-36 questionnaire to measure changes in physical activity, quality of life, sleep latency, and quantity. The variables (quality of life, sleep latency, and quantity) were compared before and after applying the Pilates program. All of the physical and emotional components of the SF-36 questionnaire showed significant improvement, and the latency and sleep quantity also showed significant increases. The results indicate that Pilates is an accessible, interesting exercise program that can generate important changes in middle age. PMID:25456245

  8. Understanding the Role of Measurements in Creating Physical Quantities: A Case Study of Learning to Quantify Temperature in Physics Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mantyla, Terhi; Koponen, Ismo T.

    2007-01-01

    Learning to understand the content and meaning of physics' concepts is one of the main goals of physics education. In achieving this understanding, the creation of quantities through quantitative measurements, or rather through quantifying experiments, is a key process. The present article introduces a didactical reconstruction for understanding…

  9. Variational symmetries, conserved quantities and identities for several equations of mathematical physics

    SciTech Connect

    Donchev, Veliko

    2014-03-15

    We find variational symmetries, conserved quantities and identities for several equations: envelope equation, Böcher equation, the propagation of sound waves with losses, flow of a gas with losses, and the nonlinear Schrödinger equation with losses or gains, and an electro-magnetic interaction. Most of these equations do not have a variational description with the classical variational principle and we find such a description with the generalized variational principle of Herglotz.

  10. Evaluations of Low-Energy Physical Quantities in QCD with IR Freezing of the Coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cvetič, Gorazd

    2014-06-01

    The -like schemes in QCD have in general the running coupling which contains Landau singularities, i.e., singularities outside the timelike semi-axis, at low squared momenta. As a consequence, evaluation of the spacelike quantities, such as current correlators, in terms of (powers of) such a coupling then results in quantities which contradict the basic principles of quantum field theories. On the other hand, in those QCD frameworks where the running coupling remains finite at low squared momenta (IR freezing), the coupling usually does not have Landau singularities in the complex plane of the squared momenta. I argue that in such QCD frameworks the spacelike quantities should not be evaluated as a power series, but rather as a series in derivatives of the coupling with respect to the logarithm of the squared momenta. Such series show considerably better convergence properties. Moreover, Padé-related resummations of such logarithmic derivative series give convergent series, thus eliminating the practical problem of series divergence due to renormalons.

  11. Near-Earth asteroids: Observer alert network and physical observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Donald R.; Chapman, Clark R.

    1992-01-01

    This project strives to obtain physical observations on newly discovered Near-Earth Objects (NEO's) in order to provide fundamental data needed to assess the resources available in the population. The goal is acquiring data on all objects brighter than magnitude V= 17.0. To accomplish this, an electronic mail alert and observer information service that informs observers around the world as to the status of physical observations on currently observable NEO's was established. Such data is also acquired ourselves through a cooperative program with European colleagues that uses telescopes on La Palma to obtain spectra of NEO's and through observations made from a local telescope on Tumamoc Hill. This latter telescope has the advantage that large amounts of observing time are available, so that whenever a new NEO's discovered, we can be assured of getting time to observe it.

  12. Space- and time-dependent scaling of numbers in mathematical structures: effects on physical and geometric quantities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benioff, Paul

    2015-08-01

    The relationship between the foundations of mathematics and physics is a topic of of much interest. This paper continues this exploration by examination of the effect of space- and time- dependent number scaling on theoretical descriptions of some physical and geometric quantities. Fiber bundles provide a good framework to introduce a space- and time- or space-time-dependent number scaling field. The effect of the scaling field on a few nonlocal physical and geometric quantities is described. The effect on gauge theories is to introduce a new complex scalar field into the derivatives appearing in Lagrangians. U(1) invariance of Lagrangian terms does not affect the real part of the scaling field. For this field, any mass is possible. The scaling field is also shown to affect quantum wave packets and path lengths, and geodesic equations even on flat space. Scalar fields described so far in physics are possible candidates for the scaling field. The lack of direct evidence for the field in physics restricts the scaling field in that the gradient of the field must be close to zero in a local region of cosmological space and time. There are no restrictions outside the region. It is also seen that the scaling field does not affect comparisons of computation or measurements outputs with one another. However, it does affect the assignment of numerical values to the outputs of computations or measurements. These are needed because theory predictions are in terms of numerical values.

  13. Space- and time-dependent scaling of numbers in mathematical structures: effects on physical and geometric quantities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benioff, Paul

    2016-03-01

    The relationship between the foundations of mathematics and physics is a topic of of much interest. This paper continues this exploration by examination of the effect of space- and time- dependent number scaling on theoretical descriptions of some physical and geometric quantities. Fiber bundles provide a good framework to introduce a space- and time- or space-time-dependent number scaling field. The effect of the scaling field on a few nonlocal physical and geometric quantities is described. The effect on gauge theories is to introduce a new complex scalar field into the derivatives appearing in Lagrangians. U(1) invariance of Lagrangian terms does not affect the real part of the scaling field. For this field, any mass is possible. The scaling field is also shown to affect quantum wave packets and path lengths, and geodesic equations even on flat space. Scalar fields described so far in physics are possible candidates for the scaling field. The lack of direct evidence for the field in physics restricts the scaling field in that the gradient of the field must be close to zero in a local region of cosmological space and time. There are no restrictions outside the region. It is also seen that the scaling field does not affect comparisons of computation or measurements outputs with one another. However, it does affect the assignment of numerical values to the outputs of computations or measurements. These are needed because theory predictions are in terms of numerical values.

  14. Status of women in physics in China-Taipei from the view of quantity and quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jauyn Grace; Ho, Mon-Shu; Lin, Keng-Ching; Chen, Yi-Chun; Chiu, Ya-Ping; Hu, Shu-Fen; Hsiung, Yee Bob; Chang, Yuan-Huei; Chang, Ching Ray

    2013-03-01

    The Working Group for Women in Physics in Taiwan was registered to the Physical Society of the Republic of China (PSROC) in December 1999 and was formally announced at the 2001 annual assembly of PSROC. In 2003 the group became a formal committee under PSROC. The current committee includes seven female and two male members. In the last 10 years, many milestones were achieved. In particular, the percentage of female physics faculties in universities and research institutes has increased to 12% from 8% within the last 10 years. In this paper we will present the results of our survey on the changes of the percentage of female physics faculties/students within the last 10 years and express our need to improve the working environment for female faculties in Taiwan in the future.

  15. The Built Environment Predicts Observed Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Cheryl; Wilson, Jeffrey S.; Schootman, Mario; Clennin, Morgan; Baker, Elizabeth A.; Miller, Douglas K.

    2014-01-01

    Background: In order to improve our understanding of the relationship between the built environment and physical activity, it is important to identify associations between specific geographic characteristics and physical activity behaviors. Purpose: Examine relationships between observed physical activity behavior and measures of the built environment collected on 291 street segments in Indianapolis and St. Louis. Methods: Street segments were selected using a stratified geographic sampling design to ensure representation of neighborhoods with different land use and socioeconomic characteristics. Characteristics of the built environment on-street segments were audited using two methods: in-person field audits and audits based on interpretation of Google Street View imagery with each method blinded to results from the other. Segments were dichotomized as having a particular characteristic (e.g., sidewalk present or not) based on the two auditing methods separately. Counts of individuals engaged in different forms of physical activity on each segment were assessed using direct observation. Non-parametric statistics were used to compare counts of physically active individuals on each segment with built environment characteristic. Results: Counts of individuals engaged in physical activity were significantly higher on segments with mixed land use or all non-residential land use, and on segments with pedestrian infrastructure (e.g., crosswalks and sidewalks) and public transit. Conclusion: Several micro-level built environment characteristics were associated with physical activity. These data provide support for theories that suggest changing the built environment and related policies may encourage more physical activity. PMID:24904916

  16. Quantity, Type, and Correlates of Physical Activity among American Middle Eastern University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahan, David

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of hypokinetic disease among persons of Middle Eastern heritage is higher than whites and research on American young adults of this population is limited. Therefore 214 tertiary students of Middle Eastern descent self-reported their physical activity (PA) over a 1-week monitoring period using pedometers and daily activity logs.…

  17. The Ubiquitous Quantities: Explorations That Inform the Design of Instruction on the Physical Properties of Matter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klopfer, L. E.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Explores high school student's postinstructional knowledge about mass, volume, weight, and density in terms of what students need to know to successfully solve academic physical science problems. Presents definitions of the concepts, discusses hypothesized knowledge deficiencies, and suggests implications for instructional design. (Contains 31…

  18. A Comparison of Water Vapor Quantities from Model Short-Range Forecasts and ARM Observations

    SciTech Connect

    Hnilo, J.

    2006-03-17

    Model evolution and improvement is complicated by the lack of high quality observational data. To address a major limitation of these measurements the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program was formed. For the second quarter ARM metric we will make use of new water vapor data that has become available, and called the “Mergedsounding” value added product (referred to as OBS, within the text) at three sites: the North Slope of Alaska (NSA), Darwin Australia (DAR) and the Southern Great Plains (SGP) and compare these observations to model forecast data. Two time periods will be analyzed March 2000 for the SGP and October 2004 for both DAR and NSA. The merged-sounding data have been interpolated to 37 pressure levels (e.g., from 1000hPa to 100hPa at 25hPa increments) and time averaged to 3 hourly data for direct comparison to our model output.

  19. A comparison of water vapor quantities from model short-range forecasts and ARM observations

    SciTech Connect

    Hnilo, J J

    2006-03-17

    Model evolution and improvement is complicated by the lack of high quality observational data. To address a major limitation of these measurements the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program was formed. For the second quarter ARM metric we will make use of new water vapor data that has become available, and called the 'Merged-sounding' value added product (referred to as OBS, within the text) at three sites: the North Slope of Alaska (NSA), Darwin Australia (DAR) and the Southern Great Plains (SGP) and compare these observations to model forecast data. Two time periods will be analyzed March 2000 for the SGP and October 2004 for both DAR and NSA. The merged-sounding data have been interpolated to 37 pressure levels (e.g., from 1000hPa to 100hPa at 25hPa increments) and time averaged to 3 hourly data for direct comparison to our model output.

  20. In-situ observation of irradiation quantities using a tethered balloon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Ralf; Gross, Steffen; Behrens, Klaus

    2014-05-01

    Irradiance is a key parameter in Earth's weather and climate system. Accurate observations of the components of the radiation budget are therefore essential to create reliable time series, to analyse spatial variability and to test, validate and adapt satellite-based algorithms. This holds true for near surface measurements as well as for in-situ observations in the lower troposphere. Such measurements are difficult to realise and therefore rarely performed. A tethered balloon system manufactured by Vailsala (9 cbm) is utilised as a carrier of a radiation budget sonde operating up to 1000 m above ground. Application is limited to fair weather conditions with maximum winds of 20 km/h and visibility greater than 3 km at ground level. The experimental setup is composed of a downward and upward looking pair of Kipp&Zonen CM11 (0.305-2.8 μm) and a corresponding pair of Kipp&Zonen CG4 (4.5 - 42 μm). Instruments are categorized as WMO 'secondary standard' according to ISO9660 and can be characterised as sufficiently robust and with acceptable response time for this purpose. Instrumentation is complemented by meteorological sensors (wind, temperature, humidity) flown on a dedicated suspension close (less than 50 m distance) to radiation sonde. In-situ measurements of irradiation in flowing and turbulent air are subjected to errors due to moving platform (roll/yaw/pitch). Potential deviations to near-surface measurements are discussed and an error estimate is given. Some comparisons of results of radiative transfer calculations for simple meteorological conditions have been made so far. It can be accomplished either by referring to profiles or by evaluating time series taken at elevated levels. Profiling lacks stationarity most time of a day due to high variability of shortwave downward and thus must be interpreted carefully. First results for longwave profiles as well as evaluation of time series obtained at distinct levels above ground show good correspondence.

  1. X ray timing observations and gravitational physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michelson, Peter F.; Wood, Kent S.

    1989-01-01

    Photon-rich x ray observations on bright compact galactic sources will make it possible to detect many fast processes that may occur in these systems on millisecond and submillisecond timescales. Many of these processes are of direct relevance to gravitational physics because they arise in regions of strong gravity near neutron stars and black holes where the dynamical timescales for compact objects of stellar mass are milliseconds. To date, such observations have been limited by the detector area and telemetry rates available. However, instruments such as the proposed X ray Large Array (XLA) would achieve collecting areas of about 100 sq m. This instrument has been described elsewhere (Wood and Michelson 1988) and was the subject of a recent prephase A feasibility study at Marshall Space Flight Center. Observations with an XLA class instrument will directly impact five primary areas of astrophysics research: the attempt to detect gravitational radiation, the study of black holes, the physics of mass accretion onto compact objects, the structure of neutron stars and nuclear matter, and the characterization of dark matter in the universe. Those observations are discussed that are most directly relevant to gravitational physics: the search for millisecond x ray pulsars that are potential sources of continuous gravitational radiation; and the use of x ray timing observations to probe the physical conditions in extreme relativistic regions of space near black holes, both stellar-sized and supermassive.

  2. The ghosts of departed quantities: approaches to dealing with observations below the limit of quantitation.

    PubMed

    Senn, Stephen; Holford, Nick; Hockey, Hans

    2012-12-30

    A common but not necessarily logical requirement in drug development is that a 'limit of quantitation' be set for chemical assays and that observations that fall below the limit should not be treated as real data but should be labelled as below the limit and set aside for special treatment. We examine five of seven approaches to analysing such data considered by Beal in 2001, concentrating in particular on two: one that treats the data as a truncated sample and another that treats them as a censored sample. In fact, using a pattern-mixture framework, one can show that the former consists of using the conditional distribution of the 'acceptable values' and the latter adds the information from the marginal mixing distribution. We illustrate these approaches with a real example, concentrating in particular on the two likelihood-based methods, provide various formulae that may be used to compare these and other approaches, check these formulae using simulations and make some recommendations as to which approach one should use. PMID:22825800

  3. Physical observations and taxonomy of asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, D.

    1978-01-01

    Physical asteroid observations are summarized and the classification scheme to describe asteroid surfaces in relation to mineralogical composition is detailed. The principle classes, distinguished on the basis of a number of parameters involving albedo and color, are called C, S, and M.

  4. The trinucleons: Physical observables and model properties

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, B.F.

    1992-05-01

    Our progress in understanding the properties of {sup 3}H and {sup 3}He in terms of a nonrelativistic Hamiltonian picture employing realistic nuclear forces is reviewed. Trinucleon model properties are summarized for a number of contemporary force models, and predictions for physical observables are presented. Disagreement between theoretical model results and experimental results are highlighted.

  5. The trinucleons: Physical observables and model properties

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, B.F.

    1992-01-01

    Our progress in understanding the properties of {sup 3}H and {sup 3}He in terms of a nonrelativistic Hamiltonian picture employing realistic nuclear forces is reviewed. Trinucleon model properties are summarized for a number of contemporary force models, and predictions for physical observables are presented. Disagreement between theoretical model results and experimental results are highlighted.

  6. European Marine Observation Data Network - EMODnet Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzella, Giuseppe M. R.; Novellino, Antonio; D'Angelo, Paolo; Gorringe, Patrick; Schaap, Dick; Pouliquen, Sylvie; Loubrieu, Thomas; Rickards, Lesley

    2015-04-01

    The EMODnet-Physics portal (www.emodnet-physics.eu) makes layers of physical data and their metadata available for use and contributes towards the definition of an operational European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet). It is based on a strong collaboration between EuroGOOS associates and its regional operational systems (ROOSs), and it is bringing together two very different marine communities: the "real time" ocean observing institute/centers and the National Oceanographic Data Centres (NODCs) that are in charge of ocean data validation, quality check and update for marine environmental monitoring. The EMODnet-Physics is a Marine Observation and Data Information System that provides a single point of access to near real time and historical achieved data (www.emodnet-physics.eu/map) it is built on existing infrastructure by adding value and avoiding any unless complexity, it provides data access to users, it is aimed at attracting new data holders, better and more data. With a long-term vision for a pan European Ocean Observation System sustainability, the EMODnet-Physics is supporting the coordination of the EuroGOOS Regional components and the empowerment and improvement of their data management infrastructure. In turn, EMODnet-Physics already implemented high-level interoperability features (WMS, Web catalogue, web services, etc…) to facilitate connection and data exchange with the ROOS and the Institutes within the ROOSs (www.emodnet-physics.eu/services). The on-going EMODnet-Physics structure delivers environmental marine physical data from the whole Europe (wave height and period, temperature of the water column, wind speed and direction, salinity of the water column, horizontal velocity of the water column, light attenuation, and sea level) as monitored by fixed stations, ARGO floats, drifting buoys, gliders, and ferry-boxes. It does provide discovering of data sets (both NRT - near real time - and Historical data sets), visualization and free download of data from more than 1500 platforms. The portal is composed mainly of three sections: the Map, the Selection List and the Station Info Panel. The Map is the core of the EMODnet-Physics system: here the user can access all available data, customize the map visualization and set different display layers. It is also possible to interact with all the information on the map using the filters provided by the service that can be used to select the stations of interest depending on the type, physical parameters measured, the time period of the observations in the database of the system, country of origin, the water basin of reference. It is also possible to browse the data in time by means of the slider in the lower part of the page that allows the user to view the stations that recorded data in a particular time period. Finally, it is possible to change the standard map view with different layers that provide additional visual information on the status of the waters. The Station Info panel available from the main map by clicking on a single platform provides information on the measurements carried out by the station. Moreover, the system provides full interoperability with third-party software through WMS service, Web Service and Web catalogue in order to exchange data and products according to the most recent interop standards. Further developments will ensure the compatibility to the OGS-SWE (Sensor Web Enablement) standard for the description of sensors and related observations using OpenGIS specifications (SensorML, O&M, SOS). The full list of services is available at www.emodnet-physics.eu/services. The result is an excellent example of innovative technologies for providing open and free access to geo-referenced data for the creation of new advanced (operational) oceanography services.

  7. Quantity, type, and correlates of physical activity among American Middle Eastern university students.

    PubMed

    Kahan, David

    2009-09-01

    The prevalence of hypokinetic disease among persons of Middle Eastern heritage is higher than whites and research on American young adults of this population is limited. Therefore 214 tertiary students of Middle Eastern descent self-reported their physical activity (PA) over a 1-week monitoring period using pedometers and daily activity logs. Daily step count averaged 9,256 (SD = 3,084) steps, while daily energy expenditure averaged 6.26 kcal/kg (SD = 4.92). Most participants reported no weekly engagement in sport (69.2%) and walk/run (52.8%) activities, and at least once-weekly engagement in conditioning (68.7%) activities. Moderately religious and highly acculturated men, and Muslims, and moderately/highly acculturated persons were more likely to average > or = 10,000 steps/day and engage in at least one sport activity per week, respectively. These findings may be related to religious and cultural issues unique to Middle Eastern American college students whose collectivist social affiliations with family and community members may facilitate or inhibit various aspects of PA behavior. PMID:19791627

  8. Evidence for Direct Retrieval of Relative Quantity Information in a Quantity Judgment Task: Decimals, Integers, and the Role of Physical Similarity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Dale J.

    2010-01-01

    Participants' reaction times (RTs) in numerical judgment tasks in which one must determine which of 2 numbers is greater generally follow a monotonically decreasing function of the numerical distance between the two presented numbers. Here, I present 3 experiments in which the relative influences of numerical distance and physical similarity are…

  9. A Holoinformational Model of the Physical Observer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biase, Francisco Di

    2013-09-01

    The author proposes a holoinformational view of the observer based, on the holonomic theory of brain/mind function and quantum brain dynamics developed by Karl Pribram, Sir John Eccles, R.L. Amoroso, Hameroff, Jibu and Yasue, and in the quantumholographic and holomovement theory of David Bohm. This conceptual framework is integrated with nonlocal information properties of the Quantum Field Theory of Umesawa, with the concept of negentropy, order, and organization developed by Shannon, Wiener, Szilard and Brillouin, and to the theories of self-organization and complexity of Prigogine, Atlan, Jantsch and Kauffman. Wheeler's "it from bit" concept of a participatory universe, and the developments of the physics of information made by Zureck and others with the concepts of statistical entropy and algorithmic entropy, related to the number of bits being processed in the mind of the observer are also considered. This new synthesis gives a self-organizing quantum nonlocal informational basis for a new model of awareness in a participatory universe. In this synthesis, awareness is conceived as meaningful quantum nonlocal information interconnecting the brain and the cosmos, by a holoinformational unified field (integrating nonlocal holistic (quantum) and local (Newtonian). We propose that the cosmology of the physical observer is this unified nonlocal quantum-holographic cosmos manifesting itself through awareness, interconnected in a participatory holistic and indivisible way the human mind-brain to all levels of the self-organizing holographic anthropic multiverse.

  10. Magnetars: the physics behind observations. A review.

    PubMed

    Turolla, R; Zane, S; Watts, A L

    2015-11-01

    Magnetars are the strongest magnets in the present universe and the combination of extreme magnetic field, gravity and density makes them unique laboratories to probe current physical theories (from quantum electrodynamics to general relativity) in the strong field limit. Magnetars are observed as peculiar, burst-active x-ray pulsars, the anomalous x-ray pulsars (AXPs) and the soft gamma repeaters (SGRs); the latter emitted also three 'giant flares', extremely powerful events during which luminosities can reach up to 10(47) erg s(-1) for about one second. The last five years have witnessed an explosion in magnetar research which has led, among other things, to the discovery of transient, or 'outbursting', and 'low-field' magnetars. Substantial progress has been made also on the theoretical side. Quite detailed models for explaining the magnetars' persistent x-ray emission, the properties of the bursts, the flux evolution in transient sources have been developed and confronted with observations. New insight on neutron star asteroseismology has been gained through improved models of magnetar oscillations. The long-debated issue of magnetic field decay in neutron stars has been addressed, and its importance recognized in relation to the evolution of magnetars and to the links among magnetars and other families of isolated neutron stars. The aim of this paper is to present a comprehensive overview in which the observational results are discussed in the light of the most up-to-date theoretical models and their implications. This addresses not only the particular case of magnetar sources, but the more fundamental issue of how physics in strong magnetic fields can be constrained by the observations of these unique sources. PMID:26473534

  11. Magnetars: the physics behind observations. A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turolla, R.; Zane, S.; Watts, A. L.

    2015-11-01

    Magnetars are the strongest magnets in the present universe and the combination of extreme magnetic field, gravity and density makes them unique laboratories to probe current physical theories (from quantum electrodynamics to general relativity) in the strong field limit. Magnetars are observed as peculiar, burst-active x-ray pulsars, the anomalous x-ray pulsars (AXPs) and the soft gamma repeaters (SGRs); the latter emitted also three ‘giant flares’, extremely powerful events during which luminosities can reach up to 1047erg s-1 for about one second. The last five years have witnessed an explosion in magnetar research which has led, among other things, to the discovery of transient, or ‘outbursting’, and ‘low-field’ magnetars. Substantial progress has been made also on the theoretical side. Quite detailed models for explaining the magnetars’ persistent x-ray emission, the properties of the bursts, the flux evolution in transient sources have been developed and confronted with observations. New insight on neutron star asteroseismology has been gained through improved models of magnetar oscillations. The long-debated issue of magnetic field decay in neutron stars has been addressed, and its importance recognized in relation to the evolution of magnetars and to the links among magnetars and other families of isolated neutron stars. The aim of this paper is to present a comprehensive overview in which the observational results are discussed in the light of the most up-to-date theoretical models and their implications. This addresses not only the particular case of magnetar sources, but the more fundamental issue of how physics in strong magnetic fields can be constrained by the observations of these unique sources.

  12. Physics Beyond the Single Top Quark Observation

    SciTech Connect

    Heinson, A.P.; Collaboration, for the DZero

    2010-10-01

    In March 2009, the D0 Collaboration first observed the electroweak production of single top quarks at 5{sigma} significance. We measured the cross section for the combined s-channel and t-channel production modes, and set a lower limit on the CKM matrix element |V{sub tb}|. Since then, we have used the same dataset to measure the t-channel production mode independently, the combined cross section in the hadronically-decaying tau lepton final state, and the width and lifetime of the top quark, and we have set upper limits on contributions from anomalous flavor-changing neutral currents. This paper describes these new measurements, as presented at the 3rd International Workshop on Top Quark Physics, held in Brugge, Belgium, May 31-June 4, 2010.

  13. Millikan award lecture: Students of physicsListeners, observers, or collaborative participants in physics scientific practices?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etkina, Eugenia

    2015-08-01

    This article is a written version of my acceptance speech upon receiving the Millikan Medal at the 2014 Summer AAPT meeting. In the talk I shared an approach to learning and teaching physics that engages students learning introductory physics in the processes that physicists use to construct physics concepts, physical quantities, and equations, as well as to solve problems. This article describes the origins of the method, its characteristic features, research on its implementation, and available resources.

  14. A Conceptual Model of Observed Physical Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dudley, Dean A.

    2015-01-01

    Physical literacy is a concept that is gaining greater acceptance around the world with the United Nations Educational, Cultural, and Scientific Organization (2013) recognizing it as one of several central tenets in a quality physical education framework. However, previous attempts to understand progression in physical literacy learning have been…

  15. Determination Of Cometary Dust Physical Properties From Light Scattering Observations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasue, Jeremie; Levasseur-Regourd, A.

    2006-09-01

    Information on cometary dust physical properties stems from a synergy between remote observations, in situ missions and simulations. The linear polarization of the solar light scattered by cometary dust corresponds to smooth and bell-shaped (with a small negative branch and a maximum below 30%) phase curves with a quasi-linear increase with the wavelength between 30° and 50° phase angle [1]. In situ missions (from Giotto and VeGa at comet 1P/Halley to Stardust at 81P/Wild2 and Deep Impact at 9P/Tempel 1) have shown that cometary dust particles have low densities and are most probably easily fragmenting aggregates rich in organics material. We have developped a new model of cometary comae based on the properties of light scattered by a mixture of fractal aggregates of (up to 256) sub-micron sized spheroidal grains and compact spheroidal particles [2]. Physical parameters of the size distribution of particles (minimum and maximum size, shape of the size distribution and quantity of absorbing and non-absorbing particles) are now retrieved for a few comets showing thus the validity of the method and giving new insights into the cometary coma properties useful for the preparation of future missions to comets (including the Rosetta mission at 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko). [1] Levasseur-Regourd et al., JQSRT 79-80, 903-10, 2003. [2] Lasue et al., JQSRT 100, 220-36, 2006

  16. Validity of the Observation of Children's Physical Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hara, Nancy M.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    This study assessed the validity of the Children's Physical Activity Form, an observational instrument which measures the intensity of children's physical activity, by comparing observer judgments of subjects' (N=40) activity intensity level with min-by-min heart rate values. Results document the validity of the instrument for observing physical…

  17. Physical Observations of Nix and Hydra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buie, Marc W.; Grundy, W. M.; Tholen, D. J.

    2007-10-01

    We will report on continued observations of the Pluto system obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope in Cycle 15 (2006 July to 2007 June). These observations were originally intended to be carried out with the ACS/HRC instrument that was used to discover and determine the initial orbits of Nix and Hydra. This instrument suffered a critical component failure in January 2007 and our observing program had to be re-written to use the WFPC2 camera system. A total of 19 visits were executed between 2007 Mar 24 and 2007 Jun 01. 14 visits using the F555W filter (V equivalent) were organized to provide the broadest possible constraints on rotation periods. The additional 5 visits were used to collect a wide wavelength range of broad band photometry using the F439W, F675W, and F814W filters with WFPC2 and the F110W and F160W filters with NICMOS. Full analysis of these data are not possible without quality supporting orbits. The satellites are found to be within a WFPC2/PC pixel (0.046 arcsec) of our current best-fit orbits that are based on the older HST/ACS data. We will present results to date on astrometry, orbital properties, lightcurves, phase coefficients, mean brightness, and broadband colors of Nix and Hydra. Additionally we will comment on the other uses for this dataset in continued studies of Pluto and Charon. This work is supported by grants from the Space Telescope Science Institute.

  18. Quantities, Units, and Symbols.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Royal Society, London (England).

    This booklet provides a reference to the quantities, units, and their symbols which are used in physical science. It is a revision of a 1969 report and takes account of the progress which has been made in obtaining international agreement on the definitions, names, and symbols for units and on the rules for the expression of relations involving…

  19. Physical fitness training reference manual for security force personnel at fuel cycle facilities possessing formula quantities of special nuclear materials

    SciTech Connect

    Arzino, P.A.; Caplan, C.S.; Goold, R.E. . Foundation)

    1991-09-01

    The recommendations contained throughout this NUREG are being provided to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) as a reference manual which can be used by licensee management as they develop a program plan for the safe participation of guards, Tactical Response Team members (TRTs), and all other armed response personnel in physical fitness training and in physical performance standards testing. The information provided in this NUREG will help licensees to determine if guards, TRTs, and other armed response personnel can effectively perform their normal and emergency duties without undue hazard to themselves, to fellow employees, to the plant site, and to the general public. The recommendations in this NUREG are similar in part to those contained within the Department of Energy (DOE) Medical and Fitness Implementation Guide which was published in March 1991. The guidelines contained in this NUREG are not requirements, and compliance is not required. 25 refs.

  20. 19. Detail of southeast corner of physical plant showing observation ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Detail of southeast corner of physical plant showing observation lookout (view is looking northwest) - Skinner Meat Packing Plant, Main Plant, 6006 South Twenty-seventh Street, Omaha, Douglas County, NE

  1. Urban Mining: Quality and quantity of recyclable and recoverable material mechanically and physically extractable from residual waste

    SciTech Connect

    Di Maria, Francesco Micale, Caterina; Sordi, Alessio; Cirulli, Giuseppe; Marionni, Moreno

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • Material recycling and recovery from residual waste by physical and mechanical process has been investigated. • About 6% of recyclable can be extracted by NIR and 2-3Dimension selector. • Another 2% of construction materials can be extracted by adopting modified soil washing process. • Extracted material quality is quite high even some residual heavy metal have been detected by leaching test. - Abstract: The mechanically sorted dry fraction (MSDF) and Fines (<20 mm) arising from the mechanical biological treatment of residual municipal solid waste (RMSW) contains respectively about 11% w/w each of recyclable and recoverable materials. Processing a large sample of MSDF in an existing full-scale mechanical sorting facility equipped with near infrared and 2-3 dimensional selectors led to the extraction of about 6% w/w of recyclables with respect to the RMSW weight. Maximum selection efficiency was achieved for metals, about 98% w/w, whereas it was lower for Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE), about 2% w/w. After a simulated lab scale soil washing treatment it was possible to extract about 2% w/w of inert exploitable substances recoverable as construction materials, with respect to the amount of RMSW. The passing curve showed that inert materials were mainly sand with a particle size ranging from 0.063 to 2 mm. Leaching tests showed quite low heavy metal concentrations with the exception of the particles retained by the 0.5 mm sieve. A minimum pollutant concentration was in the leachate from the 10 and 20 mm particle size fractions.

  2. Observable quantities in satellite gradiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermeer, Martin

    1990-12-01

    It is shown that, even in the presence of small attitude uncertainties, the gravitational gradient tensor actually has three independent invariants, instead of the two found by Sacerdote and Sanso (1989) and Holota (1988). It is also shown that the influence of angular rotation on gradiometric measurements can be eliminated by using the first differences of the measurement time series obtained. This also reauires the extraction of the angular acceleration rate from the sensor measurements. The adaptation of this technique to the planar sensor array proposed for Aristoteles is examined.

  3. A novel algorithm for the calculation of physical and biological irradiation quantities in scanned ion beam therapy: the beamlet superposition approach.

    PubMed

    Russo, G; Attili, A; Battistoni, G; Bertrand, D; Bourhaleb, F; Cappucci, F; Ciocca, M; Mairani, A; Milian, F M; Molinelli, S; Morone, M C; Muraro, S; Orts, T; Patera, V; Sala, P; Schmitt, E; Vivaldo, G; Marchetto, F

    2016-01-01

    The calculation algorithm of a modern treatment planning system for ion-beam radiotherapy should ideally be able to deal with different ion species (e.g. protons and carbon ions), to provide relative biological effectiveness (RBE) evaluations and to describe different beam lines. In this work we propose a new approach for ion irradiation outcomes computations, the beamlet superposition (BS) model, which satisfies these requirements. This model applies and extends the concepts of previous fluence-weighted pencil-beam algorithms to quantities of radiobiological interest other than dose, i.e. RBE- and LET-related quantities. It describes an ion beam through a beam-line specific, weighted superposition of universal beamlets. The universal physical and radiobiological irradiation effect of the beamlets on a representative set of water-like tissues is evaluated once, coupling the per-track information derived from FLUKA Monte Carlo simulations with the radiobiological effectiveness provided by the microdosimetric kinetic model and the local effect model. Thanks to an extension of the superposition concept, the beamlet irradiation action superposition is applicable for the evaluation of dose, RBE and LET distributions. The weight function for the beamlets superposition is derived from the beam phase space density at the patient entrance. A general beam model commissioning procedure is proposed, which has successfully been tested on the CNAO beam line. The BS model provides the evaluation of different irradiation quantities for different ions, the adaptability permitted by weight functions and the evaluation speed of analitical approaches. Benchmarking plans in simple geometries and clinical plans are shown to demonstrate the model capabilities. PMID:26630246

  4. A novel algorithm for the calculation of physical and biological irradiation quantities in scanned ion beam therapy: the beamlet superposition approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, G.; Attili, A.; Battistoni, G.; Bertrand, D.; Bourhaleb, F.; Cappucci, F.; Ciocca, M.; Mairani, A.; Milian, F. M.; Molinelli, S.; Morone, M. C.; Muraro, S.; Orts, T.; Patera, V.; Sala, P.; Schmitt, E.; Vivaldo, G.; Marchetto, F.

    2016-01-01

    The calculation algorithm of a modern treatment planning system for ion-beam radiotherapy should ideally be able to deal with different ion species (e.g. protons and carbon ions), to provide relative biological effectiveness (RBE) evaluations and to describe different beam lines. In this work we propose a new approach for ion irradiation outcomes computations, the beamlet superposition (BS) model, which satisfies these requirements. This model applies and extends the concepts of previous fluence-weighted pencil-beam algorithms to quantities of radiobiological interest other than dose, i.e. RBE- and LET-related quantities. It describes an ion beam through a beam-line specific, weighted superposition of universal beamlets. The universal physical and radiobiological irradiation effect of the beamlets on a representative set of water-like tissues is evaluated once, coupling the per-track information derived from FLUKA Monte Carlo simulations with the radiobiological effectiveness provided by the microdosimetric kinetic model and the local effect model. Thanks to an extension of the superposition concept, the beamlet irradiation action superposition is applicable for the evaluation of dose, RBE and LET distributions. The weight function for the beamlets superposition is derived from the beam phase space density at the patient entrance. A general beam model commissioning procedure is proposed, which has successfully been tested on the CNAO beam line. The BS model provides the evaluation of different irradiation quantities for different ions, the adaptability permitted by weight functions and the evaluation speed of analitical approaches. Benchmarking plans in simple geometries and clinical plans are shown to demonstrate the model capabilities.

  5. Recognizing Prefixes in Scientific Quantities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sokolowski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Although recognizing prefixes in physical quantities is inherent for practitioners, it might not be inherent for students, who do not use prefixes in their everyday life experiences. This deficiency surfaces in AP Physics exams. For example, readers of an AP Physics exam reported "a common mistake of incorrectly converting nanometers to

  6. Recognizing Prefixes in Scientific Quantities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sokolowski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Although recognizing prefixes in physical quantities is inherent for practitioners, it might not be inherent for students, who do not use prefixes in their everyday life experiences. This deficiency surfaces in AP Physics exams. For example, readers of an AP Physics exam reported "a common mistake of incorrectly converting nanometers to…

  7. Quantity Cognition: Numbers, Numerosity, Zero and Mathematics.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Ben M

    2016-05-23

    Physical quantities differ from abstract numbers and mathematics, but recent results are revealing the neural representation of both: a new study demonstrates how an absence of quantity is transformed into a representation of zero as a number. PMID:27218850

  8. Investigation of physical parameters in stellar flares observed by GINGA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, Robert A.

    1994-01-01

    This program involves analysis and interpretation of results from GINGA Large Area Counter (LAC) observations from a group of large stellar X-ray flares. All LAC data are re-extracted using the standard Hayashida method of LAC background subtraction and analyzed using various models available with the XSPEC spectral fitting program.Temperature-emission measure histories are available for a total of 5 flares observed by GINGA. These will be used to compare physical parameters of these flares with solar and stellar flare models.

  9. Investigation of physical parameters in stellar flares observed by GINGA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, Robert A.

    1994-01-01

    This program involves analysis and interpretation of results from GINGA Large Area Counter (LAC) observations from a group of large stellar x-ray flares. All LAC data are re-extracted using the standard Hayashida method of LAC background subtraction and analyzed using various models available with the XSPEC spectral fitting program. Temperature-emission measure histories are available for a total of 5 flares observed by GINGA. These will be used to compare physical parameters of these flares with solar and stellar flare models.

  10. Physics of the inner heliosphere: Mechanisms, models and observational signatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Withbroe, George L.

    1987-01-01

    Selected problems concerned with the important physical processes that occur in the corona and solar wind acceleration region, particularly time dependent phenomena were studied. Both the physics of the phenomena and the resultant effects on observational signatures, particularly spectroscopic signatures were also studied. Phenomena under study include: wave motions, particularly Alfven and fast mode waves; the formation of standing shocks in the inner heliosphere as a result of momentum and/or heat addition to the wind; and coronal transient phenomena where momentum and/or heat are deposited in the corona to produce transient plasma heating and/or mass ejection. The development of theoretical models for the inner heliosphere, the theoretical investigation of spectroscopic plasma diagnostics for this region, and the analysis of existing skylab and other relevant data are also included.

  11. Report on Physics of Channelization: Theory, Experiment, and Observation

    SciTech Connect

    Kudrolli, Arshad

    2014-05-19

    The project involved a study of physical processes that create eroded channel and drainage networks. A particular focus was on how the shape of the channels and the network depended on the nature of the fluid flow. Our approach was to combine theoretical, experimental, and observational studies in close collaboration with Professor Daniel Rothman of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Laboratory -scaled experiments were developed and quantitative data on the shape of the pattern and erosion dynamics are obtained with a laser-aided topography technique and fluorescent optical imaging techniques.

  12. Quantity Stickiness versus Stackelberg Leadership

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreira, F. A.

    2008-10-30

    We study the endogenous Stackelberg relations in a dynamic market. We analyze a twice-repeated duopoly where, in the beginning, each firm chooses either a quantity-sticky production mode or a quantity-flexible production mode. The size of the market becomes observable after the first period. In the second period, a firm can adjust its quantity if, and only if, it has adopted the flexible mode. Hence, if one firm chooses the sticky mode whilst the other chooses the flexible mode, then they respectively play the roles of a Stackelberg leader and a Stackelberg follower in the second marketing period. We compute the supply quantities at equilibrium and the corresponding expected profits of the firms. We also analyze the effect of the slope parameter of the demand curve on the expected supply quantities and on the profits.

  13. Recognizing Prefixes in Scientific Quantities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolowski, Andrzej

    2015-09-01

    Although recognizing prefixes in physical quantities is inherent for practitioners, it might not be inherent for students, who do not use prefixes in their everyday life experiences. This deficiency surfaces in AP Physics exams. For example, readers of an AP Physics exam reported "a common mistake of incorrectly converting nanometers to meters." Similar students' mistakes were reported also by AP Chemistry readers "as in previous years, students still had difficulty converting kJ to J." While traditional teaching focuses on memorizing the symbols of prefixes, little attention is given to helping learners recognize a prefix in a given quantity. I noticed in my teaching practice that by making the processes of identifying prefixes more explicit, students make fewer mistakes on unit conversion. Thus, this paper presents an outline of a lesson that focuses on prefix recognition. It is designed for a first-year college physics class; however, its key points can be addressed to any group of physics students.

  14. Physics of Solar Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs): Theory and Observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, James

    2010-11-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) represent acceleration of magnetized coronal structures to a few thousand km/s in tens of minutes. A recent succession of Sun-observing satellite missions together with a suite of instruments measuring solar wind (SW) plasmas at the L1 Lagrange point have dramatically improved our observational understanding of CME properties from the Sun to 1 AU. The traditional models, which envision releasing magnetic energy stored in the corona via reconnection (accomplished by specified and/or numerical dissipation in these models), have not produced quantitative agreement with the observed CME acceleration and propagation to 1 AU. In this talk, I will present a new concept that does not require reconnection and yields model CME dynamics in good quantitative agreement with data. The underlying magnetic structure is a flux rope, and the basic driving force is the toroidal Lorentz hoop force acting on a flux rope with two legs anchored in the Sun. The force equations were originally derived for axisymmetric toroidal tokamak equilibria by Shafranov, but the basic physics can be adapted to the dynamics of nonaxisymmetric solar flux ropes. The initial flux rope is driven out of equilibrium by increasing its poloidal flux. The calculated acceleration and subsequent propagation of model CMEs have been shown to correctly replicate the observed CME dynamics from the Sun to 1 AU, with the computed plasma and magnetic field parameters at 1 AU in close agreement with the in situ SW data. The increasing poloidal flux produces an electromotive force (EMF) that is sufficient to accelerate particles to X-ray energies. The predicted temporal profile of the EMF given by the best-fit solution to the observed CME trajectory is found to closely coincide with that of the observed associated solar flare X-ray intensity.

  15. Physics of the inner heliosphere: Mechanisms, models and observational signatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Withbroe, G. L.

    1985-01-01

    The physics of the solar wind acceleration phenomena (e.g. effect of transient momentum deposition on the temporal and spatial variation of the temperature, density and flow speed of the solar wind, formation of shocks, etc.) and the resultant effects on observational signatures, particularly spectroscopic signature are studied. Phenomena under study include: (1) wave motions, particularly spectroscopic signatures are studied. Phenomena under study include:(1) wave motions, particularly Alfven and fast mode waves, (2) the formation of standing shocks in the inner heliosphere as a result of momentum and/or heat addition to the wind and (3) coronal transient phenomena where momentum and/or heat are deposited in the corona to produce transient plasma heating and/or mass ejections. Also included are the theoretical investigation of spectroscopic plasma diagnostics for the inner heliosphere and the analysis of existing Skylab and other relevant data.

  16. Seaglider observations of surface mixed layer physics and biogeochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damerell, Gillian; Heywood, Karen; Thompson, Andrew; Henson, Stephanie; Rumyantseva, Anya

    2013-04-01

    The Ocean Surface Mixing, Ocean Sub-mesoscale Interaction Study (OSMOSIS) aims to develop new, physically-based parameterisations of processes that deepen and shoal the ocean surface boundary layer. As part of this project, 2 Seagliders were deployed in September 2012 at the Porcupine Abyssal Plain (PAP) site in the North Atlantic, to measure the structure and evolution of the ocean surface boundary layer over the seasonal cycle. The gliders measured temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, dive-averaged currents, chlorophyll fluorescence, CDOM fluorescence and PAR. We present results from the first 6 months of the Seaglider deployments, examining particular case studies of deepening/shoaling events and their impact on the biogeochemistry. Shoaling events appear to be more abrupt than deepening events. We also discuss the water masses found in the area, in particular, the occurrences of Mediterranean Water observed at a depth of approximately 800 m. As a contribution to the GROOM project, we assess the advantages and challenges of maintaining a continuous glider-based multidisciplinary observing system at the PAP site, with 2 gliders being turned around approximately every 4 months.

  17. Assessing Preschool Children's Physical Activity: The Observational System for Recording Physical Activity in Children-Preschool Version

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, William H.; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; McIver, Kerry L.; Dowda, Marsha; Almeida, M. Joao C. A.; Pate, Russell R.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we present initial information concerning a new direct observation system--the Observational System for Recording Physical Activity in Children-Preschool Version. The system will allow researchers to record young children's physical activity levels while also coding the topography of their physical activity, as well as detailed…

  18. Directly Observed Physical Activity Levels in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pate, Russell R.; McIver, Kerry; Dowda, Marsha; Brown, William H.; Addy, Cheryl

    2008-01-01

    Background: Millions of young children attend preschools and other structured child development programs, but little is known about their physical activity levels while in those settings. The purpose of this study was to describe the physical activity levels and demographic and school-related correlates of physical activity in children attending…

  19. OBSERVED ENVIRONMENTAL FEATURES AND THE PHYSICAL ACTIVITY OF ADOLESCENT MALES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: It has recently been reported that adult physical activity was associated with environmental features. The aim of this study was to determine whether environmental features were associated with physical activity among male adolescents. Methods: Physical activity levels of 210 Boy Scouts ...

  20. Observations and Inferred Physical Characteristics of Compact Intracloud Discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Argo, P.E.; Eack, K.B.; Holden, D.N.; Massey, R.S.; Shao, X.; Smith, D.A.; Wiens, K.C.

    1999-02-01

    Compact intracloud discharges (CIDS) represent a distinct class of electrical discharges that occur within intense regions of thunderstorms. They are singular discharges that produce brief (typically 3 µs in duration) broadband RF emissions that are 20 to 30 dB more powerful than radiation from all other recorded lightning processes in the HF and VHF radio spectrum. Far field electric field change recordings of CIDS consist of a single, large-amplitude bipolar pulse that begins to rise during the RF-producing phase of the CID and typically lasts for 20 µs. During the summer of 1998 we operated a 4-station array of electric field change meters in New Mexico to support FORTE satellite observations of transient RF and optical sources and to learn more about the phenomenology and physical characteristics of CIDS. Over 800 CIDS were detected and located during the campaign. The events were identified on the basis of their unique field change waveforms. CID source heights determined using the relative delays of ionospherically reflected source emissions were typically between 4 and 11 km above ground level. Events of both positive and negative polarity were observed with events' of initially- negative polarity (indicative of discharges occurring between underlying positive and overlying negative charge) occurring at slightly higher altitudes. Within CID field change waveforms the CID pulse was often followed within a few ms by one or more smaller-amplitude pulses. We associate these subsequent pulses with the initial activity of a "normal" intracloud flash, the inference being that some fraction of the time, a CID initiates an intracloud lightning flash.

  1. Blue Stragglers in Globular Clusters: Observations, Statistics and Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knigge, Christian

    This chapter explores how we might use the observed statistics of blue stragglers in globular clusters to shed light on their formation. This means we will touch on topics also discussed elsewhere in this book, such as the discovery and implications of bimodal radial distributions and the "double sequences" of blue stragglers that have recently been found in some clusters. However, we will focus particularly on the search for a "smoking gun" correlation between the number of blue stragglers in a given globular cluster and a physical cluster parameter that would point towards a particular formation channel. As we shall see, there is little evidence for an intrinsic correlation between blue straggler numbers and stellar collision rates, even in dense cluster cores. On the other hand, there is a clear correlation between blue straggler numbers and the total (core) mass of the cluster. This would seem to point towards a formation channel involving binaries, rather than dynamical encounters. However, the correlation between blue straggler numbers and actual binary numbers—which relies on recently determined empirical binary fractions—is actually weaker than that with core mass. We explain how this surprising result may be reconciled with a binary formation channel if binary fractions depend almost uniquely on core mass. If this is actually the case, it would have significant implications for globular cluster dynamics more generally.

  2. Strongly intensive quantities

    SciTech Connect

    Gorenstein, M. I.; Gazdzicki, M.

    2011-07-15

    Analysis of fluctuations of hadron production properties in collisions of relativistic particles profits from use of measurable intensive quantities which are independent of system size variations. The first family of such quantities was proposed in 1992; another is introduced in this paper. Furthermore we present a proof of independence of volume fluctuations for quantities from both families within the framework of the grand canonical ensemble. These quantities are referred to as strongly intensive ones. Influence of conservation laws and resonance decays is also discussed.

  3. Development and Testing of the Observational System for Recording Physical Activity in Children: Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIver, Kerry L.; Brown, William H.; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; Dowda, Marsha; Pate, Russell R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study describes the development and pilot testing of the Observational System for Recording Physical Activity-Elementary School (OSRAC-E) Version. Method: This system was developed to observe and document the levels and types of physical activity and physical and social contexts of physical activity in elementary school students…

  4. Quality versus Quantity: The Use of Observation by Early Childhood Educators in Improving the Performance of Children Enrolled in Preschool Programs in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tackie-Ofosu, Vivian; Bentum, Kwesi

    2013-01-01

    In the current study, the authors explored how early childhood educators used observation to support children in the learning environment. The objectives set were to find out the observation methods teachers used, ascertain their understanding of child observation, find out activities children undertook, and how teachers documented what children…

  5. 38 CFR 17.41 - Persons eligible for hospital observation and physical examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... hospital observation and physical examination. 17.41 Section 17.41 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Examinations and Observation and Examination § 17.41 Persons eligible for hospital observation and physical examination. Hospitalization for observation and...

  6. 38 CFR 17.41 - Persons eligible for hospital observation and physical examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... hospital observation and physical examination. 17.41 Section 17.41 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Examinations and Observation and Examination § 17.41 Persons eligible for hospital observation and physical examination. Hospitalization for observation and...

  7. 38 CFR 17.41 - Persons eligible for hospital observation and physical examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... hospital observation and physical examination. 17.41 Section 17.41 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Examinations and Observation and Examination § 17.41 Persons eligible for hospital observation and physical examination. Hospitalization for observation and...

  8. Physical observations of comets: Their composition, origin and evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cochran, Anita L.; Barker, Edwin S.; Cochran, William D.

    1991-01-01

    Observations of Comet P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1 (SW1) during one observing run each in 1989 and 1990 are discussed, and the new significant information that was obtained is presented. Also discussed are near-UV observations of comets. The near-UV is a mostly unexplored spectral region for comets since it is not visible to spacecraft such as IUE and most ground-based detectors and spectrographs are not sensitive in the near-UV.

  9. Accuracy of physical activity assessment during pregnancy: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Prenatal physical activity may improve maternal and infant health and lower future disease risk for both mother and baby; however, very few physical activity assessment methods have been validated for use during pregnancy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of a subjective physical activity record (PAR) and an objective activity monitor, against a reference standard to quantify moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in pregnant women. The reference standard was based on participant interviews to determine if a woman was an exerciser and confirmed with information obtained from the PAR and a heart rate monitor. Methods Fifty-two pregnant women completed a physical activity record (PAR) and wore a SenseWear Mini Armband (SWA) activity monitor over a 7-day period at 18 weeks gestation. Total minutes spent in MVPA were totaled from both modalities and evaluated against the reference standard using contingency analysis and Pearson's chi-square test to evaluate the number of women meeting minimum prenatal physical activity recommendations (at least 3, 30 minute sessions of exercise per week). Both modalities were also tested individually and collectively to assess their ability as indicators of activity using empirically determined cut-offs as indicated by receiver-operator characteristic curves. These experimentally-derived criteria were also tested with Pearson's chi-square test. Results According to the reference standard, 13 of 52 participants (25%) met the criterion of 3, 30 minute sessions of volitional, moderate-intensity activity. When compared to the reference standard, both the PAR and SWA overestimated exercise status; 42 (81%) and 52 (100%) participants, respectively, achieved 90 minutes of MVPA (P < 0.0001 for both comparisons). Single-modality predictors of MVPA did not show a significant correlation. A composite predictor of MVPA offered the most favorable option for sensitivity and specificity (true positives, n = 8 and true negatives, n = 36) using cut-offs of 280 and 385 minutes/week for the PAR and SWA, respectively. Conclusion Compared to the reference standard, time spent in MVPA obtained from the PAR or SWA overestimated the prevalence of women meeting prenatal exercise recommendations. The most accurate predictor of women meeting current prenatal exercise guidelines was identified by using the PAR and SWA collectively. PMID:22039863

  10. The physics and modes of star cluster formation: observations.

    PubMed

    Lada, Charles J

    2010-02-28

    Stellar clusters are born in cold and dusty molecular clouds and the youngest clusters are embedded to various degrees in a dusty dark molecular material. Such embedded clusters can be considered protocluster systems. The most deeply buried examples are so heavily obscured by dust that they are only visible at infrared wavelengths. These embedded protoclusters constitute the nearest laboratories for a direct astronomical investigation of the physical processes of cluster formation and early evolution. I review the present state of empirical knowledge concerning embedded-cluster systems and discuss the implications for understanding their formation and subsequent evolution to produce bound stellar clusters. PMID:20083503

  11. Physical properties of the planets and satellites from radar observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettengill, G. H.

    1978-01-01

    The radar cross section of a planetary target is defined as the area of an isotropic scatterer, normal to the illumination, that would yield the observed echo intensity, if it were placed at the target's location. Attention is given to the angular scattering law, surface imagery, and topography. The observational results are discussed, taking into account the moon and the inner planets, the asteroids, the Galilean satellites, and the rings of Saturn. It is pointed out that the reach of radar astronomy has maintained nearly an exponential growth over the past three decades, as the sensitivity of available radar systems has on average more than doubled each year. There are, however, limits to this growth set by the large costs required for a new generation of observing facilities. Only modest increases in radar system sensitivity are, therefore, expected for the next decade.

  12. 38 CFR 17.41 - Persons eligible for hospital observation and physical examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Persons eligible for hospital observation and physical examination. 17.41 Section 17.41 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief... for hospital observation and physical examination. Hospitalization for observation and...

  13. 38 CFR 17.41 - Persons eligible for hospital observation and physical examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Persons eligible for hospital observation and physical examination. 17.41 Section 17.41 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief... for hospital observation and physical examination. Hospitalization for observation and...

  14. Radar observations and physical model of asteroid 6489 Golevka

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, R.; Ostro, S.; Jurgens, R.; Rosema, K.; Giorgini, J.; Winkler, R.; Rose, R.; Choate, D.; Cormier, R.; Franck, C.; Frye, R.; Howard, D.; Kelley, D.; Littlefair, R.; Slade, M.; Benner, L.; Thomas, M.; Mitchell, D.; Chodas, P.; Yeomans, D.; Scheeres, D.; Palmer, P.; Zaitsev, A.; Koyama, Y.; Nakamura, A.

    2000-01-01

    We report 8510-MHz (3,5-cm) radar observations of the Earth crossing asteroid (ECA) 6489 Golevka (1991 JX) obtained between June 3 and June 15, 1995, at Goldstone, the Very Large Array and the Evpatoria (Ukraine) and Kashima (Japan) radio antennas.

  15. Giacobini-Zinner comet: Polarimetric and physical observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martel, M. T.; Maines, P.; Grudzinska, S.; Stawikowski, A.

    1984-01-01

    The results of observations of the Giacobini-Zinner comet on 25 and 31 October 1959 are presented. The magnitude of the comet was measured photoelectrically in two spectral regions. The radius is on the order of one kilometer. The photoelectric measurements of comets 1959b and 1957c were used to measure the abundances of the CN and C2 radicals and of solid particles in the heads.

  16. Observable gravitational and electromagnetic orbits and trajectories in discrete physics

    SciTech Connect

    Noyes, H.P.; McGoveran, D.O.

    1988-11-28

    Our discrete and finite version of relativistic quantum mechanics provides an elementary particle physics consistent with the standard model of quarks and leptons. Our recent relativistic calculation of the bound state spectrum of hydrogen has allowed us to make a combinatorial correction to the first order estimate of 1/..cap alpha.. = /Dirac h/c/e/sup 2/ = 137 derived from the combinatorial hierarchy and achieve agreement with experiment up to terms of order ..cap alpha../sup 3/. The same theory requires that to first order /Dirac h/c/Gm/sub p//sup 2/ = 2/sup 127/ + 136 approx. = 1.7 /times/ 10/sup 38/. Using the emission and absorption of spin 1 photons and spin 2 gravitons in this framework, we try to show that we can meet the three additional tests of general relativity---solar red shift, solar bending of light, and precession of the perihelion of Mercury. We predict that a macroscopic electromagnetic orbit would have four times the Sommerfeld precession for basically the same reason that Mercury has six times the Sommerfeld precession. 20 refs.

  17. Accelerometer-Monitored Sedentary Behavior and Observed Physical Function Loss

    PubMed Central

    Semanik, Pamela A.; Lee, Jungwha; Song, Jing; Chang, Rowland W.; Sohn, Min-Woong; Ehrlich-Jones, Linda S.; Ainsworth, Barbara E.; Nevitt, Michael M.; Kwoh, C. Kent

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We examined whether objectively measured sedentary behavior is related to subsequent functional loss among community-dwelling adults with or at high risk for knee osteoarthritis. Methods. We analyzed longitudinal data (2008–2012) from 1659 Osteoarthritis Initiative participants aged 49 to 83 years in 4 cities. Baseline sedentary time was assessed by accelerometer monitoring. Functional loss (gait speed and chair stand testing) was regressed on baseline sedentary time and covariates (baseline function; socioeconomics [age, gender, race/ethnicity, income, education], health factors [obesity, depression, comorbidities, knee symptoms, knee osteoarthritis severity, prior knee injury, other lower extremity pain, smoking], and moderate-to-vigorous activity). Results. This cohort spent almost two thirds of their waking hours (average = 9.8 h) in sedentary behaviors. Sedentary time was significantly positively associated with subsequent functional loss in both gait speed (−1.66 ft/min decrease per 10% increment sedentary percentage waking hours) and chair stand rate (−0.75 repetitions/min decrease), controlling for covariates. Conclusions. Being less sedentary was related to less future decline in function, independent of time spent in moderate-to-vigorous activity. Both limiting sedentary activities and promoting physical activity in adults with knee osteoarthritis may be important in maintaining function. PMID:25602883

  18. Radiation quantities and units

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-04-15

    This report supersedes ICRU Report 19. Since ICRU Report 19 was published, a number of discussions have taken place between members of the Report Committee on Fundamental Quantities and Units and other workers in the field. Some of these discussions have resulted in the acceptance of certain modifications in the material set out in Report 19 and these modifications are incorporated in the current report. In addition, there has been some expansion and rearrangement of the material in the earlier report. In line, with providing more didactic material and useful source material for other ICRU reports, the general considerations in subsection 1.A of Report 19 have been expanded and placed in a separate subsection. The additional material includes discussions of four terms that are used in this document - quantity, unit, stochastic, and non-stochastic - along with a brief discussion of the mathematical formalism used in ICRU reports. As in ICRU Report 19, the definitions of quantities and units specifically designed for radiation protection (Part B) are separated from those of the general quantities (Part A). The inclusion of the index concept outlined in ICRU Report 25(4) required an extension of Part B.

  19. Spherical Unidentified Anomalous Phenomena: Scientific Observations and Physical Hypotheses, Danger Evaluation For Aviation and Future Observational Plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teodorani, M.

    2010-05-01

    Spherical unidentified anomalous phenomena (UAP), of both plasma and solid-like kinds, have often been observed in the world. Several monitoring campaigns have permitted us to know better some structural properties and temporal behaviour of such phenomena. On the basis of what has been observed so far, and considering the deduced constants that characterize the phenomenon, and of the consequent physical working-hypotheses that results, possible dangers to aviation are examined from several point of view of physical science; both natural and non-natural features of these kind of UAP are considered. A systematic instrumented observational plan is proposed, involving both recurrence areas and time flaps of the phenomenon itself.

  20. Directly Observed Physical Activity among 3-Year-Olds in Finnish Childcare

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soini, Anne; Villberg, Jari; Sääkslahti, Arja; Gubbels, Jessica; Mehtälä, Anette; Kettunen, Tarja; Poskiparta, Marita

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of the study was to determine 3-year-olds' physical activity levels and how these vary across season, gender, time of day, location, and the physical and social environment in childcare settings in Finland. A modified version of the Observational System for Recording Physical Activity in Children-Preschool (OSRAC-P) was used…

  1. Varieties of quantity estimation in children.

    PubMed

    Sella, Francesco; Berteletti, Ilaria; Lucangeli, Daniela; Zorzi, Marco

    2015-06-01

    In the number-to-position task, with increasing age and numerical expertise, children's pattern of estimates shifts from a biased (nonlinear) to a formal (linear) mapping. This widely replicated finding concerns symbolic numbers, whereas less is known about other types of quantity estimation. In Experiment 1, Preschool, Grade 1, and Grade 3 children were asked to map continuous quantities, discrete nonsymbolic quantities (numerosities), and symbolic (Arabic) numbers onto a visual line. Numerical quantity was matched for the symbolic and discrete nonsymbolic conditions, whereas cumulative surface area was matched for the continuous and discrete quantity conditions. Crucially, in the discrete condition children's estimation could rely either on the cumulative area or numerosity. All children showed a linear mapping for continuous quantities, whereas a developmental shift from a logarithmic to a linear mapping was observed for both nonsymbolic and symbolic numerical quantities. Analyses on individual estimates suggested the presence of two distinct strategies in estimating discrete nonsymbolic quantities: one based on numerosity and the other based on spatial extent. In Experiment 2, a non-spatial continuous quantity (shades of gray) and new discrete nonsymbolic conditions were added to the set used in Experiment 1. Results confirmed the linear patterns for the continuous tasks, as well as the presence of a subset of children relying on numerosity for the discrete nonsymbolic numerosity conditions despite the availability of continuous visual cues. Overall, our findings demonstrate that estimation of numerical and non-numerical quantities is based on different processing strategies and follow different developmental trajectories. PMID:26010388

  2. Radar observations and a physical model of Asteroid 1580 Betulia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magri, Christopher; Ostro, Steven J.; Scheeres, Daniel J.; Nolan, Michael C.; Giorgini, Jon D.; Benner, Lance A. M.; Margot, Jean-Luc

    2007-01-01

    We report Arecibo (2380-MHz, 13-cm) observations of Asteroid 1580 Betulia in May-June 2002. We combine these continuous-wave Doppler spectra and delay-Doppler images with optical lightcurves from the 1976 and 1989 apparitions in order to estimate Betulia's shape and spin vector. We confirm the spin vector solution of Kaasalainen et al. [Kaasalainen, M., and 21 colleagues, 2004. Icarus 167, 178-196], with sidereal period P=6.13836 h and ecliptic pole direction (λ,β)=(136°,+22°), and obtain a model that resembles the Kaasalainen et al. convex-definite shape reconstruction but is dominated by a prominent concavity in the southern hemisphere. We find that Betulia has a maximum breadth of 6.59±0.66 km and an effective diameter of 5.39±0.54 km. These dimensions are in accord with reanalyzed polarimetric and radar data from the 1970s. Our effective diameter is 15% larger than the best radiometric estimate of Harris et al. [Harris, A.W., Mueller, M., Delbó, M., Bus, S.J., 2005. Icarus 179, 95-108], but this difference is much smaller than the size differences between past models. Considering orbits of test particles around Betulia, we find that this asteroid's unusual shape results in six equilibrium points close to its equatorial plane rather than the usual four points; two of these six points represent stable synchronous orbits while four are unstable. Betulia's close planetary encounters can be predicted for over four thousand years into the future.

  3. Calculation of surface and top of atmosphere radiative fluxes from physical quantities based on ISCCP data sets. 2: Validation and first results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossow, W. B.; Zhang, Y.-C.

    1995-01-01

    We use global, multiyear observations of the properties of clouds, the atmosphere, and the surface to calculate global shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) fluxes at the top of the atmosphere and at the surface at a resolution of 280 km and 3 hours for every third month from April 1985 to January 1989. Our validation studies suggest that the specification of cloud effects is no longer the dominant uncertainty in reconstructing the radiative fluxes at the top of atmosphere and at the surface. Rather cloud property uncertainties are now roughly equal contributors to the flux uncertainty, along with surface and atmospheric properties. The resulting SW and LW flux data sets suggest the following conclusions: (1) The net SW heating of Earth appears predominantly at the surface, whereas the net LW cooling arises predominantly from the atmosphere. The net cooling effect of clouds on top of atmospheric radiation appears primarily at the surface rather than in the atmosphere. (2) Clouds have almost no net effect on the global mean radiation balance of the atmosphere, but they enhance the latitudinal gradient in the LW cooling and reinforce the radiative forcing for the mean atmospheric circulation. Clouds act to mute seasonal contrasts however. (3) Clouds enhance the land-ocean contrasts of the atmospheric cooling, reinforcing the growth of standing eddy motions; but reduce land-ocean contrasts of the surface heating.

  4. Features and new physical scales in primordial observables: Theory and observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chluba, Jens; Hamann, Jan; Patil, Subodh P.

    2015-06-01

    All cosmological observations to date are consistent with adiabatic, Gaussian and nearly scale invariant initial conditions. These findings provide strong evidence for a particular symmetry breaking pattern in the very early universe (with a close to vanishing order parameter, ɛ), widely accepted as conforming to the predictions of the simplest realizations of the inflationary paradigm. However, given that our observations are only privy to perturbations, in inferring something about the background that gave rise to them, it should be clear that many different underlying constructions project onto the same set of cosmological observables. Features in the primordial correlation functions, if present, would offer a unique and discriminating window onto the parent theory in which the mechanism that generated the initial conditions is embedded. In certain contexts, simple linear response theory allows us to infer new characteristic scales from the presence of features that can break the aforementioned degeneracies among different background models, and in some cases can even offer a limited spectroscopy of the heavier degrees of freedom that couple to the inflaton. In this review, we offer a pedagogical survey of the diverse, theoretically well-grounded mechanisms which can imprint features into primordial correlation functions in addition to reviewing the techniques one can employ to probe observations. These observations include cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies and spectral distortions as well as the matter two and three point functions as inferred from large-scale structure (LSS) and potentially, 21 cm surveys.

  5. Climatic physical snowpack properties for large-scale modeling examined by observations and a physical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Kazuyuki; Yamaguchi, Satoru; Iwata, Hiroki; Harazono, Yoshinobu; Kosugi, Kenji; Lehning, Michael; Shulski, Martha

    2012-04-01

    Here we have conducted an integral study using site observations and a model with detailed snow dynamics, to examine the capability of the model for deriving a simple relationship between the density and thermal conductivity of the snowpack within different climatic zones used in large-scale climate modeling. Snow and meteorological observations were conducted at multiple sites in different climatic regions (two in Interior Alaska, two in Japan). A series of thermal conductivity measurements in snow pit observations done in Alaska provided useful information for constructing the relationship. The one-dimensional snow dynamics model, SNOWPACK, simulated the evolution of the snowpack and compared observations between all sites. Overall, model simulations tended to underestimate the density and overestimate the thermal conductivity, and failed to foster the relationship evident in the observations from the current and previous research. The causes for the deficiency were analyzed and discussed, regarding a low density of the new snow layer and a slow compaction rate. Our working relationships were compared to the equations derived by previous investigators. Discrepancy from the regression for the melting season observations in Alaska was found in common.

  6. Development of a Direct Observation Instrument to Measure Environmental Characteristics of Parks for Physical Activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The study's purpose is to describe the development and evaluate the reliability (inter-observer agreement) and validity (rater agreement with a gold standard) of a direct observation instrument to assess park characteristics that may be related to physical activity. A direct observation instrument ...

  7. CVT/GPL phase 2 integrated testing. [in earth observations, space physics, and material sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shurney, R. E.; Maybee, G.; Schmitt, S.

    1974-01-01

    Experiments representing earth observations, space physics, and material sciences disciplines were installed in the General Purpose Laboratory (GPL). The experiments and the GPL are described. The experiments interfaces the GPL and GPL support systems are assessed. The experiments were cloud physics, ionospheric disturbances, material sciences, high energy astronomy, and superfluid helium.

  8. Top 10 Research Questions Related to Assessing Physical Activity and Its Contexts Using Systematic Observation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Thomas L.; van der Mars, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Numerous methods are available to assess physical activity (PA) but systematic observation (SO) excels in being able to provide contextually rich data on the setting in which the activity occurs. As SO is particularly useful for determining how activity is influenced by the immediate physical and social environments, its use is becoming more

  9. Top 10 Research Questions Related to Assessing Physical Activity and Its Contexts Using Systematic Observation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Thomas L.; van der Mars, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Numerous methods are available to assess physical activity (PA) but systematic observation (SO) excels in being able to provide contextually rich data on the setting in which the activity occurs. As SO is particularly useful for determining how activity is influenced by the immediate physical and social environments, its use is becoming more…

  10. Physical Therapy Observation and Assessment in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Eilish; Campbell, Suzann K.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the elements of the Observation and Assessment section of the Infant Care Path for Physical Therapy in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). The types of physical therapy assessments presented in this path are evidence-based and the suggested timing of these assessments is primarily based on practice knowledge from expert

  11. BEACHES: An Observational System for Assessing Children's Eating and Physical Activity Behaviors and Associated Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Thomas L.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    The Behaviors of Eating and Activity for Children's Health Evaluation System (BEACHES) codes direct observations of children's dietary and physical activity behaviors and associated environmental events, including physical location, antecedents, and consequences. The system's reliability and validity was assessed in a study of 42 children (ages…

  12. Physical Therapy Observation and Assessment in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Eilish; Campbell, Suzann K.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the elements of the Observation and Assessment section of the Infant Care Path for Physical Therapy in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). The types of physical therapy assessments presented in this path are evidence-based and the suggested timing of these assessments is primarily based on practice knowledge from expert…

  13. OBSERVED, GIS, AND SELF-REPORTED ENVIRONMENTAL FEATURES AND ADOLESCENT PHYSICAL ACTIVITY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose: Examine associations among observed, self-reported, and Geographical Information Systems (GIS) environmental features and physical activity among adolescent males. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Boy Scout troops and neighborhoods in Houston, Texas. Subjects: Two hundred and ten ...

  14. Investigation of possible observable e ects in a proposed theory of physics

    SciTech Connect

    Freidan, Daniel

    2015-03-31

    The work supported by this grant produced rigorous mathematical results on what is possible in quantum field theory. Quantum field theory is the well-established mathematical language for fundamental particle physics, for critical phenomena in condensed matter physics, and for Physical Mathematics (the numerous branches of Mathematics that have benefitted from ideas, constructions, and conjectures imported from Theoretical Physics). Proving rigorous constraints on what is possible in quantum field theories thus guides the field, puts actual constraints on what is physically possible in physical or mathematical systems described by quantum field theories, and saves the community the effort of trying to do what is proved impossible. Results were obtained in two dimensional qft (describing, e.g., quantum circuits) and in higher dimensional qft. Rigorous bounds were derived on basic quantities in 2d conformal field theories, i.e., in 2d critical phenomena. Conformal field theories are the basic objects in quantum field theory, the scale invariant theories describing renormalization group fixed points from which all qfts flow. The first known lower bounds on the 2d boundary entropy were found. This is the entropy- information content- in junctions in critical quantum circuits. For dimensions d > 2, a no-go theorem was proved on the possibilities of Cauchy fields, which are the analogs of the holomorphic fields in d = 2 dimensions, which have had enormously useful applications in Physics and Mathematics over the last four decades. This closed o the possibility of finding analogously rich theories in dimensions above 2. The work of two postdoctoral research fellows was partially supported by this grant. Both have gone on to tenure track positions.

  15. A Viewpoint on the Quantity "Plane Angle"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eder, W. E.

    1982-01-01

    Properties of the quantity "plane angle" are explored under the hypothesis that it is a dimensional quantity. The exploration proceeds especially with respect to the physical concept, its mathematical treatment, vector concepts, measurement theory, units of related quantities, engineering pragmatism, and SI. An attempt is made to bring these different relations into a rational, logical and consistent framework, and thus to justify the hypothesis. Various types of vectorial quantities are recognized, and their properties described with an outline of the necessary algebraic manipulations. The concept of plane angle is amplified, and its interdependence with the circular arc is explored. The resulting units of plane angle form a class of similar scales of measurement. Consequences of the confirmed hypothesis are developed for mathematical expressions involving trigonometric functions, rotational volumes and areas, mathematical limits, differentiation and series expansion. Consequences for mechanical rotational quantities are developed, with proposals for revisions to a number of expressions for derived units within SI. A revised definition for the quantity "plane angle" is stated to take account of the developed insights. There is a clear need to reconsider the status of plane angle and some other quantities within the international framework of SI.

  16. Testing Gravitational Physics with Space-based Gravitational-wave Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, John G.

    2011-01-01

    Gravitational wave observations provide exceptional and unique opportunities for precision tests of gravitational physics, as predicted by general relativity (GR). Space-based gravitational wave measurements, with high signal-to-noise ratios and large numbers of observed events may provide the best-suited gravitational-wave observations for testing GR with unprecedented precision. These observations will be especially useful in testing the properties of gravitational waves and strong-field aspects of the theory which are less relevant in other observations. We review the proposed GR test based on observations of massive black hole mergers, extreme mass ratio inspirals, and galactic binary systems.

  17. Lunatics in Introductory Physics: Using Collectivized Student Moon Position Observations To Teach Basic Orbital Mechanics In Calculus Based Introductory Physics.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottorff, Mark

    2012-01-01

    A large (74 student) calculus based physics class was required to make observations of the moon over two lunar cycles using a small telescope equipped with mechanical setting circles. The data was collectivized and then analyzed in the laboratory to determine the period of the moon and to search for evidence of the eccentricity of the moon's orbit. These results were used in conjunction with the simple pendulum experiment in which the students inferred the acceleration due to gravity. The student inferred lunar orbital period and acceleration due to gravity (augmented with the radius of the Earth) enabled the students to infer the average Earth to moon distance. Class lectures, activities, and homework on gravitation and orbits were tailored to this observational activity thereby forming a learning module. A basic physics and orbital mechanics knowledge questionnaire was administered before and after the learning module. The resulting learning gains are reported here.

  18. The influence of instructional interactions on students’ mental models about the quantization of physical observables: a modern physics course case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Didiş Körhasan, Nilüfer; Eryılmaz, Ali; Erkoç, Şakir

    2016-01-01

    Mental models are coherently organized knowledge structures used to explain phenomena. They interact with social environments and evolve with the interaction. Lacking daily experience with phenomena, the social interaction gains much more importance. In this part of our multiphase study, we investigate how instructional interactions influenced students’ mental models about the quantization of physical observables. Class observations and interviews were analysed by studying students’ mental models constructed in a modern physics course during an academic semester. The research revealed that students’ mental models were influenced by (1) the manner of teaching, including instructional methodologies and content specific techniques used by the instructor, (2) order of the topics and familiarity with concepts, and (3) peers.

  19. On Whether People Have the Capacity to Make Observations of Mutually Excl usive Physical Phenomena Simultaneously

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder

    1998-04-01

    It has been shown by Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen that in quantum mechanics two different wave functions can simultaneously characterize the same physical existent. This result means that one can make predictions regarding simultaneous, mutually exclusive features of a physical existent. It is important to ask whether people have the capacity to make observations of mutually exclusive phenomena simultaneously? Our everyday experience informs us that a human observer is capable of observing only one set of physical circumstances at a time. Evidence from psychology, though, indicates that people indeed have the capacity to make observations of mutually exclusive phenomena simultaneously, even though this capacity is not generally recognized. Working independently, Sigmund Freud and William James provided some of this evidence. How the nature of the quantum mechanical wave function is associated with the problem posed by Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen, is addressed at the end of the paper.

  20. In situ observation of a soap-film catenoid—a simple educational physics experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Masato; Sato, Taku

    2010-03-01

    The solution to the Euler-Lagrange equation is an extremal functional. To understand that the functional is stationary at local extrema (maxima or minima), we propose a physics experiment that involves using a soap film to form a catenoid. A catenoid is a surface that is formed between two coaxial circular rings and is classified mathematically as a minimal surface. Using the soap film, we create catenoids between two rings and characterize the catenoid in situ while varying the distance between the rings. The shape of the soap film is very interesting and can be explained using dynamic mechanics. By observing the catenoid, physics students can observe local extrema phenomena. We stress that in situ observation of soap-film catenoids is an appropriate physics experiment that combines theory and experimentation.

  1. Research in space physics at the University of Iowa. [astronomical observatories, spaceborne astronomy, satellite observation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanallen, J. A.

    1974-01-01

    Various research projects in space physics are summarized. Emphasis is placed on: (1) the study of energetic particles in outer space and their relationships to electric, magnetic, and electromagnetic fields associated with the earth, the sun, the moon, the planets, and interplanetary medium; (2) observational work on satellites of the earth and the moon, and planetary and interplanetary spacecraft; (3) phenomenological analysis and interpretation; (4) observational work by ground based radio-astronomical and optical techniques; and (5) theoretical problems in plasma physics. Specific fields of current investigations are summarized.

  2. Eyes on the Block: Measuring Urban Physical Disorder Through In-Person Observation

    PubMed Central

    Pebley, Anne R.; Sastry, Narayan

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present results from measuring physical disorder in Los Angeles neighborhoods. Disorder measures came from structured observations conducted by trained field interviewers. We examine inter-rater reliability of disorder measures in depth. We assess the effects of observation conditions on the reliability of reporting. Finally, we examine the relationships between disorder, other indicators of neighborhood status, and selected individual outcomes. Our results indicate that there is considerable variation in the level of agreement among independent observations across items, although overall agreement is moderate to high. Durable indicators of disorder provide the most reliable measures of neighborhood conditions. Circumstances of observation have statistically significant effects on the observers’ perceived level of disorder. Physical disorder is significantly related to other indicators of neighborhood status, and to children’s reading and behavior development. This result suggests a need for further research into the effects of neighborhood disorder on children. PMID:21643484

  3. An Observational Assessment of Physical Activity Levels and Social Behaviour during Elementary School Recess

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Simon J.; Fairclough, Stuart J.; Ridgers, Nicola D.; Porteous, Conor

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the present study was to assess children's physical activity, social play behaviour, activity type and social interactions during elementary school recess using a pre-validated systematic observation system. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Two elementary schools located in Merseyside, England. Method: Fifty-six…

  4. Post-Lesson Observation Conferencing of University Supervisors and Physical Education Teacher Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Steven; Grenier, Michelle; Channell, Kathy

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of our descriptive study was to examine post-lesson observation conferencing discourse between university supervisors (USs) and physical education teacher education students (PTs). Three USs completed a questionnaire related to demographic information and their perceptions of their role as a supervisor. These USs then audio-recorded

  5. Observational Evidence for Two Cosmological Predictions Made by Bit-String Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noyes, H. P.

    2001-03-01

    This research program has a long history, starting with the discovery of the combinatorial hierarchy by A.F. Parker-Rhodes in 1961, but has not attracted much attention in the mainstream literature. One difficulty, according to several of our critics, is that although BSP has produced approximate values for well known physical parameters it has not led to quantitative predictions prior to observation. Here we meet this difficulty in an unexpected manner by showing that recent cosmological observations support two predictions made about a decade ago when there was no available way to compare them with observation.

  6. Tri-Axial Accelerometry and Heart Rate Telemetry: Relation and Agreement with Behavioral Observation in Elementary Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scruggs, Philip W.; Beveridge, Sandy K.; Clocksin, Brian D.

    2005-01-01

    The relation and agreement of tri-axial accelerometry and heart rate telemetry in measuring moderate to vigorous physical activity were examined in association to behavioral observation during 1st- and 2nd-grade physical education. In Study 1, physical activity measures of heart rate and behavioral observation were collected on 346 participants…

  7. Tri-Axial Accelerometry and Heart Rate Telemetry: Relation and Agreement with Behavioral Observation in Elementary Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scruggs, Philip W.; Beveridge, Sandy K.; Clocksin, Brian D.

    2005-01-01

    The relation and agreement of tri-axial accelerometry and heart rate telemetry in measuring moderate to vigorous physical activity were examined in association to behavioral observation during 1st- and 2nd-grade physical education. In Study 1, physical activity measures of heart rate and behavioral observation were collected on 346 participants

  8. High energy nucleus-nucleus collisions at CERN: Signatures, physical observables and experimental results

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, J.W.

    1988-02-01

    Experimental results on high energy nucleus-nucleus collisions have become available with the recent experiments at CERN utilizing 200 GeV/n oxygen and sulfur beams. Physics motivations for these experiments are presented: a description of predicted signatures for possible formation of a quark-gluon plasma and physical observables that are expected to provide important information for understanding the dynamics of these collisions. A presentation will be made of some of the first experimental results to emerge from this new field. 28 refs., 9 figs.

  9. Inclusion of Linearized Moist Physics in Nasa's Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holdaway, Daniel; Errico, Ronald; Gelaro, Ronaldo; Kim, Jong G.

    2013-01-01

    Inclusion of moist physics in the linearized version of a weather forecast model is beneficial in terms of variational data assimilation. Further, it improves the capability of important tools, such as adjoint-based observation impacts and sensitivity studies. A linearized version of the relaxed Arakawa-Schubert (RAS) convection scheme has been developed and tested in NASA's Goddard Earth Observing System data assimilation tools. A previous study of the RAS scheme showed it to exhibit reasonable linearity and stability. This motivates the development of a linearization of a near-exact version of the RAS scheme. Linearized large-scale condensation is included through simple conversion of supersaturation into precipitation. The linearization of moist physics is validated against the full nonlinear model for 6- and 24-h intervals, relevant to variational data assimilation and observation impacts, respectively. For a small number of profiles, sudden large growth in the perturbation trajectory is encountered. Efficient filtering of these profiles is achieved by diagnosis of steep gradients in a reduced version of the operator of the tangent linear model. With filtering turned on, the inclusion of linearized moist physics increases the correlation between the nonlinear perturbation trajectory and the linear approximation of the perturbation trajectory. A month-long observation impact experiment is performed and the effect of including moist physics on the impacts is discussed. Impacts from moist-sensitive instruments and channels are increased. The effect of including moist physics is examined for adjoint sensitivity studies. A case study examining an intensifying Northern Hemisphere Atlantic storm is presented. The results show a significant sensitivity with respect to moisture.

  10. Insights from an observational assessment of park-based physical activity in Nanchang, China

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Hong; Liao, Xiong; Schuller, Kristyn; Cook, Angelie; Fan, Si; Lan, Guilian; Lu, Yuanan; Yuan, Zhaokang; Moore, Justin B.; Maddock, Jay E.

    2015-01-01

    Internationally, parks have been shown to be an important community asset for physical activity (PA), but little is known about the relationship between park usage and physical activity in China. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between park user characteristics and PA in Nanchang, China. In June 2014, 75,678 people were observed in eight parks over 12 days using SOPARC, a validated systematic observation tool. A logistic regression analysis was used to determine the association between PA and park user characteristics. Most park users were older adults (53.5%) or adults (34.6%). Overall, 55% of park users engaged in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Fewer women were observed in parks than men, but were 66% more likely to be engaged in MVPA than men. Park users were more likely to be observed in MVPA between 6–9 am and when the temperature was below 30 °C. Chinese park users were more active (55%) than US studies in Tampa (30%), Chicago (49%), and Los Angeles (34%). More research is necessary to identify features of parks that are associated with greater PA so that effective interventions can be developed to promote active park use in Chinese citizens. PMID:26844171

  11. Top 10 research questions related to assessing physical activity and its contexts using systematic observation.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Thomas L; van der Mars, Hans

    2015-03-01

    Numerous methods are available to assess physical activity (PA) but systematic observation (SO) excels in being able to provide contextually rich data on the setting in which the activity occurs. As SO is particularly useful for determining how activity is influenced by the immediate physical and social environments, its use is becoming more popular. Observation tools have the advantages of flexibility, high internal validity, low inference, and low participant burden, while their disadvantages include the need for careful observer training and recalibration, inaccessibility to certain environments, and potential participant reactivity. There is a need for both scientists and practitioners to have additional information on observation techniques and systems relative to making environmental and policy decisions about PA, and in this article, we describe concepts and identify questions related to using SO in researching PA behavior. We present 10 general questions in 3 sections, including those related to: (a) ensuring data accuracy through the selection of the most appropriate methodological protocols; (b) investigating PA in school settings, including physical education, recess, and other programs; and (c) investigating PA in community settings (e.g., parks, recreation centers, youth and adult sport programs) and homes. PMID:25664670

  12. Statistical physics concepts for the explanation of effects observed in martensitic phase transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oberaigner, Eduard Roman; Leindl, Mario

    2012-09-01

    Structural solid-to-solid transformations play a key role for the behaviour of several materials, e.g., shape memory alloys, steels, polymers and ceramics. A novel theoretical approach modelling martensitic phase transformation is demonstrated in the present study. The generally formulated model is based on the block-spin approach and on renormalization in statistical mechanics and is applied to a representative volume element (resp. representative mole element) which is assumed to be in a local thermodynamic equilibrium. The neighbouring representative volume elements are in a generally different thermodynamic equilibrium. This leads to fluxes between those elements. Using fundamental physical properties of a shape memory alloy (SMA) single crystal as input data the model predicts the order parameter ‘total strain’, the martensitic phase fraction and the stress-assisted transformation accompanied by pseudo-elasticity without the requirement of evolution equations for internal variables and assumptions on the mathematical structure of the classical free energy. In order to demonstrate the novel approach the first computations are carried out for a simple one-dimensional case, which can be generalized to the two- and three-dimensional case. Results for total strain and martensitic phase fraction are in good qualitative agreement with well known experimental data according to their macroscopic strain rearrangement when phase transformation occurs. Further a material softening effect during phase transformation in SMAs is predicted by the statistical physics approach. Formulas are presented for the relevant quantities such as volume fraction, total strain, transformation strain, rates of the volume fractions and of the strains.

  13. Search for new physics in rare top decays: t t ¯ spin correlations and other observables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiers, Ken; Saha, Pratishruti; Szynkman, Alejandro; London, David; Judge, Samuel; Melendez, Jordan

    2014-11-01

    In this paper we study new-physics contributions to the top-quark decay t →b b ¯c . We search for ways of detecting such new physics via measurements at the LHC. As top quarks are mainly produced at the LHC in t t ¯ production via gluon fusion, we analyze the process g g →t t ¯→(b b ¯c ) (b ¯ℓν ¯) . We find six observables that can be used to reveal the presence of new physics in t →b b ¯c . Three are invariant mass-squared distributions involving two of the final-state particles in the top decay, and three are angular correlations between the final-state quarks coming from the t decay and the ℓ- coming from the t ¯ decay. The angular correlations are related to the t t ¯ spin correlation.

  14. Using Momentary Time Sampling to Estimate Minutes of Physical Activity in Physical Education: Validation of Scores for the System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heath, Edward M.; Coleman, Karen J.; Lensegrav, Tera L.; Fallon, Jennifer A.

    2006-01-01

    The System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time (SOFIT) is a direct observation system specifically developed for use during physical education (PE; McKenzie, 1991; McKenzie, Sallis, & Nader, 1991). The purpose of this study was to validate the estimates of time spent in various physical activity intensities obtained with the paper and pencil…

  15. Physical characterisation of near-Earth asteroid (1620) Geographos. Reconciling radar and thermal-infrared observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozitis, B.; Green, S. F.

    2014-08-01

    Context. The Yarkovsky (orbital drift) and YORP (spin state change) effects play important roles in the dynamical and physical evolution of asteroids. Thermophysical modelling of these observed effects, and of thermal-infrared observations, allows a detailed physical characterisation of an individual asteroid to be performed. Aims: We perform a detailed physical characterisation of near-Earth asteroid (1620) Geographos, a potential meteor stream source and former spacecraft target, using the same techniques as previously used for (1862) Apollo. Methods: We use the advanced thermophysical model (ATPM) on published light-curve, radar, and thermal-infrared observations to constrain the thermophysical properties of Geographos. The derived properties are used to make detailed predictions of the Yarkovsky orbital drift and YORP rotational acceleration, which are then compared against published measurements to determine Geographos's bulk density. Results: We find that Geographos has a thermal inertia of 340-100+140 J m-2 K-1 s-1/2, a roughness fraction of ≥50%, and a bulk density of 2100-450+550 kg m-3 when using the light-curve-derived shape model with the radar-derived maximum equatorial diameter of 5.04 ± 0.07 km. It is also found that the radar observations had overestimated the z-axis in Geographos's shape model because of their near-equatorial view. This results in a poor fit to the thermal-infrared observations if its effective diameter is kept fixed in the model fitting. Conclusions: The thermal inertia derived for Geographos is slightly higher than the typical values for a near-Earth asteroid of its size, and its derived bulk density suggests a rubble-pile interior structure. Large uncertainties in shape model z-axes are likely to explain why radar and thermal-infrared observations sometimes give inconsistent diameter determinations for other asteroids.

  16. Combination of geodetic observations and geophysical models for estimating consistent Earth rotation and gravity field parameters, individual excitation mechanisms and physical Earth parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Göttl, F.; Heiker, A.; Kirschner, S.; Kutterer, H.; Schmidt, M.; Seitz, F.

    2012-04-01

    Global dynamic processes in the Earth system lead to changes in the Earth's rotation, its gravity field and geometry. These quantities can be monitored by different highly precise geodetic, geometric and gravimetric observation techniques. A joint project within the German Research Unit on Earth Rotation and Global Dynamic Processes aims at the combined analysis and validation of Earth rotation observations and models. Within the project consistent time series for Earth rotation parameters and 2nd degree gravity field coefficients are determined with a Gauss-Helmert-Model. Furthermore individual Earth rotation excitation mechanisms are estimated due to combination of geometric, gravimetric and altimetric space observations and physical models of the atmosphere. Via an inverse model approach fundamental physical Earth parameters are determined from the improved geodetic observation time series and the separated excitations. This project contributes to the field of Earth system science in general and corresponds with the goals of the Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS). In our poster we summarize the project goals and provide a discussion of recent results.

  17. Physical properties (particle size, rock abundance) from thermal infrared remote observations: Implications for Mars landing sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, P. R.; Edgett, Kenneth S.

    1994-01-01

    Critical to the assessment of potential sites for the 1997 Pathfinder landing is estimation of general physical properties of the martian surface. Surface properties have been studied using a variety of spacecraft and earth-based remote sensing observations, plus in situ studies at the Viking lander sites. Because of their value in identifying landing hazards and defining scientific objectives, we focus this discussion on thermal inertia and rock abundance derived from middle-infrared (6 to 30 microns) observations. Used in conjunction with other datasets, particularly albedo and Viking orbiter images, thermal inertia and rock abundance provide clues about the properties of potential Mars landing sites.

  18. Impact of curvature divergences on physical observers in a wormhole space-time with horizons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olmo, Gonzalo J.; Rubiera-Garcia, D.; Sanchez-Puente, A.

    2016-06-01

    The impact of curvature divergences on physical observers in a black hole space-time, which, nonetheless, is geodesically complete is investigated. This space-time is an exact solution of certain extensions of general relativity coupled to Maxwell’s electrodynamics and, roughly speaking, consists of two Reissner-Nordström (or Schwarzschild or Minkowski) geometries connected by a spherical wormhole near the center. We find that, despite the existence of infinite tidal forces, causal contact is never lost among the elements making up the observer. This suggests that curvature divergences may not be as pathological as traditionally thought.

  19. Strategies for Estimating Discrete Quantities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crites, Terry W.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the benchmark and decomposition-recomposition estimation strategies and presents five techniques to develop students' estimation ability. Suggests situations involving quantities of candy and popcorn in which the teacher can model those strategies for the students. (MDH)

  20. The perception-action dynamics of action competency are altered by both physical and observational training.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, John J; Ramos, Jorge; Robson, Nina

    2015-04-01

    Action competency is defined as the ability of an individual to self-evaluate their own performance capabilities. The current experiment demonstrated that physical and observational training with a motor skill alters action competency ratings in a similar manner. Using a pre-test and post-test protocol, the results revealed that action competency is constrained prior to training by the intrinsic dynamics of relative phase (ϕ), with in-phase (ϕ = 0°) and anti-phase (ϕ = 180°) patterns receiving higher competency ratings than other relative phase patterns. After 2 days of training, action competency ratings for two trained relative phase patterns, +60° and +120°, increased following physical practice or observational practice. A transfer test revealed that both physical performance ability and action competency ability transferred to the symmetry partners (-60° and -120°) of the two trained relative phase patterns following physical or observational training. The findings also revealed that relative motion direction acts as categorical information that helps to organize action production and facilitate action competency. The results are interpreted based on the coordination dynamics theory of perception-action coupling, and extend this theory by showing that visual perception, action production, and action competency are all constrained in a consistent manner by the dynamics of the order parameter relative phase. As a whole, the findings revealed that relative motion, relative phase, and possibly relative amplitude information are all distinct sources of information that contribute to the emergence of a kinematic understanding of action in the nervous system. PMID:25618008

  1. Cool atmosphere models and observations: liability and limits of brown dwarfs and exoplanets physical parameters determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delorme, P.; Weidner, C.

    2010-10-01

    The study of cool atmospheres is currently a fruitful field of interaction between theorists developing better atmosphere models and observers discovering new cool objects and analysing their emission spectrum. Save for a few close binaries with known parallax and a dynamical mass determination, comparison of spectra to models is the only method available to observers to derive the fundamental physical parameters of a substellar object, such as mass, temperature, age or metallicity. Most of our knowledge of key substellar parameters thus rests upon theoretical models reliability. This issue is particularly acute for the newly imaged exoplanets, whose parameter range of youth and extreme low-mass has not been probed before, but we show that model reliability remains problematic even for field L and T dwarfs, whose observed spectra have guided the model development over the past fifteen years. We present several models-to-observations comparisons, which remind that even the last-generation atmosphere models keep having trouble quantitatively reproducing overall spectral parameters such as absorption band strength measured through spectral indices and broad band absolute magnitudes. These tests confirm that the models cannot yet be used at face value to read off physical parameters, and need empirical calibration on well constrained benchmarks. While the models are sufficiently predictive to produce useful differential measurements over limited parameter ranges, using them without empirical rescaling and anchoring generally leads to significantly inaccurate results.

  2. Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Norman Robert

    2013-03-01

    Preface; Introduction; Part I. The Propositions of Science: 1. The subject matter of science; 2. The nature of laws; 3. The nature of laws (contd); 4. The discovery and proof of laws; 5. The explanation of laws; 6. Theories; 7. Chance and probability; 8. The meaning of science; 9. Science and philosophy; Part II. Measurement: 10. Fundamental measurement; 11. Physical number; 12. Fractional and negative magnitudes; 13. Numerical laws and derived magnitudes; 14. Units and dimensions; 15. The uses of dimensions; 16. Errors of measurement; methodical errors; 17. Errors of measurement; errors of consistency and the adjustment of observations; 18. Mathematical physics; Appendix; Index.

  3. Hyper fast radiative transfer for the physical retrieval of surface parameters from SEVIRI observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liuzzi, G.; Masiello, G.; Serio, C.; Blasi, M. G.; Venafra, S.

    2015-09-01

    This paper describes the theoretical aspects of a fast scheme for the physical retrieval of surface temperature and emissivity from SEVIRI data, their implementation and some sample results obtained. The scheme is based on a Kalman Filter approach, which effectively exploits the temporal continuity in the observations of the geostationary Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) platform, on which SEVIRI (Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager) operates. Such scheme embodies in its core a physical retrieval algorithm, which employs an hyper fast radiative transfer code highly customized for this retrieval task. Radiative transfer and its customizations are described in detail. Fastness, accuracy and stability of the code are fully documented for a variety of surface features, showing a peculiar application to the massive Greek forest fires in August 2007.

  4. Organizations for Standardization of Quantities and Units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Højgaard Jensen, H.; Thor, A. J.

    1995-01-01

    Many international organizations have contributed to the development of the International System of Units (SI). The highest international authority on units is the General Conference on Weights and Measures (CGPM), which is an intergovernmental body. Legal aspects of units and metrology are dealt with by the International Organization of Legal Metrology (OIML), whereas scientific questions in this field are dealt with by scientific unions such as the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP), and the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC). Among their many tasks the international standards organizations, i.e. the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), implement the SI as adopted by the CGPM. They also standardize quantities, i.e. their definitions, names, and letter symbols. The main purpose of this article is to present these two organizations for standardization and to describe their role in the standardization of quantities and units.

  5. Physical controls and mesoscale variability in the Labrador Sea spring phytoplankton bloom observed by Seaglider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frajka-Williams, Eleanor; Rhines, Peter B.; Eriksen, Charles C.

    2009-12-01

    We investigated the 2005 spring phytoplankton bloom in the Labrador Sea using Seaglider, an autonomous underwater vehicle equipped with hydrographic, bio-optical and oxygen sensors. The Labrador Sea blooms in distinct phases, two of which were observed by Seaglider: the north bloom and the central Labrador Sea bloom. The dominant north bloom and subsequent zooplankton growth are enabled by the advection of low-salinity water from West Greenland in the strong and eddy-rich separation of the boundary current. The glider observed high fluorescence and oxygen supersaturation within haline-stratified eddy-like features; higher fluorescence was observed at the edges than centers of the eddies. In the central Labrador Sea, the bloom occurred in thermally stratified water. Two regions with elevated subsurface chlorophyll were also observed: a 5 m thin-layer in the southwest Labrador Current, and in the Labrador shelf-break front. The thin layer observations were consistent with vertical shearing of an initially thicker chlorophyll patch. Observations at the front showed high fluorescence down to 100 m depth and aligned with the isopycnals defining the front. The high-resolution Seaglider sampling across the entire Labrador Sea provides first estimates of the scale dependence of coincident biological and physical variables.

  6. Role of Subsurface Physics in the Assimilation of Surface Soil Moisture Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reichle, R. H.

    2010-01-01

    Root zone soil moisture controls the land-atmosphere exchange of water and energy and exhibits memory that may be useful for climate prediction at monthly scales. Assimilation of satellite-based surface soil moisture observations into a land surface model is an effective way to estimate large-scale root zone soil moisture. The propagation of surface information into deeper soil layers depends on the model-specific representation of subsurface physics that is used in the assimilation system. In a suite of experiments we assimilate synthetic surface soil moisture observations into four different models (Catchment, Mosaic, Noah and CLM) using the Ensemble Kalman Filter. We demonstrate that identical twin experiments significantly overestimate the information that can be obtained from the assimilation of surface soil moisture observations. The second key result indicates that the potential of surface soil moisture assimilation to improve root zone information is higher when the surface to root zone coupling is stronger. Our experiments also suggest that (faced with unknown true subsurface physics) overestimating surface to root zone coupling in the assimilation system provides more robust skill improvements in the root zone compared with underestimating the coupling. When CLM is excluded from the analysis, the skill improvements from using models with different vertical coupling strengths are comparable for different subsurface truths. Finally, the skill improvements through assimilation were found to be sensitive to the regional climate and soil types.

  7. Trigonometric functions of nonlinear quantities

    SciTech Connect

    Wester, D.W.

    1994-08-01

    Trigonometric functions of nonlinear quantities are introduced. Functions of the form {line_integral}(x{sup a}), {line_integral}(x{sup y}), and {line_integral}{sup n}(x{sup a}) are reported, where {line_integral} is a trigonometric function such as cos, sin, tan, cot, sec, or csc; x is a variable; a is a constant; y is a variable; and n is a constant. Sums, products and quotients of these functions are defined. Trigonometric functions of nonlinear quantities involving constants to variable powers also are mentioned. Possible applications to quantum mechanics, gravity, and a final theory of matter are discussed.

  8. What the complex joint probabilities observed in weak measurements can tell us about quantum physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, Holger F.

    2014-12-01

    Quantummechanics does not permit joint measurements of non-commuting observables. However, it is possible to measure the weak value of a projection operator, followed by the precise measurement of a different property. The results can be interpreted as complex joint probabilities of the two non-commuting measurement outcomes. Significantly, it is possible to predict the outcome of completely different measurements by combining the joint probabilities of the initial state with complex conditional probabilities relating the new measurement to the possible combinations of measurement outcomes used in the characterization of the quantum state. We can therefore conclude that the complex conditional probabilities observed in weak measurements describe fundamental state-independent relations between non-commuting properties that represent the most fundamental form of universal laws in quantum physics.

  9. What the complex joint probabilities observed in weak measurements can tell us about quantum physics

    SciTech Connect

    Hofmann, Holger F.

    2014-12-04

    Quantummechanics does not permit joint measurements of non-commuting observables. However, it is possible to measure the weak value of a projection operator, followed by the precise measurement of a different property. The results can be interpreted as complex joint probabilities of the two non-commuting measurement outcomes. Significantly, it is possible to predict the outcome of completely different measurements by combining the joint probabilities of the initial state with complex conditional probabilities relating the new measurement to the possible combinations of measurement outcomes used in the characterization of the quantum state. We can therefore conclude that the complex conditional probabilities observed in weak measurements describe fundamental state-independent relations between non-commuting properties that represent the most fundamental form of universal laws in quantum physics.

  10. Observations of physical-biogeochemical coupling in the tropical Northeast Atlantic using a fleet of gliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanzow, T.; Krahmann, G.; Karstensen, J.

    2012-12-01

    To study the coupling between physical and biogeochemical parameters, high-spatial resolution, multi-parameter measurements are required. This poses a challenge to ocean observing systems. We present results from a study in the tropical Northeast Atlantic, employing simultaneous observations from 5 gliders. Each glider recorded temperature, salinity, chlorophyll, oxygen and turbidity for the duration of 50 days. A 45 by 45 km wide area was sampled using butterfly-shaped courses, to optimize the area coverage of the gliders. Our analysis focuses on the quantification of the spatial scales of variability in the recorded parameters and the demonstration of coupling between physical and biogeochemical parameters. The gliders observed strong variability in form of changes of thermohaline properties including pronounced submesoscale variability. The scale-dependence of the different parameters is presented. Below the mixed layer, changes in oxygen and salinity imply spatio-temporal variability of the ratio of North to South Atlantic waters. We report the passing of an open-ocean salinity front, associated with pronounced changes in both the vertical chlorophyll distribution and the possible communication between the mixed layer base and the sub-surface chlorophyll maximum. Our results imply, that these variations might pose challenges to estimating chlorophyll profiles by remote sensing.Salinity (upper panel) and chlorophyll fluorescence (lower panel), as observed from a glider north of the Cape Verde Islands. Also shown are the mixed laxer base (magenta line) and a potential density surface (black line). Note that the mixed layer base ceases to reach the subsurface chlorophyll maximum after passing through the salinity front.

  11. SuperIso v2.3: A program for calculating flavor physics observables in supersymmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoudi, F.

    2009-09-01

    We describe SuperIso v2.3 which is a public program for evaluation of flavor physics observables in the minimal supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model (MSSM). SuperIso v2.3, in addition to the isospin asymmetry of B→Kγ, which was the main purpose of the first version, incorporates new flavor observables such as the branching ratio of B→μμ, the branching ratio of B→τν, the branching ratio of B→Dτν and the branching ratio of K→μν. The calculation of the branching ratio of B→Xγ is also improved in this version, as it now includes NNLO Standard Model contributions in addition to partial NLO supersymmetric contributions. The program also computes the muon anomalous magnetic moment (g-2). Four sample models are included in the package, namely mSUGRA, NUHM, AMSB and GMSB. SuperIso uses a SUSY Les Houches Accord file (SLHA1 or SLHA2) as input, which can be either generated automatically by the program via a call to external spectrum calculators, or provided by the user. The calculation of the observables is detailed in the Appendices, where a suggestion for the allowed intervals for each observable is also provided. Program summaryProgram title: SuperIso Catalogue identifier: AEAN_v2_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEAN_v2_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GNU General Public Licence No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 5977 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 39 375 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C (C99 Standard compliant) Computer: 32- or 64-bit PC, Mac Operating system: Linux, MacOS RAM: less than 1 Mb Classification: 11.6 Catalogue identifier of previous version: AEAN_v1_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Comm. 178 (2008) 745 External routines: ISASUGRA/ISAJET and/or SOFTSUSY Does the new version supersede the previous version?: yes Nature of problem: Calculation of flavor physics observables as well as the muon anomalous magnetic moment in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model with minimal flavor violation, in order to derive constraints on the supersymmetric parameter space. Solution method: SuperIso uses a SUSY Les Houches Accord file, which can be either generated automatically via a call to SOFTSUSY or ISAJET, or provided by the user. This file contains the masses and couplings of the supersymmetric particles. SuperIso then computes the most constraining flavor physics observables and the muon ( g-2). SuperIso is able to perform the calculations in different supersymmetry breaking scenarios, such as mSUGRA, NUHM, AMSB and GMSB. Reasons for new version: This new version incorporates the calculation of several additional observables, and the inclusive branching ratio of b→sγ is now computed at NNLO accuracy for the Standard Model. The implemented routines are therefore extensively modified. Summary of revisions:Compatibility with the SLHA2 input file format Implementation of the calculation of the muon anomalous magnetic moment Implementation of observables related to leptonic and semi-leptonic B meson decays Implementation of observables related to K meson decays Improvement of the calculations of the branching ratio of b→sγ (now at NNLO accuracy) and the isospin asymmetry of B→K∗γ Update of parameters to their latest values Unusual features: The code is very modular, and new routines for calculating new observables can be easily added. Running time: less than 1 sec

  12. Biogeochemical and physical glider observations in the tropical Atlantic and Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krahmann, Gerd; Brandt, Peter; Visbeck, Martin; Kanzow, Torsten

    2013-04-01

    In 2011 to 2013 GEOMAR deployed 3 groups of gliders in the tropical Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. All gliders were equipped with CTD, oxygen, fluorescence and turbidity sensors. During the several week long deployments, which were targeted to study particlar regional aspects of the tropical circulation and its effects on biogeochemical properties, the gliders collected an extensive set of biogeochmical and physical data. With the gliders we observed temporal and spatial variability on various scales. In the equatorial Atlantic a group of 7 gliders surveyed the development of the equatorial cold tongue with a rapid cooling by several degrees. A smaller group of 3 gliders was deployed south of the Atlantic's NECC. Over six weeks these gliders encountered a highly variable current field. Subsurface eddies in this region are thought to be one of the supply paths of oxygen into the oxygen minimum zone off Westafrica. A third group of gliders was recently deployed for 2 months off Peru in the coastal upwelling regime. Several of these gliders covered parallel sections perpendicular to the coastline. There the spatial and temporal extent of filamental structures were at the center of the observations. Examples of the biogeochemical and physical data collected during these deployments are shown and put into the local context.

  13. Multi-spacecraft Observations of Heavy Ion Dropouts: Physical Processes, Fractionation Rates, and Release Mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weberg, M. J.; Lepri, S. T.; Zurbuchen, T.

    2014-12-01

    Heavy ion dropouts in the solar wind are thought to originate from large, closed coronal loops. The distinctive, mass-dependent fractionation patterns of the dropouts requires that their source loops are relatively quiet and stable long enough (on the order of a day) to undergo gravitational settling. Therefore by studying the composition of heavy ion dropouts we are able to peer into the solar corona and glean information about the fine balance of physical processes. Additionally, the occurrence rates and magnetic profiles of dropouts suggest specific forms of magnetic reconnection are responsible for the release of the otherwise trapped plasma into the solar wind. In this study we identify and compare dropouts observed by two different satellites, ACE and Ulysses, which together provide over 20 years of continuous observations at a variety of heliographic latitudes and radii. The resulting partial global view (or 3D view) enables us to identify coronal source regions and release mechanisms of heavy ion dropouts. We also discuss a physical model of gravitational settling which can be used to reconcile fractionation rates with the rate at which plasma must be escaping via reconnection. Our conclusions and results may contribute towards the ongoing refinement and validation of theories which predict the origin of "slow type" solar wind.

  14. A physical model to estimate snowfall over land using AMSU-B observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Min-Jeong; Weinman, J. A.; Olson, W. S.; Chang, D.-E.; Skofronick-Jackson, G.; Wang, J. R.

    2008-05-01

    In this study, we present a physical model to retrieve snowfall rate over land using brightness temperature observations from NOAA's Advanced Microwave Sounder Unit-B (AMSU-B) at 89 GHz, 150 GHz, 183.3 ± 1 GHz, 183.3 ± 3 GHz, and 183.3 ± 7 GHz. The retrieval model is applied to the New England blizzard of 5 March 2001 which deposited about 75 cm of snow over much of Vermont, New Hampshire, and northern New York. In this physical model, prior retrieval assumptions about snowflake shape, particle size distributions, environmental conditions, and optimization methodology have been updated. Here, single scattering parameters for snow particles are calculated with the discrete-dipole approximation (DDA) method instead of assuming spherical shapes. Five different snow particle models are considered. Snow particle size distributions are assumed to vary with air temperature and to follow aircraft measurements described by previous studies. Brightness temperatures at AMSU-B frequencies for the New England blizzard are calculated using these DDA calculated single scattering parameters and particle size distributions. The vertical profiles of pressure, temperature, relative humidity and hydrometeors are provided by MM5 model simulations. These profiles are treated as the a priori database in the Bayesian retrieval algorithm. In algorithm applications to the blizzard data, calculated brightness temperatures associated with selected database profiles agree with AMSU-B observations to within about ±5 K at all five frequencies. Retrieved snowfall rates compare favorably with the near-concurrent National Weather Service (NWS) radar reflectivity measurements. The relationships between the NWS radar measured reflectivities Ze and retrieved snowfall rate R for a given snow particle model are derived by a histogram matching technique. All of these Ze-R relationships fall in the range of previously established Ze-R relationships for snowfall. This suggests that the current physical model developed in this study can reliably estimate the snowfall rate over land using the AMSU-B measured brightness temperatures.

  15. Physical properties of individual coronal loops in a solar active region observed in the XUV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, C.-C.

    1980-01-01

    The physical properties of individual coronal loops in a solar active region observed in the XUV by the slitless objective grating spectroheliograph on board Skylab are investigated. Spectroheliograms of the normal active loop region McMath 12378 reveal three distinctive structural groups of loops in different temperature ranges, namely (1) small compact and smaller loops at temperatures of about 2,000,000 K observed in Fe XV and Fe XVI; (2) large Ne VII and Mg IX loops at temperatures from 500,000 to 1,000,000 K; and (3) chromospheric ribbons in He II and H alpha. The temperature of the active region is found to be uniform at about 2,000,000 K in the loops and background while loop density is found to be 3.5 x 10 to the 9th/cu cm in the loops and 2.5 x 10 to the 9th/cu cm in the surrounding background. Significant changes in the active region are observed in 24 h, although the gross temperature density structures of many loops do not show changes in 7 min. Gas pressure within the coronal loops is found to be about 40% greater than that of the background plasma. The observed loop parameters are noted to be consistent with flux-limited models of density enhancement in magnetic flux tubes and thus no esoteric heating function is required.

  16. Physical properties of volcanic lightning: Constraints from magnetotelluric and video observations at Sakurajima volcano, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aizawa, Koki; Cimarelli, Corrado; Alatorre-Ibargüengoitia, Miguel A.; Yokoo, Akihiko; Dingwell, Donald B.; Iguchi, Masato

    2016-06-01

    The lightning generated by explosive volcanic eruptions is of interest not only as a promising technique for monitoring volcanic activity, but also for its broader implications and possible role in the origin of life on Earth, and its impact on the atmosphere and biosphere of the planet. However, at present the genetic mechanisms and physical properties of volcanic lightning remain poorly understood, as compared to our understanding of thundercloud lightning. Here, we present joint magnetotelluric (MT) data and video imagery that were used to investigate the physical properties of electrical discharges generated during explosive activity at Sakurajima volcano, Japan, and we compare these data with the characteristics of thundercloud lightning. Using two weeks of high-sensitivity, high-sample-rate MT data recorded in 2013, we detected weak electromagnetic signals radiated by volcanic lightning close to the crater. By carefully inspecting all MT waveforms that synchronized with visible flashes, and comparing with high-speed (3000 frame/s) and normal-speed (30 frame/s) videos, we identified two types of discharges. The first type consists of impulses (Type A) and is interpreted as cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning. The second type is characterized by weak electromagnetic variations with multiple peaks (Type B), and is interpreted as intra-cloud (IC) lightning. In addition, we observed a hybrid MT event wherein a continuous weak current accompanied Type A discharge. The observed features of volcanic lightning are similar to thunderstorm lightning, and the physical characteristics show that volcanic lightning can be treated as a miniature version of thunderstorm lightning in many respects. The overall duration, length, inter-stroke interval, peak current, and charge transfer all exhibit values 1-2 orders of magnitude smaller than those of thunderstorm lightning, thus suggesting a scaling relation between volcanic and thunderstorm lightning parameters that is independent of the type of charged particles. On the other hand, the polarities, which are estimated by long-time (3.4 yrs) MT (32 samples/s) and video (30 frame/s) observations, are different than those of normal thunderstorm lightning. These observations are consistent with the notion that charge structures in volcanic ash plumes are highly disordered and are characterized by numerous small charged regions with high charge density.

  17. IMOS National Reference Stations: A Continental-Wide Physical, Chemical and Biological Coastal Observing System

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Tim P.; Morello, Elisabetta B.; Evans, Karen; Richardson, Anthony J.; Rochester, Wayne; Steinberg, Craig R.; Roughan, Moninya; Thompson, Peter; Middleton, John F.; Feng, Ming; Sherrington, Robert; Brando, Vittorio; Tilbrook, Bronte; Ridgway, Ken; Allen, Simon; Doherty, Peter; Hill, Katherine; Moltmann, Tim C.

    2014-01-01

    Sustained observations allow for the tracking of change in oceanography and ecosystems, however, these are rare, particularly for the Southern Hemisphere. To address this in part, the Australian Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS) implemented a network of nine National Reference Stations (NRS). The network builds on one long-term location, where monthly water sampling has been sustained since the 1940s and two others that commenced in the 1950s. In-situ continuously moored sensors and an enhanced monthly water sampling regime now collect more than 50 data streams. Building on sampling for temperature, salinity and nutrients, the network now observes dissolved oxygen, carbon, turbidity, currents, chlorophyll a and both phytoplankton and zooplankton. Additional parameters for studies of ocean acidification and bio-optics are collected at a sub-set of sites and all data is made freely and publically available. Our preliminary results demonstrate increased utility to observe extreme events, such as marine heat waves and coastal flooding; rare events, such as plankton blooms; and have, for the first time, allowed for consistent continental scale sampling and analysis of coastal zooplankton and phytoplankton communities. Independent water sampling allows for cross validation of the deployed sensors for quality control of data that now continuously tracks daily, seasonal and annual variation. The NRS will provide multi-decadal time series, against which more spatially replicated short-term studies can be referenced, models and remote sensing products validated, and improvements made to our understanding of how large-scale, long-term change and variability in the global ocean are affecting Australia's coastal seas and ecosystems. The NRS network provides an example of how a continental scaled observing systems can be developed to collect observations that integrate across physics, chemistry and biology. PMID:25517905

  18. Relative merits of different types of rest-frame optical observations to constrain galaxy physical parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacifici, Camilla; Charlot, Stéphane; Blaizot, Jérémy; Brinchmann, Jarle

    2012-04-01

    We present a new approach to constrain galaxy physical parameters from the combined interpretation of stellar and nebular emission in wide ranges of observations. This approach relies on the Bayesian analysis of any type of galaxy spectral energy distribution using a comprehensive library of synthetic spectra assembled using state-of-the-art models of star formation and chemical enrichment histories, stellar population synthesis, nebular emission and attenuation by dust. We focus on the constraints set by five-band ugriz photometry and low- and medium-resolution spectroscopy at rest wavelengths λ= 3600-7400 Å on a few physical parameters of galaxies: the observer-frame absolute r-band stellar mass-to-light ratio, M*/Lr; the fraction of a current galaxy stellar mass formed during the last 2.5 Gyr, fSFH; the specific star formation rate, ψS; the gas-phase oxygen abundance, 12 + log(O/H); the total effective V-band absorption optical depth of the dust, ?; and the fraction of this arising from dust in the ambient interstellar medium, μ. Since these parameters cannot be known a priori for any galaxy sample, we assess the accuracy to which they can be retrieved from observations by simulating 'pseudo-observations' using models with known parameters. Assuming that these models are good approximations of true galaxies, we find that the combined analysis of stellar and nebular emission in low-resolution [50 Å full width at half-maximum (FWHM)] galaxy spectra provides valuable constraints on all physical parameters. The typical uncertainties in high-quality spectra are about 0.13 dex for M*/Lr, 0.23 for fSFH, 0.24 dex for ψS, 0.28 for 12 + log(O/H), 0.64 for ? and 0.16 for μ. The uncertainties in 12 + log(O/H) and ? tighten by about 20 per cent for galaxies with detectable emission lines and by another 45 per cent when the spectral resolution is increased to 5 Å FWHM. At this spectral resolution, the analysis of the combined stellar and nebular emission in the high-quality spectra of 12 660 Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) star-forming galaxies using our approach yields likelihood distributions of M★, 12 + log(O/H), ? and ψS similar to those obtained in previous separate analyses of the stellar and nebular emission at the original (twice higher) SDSS spectral resolution. Meanwhile, rest-frame ugriz photometry provides competitive constraints on M*/Lr. We show that the constraints derived on galaxy physical parameters from these different types of observations depend sensitively on signal-to-noise ratio. Our approach can be extended to the analysis of any type of observation across the wavelength range covered by spectral evolution models.

  19. General Relativity: Geometry Meets Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomsen, Dietrick E.

    1975-01-01

    Observing the relationship of general relativity and the geometry of space-time, the author questions whether the rest of physics has geometrical explanations. As a partial answer he discusses current research on subatomic particles employing geometric transformations, and cites the existence of geometrical definitions of physical quantities such…

  20. Virtual Observatories for Space Physics Observations and Simulations: New Routes to Efficient Access and Visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Aaron

    2005-01-01

    New tools for data access and visualization promise to make the analysis of space plasma data both more efficient and more powerful, especially for answering questions about the global structure and dynamics of the Sun-Earth system. We will show how new existing tools (particularly the Virtual Space Physics Observatory-VSPO-and the Visual System for Browsing, Analysis and Retrieval of Data-ViSBARD; look for the acronyms in Google) already provide rapid access to such information as spacecraft orbits, browse plots, and detailed data, as well as visualizations that can quickly unite our view of multispacecraft observations. We will show movies illustrating multispacecraft observations of the solar wind and magnetosphere during a magnetic storm, and of simulations of 3 0-spacecraft observations derived from MHD simulations of the magnetosphere sampled along likely trajectories of the spacecraft for the MagCon mission. An important issue remaining to be solved is how best to integrate simulation data and services into the Virtual Observatory environment, and this talk will hopefully stimulate further discussion along these lines.

  1. 7 CFR 985.12 - Salable quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 985.12 Salable quantity. Salable quantity means the total quantity of each class of oil which handlers may purchase...

  2. 7 CFR 985.12 - Salable quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 985.12 Salable quantity. Salable quantity means the total quantity of each class of oil which handlers may purchase...

  3. 7 CFR 985.12 - Salable quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 985.12 Salable quantity. Salable quantity means the total quantity of each class of oil which handlers may purchase...

  4. 7 CFR 985.12 - Salable quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 985.12 Salable quantity. Salable quantity means the total quantity of each class of oil which handlers may purchase...

  5. 7 CFR 985.12 - Salable quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 985.12 Salable quantity. Salable quantity means the total quantity of each class of oil which handlers may purchase...

  6. A comparison of protocols and observer precision for measuring physical stream attributes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitacre, H.W.; Roper, B.B.; Kershner, J.L.

    2007-01-01

    Stream monitoring programs commonly measure physical attributes to assess the effect of land management on stream habitat. Variability associated with the measurement of these attributes has been linked to a number of factors, but few studies have evaluated variability due to differences in protocols. We compared six protocols, five used by the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service and one by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, on six streams in Oregon and Idaho to determine whether differences in protocol affect values for 10 physical stream attributes. Results from Oregon and Idaho were combined for groups participating in both states, with significant differences in attribute means for 9 out of the 10 stream attributes. Significant differences occurred in 5 of 10 in Idaho, and 10 of 10 in Oregon. Coefficients of variation, signal-to-noise ratio, and root mean square error were used to evaluate measurement precision. There were differences among protocols for all attributes when states were analyzed separately and as a combined dataset. Measurement differences were influenced by choice of instruments, measurement method, measurement location, attribute definitions, and training approach. Comparison of data gathered by observers using different protocols will be difficult unless a core set of protocols for commonly measured stream attributes can be standardized among monitoring programs.

  7. SuperIso v3.0, flavor physics observables calculations: extension to NMSSM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoudi, F.

    2009-09-01

    SuperIso v3.0 is a public program for evaluation of flavor physics observables in the minimal supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model (MSSM) and the next to minimal supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model (NMSSM). SuperIso v3.0 incorporates many flavor observables such as the inclusive branching ratio of B→Xγ, the isospin asymmetry of B→Kγ, the branching ratio of B→μμ, the branching ratio of B→τν, the branching ratio of B→Dτν, the branching ratio of K→μν and the branching ratios of D→τν and D→μν. The calculation of the branching ratio of B→Xγ includes NNLO Standard Model contributions. The program also computes the muon anomalous magnetic moment (g-2). Seven sample models are included in the package, namely mSUGRA, NUHM, AMSB and GMSB for the MSSM, and CNMSSM, NGMSB and NNUHM for the NMSSM. SuperIso uses a SUSY Les Houches Accord file (SLHA1 or SLHA2) as input, which can be either generated automatically by the program via a call to external spectrum calculators (SOFTSUSY, ISAJET or NMSSMTools), or provided by the user. New version program summaryProgram title:SuperIso v3.0 Catalogue identifier: AEAN_v3_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEAN_v3_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GNU General Public Licence No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 6869 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 42 627 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C (C99 Standard compliant) Computer: 32- or 64-bit PC, Mac Operating system: Linux, MacOS RAM: less than 1 MB Classification: 11.6 External routines: ISASUGRA/ISAJET, SOFTSUSY and/or NMSSMTools Does the new version supersede the previous version?: Yes Nature of problem: Calculation of flavor physics observables as well as the muon anomalous magnetic moment in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model with minimal flavor violation and in the Next to Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model, in order to derive constraints on the supersymmetric parameter spaces. Solution method:SuperIso uses a SUSY Les Houches Accord (SLHA1 or SLHA2) file, which can be either generated automatically via a call to SOFTSUSY, ISAJET or NMSSMTools, or provided by the user. This file contains the masses, mixings and couplings of the supersymmetric particles. SuperIso then computes the most constraining flavor physics observables and the muon ( g-2). SuperIso is able to perform the calculations in different supersymmetry breaking scenarios, such as mSUGRA, NUHM, AMSB and GMSB, as well as constrained NMSSM scenarios such as CNMSSM, NNUHM and NGMSB. Reasons for new version:SuperIso has been extended to the next to minimal supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model (NMSSM). The implemented routines are therefore extensively modified. Summary of revisions:Improvement of the SLHA2 reader. Replacement of "float" variables by "double". Implementation of an interface with NMSSMTools. Extension of the calculation of flavor observables as well as the muon anomalous magnetic moment to NMSSM. Addition of three different NMSSM scenarios: CNMSSM, NGMSB and NNUHM. Three sample main programs have been added: cnmssm.c, ngmsb.c and nnuhm.c. Additional instructions to use them are given when running them without arguments. Unusual features: The code is very flexible, and new observables can be added easily. Running time: Less than 1 sec

  8. Assimilation of streamflow and soil moisture observations in a distributed physically-based hydrological model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trudel, M.; Leconte, R.; Paniconi, C.

    2012-04-01

    Data assimilation techniques not only enhance model simulations and predictions, they also give the opportunity to pose a diagnostic on both model and observations used in the assimilation process. The goal of this research is to assimilate streamflow and soil moisture in a distributed physically-based hydrological model, CATHY (CATchment HYdrology). The study site is the des Anglais Watershed, a 690-km2 river basin located in southern Québec, Canada. An ensemble Kalman filter was used to assimilate streamflow observations at the basin outlet and at interior locations, as well as soil moisture at different depths (15, 45, and 90 cm) measured with probes (6 stations) and surface soil moisture estimated from radar remote sensing. The use of a Latin hypercube sampling instead of the Monte Carlo method to generate the ensemble reduced the size of ensemble, and therefore the calculation time. An important issue in data assimilation is the estimation of error covariance matrices. Different post-assimilation diagnostics, based on innovations (observation-minus-background), analysis residuals (observation-minus-analysis) and analysis increments (analysis-minus-background) were used to evaluate assimilation optimality. A calibration approach was performed to determine the standard deviation of model parameters, forcing data and observations that lead to optimal assimilations. The analysis of innovations showed a lag between the model prediction and the observation during rainfall events. The assimilation of streamflow observations (outlet or interior locations) corrected this discrepancy. The assimilation of outlet streamflow observations improved the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiencies (NSE) at both outlet and interior point locations. The structure of the state vector used in this study allowed the assimilation of outlet streamflow observations to have an impact over streamflow simulations at interior point locations. Indeed, the state vector contains the outlet streamflow (Qout) and the incoming streamflow (Qin), since both these informations are used by the Muskingum-Cunge surface routing equation in CATHY. However, assimilation of streamflow observations increased systematically the soil moisture values simulated at 15 and 45 cm. The combined assimilation of outlet streamflow and soil moisture improved the NSE of streamflow without degrading the simulation of soil moisture. Moreover, the assimilation of streamflow and soil moisture observations from one station (at 45 cm depth) appeared to have a similar impact on soil moisture simulations compared to a combined assimilation of streamflow and soil moisture observations from five stations. Finally, it was found that the frequency of the assimilation of soil moisture observations has a greater impact on the results than the spatial coverage of the assimilation: assimilation of daily soil moisture measured with probes at six stations gives better results than the assimilation of surface soil moisture estimated from radar remote sensing 8 times over the course of a summer season.

  9. PHYSICS. Observation of phononic helical edge states in a mechanical topological insulator.

    PubMed

    Süsstrunk, Roman; Huber, Sebastian D

    2015-07-01

    A topological insulator, as originally proposed for electrons governed by quantum mechanics, is characterized by a dichotomy between the interior and the edge of a finite system: The bulk has an energy gap, and the edges sustain excitations traversing this gap. However, it has remained an open question whether the same physics can be observed for systems obeying Newton's equations of motion. We conducted experiments to characterize the collective behavior of mechanical oscillators exhibiting the phenomenology of the quantum spin Hall effect. The phononic edge modes are shown to be helical, and we demonstrate their topological protection via the stability of the edge states against imperfections. Our results may enable the design of topological acoustic metamaterials that can capitalize on the stability of the surface phonons as reliable wave guides. PMID:26138969

  10. The Role of Physical Attractiveness in the Observation of Adult-Child Interactions: Eye of the Beholder or Behavioral Reality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritter, Jean M.; Langlois, Judith H.

    1988-01-01

    Studies of the susceptibility of observations of adult-child interactions to bias because of the physical attractiveness of target persons indicated that when making global ratings observers were significantly and favorably biased toward attractive women. No bias was obtained when observers used a molecular coding strategy. (RH)

  11. WERA: an observational tool develop to investigate the physical risk factor associated with WMSDs.

    PubMed

    Abd Rahman, Mohd Nasrull; Abdul Rani, Mat Rebi; Rohani, Jafri Mohd

    2011-12-01

    This paper describes the development of the Workplace Ergonomic Risk Assessment (WERA) for investigating the physical risk factor associated with work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs). The initial development of WERA tool involved the following procedures: (1) first stage, development of WERA prototype from literature review, (2) second stage, evaluation of the psychometric properties including (a) validity trials and (b) reliability and usability trials. In the validity trials, the relationship of the individual WERA body part scores to the development of pain or discomfort is statistically significant for the wrist, shoulder and back regions. It shows that the WERA assessment provided a good indication of work-related musculoskeletal disorders which might be reported as pain, ache or discomfort in the relevant body regions. In the reliability trials, the results of inter-observer reliability shows that moderate agreement among the observers while from the feedback questionnaire survey about the usability of WERA tool, all participants including expert and management teams agreed that the prototype of WERA tool was easy and quick to use, applicable to workplace assessment for the wide range of job/task and valuable at work. It was confirmed that there was no need of training required to do WERA assessment. Therefore, the WERA assessment has been designed for easy and quick use, and for those who are trained to use it do not need previous skills in observation techniques although this would be an advantage. As WERA is a pen and paper technique that can be used without any special equipment, WERA assessment can be done in any space of workplaces without disruption to the task that have been observed. PMID:25665205

  12. A Physical Model to Estimate Snowfall over Land using AMSU-B Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Min-Jeong; Weinman, J. A.; Olson, W. S.; Chang, D.-E.; Skofronick-Jackson, G.; Wang, J. R.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we present an improved physical model to retrieve snowfall rate over land using brightness temperature observations from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Advanced Microwave Sounder Unit-B (AMSU-B) at 89 GHz, 150 GHz, 183.3 +/- 1 GHz, 183.3 +/- 3 GHz, and 183.3 +/- 7 GHz. The retrieval model is applied to the New England blizzard of March 5, 2001 which deposited about 75 cm of snow over much of Vermont, New Hampshire, and northern New York. In this improved physical model, prior retrieval assumptions about snowflake shape, particle size distributions, environmental conditions, and optimization methodology have been updated. Here, single scattering parameters for snow particles are calculated with the Discrete-Dipole Approximation (DDA) method instead of assuming spherical shapes. Five different snow particle models (hexagonal columns, hexagonal plates, and three different kinds of aggregates) are considered. Snow particle size distributions are assumed to vary with air temperature and to follow aircraft measurements described by previous studies. Brightness temperatures at AMSU-B frequencies for the New England blizzard are calculated using these DDA calculated single scattering parameters and particle size distributions. The vertical profiles of pressure, temperature, relative humidity and hydrometeors are provided by MM5 model simulations. These profiles are treated as the a priori data base in the Bayesian retrieval algorithm. In algorithm applications to the blizzard data, calculated brightness temperatures associated with selected database profiles agree with AMSU-B observations to within about +/- 5 K at all five frequencies. Retrieved snowfall rates compare favorably with the near-concurrent National Weather Service (NWS) radar reflectivity measurements. The relationships between the NWS radar measured reflectivities Z(sub e) and retrieved snowfall rate R for a given snow particle model are derived by a histogram matching technique. All of these Z(sub e)-R relationships fall in the range of previously established Z(sub e)-R relationships for snowfall. This suggests that the current physical model developed in this study can reliably estimate the snowfall rate over land using the AMSU-B measured brightness temperatures.

  13. Physical and functional bivalency observed among TCR/CD3 complexes isolated from primary T cells

    PubMed Central

    Schrum, Adam G.; Gil, Diana; Turka, Laurence A.; Palmer, Ed

    2011-01-01

    Unlike BCR and secreted immunoglobulin, TCR expression is not currently thought to occur in a bivalent form. The conventional monovalent model of TCR/CD3 is supported by published studies of complexes solubilized in the detergent digitonin, in which bivalency was not observed. We have revisited the issue of TCR valency by examining complexes isolated from primary ?? T cells after solubilization in digitonin. Using immunoprecipitation followed by flow cytometry (IP-FCM), we unexpectedly observed TCR/CD3 complexes that contained two TCRs per complex. Standard anti-TCR antibodies, being bivalent themselves, tended to bind with double occupancy to bivalent TCRs; this property masked the presence of the second TCR per complex in certain Ab binding assays, which may partially explain why previous data did not reveal these bivalent complexes. We also found that the prevalence of bivalency among fully assembled, mature TCR/CD3 complexes was sufficient to impact the functional performance of immunoprecipitated TCRs in binding antigenic peptide/MHC-Ig fusion proteins. Both TCR positions per bivalent complex required an antigen-specific TCR in order to effect optimal binding to these soluble ligands. Therefore, we conclude that in primary T cells, TCR/CD3 complexes can be found that are physically and functionally bivalent. The expression of bivalent TCR/CD3 complexes has implications regarding potential mechanisms by which antigen may trigger signaling. It also suggests the possibility that the potential for bivalent expression could represent a general feature of antigen receptors. PMID:21666056

  14. Some Mineral Physics Observations Pertinent to the Rheological Properties of Super-Earths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karato, S.

    2010-12-01

    Both orbital and thermal evolution of recently discovered super-Earths (terrestrial planets whit mass exceeding that of Earth) depends critically on the rheological properties of their mantle. Although direct experimental studies on rheological properties are unavailable under the conditions equivalent to the deep mantles of these planets (~1 TPa and ~5000 K), a review of key materials science observations suggests that the deep mantle of these planets have much lower viscosity than most of the shallower regions of these planets. The key observations are: (i) phase transformations likely occur under these conditions including the B1 to B2 transition in MgO (1) and the dissociation of MgSiO3 into two oxides (MgO and SiO2) (2), (ii) the systematics in high-temperature creep show that materials with NaCl (B1) structures have much smaller viscosity than other oxides compared at the same normalized conditions (3), and (iii) diffusion coefficients in most of materials have a minimum at certain pressure and above that pressure it increases with pressure (due to mechanism transition) (4). In addition, a review of existing studies also shows that the ionic solids with B2 (CsCl) structure have larger diffusion coefficients than their B1 counter parts. Furthermore, if metallization transition occurs in any of these materials, delocalized electrons will further weaken the material. All of these observations or concepts suggest that even though the viscosity of a planet (below the asthenosphere) increases with depth in the relatively shallow regions, viscosity likely starts to decrease with depth below some critical depth (>~2000 km). The inferred low viscosity of super-Earths implies a large tidal dissipation and relatively rapid orbital evolution. Also such a rheological properties likely promote a layered mantle convection that enhances a weak deep mantle and retards the thermal evolution. 1. A. R. Oganov, M. J. Gillan, G. D. Price, Journal of Chemical Physics 118, 10174 (2003). 2. K. Umemoto, R. M. Wentzcovitch, P. B. Allen, Science 311, 983 (2006). 3. S. Karato, Physics of Earth and Planetary Interiors 55, 234 (1989). 4. S. Karato, Programme and Abstracts, The Seismological Society of Japan 1, 216 (1978).

  15. Physical and chemical structure of the IC 63 nebula. 1: Millimeter and far-infrared observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jansen, David J.; Van Dishoeck, Ewine F.; Black, John H.

    1994-01-01

    We present results of a (sub)millimeter and far-infrared study of the reflection/emission nebula IC 63, located close to the BO.5p star gamma Cas. The source has been mapped in the (12)CO 2 - 1 and 3 - 2, (13)CO 2 - 1, and CS 2 - 1 lines and shows a small molecular cloud less than 1'x 2' in extent, which coincides with the brightest optical nebulosity and IRAS 100 micrometer emission. IC 63 is therefore an excellent example of a nearby (d approximately = 230 pc), edge-on photon-dominated region (PDR). Various other molecules have been observed at the peak position through their rotational transitions, in order to probe the physical parameters and to derive abundances. The measured CO, HCO(+) HCN, CS and H2CO line ratios suggest that the cloud is warm, T approximately = 50 K, and dense, n (H2) approximately = 5 x 10(exp 4)/cu cm. Excitation of molecules by electrons may play a significant role in this PDR. On the basis of these physical conditions, column densities have been determined from the observed line strengths. Several different methods are discussed to constrain the H2 column density, including the use of measured submillimeter continuum fluxes. The resulting abundances of species such as CN and CS are similar to those found in cold, dark clouds like TMC-1 and L134N. However, the abundances of other simple molecules such as HNC, HCO(+) and possibly C2H are lower by factors of at least three, probably because of the enhanced photodissociation rates at a distance of 1.3 pc from a B star. Surprisingly, only the abundance of the H2S molecule appears enhanced. More complex, volatile molecules such as CH3OH CH3CN and HNCO, and the sulfur-oxides SO and SO2 have not been found in this cloud. Limited observations of molecules in the reflection nebulea NGC 2023 are presented as well, and the resulting molecular abundances are compared with those found for IC 63.

  16. SuperIso Relic: A program for calculating relic density and flavor physics observables in Supersymmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arbey, A.; Mahmoudi, F.

    2010-07-01

    We describe SuperIso Relic, a public program for evaluation of relic density and flavor physics observables in the minimal supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model (MSSM). SuperIso Relic is an extension of the SuperIso program which adds to the flavor observables of SuperIso the computation of all possible annihilation and coannihilation processes of the LSP which are required for the relic density calculation. All amplitudes have been generated at the tree level with FeynArts/FormCalc, and widths of the Higgs bosons are computed with FeynHiggs at the two-loop level. SuperIso Relic also provides the possibility to modify the assumptions of the cosmological model, and to study their consequences on the relic density. Catalogue identifier: AEGD_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEGD_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: yes No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 2 274 720 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 6 735 649 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C (C99 Standard compliant) and Fortran Computer: 32- or 64-bit PC, Mac Operating system: Linux, MacOS RAM: 100 Mb Classification: 1.9, 11.6 External routines: ISASUGRA/ISAJET and/or SOFTSUSY, FeynHiggs Does the new version supersede the previous version?: No (AEAN_v2_0) Nature of problem: Calculation of the lightest supersymmetric particle relic density, as well as flavor physics observables, in order to derive constraints on the supersymmetric parameter space. Solution method: SuperIso Relic uses a SUSY Les Houches Accord file, which can be either generated automatically via a call to SOFTSUSY or ISAJET, or provided by the user. This file contains the masses and couplings of the supersymmetric particles. SuperIso Relic then computes the lightest supersymmetric particle relic density as well as the most constraining flavor physics observables. To do so, it calculates first the widths of the Higgs bosons with FeynHiggs, and then it evaluates the squared amplitudes of the diagrams needed for the relic density calculation. These thousands of diagrams have been previously generated with the FeynArts/FormCalc package. SuperIso Relic is able to perform the calculations in different supersymmetry breaking scenarios, such as mSUGRA, NUHM, AMSB and GMSB. Reasons for new version: This version incorporates the calculation of the relic density, which is often used to constrain Supersymmetry. Summary of revisions:Addition of the relic density calculationReplacement of "float" type by "double". Unusual features: SuperIso Relic includes the possibility of altering the underlying cosmological model and testing the influence of the cosmological assumptions. Additional comments: This program is closely associated with the "SuperIso" program - CPC Program Library, Catalogue Id. AEAN. Running time:Compilation time: a couple of hours for the statically linked version, a few minutes for the dynamically linked version. Running time: about 1 second, or a few seconds if libraries need to be compiled on the fly.

  17. Linking observations at active volcanoes to physical processes through conduit flow modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Mark; Neuberg, Jurgen

    2010-05-01

    Low frequency seismic events observed on volcanoes such as Soufriere hills, Montserrat may offer key indications about the state of a volcanic system. To obtain a better understanding of the source of these events and of the physical processes that take place within a volcano it is necessary to understand the conditions of magma a depth. This can be achieved through conduit flow modelling (Collier & Neuberg, 2006). 2-D compressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved through a Finite Element approach, for differing initial water and crystal contents, magma temperatures, chamber overpressures and geometric shapes of conduit. In the fully interdependent modelled system each of these variables has an effect on the magma density, viscosity, gas content, and also the pressure within the flow. These variables in turn affect the magma ascent velocity and the overall eruption dynamics of an active system. Of particular interest are the changes engendered in the flow by relativity small variations in the conduit geometry. These changes can have a profound local effect of the ascent velocity of the magma. By restricting the width of 15m wide, 5000m long vertical conduit over a 100m distance a significant acceleration of the magma is seen in this area. This has implications for the generation of Low-Frequency (LF) events at volcanic systems. The strain-induced fracture of viscoelastic magma or brittle failure of melt has been previously discussed as a possible source of LF events by several authors (e.g. Tuffen et al., 2003; Neuberg et al., 2006). The location of such brittle failure however has been seen to occur at relativity shallow depths (<1000m), which does not agree with the location of recorded LF events. By varying the geometry of the conduit and causing accelerations in the magma flow, localised increases in the shear strain rate of up to 30% are observed. This provides a mechanism of increasing the depth over witch brittle failure of melt may occur. A key observable of the Low frequency events observed on Montserrat is their tightly confined source region. The high degree of similarity of the waveforms from such events indicates a stationary common source within a finite volume of 150m x 150m x 150m (Neuberg et al., 2006). By modelling the physical processes that occur at depth within the volcano it has been possible to identify a potential source region of these events caused by the shape of the conduit, that has a fixed position and will have the potential cause repeatable events whenever magma is moving within the system. Making links of this type is essential to form a better understanding of what the observations made by monitoring systems actually relate to in terms of the volcanoes activity. Tuffen, H., Dingwell, D.B., and Pinkerton, H. 2003. Repeated fracture and healing of silicic magma generate flow banding and earthquakes? Geology, 31(12), 1089-1092. Collier, L. and Neuberg, J. 2006. Incorporating seismic observations into 2D conduit flow modelling. Journal of volcanology and geothermal research, 152, 331-346. Neuberg, J., Tuffen, H., Collier, L., Green, D., Powell, T., and Dingwell, P. 2006. The trigger mechanisms of low-frequency swarms on Montserrat. Journal of volcanology and geothermal research, 153, 37-50.

  18. Plasma Physical Parameters along CME-driven Shocks. II. Observation-Simulation Comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacchini, F.; Susino, R.; Bemporad, A.; Lapenta, G.

    2015-08-01

    In this work, we compare the spatial distribution of the plasma parameters along the 1999 June 11 coronal mass ejection (CME)-driven shock front with the results obtained from a CME-like event simulated with the FLIPMHD3D code, based on the FLIP-MHD particle-in-cell method. The observational data are retrieved from the combination of white-light coronagraphic data (for the upstream values) and the application of the Rankine-Hugoniot equations (for the downstream values). The comparison shows a higher compression ratio X and Alfvénic Mach number MA at the shock nose, and a stronger magnetic field deflection d toward the flanks, in agreement with observations. Then, we compare the spatial distribution of MA with the profiles obtained from the solutions of the shock adiabatic equation relating MA, X, and {θ }{Bn} (the angle between the upstream magnetic field and the shock front normal) for the special cases of parallel and perpendicular shock, and with a semi-empirical expression for a generically oblique shock. The semi-empirical curve approximates the actual values of MA very well, if the effects of a non-negligible shock thickness {δ }{sh} and plasma-to magnetic pressure ratio {β }u are taken into account throughout the computation. Moreover, the simulated shock turns out to be supercritical at the nose and sub-critical at the flanks. Finally, we develop a new one-dimensional Lagrangian ideal MHD method based on the GrAALE code, to simulate the ion-electron temperature decoupling due to the shock transit. Two models are used, a simple solar wind model and a variable-γ model. Both produce results in agreement with observations, the second one being capable of introducing the physics responsible for the additional electron heating due to secondary effects (collisions, Alfvén waves, etc.).

  19. Observing the Sun with ALMA: A New Window into Solar Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastian, Timothy S.; Shimojo, Masumi; Wedemeyer-Bohm, Sven; ALMA North American Solar Development Team

    2015-01-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) is a joint North American, European, and East Asian interferometric array that opens the mm-submm wavelength part of the electromagnetic spectrum for general astrophysical exploration, providing high resolution imaging in frequency bands. Despite being a general purpose instrument, provisions have been made to enable solar observations with ALMA, thereby offering a new window into solar physics. Radiation emitted at ALMA wavelengths originates mostly from the chromosphere, which plays an important role in the transport of energy and matter and the heating of the outer layers of the solar atmosphere. Despite decades of intensive research, an understanding of the chromosphere is still elusive, and challenging to observe owing to the complicated formation mechanisms of currently available diagnostics. ALMA will change the scene substantially as it serves as a nearly linear thermometer at high spatial, temporal, and spectral resolution, enabling us to study the complex interaction of magnetic fields and shock waves and yet-to-be-discovered dynamical processes.Moreover, ALMA will play an important role in the study of energetic emissions associated with solar flares at sub-THz frequencies.This presentations introduces ALMA to the solar physcis community and motivates the science that can be addressed by ALMA using a number of examples based on 3D MHD simulations. In addition, the means by which ALMA is used to acquire and calibrate solar observations will be discussed. Finally, we encourage potential users to join us in further defining and articulating the exciting science to be explored with this fundamentally new instrument.

  20. Computer simulating observations of the Lunar physical libration for the Japanese Lunar project ILOM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrova, Natalia; Hanada, Hideo

    2010-05-01

    In the frame of the second stage of the Japanese space mission SELENE-2 (Hanada et al. 2009) the project ILOM (In-situ Lunar Orientation Measurement) planned after 2017years is a kind of instrument for positioning on the Moon. It will be set near the lunar pole and will determine parameters of lunar physical libration by positioning of several tens of stars in the field of view regularly for longer than one year. Presented work is dedicated to analyses of computer simulating future observations. It's proposed that for every star crossing lunar prime meridian its polar distance will be to measure. The methods of optimal star observation are being developed for the future experiment. The equations are constructed to determine libration angles ? (t),ρ(t),σ(t)- on the basis of observed polar distances pobs: (| f1(?,ρ,Iσ,pobs) = 0 |{ f2(?,ρ,Iσ,pobs) = 0 | f3(?,ρ,Iσ,pobs) = 0 |( or f(X) = 0, where ; f = ? f1 ? | f2 | |? f3 |? X = ? ? ? | ρ | |? Iσ |? (1) At the present stage we have developed the software for selection of stars for these future polar observations. Stars were taken from various stellar catalogues, such as the UCAC2-BSS, Hipparcos, Tycho and FK6. The software reduces ICRS coordinates of star to selenographical system at the epoch of observation (Petrova et al., 2009). For example, to the epochs 2017 - 2018 more than 50 stars brighter than m = 12 were selected for the northern pole. In total, these stars give about 600 crossings of the prime meridian during one year. Nevertheless, only a few stars (2-5) may be observed in a vicinity of the one moment. This is not enough to have sufficient sample to exclude various kind of errors. The software includes programmes which can determine the moment of transition of star across the meridian and theoretical values of libration angles at this moments. A serious problem arises when we try to solve equations (1) with the purpose to determine libration angles on the basis of simulated pobs.. Polar distances are calculated using the analytical theory of physical libration Petrova et al. (2008; 2009). We cannot use Newton's method for solution of the equation, because the Jacobian | | || δδfx11 δδfx12 δδf1x3-|| || δδfx2 δδfx2 δδf2x-|| J(X ) = || δf13 δf23 δ3f3-|| = 0. || δx1 δx2 δx3 || We transformed equations to the iteration form xi = φi(X). Used iteration methods have unsatisfactory convergence: inaccuracy in polar distance of 1 milliseconds of arc causes inaccuracy of 0.01arcsec in ρ and in Iσ, and 0.1 arcsec in ?. Results of our computer simulating showed It's necessary to carry out measuring of polar distances of stars in several meridians simultaneously to increase sample of stars. It's necessary to find additional links (relations) between observed parameters and libration angles to have stable mathematical methods to receive solutions for lunar rotation with high accuracy. The research was supported by the Russian-Japanese grant RFFI-JSPS 09-02-92113, (2009-2010) References: Hanada H., Noda H., Kikuchi F. et al., 2009. Different kind of observations of lunar rotation and gravity for SELENE-2. Proc of conf. Astrokazan-2009, August 19 - 26, Kazan, Russia. p. 172-175 Petrova N., Gusev A., Kawano N., Hanada H., 2008. Free librations of the two-layer Moon and the possibilities of their detection. Advances in Space Res., v 42, p. 1398-1404 Petrova N., Gusev A., Hanada H., Ivanova T., Akutina V., 2009. Application of the analytical theory of Lunar physical libration for simulating observations of stars for the future Japanese project ILOM. Proc of conf. Astrokazan-2009, August 19 - 26, Kazan, Russia. p.197 - 201.

  1. Data base on physical observations of near-Earth asteroids and establishment of a network to coordinate observations of newly discovered near-Earth asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, D. R.; Chapman, C. R.; Campins, H.

    1990-01-01

    This program consists of two tasks: (1) development of a data base of physical observations of near-earth asteroids and establishment of a network to coordinate observations of newly discovered earth-approaching asteroids; and (2) a simulation of the surface of low-activity comets. Significant progress was made on task one and, and task two was completed during the period covered by this progress report.

  2. Hans A. Bethe Prize: Astrophysical, observational and nuclear-physics aspects of r-process nucleosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kratz, Karl-Ludwig

    2014-03-01

    Guided by the Solar System (S.S.) abundance peaks at A ~= 130 and A ~= 195, the basic mechanisms for the rapid neutron-capture process (the r-process) have been known for over 50 years. However, even today, all proposed scenarios and sites face problems with astrophysical conditions as well as with the necessary nuclear-physics input. In my talk, I will describe efforts in experimental and theoretical nuclear-structure data for modeling today's three groups of r-process ``observables'', i.e. the bulk S.S. isotopic abundances, the elemental abundances in metal-poor halo stars, and peculiar isotopic patterns measured in certain cosmic stardust grains. To set a historical basis, I will briefly recall our site-independent ``waiting-point'' model, with superpositions of neutron-density components and the use of the first global, unified nuclear input based on the mass model FRDM(1992). This approach provided a considerable leap forward in the basic understanding of the required astrophysical conditions, as well as of specific shell-structure properties far from stability. Starting in the early millenium, the above simple model has been replaced by more realistic, dynamical parameter studies within the high-entropy wind scenario of core-collapse supernovae, now with superpositions of entropy (S) and electron-fraction (Ye) components. Furthermore, an improved, global set of nuclear-physics data is used today, based on the new mass model FRDM(2012). With this nuclear and astrophysics parameter combination, a new fit to the S.S. r-abundances will be shown, and its improvements and remaining deficiencies in terms of underlying shell structure will be discussed. Concerning the abundance patterns in metal-poor halo stars, an interpretation of the production of ``r-rich'' (e.g. CS 22892-052) and ``r-poor'' (e.g. HD 122563) stars in terms of different (Ye), S combinations will be presented. Finally, for the third group of ``r-observables'', a possible origin of the anomalous Xe-H pattern in presolar nanodiamonds by the ``main'' component of a ``cold'' r-process is suggested.

  3. Laboratory Simulations of Planetary Surfaces: Understanding Regolith Physical Properties from Astronomical Photometric Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Robert M.; Hapke, Bruce W.; Boryta, Mark D.; Manatt, Ken S.; Smythe, William D.

    2015-08-01

    Abstract BodySolar system bodies are observed at many scattering angles. The reflection and polarization change with phase angle of light scattered from particulates has been studied for a century in the lab in efforts to understand clouds, aerosols, planetary ring systems and planetary regoliths. These effects must be understood in order to infer surface properties from astronomical data. The increase in reflectance with decreasing phase angle, the ‘Opposition Effect’ (OE), has been well documented in astronomical observations and laboratory studies. Variations in linear polarization with phase angle have also been well studied. Nevertheless, there is no generally accepted physical explanation. Our lab studies show that the OE in particulate materials is due to two processes, Shadow Hiding (SHOE) and Coherent Backscattering (CBOE). SHOE arises because, as phase angle nears zero, shadows cast by regolith grains upon one another become less visible. CBOE results from constructive interference between rays traveling the same path but in opposite directions. The CBOE process assumes the returned radiation is multiply scattered. We have deconstructed the scattering process using a goniometric photopolarimeter (GPP). This permits us to present samples with light that is linearly polarized in, and perpendicular to, the scattering plane. We make angular scattering measurements of the light scattered from a simulated planetary surface. The GPP also illuminates samples with both right handed and left handed circularly polarized light. This permits us to measure the phase curve, the linear and circular polarization ratios and the linear polarization as a function of phase angle. These GPP measurements permit us to quantify the amount of multiple scattering in a particulate medium in the laboratory. At smaller phase angles in highly reflective material such as Al2O3, multiple scattering increases. This is a consequence of coherent backscattering of photons that are multiply scattered in the medium. These photometric properties are dependent on the size and the albedo of the regolith particles.

  4. The physics of water masers observable with ALMA and SOFIA: model predictions for evolved stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, M. D.; Baudry, A.; Richards, A. M. S.; Humphreys, E. M. L.; Sobolev, A. M.; Yates, J. A.

    2016-02-01

    We present the results of models that were designed to study all possible water maser transitions in the frequency range 0-1.91 THz, with particular emphasis on maser transitions that may be generated in evolved-star envelopes and observed with the ALMA and SOFIA telescopes. We used tens of thousands of radiative transfer models of both spin-species of H2O, spanning a considerable parameter space in number density, kinetic temperature and dust temperature. Results, in the form of maser optical depths, have been summarized in a master table. Maser transitions identified in these models were grouped according to loci of inverted regions in the density/kinetic temperature plane, a property clearly related to the dominant mode of pumping. A more detailed study of the effect of dust temperature on maser optical depth enabled us to divide the maser transitions into three groups: those with both collisional and radiative pumping schemes (22, 96, 209, 321, 325, 395, 941 and 1486 GHz), a much larger set that are predominantly radiatively pumped, and another large group with a predominantly collisional pump. The effect of accelerative and decelerative velocity shifts of up to 5 km s-1 was found to be generally modest, with the primary effect of reducing computed maser optical depths. More subtle asymmetric effects, dependent on line overlap, include maximum gains offset from zero shift by >1 km s-1, but these effects were predominantly found under conditions of weak amplification. These models will allow astronomers to use multitransition water maser observations to constrain physical conditions down to the size of individual masing clouds (size of a few astronomical units).

  5. Chemical and physical properties of bulk aerosols within four sectors observed during TRACE-P

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, C. E.; Anderson, B. E.; Talbot, R. W.; Dibb, J. E.; Fuelberg, H. E.; Hudgins, C. H.; Kiley, C. M.; Russo, R.; Scheuer, E.; Seid, G.; Thornhill, K. L.; Winstead, E.

    2003-11-01

    Chemical and physical aerosol data collected on the DC-8 during TRACE-P were grouped into four sectors based on back trajectories. The four sectors represent long-range transport from the west (WSW), regional circulation over the western Pacific and Southeast Asia (SE Asia), polluted transport from northern Asia with substantial sea salt at low altitudes (NNW) and a substantial amount of dust (Channel). WSW has generally low mixing ratios at both middle and high altitudes, with the bulk of the aerosol mass due to non-sea-salt water-soluble inorganic species. Low altitude SE Asia also has low mean mixing ratios in general, with the majority of the aerosol mass comprised of non-sea-salts, however, soot is also relatively important in this region. NNW had the highest mean sea salt mixing ratios, with the aerosol mass at low altitudes (<2 km) evenly divided between sea salts, non-sea-salts, and dust. The highest mean mixing ratios of water-soluble ions and soot were observed at the lowest altitudes (<2 km) in the Channel sector. The bulk of the aerosol mass exported from Asia emanates from Channel at both low and midaltitudes, due to the prevalence of dust compared to other sectors. Number densities show enhanced fine particles for Channel and NNW, while their volume distributions are enhanced due to sea salt and dust. Low-altitude Channel exhibits the highest condensation nuclei (CN) number densities along with enhanced scattering coefficients, compared to the other sectors. At midaltitudes (2-7 km), low mean CN number densities coupled with a high proportion of nonvolatile particles (?65%) observed in polluted sectors (Channel and NNW) are attributed to wet scavenging which removes hygroscopic CN particles. Low single scatter albedo in SE Asia reflects enhanced soot.

  6. Chemical and Physical Properties of Bulk Aerosols within Four Sectors Observed during TRACE-P

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, C. E.; Anderson, B. E.; Talbot, R. W.; Dibb, J. E.; Fuelberg, E.; Hudgins, C. H.; Kiley, C. M.; Russo, R.; Scheuer, E.; Seid, G.

    2003-01-01

    Chemical and physical aerosol data collected on the DC-8 during TRACE-P were grouped into four sectors based on back trajectories. The four sectors represent long-range transport from the west (WSW), regional circulation over the western Pacific and Southeast Asia (SE Asia), polluted transport from Northern Asia with substantial sea salt at low altitudes (NNW) and a substantial amount of dust (Channel). WSW has generally low mixing ratios at both middle and high altitudes, with the bulk of the aerosol mass due to non-sea-salt water-soluble inorganic species. Low altitude SE Asia also has low mean mixing ratios in general, with the majority of the aerosol mass comprised of non-sea-salts, however, soot is also relatively important m this region. "w had the highest mean sea salt mixing ratios, with the aerosol mass at low altitudes (a km) evenly divided between sea salts, mm-sea-salts, and dust. The highest mean mixing ratios of water-soluble ions and soot were observed at the lowest altitudes (a km) in the Channel sector. The bulk of the aerosol mass exported from Asia emanates h m Channel at both low and midaltitudes, due to the prevalence of dust compared to other sectors. Number densities show enhanced fine particles for Channel and NNW, while their volume distributions are enhanced due to sea salt and dust Low-altitude Channel exhibits the highest condensation nuclei ((34) number densities along with enhanced scattering coefficients, compared to the other sectors. At midaltitudes (2-7 km), low mean CN number densities coupled with a high proportion of nonvolatile particles (265%) observed in polluted sectors (Channel and NNW) are attributed to wet scavenging which removes hygroscopic CN particles. Low single scatter albedo m SE Asia reflects enhanced soot

  7. Analysis of the physical state of one Arctic polar stratospheric cloud based on observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drdla, K.; Tabazadeh, A.; Turco, R. P.; Jacobson, M. Z.; Dye, J. E.; Twohy, C.; Baumgardner, D.

    1994-01-01

    During the Arctic Airborne Stratospheric Expedition (AASE) simultaneous measurements of aerosol size distribution and NO(y)(HN03 + NO + NO2 + 2(N205)) were made along ER-2 flight paths. The flow characteristics of the NO(y) instrument allow us to derive the condensed NO(y) amount (assumed to be HN03) present during polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) events. Analysis of the January 24th flight indicates that this condensed HN03 amount does not agree well with the aerosol volume if the observed PSCs are composed of solid nitric acid trihydrate (NAT), as is generally assumed. However, the composition agrees well with that predicted for liquid H2S04/HN03/H20 solution droplets using a new Aerosol Physical Chemistry Model (APCM). The agreement corresponds in detail to variations in temperature and humidity. The weight percentages of H2SO4, HN03, and H2O derived from the measurements all correspond to those predicted for ternary, liquid solutions.

  8. The Megamaser Cosmology Project. VII. Investigating Disk Physics Using Spectral Monitoring Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesce, D. W.; Braatz, J. A.; Condon, J. J.; Gao, F.; Henkel, C.; Litzinger, E.; Lo, K. Y.; Reid, M. J.

    2015-09-01

    We use single-dish radio spectra of known 22 GHz H2O megamasers, primarily gathered from the large data set observed by the Megamaser Cosmology Project, to identify Keplerian accretion disks and to investigate several aspects of the disk physics. We test a mechanism for maser excitation proposed by Maoz & McKee (1998), whereby population inversion arises in gas behind spiral shocks traveling through the disk. Though the flux of redshifted features is larger on average than that of blueshifted features, in support of the model, the high-velocity features show none of the predicted systematic velocity drifts. We find rapid intra-day variability in the maser spectrum of ESO 558-G009 that is likely the result of interstellar scintillation, for which we favor a nearby (D ≈ 70 pc) scattering screen. In a search for reverberation in six well-sampled sources, we find that any radially propagating signal must be contributing ≲10% of the total variability. We also set limits on the magnetic field strengths in seven sources, using strong flaring events to check for the presence of Zeeman splitting. These limits are typically 200-300 mG (1σ), but our most stringent limits reach down to 73 mG for the galaxy NGC 1194.

  9. Transportation-cyber-physical-systems-oriented engine cylinder pressure estimation using high gain observer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yong-Fu; Xiao-Pei, Kou; Zheng, Tai-Xiong; Li, Yin-Guo

    2015-05-01

    In transportation cyber-physical-systems (T-CPS), vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communications play an important role in the coordination between individual vehicles as well as between vehicles and the roadside infrastructures, and engine cylinder pressure is significant for engine diagnosis on-line and torque control within the information exchange process under V2V communications. However, the parametric uncertainties caused from measurement noise in T-CPS lead to the dynamic performance deterioration of the engine cylinder pressure estimation. Considering the high accuracy requirement under V2V communications, a high gain observer based on the engine dynamic model is designed to improve the accuracy of pressure estimation. Then, the analyses about convergence, converge speed and stability of the corresponding error model are conducted using the Laplace and Lyapunov method. Finally, results from combination of Simulink with GT-Power based numerical experiments and comparisons demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach with respect to robustness and accuracy. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61304197), the Scientific and Technological Talents of Chongqing, China (Grant No. cstc2014kjrc-qnrc30002), the Key Project of Application and Development of Chongqing, China (Grant No. cstc2014yykfB40001), the Natural Science Funds of Chongqing, China (Grant No. cstc2014jcyjA60003), and the Doctoral Start-up Funds of Chongqing University of Posts and Telecommunications, China (Grant No. A2012-26).

  10. PHYSICAL CONDITIONS IN A CORONAL MASS EJECTION FROM HINODE, STEREO, AND SOHO OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Landi, E.; Raymond, J. C.; Miralles, M. P.; Hara, H.

    2010-03-01

    In the present work, we analyze multiwavelength observations from Hinode, Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), and STEREO of the early phases of a coronal mass ejection (CME). We use Hinode/EIS and SOHO/UVCS high-resolution spectra to measure the physical properties of the CME ejecta as a function of time at 1.1 and 1.9 solar radii. Hinode/XRT images are used in combination with EIS spectra to constrain the high temperature plasma properties of the ejecta. SECCHI/EUVI, SECCHI/COR 1, SOHO/EIT, and SOHO/LASCO images are used to measure the CME trajectory, velocity, and acceleration. The combination of measurements of plane of the sky velocities from two different directions allows us to determine the total velocity of the CME plasma up to 5 solar radii. Plasma properties, dynamical status, thermal structure, and brightness distributions are used to constrain the energy content of the CME plasma and to determine the heating rate. We find that the heating is larger than the kinetic energy, and compare it to theoretical predictions from models of CME plasma heating and acceleration.

  11. The physical conditions in IRDC clumps from Herschel/HIFI observations of H2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shipman, R. F.; van der Tak, F. F. S.; Wyrowski, F.; Herpin, F.; Frieswijk, W.

    2014-10-01

    Context. The earliest phases of high-mass star formation are poorly understood. Aims: Our goal is to determine the physical conditions and kinematic structure of massive starforming cloud clumps. Methods: We analyse H2O 557 GHz line profiles observed with HIFI toward four positions in two infrared-dark cloud clumps. By comparison with ground-based C17O, N2H+, CH3OH, and NH3 line observations, we constrain the volume density and kinetic temperature of the gas and estimate the column density and abundance of H2O and N2H+. Results: The observed water lines are complex with emission and absorption components. The absorption is redshifted and consistent with a cold envelope, while the emission is interpreted as resulting from proto-stellar outflows. The gas density in the clumps is ~107 cm-3. The o-H2O outflow column density is 0.3-3.0 × 1014 cm-2. The o-H2O absorption column density is between 1.5 × 1014 and 2.6 × 1015 cm-2 with cold o-H2O abundances between 1.5 × 10-9 and 3.1 × 10-8. Conclusions: All clumps have high gas densities (~107 cm-3) and display infalling gas. Three of the four clumps have outflows. The clumps form an evolutionary sequence as probed by H2O N2H+, NH3, and CH3OH. We find that G28-MM is the most evolved, followed by G11-MM and then G28-NH3. The least evolved clump is G11-NH3 which shows no signposts of starformation; G11-NH3 is a high-mass pre-stellar core. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia with important participation of NASA.Tables 4, 6, 8, 10, 11, and Appendix A are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgFinal Herschel and APEX data used in the paper (FITS files) are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/570/A51

  12. Arctic daily temperature and precipitation extremes: Observed and simulated physical behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glisan, Justin Michael

    Simulations using a six-member ensemble of Pan-Arctic WRF (PAW) were produced on two Arctic domains with 50-km resolution to analyze precipitation and temperature extremes for various periods. The first study used a domain developed for the Regional Arctic Climate Model (RACM). Initial simulations revealed deep atmospheric circulation biases over the northern Pacific Ocean, manifested in pressure, geopotential height, and temperature fields. Possible remedies to correct these large biases, such as modifying the physical domain or using different initial/boundary conditions, were unsuccessful. Spectral (interior) nudging was introduced as a way of constraining the model to be more consistent with observed behavior. However, such control over numerical model behavior raises concerns over how much nudging may affect unforced variability and extremes. Strong nudging may reduce or filter out extreme events, since the nudging pushes the model toward a relatively smooth, large-scale state. The question then becomes---what is the minimum spectral nudging needed to correct biases while not limiting the simulation of extreme events? To determine this, we use varying degrees of spectral nudging, using WRF's standard nudging as a reference point during January and July 2007. Results suggest that there is a marked lack of sensitivity to varying degrees of nudging. Moreover, given that nudging is an artificial forcing applied in the model, an important outcome of this work is that nudging strength apparently can be considerably smaller than WRF's standard strength and still produce reliable simulations. In the remaining studies, we used the same PAW setup to analyze daily precipitation extremes simulated over a 19-year period on the CORDEX Arctic domain for winter and summer. We defined these seasons as the three-month period leading up to and including the climatological sea ice maximum and minimum, respectively. Analysis focused on four North American regions defined using climatological records, regional weather patterns, and geographical/topographical features. We compared simulated extremes with those occurring at corresponding observing stations in the U.S. National Climate Data Center's (NCDC's) Global Summary of the Day. Our analysis focused on variations in features of the extremes such as magnitudes, spatial scales, and temporal regimes. Using composites of extreme events, we also analyzed the processes producing these extremes, comparing circulation, pressure, temperature and humidity fields from the ERA-Interim reanalysis and the model output. The analysis revealed the importance of atmospheric convection in the Arctic for some extreme precipitation events and the overall importance of topographic precipitation. The analysis established the physical credibility of the simulations for extreme behavior, laying a foundation for examining projected changes in extreme precipitation. It also highlighted the utility of the model for extracting behavior that one cannot discern directly from the observations, such as summer convective precipitation.

  13. Balancing Teacher Quality and Quantity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bond, Helen

    The world is facing a shortage of trained teachers. According to the 2010 Global Monitoring Report approximately 10.3 million teachers will be needed globally to staff classrooms from Bangkok to Canada. The situation is worse in Sub-Saharan Africa. Estimates suggest that approximately 1.2 million new teachers will be needed in Sub-Saharan Africa alone to achieve universal primary education goals by 2015. Increases in primary school enrollments, drought, and HIV-AIDS have exacerbated the need for well trained teachers. Despite the need, the focus is on balancing quality with quantity. An effective teacher is deemed a critical element, although not the only one, in a student's success in the classroom. This paper focuses on the dilemma of meeting universal primary education goals in Sub-Saharan Africa, while maintaining teacher quality in fragile contexts.

  14. Orbital and physical characteristics of meter-scale impactors from airburst observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, P.; Wiegert, P.; Clark, D.; Tagliaferri, E.

    2016-03-01

    We have analyzed the orbits and ablation characteristics in the atmosphere of 59 Earth-impacting fireballs, produced by meteoroids 1 m in diameter or larger, described here as meter-scale. Using heights at peak luminosity as a proxy for strength, we determine that there is roughly an order of magnitude spread in strengths of the population of meter-scale impactors at the Earth. We use fireballs producing recovered meteorites and well documented fireballs from ground-based camera networks to calibrate our ablation model interpretation of the observed peak height of luminosity as a function of speed. The orbits and physical strength of these objects are consistent with the majority being asteroidal bodies originating from the inner main asteroid belt. This is in contrast to earlier suggestions by Ceplecha (Ceplecha, Z. [1994]. Astron. Astrophys. 286, 967-970) that the majority of meter-tens of meter sized meteoroids are "… cometary bodies of the weakest known structure". We find a lower limit of ∼10-15% of our objects have a possible cometary (Jupiter-Family comet and/or Halley-type comet) origin based on orbital characteristics alone. Only half this number, however, also show evidence for weaker than average structure. Two events, Sumava and USG 20131121, have exceptionally high (relative to the remainder of the population) heights of peak brightness. These are physically most consistent with high microporosity objects, though both were on asteroidal-type orbits. We also find three events, including the Oct 8, 2009 airburst near Sulawesi, Indonesia, which display comparatively low heights of peak brightness, consistent with strong monolithic stones or iron meteoroids. Based on orbital similarity, we find a probable connection among several events in our population with the Taurid meteoroid complex; no other major meteoroid streams show probable linkages to the orbits of our meter-scale population. Our impactors cover almost four orders of magnitude in mass, but no trend in height of peak brightness as a function of mass is evident, suggesting no strong trend in strength with size for meter-scale impactors consistent with the results of Popova et al. (Popova, O.P. et al. [2011]. Meteorit. Planet. Sci. 46, 1525-1550).

  15. Subtleties of invariance, covariance and observer independence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klajn, B.; Smolić, I.

    2013-07-01

    The role of the observers is frequently obscured in the literature, either by writing equations in a coordinate system implicitly pertaining to some specific observer or by entangling the invariance and the observer dependence of physical quantities. Using examples in relativistic kinematics and classical electrodynamics, we clarify the confusion underlying these misconceptions.

  16. Household water quantity and health: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Stelmach, Rachel D; Clasen, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    While the quantity of water used in the home is thought to be an important determinant of health, much of the evidence relies on using water access as a proxy for quantity. This review examines the health effects of household water quantity using studies that directly measured water quantity. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and article reference lists. Eligible studies included experimental and observational studies that measured a difference in water quantity and quantified an association between water quantity and health outcomes. 21 studies, divided into six of the many possible water-quantity associated outcomes, met the eligibility criteria. Due to heterogeneity in designs, settings, methods, and outcomes, a meta-analysis was inappropriate. Overall results showed a positive association between water quantity and health outcomes, but the effect depended on how the water was used. Increased water usage for personal hygiene was generally associated with improved trachoma outcomes, while increased water consumption was generally associated with reduced gastrointestinal infection and diarrheal disease and improved growth outcomes. In high-income countries, increased water consumption was associated with higher rates of renal cell carcinoma and bladder cancer but not associated with type II diabetes, cardiac-related mortality, or all-cause mortality. PMID:26030467

  17. Household Water Quantity and Health: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Stelmach, Rachel D.; Clasen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    While the quantity of water used in the home is thought to be an important determinant of health, much of the evidence relies on using water access as a proxy for quantity. This review examines the health effects of household water quantity using studies that directly measured water quantity. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and article reference lists. Eligible studies included experimental and observational studies that measured a difference in water quantity and quantified an association between water quantity and health outcomes. 21 studies, divided into six of the many possible water-quantity associated outcomes, met the eligibility criteria. Due to heterogeneity in designs, settings, methods, and outcomes, a meta-analysis was inappropriate. Overall results showed a positive association between water quantity and health outcomes, but the effect depended on how the water was used. Increased water usage for personal hygiene was generally associated with improved trachoma outcomes, while increased water consumption was generally associated with reduced gastrointestinal infection and diarrheal disease and improved growth outcomes. In high-income countries, increased water consumption was associated with higher rates of renal cell carcinoma and bladder cancer but not associated with type II diabetes, cardiac-related mortality, or all-cause mortality. PMID:26030467

  18. Change in physical structure of a phenol-spiked sapric histosol observed by Differential Scanning Calorimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ondruch, Pavel; Kucerik, Jiri; Schaumann, Gabriele E.

    2014-05-01

    Interactions of pollutants with soil organic matter (SOM), their fate and transformation are crucial for understanding of soil functions and properties. In past, many papers dealing with sorption of organic and inorganic compounds have been published. However, their aim was almost exceptionally fo-cused on the pollutants themselves, determination of sorption isotherms and influence of external factors, while the change in SOM supramolecular structure was usually ignored. The SOM structure is, however, very important, since the adsorbed pollutant might have a significant influence on soil stability and functions. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) represents a technique, which has been successfully used to analyze the physical structure and physico-chemical aging of SOM. It has been found out that water molecules progressively stabilize SOM (water molecule bridge (WaMB)) (Schaumann & Bertmer 2008). Those bridges connect and stabilize SOM and can be disrupted at higher temperature (WaMB transition; (Kunhi Mouvenchery et al. 2013; Schaumann et al. 2013). In the same temperature region melting of aliphatic moieties can be observed (Hu et al. 2000; Chilom & Rice 2005; Kucerik et al. submitted 2013). In this work, we studied the effect of phenol on the physical structure of sapric histosol. Phenol was dissolved in various solvents (water, acetone, hexane, methanol) and added to soils. After the evaporation of solvents by air drying, the sample was equilibrated at 76% relative humidity for 3 weeks. Using DSC, we investigated the influence of phenol on histosol structure and time dependence of melting temperature of aliphatic moieties and WaMB transition. While addition of pure organic solvent only resulted in slightly increased transition temperatures, both melting temperature and WaMB transition temperature were significantly reduced in most cases if phenol was dissolved in these solvents. Water treatment caused a decrease in WaMB transition temperature but increased melting temperature. During the 150 days of physico-chemical aging, an increase in WaMB transition and melting temperature of aliphatic crystallites was was observed. Several types of treatments contrasting with this development were attributed to specific solvent -phenol interactions and will be discussed in this contribution. The results indicate that after introduction of phenol and during the consequent relaxation of the SOM structure, the re-formation of water molecule bridges is significantly reduced and decelerated. WaMB has been suggested as one SOM stabilizing mechanism (Schaumann & Bertmer 2008); the incorporation of phenol destabilizes the physical structure of SOM. It is assumed that phenol can penetrate into the WaMB hotspots, competes with water and/or disrupts WaMB or participate in WaMB formation. Simultaneously, phenol can penetrate and irreversibly change also the aliphatic crystallites, which are traditionally not considered being actively involved in sorption processes. It furthermore could compete with the organic matter for the hydration water. In this contribution, we will discuss these mechanisms. The results clearly demonstrate the potential of DSC to probe labile (physical) structures in soil organic matter and to elucidate interaction of organic chemicals with SOM moieties. References Chilom, G. & Rice, J.A. (2005). Glass transition and crystallite melting in natural organic matter. Organic Geochemistry, 36, 1339-1346. Hu, W.-G.; Mao, J.; Xing, B. & Schmidt-Rohr, K. (2000). Poly(methylene) crystallites in humic substances detected by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. Environmental Science and Technology, 34, 530-534. Kucerik, J.; Schwarz, J.; Jaeger, A.; Bertmer, M. & Schaumann, G. (submitted 2013). Character of transitions causing physicochemical aging of a sapric histosol. Kunhi Mouvenchery, Y.; Jaeger, A.; Aquino, A.J.A.; Tunega, D.; Diehl, D.; Bertmer, M. & Schaumann, G.E. (2013). Restructuring of a peat in interaction with multivalent cations: Effect of cation type and aging time. PLoS ONE, 8, e65359. Schaumann, G.E. & Bertmer, M. (2008). Do water molecules bridge soil organic matter molecule segments? European Journal of Soil Science, 59, 423-429. Schaumann, G.E.; Gildemeister, D.; Kunhi Mouvenchery, Y.; Spielvogel, S. & Diehl, D. (2013). Interactions between cations and water molecule bridges in soil organic matter. Journal of Soils and Sediments, 13, 1579-1588.

  19. Unravelling ICM Physics and AGN Feedback with Deep Chandra Observations of NGC 5813

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randall, Scott; Nulsen, Paul; Jones, Christine; Forman, William; Clarke, Tracy

    2015-09-01

    We present results based on very deep (650 ks) Chandra observations of the galaxy group NGC 5813. This system shows three pairs of collinear cavities, with each pair associated with an elliptical AGN outburstshock. Due to the relatively regular morphology of this system, and the unique unambiguous detection of three distinct AGN outburstshocks, it is particularly well-suited for the study of AGN feedbackand the AGN outburst history. The implied mean kinetic power is roughly the same for each outburst, demonstrating that the average AGN kinetic luminosity can remain stable over long timescales (roughly 50Myr). The two older outbursts have larger, roughly equal total energies as compared with the youngest outburst, implying that the youngest outburst is ongoing. We find that the radiative cooling rate and the mean shock heating rate of the gas are well balanced at each shock front, suggesting that AGN outburst shock heating alone is sufficient to offset cooling and establish AGN/ICM feedback within at least the central 30 kpc. This heating takes place roughly isotropically and most strongly at small radii, as is required for feedback to operate. We suggest that shock heating may play a significant role in AGN feedback at smaller radii in other systems, where weak shocks are more difficult to detect. We find non-zero shockfront widths that are too large to be explained by particle diffusion. Instead, all measured widths are consistent with shock broadening due to propagation through a turbulent ICM with a mean turbulent speed of roughly 70 km/s. Significant contributions to our understanding of AGN feedback and ICM physics, partially via studies similar to the one described here, will be one of the major achievements of the Athena mission.

  20. Physical Conditions in Quiescent Dark Cloud Cores Determined from Multitransition Observations of CCS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolkovitch, Debra; Langer, William D.; Goldsmith, Paul F.; Heyer, Mark

    1997-03-01

    We have studied three transitions of the CCS molecule to determine physical conditions in L1498 and TMC-1D, two narrow-line dense cores in the Taurus region. We observed the NJ = 12 --> 01, 34 --> 23, and 78 --> 67 transitions at 22.3, 45.4, and 93.9 GHz, respectively, at 50" angular resolution. The intensities of the emission lines have been analyzed using statistical equilibrium calculations and collision rates calculated for the CCS-H2 system. These were obtained from the Molscat scattering code together with inclusion of spin dependence in Hund's case (b) model. We find that the kinetic temperature in both sources is extremely low, between 7 and 10 K. The L1498 emission appears to originate in a single velocity component with mean hydrogen density 3-14 × 104 cm-3. We analyzed three velocity components in TMC-1D separately, and find that the low-velocity component has a mean H2 density of 6 × 103 cm-3, while the two higher velocity components are denser by approximately a factor of 3. The L1498 core is close to virial equilibrium in that the magnitude of its gravitational energy is close to that of its kinetic energy. However, the cores corresponding to the three velocity components in TMC-1D are unbound by factors of 2-7. We dedicate this paper to the memory of Sheldon Green, who passed away in 1995 December. Sheldon was an outstanding chemist who made many significant contributions to molecular astrophysics.

  1. Physical Observations of (196256) 2003 EH1, Presumed Parent of the Quadrantid Meteoroid Stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasuga, Toshihiro; Jewitt, David

    2015-11-01

    The near-Earth asteroid (196256) 2003 EH1 has been suggested to have a dynamical association with the Quadrantid meteoroid stream. We present photometric observations taken to investigate the physical character of this body and to explore its possible relation to the stream. We find no evidence for ongoing mass loss. A model fitted to the point-like surface brightness profile at 2.1 AU limits the fractional contribution to the integrated brightness by the near-nucleus coma to ≤2.5%. Assuming an albedo equal to those typical of cometary nuclei (pR = 0.04), we find that the effective nucleus radius is re = 2.0 ± 0.2 km. Time-resolved R-band photometry can be fitted by a two-peaked light curve having a rotational period of 12.650 ± 0.033 hr. The range of the light curve, ΔmR = 0.44 ± 0.01 mag, is indicative of an elongated shape having an axis ratio of ˜1.5 projected into the plane of the sky. The asteroid shows colors slightly redder than the Sun, being comparable with those of C-type asteroids. The limit to the mass loss rate set by the absence of the resolved coma is ≲2.5 × 10-2 kg s-1, corresponding to an upper limit on the fraction of the surface that could be sublimating water ice fA ≲ 10-4. Even if sustained over the 200-500 year dynamical age of the Quadrantid stream, the total mass loss from 2003 EH1 would be too small to supply the reported stream mass (1013 kg), implying either that the stream has another parent or that mass loss from 2003 EH1 is episodic.

  2. The 21st Century Physics Classroom: What Students, Teachers, and Classroom Observers Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sunal, Dennis W.; Dantzler, John A.; Sunal, Cynthia Szymanski; Turner, Donna P.; Harrell, James W.; Simon, Marsha; Aggarwal, Mohan D.

    2016-01-01

    Before we can effectively apply specific interventions through professional development, it is important to determine what is occurring in our high school physics classrooms. This study investigated common professional practices in physics teaching among a representative sample group of schools and teachers from a diverse, geographically large…

  3. Physical parameters of the Orion Bar photodissociation region from radio recombination line observations at 8 mm.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsivilev, A. P.

    2014-10-01

    Observations of carbon (C), hydrogen and helium (H, He) radio recombination lines (RRLs) at four positions in the Orion Bar photodissociation region (PDR) and toward the center of Orion A have been performed with the RT-22 radio telescope (Pushchino) at 8 mm. The physical parameters of the PDR at these points have been estimated by comparing the carbon RRLs and infrared CII and OI lines. A hydrogen number density in the range 1.2-3.1 × 10^5 cm^-3 and a mean size of the region along the line of sight (L) in the range 0.006-0.04 pc have been derived. The PDR temperature decreases with increasing distance from the exciting star (θ 1 C Ori) from 210-230 to 140-150 K (a distance of ≃5'). The data obtained confirm the increase in the PDR size along the line of sight toward the Orion Bar, where, however, L has turned out to be less than the available values in the literature, which can be explained by the presence of clumps in the PDR. A density jump is evident in the Orion Bar region. The PDR zone encompasses the core of the HII region by a thin layer and extends farther, delineating the boundary and the ionization front of the core of the HII region in the Orion Bar and further out the boundary between the halo of the HII region and the molecular cloud. The derived emission measure (EM) toward the Orion Bar has been compared with other C RRL observations. The EM measured from carbon RRLs is EM ≃ 100(±50%) pc cm^-6, imposing constraints on the possible two-component PDR structure. Estimates show that the star θ 1 C Ori is quite sufficient as a carbon ionization source in the Orion Bar PDR. Some of the data on the ionized hot gas (HII) in this direction have been obtained from H and He RRLs. In particular, the radial velocities (V lsr) of the HII region are blueshifted with respect to V lsr of the PDR by 10-17 km s^-1, while the relative ionized helium abundance decreases with increasing distance from the star, indicating that the helium ionization zone is smaller than the ionized hydrogen one.

  4. Transformative Relation of Kinematical Descriptive Quantities Defined by Different Spatial Referential Frame, Its Property and Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Ji

    2012-08-01

    Quantitative transformations between corresponding kinetic quantities defined by any two spatial referential frames, whose relative kinematics relations (purely rotational and translational movement) are known, are presented based on necessarily descriptive definitions of the fundamental concepts (instant, time, spatial referential frame that distinguishes from Maths. Coordination, physical point) had being clarified by directly empirical observation with artificially descriptive purpose. Inductive investigation of the transformation reveals that all physical quantities such as charge, temperature, time, volume, length, temporal rate of the quantities and relations like temporal relation between signal source and observer as such are independent to spatial frames transformation except above kinematical quantities transformations, kinematics related dynamics such as Newton ’ s second law existing only in inertial frames and exchange of kinetic energy of mass being valid only in a selected inertial frame. From above bas is, we demonstrate a series of inferences and applications such as phase velocity of light being direct respect to medium (including vacuum) rather than to the frame, using spatial referential frame to describe any measurable field (electric field, magnetic field, gravitational field) and the field ’ s variation; and have tables to contrast and evaluate all aspects of those hypotheses related with spacetime such as distorted spacetime around massive stellar, four dimension spacetime, gravitational time dilation and non - Euclid geometry with new one. The demonstration strongly suggests all the hypotheses are invalid in capable tested concepts ’ meaning and relations. The conventional work on frame transformation and its property, hypothesized by Voigt, Heaviside, Lorentz, Poincare and Einstein a century ago with some mathematical speculation lacking rigorous definition of the fundamental concepts such as instant, time, spatial reference, straight line, plane area, merely good in building up patchwork to do self p referred explanation by making up derivative concepts or accumulating new hypothesis, has disturbed people to describe the physical nature by setting up the sound basis of concept and relations with capable tested method, it’s time to be replaced by empirically effective alternative.

  5. 48 CFR 36.516 - Quantity surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Quantity surveys. 36.516... CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 36.516 Quantity surveys. The contracting officer may insert the clause at 52.236-16, Quantity Surveys, in solicitations and contracts...

  6. 48 CFR 36.516 - Quantity surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Quantity surveys. 36.516... CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 36.516 Quantity surveys. The contracting officer may insert the clause at 52.236-16, Quantity Surveys, in solicitations and contracts...

  7. 48 CFR 36.516 - Quantity surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Quantity surveys. 36.516... CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 36.516 Quantity surveys. The contracting officer may insert the clause at 52.236-16, Quantity Surveys, in solicitations and contracts...

  8. 48 CFR 36.516 - Quantity surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Quantity surveys. 36.516... CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 36.516 Quantity surveys. The contracting officer may insert the clause at 52.236-16, Quantity Surveys, in solicitations and contracts...

  9. 48 CFR 36.516 - Quantity surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Quantity surveys. 36.516... CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 36.516 Quantity surveys. The contracting officer may insert the clause at 52.236-16, Quantity Surveys, in solicitations and contracts...

  10. 40 CFR 201.21 - Quantities measured.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Quantities measured. 201.21 Section 201.21 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS... § 201.21 Quantities measured. The quantities to be measured under the test conditions described...

  11. 40 CFR 201.21 - Quantities measured.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Quantities measured. 201.21 Section 201.21 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS... § 201.21 Quantities measured. The quantities to be measured under the test conditions described...

  12. Objectively measured physical activity and longitudinal changes in adolescent body fatness: an observational cohort study*

    PubMed Central

    Collings, P. J.; Wijndaele, K.; Corder, K.; Westgate, K.; Ridgway, C. L.; Sharp, S. J.; Atkin, A. J.; Stephen, A. M.; Bamber, D.; Goodyer, I.; Brage, S.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background The data regarding prospective associations between physical activity (PA) and adiposity in youth are inconsistent. Objective The objective of this study was to investigate associations between baseline levels of objectively measured PA and changes in adiposity over 2.5 years from mid‐to‐late adolescence. Methods This was an observational cohort study in 728 school students (43% boys) from Cambridgeshire, United Kingdom. Fat mass index (FMI, kg m−2) was estimated at baseline (mean ± standard deviation age: 15 ± 0.3 years) and follow‐up (17.5 ± 0.3 years) by anthropometry and bioelectrical impedance. Habitual PA was assessed at baseline by ≥3 d combined heart rate and movement sensing. Average daily PA energy expenditure (PAEE) and the time (min d−1) spent in light, moderate and vigorous intensity PA (LPA, MPA and VPA, respectively) was estimated. Multilevel models were used to investigate associations between baseline PA and change in FMI (ΔFMI). Adjustment for baseline age, sex, follow‐up duration, area‐level socioeconomic status, season of PA assessment, sedentary time, energy intake and sleep duration was made; baseline FMI was also added in a second model. Results FMI increased significantly over follow‐up (0.6 ± 1.2 kg m−2, P < 0.001). Baseline PAEE and LPA positively predicted ΔFMI in overfat participants (P ≤ 0.030), as did VPA in initially normal fat participants (P ≤ 0.044). There were further positive associations between PAEE and ΔFMI in normal fat participants, and between MPA and ΔFMI in both fat groups, when adjusted for baseline FMI (P ≤ 0.024). Conclusions Baseline PAEE and its subcomponents were positively associated with small and unlikely clinically relevant increases in ΔFMI. These counter‐intuitive findings may be explained by behavioural changes during the course of study follow‐up. PMID:25919340

  13. Extended analysis of space borne active sensors for the interpretation of observed and simulated global cloud physical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, K.; Okamoto, H.

    2011-12-01

    Combined observations from CloudSat/CALIPSO provide wide coverage of cloud vertical properties over the globe. A unique way to deal with the cloud microphysics retrieval, from these active sensors, at grids with insufficient numbers of observables was introduced to extend our earlier analyses of lidar/radar measurement from space. The method avoids the use of a prescribed parameterization among the observables and cloud microphysics and compares well with the lidar-radar method. Application of the approach provides further interpretation on the observed and simulated cloud physical properties at single instrument regions.

  14. 10 CFR 37.77 - Advance notification of shipment of category 1 quantities of radioactive material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... of radioactive material. 37.77 Section 37.77 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF CATEGORY 1 AND CATEGORY 2 QUANTITIES OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL Physical Protection in Transit § 37.77 Advance notification of shipment of category 1 quantities of radioactive material. As specified...

  15. 10 CFR 37.71 - Additional requirements for transfer of category 1 and category 2 quantities of radioactive...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... category 2 quantities of radioactive material. 37.71 Section 37.71 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF CATEGORY 1 AND CATEGORY 2 QUANTITIES OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL Physical Protection in... radioactive material. A licensee transferring a category 1 or category 2 quantity of radioactive material to...

  16. Park characteristics, use, and physical activity: A review of studies using SOPARC (System for Observing Play and Recreation in Communities).

    PubMed

    Evenson, Kelly R; Jones, Sydney A; Holliday, Katelyn M; Cohen, Deborah A; McKenzie, Thomas L

    2016-05-01

    The System for Observing Play and Recreation in Communities (SOPARC) can obtain information on park users and their physical activity using momentary time sampling. We conducted a literature review of studies using the SOPARC tool to describe the observational methods of each study, and to extract public park use overall and by demographics and physical activity levels. We searched PubMed, Embase, and SPORTDiscus for full-length observational studies published in English in peer-reviewed journals through 2014. Twenty-four studies from 34 articles were included. The number of parks observed per study ranged from 3 to 50. Most studies observed parks during one season. The number of days parks were observed ranged from 1 to 16, with 16 studies observing 5 or more days. All studies included at least one weekday and all but two included at least one weekend day. Parks were observed from 1 to 14times/day, with most studies observing at least 4 times/day. All studies included both morning and afternoon observations, with one exception. There was a wide range of park users (mean 1.0 to 152.6 people/park/observation period), with typically more males than females visiting parks and older adults less than other age groups. Park user physical activity levels varied greatly across studies, with youths generally more active than adults and younger children more active than adolescents. SOPARC was adapted to numerous settings and these review results can be used to improve future studies using the tool, demonstrate ways to compare park data, and inform park promotions and programming. PMID:26946365

  17. The Physical Therapy and Society Summit (PASS) Meeting: observations and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Kigin, Colleen M; Rodgers, Mary M; Wolf, Steven L

    2010-11-01

    The construct of delivering high-quality and cost-effective health care is in flux, and the profession must strategically plan how to meet the needs of society. In 2006, the House of Delegates of the American Physical Therapy Association passed a motion to convene a summit on "how physical therapists can meet current, evolving, and future societal health care needs." The Physical Therapy and Society Summit (PASS) meeting on February 27-28, 2009, in Leesburg, Virginia, sent a clear message that for physical therapists to be effective and thrive in the health care environment of the future, a paradigm shift is required. During the PASS meeting, participants reframed our traditional focus on the physical therapist and the patient/client (consumer) to one in which physical therapists are an integral part of a collaborative, multidisciplinary health care team with the health care consumer as its focus. The PASS Steering Committee recognized that some of the opportunities that surfaced during the PASS meeting may be disruptive or may not be within the profession's present strategic or tactical plans. Thus, adopting a framework that helps to establish the need for change that is provocative and potentially disruptive to our present care delivery, yet prioritizes opportunities, is a critical and essential step. Each of us in the physical therapy profession must take on post-PASS roles and responsibilities to accomplish the systemic change that is so intimately intertwined with our destiny. This article offers a perspective of the dynamic dialogue and suggestions that emerged from the PASS event, providing further opportunities for discussion and action within our profession. PMID:20829448

  18. The Role of Physical Attractiveness in the Observation of Adult-Child Interactions: Eye of the Beholder or Behavioral Reality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritter, Jean M.; Langlois, Judith H.

    The susceptibility of observations of adult-child interactions to bias due to the physical attractiveness of target persons was examined. Facial features of target persons were occluded in one version of a videotape and unoccluded in another, otherwise identical version. Using a global rating system and a molecular coding strategy, 38 trained…

  19. A Computer-Based Observational Assessment of the Teaching Behaviours that Influence Motivational Climate in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Kevin; Sproule, John; Weigand, Daniel; Carpenter, Paul

    2005-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to use an established behavioural taxonomy (Ames, 1992b) as a computer-based observational coding system to assess the teaching behaviours that influence perceptions of the motivational climate in Physical Education (PE). The secondary purpose was to determine the degree of congruence between the behavioural…

  20. Physical activity for the prevention of cognitive decline: current evidence from observational and controlled studies.

    PubMed

    Denkinger, M D; Nikolaus, T; Denkinger, C; Lukas, A

    2012-01-01

    A sedentary life style has been associated with different types of dementia in several cross sectional, longitudinal, and case-controlled studies. However, randomized controlled trials that support this relationship are rare, have rather few participants, and mainly focus on physical (usually aerobic) exercise. The benefit of an increased physical activity (PA) has been mainly demonstrated for the prevention of Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia, less so for other dementia types such as Lewy body dementia or frontotemporal dementia. The clinical evidence builds on a significant amount of animal research pointing to potential mechanisms as to how PA relates to cognitive function. While most studies have investigated singular interventions, others have studied the combination of both mental and physical activity to improve cognition or delay decline. However, questions remain such as what type and how much PA is beneficial? This review gives an overview of the current evidence on the clinical and epidemiological level and tries to answer these questions. PMID:22278001

  1. Operational quantities and new approach by ICRU.

    PubMed

    2016-06-01

    The protection quantities, equivalent dose in a tissue or organ and effective dose, were developed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) to allow quantification of the extent of exposure of the human body to ionising radiation. These quantities are used for the implementation of limitation and optimisation principles. Body-related protection quantities are not measurable in practice. Therefore, the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) developed a set of operational dose quantities for use in radiation measurements for external exposure that can assess the protection quantities. The current ICRU operational quantities were defined more than 30 years ago. ICRU Report Committee 26 examined the rationale for the operational quantities, taking account of changes in the definitions of the protection quantities in ICRP's 2007 Recommendations. The considerations included the range of types and energies of particles contributing to exposure of workers and members of the public. ICRU Report Committee 26 investigated a set of alternative definitions for the operational quantities. The major change to the currently favoured set of quantities is redefinition of the operational quantities, from being based on doses at specific points in the ICRU sphere and soft tissue, to being based on particle fluence and conversion coefficients for effective dose and absorbed dose to the lens of the eye and local skin. PMID:26980797

  2. Observation, Understanding and Belief: guiding students through the great texts of physics and astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuehn, Kerry

    2014-03-01

    Questions such as ``Is Newton's theory of gravity correct?'' and ``How do you know?'' appeal to the innate sense of inquisitiveness and wonder that attracted many students (and professors) to the study of natural science in the first place. Seeking to answer such questions, one must typically acquire a deeper understanding of the technical aspects of the theory. In this way, broadly posed questions can serve as a motivation and guide to understanding scientific theories. During the past decade, I have developed and taught a four-semester introductory physics curriculum to undergraduate students at Wisconsin Lutheran College which is based on the careful reading, analysis and discussion of foundational texts in physics and astronomy--texts such as Newton's Principia, Huygens' Treatise on Light, and Pascal's Equilibrium of Liquids. This curriculum is designed to encourage a critical and circumspect approach to natural science, while at the same time developing a suitable foundation for advanced coursework in physics. In this talk, I will discuss the motivation, organization, unique features, and target audience of an undergraduate physics textbook, recently submitted for publication, which is based on this curriculum.

  3. Physical Attractiveness and Public Intimacy of Married Couples: An Observational Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrell, W. Andrew

    1979-01-01

    Findings indicated that physically attractive couples were more likely to show public intimacy. Younger couples displayed more intimacy than older couples. Couples who were similar in age interacted more than couples who differed in age. Husband-wife attractiveness did not significantly influence intimacy. (Author/BEF)

  4. "In Situ" Observation of a Soap-Film Catenoid--A Simple Educational Physics Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ito, Masato; Sato, Taku

    2010-01-01

    The solution to the Euler-Lagrange equation is an extremal functional. To understand that the functional is stationary at local extrema (maxima or minima), we propose a physics experiment that involves using a soap film to form a catenoid. A catenoid is a surface that is formed between two coaxial circular rings and is classified mathematically as…

  5. ``Observation, Experiment, and the Future of Physics'' John G. King's acceptance speech for the 2000 Oersted Medal presented by the American Association of Physics Teachers, 18 January 2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, John G.

    2001-01-01

    Looking at our built world, most physicists see order where many others see magic. This view of order should be available to all, and physics would flourish better in an appreciative society. Despite the remarkable developments in the teaching of physics in the last half century, too many people, whether they've had physics courses or not, don't have an inkling of the power and value of our subject, whose importance ranges from the practical to the psychological. We need to supplement people's experiences in ways that are applicable to different groups, from physics majors to people without formal education. I will describe and explain an ambitious program to stimulate scientific, engineering, and technological interest and understanding through direct observation of a wide range of phenomena and experimentation with them. For the very young: toys, playgrounds, kits, projects. For older students: indoor showcases, projects, and courses taught in intensive form. For all ages: more instructive everyday surroundings with outdoor showcases and large demonstrations.

  6. Children's Physical Activity Behavior during School Recess: A Pilot Study Using GPS, Accelerometer, Participant Observation, and Go-Along Interview.

    PubMed

    Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Andersen, Henriette Bondo; Troelsen, Jens; Schipperijn, Jasper

    2016-01-01

    Schoolyards are recognized as important settings for physical activity interventions during recess. However, varying results have been reported. This pilot study was conducted to gain in-depth knowledge of children's physical activity behavior during recess using a mixed-methods approach combining quantitative GPS and accelerometer measurements with qualitative go-along group interviews and participant observations. Data were collected during three weekdays in a public school in Denmark. Eighty-one children (47 girls) wore an accelerometer (ActiGraph GT3X) and GPS (QStarz BT-Q1000xt), sixteen children participated in go-along group interviews, and recess behavior was observed using an ethnographical participant observation approach. All data were analyzed separated systematically answering the Five W Questions. Children were categorized into Low, Middle and High physical activity groups and these groups were predominantly staying in three different locations during recess: school building, schoolyard and field, respectively. Mostly girls were in the building remaining in there because of a perceived lack of attractive outdoor play facilities. The children in the schoolyard were predominantly girls who preferred the schoolyard over the field to avoid the competitive soccer games on the field whereas boys dominated the field playing soccer. Using a mixed-methods approach to investigate children's physical activity behavior during recess helped gain in-depth knowledge that can aid development of future interventions in the school environment. PMID:26859288

  7. An observational study of nutrition and physical activity behaviours, knowledge, and advice in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Maternal obesity, excess weight gain and lifestyle behaviours during pregnancy have been associated with future overweight and other adverse health outcomes for mothers and babies. This study compared the nutrition and physical activity behaviours of Australian healthy (BMI ≤ 25 k/m2) and overweight (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2) pregnant women and described their knowledge and receipt of health professional advice early in pregnancy. Methods Pregnant women (n=58) aged 29±5 (mean±s.d.) years were recruited at 16±2 weeks gestation from an Australian metropolitan hospital. Height and weight were measured using standard procedures and women completed a self administered semi-quantitative survey. Results Healthy and overweight women had very similar levels of knowledge, behaviour and levels of advice provided except where specifically mentioned. Only 8% and 36% of participants knew the correct recommended daily number of fruit and vegetable serves respectively. Four percent of participants ate the recommended 5 serves/day of vegetables. Overweight women were less likely than healthy weight women to achieve the recommended fruit intake (4% vs. 8%, p=0.05), and more likely to consume soft drinks or cordial (55% vs 43%, p=0.005) and take away foods (37% vs. 25%, p=0.002) once a week or more. Less than half of all women achieved sufficient physical activity. Despite 80% of women saying they would have liked education about nutrition, physical activity and weight gain, particularly at the beginning of pregnancy, less than 50% were given appropriate advice regarding healthy eating and physical activity. Conclusion Healthy pregnancy behaviour recommendations were not being met, with overweight women less likely to meet some of the recommendations. Knowledge of dietary recommendations was poor and health care professional advice was limited. There are opportunities to improve the health care practices and education pregnant women received to improve knowledge and behaviours. Pregnant women appear to want this. PMID:23688111

  8. Application of a physical continuum model to recent X-ray observations of accreting pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcu-Cheatham, Diana Monica; Pottschmidt, Katja; Wolff, Michael Thomas; Becker, Peter A.; Wood, Kent S.; Wilms, Joern; Britton Hemphill, Paul; Gottlieb, Amy; Fuerst, Felix; Schwarm, Fritz-Walter; Ballhausen, Ralf

    2016-04-01

    We present a uniform spectral analysis in the 0.5-50 keV energy range of a sample of accreting pulsars by applying an empirical broad-band continuum cut-off power-law model. We also apply the newly implemented physical continuum model developed by Becker and Wolff (2007, ApJ 654, 435) to a number of high-luminosity sources. The X-ray spectral formation process in this model consists of the Comptonization of bremsstrahlung, cyclotron, and black body photons emitted by the hot, magnetically channeled, accreting plasma near the neutron star surface. This model describes the spectral formation in high-luminosity accreting pulsars, where the dominant deceleration mechanism is via a radiation-dominated radiative shock. The resulting spectra depend on five physical parameters: the mass accretion rate, the radius of the accretion column, the electron temperature and electron scattering cross-sections inside the column, and the magnetic field strength. The empirical model is fitted to Suzaku data of a sample of high-mass X-ray binaries covering a broad luminosity range (0.3-5 x 10 37 erg/s). The physical model is fitted to Suzaku data from luminous sources: LMC X-4, Cen X-3, GX 304-1. We compare the results of the two types of modeling and summarize how they can provide new insight into the process of accretion onto magnetized neutron stars.

  9. Method of ``optimum observables'' and implementation of neural networks in physics investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boos, E. E.; Bunichev, V. E.; Dudko, L. V.; Markina, A. A.

    2008-02-01

    A separation of a signal of various physics processes from an overwhelming background is one of the most important problems in contemporary high-energy physics. The application of various multivariate statistical methods, such as the neural-network method, has become one of the popular steps toward optimizing relevant analyses. The choice of optimum variables that would disclose distinctions between a signal and a background is one of the important elements in the application of neural networks. A universal method for determining an optimum set of such kinematical variables is described in the present article. The method is based on an analysis of Feynman diagrams contributing to signal and background processes. This method was successfully implemented in searches for single top-quark production with the D0 detector (Tevatron, Fermilab) in analyzing Run I and Run II data. Brief recommendations concerning an optimum implementation of the neural-network method in physics analysis are given on the basis of experience gained in searches for single top-quark production with the D0 detector.

  10. Application of a physical continuum model to recent X-ray observations of accreting pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcu-Cheatham, Diana Monica; Pottschmidt, Katja; Wolff, Michael Thomas; Becker, Peter A.; Wood, Kent S.; Wilms, Joern; Britton Hemphill, Paul; Gottlieb, Amy; Fuerst, Felix; Schwarm, Fritz-Walter; Ballhausen, Ralf

    2015-04-01

    We present a uniform spectral analysis in the 0.5-50 keV energy range of a sample of accreting pulsars by applying an empirical broad-band continuum cut-off power-law model. We also apply the newly implemented physical continuum model developed by Becker and Wolff (2007, ApJ 654, 435) to a number of high-luminosity sources. The X-ray spectral formation process in this model consists of the Comptonization of bremsstrahlung, cyclotron, and black body photons emitted by the hot, magnetically channeled, accreting plasma near the neutron star surface. This model describes the spectral formation in high-luminosity accreting pulsars, where the dominant deceleration mechanism is via a radiation-dominated radiative shock. The resulting spectra depend on five physical parameters: the mass accretion rate, the radius of the accretion column, the electron temperature and electron scattering cross-sections inside the column, and the magnetic field strength. The empirical model is fitted to Suzaku data of a sample of high-mass X-ray binaries covering a broad luminosity range (0.3-5 x 10 37 erg/s). The physical model is fitted to Suzaku data from luminous sources: LMC X-4, Cen X-3, GX 304-1. We compare the results of the two types of modeling and summarize how they can provide new insight into the process of accretion onto magnetized neutron stars.

  11. Optimal-observable analysis of possible new physics in B →D(*)τ ντ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Srimoy; Nandi, Soumitra; Patra, Sunando Kumar

    2016-02-01

    We study all possible observables in B →D(*)τ ντ with new physics (NP), including new vector, scalar and tensor interactions, and investigate the prospects of extracting NP Wilson coefficients with optimal observables. The analysis shows that, overall, the full q2 integrated observables in B →D τ ντ are more sensitive towards the scalar current, whereas the bin-by-bin analysis of q2 distribution of the differential branching fraction points to regions of q2 sensitive to tensor interactions. Interestingly, the observables in B →D*τ ντ are more sensitive to tensor interactions, and bin-by-bin analysis of this mode shows the distinct regions of q2 sensitive to vector or scalar interactions. In addition to that, the τ polarization asymmetry is found to be more sensitive to NP compared to the other observables, in both decay modes.

  12. PHYSICS UPDATE: Observation of snow crystals using a chamber cooled by dry ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kagawa, S.; Kakehi, M.; Ito, F.; Kagawa, K.

    1999-01-01

    It is shown that microscopic observation of natural snow crystals is possible even at relatively high atmospheric temperature, around 0 °C. For this purpose, a partial cooling method was employed. That is, a snow crystal was placed in a chamber cooled by dry ice, which prevented frost production. By using this simple method, snow crystals can be observed in winter (where snow is available). This type of observational experiment is very successful in exciting students' interest in the beauty of natural forms.

  13. First Observation of Physically Capturing and Maneuvering Bacteria using Magnetic Clays.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ting-Yu; Chen, Chieh-Ling; Lee, Yi-Chen; Chan, Tzu-Yi; Wang, Yuh-Lin; Lin, Jiang-Jen

    2016-01-13

    A new class of nanohybrids composed of structurally exfoliated silicate platelets and magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles was synthesized and shown to be capable of capturing microbes in liquid microbiological media. Nanoscale silicate platelets with an approximate thickness of 1.0 nm were prepared from the naturally occurring mineral clays montmorillonite and mica; these clays yielded platelets with lateral dimensions on the order of 80-100 nm and 300-1000 nm, respectively. The magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles, approximately 8.3 nm in diameter, were coated in situ onto the silicates during the synthesis process, which involved the coprecipitation of aqueous Fe(2+)/Fe(3+) salts. Owing to the high surface area-to-volume ratios and the presence of ionically charged groups (i.e., ≡SiO(-)Na(+)), the silicate nanoplatelets exhibited intense noncovalent bonding forces between Fe3O4 nanoparticles and the surrounding microorganisms. The Fe3O4-on-nanoplatelet nanohybrids enabled the entrapment of bacterial cells in liquid microbiological media. These captured bacteria formed bacterial aggregates on the order of micrometers that became physically maneuverable under a magnetic field. This phenomenon was demonstrated with Staphylococcus aureus in liquid microbiological media by physically removing them using a magnetic bar; in two experimental examples, bacterial concentrations were reduced from 10(6) to 10(2) and from 10(4) to 10(0) CFU/mL (colony formation unit/mL con). Under a scanning electron microscope, these bacteria appeared to have rough and wrinkled surfaces due to the accumulated silicate platelets. Furthermore, the external application of a high-frequency magnetic field completely destroyed these aggregated microbes by the magnetically induced heat. Hence, the newly developed nanohybrids were shown to be viable for physically capturing microbes and also for potential hyperthermia treatment applications. PMID:26686424

  14. Spreading of oil films on the sea surface: radar/optical observations and physical mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermakov, Stanislav; Kapustin, Ivan; Sergievskaya, Irina; da Silva, Jose

    2015-10-01

    Marine slicks are one of the most common features on the sea surface and a significant part of the slicks is a result of accidental or deliberate oil spills. The shape of oil slicks is their important characteristic that can be used to identify the nature of slick signatures in radar or optical images of the sea surface and possibly to describe them quantitatively. Nowadays, however, there is a lack of systematic experiments with slicks, and the very physical mechanisms of slick spreading are still not well understood. This paper presents results of controlled experiments with spills of surfactants, and a possible physical mechanism of slick asymmetry is discussed. Experiments with artificial film slicks were carried out in different environmental conditions: from an Oceanographic Platform on the Black Sea, and from a vessel on the Gorky Water Reservoir. Slick shape and its evolution were studied using photographic methods, and satellite radar imagery. In the satellite experiments surfactants were poured on the surface at certain time intervals before the satellite overpass. It is obtained that film spreading is not axial symmetric, and the spills are stretched along the wind, a long-to-short slick axis ratio weakly depends on spreading time and grows with wind speed. A physical mechanism of slick deformation due to mean surface currents induced by wind waves is proposed. Namely, drift currents induced by oblique propagating surface waves increase in film slicks due to enhanced wave damping and these currents result in reduced spreading rate in the cross wind direction. Theoretical analysis of slick spreading accounting for the effect of surface waves is presented, and theoretical estimates are shown to be consistent with experiment.

  15. Observation of Hypervelocity Dust in Dense Supersonic Plasma Flows: Physics and Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Ticos, C. M.; Wang, Z.; Wurden, G. A.; Shukla, P. K.

    2008-10-15

    Synthetic diamond and graphite dust powders with a wide range of sizes, from a few to several tens of microns in diameter were accelerated to velocities up to 4 km/s in vacuum by plasma jet produced in a coaxial gun. Some of the key features of the plasma flow are high density, of the order of 10{sup 22} m{sup -3}, low ion and electron temperatures, of only a few eV, and good collimation over a distance of {approx_equal}2 m due to confinement by the self-generated magnetic field. The main features of this plasma-drag acceleration technique are presented and discussed. From basic science point of view hypervelocity dust is useful for studying the physics of dust interaction with energetic plasma flows at microscopic level. In physical applications, it has been proposed to use hypervelocity dust for diagnostic or control of magnetically confined fusion plasmas. In engineering, hypervelocity dusty plasmas are extensively employed in industrial processes involved in the processing of surfaces.

  16. The Importance of Long-Term Synoptic Observations and Data Sets for Solar Physics and Helioseismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsworth, Yvonne; Broomhall, Anne-Marie; Gosain, Sanjay; Roth, Markus; Jefferies, Stuart M.; Hill, Frank

    2015-12-01

    A casual single glance at the Sun would not lead an observer to conclude that it varies. The discovery of the 11-year sunspot cycle was only made possible through systematic daily observations of the Sun over 150 years and even today historic sunspot drawings are used to study the behavior of past solar cycles. The origin of solar activity is still poorly understood as shown by the number of different models that give widely different predictions for the strength and timing of future cycles. Our understanding of the rapid transient phenomena related to solar activity, such as flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs) is also insufficient and making reliable predictions of these events, which can adversely impact technology, remains elusive. There is thus still much to learn about the Sun and its activity that requires observations over many solar cycles. In particular, modern helioseismic observations of the solar interior currently span only 1.5 cycles, which is far too short to adequately sample the characteristics of the plasma flows that govern the dynamo mechanism underlying solar activity. In this paper, we review some of the long-term solar and helioseismic observations and outline some future directions.

  17. Observing Supermassive Black Holes Across Cosmic Time: From Phenomenology to Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merloni, Andrea

    In the last decade, a combination of high sensitivity and spatial resolution observations and of coordinated multi-wavelength surveys has revolutionized our view of extra-galactic black hole (BH) astrophysics. We now know that supermassive black holes reside in the nuclei of almost every galaxy, grow over cosmological times by accreting matter, interact and merge with each other, and in the process liberate enormous amounts of energy that influence dramatically the evolution of the surrounding gas and stars, providing a powerful self-regulatory mechanism for galaxy formation. The different energetic phenomena associated to growing black holes and Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN), their cosmological evolution and the observational techniques used to unveil them, are the subject of this chapter. In particular, I will focus my attention on the connection between the theory of high-energy astrophysical processes giving rise to the observed emission in AGN, the observable imprints they leave at different wavelengths, and the methods used to uncover them in a statistically robust way. I will show how such a combined effort of theorists and observers have led us to unveil most of the SMBH growth over a large fraction of the age of the Universe, but that nagging uncertainties remain, preventing us from fully understating the exact role of black holes in the complex process of galaxy and large-scale structure formation, assembly and evolution.

  18. Effect of smoking on physical and cognitive capability in later life: a multicohort study using observational and genetic approaches

    PubMed Central

    North, Teri-Louise; Palmer, Tom M; Lewis, Sarah J; Cooper, Rachel; Power, Chris; Pattie, Alison; Starr, John M; Deary, Ian J; Martin, Richard M; Aihie Sayer, Avan; Kumari, Meena; Cooper, Cyrus; Kivimaki, Mika; Kuh, Diana; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Day, Ian N M

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The observed associations between smoking and functional measures at older ages are vulnerable to bias and confounding. Mendelian randomisation (MR) uses genotype as an instrumental variable to estimate unconfounded causal associations. We conducted a meta-analysis of the observational associations and implemented an MR approach using the smoking-related single nucleotide polymorphism rs16969968 to explore their causal nature. Setting 9 British cohorts belonging to the HALCyon collaboration. Participants Individual participant data on N=26 692 individuals of European ancestry (N from earliest phase analysed per study) of mean ages 50–79 years were available for inclusion in observational meta-analyses of the primary outcomes. Primary outcomes Physical capability, cognitive capability and cognitive decline. The smoking exposures were cigarettes per day, current versus ex-smoker, current versus never smoker and ever versus never smoker. Results In observational analyses current and ever smoking were generally associated with poorer physical and cognitive capability. For example, current smokers had a general fluid cognition score which was 0.17 z-score units (95% CI −0.221 to −0.124) lower than ex-smokers in cross-sectional analyses. Current smokers had a walk speed which was 0.25 z-score units lower than never smokers (95% CI −0.338 to −0.170). An MR instrumental variable approach for current versus ex-smoker and number of cigarettes smoked per day produced CIs which neither confirmed nor refuted the observational estimates. The number of genetic associations stratified by smoking status were consistent with type I error. Conclusions Our observational analysis supports the hypothesis that smoking is detrimental to physical and cognitive capability. Further studies are needed for a suitably powered MR approach. PMID:26671949

  19. Quantity-activity relationship of denitrifying bacteria and environmental scaling in streams of a forested watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connor, Ben L.; Hondzo, Miki; Dobraca, Dina; Lapara, Timothy M.; Finlay, Jacques C.; Brezonik, Patrick L.

    2006-12-01

    The spatial variability of subreach denitrification rates in streams was evaluated with respect to controlling environmental conditions, molecular examination of denitrifying bacteria, and dimensional analysis. Denitrification activities ranged from 0 and 800 ng-N gsed-1 d-1 with large variations observed within short distances (<50 m) along stream reaches. A log-normal probability distribution described the range in denitrification activities and was used to define low (16% of the probability distribution), medium (68%), and high (16%) denitrification potential groups. Denitrifying bacteria were quantified using a competitive polymerase chain reaction (cPCR) technique that amplified the nirK gene that encodes for nitrite reductase. Results showed a range of nirK quantities from 103 to 107 gene-copy-number gsed-1. A nonparametric statistical test showed no significant difference in nirK quantities among stream reaches, but revealed that samples with a high denitrification potential had significantly higher nirK quantities. Denitrification activity was positively correlated with nirK quantities with scatter in the data that can be attributed to varying environmental conditions along stream reaches. Dimensional analysis was used to evaluate denitrification activities according to environmental variables that describe fluid-flow properties, nitrate and organic material quantities, and dissolved oxygen flux. Buckingham's pi theorem was used to generate dimensionless groupings and field data were used to determine scaling parameters. The resulting expressions between dimensionless NO3- flux and dimensionless groupings of environmental variables showed consistent scaling, which indicates that the subreach variability in denitrification rates can be predicted by the controlling physical, chemical, and microbiological conditions.

  20. Physical Diversity of Near-Earth Asteroids from Arecibo Radar Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Patrick A.; Howell, Ellen S.; Nolan, Michael C.; Richardson, James E.; Springmann, Alessondra

    2015-08-01

    Radar observations of near-Earth asteroids have revealed a heterogeneous population with diameters spanning meter to kilometer scales, diverse shapes ranging from simple spheroids to extremely irregular bodies, rotation periods stretching from minutes to weeks, and a spectrum of surface properties. Since 1998, the Arecibo Observatory S-band radar system has detected over 400 near-Earth asteroids. We find the radar-observed near-Earth asteroid population with absolute magnitude H < 21 is not dominated by a single category of basic shape: spheroids, multiple-asteroid systems, double-lobed contact binaries, elongated bodies, or irregularly shaped asteroids. A radar-observed binary fraction of 14% (N = 38; including two triple-asteroid systems) among near-Earth asteroids with H < 21 is in agreement with optical observations, while contact binaries account for a similar fraction (14%; N = 38). At smaller sizes, binaries and contact binaries are much rarer, with only three binaries and one contact binary with H < 21 detected thus far. The spin distribution of near-Earth asteroids estimated from radar matches very well with the spin distribution determined from optical lightcurves, including the well-known spin barrier for bodies with H < 21 and the curious lack of small, slowly rotating bodies with H > 21, despite different biases in these observing techniques. The shape and spin distributions of near-Earth asteroids observed with radar both show a distinct change in the population around H of 21 or 22 (100- to 200-m diameters), possibly indicating fundamental structural changes at this scale. Beyond constraining overall sizes and shapes, radar images as fine as 7.5-m resolution with Arecibo, akin to a low-cost flyby, reveal asteroid surfaces with ridges, concavities, crater-like depressions, angular facets, and boulders, details that constrain regolith properties and affect our understanding of geophysics in microgravity. Furthermore, the integrated surface properties of radar albedo and polarization ratio correlate with some spectral types, and thus composition.

  1. The Impact of Physical Atmosphere on Air Quality and the Utility of Satellite Observations in Air Quality Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pour Biazar, A.; McNider, R. T.; Park, Y. H.; Doty, K.; Khan, M. N.; Dornblaser, B.

    2012-12-01

    Physical atmosphere significantly impacts air quality as it regulates production, accumulation, and transport of atmospheric pollutants. Consequently, air quality simulations are greatly influenced by the uncertainties that emanates from the simulation of physical atmosphere. Since air quality model predictions are increasingly being used in health studies, regulatory applications, and policy making, reducing such uncertainties in model simulations is of outmost importance. This paper describes some of the critical aspects of physical atmosphere affecting air quality models that can be improved by utilizing satellite observations. Retrievals of skin temperature, surface albedo, surface insolation, cloud top temperature and cloud reflectance obtained from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) by NASA/MSFC GOES Product Generation System (GPGS) have been utilized to improve the air quality simulations used in the State Implementation Plan (SIP) attainment demonstrations. Satellite observations of ground temperature are used to recover surface moisture and heat capacity and thereby improving model simulation of air temperature. Observations of clouds are utilized to improve the photochemical reaction rates within the photochemical model and also to assimilate clouds in the meteorological model. These techniques have been implemented and tested in some of the widely used air quality decision modeling systems such as MM5/WRF/CMAQ/CAMx. The results from these activities show significant improvements in air quality simulations.

  2. Physical and anthropogenic effects on observed long-term nutrient changes in the Irish Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, G. L.; le B. Williams, P. J.; Mitchelson-Jacob, E. G.

    2003-08-01

    The trend in Irish Sea nutrient concentrations over the last four decades has been considered to reflect changes in anthropogenic loading. Comparison of a long-term database for the Menai Strait, North Wales, with an established historic data set for the Cypris station, Isle of Man, indicates that climate also has a significant influence on observations of nutrient concentrations. Data are presented detailing long-term shifts in nitrate, phosphate and silicate measurements since the 1960s at these two fixed sampling sites in the Irish Sea. Broad systematic changes observed in all three nutrients over the decades show a rise from the 1960s through to the 1980s, followed generally by an overall decline in the 1990s. Decadal-scale salinity changes occur in the opposite sense to nutrient changes. Anthropogenic inputs from freshwater cannot fully account for observed nutrient trends, neither is there evidence for shifts in nutrient concentrations in oceanic waters over the past four decades. Climatically forced movement in the geographical position of the freshwater/seawater mixing zone over a decadal time scale could, however, give rise to the observed shifts in nutrient concentration and salinity. This cannot alter nutrient concentration and salinity per se, but causes the measurements taken at fixed sampling sites to fluctuate inversely over this time scale. It is concluded that there is complex interplay between anthropogenic loading and climate affecting the distribution of nutrients in the Irish Sea.

  3. Role of subsurface physics in the assimilation of surface soil moisture observations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil moisture controls the exchange of water and energy between the land surface and the atmosphere and exhibits memory that may be useful for climate prediction at monthly time scales. Though spatially distributed observations of soil moisture are increasingly becoming available from remotely sense...

  4. Physical Characterization of Warm Spitzer-observed Near-Earth Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Cristina A.; Emery, Joshua P.; Trilling, David E.; Delbo, Marco; Hora, Joseph L.; Mueller, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy of Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) connects diagnostic spectral features to specific surface mineralogies. The combination of spectroscopy with albedos and diameters derived from thermal infrared observations can increase the scientific return beyond that of the individual datasets. For instance, some taxonomic classes can be separated into distinct compositional groupings with albedo and different mineralogies with similar albedos can be distinguished with spectroscopy. To that end, we have completed a spectroscopic observing campaign to complement the ExploreNEOs Warm Spitzer program that obtained albedos and diameters of nearly 600 NEOs (Trilling et al., 2010). The spectroscopy campaign included visible and near-infrared observations of ExploreNEOs targets from various observatories. Here we present the results of observations using the low-resolution prism mode (approx. 0.7-2.5 microns) of the SpeX instrument on the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF). We also include near-infrared observations of Explore-NEOs targets from the MIT-UH-IRTF Joint Campaign for Spectral Reconnaissance. Our dataset includes near-infrared spectra of 187 ExploreNEOs targets (125 observations of 92 objects from our survey and 213 observations of 154 objects from the MIT survey). We identify a taxonomic class for each spectrum and use band parameter analysis to investigate the mineralogies for the S-, Q-, and V-complex objects. Our analysis suggests that for spectra that contain near-infrared data but lack the visible wavelength region, the Bus-DeMeo system misidentifies some S-types as Q-types. We find no correlation between spectral band parameters and ExploreNEOs albedos and diameters. We investigate the correlations of phase angle with band area ratio and near-infrared spectral slope. We find slightly negative Band Area Ratio (BAR) correlations with phase angle for Eros and Ivar, but a positive BAR correlation with phase angle for Ganymed.The results of our phase angle study are consistent with those of (Sanchez et al., 2012). We find evidence for spectral phase reddening for Eros, Ganymed, and Ivar. We identify the likely ordinary chondrite type analog for an appropriate subset of our sample. Our resulting proportions of H, L, and LL ordinary chondrites differ from those calculated for meteorite falls and in previous studies of ordinary chondrite-like NEOs.

  5. Physical characterization of Warm Spitzer-observed near-Earth objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Cristina A.; Emery, Joshua P.; Trilling, David E.; Delbó, Marco; Hora, Joseph L.; Mueller, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy of Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) connects diagnostic spectral features to specific surface mineralogies. The combination of spectroscopy with albedos and diameters derived from thermal infrared observations can increase the scientific return beyond that of the individual datasets. For instance, some taxonomic classes can be separated into distinct compositional groupings with albedo and different mineralogies with similar albedos can be distinguished with spectroscopy. To that end, we have completed a spectroscopic observing campaign to complement the ExploreNEOs Warm Spitzer program that obtained albedos and diameters of nearly 600 NEOs (Trilling, D.E. et al. [2010]. Astron. J. 140, 770-784. http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0004-6256/140/3/770). The spectroscopy campaign included visible and near-infrared observations of ExploreNEOs targets from various observatories. Here we present the results of observations using the low-resolution prism mode (˜0.7-2.5 μm) of the SpeX instrument on the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF). We also include near-infrared observations of ExploreNEOs targets from the MIT-UH-IRTF Joint Campaign for Spectral Reconnaissance. Our dataset includes near-infrared spectra of 187 ExploreNEOs targets (125 observations of 92 objects from our survey and 213 observations of 154 objects from the MIT survey). We identify a taxonomic class for each spectrum and use band parameter analysis to investigate the mineralogies for the S-, Q-, and V-complex objects. Our analysis suggests that for spectra that contain near-infrared data but lack the visible wavelength region, the Bus-DeMeo system misidentifies some S-types as Q-types. We find no correlation between spectral band parameters and ExploreNEOs albedos and diameters. We investigate the correlations of phase angle with Band Area Ratio and near-infrared spectral slope. We find slightly negative Band Area Ratio (BAR) correlations with phase angle for Eros and Ivar, but a positive BAR correlation with phase angle for Ganymed. The results of our phase angle study are consistent with those of (Sanchez, J.A., Reddy, V., Nathues, A., Cloutis, E.A., Mann, P., Hiesinger, H. [2012]. Icarus 220, 36-50. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.icarus.2012.04.008, arXiv:1205.0248). We find evidence for spectral phase reddening for Eros, Ganymed, and Ivar. We identify the likely ordinary chondrite type analog for an appropriate subset of our sample. Our resulting proportions of H, L, and LL ordinary chondrites differ from those calculated for meteorite falls and in previous studies of ordinary chondrite-like NEOs.

  6. 16 CFR 500.19 - Conversion of SI metric quantities to inch/pound quantities and inch/pound quantities to SI...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conversion of SI metric quantities to inch... LABELING ACT § 500.19 Conversion of SI metric quantities to inch/pound quantities and inch/pound quantities to SI metric quantities. (a) For calculating the conversion of SI metric quantities to...

  7. 16 CFR 500.19 - Conversion of SI metric quantities to inch/pound quantities and inch/pound quantities to SI...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Conversion of SI metric quantities to inch... LABELING ACT § 500.19 Conversion of SI metric quantities to inch/pound quantities and inch/pound quantities to SI metric quantities. (a) For calculating the conversion of SI metric quantities to...

  8. 16 CFR 500.19 - Conversion of SI metric quantities to inch/pound quantities and inch/pound quantities to SI...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Conversion of SI metric quantities to inch... LABELING ACT § 500.19 Conversion of SI metric quantities to inch/pound quantities and inch/pound quantities to SI metric quantities. (a) For calculating the conversion of SI metric quantities to...

  9. Rethinking Intensive Quantities via Guided Mediated Abduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrahamson, Dor

    2012-01-01

    Some intensive quantities, such as slope, velocity, or likelihood, are perceptually privileged in the sense that they are experienced as holistic, irreducible sensations. However, the formal expression of these quantities uses "a/b" analytic metrics; for example, the slope of a line is the quotient of its rise and run. Thus, whereas students'

  10. 30 CFR 75.325 - Air quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.325 Air quantity. (a)(1) In bituminous and... where coal is being cut, mined, drilled for blasting, or loaded. When a greater quantity is necessary...

  11. 30 CFR 75.325 - Air quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.325 Air quantity. (a)(1) In bituminous and... where coal is being cut, mined, drilled for blasting, or loaded. When a greater quantity is necessary...

  12. 30 CFR 75.325 - Air quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.325 Air quantity. (a)(1) In bituminous and... where coal is being cut, mined, drilled for blasting, or loaded. When a greater quantity is necessary...

  13. 30 CFR 75.325 - Air quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.325 Air quantity. (a)(1) In bituminous and... where coal is being cut, mined, drilled for blasting, or loaded. When a greater quantity is necessary...

  14. 36 CFR 223.220 - Quantity determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Quantity determination. 223.220 Section 223.220 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER Special Forest Products § 223.220 Quantity...

  15. 30 CFR 75.325 - Air quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.325 Air quantity. (a)(1) In bituminous and... where coal is being cut, mined, drilled for blasting, or loaded. When a greater quantity is necessary...

  16. 49 CFR 172.315 - Limited quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Limited quantities. 172.315 Section 172.315... exceptions—(1) Alternative markings. Except for transportation by aircraft and until December 31, 2015, a... and outer package quantity limits in § 173.27(f) of this subchapter. (1) Marking description. The...

  17. Rethinking Intensive Quantities via Guided Mediated Abduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrahamson, Dor

    2012-01-01

    Some intensive quantities, such as slope, velocity, or likelihood, are perceptually privileged in the sense that they are experienced as holistic, irreducible sensations. However, the formal expression of these quantities uses "a/b" analytic metrics; for example, the slope of a line is the quotient of its rise and run. Thus, whereas students'…

  18. Non-physical practice improves task performance in an unstable, perturbed environment: motor imagery and observational balance training

    PubMed Central

    Taube, Wolfgang; Lorch, Michael; Zeiter, Sibylle; Keller, Martin

    2014-01-01

    For consciously performed motor tasks executed in a defined and constant way, both motor imagery (MI) and action observation (AO) have been shown to promote motor learning. It is not known whether these forms of non-physical training also improve motor actions when these actions have to be variably applied in an unstable and unpredictable environment. The present study therefore investigated the influence of MI balance training (MI_BT) and a balance training combining AO and MI (AO+MI_BT) on postural control of undisturbed and disturbed upright stance on unstable ground. As spinal reflex excitability after classical (i.e., physical) balance training (BT) is generally decreased, we tested whether non-physical BT also has an impact on spinal reflex circuits. Thirty-six participants were randomly allocated into an MI_BT group, in which participants imagined postural exercises, an AO+MI_BT group, in which participants observed videos of other people performing balance exercises and imagined being the person in the video, and a non-active control group (CON). Before and after 4 weeks of non-physical training, balance performance was assessed on a free-moving platform during stance without perturbation and during perturbed stance. Soleus H-reflexes were recorded during stable and unstable stance. The post-measurement revealed significantly decreased postural sway during undisturbed and disturbed stance after both MI_BT and AO+MI_BT. Spinal reflex excitability remained unchanged. This is the first study showing that non-physical training (MI_BT and AO+MI_BT) not only promotes motor learning of “rigid” postural tasks but also improves performance of highly variable and unpredictable balance actions. These findings may be relevant to improve postural control and thus reduce the risk of falls in temporarily immobilized patients. PMID:25538598

  19. Influences on the use of observational methods by practitioners when identifying risk factors in physical work.

    PubMed

    Diego-Mas, Jose-Antonio; Poveda-Bautista, Rocio; Garzon-Leal, Diana-Carolina

    2015-01-01

    Most observational methods for musculoskeletal disorder risk assessment have been developed by researchers to be applied in specific situations, and practitioners could find difficulties in their use in real-work conditions. The main objective of this study was to identify the factors which have an influence on how useful the observational techniques are perceived to be by practitioners and to what extent these factors influence their perception. A survey was conducted on practitioners regarding the problems normally encountered when implementing these methods, as well as the perceived overall utility of these techniques. The results show that practitioners place particular importance on the support the methods provide in making decisions regarding changes in work systems and how applicable they are to different types of jobs. The results of this study can serve as guide to researchers for the development of new assessment techniques that are more useful and applicable in real-work situations. PMID:25735462

  20. Physical properties of solar chromospheric plages. III - Models based on Ca II and Mg II observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelch, W. L.; Linsky, J. L.

    1978-01-01

    Solar plages are modeled using observations of both the Ca II K and the Mg II h and k lines. A partial-redistribution approach is employed for calculating the line profiles on the basis of a grid of five model chromospheres. The computed integrated emission intensities for the five atmospheric models are compared with observations of six regions on the sun as well as with models of active-chromosphere stars. It is concluded that the basic plage model grid proposed by Shine and Linsky (1974) is still valid when the Mg II lines are included in the analysis and the Ca II and Mg II lines are analyzed using partial-redistribution diagnostics.

  1. Geoethics: IPCC disgraced by violation of observational facts and physical laws in their sea level scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mörner, Nils-Axel

    2014-05-01

    Sea level may rise due to glacier melting, heat expansion of the oceanic water column, and redistribution of the waster masses - all these factors can be handled as to rates and amplitudes (provided one knows what one is talking about). In key areas over the entire Indian Ocean and in many Pacific Islands there are no traces of and sea level rise over the last 40-50 years. This is also the case for test-areas like Venice and the North Sea coasts. In the Kattegatt Sea one can fix the sea level factor to a maximum rise of 1.0-0.9 mm/year over the last century. The 204 tide gauges selected by NOAA for their global sea level monitoring provide a strong and sharp maximum (of 182 sites) in the range of 0.0-2.0 mm/yr. Satellite altimetry is said to give a rise of 3.2 mm/yr; this, however, is a value achieved after a quite subjective and surely erroneous "correction". The IPCC is talking about exceptionally much higher rates, and even worse are some "boy scouts" desperate try to launce real horror ratios. Physical laws set the frames of the rate and amount of ice melting, and so do records of events in the past (i.e. the geological records). During the Last Ice Age so much ice was accumulated on land, that the sea level dropped by about 120 m. When the process was reversed and ice melted under exceptionally strong climate forcing, sea level rose at a maximum rate of about 10 mm/yr (a meter per century). This can never happen under today's climate conditions. Even with IPCC's hypothetical scenarios, the true sea rise must be far less. When people like Rahmstorf (claiming 1 m or more by 2100) and Hansen (claiming a 4 m rise from 2080 to 2100) give their values, they exceed what is possible according to physical laws and accumulated geological knowledge. The expansion of the oceanic water column may reach amounts of sea level rise in the order of a few centimetres, at the most a decimetre. Old temperature measurements may record a temperature rise over the last 50 years in the order of 0.4o C. The improved ARGO measurements starting 2004 give virtually no change, however. The physically possible amount of expansion decreases, of course, with the decreasing water columns towards the coasts, and at the coasts it is zero (±0.0 mm). The redistribution of water masses in response to the Earth's rotation, surface current beat, wind stress, air pressure, etc. is an important factor. It gives local to regional changes, cancelled out on the global scale, however. From a geoethical point of view, it is of course quite blameworthy that IPCC excels in spreading these horror scenarios of a rapid, even accelerating, sea level rise. Besides, modern understanding of the planetary-solar-terrestrial interaction shows that we are now on our way into grand solar minimum with severely colder climate - that is just the opposite to IPCC's talk about an accelerating warming. In science we should debate - but we should not dictate (as IPCC insist upon), and it is here the perspectives of geoethics comes into the picture.

  2. Multiyear high-frequency physical and environmental observations at the Guadiana Estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garel, E.; Ferreira, Ó.

    2015-07-01

    High-frequency data collected continuously over a multiyear time frame are required for investigating the various agents that drive ecological and hydrodynamic processes in estuaries. Here, we present water quality and current in-situ observations from a fixed monitoring station operating from 2008 to 2014 in the lower Guadiana Estuary, southern Portugal (37°11.30' N, 7°24.67' W). The data were recorded by: a multi-parametric probe providing hourly records of temperature, chlorophyll, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, and pH at a water depth of ~ 1 m; and, a bottom-mounted acoustic Doppler current profiler measuring the pressure, near-bottom temperature, and flow velocity through the water column every 15 min. The time-series, in particular the probe one, present substantial data gaps arising from equipment failure and maintenance, which are ineluctable with this type of observations in harsh environments. However, prolonged (months-long) periods of observations during contrasted external forcing conditions are available. The raw data are reported together with quality flags indicating the status (valid/non-valid) of each record. Hourly river discharge data from two hydrographic stations located near the estuary head are also provided to support data analysis and interpretation. The dataset is publicly available at PANGAEA (doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.845750) in machine-readable format.

  3. Multi-year high-frequency physical and environmental observations at the Guadiana Estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garel, E.; Ferreira, Ó.

    2015-11-01

    High-frequency data collected continuously over a multi-year time frame are required for investigating the various agents that drive ecological and hydrodynamic processes in estuaries. Here, we present water quality and current in situ observations from a fixed monitoring station operating from 2008 to 2014 in the lower Guadiana Estuary, southern Portugal (37°11.30' N, 7°24.67' W). The data were recorded by a multi-parametric probe providing hourly records (temperature, salinity, chlorophyll, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, and pH) at a water depth of ~ 1 m, and by a bottom-mounted acoustic Doppler current profiler measuring the pressure, near-bottom temperature, and flow velocity through the water column every 15 min. The time series data, in particular the probe ones, present substantial gaps arising from equipment failure and maintenance, which are ineluctable with this type of observation in harsh environments. However, prolonged (months-long) periods of multi-parametric observations during contrasted external forcing conditions are available. The raw data are reported together with flags indicating the quality status of each record. River discharge data from two hydrographic stations located near the estuary head are also provided to support data analysis and interpretation. The data set is publicly available in machine-readable format at PANGAEA (doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.845750).

  4. Viking landing sites, remote-sensing observations, and physical properties of Martian surface materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, H.J.; Jakosky, B.M.

    1989-01-01

    Important problems that confront future scientific exploration of Mars include the physical properties of Martian surface materials and the geologic processes that formed the materials. The design of landing spacecraft, roving vehicles, and sampling devices and the selection of landing sites, vehicle traverses, and sample sites will be, in part, guided by the physical properties of the materials. Four materials occur in the sample fields of the Viking landers: (1) drift, (2) crusty to cloddy, (3) blocky, and (4) rock. The first three are soillike. Drift materials is weak, loose, and porous. We estimate that it has a dielectric constant near 2.4 and a thermal inertia near 1 ?? 10-3 to 3 ?? 10-3 (cal cm-2 sec 1 2 K-1) because of its low bulk density, fine grain size, and small cohesion. Crusty to cloddy material is expected to have a dielectric constant near 2.8 and a thermal inertia near 4 ?? 10-3 to 7 ?? 10-3 because of its moderate bulk density and cementation of grains. Blocky material should have a dielectric constant near 3.3 and a thermal inertia near 7 ?? 10-3 to 9 ?? 10-3 because of its moderate bulk density and cementation. Common basaltic rocks have dielectric constans near 8 and thermal inertias near 30 ?? 10-3 to 60 ?? 10-3. Comparisons of estimated dielectric constants and thermal inertias of the materials at the landing sites with those obtained remotely by Earth-based radars and Viking Orbiter thermal sensors suggest that the materials at the landing sites are good analogs for materials elsewhere on Mars. Correlation of remotely estimated dielectric constant and thermal inertias indicates two modal values for paired values of dielectric constants and thermal inertias near (A) 2 and 2 ?? 10-3 and (B) 3 and 6 ?? 10-3, respectively. These two modes are comparable to the dielectric constants and thermal inertias for drift and crusty to cloddy material, respectively. Dielectric constants and thermal inertias for blocky material are larger but conistent with values in the northern plains. Our interprertations are compatible with an aeolian origin for drift and similar materials elsewhere on Mars. The postulate that moderate dielectric constants and thermal inertias larger than 3 or 4 ?? 10-3 are produced by cementation of soillike materials is partly consistent with the data. The average dielectric constant and thermal inertia and their correlation with one another suggest that most of the surface of Mars should present few difficulties to future surface exploration, but some surfaces may present difficulties for spacecraft that are not suitably designed. ?? 1989.

  5. Physical and Chemical Processes Affecting Permeability during Geologic Carbon Sequestration in Arkose and Dolostone: Experimental Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luhmann, A. J.; Kong, X.; Tutolo, B. M.; Saar, M. O.; Seyfried, W. E.

    2012-12-01

    Geologic carbon sequestration in saline sedimentary basins provides a promising option to reduce anthropogenic CO2 emissions. We are conducting experiments using a novel flow system at elevated temperatures and pressures to better understand the physical and chemical processes that result from CO2 injection into these basins and the effects of these processes on system permeability. Here we present experimental results on arkose (primarily K-feldspar and quartz) and dolostone, focusing on CO2 exsolution and fluid-mineral reactions. Following heating-induced CO2 exsolution in an arkose sediment (90-125 μm) core, XRCT scans revealed abundant pores several times larger than the average grain size. The pores likely grew as exsolved CO2 accumulated in the pores and exerted outspread forces on the surrounding grains. These trapped CO2 accumulations blocked flow pathways, reducing measured permeability by 10,000 times. Another reported experiment on a solid arkose core and water with aqueous CO2 concentrations at 80% saturation dissolved K-feldspar, as evidenced by 3 to 1 ratios of Si to K in sampled fluids, and precipitated an Al-rich mineral, likely gibbsite. SEM images revealed extensive clay precipitation on K-feldspar mineral surfaces. Alteration reduced permeability from 5 × 10-14 m2 to 3 × 10-14 m2 during this 52-day experiment. The third reported experiment on a dolostone core and 1 molal NaCl brine with an aqueous CO2 concentration at 75% saturation caused extensive dissolution and a large increase in permeability. This three-day experiment produced a wormhole of 2 mm in diameter that penetrated the entire 2.6 cm long core with a diameter of 1.3 cm. High, initial Ca and Mg fluid concentrations that quickly receded imply early formation of the wormhole that grew in diameter with time. Our experimental results show that formation permeability can change dramatically from both physical and chemical processes, and these changes should be accounted for during geologic carbon sequestration.

  6. Physical properties of transneptunian objects, Centaurs, and Trojans from thermal observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, M.

    2014-07-01

    The most productive way to measure the size and albedo of small bodies throughout the Solar System is through studies of their thermal emission. This is complicated for the cold bodies in the outer Solar System, whose thermal emission peaks at wavelengths for which the Earth's atmosphere is opaque. While the relatively warm Trojans are marginally accessible from the ground in the Q band, the sizes of only a handful of transneptunian objects (TNOs) and Centaurs were known before Spitzer was launched in 2003. Spitzer/MIPS photometry at wavelengths of 24 and 70 microns allowed size and albedo of tens of TNOs and Centaurs to be measured. Herschel (operational in 2009--2013) allowed photometry of a total of ˜140 TNOs at wavelengths between 70 and 500 microns using PACS and SPIRE, chiefly in the framework of the Key Programme ``TNOs are Cool!''. I will present selected results from these surveys and discuss their implications on our knowledge of the origin and evolution of the Solar System, as evidenced by its coldest members. Of particular interest are the sizes of binary systems. Where their masses are known from spatially resolved observations, diameter measurements allow the bulk mass density to be determined, providing a unique probe of the object's interior. In the past few years, we have witnessed a remarkable increase in the number of successfully observed stellar occultations by TNOs and other small bodies. They provide an elegant, model-independent, and accurate way of measuring projected TNO dimensions at the time of the event and at the location of the observer(s). Even satellites or ring systems can be detected this way. However, predictable occultations are rare events and will likely stay infrequent, even in the post-Gaia era. Studies of the ensemble properties of the transneptunian populations will continue to rely on thermal observations. Reliable thermal modeling requires some knowledge of the target's temperature. Optimally, this is obtained through the data themselves, requiring a wavelength coverage straddling the emission peak and including the temperature-sensitive Wien slope. Spitzer covered this range for TNOs and allowed first derivations of the typical thermal inertia: TNO surfaces appear to show the extremely low thermal inertia expected for cold regoliths. Unfortunately, Herschel's wavelength made it largely insensitive to TNO temperatures. The same will hold true for ALMA and for JWST (however useful they will be for TNO science otherwise). If approved, the Japanese-led mission SPICA, with its proposed European camera SAFARI, will be the next observatory to provide sensitive photometric capabilities at the required wavelength range, between some 35 and 210 microns.

  7. Associations between perceived and observational physical environmental factors and the use of walking paths: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background How to promote physical activity is an important public health problem that is attracting increasing attention. Although the application of environmental approaches is believed to promote resident walking, there remains insufficient evidence of the effectiveness of these interventions. Methods This study employed direct observation and questionnaires. Observations were performed on each Tuesday, Thursday, Saturday, and Sunday from April 13th to May 16th. Fourteen trained observers observed six community walking paths, and an additional walking path in a park. The trained observers filled out 2388 observation forms in the field, including 228 forms rating the permanent environment, and 1080 forms assessing the current environment and counting the number of walkers. A total of 1800 questionnaireswere administered to community residents. Results The results of both observation and questionnaires showed good association regarding the characteristics of walking path users (for observation, female = 54.4%; for questionnaire interviews, female, OR = 1.441), and the environmental features associated with walking path utilization (for observation, positive associations were observed between the utilization index and observational environmental variables; for questionnaire interviews, roads and aesthetics were important, OR = 1.044). There were positive associations between path use and time, a preference for brisk walking, and the observed current and permanent environmental variables. Female participants were more likely to use walking paths than males (OR = 1.441, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.126–1.846). BMI and traffic hazard safety were significantly negatively associated with walking path use (OR = 0.948, 95% CI 0.915–0.981, and OR = 0.933, 95% CI 0.887–0.981, respectively). Roads, aesthetics, and knowledge of physical activity were significantly positively correlated with use of walking paths (OR = 1.044, 95% CI 1.017–1.072, and OR = 1.175, 95% CI 1.043–1.323). Participants that resided further than 1 km from the park were less likely to use walking paths (OR = 0.703, 95% CI 0.530–0.933). Gender-specific associations were also found. Conclusions Both perceived and objective environmental factors were associated with walking path use. Data suggested that the permanent and current conditions of the paths might influence walking path utilization, and that gender-specific promotion strategies should be considered. PMID:24950936

  8. Herschel observations of EXtra-Ordinary Sources (HEXOS): Methanol as a probe of physical conditions in Orion KL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, S.; Bergin, E. A.; Crockett, N. R.; Goldsmith, P. F.; Lis, D. C.; Pearson, J. C.; Schilke, P.; Bell, T. A.; Comito, C.; Blake, G. A.; Caux, E.; Ceccarelli, C.; Cernicharo, J.; Daniel, F.; Dubernet, M.-L.; Emprechtinger, M.; Encrenaz, P.; Gerin, M.; Giesen, T. F.; Goicoechea, J. R.; Gupta, H.; Herbst, E.; Joblin, C.; Johnstone, D.; Langer, W. D.; Latter, W. B.; Lord, S. D.; Maret, S.; Martin, P. G.; Melnick, G. J.; Menten, K. M.; Morris, P.; Müller, H. S. P.; Murphy, J. A.; Neufeld, D. A.; Ossenkopf, V.; Pérault, M.; Phillips, T. G.; Plume, R.; Qin, S.-L.; Schlemmer, S.; Stutzki, J.; Trappe, N.; van der Tak, F. F. S.; Vastel, C.; Yorke, H. W.; Yu, S.; Zmuidzinas, J.

    2011-03-01

    We have examined methanol emission from Orion KL withthe Herschel/HIFI instrument, and detected two methanol bands centered at 524 GHz and 1061 GHz. The 524 GHz methanol band (observed in HIFI band 1a) is dominated by the isolated ΔJ = 0, K = -4 → -3, vt = 0 Q branch, and includes 25 E-type and 2 A-type transitions. The 1061 GHz methanol band (observed in HIFI band 4b) is dominated by the ΔJ = 0, K = 7 → 6, vt = 0 Q branch transitions which are mostly blended. We have used the isolated E-type vt = 0 methanol transitions to explore the physical conditions in the molecular gas. With HIFI's high velocity resolution, the methanol emission contributed by different spatial components along the line of sight toward Orion KL (hot core, low velocity flow, and compact ridge) can be distinguished and studied separately. The isolated transitions detected in these bands cover a broad energy range (upper state energy ranging from 80 K to 900 K), which provides a unique probe of the thermal structure in each spatial component. The observations further show that the compact ridge is externally heated. These observations demonstrate the power of methanol lines as probes of the physical conditions in warm regions in close proximity to young stars. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  9. Mars physical parameters as determined from Mariner 9 observations of the natural satellites and Doppler tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Born, G. H.

    1974-01-01

    Mariner 9 Doppler tracking data and television photographs of Deimos and Phobos were analyzed to determine the gravity field, mass, and spin-axis direction of Mars and the natural satellite orbits. The solutions agree with previously published results. Radio data consisted of an apoapsis state vector for each of revolutions 5-195 obtained from one-revolution fits of Doppler data. Optical data consisted of TV photographs of Phobos and Deimos taken between revolutions 25 and 221. A first-order analytical theory, extended to include dominant second-order resonance effects on the Mariner 9 orbit, was used to calculate the motion of the spacecraft, Deimos, and Phobos. The feasibility of combining radio and optical data in long-arc solutions for accurate determination of orbits and physical parameters is demonstrated. The analytical theory developed for the evolution of a highly eccentric orbit in shallow resonance is accurate to plus or minus 1 km in the apoapsis state vector of Mariner 9 over a period of 200 revolutions.

  10. Aerosol physical, chemical and optical properties observed in the ambient atmosphere during haze pollution conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhengqiang; Xie, Yisong; Li, Donghui; Li, Kaitao; Zhang, Ying; Li, Li; Lv, Yang; Qie, Lili; Xu, Hua

    Aerosol’s properties in the ambient atmosphere may differ significantly from sampling results due to containing of abundant water content. We performed sun-sky radiometer measurements in Beijing during 2011 and 2012 winter to obtain distribution of spectral and angular sky radiance. The measurements are then used to retrieve aerosol physical, chemical and optical properties, including single scattering albedo, size distribution, complex refractive indices and aerosol component fractions identified as black carbon, brown carbon, mineral dust, ammonium sulfate-like components and water content inside particle matters. We found that during winter haze condition aerosol is dominated by fine particles with center radius of about 0.2 micron. Fine particles contribute about 93% to total aerosol extinction of solar light, and result in serious decrease of atmospheric visibility during haze condition. The percentage of light absorption of haze aerosol can up to about 10% among its total extinction, much higher than that of unpolluted conditions, that causes significant radiative cooling effects suppressing atmospheric convection and dispersion of pollutants. Moreover, the average water content occupies about one third of the ambient aerosol in volume which suggests the important effect of ambient humidity in the formation of haze pollution.

  11. Physics of the energy cascade process in solar wind turbulence and comparisons between theory and observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podesta, J. J.

    2008-11-01

    The solar wind is the only astrophysical plasma directly accessible to in-situ plasma measurements and is an important testing ground for theories of turbulence in collisionless astrophysical plasmas. The physics of the energy cascade process and its relationship to the cross-helicity cascade and the wave-vector anisotropy in Fourier space are among the most fundamental aspects of the subject and are believed to have important practical consequences for the heating of the solar wind and the solar corona. Several different phenomenological theories of incompressible MHD turbulence have appeared in the literature and it is not known which one, if any, correctly describe the energy cascade process in the solar wind. Detailed comparison between turbulence theories and solar wind measurements is the only way to validate any theory of solar wind turbulence. In this presentation, a brief review is given of recent comparisons between phenomenological turbulence theories and solar wind measurements. Some successes and outstanding problems are highlighted. Topics to be discussed include the applicability of the Iroshnikov-Kraichnan theory for describing the energy cascade in the solar wind, the possible scale-dependent alignment between velocity and magnetic field fluctations in the inertial range, and attempts to investigate critical-balance in the solar wind as formulated by Goldreich and Sridhar.

  12. Monthly Deaths Number And Concomitant Environmental Physical Activity: 192 Months Observation (1990-2005)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoupel, E.; Kalediene, R.; Petrauskiene, J.; Starkuviene, S.; Abramson, E.; Israelevich, P.; Sulkes, J.

    2007-12-01

    Human life and health state are dependent on many endogenous and exogenous influence factors. The aim of this study is to check the possible links between monthly deaths distribution and concomitant activity of three groups of cosmophysical factors: solar (SA), geomagnetic (GMA) and cosmic ray (CRA) activities. 192 months death number in years 1990-2005 (n=674004) at the Republic of Lithuania were analyzed. Total and both gender data were considered. In addition to the total death numbers, groups of ischemic heart disease (IHD), stroke (CVA), non-cardiovascular (NCV), accident, traffic accident and suicide-related deaths were studied. Sunspot number and solar radio flux (for SA), Ap, Cp and Am indices (for GMA) and neutron activity on the Earth s surface (for CRA) were the environmental physical activity parameters used in this study. Yearly and monthly deaths distributions were also studied. Pearson correlation coefficients (r) and their probabilities (p) were calculated. Multivariate analysis was conducted. Results revealed: 1) significant correlation of monthly deaths number with CRA (total, stroke, NCV and suicides) and inverse with SA and GMA; 2) significant correlation of monthly number of traffic accidents number with SA and GMA, and inverse with CRA; 3) a strong negative relationship between year and IHD/CVA victims number (an evidence for growing role of stroke in cardiovascular mortality); 4) significant links of rising cardiovascular deaths number at the beginning of the year and traffic accidents victims at the end of the year. It is concluded that CRA is related to monthly deaths distribution.

  13. Impact of corn residue quantity on yield of following crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have observed that crop growth can be suppressed in fields where high quantities of corn residue are present on the soil surface. To examine this perceived trend, we grew dry pea, spring wheat, and red clover in two levels of corn residues, achieved by growing corn at 21,000 and 30,000 plants/ac...

  14. Number versus Continuous Quantity in Numerosity Judgments by Fish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agrillo, Christian; Piffer, Laura; Bisazza, Angelo

    2011-01-01

    In quantity discrimination tasks, adults, infants and animals have been sometimes observed to process number only after all continuous variables, such as area or density, have been controlled for. This has been taken as evidence that processing number may be more cognitively demanding than processing continuous variables. We tested this hypothesis…

  15. PANCHROMATIC OBSERVATIONS OF THE TEXTBOOK GRB 110205A: CONSTRAINING PHYSICAL MECHANISMS OF PROMPT EMISSION AND AFTERGLOW

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, W.; Shen, R. F.; Sakamoto, T.; Beardmore, A. P.; De Pasquale, M.; Wu, X. F.; Zhang, B.; Gorosabel, J.; Urata, Y.; Sugita, S.; Pozanenko, A.; Sahu, D. K.; Im, M.; Ukwatta, T. N.; Andreev, M.; Klunko, E. E-mail: rfshen@astro.utoronto.ca; and others

    2012-06-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of a bright, long-duration (T{sub 90} {approx} 257 s) GRB 110205A at redshift z = 2.22. The optical prompt emission was detected by Swift/UVOT, ROTSE-IIIb, and BOOTES telescopes when the gamma-ray burst (GRB) was still radiating in the {gamma}-ray band, with optical light curve showing correlation with {gamma}-ray data. Nearly 200 s of observations were obtained simultaneously from optical, X-ray, to {gamma}-ray (1 eV to 5 MeV), which makes it one of the exceptional cases to study the broadband spectral energy distribution during the prompt emission phase. In particular, we clearly identify, for the first time, an interesting two-break energy spectrum, roughly consistent with the standard synchrotron emission model in the fast cooling regime. Shortly after prompt emission ({approx}1100 s), a bright (R = 14.0) optical emission hump with very steep rise ({alpha} {approx} 5.5) was observed, which we interpret as the reverse shock (RS) emission. It is the first time that the rising phase of an RS component has been closely observed. The full optical and X-ray afterglow light curves can be interpreted within the standard reverse shock (RS) + forward shock (FS) model. In general, the high-quality prompt and afterglow data allow us to apply the standard fireball model to extract valuable information, including the radiation mechanism (synchrotron), radius of prompt emission (R{sub GRB} {approx} 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 13} cm), initial Lorentz factor of the outflow ({Gamma}{sub 0} {approx} 250), the composition of the ejecta (mildly magnetized), the collimation angle, and the total energy budget.

  16. Io's Volcanism: Thermo-Physical Models of Silicate Lava Compared with Observations of Thermal Emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, Ashely G.

    1996-01-01

    Analyses of thermal infrared outbursts from the jovian satellite Io indicate that at least some of these volcanic events are due to silicate lava. Analysis of the January 9, 1990 outburst indicates that this was an active eruption consisting of a large lava flow (with mass eruption rate of order 10(exp 5) cubic m/sec) and a sustained area at silicate liquidus temperatures. This is interpreted as a series of fire fountains along a rift zone. A possible alternative scenario is that of an overflowing lava lake with extensive fire fountaining. The January 9, 1990 event is unique as multispectral observations with respect to time were obtained. In this paper, a model is presented for the thermal energy lost by active and cooling silicate lava flows and lakes on Io. The model thermal emission is compared with Earth-based observations and Voyager IRIS data. The model (a) provides an explanation of the thermal anomalies on Io's surface; (b) provides constraints on flow behavior and extent and infers some flow parameters; and (c) determines flow geometry and change in flow size with time, and the temperature of each part of the flow or lava lake surface as a function of its age. Models of heat output from active lava flows or inactive but recently emplaced lava flows or overturning lava lakes alone are unable to reproduce the observations. If the January 9, 1990 event is the emplacement of a lava flow, the equivalent of 27 such events per year would yield a volume of material sufficient, if uniformly distributed, to resurface all of Io at a rate of 1 cm/year.

  17. Panchromatic Observations of the Textbook GRB 110205A: Constraining Physical Mechanisms of Prompt Emission and Afterglow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zheng, W.; Shen, R. F.; Sakamoto, T.; Beardmore, A. P.; De Pasquale, M.; Wu, X. F.; Gorosabel, J.; Urata, Y.; Sugita, S.; Zhang, B.; Pozanenko, A.; Nissinen, M.; Sahu, D. K.; Im, M.; Ukwatta, T. N.; Andreev, M.; Klunko, E.; Volnova, A.; Akerlof, C. W.; Anto, P.; Barthelmy, S. D.; Breeveld, A.; Carsenty, U.; Gehrels, N.; Sonbas, E.

    2011-01-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of a bright, long duration (T(sub 90) approx. 257 s) GRB 110205A at redshift z = 2.22. The optical prompt emission was detected by Swift/UVOT, ROTSE-IIIb and BOOTES telescopes when the GRB was still radiating in the gamma-ray band. Thanks to its long duration, nearly 200 s of observations were obtained simultaneously from optical, X-ray to gamma-ray (1 eV - 5 MeV), which makes it one of the exceptional cases to study the broadband spectral energy distribution across 6 orders of magnitude in energy during the prompt emission phase. In particular, by fitting the time resolved prompt spectra, we clearly identify, for the first time, an interesting two-break energy spectrum, roughly consistent with the standard GRB synchrotron emission model in the fast cooling regime. Although the prompt optical emission is brighter than the extrapolation of the best fit X/ -ray spectra, it traces the -ray light curve shape, suggesting a relation to the prompt high energy emission. The synchrotron + synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) scenario is disfavored by the data, but the models invoking a pair of internal shocks or having two emission regions can interpret the data well. Shortly after prompt emission (approx. 1100 s), a bright (R = 14.0) optical emission hump with very steep rise ( alpha approx. 5.5) was observed which we interpret as the emission from the reverse shock. It is the first time that the rising phase of a reverse shock component has been closely observed.

  18. Our Sun IV: The Standard Model and Helioseismology: Consequences of Uncertainties in Input Physics and in Observed Solar Parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boothroyd, Arnold I.; Sackmann, I.-Juliana

    2001-01-01

    Helioseismic frequency observations provide an extremely accurate window into the solar interior; frequencies from the Michaelson Doppler Imager (MDI) on the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) spacecraft, enable the adiabatic sound speed and adiabatic index to be inferred with an accuracy of a few parts in 10(exp 4) and the density with an accuracy of a few parts in 10(exp 3). This has become a Serious challenge to theoretical models of the Sun. Therefore, we have undertaken a self-consistent, systematic study of the sources of uncertainties in the standard solar models. We found that the largest effect on the interior structure arises from the observational uncertainties in the photospheric abundances of the elements, which affect the sound speed profile at the level of 3 parts in 10(exp 3). The estimated 4% uncertainty in the OPAL opacities could lead to effects of 1 part in 10(exp 3); the approximately 5%, uncertainty in the basic pp nuclear reaction rate would have a similar effect, as would uncertainties of approximately 15% in the diffusion constants for the gravitational settling of helium. The approximately 50% uncertainties in diffusion constants for the heavier elements would have nearly as large an effect. Different observational methods for determining the solar radius yield results differing by as much as 7 parts in 10(exp 4); we found that this leads to uncertainties of a few parts in 10(exp 3) in the sound speed int the solar convective envelope, but has negligible effect on the interior. Our reference standard solar model yielded a convective envelope position of 0.7135 solar radius, in excellent agreement with the observed value of 0.713 +/- 0.001 solar radius and was significantly affected only by Z/X, the pp rate, and the uncertainties in helium diffusion constants. Our reference model also yielded envelope helium abundance of 0.2424, in good agreement with the approximate range of 0.24 to 0.25 inferred from helioseismic observations; only extreme Z/X values yielded envelope helium abundance outside this range. We found that other current uncertainties, namely, in the solar age and luminosity, in nuclear rates other than the pp reaction, in the low-temperature molecular opacities, and in the low-density equation of state, have no significant effect on the quantities that can be inferred from helioseismic observations. The predicted pre-main-sequence lithium depletion is uncertain by a factor of 2. The predicted neutrino capture rate is uncertain by approximately 30% for the Cl-27 experiment and by approximately 3% for Ga-71 experiments, while the B-8 neutrino flux is uncertain by approximately 30%.

  19. Fate of Deepwater Horizon oil in Alabama's beach system: understanding physical evolution processes based on observational data.

    PubMed

    Hayworth, Joel S; Prabakhar Clement, T; John, Gerald F; Yin, Fang

    2015-01-15

    The impact of MC252 oil on northern Gulf of Mexico (GOM) beaches from the 2010 Deepwater Horizon (DWH) catastrophe was extensive along Alabama's beaches. While considerable amount of cleanup has occurred along these beaches, as of August 2014, DWH oil spill residues continue to be found as surface residual balls (SRBs), and also occasionally as submerged oil mats (SOMs). Four years of field observations informing the fate and transport of DWH SRBs in Alabama's beach system are presented here, along with a conceptual framework for describing their physical evolution processes. The observation data show that SRBs containing MC252 residues currently remain in Alabama's beach system, although their relationship to SOMs is not fully known. Based on our field observations we conclude that small DWH SRBs are likely to persist for several years along the Alabama shoreline. PMID:25496697

  20. Constraints on shock acceleration physics from the Chandra Large Project observations of SN 1006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, Stephen; Katsuda, Satoru; Petre, Robert; Long, Knox S.; Winkler, P. Frank; Ressler, Sean; Williams, Brian

    The remnant of the supernova of 1006 C.E., the brightest historical supernova ever recorded, has provided a laboratory for the study of shock acceleration since the discovery and modeling of nonthermal X-rays over 30 years ago. It has now been observed with the Chandra X-ray Observatory for a total of over 1 Ms, including a full mapping of the remnant in 2012. Chandra's sub-arcsecond angular resolution has allowed detailed study of expansion proper motions, constraints on upstream precursor emission, and ``thin-rim" filamentary morphology at the remnant edges and its energy-dependence, among other properties. I shall summarize the observational data and their consequences for our understanding of the nature of fast shock waves and particle acceleration. The absence of clear upstream ``halo" emission requires that the shock precursor be very narrow, in turn implying amplification of magnetic field in the precursor. Rim thicknesses shrink rapidly with energy, confirming strong post-shock magnetic-field amplification and demanding surprisingly small diffusion coefficients downstream.

  1. Transit Timing Observations from Kepler: IV. Confirmation of 4 Multiple Planet Systems by Simple Physical Models

    SciTech Connect

    Fabrycky, Daniel C.; Ford, Eric B.; Steffen, Jason H.; Rowe, Jason F.; Carter, Joshua A.; Moorhead, Althea V.; Batalha, Natalie M.; Borucki, William J.; Bryson, Steve; Buchhave, Lars A.; Christiansen, Jessie L.; /SETI Inst., Mtn. View /NASA, Ames /Caltech

    2012-01-01

    Eighty planetary systems of two or more planets are known to orbit stars other than the Sun. For most, the data can be sufficiently explained by non-interacting Keplerian orbits, so the dynamical interactions of these systems have not been observed. Here we present 4 sets of lightcurves from the Kepler spacecraft, which each show multiple planets transiting the same star. Departure of the timing of these transits from strict periodicity indicates the planets are perturbing each other: the observed timing variations match the forcing frequency of the other planet. This confirms that these objects are in the same system. Next we limit their masses to the planetary regime by requiring the system remain stable for astronomical timescales. Finally, we report dynamical fits to the transit times, yielding possible values for the planets masses and eccentricities. As the timespan of timing data increases, dynamical fits may allow detailed constraints on the systems architectures, even in cases for which high-precision Doppler follow-up is impractical.

  2. Erosion and Gully Formation in the Ethiopian Highlands: Physical Observations and Community Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzman, Christian; Dagnew, Dessalegn; Zegeye, Assefa; Tilahun, Seifu; Yitaferu, Birru; Stoof, Cathelijne; Steenhuis, Tammo

    2014-05-01

    The aims of this investigation are to analyze spatio-temporal variations in sediment transport to waterways in a small agricultural watershed by: (i) locating sediment sources using modeling and bio-physical scientific approaches, (ii) locating sediment sources and erosion processes through age- and gender-differentiated focus group discussions and transect walks, and (iii) linking sediment sources to changes in soil nutrient concentrations. The collected field measurements, modeling results, and community perceptions have been gathered on an area encompassing a previous study site (14 ha) on a currently larger scale (95 ha) in the Debre Mewi watershed to develop a fuller picture of the social and environmental conditions that are leading to induced or controlled erosion and gully formation. Farmers provided their perspectives on erosion processes and these were complemented by and compared to soil and water field measurements during the rainy season. Nine sites were selected for monitoring and measuring groundwater, soil nutrient changes, and soil depth change on the 95 ha study area, based on land use and slope angle -- half represent grazing or fallow land and half are located on cultivated land. A set of stable gullies and actively forming gullies were monitored and measured simultaneously along hillslope locations in the top, middle and bottom areas. In addition, sediment concentration samples were collected at 4 weir locations in the 95 ha watershed and also at the final outlet to this watershed. Modeling efforts emphasize steep cropland as most vulnerable, whereas community members pointed out waterlogged black soils and lower areas as vulnerable. The data demonstrate that saturated pathways in the landscape provide areas for the development and widening of gullies and that flat cropland areas experience deposition rather than erosion, while soil nutrient concentrations are decreasing upslope and increasing downslope.

  3. Erosion and Gully formation in the Ethiopian Highlands: physical observations and community perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzman, C. D.; Admassu, S.; Derebe, A.; Yitaferu, B.; Steenhuis, T. S.

    2013-12-01

    The aims of this investigation are to analyze spatio-temporal variations in sediment transport to waterways in a small agricultural watershed by: (i) locating sediment sources using modeling and bio-physical scientific approaches, (ii) locating sediment sources and erosion processes through age- and gender-differentiated focus group discussions and transect walks, and (iii) linking sediment sources to changes in soil nutrient concentrations. The collected field measurements, modeling results, and community perceptions have been gathered on an area encompassing a previous study site (14 ha) on a currently larger scale (95 ha) in the Debre Mewi watershed to develop a fuller picture of the social and environmental conditions that are leading to induced or controlled erosion and gully formation. Farmers provided their perspectives on erosion processes and these were complemented by and compared to soil and water field measurements during the rainy season. Sixteen sites were selected for monitoring and measuring groundwater, soil nutrient changes, and soil depth change on the 95 ha study area, based on land use and slope angle -- half represent grazing or fallow land and half are located on cultivated land. A set of stable gullies and actively forming gullies were monitored and measured simultaneously along hillslope locations in the top, middle and bottom areas. In addition, sediment concentration samples were collected at 4 weir locations in the 95 ha watershed and also at the final outlet to this watershed. Modeling efforts emphasize steep cropland as most vulnerable, whereas community members pointed out waterlogged black soils and lower areas as vulnerable. The data demonstrate that saturated pathways in the landscape provide areas for the development and widening of gullies and that flat cropland areas experience deposition rather than erosion, while soil nutrient concentrations are decreasing upslope and increasing downslope.

  4. Physical connectivity in the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System inferred from 9 years of ocean color observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soto, I.; Andréfouët, S.; Hu, C.; Muller-Karger, F. E.; Wall, C. C.; Sheng, J.; Hatcher, B. G.

    2009-06-01

    Ocean color images acquired from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) from 1998 to 2006 were used to examine the patterns of physical connectivity between land and reefs, and among reefs in the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System (MBRS) in the northwestern Caribbean Sea. Connectivity was inferred by tracking surface water features in weekly climatologies and a time series of weekly mean chlorophyll- a concentrations derived from satellite imagery. Frequency of spatial connections between 17 pre-defined, geomorphological domains that include the major reefs in the MBRS and river deltas in Honduras and Nicaragua were recorded and tabulated as percentage of connections. The 9-year time series of 466 weekly mean images portrays clearly the seasonal patterns of connectivity, including river plumes and transitions in the aftermath of perturbations such as hurricanes. River plumes extended offshore from the Honduras coast to the Bay Islands (Utila, Cayo Cochinos, Guanaja, and Roatán) in 70% of the weekly mean images. Belizean reefs, especially those in the southern section of the barrier reef and Glovers Atoll, were also affected by riverine discharges in every one of the 9 years. Glovers Atoll was exposed to river plumes originating in Honduras 104/466 times (22%) during this period. Plumes from eastern Honduras went as far as Banco Chinchorro and Cozumel in Mexico. Chinchorro appeared to be more frequently connected to Turneffe Atoll and Honduran rivers than with Glovers and Lighthouse Atolls, despite their geographic proximity. This new satellite data analysis provides long-term, quantitative assessments of the main pathways of connectivity in the region. The percentage of connections can be used to validate predictions made using other approaches such as numerical modeling, and provides valuable information to ecosystem-based management in coral reef provinces.

  5. The 2008 Eruption of Kasatochi Volcano, Central Aleutian Islands, Alaska: Reconnaissance Observations and Preliminary Physical Volcanology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waythomas, C. F.; Schneider, D. J.; Prejean, S. G.

    2008-12-01

    The August 7, 2008 eruption of Kasatochi volcano was the first documented historical eruption of this small (3 x 3 km) island volcano with a 1 km2 lake filled crater in the central Aleutian Islands of Alaska. Reports of previous Kasatochi eruptions are unconfirmed and lacking in detail and little is known about the eruptive history. Three explosively-generated ash plumes reaching altitudes of 15 to 20 km were observed in satellite data and were preceded by some of the most intense seismicity yet recorded by the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) seismic network. Eruptive products on Kasatochi Island observed on August 22 and 23 consist of pumice-bearing, lithic-rich pyroclastic-flow deposits overlain by a 1-2 m thick sequence of fine- grained pyroclastic-surge, and -fall deposits all exposed at the coastline. These deposits completely blanket Kasatochi Island to a depth of many meters. Pyroclastic flows entered the sea and extended the coastline 300-400 m beyond prominent wave cut cliffs and sea stacks. Tide gauge data from Adak Island, 80 km to the west, indicate a small tsunami with maximum water amplitude of 20 cm, was initiated during the eruption. Kasatochi volcano lacks a real-time seismic monitoring network. Seismic activity was detected by AVO instruments on Great Sitkin Island 40 km to the west, and thus the timing of eruptive events is approximate. The eruption began explosively at 2201 UTC on August 7, and was followed by at least two additional strong eruptive bursts at 0150 UTC and 0435 UTC, August 8. Satellite data show a significant ash cloud associated with the 0435 UTC event followed by at least 14 hours of continuous ash emission. The lack of a strong ash signature in satellite data suggest that the first two plumes were ash poor. Satellite data also show a large emission of SO2 that entered the stratosphere. Correlation of eruptive periods with deposits on the island is not yet possible, but it appears that pyroclastic flows were emplaced during all three explosive events and the surge and fall deposits accumulated during the continuous phase of the third event only. The role of external water is under investigation, and observations on August 22 and 23 indicated several streams flowing from the base of the crater walls into a shallow lake in the bottom of the 1 km2 crater. The surge and fall deposits exposed on Kasatochi Island contain abundant accretionary lapilli indicating water involvement during the emplacement of these deposits. Tephra deposits observed on islands southwest of Kasatochi range in thickness from 6 cm, 30 km from the volcano, to minor amounts on eastern Adak Island, 80 km to the southwest. A fishing boat about 13 km southwest of Kasatochi received about 12 cm of coarse ash to medium lapilli tephra fall. Tephra deposits observed at 5 locations southwest of Kasatochi consist of single beds of normally graded medium to coarse lapilli tephra fall. The lack of recognizable stratigraphic breaks in the tephra deposits suggests that they were the products of a single fall event, likely the third explosion that produced the most ash rich plume.

  6. Stellar physics. Observing the onset of outflow collimation in a massive protostar.

    PubMed

    Carrasco-González, C; Torrelles, J M; Cantó, J; Curiel, S; Surcis, G; Vlemmings, W H T; van Langevelde, H J; Goddi, C; Anglada, G; Kim, S-W; Kim, J-S; Gómez, J F

    2015-04-01

    The current paradigm of star formation through accretion disks, and magnetohydrodynamically driven gas ejections, predicts the development of collimated outflows, rather than expansion without any preferential direction. We present radio continuum observations of the massive protostar W75N(B)-VLA 2, showing that it is a thermal, collimated ionized wind and that it has evolved in 18 years from a compact source into an elongated one. This is consistent with the evolution of the associated expanding water-vapor maser shell, which changed from a nearly circular morphology, tracing an almost isotropic outflow, to an elliptical one outlining collimated motions. We model this behavior in terms of an episodic, short-lived, originally isotropic ionized wind whose morphology evolves as it moves within a toroidal density stratification. PMID:25838383

  7. EQUATION OF STATE AND NEUTRON STAR PROPERTIES CONSTRAINED BY NUCLEAR PHYSICS AND OBSERVATION

    SciTech Connect

    Hebeler, K.; Lattimer, J. M.; Pethick, C. J.; Schwenk, A.

    2013-08-10

    Microscopic calculations of neutron matter based on nuclear interactions derived from chiral effective field theory, combined with the recent observation of a 1.97 {+-} 0.04 M{sub Sun} neutron star, constrain the equation of state of neutron-rich matter at sub- and supranuclear densities. We discuss in detail the allowed equations of state and the impact of our results on the structure of neutron stars, the crust-core transition density, and the nuclear symmetry energy. In particular, we show that the predicted range for neutron star radii is robust. For use in astrophysical simulations, we provide detailed numerical tables for a representative set of equations of state consistent with these constraints.

  8. Radar and optical observations and physical modeling of triple near-Earth Asteroid (136617) 1994 CC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brozović, Marina; Benner, Lance A. M.; Taylor, Patrick A.; Nolan, Michael C.; Howell, Ellen S.; Magri, Christopher; Scheeres, Daniel J.; Giorgini, Jon D.; Pollock, Joseph T.; Pravec, Petr; Galád, Adrián; Fang, Julia; Margot, Jean-Luc; Busch, Michael W.; Shepard, Michael K.; Reichart, Daniel E.; Ivarsen, Kevin M.; Haislip, Joshua B.; LaCluyze, Aaron P.; Jao, Joseph; Slade, Martin A.; Lawrence, Kenneth J.; Hicks, Michael D.

    2011-11-01

    We report radar, photometric, and spectroscopic observations of near-Earth Asteroid (136617) 1994 CC. The radar measurements were obtained at Goldstone (8560 MHz, 3.5 cm) and Arecibo (2380 MHz, 12.6 cm) on 9 days following the asteroid's approach within 0.0168 AU on June 10, 2009. 1994 CC was also observed with the Panchromatic Robotic Optical Monitoring and Polarimetry Telescopes (PROMPT) on May 21 and June 1-3. Visible-wavelength spectroscopy was obtained with the 5-m Hale telescope at Palomar on August 25. Delay-Doppler radar images reveal that 1994 CC is a triple system; along with (153591) 2001 SN263, this is only the second confirmed triple in the near-Earth population. Photometry obtained with PROMPT yields a rotation period for the primary P = 2.38860 ± 0.00009 h and a lightcurve amplitude of ˜0.1 mag suggesting a shape with low elongation. Hale telescope spectroscopy indicates that 1994 CC is an Sq-class object. Delay-Doppler radar images and shape modeling reveal that the primary has an effective diameter of 0.62 ± 0.06 km, low pole-on elongation, few obvious surface features, and a prominent equatorial ridge and sloped hemispheres that closely resemble those seen on the primary of binary near-Earth Asteroid (66391) 1999 KW4. Detailed orbit fitting reported separately by Fang et al. (Fang, J., Margot, J.-L., Brozovic, M., Nolan, M.C., Benner, L.A.M., Taylor, P.A. [2011]. Astron. J. 141, 154-168) gives a mass of the primary of 2.6 × 10 11 kg that, coupled with the effective diameter, yields a bulk density of 2.1 ± 0.6 g cm -3. The images constrain the diameters of the inner and outer satellites to be 113 ± 30 m and 80 ± 30 m, respectively. The inner satellite has a semimajor axis of ˜1.7 km (˜5.5 primary radii), an orbital period of ˜30 h, and its Doppler dispersion suggests relatively slow rotation, 26 ± 12 h, consistent with spin-orbit lock. The outer satellite has an orbital period of ˜9 days and a rotation period of 14 ± 7 h, establishing that the rotation is not spin-orbit locked. Among all binary and triple systems observed by radar, at least 25% (7/28) have a satellite that rotates more rapidly than its orbital period. This suggests that asynchronous configurations with Protation < Porbital are relatively common among multiple systems in the near-Earth population. 1994 CC's outer satellite has an observed maximum separation from the primary of ˜5.7 km (˜18.4 primary radii) that is the largest separation relative to primary radius seen to date among all 36 known binary and triple NEA systems. 1994 CC, (153591) 2001 SN263, and 1998 ST27 are the only triple and binary systems known with satellite separations >10 primary radii, suggesting either a detection bias, or that such widely-separated satellites are relatively uncommon in NEA multiple systems.

  9. Difference in quantity discrimination in dogs and wolves

    PubMed Central

    Range, Friederike; Jenikejew, Julia; Schröder, Isabelle; Virányi, Zsófia

    2014-01-01

    Certain aspects of social life, such as engaging in intergroup conflicts, as well as challenges posed by the physical environment, may facilitate the evolution of quantity discrimination. In lack of excessive comparative data, one can only hypothesize about its evolutionary origins, but human-raised wolves performed well when they had to choose the larger of two sets of 1–4 food items that had been sequentially placed into two opaque cans. Since in such paradigms, the animals never see the entire content of either can, their decisions are thought to rely on mental representation of the two quantities rather than on some perceptual factors such as the overall volume or surface area of the two amounts. By equaling the time that it takes to enter each quantity into the cans or the number of items entered, one can further rule out the possibility that animals simply choose based on the amount of time needed to present the two quantities. While the wolves performed well even in such a control condition, dogs failed to choose the larger one of two invisible quantities in another study using a similar paradigm. Because this disparity could be explained by procedural differences, in the current study, we set out to test dogs that were raised and kept identically as the previously tested wolves using the same set-up and procedure. Our results confirm the former finding that dogs, in comparison to wolves, have inferior skills to represent quantities mentally. This seems to be in line with Frank’s (1980) hypothesis suggesting that domestication altered the information processing of dogs. However, as discussed, also alternative explanations may exist. PMID:25477834

  10. Difference in quantity discrimination in dogs and wolves.

    PubMed

    Range, Friederike; Jenikejew, Julia; Schröder, Isabelle; Virányi, Zsófia

    2014-01-01

    Certain aspects of social life, such as engaging in intergroup conflicts, as well as challenges posed by the physical environment, may facilitate the evolution of quantity discrimination. In lack of excessive comparative data, one can only hypothesize about its evolutionary origins, but human-raised wolves performed well when they had to choose the larger of two sets of 1-4 food items that had been sequentially placed into two opaque cans. Since in such paradigms, the animals never see the entire content of either can, their decisions are thought to rely on mental representation of the two quantities rather than on some perceptual factors such as the overall volume or surface area of the two amounts. By equaling the time that it takes to enter each quantity into the cans or the number of items entered, one can further rule out the possibility that animals simply choose based on the amount of time needed to present the two quantities. While the wolves performed well even in such a control condition, dogs failed to choose the larger one of two invisible quantities in another study using a similar paradigm. Because this disparity could be explained by procedural differences, in the current study, we set out to test dogs that were raised and kept identically as the previously tested wolves using the same set-up and procedure. Our results confirm the former finding that dogs, in comparison to wolves, have inferior skills to represent quantities mentally. This seems to be in line with Frank's (1980) hypothesis suggesting that domestication altered the information processing of dogs. However, as discussed, also alternative explanations may exist. PMID:25477834

  11. FUSE Observations of the Sun in Time - Transition Region Physics and Evolution of FUV Irradiances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guinan, Edward F.

    We propose to use FUSE to complete an in-depth study of the evolution of the transition region and low corona of a solar-mass star throughout its main-sequence lifetime. This program is part of a comprehensive study of the Sun in Time across the electromagnetic spectrum. We have defined a homogeneous sample of single G0-5 V stars with well-known rotation periods that are proxies of the Sun at different ages. So far we have observed three targets and have time approved in Cycle 2 for a fourth star. We are studying the dynamics and energetics of the lower layers of the atmospheres of these solar-like stars, and investigating the variations of the properties with age and rotation period. Emission measure and temperature analysis will allow us to obtain a complete 3-D atmospheric model of active regions that we will link to the previously obtained coronal X-ray data. Transition region electron densities are inferred through the well-established density-sensitive ratio of the C III 1176 A 977 A lines. This important diagnostic will be used to identify and model the relevant magnetic structures based on the solar analogy, and, together with our coronal X-ray (ROSAT, ASCA, XMM, Chandra), EUV (EUVE), and TR (IUEHST) data, to infer the importance of coronal energy releases. Our FUSE investigation is central to the understanding of the evolution of magneto-dynamic atmospheric phenomena, and the associated high-energy emissions in the Sun and in solar-type stars. It also bears on the crucial question of the influence of the young Suns strong FUV emissions on the developing planetary system - in particular on the photochemical and photoionization evolution (and possible erosion) of early planetary atmospheres and ionospheres. To this end, we are constructing spectral irradiance tables for the Sun at different ages for which the proposed FUSE observations fill a vital spectral and energy gap.

  12. Generating wind fields that honour point observations and physical conservation laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlabing, Dirk; Bárdossy, András

    2015-04-01

    Wind exhibits a strong spatial and temporal variability. In the application of lake modelling, these features are important for simulating water flows and stratification correctly, as mean and variance of wind speed determine the input of momentum into the lake. This makes a mere interpolation of point measurements an unsuitable method for producing model input. Additionally to concrete point measurements, more subtle aspects of wind fields are to be reproduced. It follows from the fact that wind vectors represent moving air that a wind field has to be divergency-free in order to be mass-conservative. Further, a temporal sequence of wind fields has to comply with the Navier-Stokes equation in order to conserve momentum. All these constraints can be met by representing the conditioned wind field as a linear combination of unconditioned, normally distributed random fields that individually possess the same spatial covariance structuref as observed wind fields. The aim of having the same covariance structure in the conditioned wind field is formulated as an optimization problem with respect to the weights used in the linear combination. With the help of Quadratic Programming (QP) and exploiting the convexity of the problem, feasible solutions can easily be found. In this QP problem, observations become linear constraints. Conservation laws can be incorporated by introducing control volumes in a similar fashion as they are used in fluid mechanics. Budgets of flows through these control volumes become integral conditions in the QP problem. The applicability of the approach will be shown using an artificial example and real-world data measured on shore and on a moving boat on Lake Constance.

  13. Testing conceptual and physically based soil hydrology schemes against observations for the Amazon Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guimberteau, M.; Ducharne, A.; Ciais, P.; Boisier, J. P.; Peng, S.; De Weirdt, M.; Verbeeck, H.

    2014-06-01

    This study analyzes the performance of the two soil hydrology schemes of the land surface model ORCHIDEE in estimating Amazonian hydrology and phenology for five major sub-basins (Xingu, Tapajós, Madeira, Solimões and Negro), during the 29-year period 1980-2008. A simple 2-layer scheme with a bucket topped by an evaporative layer is compared to an 11-layer diffusion scheme. The soil schemes are coupled with a river routing module and a process model of plant physiology, phenology and carbon dynamics. The simulated water budget and vegetation functioning components are compared with several data sets at sub-basin scale. The use of the 11-layer soil diffusion scheme does not significantly change the Amazonian water budget simulation when compared to the 2-layer soil scheme (+3.1 and -3.0% in evapotranspiration and river discharge, respectively). However, the higher water-holding capacity of the soil and the physically based representation of runoff and drainage in the 11-layer soil diffusion scheme result in more dynamic soil water storage variation and improved simulation of the total terrestrial water storage when compared to GRACE satellite estimates. The greater soil water storage within the 11-layer scheme also results in increased dry-season evapotranspiration (+0.5 mm d-1, +17%) and improves river discharge simulation in the southeastern sub-basins such as the Xingu. Evapotranspiration over this sub-basin is sustained during the whole dry season with the 11-layer soil diffusion scheme, whereas the 2-layer scheme limits it after only 2 dry months. Lower plant drought stress simulated by the 11-layer soil diffusion scheme leads to better simulation of the seasonal cycle of photosynthesis (GPP) when compared to a GPP data-driven model based on eddy covariance and satellite greenness measurements. A dry-season length between 4 and 7 months over the entire Amazon Basin is found to be critical in distinguishing differences in hydrological feedbacks between the soil and the vegetation cover simulated by the two soil schemes. On average, the multilayer soil diffusion scheme provides little improvement in simulated hydrology over the wet tropical Amazonian sub-basins, but a more significant improvement is found over the drier sub-basins. The use of a multilayer soil diffusion scheme might become critical for assessments of future hydrological changes, especially in southern regions of the Amazon Basin where longer dry seasons and more severe droughts are expected in the next century.

  14. 10 CFR 37.21 - Personnel access authorization requirements for category 1 or category 2 quantities of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... or category 2 quantities of radioactive material. 37.21 Section 37.21 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF CATEGORY 1 AND CATEGORY 2 QUANTITIES OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL Background... 1 or category 2 quantities of radioactive material. (a) General. (1) Each licensee that possesses...

  15. Multimodal semantic quantity representations: further evidence from korean sign language.

    PubMed

    Domahs, Frank; Klein, Elise; Moeller, Korbinian; Nuerk, Hans-Christoph; Yoon, Byung-Chen; Willmes, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    Korean deaf signers performed a number comparison task on pairs of Arabic digits. In their response times profiles, the expected magnitude effect was systematically modified by properties of number signs in Korean sign language in a culture-specific way (not observed in hearing and deaf Germans or hearing Chinese). We conclude that finger-based quantity representations are automatically activated even in simple tasks with symbolic input although this may be irrelevant and even detrimental for task performance. These finger-based numerical representations are accessed in addition to another, more basic quantity system which is evidenced by the magnitude effect. In sum, these results are inconsistent with models assuming only one single amodal representation of numerical quantity. PMID:22291669

  16. Herschel/HIFI Observations of Extra-Ordinary Sources: The physical and chemical structure of the Orion Bar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagy, Zsofia; Ossenkopf, Volker; van der Tak, Floris; Choi, Yunhee; Bergin, Edwin; Gerin, Maryvonne; Joblin, Christine; Röllig, Markus; Simon, Robert; Stutzki, Jürgen

    2015-08-01

    Young massive stars have a strong impact on their environment, including feedback due to their Far Ultraviolet (FUV) radiation. The penetration of FUV radiation into the interstellar medium affects the physical and chemical structure of high-mass star forming regions. Photon-Dominated Regions (PDRs) are interfaces between fully ionized and cold molecular material. Spectral line observations at sub-mm and far-infrared wavelengths provide information on the physics and chemistry of PDRs, and therefore help us to understand the impact of young massive stars on their surrounding interstellar medium.One of the best targets to probe PDR structure and chemistry is the Orion Bar, located at a distance of about 415 pc, with a nearly edge-on geometry. We have carried out an unbiased spectral line survey with Herschel/HIFI in the 480-1250 GHz and 1410-1910 GHz frequency range. We have identified lines from about 30 molecules, including the reactive ions CH+, SH+, CF+, and OH+ (Nagy et al., 2013; Van der Tak and Nagy et al., 2013), the high-J ladder of CO isotopes, and grain chemistry tracers such as H2CO.We interpret the molecular line emission observed in the HIFI range using detailed non-LTE and PDR models in order to probe the structure and chemistry of the Orion Bar. We present an overview of the HIFI line survey observations and their interpretation using radiative transfer and chemical models.

  17. The effect of the action observation physical training on the upper extremity function in children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin-Young; Kim, Jong-Man; Ko, Eun-Young

    2014-06-01

    The purpose this study was to investigate the effect of action observation physical training (AOPT) on the functioning of the upper extremities in children with cerebral palsy (CP), using an evaluation framework based on that of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). The subjects were divided into an AOPT group and a physical training (PT) group. AOPT group practiced repeatedly the actions they observed on video clips, in which normal child performed an action with their upper extremities. PT group performed the same actions as the AOPT group did after observing landscape photographs. The subjects participated in twelve 30-min sessions, 3 days a week, for 4 weeks. Evaluation of upper extremity function using the following: the power of grasp and Modified Ashworth Scale for body functions and structures, a Box and Block test, an ABILHAND-Kids questionnaire, and the WeeFIM scale for activity and participation. Measurements were performed before and after the training, and 2 weeks after the end of training. The results of this study showed that, in comparison with the PT group, the functioning of the upper extremities in the AOPT group was significantly improved in body functions and activity and participation according to the ICF framework. This study demonstrates that AOPT has a positive influence on the functioning of the upper extremities in children with CP. It is suggested that this alternative approach for functioning of the upper extremities could be an effective method for rehabilitation in children with CP. PMID:25061598

  18. Physical Climatology of Indonesian Maritime Continent: An Overview of Observational Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamanaka, M. D.

    2014-12-01

    The Indonesian maritime continent (IMC) is a miniature of our land-sea coexisting planet Earth. Firstly, without interior activity, the Earth becomes an even-surfaced "aqua-planet" with both atmosphere and ocean flowing almost zonally, and solar differential heating generates (global thermal tides and) Hadley's meridional circulations with ITCZ along the equator as observed actually over open (Indian and Pacific) oceans in the both sides of IMC. ITCZ involves intraseasonal variations or super cloud clusters moving eastward. Secondly, the lands and seas over the actual Earth have been keeping the area ratio of 3:7 (similar to that of islands and inland/surrounding seas in IMC), but their displacements have produced IMC near the equator, which turns equatorial Pacific easterly current northward (Kuroshio) and reflects equatorial oceanic waves inducing coupled ocean-atmosphere interannual variations such as ENSO and IOD, or displacements of Walker's zonal circulations. Thirdly, because IMC consists of many large/small islands with very long coastlines, many narrow straits become a dam for the global (Pacific to Indian) ocean circulation, and the land-sea heat capacity contrasts along the coastlines generate the world's largest rainfall with diurnal cycles (sea-land breeze circulations). The diurnal cycles are dominant in the rainy season (austral summer in Jawa and Bali), because rainfall-induced sprinkler-like land cooling reverses the trans-coastal temperature gradient before sunrise, and subsequent clear sky on land until around noon provides solar heating dependent on season. These processes lead to rapid land/hydrosphere-atmosphere water exchange, local air pollutant washout, and transequatorial boreal winter monsoon (cold surge). In El Niño years the cooler sea-surface temperature suppresses the morning coastal-sea rainfall, and induces often serious smog over IMC. Lastly, high-resolution observations/models covering both over islands and seas are necessary. A radar-profiler network (HARIMAU) has been constructed during FY2005-09, and capacity building on radar operations and buoy manufacturing has been promoted during FY2009-13 by Japan-Indonesia collaboration projects, which are taken over by an Indonesian national center (MCCOE) established in November 2013.

  19. The Nature of Crustal Seismic Anisotropy: Constraints From Field and Rock Physics Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, N. I.; Okaya, D.; Meltzer, A.

    2006-12-01

    Compared with mantle seismic anisotropy studies, which have been active for almost five decades, anisotropy of the crystalline crust has been only rarely studied. Seismic anisotropy within continental tectonic provinces is however important because it provides earth scientists with a powerful tool for measuring and quantifying deformation within the crust. Preferred mineral alignment observed in metamorphic terranes produced during metamorphism by recrystallization is associated with planar structures such as slaty cleavage, schistosity, and gneissic layering. These structures are often pervasive for tens to hundreds of kilometers in major collision zones and produce significant compressional wave seismic anisotropy as well as shear wave splitting. Observations of crustal anisotropy within (1) slates of the chlorite subzone of the Haast schist terrane of South Island, New Zealand, (2) prehnite-pumpellite to lower greenschist facies slates and phyllites of the Taiwan Slate Belt, (3) greenschist faces phyllites and metagraywackes of the Valdez Group Chugach terrane in southern Alaska, and (4) amphibolite facies quartzofeldspathic gneisses, approaching granulite grade, within the Nanga Parbat-Haramosh massif demonstrate that crustal anisotropy is not limited to rocks of any particular metamorphic grade and thus can be present at all crustal levels. Laboratory studies of compressional and shear wave velocities provide important constraints on the magnitudes and symmetries of anisotropies at various crustal levels within these orogenic zones. Although compositional layering can produce anisotropy, preferred mineral orientation of highly anisotropic single crystals, resulting from metamorphic recrystallization, is the major contributor. Most metamorphic rocks show significant compressional and shear wave anisotropy. Anisotropy is a particularly important parameter in low grade pelitic rocks such as phyllite and slate and can be as high as 20%. For the medium grade metamorphic rocks tonalitic gneiss, quartz mica schist and amphibolite anisotropy is also high. High grade mafic granulite and crustal eclogite are relatively low in anisotropy, however lower crustal restites are highly anisotropic. Symmetries of these rocks are often treated to a first approximation as hexagonal, although most are actually of orthorhombic or lower symmetry due to lineations present on foliation surfaces. Thus a complete understanding of wave propagation in anisotropic crustal rocks often requires laboratory measurements of nine or more independent elastic constants. At present only a few crustal rocks have been studied in this detail. These measurements will become increasingly critical in the interpretations of future crustal anisotropy field investigations

  20. Radar observations and physical modeling of binary near-Earth asteroid (1862) Apollo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, Thomas F.; Benner, Lance A.; Brozovic, Marina; Leford, Bruce; Nolan, Michael C.; Giorgini, Jon D.; Ostro, Steve J.; Margot, Jean-Luc

    2014-11-01

    Binary asteroid 1862 Apollo has an extensive observational history allowing many of its characteristics to be investigated. Apollo was one of the first objects to show evidence for the YORP effect (Kaasalainen et al. 2007, Nature 446, 420) and its mass has been estimated by detection of the Yarkovsky effect (Nugent et al. 2012, AJ 144, 60; Farnocchia et al. 2013, Icarus 224, 1). We observed Apollo at Arecibo and Goldstone from Oct. 29-Nov. 13, 2005, obtaining a series of echo power spectra and delay-Doppler images that achieved resolutions as high as 7.5 m/pixel. The Arecibo images show that Apollo is a binary system with a rounded primary that has two large protrusions about 120 deg apart in longitude. We used the Arecibo data and published lightcurves to estimate the primary's 3D shape. Our best fit has major axes of ~1.8x1.5x1.3 km and a volume of ~1.6 km^3. The protrusions have lengths of ~300 and 200 m, are on the primary's equator, and give Apollo a distinctly different appearance from the primaries with equatorial ridges seen with other binary near-Earth asteroids. We estimated the pole by starting with the Kaasalainen et al. spin vector of ecliptic (longitude, latitude)=(50 deg, -71 deg) +- 7 deg and letting it float. Our best fit has a pole within 11 deg of (longitude, latitude)=(71, -72). Convex models produced from inversion of lightcurves by Kaasalainen et al. and thermal infrared data by Rozitis et al. (2013, A&A 555, A20) are more oblate than our model, do not show protrusions, and have somewhat different pole directions. The Arecibo images reveal weak but persistent echoes from a satellite on Nov. 1 and 2 but cover only a fraction of its orbit. The images are insufficient to estimate the satellite's shape and yield a rough estimate for its long axis of 190 m. Preliminary fits give an orbital period of ~27.0-27.5 h and a semimajor axis of ~3.5-4.0 km, implying a mass of 2.8-3.9E12 kg and a bulk density of 1.7-2.4 g/cm^3. The density is consistent with estimates reported by Rozitis et al. and Farnocchia et al., providing the first independent test using a binary to estimate the density of near-Earth asteroid that has also been estimated through detection of the Yarkovsky effect.

  1. Combining simultaneous seismic reflection and physical oceanographic observations of shelf-slope processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carniel, Sandro; Book, Jeffrey; Hobbs, Richard; Wood, Warren; Bergamasco, Andrea; Schroeder, Katrin; Bortoluzzi, Giovanni; Prandke, Hartmut; Sclavo, Mauro

    2010-05-01

    Understanding the Dense Shelf Water Cascades (DSWC) role in the oceans is regarded as one of the main drivers of oceanic margins; these dense water pools spill over the shelf edges, flow along topographic feature and mix with ambient waters, playing a crucial role in the Earth's long term climate. During the international collaborative field experiment of Seismic Oceanography ADRIASEISMIC-09, carried out on board the CNR R/V Urania in the southern Adriatic Sea in the period March 3-16, 2009, a mix of classical and innovative sampling methods was tried in order to characterize the details of the North Adriatic Dense Water (NAdDW) mass structures and test the feasibility of the seismic approach in shallow basins. Seismic Oceanography (SO) is particularly well suited for study of the dynamics of bottom-trapped water masses as compared to classic techniques because it measures the full water column at ~10 m horizontal resolution, can acquire remotely and measurements are not hampered by a sloping bottom or concerns of instrument bottom impact, and it can operate successfully over the entire range from 100 m to 1000 m for tracking water-masses evolution down a slope (shown for the first time in this cruise). During ADRIASEISMIC-09 we adopted SO techniques to follow the NAdDW masses flowing southward, testing this approach on a shallow basin with the use of a "light" seismic system that could be deployed quickly, using only two air-guns. The resulting seismic sections were used to image thermal gradients at a scale of several meters, both vertically and horizontally. However, since SO measurements alone are not sufficient to characterize such complex processes, the resulting seismic reflection data were combined with a series of physical oceanography measurements, e.g. classical CTDs, ADCP data, 232 XBT casts and -for the first time- also microstructure measurements acquired via free-falling profiler (101 casts), that allow to estimate how fast water masses are mixing. Together, the direct oceanographic samplings provide a full range of vertical resolutions down to extremely fine detail (order of millimeters) to compliment the high lateral resolution of the seismic image. The high quality data set collected demonstrated that SO campaigns can be carried out from oceanographic vessels of medium size with relatively light equipment, and that the seismic approach can be performed also in relatively shallow basins. This is an important finding, as the use of a large seismic vessel would have prohibited the kind of classic oceanography sampling that is characterizing any study of DSWC. The seismic measurements allowed us to track a cold, thin bottom-boundary layer descending down the slope near Palagruza sill, demonstrating that these complex water pools require very high-resolution sampling near the bottom to be detected and successfully tracked in their intrusions and internal waves. Preliminary results therefore suggest that SO can provide a new and powerful tool for understanding the detailed horizontal structure of DSWC processes.

  2. On the Transitional Disk Class: Linking Observations of T Tauri Stars and Physical Disk Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espaillat, C.; Ingleby, L.; Hernández, J.; Furlan, E.; D'Alessio, P.; Calvet, N.; Andrews, S.; Muzerolle, J.; Qi, C.; Wilner, D.

    2012-03-01

    Two decades ago "transitional disks" (TDs) described spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of T Tauri stars with small near-IR excesses, but significant mid- and far-IR excesses. Many inferred this indicated dust-free holes in disks possibly cleared by planets. Recently, this term has been applied disparately to objects whose Spitzer SEDs diverge from the expectations for a typical full disk (FD). Here, we use irradiated accretion disk models to fit the SEDs of 15 such disks in NGC 2068 and IC 348. One group has a "dip" in infrared emission while the others' continuum emission decreases steadily at all wavelengths. We find that the former have an inner disk hole or gap at intermediate radii in the disk and we call these objects "transitional disks" and "pre-transitional disks" (PTDs), respectively. For the latter group, we can fit these SEDs with FD models and find that millimeter data are necessary to break the degeneracy between dust settling and disk mass. We suggest that the term "transitional" only be applied to objects that display evidence for a radical change in the disk's radial structure. Using this definition, we find that TDs and PTDs tend to have lower mass accretion rates than FDs and that TDs have lower accretion rates than PTDs. These reduced accretion rates onto the star could be linked to forming planets. Future observations of TDs and PTDs will allow us to better quantify the signatures of planet formation in young disks.

  3. Radio observations of carbon monoxide toward Zeta Ophiuchi - Velocity structure, isotopic abundances, and physical properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langer, William D.; Glassgold, Alfred E.; Wilson, Robert W.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents a small-scale map of the molecular gas around the line of sight toward Zeta Oph made with measurements of the (C-12)O (1-0) emission obtained at high signal-to-noise ratio and high velocity resolution. In addition, a measurement of the (C-12)O (2-1) line emission and a detection of (C-13)O along the line of sight to the star are reported. The results show that the CO emission toward the star is composed from at least four components with peak velocities at -2.0, -0.7, 0.0, and +0.6 km/s. The radio observations yield a total CO column density of 1.4 x 10 to the 15th/sq cm, with about one-half of the total CO column density being in the main component at -0.7 km/s. The main cmponent is uniform over the map, but the other components are variable, suggesting that the cloud is clumpy. The data on the two CO transitions imply that the excitation temperature and the density of the main component are about 7 K and 800/cu cm, respectively.

  4. Physical Observations of 1996 PW and 1997 SE5: Extinct Comets or D-Type Asteroids?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicks, M. D.; Buratti, B. J.; Newburn, R. L.; Rabinowitz, D. L.

    2000-02-01

    The minor planets 1996 PW and 1997 SE5 are two of the few known asteroids with orbital elements typical of long-period and Jupiter-family comets and as such represent strong candidates for extinct cometary nuclei. We obtained filter photometry of 1996 PW and filter photometry and medium-resolution CCD spectroscopy of 1997 SE5 during their discovery apparitions. We also observed a suite of D-type asteroids as possible spectral analogs of cometary nuclei. Both 1996 PW and 1997 SE5 have moderately red, featureless spectra typical of the D-type asteroids, cometary nuclei, and other extinct cometary candidates. The photometry for 1997 SE5 was fit by a triple-peaked lightcurve with a period of 9.0500.005 h and an amplitude of 0.4 magnitude, suggesting a relatively complex and elongated shape. With this work, 1997 SE5 and 1996 PW join the ranks of 3552 Don Quixote and 944 Hildago as established candidates for extinct comet nuclei.

  5. Physical parameterization of Strombolian eruptions via experimentally-validated modeling of high-speed observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taddeucci, J.; Alatorre-Ibargengoitia, M. A.; Moroni, M.; Tornetta, L.; Capponi, A.; Scarlato, P.; Dingwell, D. B.; De Rita, D.

    2012-08-01

    Pressurized gas drives explosive volcanic eruptions. Existing models can predict the amount and pressure of gas in erupting magma, but application and testing of such models is currently limited by the accuracy of input parameters from natural systems. Here, we present a new methodology, based on a novel integration of 1) high-speed imaging and 2) shock-tube modeling of volcanic activity in order to derive estimates of sub-second variations in the pressure, mass, and volume of gas that drive the dynamics of unsteady eruptions. First, we validate the method against laboratory-scale shock-tube experiments. Having validated the method we then apply it to observations of eruptions at Stromboli volcano (Italy). Finally, we use those results for a parametric study of the weight of input parameters on final outputs. We conclude that Strombolian explosions, with durations of seconds, result from discrete releases of gas with mass and pressure in the 4-714 kg and 0.10-0.56 MPa range, respectively, and which occupy the volcano conduit to a depth of 4-190 m. These variations are present both among and within individual explosions.

  6. Dissertation in Nuclear Physics Award Talk: The Microphysics, Evolution, and Observations of Quarks in Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steiner, Andrew

    2004-05-01

    The possibility of the existence of quark matter in neutron stars has become particularly intriguing for several reasons that include (1) multi-wavelength photon observations of neutron stars are beginning to establish tight constraints on the composition and equation of state of dense matter, (2) neutrino signals from future galactic supernovae can shed light on the role of trapped neutrinos in dense matter, and (3) the study of color-superconductivity has strongly modified the standard description of high-density quark matter. In this work, the structure and evolution of neutron stars containing deconfined quark matter are investigated. The essential microphysical ingredients, the equation of state and the associated neutrino opacity that govern the macrophysical evolution of a neutron star, are calculated and utilized in the first self-consistent dynamical calculation of a proto-neutron star containing quark matter. Sufficiently massive proto-neutron stars containing negatively-charged, strongly interacting, particles (including quarks) are expected to collapse to black holes during the first minute of evolution. Because the neutrino flux would vanish if a black hole forms, the lifetime of the star together with a measurement of its mass, would allow one to deduce whether quarks or hyperons or kaons are present in addition to nucleons. The consequences of enforcing local color neutrality on the color superconducting phases of quark matter are investigated. The phase diagram for quark-hadron matter and its associated astrophysical implications are discussed

  7. ON THE TRANSITIONAL DISK CLASS: LINKING OBSERVATIONS OF T TAURI STARS AND PHYSICAL DISK MODELS

    SciTech Connect

    Espaillat, C.; Andrews, S.; Qi, C.; Wilner, D.; Ingleby, L.; Calvet, N.; Hernandez, J.; Furlan, E.; D'Alessio, P.; Muzerolle, J. E-mail: sandrews@cfa.harvard.edu E-mail: dwilner@cfa.harvard.edu E-mail: ncalvet@umich.edu E-mail: Elise.Furlan@jpl.nasa.gov E-mail: muzerol@stsci.edu

    2012-03-10

    Two decades ago 'transitional disks' (TDs) described spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of T Tauri stars with small near-IR excesses, but significant mid- and far-IR excesses. Many inferred this indicated dust-free holes in disks possibly cleared by planets. Recently, this term has been applied disparately to objects whose Spitzer SEDs diverge from the expectations for a typical full disk (FD). Here, we use irradiated accretion disk models to fit the SEDs of 15 such disks in NGC 2068 and IC 348. One group has a 'dip' in infrared emission while the others' continuum emission decreases steadily at all wavelengths. We find that the former have an inner disk hole or gap at intermediate radii in the disk and we call these objects 'transitional disks' and 'pre-transitional disks' (PTDs), respectively. For the latter group, we can fit these SEDs with FD models and find that millimeter data are necessary to break the degeneracy between dust settling and disk mass. We suggest that the term 'transitional' only be applied to objects that display evidence for a radical change in the disk's radial structure. Using this definition, we find that TDs and PTDs tend to have lower mass accretion rates than FDs and that TDs have lower accretion rates than PTDs. These reduced accretion rates onto the star could be linked to forming planets. Future observations of TDs and PTDs will allow us to better quantify the signatures of planet formation in young disks.

  8. Seaglider observations of ocean physics and biology in the Northwest Weddell Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heywood, K. J.; Fielding, S.; Schmidtko, S.; Guihen, D.; Thompson, A. F.; Griffiths, G.

    2012-04-01

    The GENTOO project aims to show whether the potential for undersea gliders to survey the ocean in unprecedented temporal and spatial detail can answer several outstanding questions appertaining to the waters on the eastern Antarctic Peninsula. Variations in currents in this region have global significance for ocean circulation, climate and krill ecology. A Seaglider survey in January-February 2012 aims to provide temporal coverage over an extended period with complementary shipboard measurements and sample collection for validation. One Seaglider is equipped with new acoustic backscatter sensors to measure krill distributions; this capability will be critically assessed. The Seagliders are deployed to measure temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll fluorescence, acoustic backscatter and depth-averaged current in the upper 1000 m along sections across the Antarctic continental shelf and slope into the Weddell Sea. We expect to measure dense water spilling off the continental shelf, the strength and structure of the Antarctic Slope Front, as well as the variability of these two features. We present a preliminary analysis of the Seaglider data together with the supporting ship-based hydrographic and biological measurements, addressing questions including the spatial and temporal variability of the water mass properties, currents and krill distribution. As well as investigating these science issues, GENTOO hopes to develop and demonstrate the capability of ocean gliders to play a key role in future polar ocean observing systems.

  9. Observational Analysis of Student Activity Modes, Lesson Contexts and Teacher Interactions during Games Classes in High School (11-16 Years) Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Simon; Fairclough, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    This purpose of this study was to examine student activity, lesson contexts and teacher interactions during secondary school physical education, using a recently validated systematic observation instrument termed the System for Observing the Teaching of Games in Physical Education (SOTG-PE). Thirty, single-gender high school (11-16 years) physical…

  10. Determination of physical properties of the Asteroid (41) Daphne from interferometric observations in the thermal infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matter, Alexis; Delbo, Marco; Ligori, Sebastiano; Crouzet, Nicolas; Tanga, Paolo

    2011-09-01

    We describe interferometric observations of the Asteroid (41) Daphne in the thermal infrared obtained with the Mid-Infrared Interferometric Instrument (MIDI) and the Auxiliary Telescopes (ATs) of the European Southern Observatory (ESO) Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI). We derived the size and the surface thermal properties of (41) Daphne by means of a thermophysical model (TPM), which is used for the interpretation of interferometric data for the first time. From our TPM analysis, we derived a volume equivalent diameter for (41) Daphne of 189 km, using a non-convex 3-D shape model derived from optical lightcurves and adaptive optics images (B. Carry, private communication). On the other hand, when using the convex shape of Kaasalainen et al. (Kaasalainen, M., Mottola, S., Fulchignoni, M. [2002]. Icarus 159, 369-395) in our TPM analysis, the resulting volume equivalent diameter of (41) Daphne is between 194 and 209 km, depending on the surface roughness. The shape of the asteroid is used as an a priori information in our TPM analysis. No attempt is made to adjust the shape to the data. Only the size of the asteroid and its thermal parameters such as, albedo, thermal inertia and roughness are adjusted to the data. We estimated our model systematic uncertainty to be of 4% and of 7% on the determination of the asteroid volume equivalent diameter depending on whether the non-convex or the convex shape is used, respectively. In terms of thermal properties, we derived a value of the surface thermal inertia smaller than 50 J m -2 s -0.5 K -1 and preferably in the range between 0 and ˜30 J m -2 s -0.5 K -1. Our TPM analysis also shows that Daphne has a moderate macroscopic surface roughness.

  11. Soil moisture-precipitation coupling: observations from the Oklahoma Mesonet and underlying physical mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, T. W.; Rapp, A. D.; Quiring, S. M.; Blake, J.

    2015-03-01

    Interactions between soil moisture and the atmosphere are driven by the partitioning of sensible and latent heating, through which, soil moisture has been connected to atmospheric modification that could potentially lead to initiation of convective precipitation. The majority of previous studies linking the land surface to subsequent precipitation have used atmospheric reanalysis or model datasets. In this study, we link in situ observations of soil moisture from more than 100 stations in Oklahoma to subsequent unorganized afternoon convective precipitation. We use hourly, high resolution NEXRAD radar-derived precipitation to identify convective events, and then compare the location of precipitation initiation to underlying soil moisture anomalies the morning prior. Overall we find a statistically significant preference for convective precipitation initiation over drier than normal soils, with over 70% of events initiating over soil moisture below the long-term median. The significant preference for precipitation initiation over drier than normal soils is in contrast with previous studies using satellite-based precipitation products to identify the region of maximum precipitation accumulation. We sub-sample 19 convective events occurring near Lamont, Oklahoma, where soundings of the atmospheric profile at 06:00 and 12:00 LST are also available. For these events, soil moisture is strongly, negatively correlated with the level of free convection, planetary boundary layer height, and surface temperature changes from 06:00 to 12:00 LST. We also find strong, positive correlations between morning soil moisture and morning-to-afternoon changes in convective available potential energy and convective inhibition. In general, the results of this study demonstrate that both positive and negative soil moisture feedbacks to the atmosphere are relevant in this region of the United States.

  12. Soil moisture-precipitation coupling: observations from the Oklahoma Mesonet and underlying physical mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, T. W.; Rapp, A. D.; Quiring, S. M.; Blake, J.

    2015-08-01

    Interactions between soil moisture and the atmosphere are driven by the partitioning of sensible and latent heating, through which soil moisture has been connected to atmospheric modifications that could potentially lead to the initiation of convective precipitation. The majority of previous studies linking the land surface to subsequent precipitation have used atmospheric reanalysis or model data sets. In this study, we link in situ observations of soil moisture from more than 100 stations in Oklahoma to subsequent unorganized afternoon convective precipitation. We use hourly next generation (NEXRAD) radar-derived precipitation to identify convective events, and then compare the location of precipitation initiation to underlying soil moisture anomalies in the morning. Overall we find a statistically significant preference for convective precipitation initiation over drier than normal soils, with over 70 % of events initiating over soil moisture below the long-term median. The significant preference for precipitation initiation over drier than normal soils is in contrast with previous studies using satellite-based precipitation to identify the region of maximum precipitation accumulation. We evaluated 19 convective events occurring near Lamont, Oklahoma, where soundings of the atmospheric profile at 06:00 and 12:00 LST are also available. For these events, soil moisture has strong negative correlations with the level of free convection (LFC), planetary boundary layer (PBL) height, and surface temperature changes between 06:00 and 12:00 LST. We also find strong positive correlations between morning soil moisture and morning-to-afternoon changes in convective available potential energy and convective inhibition. In general, the results of this study demonstrate that both positive and negative soil moisture feedbacks are important in this region of the USA.

  13. Method and Apparatus for Measuring Radiation Quantities

    DOEpatents

    Roberts, N.O.

    1955-01-25

    This patent application describes a compact dosimeter for measuring X-ray and gamma radiation by the use of solutions which undergo a visible color change upon exposure to a predetermined quantity of radiation.

  14. Zero-gravity quantity gaging system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The Zero-Gravity Quantity Gaging System program is a technology development effort funded by NASA-LeRC and contracted by NASA-JSC to develop and evaluate zero-gravity quantity gaging system concepts suitable for application to large, on-orbit cryogenic oxygen and hydrogen tankage. The contract effective date was 28 May 1985. During performance of the program, 18 potential quantity gaging approaches were investigated for their merit and suitability for gaging two-phase cryogenic oxygen and hydrogen in zero-gravity conditions. These approaches were subjected to a comprehensive trade study and selection process, which found that the RF modal quantity gaging approach was the most suitable for both liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen applications. This selection was made with NASA-JSC concurrence.

  15. 7 CFR 929.14 - Marketable quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES OF.... Marketable quantity means for a crop year the number of pounds of cranberries necessary to meet the...

  16. 7 CFR 929.14 - Marketable quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES OF.... Marketable quantity means for a crop year the number of pounds of cranberries necessary to meet the...

  17. 7 CFR 929.14 - Marketable quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES OF.... Marketable quantity means for a crop year the number of pounds of cranberries necessary to meet the...

  18. 7 CFR 929.14 - Marketable quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES OF.... Marketable quantity means for a crop year the number of pounds of cranberries necessary to meet the...

  19. 7 CFR 929.14 - Marketable quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES OF.... Marketable quantity means for a crop year the number of pounds of cranberries necessary to meet the...

  20. Lighting Quantity and Quality in Educational Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elwazanim, Salim A.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses educational facility lighting management, and examines how light quantity, distribution, and quality-enhancement strategies can improve the indoor environment while reducing lighting costs. Informational tables provide lighting pattern, color, and illuminance data. (GR)

  1. A conserved quantity in thin body dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanna, J. A.; Pendar, H.

    2016-02-01

    Thin, solid bodies with metric symmetries admit a restricted form of reparameterization invariance. Their dynamical equilibria include motions with both rigid and flowing aspects. On such configurations, a quantity is conserved along the intrinsic coordinate corresponding to the symmetry. As an example of its utility, this conserved quantity is combined with linear and angular momentum currents to construct solutions for the equilibria of a rotating, flowing string, for which it is akin to Bernoulli's constant.

  2. Physical processes in the transition zone between North Sea and Baltic Sea. Numerical simulations and observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanev, Emil V.; Lu, Xi; Grashorn, Sebastian

    2015-09-01

    The dynamics in the transition zone between the North Sea and Baltic Sea are analyzed here using data from a 22-year-long climatic simulation with a focus on the periods 1992-1994 and 2001-2003 when two recent major inflow events occurred. Observations from gauges and in situ measurements are used to validate the model. Parameters, which cannot be easily measured, such as water and salt transports through straits, have been compared against similar previous estimates. The good performance of simulations is attributed to the finer resolution of the model compared to earlier set ups. The outflow in the Kattegat, which is an analogue of the tidal outflows, tends to propagate to the North over the shallows without showing a substantial deflection to the right due to the Earth's rotation. The inflow follows the topography. The different inflow and outflow pathways are explained as a consequence of the specific combination of bathymetry, axial and lateral processes. The circulation in Kattegat is persistently clockwise with an eastern intensification during inflow and a western one during outflow regimes. The tidal wave there propagates as Kelvin wave, keeping the coast on its right. The flows in the two main straits reveal very different responses to tides, which are also highly asymmetric during inflow and outflow conditions. The circulation has a typical two-layer structure, the correlation between salinity and velocity tends to increase the salt transport in the salinity conveyor belt. The transversal circulation in the entrance of the Sound enhances the vertical mixing of the saltier North Sea water. The long-term averaged ratio of the water transports through the Great Belt and the Sound is ∼2.6-2.7 but this number changes reaching lower values during the major inflow in 1993. The transports in the straits are asymmetric. During inflow events the repartition of water penetrating the Baltic Sea is strongly in favor of the pathway through the Sound, which provides a shorter connection between the Kattegat and Baltic proper. The wider Great Belt has a relatively larger role in exporting water from the Baltic into the North Sea. A demonstration is given that the ventilation of the Baltic Sea deep water is not only governed by the dynamics in the straits and the strong westerly winds enhancing the eastward propagation of North Sea water (a case in 1993), but also by the clockwise circulation in the Kattegat acting as a preconditioning factor for the flow-partitioning.

  3. Physical characteristics of the meteoroids by the results of combined radar and optical observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirhusen, Narziev

    This paper proposes a method determining of the light and ionization curves by the results of combined radio - TV observations meteors in 1978-1980 in Hissar Astronomical Observatory of the Institute of Astrophysics of Sciences of Tajikistan, the calculation results of photographic and radar meteoroid mass and analysis of the shape of light curves of meteors within the theory of evaporation and the theory of the quasi-continuous fragmentation. The photographic meteoroid mass from the light curve were defined: a) by the value of maximum luminescence intensity at the height hm and b) by the integration light curve. It is based on analysis of the data of the mass were obtained correction factor that takes into account the effect of fragmentation and other factors to determine the mass of meteoroids first method. Average value of the mass of meteoroids calculated by the light curve for meteors with magnitude M≤1 is 19.10-3 g, and the average value of the mass found on magnitude of the luminescence intensity at the height the maximum brightness consist 18.2.10-3 that is in satisfactory agreement. The meteoroid’s masses was calculated also radio method by value of maximum linear electron density at the height of maximum ionization (n). The framework of the classical theory and the theory quasi-continuous fragmentation, the shape of the light curves of simultaneous radio - optical meteors were analyzed. It is shown that the main mechanism of ablation 60% of simultaneous radio - optical meteors is a quasi-continuous fragmentation. The bulk density and porosity of showers and sporadic meteoroids were determined. Found that the Geminids meteoroids and δ-Aquariids have the largest bulk densities (δo = 3.6 g/cm3). A meteoroids of the showers Orionids and Leonids have the lowest bulk density (δo ≤ 0.6 g/cm3), and the highest value of the porosity (60 ≤ K ≤ 80%). The mass fragments of flow and sporadic meteoroids lie in the range of 5.10-8÷10-5g.

  4. Speech segment durations and quantity in Icelandic.

    PubMed

    Pind, J

    1999-08-01

    Icelandic has a phonologic contrast of quantity, distinguishing long and short vowels and consonants. Perceptual studies have shown that a major cue for quantity in perception is relational, involving the vowel-to-rhyme ratio. This cue is approximately invariant under transformations of rate, thus yielding a higher-order invariant for the perception of quantity in Icelandic. Recently it has, however, been shown that vowel spectra can also influence the perception of quantity. This holds for vowels which have different spectra in their long and short varieties. This finding raises the question of whether the durational contrast is less well articulated in those cases where vowel spectra provide another cue for quantity. To test this possibility, production measurements were carried out on vowels and consonants in words which were spoken by a number of speakers at different utterance rates in two experiments. A simple neural network was then trained on the production measurements. Using the network to classify the training stimuli shows that the durational distinctions between long and short phonemes are as clearly articulated whether or not there is a secondary, spectral, cue to quantity. PMID:10462809

  5. On logarithmic ratio quantities and their units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, Ian; Morfey, Christopher

    2005-08-01

    The use of special units for logarithmic ratio quantities is reviewed. The neper is used with a natural logarithm (logarithm to the base e) to express the logarithm of the amplitude ratio of two pure sinusoidal signals, particularly in the context of linear systems where it is desired to represent the gain or loss in amplitude of a single-frequency signal between the input and output. The bel, and its more commonly used submultiple, the decibel, are used with a decadic logarithm (logarithm to the base 10) to measure the ratio of two power-like quantities, such as a mean square signal or a mean square sound pressure in acoustics. Thus two distinctly different quantities are involved. In this review we define the quantities first, without reference to the units, as is standard practice in any system of quantities and units. We show that two different definitions of the quantity power level, or logarithmic power ratio, are possible. We show that this leads to two different interpretations for the meaning and numerical values of the units bel and decibel. We review the question of which of these alternative definitions is actually used, or is used by implication, by workers in the field. Finally, we discuss the relative advantages of the alternative definitions.

  6. Physics.

    PubMed

    Bromley, D A

    1980-07-01

    From massive quarks deep in the hearts of atomic nuclei to the catastrophic collapse of giant stars in the farthest reaches of the universe, from the partial realization of Einstein's dream of a unified theory of the forces of nature to the most practical applications in technology, medicine, and throughout contemporary society, physics continues to have a profound impact on man's view of the universe and on the quality of life. The author argues that the past few years, in terms of new discoveries, new insight-and the new questions-have been among the most productive in the history of the field and puts into context his selection of some of the most important new developments in this fundamental science. PMID:17836565

  7. Asteroids' physical models from combined dense and sparse photometry and scaling of the YORP effect by the observed obliquity distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanuš, J.; Ďurech, J.; Brož, M.; Marciniak, A.; Warner, B. D.; Pilcher, F.; Stephens, R.; Behrend, R.; Carry, B.; Čapek, D.; Antonini, P.; Audejean, M.; Augustesen, K.; Barbotin, E.; Baudouin, P.; Bayol, A.; Bernasconi, L.; Borczyk, W.; Bosch, J.-G.; Brochard, E.; Brunetto, L.; Casulli, S.; Cazenave, A.; Charbonnel, S.; Christophe, B.; Colas, F.; Coloma, J.; Conjat, M.; Cooney, W.; Correira, H.; Cotrez, V.; Coupier, A.; Crippa, R.; Cristofanelli, M.; Dalmas, Ch.; Danavaro, C.; Demeautis, C.; Droege, T.; Durkee, R.; Esseiva, N.; Esteban, M.; Fagas, M.; Farroni, G.; Fauvaud, M.; Fauvaud, S.; Del Freo, F.; Garcia, L.; Geier, S.; Godon, C.; Grangeon, K.; Hamanowa, H.; Hamanowa, H.; Heck, N.; Hellmich, S.; Higgins, D.; Hirsch, R.; Husarik, M.; Itkonen, T.; Jade, O.; Kamiński, K.; Kankiewicz, P.; Klotz, A.; Koff, R. A.; Kryszczyńska, A.; Kwiatkowski, T.; Laffont, A.; Leroy, A.; Lecacheux, J.; Leonie, Y.; Leyrat, C.; Manzini, F.; Martin, A.; Masi, G.; Matter, D.; Michałowski, J.; Michałowski, M. J.; Michałowski, T.; Michelet, J.; Michelsen, R.; Morelle, E.; Mottola, S.; Naves, R.; Nomen, J.; Oey, J.; Ogłoza, W.; Oksanen, A.; Oszkiewicz, D.; Pääkkönen, P.; Paiella, M.; Pallares, H.; Paulo, J.; Pavic, M.; Payet, B.; Polińska, M.; Polishook, D.; Poncy, R.; Revaz, Y.; Rinner, C.; Rocca, M.; Roche, A.; Romeuf, D.; Roy, R.; Saguin, H.; Salom, P. A.; Sanchez, S.; Santacana, G.; Santana-Ros, T.; Sareyan, J.-P.; Sobkowiak, K.; Sposetti, S.; Starkey, D.; Stoss, R.; Strajnic, J.; Teng, J.-P.; Trégon, B.; Vagnozzi, A.; Velichko, F. P.; Waelchli, N.; Wagrez, K.; Wücher, H.

    2013-03-01

    Context. The larger number of models of asteroid shapes and their rotational states derived by the lightcurve inversion give us better insight into both the nature of individual objects and the whole asteroid population. With a larger statistical sample we can study the physical properties of asteroid populations, such as main-belt asteroids or individual asteroid families, in more detail. Shape models can also be used in combination with other types of observational data (IR, adaptive optics images, stellar occultations), e.g., to determine sizes and thermal properties. Aims: We use all available photometric data of asteroids to derive their physical models by the lightcurve inversion method and compare the observed pole latitude distributions of all asteroids with known convex shape models with the simulated pole latitude distributions. Methods: We used classical dense photometric lightcurves from several sources (Uppsala Asteroid Photometric Catalogue, Palomar Transient Factory survey, and from individual observers) and sparse-in-time photometry from the U.S. Naval Observatory in Flagstaff, Catalina Sky Survey, and La Palma surveys (IAU codes 689, 703, 950) in the lightcurve inversion method to determine asteroid convex models and their rotational states. We also extended a simple dynamical model for the spin evolution of asteroids used in our previous paper. Results: We present 119 new asteroid models derived from combined dense and sparse-in-time photometry. We discuss the reliability of asteroid shape models derived only from Catalina Sky Survey data (IAU code 703) and present 20 such models. By using different values for a scaling parameter cYORP (corresponds to the magnitude of the YORP momentum) in the dynamical model for the spin evolution and by comparing synthetic and observed pole-latitude distributions, we were able to constrain the typical values of the cYORP parameter as between 0.05 and 0.6. Table 3 is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  8. Changes in mouse cognition and hippocampal gene expression observed in a mild physical- and blast-traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Tweedie, David; Rachmany, Lital; Rubovitch, Vardit; Zhang, Yongqing; Becker, Kevin G.; Perez, Evelyn; Hoffer, Barry J.; Pick, Chaim G.; Greig, Nigel H.

    2013-01-01

    Warfare has long been associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI) in militarized zones. Common forms of TBI can be caused by a physical insult to the head-brain or by the effects of a high velocity blast shock wave generated by the detonation of an explosive device. While both forms of trauma are distinctly different regarding the mechanism of trauma induction, there are striking similarities in the cognitive and emotional status of survivors. Presently, proven effective therapeutics for the treatment of either form of TBI are unavailable. To be able to develop efficacious therapies, studies involving animal models of physical- and blast-TBI are required to identify possible novel or existing medicines that may be of value in the management of clinical events. We examined indices of cognition and anxiety-like behavior and the hippocampal gene transcriptome of mice subjected to both forms of TBI. We identified common behavioral deficits and gene expression regulations, in addition to unique injury-specific forms of gene regulation. Molecular pathways presented a pattern similar to that seen in gene expression. Interestingly, pathways connected to Alzheimer’s disease displayed a markedly different form of regulation depending on the type of TBI. While these data highlight similarities in behavioral outcomes after trauma, the divergence in hippocampal transcriptome observed between models suggests that, at the molecular level, the TBIs are quite different. These models may provide tools to help define therapeutic approaches for the treatment of physical- and blast-TBIs. Based upon observations of increasing numbers of personnel displaying TBI related emotional and behavioral changes in militarized zones, the development of efficacious therapies will become a national if not a global priority. PMID:23454194

  9. Changes in mouse cognition and hippocampal gene expression observed in a mild physical- and blast-traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Tweedie, David; Rachmany, Lital; Rubovitch, Vardit; Zhang, Yongqing; Becker, Kevin G; Perez, Evelyn; Hoffer, Barry J; Pick, Chaim G; Greig, Nigel H

    2013-06-01

    Warfare has long been associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI) in militarized zones. Common forms of TBI can be caused by a physical insult to the head-brain or by the effects of a high velocity blast shock wave generated by the detonation of an explosive device. While both forms of trauma are distinctly different regarding the mechanism of trauma induction, there are striking similarities in the cognitive and emotional status of survivors. Presently, proven effective therapeutics for the treatment of either form of TBI are unavailable. To be able to develop efficacious therapies, studies involving animal models of physical- and blast-TBI are required to identify possible novel or existing medicines that may be of value in the management of clinical events. We examined indices of cognition and anxiety-like behavior and the hippocampal gene transcriptome of mice subjected to both forms of TBI. We identified common behavioral deficits and gene expression regulations, in addition to unique injury-specific forms of gene regulation. Molecular pathways presented a pattern similar to that seen in gene expression. Interestingly, pathways connected to Alzheimer's disease displayed a markedly different form of regulation depending on the type of TBI. While these data highlight similarities in behavioral outcomes after trauma, the divergence in hippocampal transcriptome observed between models suggests that, at the molecular level, the TBIs are quite different. These models may provide tools to help define therapeutic approaches for the treatment of physical- and blast-TBIs. Based upon observations of increasing numbers of personnel displaying TBI related emotional and behavioral changes in militarized zones, the development of efficacious therapies will become a national if not a global priority. PMID:23454194

  10. Quantity-activity relationship of denitrifying bacteria and environmental scaling in streams of a forested watershed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Connor, B.L.; Hondzo, Miki; Dobraca, D.; LaPara, T.M.; Finlay, J.A.; Brezonik, P.L.

    2006-01-01

    The spatial variability of subreach denitrification rates in streams was evaluated with respect to controlling environmental conditions, molecular examination of denitrifying bacteria, and dimensional analysis. Denitrification activities ranged from 0 and 800 ng-N gsed-1 d-1 with large variations observed within short distances (<50 m) along stream reaches. A log-normal probability distribution described the range in denitrification activities and was used to define low (16% of the probability distributibn), medium (68%), and high (16%) denitrification potential groups. Denitrifying bacteria were quantified using a competitive polymerase chain reaction (cPCR) technique that amplified the nirK gene that encodes for nitrite reductase. Results showed a range of nirK quantities from 103 to 107 gene-copy-number gsed.-1 A nonparametric statistical test showed no significant difference in nirK quantifies among stream reaches, but revealed that samples with a high denitrification potential had significantly higher nirK quantities. Denitrification activity was positively correlated with nirK quantities with scatter in the data that can be attributed to varying environmental conditions along stream reaches. Dimensional analysis was used to evaluate denitrification activities according to environmental variables that describe fluid-flow properties, nitrate and organic material quantities, and dissolved oxygen flux. Buckingham's pi theorem was used to generate dimensionless groupings and field data were used to determine scaling parameters. The resulting expressions between dimensionless NO3- flux and dimensionless groupings of environmental variables showed consistent scaling, which indicates that the subreach variability in denitrification rates can be predicted by the controlling physical, chemical, and microbiological conditions. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  11. Passive microwave observations of asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webster, William J., Jr.; Johnston, Kenneth J.

    1989-01-01

    The advances made since 1979 in the quantity and quality of the radio observations of asteroids and in the understanding of the physics of asteroidal microwave emission are reviewed. Radio continuum spectra analyses are now available for the four largest asteroids (Ceres, Vesta, Pallas, and Hygiea) at several wavelengths and several smaller asteroids (including Interamnia and Eunomia) at one wavelength. The spectra show that most asteroids are covered by a layer of material with physical properties of finely divided dust. This surface material is in layers of variable depth and has dielectric properties which vary from asteroid to asteroid. The effect of instrumentation on the interpretation of microwave observations is examined.

  12. Environmental and social-motivational contextual factors related to youth physical activity: systematic observations of summer day camps

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Youth risk of obesity is high during the summer months. Summer day camps can be ideal settings for preventing obesity through reducing youth summer sedentary behaviors. However, with limited research on camp settings, the mechanisms by which these programs promote children’s physical activity (PA) remains largely unknown. The current study was designed to take a first step in addressing this gap in research through systematic observations of 4 summer day camps. Methods Systematic observations of 4 summer day camps was conducted using the System for Observing Play and Leisure Activity in Youth (SOPLAY) and a social-motivational climate supplemental observation tool founded on Self-Determination Theory and previous research developed by the authors. Teams of two coders observed daily activities for four days across two-week periods at each camp. On 15 minute intervals throughout each day, camps were assessed on level of youth PA (e.g., sedentary, moderate, vigorous), five physical features (e.g., equipment), eight staff interactions (e.g., encourage PA), and six social climate components (e.g., inclusive game). Results Across the sample, highly engaging games [F(1,329) = 17.68, p < .001], positive peer interactions [F(1,329) = 8.43, p < .01], and bullying [F(1,329) = 9.39, p < .01] were significantly related to higher PA participation rates, and clarity of rules [F(1,329) = 11.12, p < .001] was related to fewer youth participating in PA. Separate analyses for males and females indicated some sex differences with highly engaging games [F(1,329) = 23.10, p < .001] and bullying [F(1,329) = 10.00, p < .01] related to males’ but not females’ PA, and positive peer interactions related to only females’ PA [F(1,329) = 9.58, p < .01]. Small, yet significant physical-environmental effects of temperature [F(1,328) = 1.54, p < .05] and equipment [F(1,328) = 4.34, p = .05] for girls also suggests that activities offered indoors (which was most common during high temperatures), and provision of equipment may also be important considerations for promoting girls’ PA. Staff behaviors were minimally predictive of youth PA. Conclusions This is the first study to conduct systematic observations of the physical and social resources of summer day camps and contributes to our understanding of the strengths and needs of camps to effectively promote PA in both boys and girls during the summer months when risks for obesity are high. PMID:23688205

  13. Equidistribution of energy and other quantities in oscillating systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolff, Charles L.

    1993-01-01

    Energy of a high harmonic standing wave tends to be distributed equally over the whole wave even in a stratified medium where the wave's peak amplitude can be much larger near the upper boundary than the lower one. This fact is generalized to the many diverse physical problems which solve second-order differential equations of Sturm-Liouville type. For any such solution y(z) whose sign fluctuates along the z-axis, quantities are found which have the same value between any two neighboring zeros of y. One of the equidistributed quantities for an oscillating fluid sphere is similar to kinetic energy but is identical only in limiting cases. The acoustic midpoint of a cavity can be a unique place where some nonlinear perturbations have extra strength. This may apply to the puzzling solar phenomenon called supergranulation.

  14. The atmospheric component of the Mediterranean Sea water budget in a WRF multi-physics ensemble and observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Luca, Alejandro; Flaounas, Emmanouil; Drobinski, Philippe; Brossier, Cindy Lebeaupin

    2014-11-01

    The use of high resolution atmosphere-ocean coupled regional climate models to study possible future climate changes in the Mediterranean Sea requires an accurate simulation of the atmospheric component of the water budget (i.e., evaporation, precipitation and runoff). A specific configuration of the version 3.1 of the weather research and forecasting (WRF) regional climate model was shown to systematically overestimate the Mediterranean Sea water budget mainly due to an excess of evaporation (~1,450 mm yr-1) compared with observed estimations (~1,150 mm yr-1). In this article, a 70-member multi-physics ensemble is used to try to understand the relative importance of various sub-grid scale processes in the Mediterranean Sea water budget and to evaluate its representation by comparing simulated results with observed-based estimates. The physics ensemble was constructed by performing 70 1-year long simulations using version 3.3 of the WRF model by combining six cumulus, four surface/planetary boundary layer and three radiation schemes. Results show that evaporation variability across the multi-physics ensemble (˜10 % of the mean evaporation) is dominated by the choice of the surface layer scheme that explains more than ˜70 % of the total variance and that the overestimation of evaporation in WRF simulations is generally related with an overestimation of surface exchange coefficients due to too large values of the surface roughness parameter and/or the simulation of too unstable surface conditions. Although the influence of radiation schemes on evaporation variability is small (˜13 % of the total variance), radiation schemes strongly influence exchange coefficients and vertical humidity gradients near the surface due to modifications of temperature lapse rates. The precipitation variability across the physics ensemble (˜35 % of the mean precipitation) is dominated by the choice of both cumulus (˜55 % of the total variance) and planetary boundary layer (˜32 % of the total variance) schemes with a strong regional dependence. Most members of the ensemble underestimate total precipitation amounts with biases as large as 250 mm yr-1 over the whole Mediterranean Sea compared with ERA Interim reanalysis mainly due to an underestimation of the number of wet days. The larger number of dry days in simulations is associated with a deficit in the activation of cumulus schemes. Both radiation and planetary boundary layer schemes influence precipitation through modifications on the available water vapor in the boundary layer generally tied with changes in evaporation.

  15. Influence of patient symptoms and physical findings on general practitioners' treatment of respiratory tract infections: a direct observation study

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Thomas; Fischer, Susanne; Kochen, Michael M; Hummers-Pradier, Eva

    2005-01-01

    Background The high rate of antibiotic prescriptions general practitioners (GPs) make for respiratory tract infections (RTI) are often explained by non-medical reasons e.g. an effort to meet patient expectations. Additionally, it is known that GPs to some extent believe in the necessity of antibiotic treatment in patients with assumed bacterial infections and therefore attempt to distinguish between viral and bacterial infections by history taking and physical examination. The influence of patient complaints and physical examination findings on GPs' prescribing behaviour was mostly investigated by indirect methods such as questionnaires. Methods Direct, structured observation during a winter "cough an cold period" in 30 (single handed) general practices. All 273 patients with symptoms of RTI (age above 14, median 37 years, 51% female) were included. Results The most frequent diagnoses were 'uncomplicated upper RTI/common cold' (43%) followed by 'bronchitis' (26%). On average, 1.8 (95%-confidence interval (CI): 1.72.0) medicines per patient were prescribed (cough-and-cold preparations in 88% of the patients, antibiotics in 49%). Medical predictors of antibiotic prescribing were pathological findings in physical examination such as coated tonsils (odds ratio (OR) 15.4, 95%-CI: 3.666.2) and unspecific symptoms like fatigue (OR 3.1, 95%-CI 1.46.7), fever (OR 2.2, 95%-CI: 1.14.5) and yellow sputum (OR 2.1, 95%-CI: 1.14.1). Analysed predictors explained 70% of the variance of antibiotic prescribing (R2 = 0,696). Efforts to reduce antibiotic prescribing, e.g. recommendations for self-medication, counselling on home remedies or delayed antibiotic prescribing were rare. Conclusions Patient complaints and pathological results in physical examination were strong predictors of antibiotic prescribing. Efforts to reduce antibiotic prescribing should account for GPs' beliefs in those (non evidence based) predictors. The method of direct observation was shown to be accepted both by patients and GPs and offered detailed insights into the GP-patient-interaction. PMID:15698471

  16. Maximal Holevo Quantity Based on Weak Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yao-Kun; Fei, Shao-Ming; Wang, Zhi-Xi; Cao, Jun-Peng; Fan, Heng

    2015-01-01

    The Holevo bound is a keystone in many applications of quantum information theory. We propose “ maximal Holevo quantity for weak measurements” as the generalization of the maximal Holevo quantity which is defined by the optimal projective measurements. The scenarios that weak measurements is necessary are that only the weak measurements can be performed because for example the system is macroscopic or that one intentionally tries to do so such that the disturbance on the measured system can be controlled for example in quantum key distribution protocols. We evaluate systematically the maximal Holevo quantity for weak measurements for Bell-diagonal states and find a series of results. Furthermore, we find that weak measurements can be realized by noise and project measurements. PMID:26090962

  17. Physical modeling of triple near-Earth Asteroid (153591) 2001 SN263 from radar and optical light curve observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Tracy M.; Howell, Ellen S.; Nolan, Michael C.; Magri, Christopher; Pravec, Petr; Taylor, Patrick A.; Oey, Julian; Higgins, David; Világi, Jozef; Kornoš, Leonard; Galád, Adrián; Gajdoš, Štefan; Gaftonyuk, Ninel M.; Krugly, Yurij N.; Molotov, Igor E.; Hicks, Michael D.; Carbognani, Albino; Warner, Brian D.; Vachier, Frederic; Marchis, Franck; Pollock, Joseph T.

    2015-03-01

    We report radar observations (2380-MHz, 13-cm) by the Arecibo Observatory and optical light curves observed from eight different observatories and collected at the Ondřejov Observatory of the triple near-Earth asteroid system (153591) 2001 SN263. The radar observations were obtained over the course of ten nights spanning February 12-26, 2008 and the light curve observations were made throughout January 12 - March 31, 2008. Both data sets include observations during the object's close approach of 0.06558 AU on February 20th, 2008. The delay-Doppler images revealed the asteroid to be comprised of three components, making it the first known triple near-Earth asteroid. Only one other object, (136617) 1994 CC is a confirmed triple near-Earth asteroid. We present physical models of the three components of the asteroid system. We constrain the primary's pole direction to an ecliptic longitude and latitude of (309 °, - 80 °) ± 15 ° . We find that the primary rotates with a period 3.4256 ± 0.0002 h and that the larger satellite has a rotation period of 13.43 ± 0.01 h , considerably shorter than its orbital period of approximately 6 days. We find that the rotation period of the smaller satellite is consistent with a tidally locked state and therefore rotates with a period of 0.686 ± 0.002 days (Fang et al. [2011]. Astron. J. 141, 154-168). The primary, the larger satellite, and the smaller satellite have equivalent diameters of 2.5 ± 0.3 km , 0.77 ± 0.12 km , 0.43 ± 0.14 km and densities of 1.1 ± 0.2 g /cm3, 1.0 ± 0.4 g /cm3, 2.3 ± 1.3 g /cm3 , respectively.

  18. 10 CFR 37.75 - Preplanning and coordination of shipment of category 1 or category 2 quantities of radioactive...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... category 2 quantities of radioactive material. 37.75 Section 37.75 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF CATEGORY 1 AND CATEGORY 2 QUANTITIES OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL Physical Protection in... radioactive material. (a) Each licensee that plans to transport, or deliver to a carrier for...

  19. Chemical and Physical Properties of Bulk Aerosols Observed During TRACE-P: Evidence of Nitrate Uptake on Dust Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, C.; Anderson, B.; Hudgins, C.; Winstead, E.; Thornhill, L.; Talbot, R.; Russo, R.; Scheuer, E.; Seid, G.; Dibb, J.; Fuelberg, H.

    2002-12-01

    Back trajectories and bulk aerosol chemical properties have been used to group aerosol samples measured on the DC-8 during TRACE-P into five source regions. Each of these source region groups was further subdivided into three altitude bins (< 2 km, 2 - 7 km, and > 7 km). The mean chemical signatures, size distributions, and other physical properties (e.g., volatility, single scatter albedo) will be presented for these groups. By combining chemical and physical measurements, the observed aerosol population for each group may be partitioned between black carbon, sea salts, non-sea salt water soluble ions, and dust. Using this approach, we have found that the bulk of the dust emanating from Asia during TRACE-P came from one region. The highest concentrations of pollution species were also found in this region, including particulate nitrate. The presence of gas phase pollutants such as nitric acid co-located with the dust allows for the uptake of gas-phase nitrogen onto the dust surfaces. Results show that in the dust sector at mid-altitudes (2 - 7 km), where the influence of sea salt is reduced compared to lower altitudes, 50% of the total nitrate is in particulate form. This is in contrast to 15% for sectors with little dust.

  20. ALMA Observations of the Massive Molecular Outflow G331.512-0.103: Physical Properties, Kinematics and Geometry Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hervías, C.; Bronfman, L.; Merello, M.; Ake-Nyman, L.; Lo, N.; Garay, G.

    2015-12-01

    We present observations and analysis of the massive molecular outflow G331.512-0.103, obtained with ALMA band 7, preliminary presented in Merello et al. (2013a). The lines can be classified into two groups: with narrow velocity emission, tracing the systemic velocity ambient medium and the sub-structures within; and with broad velocity wings, tracing the outflow and shocked gas emission. The physical conditions are calculated. The ambient medium core has a mean density of ˜5×106 cm-3 and a temperature of ˜ 70 K. The interpretation of the molecular emission suggest an expanding cavity geometry powered by stellar winds from a new-born UCHII region, alongside a massive and high-velocity molecular outflow. Also, the presence of sub-structures is made evident by the emission of narrow lines such as CH3OH and CH3CCH. This scenario, along with the estimated physical conditions, is modeled through a 3D geometry radiative transfer code: MOLLIE; in the SiO(J=8-7) molecular line. The main features of the the outflow and the expanding cavity are reproduced by the model.

  1. New Insight into the Observation of Spectroscopic Strength Reduction in Atomic Nuclei: Implication for the Physical Meaning of Spectroscopic Factors

    SciTech Connect

    Timofeyuk, N. K.

    2009-12-11

    Experimental studies of one-nucleon knockout from magic nuclei suggest that their nucleon orbits are not fully occupied. This conflicts a commonly accepted view of the shell closure associated with such nuclei. The conflict can be reconciled if the overlap between initial and final nuclear states in a knockout reaction are calculated by a nonstandard method. The method employs an inhomogeneous equation based on correlation-dependent effective nucleon-nucleon interactions and allows the simplest wave functions, in which all nucleons occupy only the lowest nuclear orbits, to be used. The method also reproduces the recently established relation between reduction of spectroscopic strength, observed in knockout reactions on other nuclei, and nucleon binding energies. The implication of the inhomogeneous equation method for the physical meaning of spectroscopic factors is discussed.

  2. CALL, Prewriting Strategies, and EFL Writing Quantity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafiee, Sajad; Koosha, Mansour; Afghar, Akbar

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to explore the effect of teaching prewriting strategies through different methods of input delivery (i.e. conventional, web-based, and hybrid) on EFL learners' writing quantity. In its quasi-experimental study, the researchers recruited 98 available sophomores, and assigned them to three experimental groups (conventional,…

  3. 7 CFR 966.53 - Minimum quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum quantities. 966.53 Section 966.53 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA...

  4. Units for quantities of dimension one

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dybkaer, René

    2004-02-01

    All quantities of dimension one are said to have the SI coherent derived unit "one" with the symbol '1'. (Single quotation marks are used here sometimes to indicate a quote, name, term or symbol; double quotation marks flag a concept when necessary.) Conventionally, the term and symbol may not be combined with the SI prefixes (except for the special terms and symbols for one and 1: radian, rad, and steradian, sr). This restriction is understandable, but leads to correct yet impractical alternatives and ISO deprecated symbols such as ppm or in some cases redundant combinations of units, such as mg/kg. "Number of entities" is dimensionally independent of the current base quantities and should take its rightful place among them. The corresponding base unit is "one". A working definition is given. Other quantities of dimension one are derived as fraction, ratio, efficiency, relative quantity, relative increment or characteristic number and may also use the unit "one", whether considered to be base or derived. The special term 'uno' and symbol 'u' in either case are proposed, allowing combination with SI prefixes.

  5. Malting extremely small quantities of barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Micromalting procedures for malt quality analysis typically use 50 – 500 g of barley and are used to produce malt with characteristics suitable for malting quality analysis. Modifications to routine micromalting protocols in which small quantities of grain within inexpensive mesh containers are surr...

  6. Representation of relativistic quantities by trigonometric functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majerník, V.

    1986-06-01

    A ``space-time angle'' φ is defined by setting v=c(sin φ). This leads to a form of Lorentz transformations which uses simple real trigonometric functions and yields a graphic correlation of important relativistic quantities for particles and for corresponding de Broglie waves. A number of relativistic relationships is obtained by the use of common trigonometric identities and formulas.

  7. Hypergraph topological quantities for tagged social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zlatić, Vinko; Ghoshal, Gourab; Caldarelli, Guido

    2009-09-01

    Recent years have witnessed the emergence of a new class of social networks, which require us to move beyond previously employed representations of complex graph structures. A notable example is that of the folksonomy, an online process where users collaboratively employ tags to resources to impart structure to an otherwise undifferentiated database. In a recent paper, we proposed a mathematical model that represents these structures as tripartite hypergraphs and defined basic topological quantities of interest. In this paper, we extend our model by defining additional quantities such as edge distributions, vertex similarity and correlations as well as clustering. We then empirically measure these quantities on two real life folksonomies, the popular online photo sharing site Flickr and the bookmarking site CiteULike. We find that these systems share similar qualitative features with the majority of complex networks that have been previously studied. We propose that the quantities and methodology described here can be used as a standard tool in measuring the structure of tagged networks.

  8. Statistical ensembles with fluctuating extensive quantities

    SciTech Connect

    Gorenstein, M. I.; Hauer, M.

    2008-10-15

    We suggest an extension of the standard concept of statistical ensembles. Namely, we introduce a class of ensembles with extensive quantities fluctuating according to an externally given distribution. As an example, the influence of energy fluctuations on multiplicity fluctuations in limited segments of momentum space for a classical ultra-relativistic gas is considered. The system volume fluctuations are also discussed.

  9. Infants Make Quantity Discriminations for Substances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hespos, Susan J.; Dora, Begum; Rips, Lance J.; Christie, Stella

    2012-01-01

    Infants can track small groups of solid objects, and infants can respond when these quantities change. But earlier work is equivocal about whether infants can track continuous substances, such as piles of sand. Experiment 1 ("N" = 88) used a habituation paradigm to show infants can register changes in the size of piles of sand that they see poured…

  10. 7 CFR 35.13 - Minimum quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Minimum quantity. 35.13 Section 35.13 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS EXPORT...

  11. 7 CFR 35.13 - Minimum quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum quantity. 35.13 Section 35.13 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS EXPORT...

  12. Variation and Change in Northern Bavarian Quantity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drake, Derek

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation presents new research on the "Bavarian Quantity Law" (the BQL) in the northern Bavarian dialect of Hahnbach. Building upon earlier investigation of the BQL (cf. Bannert 1976a,b for Central Bavarian) this study examines the historical, phonological, and phonetic motivations for this feature as well the variability in its…

  13. 36 CFR 223.220 - Quantity determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Quantity determination. 223.220 Section 223.220 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL...

  14. 36 CFR 223.220 - Quantity determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Quantity determination. 223.220 Section 223.220 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL...

  15. 36 CFR 223.220 - Quantity determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Quantity determination. 223.220 Section 223.220 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL...

  16. 36 CFR 223.220 - Quantity determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Quantity determination. 223.220 Section 223.220 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL...

  17. 7 CFR 966.53 - Minimum quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Minimum quantities. 966.53 Section 966.53 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA...

  18. 7 CFR 966.53 - Minimum quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Minimum quantities. 966.53 Section 966.53 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA...

  19. 7 CFR 966.53 - Minimum quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Minimum quantities. 966.53 Section 966.53 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA...

  20. 7 CFR 966.53 - Minimum quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Minimum quantities. 966.53 Section 966.53 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA...

  1. Physical conditions in high-redshift GRB-DLA absorbers observed with VLT/UVES: implications for molecular hydrogen searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ledoux, C.; Vreeswijk, P. M.; Smette, A.; Fox, A. J.; Petitjean, P.; Ellison, S. L.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Savaglio, S.

    2009-11-01

    Aims: We aim to understand the nature of the absorbing neutral gas in the galaxies hosting high-redshift long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and to determine their physical conditions. Methods: A detailed analysis of high-quality VLT/UVES spectra of the optical afterglow of GRB 050730 and other Swift-era bursts is presented. Results: We report the detection of a significant number of previously unidentified allowed transition lines of Fe^+, involving the fine structure of the ground term ( ^6D{7/2}, ^6D{5/2}, ^6D{3/2}, ^6D{1/2}) and that of other excited levels (^4F{9/2}, ^4F{7/2}, ^4F{5/2}, ^4F{3/2}, ^4D{7/2}, ^4D{5/2}), from the zabs = 3.969, log N(H^0) = 22.10, damped Lyman-α (DLA) system located in the host galaxy of GRB 050730. No molecular hydrogen (H2) is detected down to a molecular fraction of log f < -8.0. We derive accurate metal abundances for Fe^+, S^+, N^0, Ni^+, and, for the first time in this system, Si+ and Ar^0. The absorption lines are best-fit as a single narrow velocity component at zabs = 3.96857. The time-dependent evolution of the observed Fe+ energy-level populations is modelled by assuming the excitation mechanism is fluorescence following excitation by ultraviolet photons emitted by the afterglow of GRB 050730. This UV pumping model successfully reproduces the observations, yielding a total Fe+ column density of log N = 15.49±0.03, a burst/cloud distance (defined to the near-side of the cloud) of d = 440±30 pc, and a linear cloud size of l = 520^+240-190 pc. This application of our photo-excitation code demonstrates that burst/DLA distances can be determined without strong constraints on absorption-line variability provided enough energy levels are detected. From the cloud size, we infer a particle density of nH ≈ 5-15 cm-3. Conclusions: We discuss these results in the context of no detections of H2 and C i lines (with log N(C^0)/N(S^+) < -3) in a sample of seven z > 1.8 GRB host galaxies observed with VLT/UVES. We show that the lack of H2 can be explained by the low metallicities, [X/H] < -1, low depletion factors, and, at most, moderate particle densities of the systems. This points to a picture where GRB-DLAs typically exhibiting very high H0 column densities are diffuse metal-poor atomic clouds with high kinetic temperatures, Tkin ⪆ 1000 K, and large physical extents, l ⪆ 100 pc. The properties of GRB-DLAs observed at high spectral resolution towards bright GRB afterglows differ markedly from the high metal and dust contents of GRB-DLAs observed at lower resolution. This difference likely results from the effect of a bias, against systems of high metallicity and/or close to the GRB, due to dust obscuration in the magnitude-limited GRB afterglow samples observed with high-resolution spectrographs. Based on Target-Of-Opportunity observations carried out in service mode under progs. ID 075.A-0603, P.I. Fiore, and 075.A-0385, 077.D-0661, 080.D-0526, and 081.A-0856, P.I. Vreeswijk, with the Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph (UVES) installed at the Nasmyth-B focus of the Very Large Telescope (VLT), Unit 2 - Kueyen, operated by the European Southern Observatory (ESO) on Cerro Paranal in Chile.

  2. 16 CFR 500.25 - Net quantity, average quantity, permitted variations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Net quantity, average quantity, permitted variations. 500.25 Section 500.25 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENT OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION AND EXEMPTIONS UNDER THE FAIR PACKAGING AND LABELING...

  3. 16 CFR 500.25 - Net quantity, average quantity, permitted variations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Net quantity, average quantity, permitted variations. 500.25 Section 500.25 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENT OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION AND EXEMPTIONS UNDER THE FAIR PACKAGING AND LABELING...

  4. Clinical Manifestations and Myositis-Specific Autoantibodies Associated with Physical Dysfunction after Treatment in Polymyositis and Dermatomyositis: An Observational Study of Physical Dysfunction with Myositis in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Kawaguchi, Yasushi; Kaneko, Hirotaka; Katsumata, Yasuhiro; Kataoka, Sayuri; Yamanaka, Hisashi

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The physical function of PM/DM patients after remission induction therapy remains unknown adequately. The aim of our study was to evaluate the present status of physical dysfunction and to clarify the clinical manifestations and myositis-specific autoantibodies (MSAs) associated with physical dysfunction after treatment in PM/DM. Methods. We obtained clinical data including the age at disease onset, gender, disease duration, laboratory data prior to initial treatment, and the specific treatment administered. We evaluated disease activity and physical dysfunction after treatment using the core set provided by the International Myositis Assessment and Clinical Studies Group. Results. 57% of the 77 enrolled patients with PM/DM had troubles in daily living after treatment. At the enrolment, disease activity evaluated by physicians was only revealed in 20% of patients. In a multivariate analysis, the age at disease onset, female gender, and CK levels before treatment were significantly associated with the severity of physical dysfunction after treatment. Anti-SRP positivity was associated with more severe physical dysfunction after treatment than anti-ARS or anti-MDA5. Conclusions. Half of the PM/DM patients showed physical dysfunction after treatment. Age at disease onset, gender, CK level before treatment, and anti-SRP were significant predictors associated with physical dysfunction after treatment in PM/DM. PMID:26925419

  5. Constraints on energy release in solar flares from RHESSI and GOES X-ray observations. I. Physical parameters and scalings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warmuth, A.; Mann, G.

    2016-04-01

    Aims: We constrain energy release and particle acceleration processes in solar flares by means of comprehensively characterizing the physical parameters of both the thermal plasma and the accelerated nonthermal particles using X-ray data. Our aim is to bridge the gap between detailed case studies and large statistical studies. Methods: We obtained time series of spectral fits and images for 24 flares ranging from GOES class C3.4 to X17.2 using RHESSI hard X-ray observations. These data were used to derive basic physical parameters for the thermal plasma (using the isothermal approximation) and the injected nonthermal electrons (assuming the thick-target model). For the thermal component, this was supplemented by GOES soft X-ray data. We derived the ranges and distributions of the various parameters, the scaling with flare importance, and the relation between thermal parameters derived from RHESSI and GOES. Finally, we investigated the relation between thermal and nonthermal parameters. Results: Temperature and emission measure of the thermal plasma are strongly correlated with the peak GOES X-ray flux. Higher emission measures result both from a larger source volume and a higher density, with the latter effect being more important. RHESSI consistently gives higher temperatures and lower emission measures than GOES does, which is a signature of a multithermal plasma. The discrepancy between RHESSI and GOES is particularly pronounced in the early flare phase, when the thermal X-ray sources tend to be large and located higher in the corona. The energy input rate by nonthermal electrons is correlated with temperature and with the increase rate of emission measure and thermal energy. Conclusions: The derived relations between RHESSI- and GOES-derived thermal parameters and the relation between thermal parameters and energy input by nonthermal electrons are consistent with a two-component model of the thermal flare plasma. Both RHESSI and GOES observe a cooler plasma component (≈10-25 MK) that is generated by chromospheric evaporation caused by a nonthermal electron beam. In addition, a hotter component (≥25 MK) is only detected by RHESSI; this component is more consistent with direct in situ heating of coronal plasma. With the exception of the early impulsive phase, RHESSI observes a combination of the evaporated and the directly heated component.

  6. 48 CFR 52.236-16 - Quantity Surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Quantity Surveys. 52.236... Quantity Surveys. As prescribed in 36.516, the contracting officer may insert the following clause in... payment based on quantity surveys is contemplated: Quantity Surveys (APR 1984) (a) Quantity surveys...

  7. 48 CFR 52.236-16 - Quantity Surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Quantity Surveys. 52.236... Quantity Surveys. As prescribed in 36.516, the contracting officer may insert the following clause in... payment based on quantity surveys is contemplated: Quantity Surveys (APR 1984) (a) Quantity surveys...

  8. 48 CFR 52.236-16 - Quantity Surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Quantity Surveys. 52.236... Quantity Surveys. As prescribed in 36.516, the contracting officer may insert the following clause in... payment based on quantity surveys is contemplated: Quantity Surveys (APR 1984) (a) Quantity surveys...

  9. 48 CFR 52.236-16 - Quantity Surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Quantity Surveys. 52.236... Quantity Surveys. As prescribed in 36.516, the contracting officer may insert the following clause in... payment based on quantity surveys is contemplated: Quantity Surveys (APR 1984) (a) Quantity surveys...

  10. 48 CFR 52.236-16 - Quantity Surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Quantity Surveys. 52.236... Quantity Surveys. As prescribed in 36.516, the contracting officer may insert the following clause in... payment based on quantity surveys is contemplated: Quantity Surveys (APR 1984) (a) Quantity surveys...

  11. Automated in situ observations of upper ocean biogeochemistry, bio-optics, and physics and their potential use for global studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickey, Tommy D.; Granata, Timothy C.; Taupier-Letage, Isabelle

    1992-01-01

    The processes controlling the flux of carbon in the upper ocean have dynamic ranges in space and time of at least nine orders of magnitude. These processes depend on a broad suite of inter-related biogeochemical, bio-optical, and physical variables. These variables should be sampled on scales matching the relevant phenomena. Traditional ship-based sampling, while critical for detailed and more comprehensive observations, can span only limited portions of these ranges because of logistical and financial constraints. Further, remote observations from satellite platforms enable broad horizontal coverage which is restricted to the upper few meters of the ocean. For these main reasons, automated subsurface measurement systems are important for the fulfillment of research goals related to the regional and global estimation and modeling of time varying biogeochemical fluxes. Within the past few years, new sensors and systems capable of autonomously measuring several of the critical variables have been developed. The platforms for deploying these systems now include moorings and drifters and it is likely that autonomous underwater vehicles (AUV's) will become available for use in the future. Each of these platforms satisfies particular sampling needs and can be used to complement both shipboard and satellite observations. In the present review, (1) sampling considerations will be summarized, (2) examples of data obtained from some of the existing automated in situ sampling systems will be highlighted, (3) future sensors and systems will be discussed, (4) data management issues for present and future automated systems will be considered, and (5) the status of near real-time data telemetry will be outlined. Finally, we wish to make it clear at the outset that the perspectives presented here are those of the authors and are not intended to represent those of the United States JGOFS program, the International JGOFS program, NOAA's C&GC program, or other global ocean programs.

  12. Relationship between Resilience, Psychological Distress and Physical Activity in Cancer Patients: A Cross-Sectional Observation Study

    PubMed Central

    Matzka, Martin; Mayer, Hanna; Köck-Hódi, Sabine; Moses-Passini, Christina; Dubey, Catherine; Jahn, Patrick; Schneeweiss, Sonja; Eicher, Manuela

    2016-01-01

    Objective Psychological distress remains a major challenge in cancer care. The complexity of psychological symptoms in cancer patients requires multifaceted symptom management tailored to individual patient characteristics and active patient involvement. We assessed the relationship between resilience, psychological distress and physical activity in cancer patients to elucidate potential moderators of the identified relationships. Method A cross-sectional observational study to assess the prevalence of symptoms and supportive care needs of oncology patients undergoing chemotherapy, radiotherapy or chemo-radiation therapy in a tertiary oncology service. Resilience was assessed using the 10-item Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC 10), social support was evaluated using the 12-item Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) and both psychological distress and activity level were measured using corresponding subscales of the Rotterdam Symptom Checklist (RSCL). Socio-demographic and medical data were extracted from patient medical records. Correlation analyses were performed and structural equation modeling was employed to assess the associations between resilience, psychological distress and activity level as well as selected socio-demographic variables. Results Data from 343 patients were included in the analysis. Our revised model demonstrated an acceptable fit to the data (χ2(163) = 313.76, p = .000, comparative fit index (CFI) = .942, Tucker-Lewis index (TLI) = .923, root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) = .053, 90% CI [.044.062]). Resilience was negatively associated with psychological distress (β = -.59), and positively associated with activity level (β = .20). The relationship between resilience and psychological distress was moderated by age (β = -0.33) but not social support (β = .10, p = .12). Conclusion Cancer patients with higher resilience, particularly older patients, experience lower psychological distress. Patients with higher resilience are physically more active. Evaluating levels of resilience in cancer patients then tailoring targeted interventions to facilitate resilience may help improve the effectiveness of psychological symptom management interventions. PMID:27124466

  13. EVIDENCE FOR LOW BLACK HOLE SPIN AND PHYSICALLY MOTIVATED ACCRETION MODELS FROM MILLIMETER-VLBI OBSERVATIONS OF SAGITTARIUS A*

    SciTech Connect

    Broderick, Avery E.; Fish, Vincent L.; Doeleman, Sheperd S.; Loeb, Abraham

    2011-07-10

    Millimeter very long baseline interferometry (mm-VLBI) provides the novel capacity to probe the emission region of a handful of supermassive black holes on sub-horizon scales. For Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*), the supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way, this provides access to the region in the immediate vicinity of the horizon. Broderick et al. have already shown that by leveraging spectral and polarization information as well as accretion theory, it is possible to extract accretion-model parameters (including black hole spin) from mm-VLBI experiments containing only a handful of telescopes. Here we repeat this analysis with the most recent mm-VLBI data, considering a class of aligned, radiatively inefficient accretion flow (RIAF) models. We find that the combined data set rules out symmetric models for Sgr A*'s flux distribution at the 3.9{sigma} level, strongly favoring length-to-width ratios of roughly 2.4:1. More importantly, we find that physically motivated accretion flow models provide a significantly better fit to the mm-VLBI observations than phenomenological models, at the 2.9{sigma} level. This implies that not only is mm-VLBI presently capable of distinguishing between potential physical models for Sgr A*'s emission, but further that it is sensitive to the strong gravitational lensing associated with the propagation of photons near the black hole. Based upon this analysis we find that the most probable magnitude, viewing angle, and position angle for the black hole spin are a = 0.0{sup +0.64+0.86}, {theta}=68{sup o+5o+9o}{sub -20}{sup o}{sub -28}{sup o}, and {xi}=-52{sup o+17o+33o}{sub -15}{sup o}{sub -24}{sup o} east of north, where the errors quoted are the 1{sigma} and 2{sigma} uncertainties.

  14. Urban forms, physical activity and body mass index: a cross-city examination using ISS Earth Observation photographs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Ge

    2005-01-01

    Johnson Space Center has archived thousands of astronauts acquired Earth images. Some spectacular images have been widely used in news media and in k-12 class room, but their potential utilizations in health promotion and disease prevention have relatively untapped. The project uses daytime ISS photographs to define city forms and links them to city or metropolitan level health data in a multicity context. Road connectivity, landuse mix and Shannon's information indices were used in the classification of photographs. In contrast to previous remote-sensing studies, which tend to focus on a single city or a portion of a city, this project utilized photographs of 39 U.S. cities. And in contrast to previous health-promotion studies on the built environment, which tend to rely on survey respondents' responses to evaluate road connectivity or mixed land use for a single study site, the project examined the built environments of multiple cities based on ISS photos. It was found that road connectivity and landuse mix were not statistically significant by themselves, but the composite measure of the Shannon index was significantly associated with physical activity, but not BMI. Consequently, leisure-time physical activity seems to be positively associated with the urban complexity scale. It was also concluded that unless they are planned or designed in advance, photographs taken by astronauts generally are not appropriate for a study of a single-site built environment nor are they appropriate for a study of infectious diseases at a local scale. To link urban built environment with city-wide health indicators, both the traditional nadir view and oblique views should be emphasized in future astronauts' earth observation photographs.

  15. Considerations on conserved quantities and boundary conditions of the 2 + 1-dimensional nonlinear Schrödinger equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villarroel, Javier; Prada, Julia

    2015-04-01

    In this study, we consider a natural integrable generalization of the defocusing cubic nonlinear Schrödinger equation to two dimensions and we classify the admissible boundary conditions. In particular, we determine whether the classical physical observables are conserved: mass, momentum, and Hamiltonian. We find that this is the case when a certain integral (the mass constraint) vanishes. The vanishing of the mass constraint, and thus the existence of conserved quantities, is contingent on the boundary conditions adopted. In particular, under decaying boundary conditions, the Hamiltonian is not necessarily conserved.

  16. Observation of Children's Physical Activity Levels in Primary School: Is the School an Ideal Setting for Meeting Government Activity Targets?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waring, Michael; Warburton, Peter; Coy, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Given the commitment (and funding) by the British government to promote physical activity among all ages, and despite the inevitable political manipulation of physical education (PE) and school sport, there is now an ideal opportunity to focus on primary schools as a key target group for the future. This study determined the physical activity…

  17. Physical Activity and Play Behaviours in Children and Young People with Intellectual Disabilities: A Cross-Sectional Observational Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boddy, Lynne M.; Downs, Samantha J.; Knowles, Zoe R.; Fairclough, Stuart J.

    2015-01-01

    The benefits of physical activity and active play for children and young people are well established. However, there is a lack of physical activity research involving children and young people with intellectual disabilities. This study investigated habitual physical activity and recess play behaviour in 70 5- to 15-year-old participants with…

  18. Physical Activity and Play Behaviours in Children and Young People with Intellectual Disabilities: A Cross-Sectional Observational Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boddy, Lynne M.; Downs, Samantha J.; Knowles, Zoe R.; Fairclough, Stuart J.

    2015-01-01

    The benefits of physical activity and active play for children and young people are well established. However, there is a lack of physical activity research involving children and young people with intellectual disabilities. This study investigated habitual physical activity and recess play behaviour in 70 5- to 15-year-old participants with

  19. A conserved quantity in thin body dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanna, James; Pendar, Hodjat

    We use an example from textile processing to illustrate the utility of a conserved quantity associated with metric symmetry in a thin body. This quantity, when combined with the usual linear and angular momentum currents, allows us to construct a four-parameter family of curves representing the equilibria of a rotating, flowing string. To achieve this, we introduce a non-material action of mixed Lagrangian-Eulerian type, applicable to fixed windows of axially-moving systems. We will point out intriguing similarities with Bernoulli's equation, discuss the effects of axial flow on rotating conservative systems, and make connections with 19th- and 20th-century results on the dynamics of cables.

  20. QUANTITY: An Isobaric Tag for Quantitative Glycomics

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shuang; Wang, Meiyao; Chen, Lijun; Yin, Bojiao; Song, Guoqiang; Turko, Illarion V.; Phinney, Karen W.; Betenbaugh, Michael J.; Zhang, Hui; Li, Shuwei

    2015-01-01

    Glycan is an important class of macromolecules that play numerous biological functions. Quantitative glycomics - analysis of glycans at global level - however, is far behind genomics and proteomics owing to technical challenges associated with their chemical properties and structural complexity. As a result, technologies that can facilitate global glycan analysis are highly sought after. Here, we present QUANTITY (Quaternary Amine Containing Isobaric Tag for Glycan), a quantitative approach that can not only enhance detection of glycans by mass spectrometry, but also allow high-throughput glycomic analysis from multiple biological samples. This robust tool enabled us to accomplish glycomic survey of bioengineered Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells with knock-in/out enzymes involved in protein glycosylation. Our results demonstrated QUANTITY is an invaluable technique for glycan analysis and bioengineering. PMID:26616285

  1. [Minimum quantities from a thoracic surgical standpoint].

    PubMed

    Kaiser, D

    2007-11-01

    The dependence of operation lethality on hospital volume has been scientifically determined for thoracic surgery. Conclusions on the quality of the results are possible based on the structure and quality of the procedure. Minimum quantities for specialized centers in thoracic surgery have been established as 300 resectional operations on thoracic organs without mediastinoscopy, operations with the heart-lung machine, and thoracic drainage. Minimum quantities are necessary to uphold sufficient complication management by appropriate practice and experience and to keep operation lethality down. They are also needed for financing staff (at least two full-time active specialists in thoracic surgery). The concentration of thoracic surgical services at main hospitals (minimum 300 operations per year) and organ centers (minimum 500 resectional operations on thoracic organs per year) is reasonable for the 45,500 operations expected in Germany. PMID:17932631

  2. Radiation Protection Quantities for Near Earth Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clowdsley, Martha S.; Wilson, John W.; Kim, Myung-Hee; Anderson, Brooke M.; Nealy, John E.

    2004-01-01

    As humans travel beyond the protection of the Earth's magnetic field and mission durations grow, risk due to radiation exposure will increase and may become the limiting factor for such missions. Here, the dosimetric quantities recommended by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) for the evaluation of health risk due to radiation exposure, effective dose and gray-equivalent to eyes, skin, and blood forming organs (BFO), are calculated for several near Earth environments. These radiation protection quantities are evaluated behind two different shielding materials, aluminum and polyethylene. Since exposure limits for missions beyond low Earth orbit (LEO) have not yet been defined, results are compared to limits recommended by the NCRP for LEO operations.

  3. Mass quantity gauging by RF mode analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collier, R. S.; Ellerbruch, D.; Cruz, J. E.; Stokes, R. W.; Luft, P. E.; Peterson, R. G.; Hiester, A. E.

    1973-01-01

    Work done to date is reported concerning Radio Frequency Mass Quantity Gauging. Experimental apparatus has been designed and tested which measures the resonant frequencies of a tank in the time domain. These frequencies correspond to the total mass of fluid within the tank. Experimental results are discussed for nitrogen and hydrogen in normal gravity both in the supercritical state and also in the two phase (liquid-gas) region. Theoretical discussions for more general cases are given.

  4. Shielded radiation protection quantities beyond LEO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clowdsley, M. S.; Wilson, J. W.; Kim, M. Y.; Anderson, B. M.; Nealy, J. E.

    The National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) has recommended that the quantities used to evaluate health risk to astronauts due to radiation exposure be effective dose and gray-equivalent. The NCRP recommends that effective dose be the limiting quantity for prevention of stochastic effects. Effective dose is a measure of whole body exposure, a weighted average of dose equivalent to a number body tissues for which the NCRP has adopted tissue weighting factors recommended by the International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP). For deterministic effects, the NCRP has recommended that gray-equivalent be used. Gray-equivalent is evaluated for specific critical organs and is the weighted sum of absorbed dose from field components to that organ using the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) number for that field component. RBE numbers recommended by the NCRP are used. The NCRP has provided effective dose limits as well as limits for gray-equivalent to eyes, skin, and blood forming organs (BFO) for astronauts in low earth orbit (LEO). As yet, no such limits have been defined for astronaut operations beyond LEO. In this study, the radiation protection quantities, effective dose and gray-equivalent to the eyes, skin, and BFO, are calculated for several environments beyond LEO. The lunar surface and Martian environments are included. For each environment, these radiation protection quantities are calculated behind varying amounts of various types of shielding materials. The results are compared to the exposure limits for LEO, since limits have not yet been defined for interplanetary missions. The benefits of using shielding material containing hydrogen and choosing optimal mission times are discussed.

  5. Piagetian conservation of discrete quantities in bonobos (Pan paniscus), chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), and orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus).

    PubMed

    Suda, Chikako; Call, Josep

    2005-10-01

    This study investigated whether physical discreteness helps apes to understand the concept of Piagetian conservation (i.e. the invariance of quantities). Subjects were four bonobos, three chimpanzees, and five orangutans. Apes were tested on their ability to conserve discrete/continuous quantities in an over-conservation procedure in which two unequal quantities of edible rewards underwent various transformations in front of subjects. Subjects were examined to determine whether they could track the larger quantity of reward after the transformation. Comparison between the two types of conservation revealed that tests with bonobos supported the discreteness hypothesis. Bonobos, but neither chimpanzees nor orangutans, performed significantly better with discrete quantities than with continuous ones. The results suggest that at least bonobos could benefit from the discreteness of stimuli in their acquisition of conservation skills. PMID:15692813

  6. Quantity Discrimination in Wolves (Canis lupus)

    PubMed Central

    Utrata, Ewelina; Virányi, Zsófia; Range, Friederike

    2012-01-01

    Quantity discrimination has been studied extensively in different non-human animal species. In the current study, we tested 11 hand-raised wolves (Canis lupus) in a two-way choice task. We placed a number of food items (one to four) sequentially into two opaque cans and asked the wolves to choose the larger amount. Moreover, we conducted two additional control conditions to rule out non-numerical properties of the presentation that the animals might have used to make the correct choice. Our results showed that wolves are able to make quantitative judgments at the group, but also at the individual level even when alternative strategies such as paying attention to the surface area or time and total amount are ruled out. In contrast to previous canine studies on dogs (Canis familiaris) and coyotes (Canis latrans), our wolves’ performance did not improve with decreasing ratio, referred to as Weber’s law. However, further studies using larger quantities than we used in the current set-up are still needed to determine whether and when wolves’ quantity discrimination conforms to Weber’s law. PMID:23181044

  7. Quantity Discrimination in Wolves (Canis lupus).

    PubMed

    Utrata, Ewelina; Virányi, Zsófia; Range, Friederike

    2012-01-01

    Quantity discrimination has been studied extensively in different non-human animal species. In the current study, we tested 11 hand-raised wolves (Canis lupus) in a two-way choice task. We placed a number of food items (one to four) sequentially into two opaque cans and asked the wolves to choose the larger amount. Moreover, we conducted two additional control conditions to rule out non-numerical properties of the presentation that the animals might have used to make the correct choice. Our results showed that wolves are able to make quantitative judgments at the group, but also at the individual level even when alternative strategies such as paying attention to the surface area or time and total amount are ruled out. In contrast to previous canine studies on dogs (Canis familiaris) and coyotes (Canis latrans), our wolves' performance did not improve with decreasing ratio, referred to as Weber's law. However, further studies using larger quantities than we used in the current set-up are still needed to determine whether and when wolves' quantity discrimination conforms to Weber's law. PMID:23181044

  8. Nutrition and Physical Activity in Child Care Centers: the Impact of a Wellness Policy Initiative on Environment and Policy Assessment and Observation Outcomes, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Maalouf, Joyce; Evers, Sarah; Davis, Justin; Griffin, Monica

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The child care environment has emerged as an ideal setting in which to implement policies that promote healthy body weight of children. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of a wellness policy and training program on the physical activity and nutrition environment in 24 child care centers in Georgia. Methods We used the Environment and Policy Assessment and Observation instrument to identify changes to foods served, staff behaviors, and physical activity opportunities. Observations were performed over 1 day, beginning with breakfast and concluding when the program ended for the day. Observations were conducted from February 2010 through April 2011 for a total of 2 observations in each center. Changes to nutrition and physical activity in centers were assessed on the basis of changes in scores related to the physical activity and nutrition environment documented in the observations. Paired t test analyses were performed to determine significance of changes. Results Significant improvements to total nutrition (P < .001) and physical activity scores (P < .001) were observed. Results indicate that centers significantly improved the physical activity environments of centers by enhancing active play (P = .02), the sedentary environment (P = .005), the portable environment (P = .002), staff behavior (P = .004), and physical activity training and education (P < .001). Significant improvements were found for the nutrition environment (P < .001), and nutrition training and education (P < .001). Conclusion Findings from this study suggest that implementing wellness policies and training caregivers in best practices for physical activity and nutrition can promote healthy weight for young children in child care settings. PMID:23701720

  9. Combining physical galaxy models with radio observations to constrain the SFRs of high-z dusty star-forming galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo Faro, B.; Silva, L.; Franceschini, A.; Miller, N.; Efstathiou, A.

    2015-03-01

    We complement our previous analysis of a sample of z ˜ 1-2 luminous and ultraluminous infrared galaxies [(U)LIRGs], by adding deep Very Large Array radio observations at 1.4 GHz to a large data set from the far-UV to the submillimetre, including Spitzer and Herschel data. Given the relatively small number of (U)LIRGs in our sample with high signal-to-noise (S/N) radio data, and to extend our study to a different family of galaxies, we also include six well-sampled near-infrared (near-IR)-selected BzK galaxies at z ˜ 1.5. From our analysis based on the radtran spectral synthesis code GRASIL, we find that, while the IR luminosity may be a biased tracer of the star formation rate (SFR) depending on the age of stars dominating the dust heating, the inclusion of the radio flux offers significantly tighter constraints on SFR. Our predicted SFRs are in good agreement with the estimates based on rest-frame radio luminosity and the Bell calibration. The extensive spectrophotometric coverage of our sample allows us to set important constraints on the star formation (SF) history of individual objects. For essentially all galaxies, we find evidence for a rather continuous SFR and a peak epoch of SF preceding that of the observation by a few Gyr. This seems to correspond to a formation redshift of z ˜ 5-6. We finally show that our physical analysis may affect the interpretation of the SFR-M⋆ diagram, by possibly shifting, with respect to previous works, the position of the most dust obscured objects to higher M⋆ and lower SFRs.

  10. European Marine Observation and DataNetwork (EMODNET)- physical parameters: A support to marine science and operational oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahlin, Hans; Gies, Tobias; Giordano, Marco; Gorringe, Patrick; Manzella, Giuseppe; Maudire, Gilbert; Novellino, Antonio; Pagnani, Maureen; Petersson, Sian; Pouliquen, Sylvie; Rickards, Lesley; Schaap, Dick; Tijsse, Peter; van der Horste, Serge

    2013-04-01

    The overall objectives of EMODNET - physical parameters is to provide access to archived and real-time data on physical conditions in Europe's seas and oceans and to determine how well the data meet the needs of users. In particular it will contribute towards the definition of an operational European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet) and contribute to developing the definition of the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) marine core service. Access to data and metadata will consider measurements from fixed stations that will cover at least: 1. wave height and period; 2. temperature of the water column; 3. wind speed and direction; 4. salinity of the water column; 5. horizontal velocity of the water column ; 6. light attenuation; 7. sea level. A first running prototype of the portal active from the end of 2011, the final release of the EMODnet PP is due by half June 2012. Then there are 6 months for testing and users' feedback acquisition and management. The project finishes 16th December 2013 after one year of maintenance. Compliance with INSPIRE framework and temporal and geographical data coverage are ensured under the requirements contained in the several Commission Regulations issued from 2008 until 2010. The metadata are based upon the ISO 19115 standard and are compliant with the INSPIRE directive and regulations. This assures also a minimum metadata content in both systems that will facilitate the setting up of a portal that can provide information on data and access to them, depending on the internal data policy of potential contributors. Data coverage: There are three pillars sustaining EMODnet PP: EuroGOOS ROOSs (the EuroGOOS regional Operational Systems), MyOcean and SeaDataNet. MyOcean and EuroGOOS have agreed in EuroGOOS general assemblies (2008-2009-2010) to share their efforts to set up a common infrastructure for real-time data integration for operational oceanography needs extending the global and regional portals set up by MyOcean to handle additional variables and observation providers. SeaDataNet is a Pan-European infrastructure for oceans and marine data management, that provides access to archived data residing in distributed information systems. EMODNet Physics held three workshops with institutions working in operational data collection in the Baltin, North Sea, East Atlantic, Mediterranean and Black Sea. They allowed to list most of the existing fixed stations in the seas of European interest. The workshops and the follow up are constructing a common collaborative framework within EuroGOOS ROOSs. Behind the ROOSs there is a wide number of institutions, scientists and technicians, whose participation to EMODnet PP will be acknowledged and made visible through the web pages, newsletters, and EuroGOOS publications. This common collaborative framework is producing an important network of data centres that can support GMES for the years to come.

  11. Main physical processes and mechanisms responsible for the observable climate changes in the 20-21st centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zherebtsov, G. A.; Kovalenko, V. A.; Kirichenko, K. E.

    2015-11-01

    We discuss the issues of primary importance for understanding the nature of climate changes in the 20th century and main physical processes responsible for them. Special attention is paid to climate changes which occurred in 1943-1976 and 2000-2014. These periods exhibit the maximum increase in CO2 in the atmosphere, with virtually unchanged global temperature and its reduction in some regions. We study atmospheric and sea surface temperature effects of solar activity. The paper deals with results of the analysis of regularities and peculiarities of a tropospheric and sea surface temperature response to separate heliogeophysical disturbances as well as to long-term solar and geomagnetic activity variations. We also present results of the analysis of a change in sea surface temperature covering the time period 1854-2012 and their relation to solar activity variations. We find further evidence for the solar effect on climatic processes in the troposphere and ocean. We reveal a significant response in the major climatic characteristics, namely, surface air temperature and sea surface temperature (SST). It is established that the climatic response is characterized by significant space-time inhomogeneity, is regional and depends on the climate epoch. We discuss a role of wind stress and thermohaline circulation in the observable climate changes.

  12. Observations and Modeling of Long Negative Laboratory Discharges: Identifying the Physics Important to an Electrical Spark in Air

    SciTech Connect

    Biagi, C J; Uman, M A

    2011-12-13

    There are relatively few reports in the literature focusing on negative laboratory leaders. Most of the reports focus exclusively on the simpler positive laboratory leader that is more commonly encountered in high voltage engineering [Gorin et al., 1976; Les Renardieres Group, 1977; Gallimberti, 1979; Domens et al., 1994; Bazelyan and Raizer 1998]. The physics of the long, negative leader and its positive counterpart are similar; the two differ primarily in their extension mechanisms [Bazelyan and Raizer, 1998]. Long negative sparks extend primarily by an intermittent process termed a 'step' that requires the development of secondary leader channels separated in space from the primary leader channel. Long positive sparks typically extend continuously, although, under proper conditions, their extension can be temporarily halted and begun again, and this is sometimes viewed as a stepping process. However, it is emphasized that the nature of positive leader stepping is not like that of negative leader stepping. There are several key observational studies of the propagation of long, negative-polarity laboratory sparks in air that have aided in the understanding of the stepping mechanisms exhibited by such sparks [e.g., Gorin et al., 1976; Les Renardieres Group, 1981; Ortega et al., 1994; Reess et al., 1995; Bazelyan and Raizer, 1998; Gallimberti et al., 2002]. These reports are reviewed below in Section 2, with emphasis placed on the stepping mechanism (the space stem, pilot, and space leader). Then, in Section 3, reports pertaining to modeling of long negative leaders are summarized.

  13. OSO-8 X-ray spectra of clusters of galaxies. 1. Observations of twenty clusters: Physical correlations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mushotzky, R. F.; Serlemitsos, P. J.; Smith, B. W.; Boldt, E. A.; Holt, S. S.

    1978-01-01

    OSO-8 X-ray spectra from 2 to 20 keV were analyzed for 26 clusters of galaxies. Temperature, emission integrals, iron abundances, and low energy absorption measurements are given. Eight clusters have positive iron emission line detections at the 90% confidence level, and all twenty cluster spectra are consistent with Fe/H=0.000014 by number with the possible exception of Virgo. Physical correlations between X-ray spectral parameters and other cluster properties are examined. It is found that: (1) the X-ray temperature is approximately proportional to the square of the velocity dispersion of the galaxies; (2) the emission integral and therefore the bolometric X-ray luminosity is a strong function of the X-ray temperature; (3) the X-ray temperature and emission integral are better correlated with cluster central galaxy density than with richness; (4) temperature and emission integral are separately correlated with Rood-Sastry type; and (5) the fraction of galaxies which are spirals is correlated with the observed ram pressure in the cluster core.

  14. Measuring Physical Activity in Preschoolers: Reliability and Validity of the System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time for Preschoolers (SOFIT-P)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Shreela V.; Chuang, Ru-Jye; Skala, Katherine; Atteberry, Heather

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is describe the initial feasibility, reliability, and validity of an instrument to measure physical activity in preschoolers using direct observation. The System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time for Preschoolers was developed and tested among 3- to 6-year-old children over fall 2008 for feasibility and reliability

  15. Measuring Physical Activity in Preschoolers: Reliability and Validity of the System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time for Preschoolers (SOFIT-P)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Shreela V.; Chuang, Ru-Jye; Skala, Katherine; Atteberry, Heather

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is describe the initial feasibility, reliability, and validity of an instrument to measure physical activity in preschoolers using direct observation. The System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time for Preschoolers was developed and tested among 3- to 6-year-old children over fall 2008 for feasibility and reliability…

  16. Interactions of socioeconomic position with psychosocial and environmental correlates of children's physical activity: an observational study of South Australian families

    PubMed Central

    Dollman, James; Lewis, Nicole R

    2009-01-01

    Background Evidence for psychosocial and environmental correlates on children's physical activity is scattered and somewhat unconvincing. Further, the moderating influences of socioeconomic position (SEP) on these influences are largely unexplored. The aim of this study was to examine the interactions of SEP, operationalised by mother education, and predictors of children's physical activity based on the Youth Physical Activity Promotion Model. Methods In 2005, a sample of South Australians (10–15 y) was surveyed on psychosocial and environmental correlates of physical activity using the Children's Physical Activity Correlates Questionnaire (n = 3300) and a parent survey (n = 1720). The following constructs were derived: 'is it worth it?' (perceived outcomes); 'am I able?' (perceived competency); 'reinforcing' (parental support); and 'enabling' (parent-perceived barriers). Self-reported physical activity was represented by a global score derived from the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents. Associations among physical activity and hypothesised correlates were tested among children with mothers of high (university educated) and low (left school at or before 15 y) SEP. Results Among high SEP children, 'is it worth it?' emerged as a significant predictor of physical activity for boys and girls. Among low SEP children, 'is it worth it?' predicted boys' physical activity, while among girls, 'reinforcing' was the only significant predictor, explaining ~35% of the total explained variance in physical activity. Conclusion While perceived outcomes emerged as a consistent predictor of physical activity in this sample, parental support was a powerful limiting factor among low SEP girls. Interventions among this high risk group should focus on supporting parents to provide both emotional and instrumental support for their daughters to engage in physical activity. PMID:19678960

  17. Infrasound Observations from the Source Physics Experiment (Tests 1, 2, and 3) at the Nevada National Security Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, K. R.; Arrowsmith, S.; Whitaker, R. W.

    2012-12-01

    The overall mission of the National Center for Nuclear Security (NCNS) Source Physics Experiment (SPE-N) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) near Las Vegas, Nevada is to improve upon and develop new physics-based models for underground nuclear explosions using scaled, underground chemical explosions as proxies. Infrasound has been used for many years to study explosive sources both above and below ground. For most of these studies, the explosions were single shot events located in different areas. With the SPE-N series of explosions, we have the rare opportunity to study infrasound generated by a well-characterized source from the same borehole. This reduces the number of variables that must be accounted for when generating models using the acoustic data. At the time of submission, the first three explosive tests (SPE-N-1, SPE-N-2, and SPE-N-3) were successfully conducted on May 3, 2011, October 25, 2011, and July 24, 2012, respectively. SPE-N-1 had a yield of 0.1 ton at a depth of 60 m with a scaled depth of burial of 1,026 m. This explosion was used as a calibration shot as it was the first in the series. SPE-N-2 and SPE-N-3 both had a yield of 1 ton at a depth of 45 m, corresponding to a scaled depth of burial of 357 m. The acoustic amplitudes ranged from ~0.5 Pa at 225 m, to not being detected after 1 km for the SPE-N-1; and ~14 Pa at 225 m, to ~0.1 Pa at 5 km for SPE-N-2 and ~10 Pa to ~0.1 Pa for SPE-N-3. We will focus on detailed acoustic observations from all three tests as well as our efforts to model the infrasound generation at the surface in the area above the explosion.lt;img border=0 src="images/S21C-04_B.jpg">

  18. Consumer-Resource Dynamics: Quantity, Quality, and Allocation

    PubMed Central

    Getz, Wayne M.; Owen-Smith, Norman

    2011-01-01

    Background The dominant paradigm for modeling the complexities of interacting populations and food webs is a system of coupled ordinary differential equations in which the state of each species, population, or functional trophic group is represented by an aggregated numbers-density or biomass-density variable. Here, using the metaphysiological approach to model consumer-resource interactions, we formulate a two-state paradigm that represents each population or group in a food web in terms of both its quantity and quality. Methodology and Principal Findings The formulation includes an allocation function controlling the relative proportion of extracted resources to increasing quantity versus elevating quality. Since lower quality individuals senesce more rapidly than higher quality individuals, an optimal allocation proportion exists and we derive an expression for how this proportion depends on population parameters that determine the senescence rate, the per-capita mortality rate, and the effects of these rates on the dynamics of the quality variable. We demonstrate that oscillations do not arise in our model from quantity-quality interactions alone, but require consumer-resource interactions across trophic levels that can be stabilized through judicious resource allocation strategies. Analysis and simulations provide compelling arguments for the necessity of populations to evolve quality-related dynamics in the form of maternal effects, storage or other appropriate structures. They also indicate that resource allocation switching between investments in abundance versus quality provide a powerful mechanism for promoting the stability of consumer-resource interactions in seasonally forcing environments. Conclusions/Significance Our simulations show that physiological inefficiencies associated with this switching can be favored by selection due to the diminished exposure of inefficient consumers to strong oscillations associated with the well-known paradox of enrichment. Also our results demonstrate how allocation switching can explain observed growth patterns in experimental microbial cultures and discuss how our formulation can address questions that cannot be answered using the quantity-only paradigms that currently predominate. PMID:21283752

  19. Physical properties of the gamma-ray binary LS 5039 through low- and high-frequency radio observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcote, B.; Ribó, M.; Paredes, J. M.; Ishwara-Chandra, C. H.

    2015-07-01

    We have studied in detail the 0.15-15 GHz radio spectrum of the gamma-ray binary LS 5039 to look for a possible turnover and absorption mechanisms at low frequencies, and to constrain the physical properties of its emission. We have analysed two archival Very Large Array monitorings, all the available archival Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) data and a coordinated quasi-simultaneous observational campaign conducted in 2013 with Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope and Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope. The data show that the radio emission of LS 5039 is persistent on day, week and year time-scales, with a variability ≲ 25 per cent at all frequencies, and no signature of orbital modulation. The obtained spectra reveal a power-law shape with a curvature below 5 GHz and a turnover at ˜0.5GHz, which can be reproduced by a one-zone model with synchrotron self-absorption plus Razin effect. We obtain a coherent picture for the size of the emitting region of ˜0.85 mas, setting a magnetic field of B ˜ 20 mG, an electron density of ne ˜ 4 × 105 cm-3 and a mass-loss rate of dot{M}˜ 5× 10^{-8} M_{⊙ yr^{-1}}. These values imply a significant mixing of the stellar wind with the relativistic plasma outflow from the compact companion. At particular epochs the Razin effect is negligible, implying changes in the injection and the electron density or magnetic field. The Razin effect is reported for the first time in a gamma-ray binary, giving further support to the young non-accreting pulsar scenario.

  20. Convergent Validity of Four Accelerometer Cutpoints with Direct Observation of Preschool Children's Outdoor Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahan, David; Nicaise, Virginie; Reuben, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: More than one fifth of American preschool-aged children are classified as overweight/obese. Increasing physical activity is one means of slowing/reversing progression to overweight or obesity. Measurement of physical activity in this age group relies heavily on motion sensors such as accelerometers. Output is typically interpreted through…

  1. Evidencing the transition from Mode I cracking to dilation banding: Results from physical experiments with fractographic observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, S.; Chemenda, A.; Petit, J.; Ambre, J.; Geo-Fracnet-Goazur

    2010-12-01

    The mechanism of quasi-brittle fracture/rupture remains one of the central problems in different domains of material science/mechanics including geomechanics. There are basically two approaches to this problem. One is the fracture mechanics dealing with stability conditions of cracks characterized by a strong stress concentration at the tips causing crack propagation. The other approach is the formation of deformation localization bands as constitutive instabilities, whose onset in quasi-brittle rocks can be considered as corresponding to the inception of rupture. We investigate the conditions of applicability of these end-member approaches and show a continuous transition from one to another with an increase in the confining pressure P in the experimental extension tests on a synthetic physical rock analogue (granular, frictional, cohesive and dilatant) material GRAM1. Discontinuities/fractures perpendicular to the least (axial) stress ?3 were generated in GRAM1 samples. These fractures form dynamically and are of two types defined by the mean stress ? or P. When ? is very small, the fractures form through mode I cracking with ?3 equal to the material tensile strength. The fracture walls have smooth surfaces in this case. Increase in ? causes increase in ?3 at fracturing, which becomes less negative and reaches small positive (compression) values, while the failure still occurs along a discontinuity perpendicular to ?3. Thus, the discontinuities generated starting from a certain ? value cannot be mode I fractures. Increase in ? also results in changes in the relief of the surfaces of discontinuities after their postmortem opening (separation of the walls): the surfaces become rougher, with the topography features forming faint/delicate plumose patterns very similar to those on the geological joint walls. SEM observations of the unopened discontinuities show that they represent several grain sizes-thick bands of a material which underwent a heterogeneous decohesion and volume/porosity increase. This suggests a dilatancy within bands. After opening they become fractures with plumose fractography. As indicated, these fractures could not be formed through the mode I mechanism. The true formation mechanism is not completely clear, but it is suggested that it represents a running constitutive instability in the form of dilation banding (with further ? increase the bands become inclined to ?1, i.e., shear; inclination angle grows with ?). The morphological similarity between the experimentally generated plumose-surface fractures and natural joints surfaces is shown. On the other hand, MEB observations evidence a textural similarity between the experimental bands and some natural unopened incipient joints found in fine grained rocks. It is proposed that propagating dilation bands could be an important mechanism for the generation of natural joints.

  2. 14 CFR 25.1551 - Oil quantity indication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Oil quantity indication. 25.1551 Section 25... Placards § 25.1551 Oil quantity indication. Each oil quantity indicating means must be marked to indicate the quantity of oil readily and accurately....

  3. 14 CFR 27.1551 - Oil quantity indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Oil quantity indicator. 27.1551 Section 27... § 27.1551 Oil quantity indicator. Each oil quantity indicator must be marked with enough increments to indicate readily and accurately the quantity of oil....

  4. 14 CFR 23.1551 - Oil quantity indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Oil quantity indicator. 23.1551 Section 23... Information Markings and Placards § 23.1551 Oil quantity indicator. Each oil quantity indicator must be marked in sufficient increments to indicate readily and accurately the quantity of oil....

  5. 14 CFR 27.1551 - Oil quantity indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Oil quantity indicator. 27.1551 Section 27... § 27.1551 Oil quantity indicator. Each oil quantity indicator must be marked with enough increments to indicate readily and accurately the quantity of oil....

  6. 14 CFR 29.1551 - Oil quantity indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Oil quantity indicator. 29.1551 Section 29... Placards § 29.1551 Oil quantity indicator. Each oil quantity indicator must be marked with enough increments to indicate readily and accurately the quantity of oil....

  7. 14 CFR 29.1551 - Oil quantity indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Oil quantity indicator. 29.1551 Section 29... Placards § 29.1551 Oil quantity indicator. Each oil quantity indicator must be marked with enough increments to indicate readily and accurately the quantity of oil....

  8. 14 CFR 25.1551 - Oil quantity indication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Oil quantity indication. 25.1551 Section 25... Placards § 25.1551 Oil quantity indication. Each oil quantity indicating means must be marked to indicate the quantity of oil readily and accurately....

  9. 14 CFR 23.1551 - Oil quantity indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Oil quantity indicator. 23.1551 Section 23... Information Markings and Placards § 23.1551 Oil quantity indicator. Each oil quantity indicator must be marked in sufficient increments to indicate readily and accurately the quantity of oil....

  10. 14 CFR 25.1551 - Oil quantity indication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Oil quantity indication. 25.1551 Section 25... Placards § 25.1551 Oil quantity indication. Each oil quantity indicating means must be marked to indicate the quantity of oil readily and accurately....

  11. 14 CFR 23.1551 - Oil quantity indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Oil quantity indicator. 23.1551 Section 23... Information Markings and Placards § 23.1551 Oil quantity indicator. Each oil quantity indicator must be marked in sufficient increments to indicate readily and accurately the quantity of oil....

  12. 14 CFR 27.1551 - Oil quantity indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oil quantity indicator. 27.1551 Section 27... § 27.1551 Oil quantity indicator. Each oil quantity indicator must be marked with enough increments to indicate readily and accurately the quantity of oil....

  13. 14 CFR 23.1551 - Oil quantity indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oil quantity indicator. 23.1551 Section 23... Information Markings and Placards § 23.1551 Oil quantity indicator. Each oil quantity indicator must be marked in sufficient increments to indicate readily and accurately the quantity of oil....

  14. 14 CFR 29.1551 - Oil quantity indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oil quantity indicator. 29.1551 Section 29... Placards § 29.1551 Oil quantity indicator. Each oil quantity indicator must be marked with enough increments to indicate readily and accurately the quantity of oil....

  15. 14 CFR 25.1551 - Oil quantity indication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oil quantity indication. 25.1551 Section 25... Placards § 25.1551 Oil quantity indication. Each oil quantity indicating means must be marked to indicate the quantity of oil readily and accurately....

  16. Conserved Quantities in the Generalized Heisenberg Magnet (ghm) Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mushahid, N.; Hassan, M.; Saleem, U.

    2013-03-01

    We study the conserved quantities of the generalized Heisenberg magnet (GHM) model. We derive the nonlocal conserved quantities of the model using the iterative procedure of Brezin et al. [Phys. Lett. B82, 442 (1979).] We show that the nonlocal conserved quantities Poisson commute with local conserved quantities of the model.

  17. Neighbourhood environment, physical activity, quality of life and depressive symptoms in Hong Kong older adults: a protocol for an observational study

    PubMed Central

    Cerin, Ester; Sit, Cindy H P; Zhang, Casper J P; Barnett, Anthony; Cheung, Martin M C; Lai, Poh-chin; Johnston, Janice M; Lee, Ruby S Y

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The neighbourhood environment can assist the adoption and maintenance of an active lifestyle and affect the physical and mental well-being of older adults. The psychosocial and behavioural mechanisms through which the environment may affect physical and mental well-being are currently poorly understood. Aim This observational study aims to examine associations between the physical and social neighbourhood environments, physical activity, quality of life and depressive symptoms in Chinese Hong Kong older adults. Methods and analyses An observational study of the associations of measures of the physical and social neighbourhood environment, and psychosocial factors, with physical activity, quality of life and depressive symptoms in 900 Hong Kong older adults aged 65+ years is being conducted in 2012–2016. The study involves two assessments taken 6 months apart. Neighbourhood walkability and access to destinations are objectively measured using Geographic Information Systems and environmental audits. Demographics, socioeconomic status, walking for different purposes, perceived neighbourhood and home environments, psychosocial factors, health status, social networks, depressive symptoms and quality of life are being assessed using validated interviewer-administered self-report measures and medical records. Physical functionality is being assessed using the Short Physical Performance Battery. Physical activity and sedentary behaviours are also being objectively measured in approximately 45% of participants using accelerometers over a week. Physical activity, sedentary behaviours, quality of life and depressive symptoms are being assessed twice (6 months apart) to examine seasonality effects on behaviours and their associations with quality of life and depressive symptoms. Ethics and dissemination The study received ethical approval from the University of Hong Kong Human Research Ethics Committee for Non-Clinical Faculties (EA270211) and the Department of Health (Hong Kong SAR). Data are stored in a password-protected secure database for 10 years, accessible only to the named researchers. Findings will be submitted for publication in peer-reviewed journals. PMID:26733574

  18. Physical Activity Volumes during Pregnancy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies Assessing the Association with Infant's Birth Weight

    PubMed Central

    Bisson, Michèle; Lavoie-Guénette, Joëlle; Tremblay, Angelo; Marc, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study aims to examine the association between different maternal physical activity exposures during pregnancy and infant's birth weight, body composition, and risk of inadequate weight. Methods Two reviewers (M.B. and J.L.G.) identified observational studies reporting total or leisure time activity during pregnancy and birth weight outcomes. Pooled analyses were performed to summarize the risk associated with high or moderate volumes of physical activity on birth weight. Results A total of 54 studies among 4,080 reported the association between physical activity and birth weight (37 studies) or risks of small or large birth weight. The association between physical activity and birth weight was evaluated by physical activity levels (low, moderate, or high). Despite heterogeneity, pooled results (23 studies) suggested that moderate levels of activity are associated with an increased birth weight (mean difference: 61.5 g, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 16.6, 106.5, 15 studies), while high levels were associated with lower birth weight (mean difference: −69.9 g, 95% CI: −114.8, −25.0, 15 studies). Data were insufficient to provide robust estimates for other outcomes. Conclusions The results of observational studies suggest an inverted u-shaped association between physical activity and birth weight, despite methodological variability. These results could help refining physical activity guidelines for pregnancy and provide guidance for future research. PMID:27127718

  19. Quantity judgments and individuation: evidence that mass nouns count.

    PubMed

    Barner, David; Snedeker, Jesse

    2005-08-01

    Three experiments explored the semantics of the mass-count distinction in young children and adults. In Experiments 1 and 2, the quantity judgments of participants provided evidence that some mass nouns refer to individuals, as such. Participants judged one large portion of stuff to be "more" than three tiny portions for substance-mass nouns (e.g. mustard, ketchup), but chose according to number for count nouns (e.g. shoes, candles) and object-mass nouns (e.g. furniture, jewelry). These results suggest that some mass nouns quantify over individuals, and that therefore reference to individuals does not distinguish count nouns from mass nouns. Thus, Experiments 1 and 2 failed to support the hypothesis that there exist one-to-one mappings between mass-count syntax and semantics for either adults or young children. In Experiment 3, it was found that for mass-count flexible terms (e.g. string, stone) participants based quantity judgments on number when the terms were used with count syntax, but on total amount of stuff when used with mass syntax. Apparently, the presence of discrete physical objects in a scene (e.g. stones) is not sufficient to permit quantity judgments based on number. It is proposed that object-mass nouns (e.g. furniture) can be used to refer to individuals due to lexically specified grammatical features that normally occur in count syntax. Also, we suggest that children learning language parse words that refer to individuals as count nouns unless given morpho-syntactic and referential evidence to the contrary, in which case object-mass nouns are acquired. PMID:16139586

  20. Evaluation of Specific Absorption Rate as a Dosimetric Quantity for Electromagnetic Fields Bioeffects

    PubMed Central

    Panagopoulos, Dimitris J.; Johansson, Olle; Carlo, George L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate SAR as a dosimetric quantity for EMF bioeffects, and identify ways for increasing the precision in EMF dosimetry and bioactivity assessment. Methods We discuss the interaction of man-made electromagnetic waves with biological matter and calculate the energy transferred to a single free ion within a cell. We analyze the physics and biology of SAR and evaluate the methods of its estimation. We discuss the experimentally observed non-linearity between electromagnetic exposure and biological effect. Results We find that: a) The energy absorbed by living matter during exposure to environmentally accounted EMFs is normally well below the thermal level. b) All existing methods for SAR estimation, especially those based upon tissue conductivity and internal electric field, have serious deficiencies. c) The only method to estimate SAR without large error is by measuring temperature increases within biological tissue, which normally are negligible for environmental EMF intensities, and thus cannot be measured. Conclusions SAR actually refers to thermal effects, while the vast majority of the recorded biological effects from man-made non-ionizing environmental radiation are non-thermal. Even if SAR could be accurately estimated for a whole tissue, organ, or body, the biological/health effect is determined by tiny amounts of energy/power absorbed by specific biomolecules, which cannot be calculated. Moreover, it depends upon field parameters not taken into account in SAR calculation. Thus, SAR should not be used as the primary dosimetric quantity, but used only as a complementary measure, always reporting the estimating method and the corresponding error. Radiation/field intensity along with additional physical parameters (such as frequency, modulation etc) which can be directly and in any case more accurately measured on the surface of biological tissues, should constitute the primary measure for EMF exposures, in spite of similar uncertainty to predict the biological effect due to non-linearity. PMID:23750202

  1. Social cognitive variables as correlates of physical activity in persons with multiple sclerosis: findings from a longitudinal, observational study.

    PubMed

    Suh, Yoojin; Weikert, Madeline; Dlugonski, Deirdre; Balantrapu, Swathi; Motl, Robert W

    2011-07-01

    There is a lack of data regarding the associations among changes in social cognitive variables and physical activity over time in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS). To that end, the current study adopted a panel design and analysis for examining hypothesized relationships among changes in social cognitive variables and physical activity over time in persons with MS, and this is necessary for designing effective behavioral interventions. On two occasions separated by an 18-month period, persons (N = 218) with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS), who were initially recruited by telephone for a cross-sectional study, completed a battery of questionnaires that assessed social cognitive variables and physical activity. Those study materials were delivered and returned via the United State Postal Service. The 18-month changes in self-efficacy (path coefficient = .25, p < .01) and goal setting (path coefficient = .26, p < .01) had direct effects on residual change in physical activity. The change in self-efficacy further had an indirect effect on residual change in physical activity that was accounted for by change in goal setting (path coefficient = .05, p < .05). This longitudinal study suggests that self-efficacy and goal setting represent plausible targets for changing physical activity behavior in persons with RRMS. PMID:21895426

  2. Using Micro-Scale Observations to Understand Large-Scale Geophysical Phenomena: Examples from Seismology and Mineral Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lockridge, Jeffrey

    Earthquake faulting and the dynamics of subducting lithosphere are among the frontiers of geophysics. Exploring the nature, cause, and implications of geophysical phenomena requires multidisciplinary investigations focused at a range of spatial scales. Within this dissertation, I present studies of micro-scale processes using observational seismology and experimental mineral physics to provide important constraints on models for a range of large-scale geophysical phenomena within the crust and mantle. The Great Basin (GB) in the western U.S. is part of the diffuse North American-Pacific plate boundary. The interior of the GB occasionally produces large earthquakes, yet the current distribution of regional seismic networks poorly samples it. The EarthScope USArray Transportable Array provides unprecedented station density and data quality for the central GB. I use this dataset to develop an earthquake catalog for the region that is complete to M 1.5. The catalog contains small-magnitude seismicity throughout the interior of the GB. The spatial distribution of earthquakes is consistent with recent regional geodetic studies, confirming that the interior of the GB is actively deforming everywhere and all the time. Additionally, improved event detection thresholds reveal that swarms of temporally-clustered repeating earthquakes occur throughout the GB. The swarms are not associated with active volcanism or other swarm triggering mechanisms, and therefore, may represent a common fault behavior. Enstatite (Mg,Fe)SiO3 is the second most abundant mineral within subducting lithosphere. Previous studies suggest that metastable enstatite within subducting slabs may persist to the base of the mantle transition zone (MTZ) before transforming to high-pressure polymorphs. The metastable persistence of enstatite has been proposed as a potential cause for both deep-focus earthquakes and the stagnation of slabs at the base of the MTZ. I show that natural Al- and Fe-bearing enstatite reacts more readily than previous studies and by multiple transformation mechanisms at conditions as low as 1200°C and 18 GPa. Metastable enstatite is thus unlikely to survive to the base of the MTZ. Additionally, coherent growth of akimotoite and other high-pressure phases along polysynthetic twin boundaries provides a mechanism for the inheritance of crystallographic preferred orientation from previously deformed enstatite-bearing rocks within subducting slabs.

  3. Quantity without numbers and numbers without quantity in the parietal cortex.

    PubMed

    Cappelletti, Marinella; Muggleton, Neil; Walsh, Vincent

    2009-06-01

    A dominant view in numerical cognition is that processing the quantity indicated by numbers (e.g. deciding the larger between two numbers such as '12.07' or '15.02') relies on the intraparietal regions (IPS) of the cerebral cortex. However, it remains unclear whether the IPS could play a more general role in numerical cognition, for example in (1) quantity processing even with non-numerical stimuli (e.g. choosing the larger of 'bikini' and 'coat'); and/or (2) conceptual tasks involving numbers beyond those requiring quantity processing (e.g. attributing a summer date to either '12.07' or '15.02'). In this study we applied fMRI-guided TMS to the left and right IPS, while independently manipulating stimulus and task. Our results showed that IPS involvement in numerical cognition is neither stimulus-specific nor specific for conceptual tasks. Thus, quantity judgments with numerical and non-numerical stimuli were equally affected by IPS-TMS, as well as a number conceptual task not requiring quantity comparisons. However, IPS-TMS showed no impairment for perceptual decisions on numbers without any conceptual processing (i.e. colour judgment), nor for conceptual decisions that did not involve quantity or number stimuli (e.g. summer object: 'bikini' or 'coat'?). These results are consistent with proposals that the parietal areas are engaged in the conceptual representation of numbers but they challenge the most common view that number processing is so automatic that the simple presentation of numbers activates the IPS and a sense of magnitude. Rather, our results show that the IPS is only necessary when conceptual operations need to be explicitly oriented to numerical concepts. PMID:19236924

  4. Quantity without numbers and numbers without quantity in the parietal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Cappelletti, Marinella; Muggleton, Neil; Walsh, Vincent

    2009-01-01

    A dominant view in numerical cognition is that processing the quantity indicated by numbers (e.g. deciding the larger between two numbers such as ‘12.07’ or ‘15.02’) relies on the intraparietal regions (IPS) of the cerebral cortex. However, it remains unclear whether the IPS could play a more general role in numerical cognition, for example in (1) quantity processing even with non-numerical stimuli (e.g. choosing the larger of ‘bikini’ and ‘coat’); and/or (2) conceptual tasks involving numbers beyond those requiring quantity processing (e.g. attributing a summer date to either ‘12.07’ or ‘15.02’). In this study we applied fMRI-guided TMS to the left and right IPS, while independently manipulating stimulus and task. Our results showed that IPS involvement in numerical cognition is neither stimulus-specific nor specific for conceptual tasks. Thus, quantity judgments with numerical and non-numerical stimuli were equally affected by IPS-TMS, as well as a number conceptual task not requiring quantity comparisons. However, IPS-TMS showed no impairment for perceptual decisions on numbers without any conceptual processing (i.e. colour judgment), nor for conceptual decisions that did not involve quantity or number stimuli (e.g. summer object: ‘bikini’ or ‘coat’?). These results are consistent with proposals that the parietal areas are engaged in the conceptual representation of numbers but they challenge the most common view that number processing is so automatic that the simple presentation of numbers activates the IPS and a sense of magnitude. Rather, our results show that the IPS is only necessary when conceptual operations need to be explicitly oriented to numerical concepts. PMID:19236924

  5. Seismic analysis of 70 Ophiuchi A: A new quantity proposed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Y. K.; Bi, S. L.; Gai, N.

    2008-11-01

    The basic intent of this paper is to model 70 Ophiuchi A using the latest asteroseismic observations as complementary constraints and to determine the fundamental parameters of the star. Additionally, we propose a new quantity to lift the degeneracy between the initial chemical composition and stellar age. Using the Yale stellar evolution code (YREC7), we construct a series of stellar evolutionary tracks for the mass range M = 0.85-0.93 M⊙ with different composition Yi (0.26-0.30) and Zi (0.017-0.023). Along these tracks, we select a grid of stellar model candidates that fall within the error box in the HR diagram to calculate the theoretical frequencies, the large- and small-frequency separations using Guenther's stellar pulsation code. Following the asymptotic formula of stellar p-modes, we define a quantity r01 which is correlated with stellar age. Also, we test it by theoretical adiabatic frequencies of many models. Many detailed models of 70 Ophiuchi A are listed in Table 3. By combining all non-asteroseismic observations available for 70 Ophiuchi A with these seismological data, we think that Model 60, Model 125 and Model 126, listed in Table 3, are the optimum models presently. Meanwhile, we predict that the radius of this star is about 0.860-0.865 R⊙ and the age is about 6.8-7.0 Gyr with mass 0.89-0.90 M⊙. Additionally, we prove that the new quantity r01 can be a useful indicator of stellar age.

  6. Quantity quotient reporting. Comparison of various models.

    PubMed

    Haeckel, Rainer; Wosniok, Werner; Postma, Theo

    2015-11-01

    Quantity quotient (QQ) reporting has been proposed by several authors to improve or support the present situation of presenting quantitative laboratory results. This proposal is based on a concept (symmetrical model) known from the intelligence quotient, which was developed to make intelligence tests comparable. In laboratory medicine, however, most measurands follow a non-symmetrical (skewed) distribution, leading to a compression of the QQ values at the lower end of the reference interval. This effect can be avoided by several alternatives. Three models considering non-symmetrical distributions are compared with the symmetrical model in the present study. The corresponding algorithms can be easily handled on the Excel platform. Graphical presentation of the QQ allows a quick overview of test results if they occur in a large number. PMID:26536582

  7. Changes in time-segment specific physical activity between ages 10 and 14 years: A longitudinal observational study

    PubMed Central

    Brooke, Hannah L.; Atkin, Andrew J.; Corder, Kirsten; Ekelund, Ulf; van Sluijs, Esther M.F.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Describe (1) time-segment specific changes in physical activity (PA) into adolescence, (2) differences in change in PA between specific time-segments (weekdays–weekends, in-school–out-of-school, out-of-school–weekends, lesson-time–lunch-time), and (3) associations of change in time-segment specific with overall PA. Design Longitudinal observational study (4-year follow-up). Methods Children from the SPEEDY study (n = 769, 42% boys) had PA measured by accelerometer for at least three days at ages 10.2 ± 0.3, 11.2 ± 0.3 and 14.3 ± 0.3 years. Changes in moderate-to-vigorous PA (ΔMVPA, minutes ≥2000 counts/minute [cpm]) and total PA (ΔTPA, average cpm) during weekdays, weekends, in-school, out-of-school, lesson-times and lunch-times, were tested using three level (age, individual, school) mixed-effects linear regression. Differences in ΔMVPA/ΔTPA between time-segments were tested using time-segment × age interaction terms. Associations of four-year time-segment specific ΔMVPA/ΔTPA with four-year overall ΔMVPA/ΔTPA were tested using two level (time-segment specific ΔMVPA/ΔTPA, school) mixed-effects linear regression. Results MVPA and TPA declined in all time-segments, except lesson-time MVPA. Annual ΔMVPA and, for boys only, ΔTPA was greater on weekends than weekdays (beta ± SE for interaction term: boys, −3.53 ± 0.83 min, −29.64 ± 7.64 cpm; girls, −2.20 ± 0.64 min) and out-of-school (boys, −4.36 ± 0.79 min, −19.36 ± 8.46 cpm; girls, −2.44 ± 0.63 min). ΔMVPA and ΔTPA during lunch-time was greater than during lesson-time (boys, −0.96 ± 0.20 min, −36.43 ± 6.55 cpm; girls, −0.90 ± 0.13 min, −38.72 ± 4.40 cpm). ΔTPA was greater out-of-school than in-school (boys, −19.89 ± 6.71 cpm; girls, −18.46 ± 6.51 cpm). For all time-segments, four-year ΔMVPA/ΔTPA was positively associated with four-year overall ΔMVPA/ΔTPA (all p < 0.042), except for girl's in-school and lunch-time TPA. Conclusions Interventions focused on PA maintenance could target all time-segments, but weekends and out-of-school may be particularly advantageous due to the relatively large declines observed. PMID:25459234

  8. Knowledge base for growth and innovation in ocean economy: assembly and dissemination of marine data for seabed mapping - European Marine Observation Data Network - EMODnet Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novellino, Antonio; Gorringe, Patrick; Schaap, Dick; Pouliquen, Sylvie; Rickards, Lesley; Manzella, Giuseppe

    2014-05-01

    The Physics preparatory action (MARE/2010/02 - Lot [SI2.579120]) had the overall objectives to provide access to archived and near real-time data on physical conditions as monitored by fixed stations and Ferrybox lines in all the European sea basins and oceans and to determine how well the data meet the needs of users. The existing EMODnet-Physics portal, www.emodnet-physics.eu, includes systems for physical data from the whole Europe (wave height and period, temperature of the water column, wind speed and direction, salinity of the water column, horizontal velocity of the water column, light attenuation, and sea level) provided mainly by fixed stations and ferry-box platforms, discovering related data sets (both near real time and historical data sets), viewing and downloading of the data from about 470 platforms across the European Sea basins. It makes layers of physical data and their metadata available for use and contributes towards the definition of an operational European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet). It is based on a strong collaboration between EuroGOOS member institutes and its regional operational oceanographic systems (ROOSs), and it brings together two marine, but different, communities : the "real time" ocean observing institutes and centers and the National Oceanographic Data Centres (NODCs) that are in charge for archived ocean data validation, quality check and continuous update of data archives for marine environmental monitoring. EMODnet Physics is a Marine Observation and Data Information System that provides a single point of access to near real time and historical achieved data, it is built on existing infrastructure by adding value and avoiding any unnecessary complexity, it provides data access to any relevant user, and is aimed at attracting new data holders and providing better and more data. With a long term-vision for a sustained pan European Ocean Observation System EMODnet Physics is supporting the coordination of the EuroGOOS ROOSs and the empowerment and improvement of their observing and data management infrastructure. The on-going EMODnet Physics preparatory action has recently been extended (MARE/2012/06 - Lot 6) with the aim to enlarge the coverage with additional monitoring systems (e.g. Argos, Gliders, HF Radars etc) and products and strengthening the underlying infrastructure. The presentation will show how to exploit the EMODnet portal and access to the metadata and data of connected platforms.

  9. Observations and Performances “with distinction” by Physical Therapy Students in Clinical Education: Analysis of Checkboxes on the Physical Therapist Clinical Performance Instrument (PT-CPI) over a 4-Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Booth, Randy

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To describe how often the 24 performance criteria of the Physical Therapist Clinical Performance Instrument (PT-CPI) were not observed and how often they were rated exceptionally well for physical therapy (PT) students in relation to clinical placement descriptors. Methods: Indicators of “not observed,” performance “with distinction,” and “significant concerns” were tabulated from 1,460 clinical placements between 2008 and 2012. The rates for these indicators were evaluated with respect to catchment area, practice setting (hospital/institutional or community-based), practice area (musculoskeletal, cardiorespiratory, neurology, paediatrics, geriatrics, or variety), and level (junior to senior). Results: Of the 24 PT-CPI criteria, 15 had observation rates >95%. Of the other nine criteria, some showed significant differences in observation rates across level, practice setting, and practice area. Ratings of “with distinction” were awarded most often for criteria related to professionalism and communication and were awarded more often in community-based settings than in hospital/institutional settings. For some criteria, “with distinction” was awarded more often in paediatrics placements than in other areas. The “significant concerns” checkboxes were rarely used. Conclusions: The overall observation rates were very similar to those reported elsewhere. The findings related to performance “with distinction” and observation rates relative to setting and practice area are new contributions to physical therapy knowledge. PMID:25931650

  10. Observing Tin-Lead Alloys by Scanning Electron Microscopy: A Physical Chemistry Experiment Investigating Macro-Level Behaviors and Micro-Level Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yue; Xu, Xinhua; Wu, Meifen; Hu, Huikang; Wang, Xiaogang

    2015-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was introduced into undergraduate physical chemistry laboratory curriculum to help students observe the phase composition and morphology characteristics of tin-lead alloys and thus further their understanding of binary alloy phase diagrams. The students were captivated by this visual analysis method, which

  11. Observing Tin-Lead Alloys by Scanning Electron Microscopy: A Physical Chemistry Experiment Investigating Macro-Level Behaviors and Micro-Level Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yue; Xu, Xinhua; Wu, Meifen; Hu, Huikang; Wang, Xiaogang

    2015-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was introduced into undergraduate physical chemistry laboratory curriculum to help students observe the phase composition and morphology characteristics of tin-lead alloys and thus further their understanding of binary alloy phase diagrams. The students were captivated by this visual analysis method, which…

  12. ISO terminological analysis of the VIM3 concepts 'quantity' and 'kind-of-quantity'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dybkaer, René

    2010-06-01

    The recent third edition of the International Vocabulary of Metrology—Basic and General Concepts and Associated Terms (VIM3) (JCGM 200:2008 (Sèvres: BIPM); also ISO/IEC Guide 99:2007 3rd edn (Geneva: ISO)) has undergone important changes, not least by adhering to ISO International Standards on terminology work (ISO 704:2000 Terminology Work—Principles and Methods; ISO 1087-1:2000 Terminology Work—Vocabulary—Part 1: Theory and Application; ISO 10241:1992 International Terminology Standards—Preparation and Layout). A recent critique (Mari 2009 Metrologia 46 L11-L15)—based on Object-Oriented Analysis—centres on the meaning and relation of the two first and fundamental concepts 'quantity'Single quotation marks ('...') or bold type indicate a concept when necessary, double quotation marks ("...") a term or quotation. and the new entry 'kind-of-quantity'. This makes it timely to analyse the two concepts, their relation and their respective role in forming the generic hierarchical concept system of VIM3 from 'property' to individual quantities. It is suggested that 'kind-of-quantity' acts as a division criterionSynonyms are "criterion of subdivision", "type of characteristic(s)", see the annexe..

  13. Workshop Physics and Related Curricula: A 25-Year History of Collaborative Learning Enhanced by Computer Tools for Observation and Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laws, Priscilla W.; Willis, Maxine C.; Sokoloff, David R.

    2015-10-01

    This article describes the 25-year history of development of the activity-based Workshop Physics (WP) at Dickinson College, its adaptation for use at Gettysburg Area High School, and its synergistic influence on curricular materials developed at the University of Oregon and Tufts University and vice versa. WP and these related curricula: 1) are based on Physics Education Research (PER) findings and are PER-validated; 2) feature active, collaborative learning; and 3) use computer-based tools that enable students to learn by making predictions and then collecting, displaying, and analyzing data from their experiments.

  14. Observations of physical processes in cluster cores: Connection between the intracluster gas and the brightest cluster galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffer, Aaron

    This dissertation examines the relationship between galaxy clusters and the brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) of those clusters. It has been known for a while that the state of the hot intracluster medium (ICM) gas in the core of a galaxy cluster, quantified as the central entropy of the gas, can be found in two particular states. Galaxy clusters with central entropies greater than 30 keV cm2 are typically disturbed clusters with no radio activity or line emission in their BCG. On the other hand, those clusters with low central entropy can host BCGs, which are considered "active" and contain strong central radio sources as well as line emission suggesting star formation. While there is this dichotomy, the relative importance of physical processes which may help to create this dichotomy, is not well determined. In Chapter 2, we examine the ultraviolet and infrared properties of BCGs in a heterogeneous sample of clusters. We find that the dichotomy still holds when investigating star formation in both the obscured and unobscured regimes. In these low entropy clusters ˜40% have a BCG with some form of star formation such that star formation in BCGs is enabled by the dense X-ray emitting ICM gas. The results we find are consistent with other star formation indicators, such as Halpha, but we are able to create a more complete picture of the star formation occurring in the BCG. In Chapter 3 we conduct an in depth investigation of the cool core galaxy cluster RXJ 2014.8-2430. Based on Chandra X-ray data, we find the cluster core is sloshing. However, the BCG is still located near the X-ray peak and the metallicity is still centrally peaked, which suggests sloshing is a recent phenomenon. Also, we do not find X-ray cavities even though they are expected in a cool core with radio emission. We simulate X-ray images with various bubble configurations and sizes to set limits on what we could have missed in the data. We analyze narrow band Halpha imaging and optical spectra and find elongation of the Halpha filaments along the same east-west axis of the sloshing. The emission line spectra show a velocity gradient across the central Halpha region, suggesting the galaxy is getting pulled into or out of the cluster. The weak sloshing as well as the limit on X-ray cavities suggests we may be observing RXJ 2014.8-2430 during a rare period where sloshing and the AGN are beginning to heat the cluster core. In Chapter 4 we present results from our polarimetry pilot study for the optical imager on the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) Telescope. We discuss the methodology used to collect the data and determine data quality for appropriate analysis. We verify that we can reproduce polarization fractions and angles in sources that are polarization standards. We attempt to measure polarization in the Halpha filaments in the BCG M87, but do not find a statistically significant measurement of polarization in the filaments and place an upper limit on their total polarization. The limit on polarization of emission from the filaments in M87 limits the role saturated thermal conduction can play at the interface of the hot ICM and the cold filaments. We summarize the results of the dissertation in Chapter 5.

  15. The Problem-Solving Process in Physics as Observed When Engineering Students at University Level Work in Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gustafsson, Peter; Jonsson, Gunnar; Enghag, Margareta

    2015-01-01

    The problem-solving process is investigated for five groups of students when solving context-rich problems in an introductory physics course included in an engineering programme. Through transcripts of their conversation, the paths in the problem-solving process have been traced and related to a general problem-solving model. All groups exhibit…

  16. Diagnosing physical conditions near the flare energy-release sites from observations of solar microwave type III bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Bao-Lin; Karlický, Marian; Mészárosová, Hana; Huang, Guang-Li

    2016-05-01

    In the physics of solar flares, it is crucial to diagnose the physical conditions near the flare energy-release sites. However, so far it is unclear how to diagnose these physical conditions. A solar microwave type III burst is believed to be a sensitive signature of primary energy release and electron accelerations in solar flares. This work takes into account the effect of the magnetic field on the plasma density and develops a set of formulas which can be used to estimate the plasma density, temperature, magnetic field near the magnetic reconnection site and particle acceleration region, and the velocity and energy of electron beams. We apply these formulas to three groups of microwave type III pairs in an X-class flare, and obtained some reasonable and interesting results. This method can be applied to other microwave type III bursts to diagnose the physical conditions of source regions, and provide some basic information to understand the intrinsic nature and fundamental processes occurring near the flare energy-release sites.

  17. Observation and Analysis of N[subscript 2]O Rotation-Vibration Spectra: A Physical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Mark S.; Reeve, Scott W.; Burns, William A.

    2008-01-01

    The linear molecule N[subscript 2]O is presented as an alternative gas-phase species for the ubiquitous undergraduate physical chemistry rotation-vibration spectroscopy experiment. Utilizing a 0.5 cm[superscript -1] resolution teaching grade FTIR spectrometer, 15 vibrational bands, corresponding to 1229 rotation-vibration transitions, have been…

  18. Workshop Physics and Related Curricula: "A 25-Year History of Collaborative Learning Enhanced by Computer Tools for Observation and Analysis"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laws, Priscilla W.; Willis, Maxine C.; Sokoloff, David R.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the 25-year history of development of the activity-based Workshop Physics (WP) at Dickinson College, its adaptation for use at Gettysburg Area High School, and its synergistic influence on curricular materials developed at the University of Oregon and Tufts University and vice versa. WP and these related curricula: 1) are…

  19. Directly Observed Physical Activity and Fundamental Motor Skills in Four-Year-Old Children in Day Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iivonen, S.; Sääkslahti, A. K.; Mehtälä, A.; Villberg, J. J.; Soini, A.; Poskiparta, M.

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity (PA), its location, social interactions and fundamental motor skills (FMS) were investigated in four-year-old Finnish children in day care. Six skills in the stability, locomotor and manipulative domains were assessed in 53 children (24 boys, 29 girls, normal anthropometry) with the APM-Inventory manual for assessing children's…

  20. The Problem-Solving Process in Physics as Observed When Engineering Students at University Level Work in Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gustafsson, Peter; Jonsson, Gunnar; Enghag, Margareta

    2015-01-01

    The problem-solving process is investigated for five groups of students when solving context-rich problems in an introductory physics course included in an engineering programme. Through transcripts of their conversation, the paths in the problem-solving process have been traced and related to a general problem-solving model. All groups exhibit

  1. Monitoring water quality and quantity of national watersheds in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Odemis, Berkant; Evrendilek, Fatih

    2007-10-01

    National data from the hydrological network for 38 rivers out of 25 watersheds were used to detect spatial and temporal trends in water quality and quantity characteristics between 1995 and 2002. Assessment of water quality and quantity included flow rate, water temperature, pH, electrical conductivity, sodium adsorption rate, Na, K, Ca+Mg, CO(3), HCO(3), Cl, SO(4), and boron. Among the major ions assessed on a watershed basis, Turkish river waters are relatively high in Ca+Mg, Na and HCO(3), and low in K and CO(3). The watersheds in Turkey experienced a general trend of 16% decrease in flow rates between 1995 and 2002 at a mean annual rate of about 4 m(3) s(-1), with a considerable spatial variation. Similarly, there appeared to be an increasing trend in river water temperature, at a mean annual rate of about 0.2 degrees C. A substantial proportion of watersheds experienced an increase in pH, in particular, after 1997, with a maximum increase from 8.1 to 8.4 observed in Euphrates (P < 0.01). Kendall's tau test revealed increasing trends of EC and SAR concentrations that exceeded existing standards, particularly, in the Meriç, Kizilirmak and Big Menderes watersheds where intensive agricultural activities take place. Such continued levels may threaten biotic integrity and both drinking and irrigation water quality of rivers. Best multiple linear regression (MLR) models constructed both annually and monthly differed in R (2) values in accounting for variations of pH and water temperature only. The findings of the study can provide a useful assessment of controls over water quality and quantity and assist in devising integrated and sustainable management practices for watersheds at the regional scale in Turkey. PMID:17171235

  2. A one-dimensional model describing aerosol formation and evolution in the stratosphere. I - Physical processes and mathematical analogs. II - Sensitivity studies and comparison with observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turco, R. P.; Hamill, P.; Toon, O. B.; Whitten, R. C.; Kiang, C. S.

    1979-01-01

    A new time-dependent one-dimensional model of the stratospheric sulfate aerosol layer is developed. The model treats atmospheric photochemistry and aerosol physics in detail and includes the interaction between gases and particles explicitly. It is shown that the numerical algorithms used in the model are quite precise. Sensitivity studies and comparison with observations are made. The simulated aerosol physics generates a particle layer with most of the observed properties. The sensitivity of the calculated properties to changes in a large number of aeronomic aerosol parameters is discussed in some detail. The sensitivity analysis reveals areas where the aerosol model is most uncertain. New observations are suggested that might help resolve important questions about the origin of the stratospheric aerosol layer.

  3. On the Hojman conservation quantities in Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paliathanasis, A.; Leach, P. G. L.; Capozziello, S.

    2016-04-01

    We discuss the application of the Hojman's Symmetry Approach for the determination of conservation laws in Cosmology, which has been recently applied by various authors in different cosmological models. We show that Hojman's method for regular Hamiltonian systems, where the Hamiltonian function is one of the involved equations of the system, is equivalent to the application of Noether's Theorem for generalized transformations. That means that for minimally-coupled scalar field cosmology or other modified theories which are conformally related with scalar-field cosmology, like f (R) gravity, the application of Hojman's method provide us with the same results with that of Noether's Theorem. Moreover we study the special Ansatz. ϕ (t) = ϕ (a (t)) , which has been introduced for a minimally-coupled scalar field, and we study the Lie and Noether point symmetries for the reduced equation. We show that under this Ansatz, the unknown function of the model cannot be constrained by the requirement of the existence of a conservation law and that the Hojman conservation quantity which arises for the reduced equation is nothing more than the functional form of Noetherian conservation laws for the free particle. On the other hand, for f (T) teleparallel gravity, it is not the existence of Hojman's conservation laws which provide us with the special function form of f (T) functions, but the requirement that the reduced second-order differential equation admits a Jacobi Last multiplier, while the new conservation law is nothing else that the Hamiltonian function of the reduced equation.

  4. Category 3 threshold quantities for hazard categorization of nonreactor facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Mandigo, R.L.

    1996-02-13

    This document provides the information necessary to determine Hazard Category 3 threshold quantities for those isotopes of interest not listed in WHC-CM-4-46, Section 4, Table 1.''Threshold Quantities.''

  5. 7 CFR 1207.511 - Determination of assessable quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Rules and Regulations Assessments § 1207.511 Determination of assessable quantity. The assessable quantity of potatoes in any lot shall be determined on the basis...

  6. 7 CFR 1207.511 - Determination of assessable quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Rules and Regulations Assessments § 1207.511 Determination of assessable quantity. The assessable quantity of potatoes in any lot shall be determined on the basis...

  7. 7 CFR 1207.511 - Determination of assessable quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Rules and Regulations Assessments § 1207.511 Determination of assessable quantity. The assessable quantity of potatoes in any lot shall be determined on the basis...

  8. 7 CFR 1207.511 - Determination of assessable quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Rules and Regulations Assessments § 1207.511 Determination of assessable quantity. The assessable quantity of potatoes in any lot shall be determined on the basis...

  9. 30 CFR 36.45 - Quantity of ventilating air.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... air movement when the permissible mobile diesel-powered transportation equipment is used underground. This quantity shall be stamped on the approval plate. The quantity so determined shall apply when...

  10. 30 CFR 36.45 - Quantity of ventilating air.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... air movement when the permissible mobile diesel-powered transportation equipment is used underground. This quantity shall be stamped on the approval plate. The quantity so determined shall apply when...

  11. 30 CFR 36.45 - Quantity of ventilating air.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... air movement when the permissible mobile diesel-powered transportation equipment is used underground. This quantity shall be stamped on the approval plate. The quantity so determined shall apply when...

  12. Children’s Physical Activity Behavior during School Recess: A Pilot Study Using GPS, Accelerometer, Participant Observation, and Go-Along Interview

    PubMed Central

    Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Andersen, Henriette Bondo; Troelsen, Jens; Schipperijn, Jasper

    2016-01-01

    Schoolyards are recognized as important settings for physical activity interventions during recess. However, varying results have been reported. This pilot study was conducted to gain in-depth knowledge of children’s physical activity behavior during recess using a mixed-methods approach combining quantitative GPS and accelerometer measurements with qualitative go-along group interviews and participant observations. Data were collected during three weekdays in a public school in Denmark. Eighty-one children (47 girls) wore an accelerometer (ActiGraph GT3X) and GPS (QStarz BT-Q1000xt), sixteen children participated in go-along group interviews, and recess behavior was observed using an ethnographical participant observation approach. All data were analyzed separated systematically answering the Five W Questions. Children were categorized into Low, Middle and High physical activity groups and these groups were predominantly staying in three different locations during recess: school building, schoolyard and field, respectively. Mostly girls were in the building remaining in there because of a perceived lack of attractive outdoor play facilities. The children in the schoolyard were predominantly girls who preferred the schoolyard over the field to avoid the competitive soccer games on the field whereas boys dominated the field playing soccer. Using a mixed-methods approach to investigate children’s physical activity behavior during recess helped gain in-depth knowledge that can aid development of future interventions in the school environment. PMID:26859288

  13. Impact of tiotropium + olodaterol on physical functioning in COPD: results of an open-label observational study

    PubMed Central

    Sauer, Rüdiger; Hänsel, Michaela; Buhl, Roland; Rubin, Roman A; Frey, Marcel; Glaab, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Background Maintaining and improving physical functioning is key to mitigating the cycle of deconditioning associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We evaluated the impact of free combination of the long-acting anticholinergic tiotropium plus the long-acting β2-agonist olodaterol on physical functioning in a real-world clinical setting. Methods In this open-label noninterventional study, Global initiative for chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) B–D patients with COPD aged ≥40 years were treated for 4–6 weeks with either tiotropium 5 μg + olodaterol 5 μg (both via Respimat® inhaler) or tiotropium 18 μg (HandiHaler®) + olodaterol 5 μg (Respimat®) once daily. Physical functioning was assessed by the self-reported 10-item Physical Functioning Questionnaire (PF-10). The primary end point was the percentage of patients achieving therapeutic success, defined as a 10-point increase in the PF-10 between baseline (visit 1) and weeks 4–6 (visit 2). Secondary end points included absolute PF-10 scores, Physicians’ Global Evaluation, satisfaction with Respimat® and adverse events. Results A total of 1,858 patients were treated: 1,298 (69.9%) with tiotropium 5 μg + olodaterol 5 μg and 560 (30.1%) with tiotropium 18 μg + olodaterol 5 μg. At study end, 1,683 (92.6%) and 1,556 patients (85.6%) continued using tiotropium and olodaterol, respectively; 48.9% (95% confidence interval: 46.5, 51.3) achieved the primary end point. Therapeutic success rates were significantly higher for maintenance-naïve patients compared to those who had received prior therapy (59.1% vs 44.5%; P<0.0001), largely driven by maintenance-treatment-naïve GOLD B (59.8%) and C (63.0%) patients. Absolute physical functioning scores increased from an average baseline of 44.0 (standard deviation: 25.2) to 54.2 (standard deviation: 26.9) at visit 2. Patients’ general condition improved from baseline to visit 2, and patients were largely satisfied with the Respimat® inhaler. Adverse events were reported by 7.5% of patients; the most common were respiratory in nature. Conclusion Tiotropium + olodaterol improved physical functioning within 4–6 weeks in patients with moderate-to-very severe COPD. GOLD B and C patients with no prior maintenance treatment demonstrated the greatest benefit. PMID:27217742

  14. Implementing ILDs and Assessment in Small-enrollment, Calculus-based Physics Classes -- Lessons, Observations and Open Questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason-McCaffrey, Deborah

    2011-04-01

    At Salem State, we offer a Physics minor, but most of our teaching load is support courses for other science majors and a lab sequence which satisfies the University's core education requirement. In three years of using assessments and ILDs in small-enrollment calculus-based Physics classes, there has been a significant implementation learning curve, there are encouraging results, a few cautions, and still some open questions to report. ILDs can be highly effective teaching tools. They do require significant advance preparation as well as a safe environment for student participation. Motivating students to do their best on assessment pre- and post-tests can also be difficult. Strategies for motivating assessment performance, experiments using clickers to encourage participation in ILDs, and modifying and developing home-grown ILDs are discussed.

  15. Social Support in Women with Fibromyalgia: Is Quality More Important than Quantity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franks, Heather M.; Cronan, Terry A.; Oliver, Karen

    2004-01-01

    The present study is an examination of the effects of quality and quantity of social support on the psychological and physical well-being of women with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). Participants were 568 women who were members of a health maintenance organization (HMO) with a confirmed diagnosis of FMS. Participants were administered a battery of

  16. Social Support in Women with Fibromyalgia: Is Quality More Important than Quantity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franks, Heather M.; Cronan, Terry A.; Oliver, Karen

    2004-01-01

    The present study is an examination of the effects of quality and quantity of social support on the psychological and physical well-being of women with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). Participants were 568 women who were members of a health maintenance organization (HMO) with a confirmed diagnosis of FMS. Participants were administered a battery of…

  17. A horizontal mobile measuring system for atmospheric quantities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hübner, J.; Olesch, J.; Falke, H.; Meixner, F. X.; Foken, T.

    2014-09-01

    A fully automatic horizontal mobile measuring system (HMMS) for atmospheric quantities has been developed. The HMMS is based on the drive mechanism of a garden railway system and can be installed at any location and along any measuring track. In addition to meteorological quantities (temperature, humidity and short-/long-wave down/upwelling radiation), HMMS also measures trace gas concentrations (carbon dioxide and ozone). While sufficient spatial resolution is a problem even for measurements on distributed towers, this could be easily achieved with the HMMS, which has been specifically developed to obtain higher information density about horizontal gradients in a heterogeneous forest ecosystem. There, horizontal gradients of meteorological quantities and trace gases could be immense, particularly at the transition from a dense forest to an open clearing, with large impact on meteorological parameters and exchange processes. Consequently, HMMS was firstly applied during the EGER IOP3 project (ExchanGE processes in mountainous Regions - Intense Observation Period 3) in the Fichtelgebirge Mountains (SE Germany) during summer 2011. At a constant 1 m above ground, the measuring track of the HMMS consisted of a straight line perpendicular to the forest edge, starting in the dense spruce forest and leading 75 m into an open clearing. Tags with bar codes, mounted every metre on the wooden substructure, allowed (a) keeping the speed of the HMMS constant (approx. 0.5 m s-1) and (b) operation of the HMMS in a continuous back and forth running mode. During EGER IOP3, HMMS was operational for almost 250 h. Results show that - due to considerably long response times (between 4 and 20 s) of commercial temperature, humidity and the radiation sensors - true spatial variations of the meteorological quantities could not be adequately captured (mainly at the forest edge). Corresponding dynamical (spatial) errors of the measurement values were corrected on the basis of well-defined individual response times of the sensors and application of a linear correction algorithm. Due to the very short response times (≤ 1 s) of the applied commercial CO2 and O3 analysers, dynamical errors for the trace gas data were negligible and no corrections were done.

  18. 7 CFR 1430.207 - Dairy operation payment quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Dairy operation payment quantity. 1430.207 Section... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS DAIRY PRODUCTS Milk Income Loss Contract Program § 1430.207 Dairy operation payment quantity. (a) The applicant's payment quantity of...

  19. 7 CFR 1430.207 - Dairy operation payment quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dairy operation payment quantity. 1430.207 Section... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS DAIRY PRODUCTS Milk Income Loss Contract Program § 1430.207 Dairy operation payment quantity. (a) The applicant's payment quantity of...

  20. 48 CFR 852.216-70 - Estimated quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Estimated quantities. 852... Estimated quantities. As prescribed in 816.504(a), insert the following clause: Estimated Quantities (APR... percent of the estimated requirement or which provide that the Government shall guarantee any...

  1. 48 CFR 52.211-18 - Variation in Estimated Quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Variation in Estimated....211-18 Variation in Estimated Quantity. As prescribed in 11.703(c), insert the following clause in... in the estimated quantity of unit-priced items: Variation in Estimated Quantity (APR 1984) If...

  2. 41 CFR 101-27.102 - Economic order quantity principle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2011-07-01 2007-07-01 true Economic order quantity... MANAGEMENT 27.1-Stock Replenishment § 101-27.102 Economic order quantity principle. The economic order quantity (EOQ) principle is a means for achieving economical inventory management. Application of the...

  3. The Role of Quantity Implicatures in the Grammaticalization of "Would."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziegler, Debra

    2000-01-01

    Examines grammaticalization of English "would" over an extended period of time. Offers an analysis that accounts for evidence of both the first Gricean Maxim of Quantity (in which an unrestricted quantity of information is understood to have a restricted representation) and the second (which holds that a restricted quantity of information is…

  4. 46 CFR 108.433 - Quantity of CO2: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Quantity of CO2: General. 108.433 Section 108.433... Quantity of CO2: General. Each CO2 system must have enough gas to meet the quantity requirements of 108.439 for the space requiring the greatest amount of CO2....

  5. 46 CFR 108.433 - Quantity of CO2: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Quantity of CO2: General. 108.433 Section 108.433... Quantity of CO2: General. Each CO2 system must have enough gas to meet the quantity requirements of 108.439 for the space requiring the greatest amount of CO2....

  6. 7 CFR 1427.170 - Quantity for loan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Quantity for loan. 1427.170 Section 1427.170 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Recourse Seed Cotton Loans § 1427.170 Quantity for loan. (a) The quantity of...

  7. Evaluating the measurement uncertainty of complex quantities: a selective review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, B. D.

    2016-02-01

    This paper reviews a selection of topics related to the evaluation and expression of measurement uncertainty in complex quantities, which are prevalent in electromagnetic measurements at radio and microwave frequencies. Methods appropriate for complex quantities are presented that extend those described, for real-valued quantities, in the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement.

  8. Determination of dosimetric quantities in pediatric abdominal computed tomography scans*

    PubMed Central

    Jornada, Tiago da Silva; da Silva, Teógenes Augusto

    2014-01-01

    Objective Aiming at contributing to the knowledge on doses in computed tomography (CT), this study has the objective of determining dosimetric quantities associated with pediatric abdominal CT scans, comparing the data with diagnostic reference levels (DRL). Materials and methods The study was developed with a Toshiba Asteion single-slice CT scanner and a GE BrightSpeed multi-slice CT unit in two hospitals. Measurements were performed with a pencil-type ionization chamber and a 16 cm-diameter polymethylmethacrylate trunk phantom. Results No significant difference was observed in the values for weighted air kerma index (CW), but the differences were relevant in values for volumetric air kerma index (CVOL), air kerma-length product (PKL,CT) and effective dose. Conclusion Only the CW values were lower than the DRL, suggesting that dose optimization might not be necessary. However, PKL,CT and effective dose values stressed that there still is room for reducing pediatric radiation doses. The present study emphasizes the importance of determining all dosimetric quantities associated with CT scans. PMID:25741103

  9. The Light at the End of the Tunnel: Uncertainties in Atomic Physics, Bayesian Inference, and the Analysis of Solar and Stellar Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, Harry

    2016-05-01

    We report on the efforts of a multidisciplinary International Space Science Institute team that is investigating the limits of our ability to infer the physical properties of solar and stellar atmospheres from remote sensing observations. As part of this project we have estimated the uncertainties in the collisional cross sections and radiative decay rates for Fe XIII and O VII and created 1000 realizations of the CHIANTI atomic database. These perturbed atomic data are then used to analyze solar observations from the EIS spectrometer on Hinode and stellar observations from the LETG on Chandra within a Bayesian framework. For the solar case we find that the systematic errors from the atomic physics dominate the statistical uncertainties from the observations. For many cases the uncertainties are about 10 times larger when variations in the atomic data are included. This indicates the need for very accurate atomic physics. Comparisons among recent Fe XIII calculations suggest that for some transitions the collision rates are currently known well enough to measure the electron density and emission measure to about 15%.

  10. A Five-Stage Process for the Development and Validation of a Systematic Observation Instrument: The System for Observing the Teaching of Games in Physical Education (SOTG-PE)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Simon; Fairclough, Stuart

    2012-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to develop and validate a System for Observing the Teaching of Games in Physical Education (SOTG-PE). Primary pilot testing of the SOTG-PE was conducted in a large, selective, all-boys secondary school in the north-west of England. Two hundred and eighty three pupils aged 11-16 volunteered as participants for…

  11. CREST-Snow Analysis and Field Experiment (CREST-SAFE): Continuous In Situ Observations of Snow Physical Properties and Microwave Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munoz, J.; Lakhankar, T.; Romanov, P.; Powell, A. M.; Khanbilvardi, R.

    2012-12-01

    The CREST-Snow Analysis and Field Experiment (CREST-SAFE) is being carried out for two winter seasons (2011 and 2012) at the research site of the National Weather Service office, Caribou ME, USA. In this ground experiment, dual polarized microwave (37 and 89 GHz) observations are conducted continuously from the time of snow onset to snow melt off along with detailed synchronous observations of snowpack physical properties. The objective of this long term field experiment is to improve our understanding of the effect of changing snow characteristics (grain size, density, temperature) under various meteorological conditions on the microwave emission of snow and hence to improve retrievals of snow cover properties from satellite observations in the microwave spectral range. In this presentation, we give an overview of the field experiment and of available datasets. We also present the analysis of microwave observations collected during the two years of experiment along with observations of the snowpack properties. The simulations of seasonal changes of the snow pack physical properties were simulated with the SNTHERM model whereas to simulate the snowpack emission in the microwave we have used from SNTHERM and the HUT (Helsinki University of Technology) snow emission model. For different snow conditions simulated microwave brightness temperatures were compared with brightness temperatures observed in situ and with satellite based brightness temperature. The analysis of microwave observations has revealed a large difference in the microwave brightness temperature over fresh and aged snow pack even under the same snow depth. This suggests a substantial impact of other physical parameters on the microwave emission of snow as snow grain size, ice layer formation and density.

  12. 1991 Urey Prize Lecture: Physical evolution in the solar system - Present observations as a key to the past

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Binzel, Richard P.

    1992-01-01

    The present evaluation of the use of new observational methods for exploring solar system evolutionary processes gives attention to illustrative cases from the constraining of near-earth asteroid sources and the discovery of main-belt asteroid fragments which indicate Vesta to be a source of basaltic achondrite meteorites. The coupling of observational constraints with numerical models clarifies cratering and collisional evolution for both main-belt and Trojan asteroids.

  13. 1991 Urey Prize Lecture: Physical evolution in the solar system - Present observations as a key to the past

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binzel, Richard P.

    1992-12-01

    The present evaluation of the use of new observational methods for exploring solar system evolutionary processes gives attention to illustrative cases from the constraining of near-earth asteroid sources and the discovery of main-belt asteroid fragments which indicate Vesta to be a source of basaltic achondrite meteorites. The coupling of observational constraints with numerical models clarifies cratering and collisional evolution for both main-belt and Trojan asteroids.

  14. Biologically Weighted Quantities in Radiotherapy: an EMRP Joint Research Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabus, Hans; Palmans, Hugo; Hilgers, Gerhard; Sharpe, Peter; Pinto, Massimo; Villagrasa, Carmen; Nettelbeck, Heidi; Moro, Davide; Pola, Andrea; Pszona, Stanislaw; Teles, Pedro

    2014-08-01

    Funded within the European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP) [1], the joint research project "Biologically weighted quantities in radiotherapy" (BioQuaRT) [2] aims to develop measurement and simulation techniques for determining the physical properties of ionising particle tracks on different length scales (about 2 nm to 10 μm), and to investigate the correlation of these track structure characteristics with the biological effects of radiation at the cellular level. Work package 1 develops micro-calorimeter prototypes for the direct measurement of lineal energy and will characterise their response for different ion beams by experiment and modelling. Work package 2 develops techniques to measure particle track structure on different length scales in the nanometre range as well as a measurement device integrating a silicon microdosimeter and a nanodosimeter. Work package 3 investigates the indirect effects of radiation based on probes for quantifying particular radical and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Work package 4 focuses on the biological aspects of radiation damage and will produce data on initial DNA damage and late effects for radiotherapy beams of different qualities. Work package 5 provides evaluated data sets of DNA cross-sections and develops a multi-scale model to address microscopic and nanometric track structure properties. The project consortium includes three linked researchers holding so-called Researcher Excellence Grants, who carry out ancillary investigations such as developing and benchmarking a new biophysical model for induction of early radiation damage and developing methods for the translation of quantities derived from particle track structure to clinical applications in ion beam therapy.

  15. Beginning to edit physics

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, P.W.

    1995-02-01

    A physicist-turned-editor shows you the basics required for copyediting physics papers (physical quantities, symbols, units, scientific notation, the structure of mathematical expressions, the nature of graphs), and points the way to learning enough ``editorial physics`` to begin substantive editing.

  16. An investigation of quantity discrimination in Clark's nutcrackers (Nucifraga columbiana).

    PubMed

    Tornick, Jan K; Callahan, Emily S; Gibson, Brett M

    2015-02-01

    We examined quantity discrimination in the Clark's nutcracker (Nucifraga columbiana), a corvid bird with a strong dependence upon caching and recovering nuts. We presented 2 sets of nuts simultaneously, in 21 different conditions, to see if the nutcrackers could choose the larger of the 2 quantities. The nutcrackers displayed a strong ability to discriminate quantities of nuts. Like other animals tested previously, the nutcrackers' performance decreased as the ratio of the 2 quantities approached 1. Interestingly, at constant distances, the nutcrackers did not have more difficulty with contrasts containing larger quantities. Thus, nutcrackers have a fine sensitivity for discriminating between 2 quantities. We review the relevant literature and explore the possibility that nutcrackers, like some other birds, may have developed a keen ability to discriminate quantities. This ability may have developed as an adaptive specialization to cope with their scatter-hoarding ecology, though the evidence for such a conclusion is mixed. PMID:25150963

  17. Law of genome evolution direction: Coding information quantity grows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Liao-Fu

    2009-06-01

    The problem of the directionality of genome evolution is studied. Based on the analysis of C-value paradox and the evolution of genome size, we propose that the function-coding information quantity of a genome always grows in the course of evolution through sequence duplication, expansion of code, and gene transfer from outside. The function-coding information quantity of a genome consists of two parts, p-coding information quantity that encodes functional protein and n-coding information quantity that encodes other functional elements. The evidences on the law of the evolutionary directionality are indicated. The needs of function are the motive force for the expansion of coding information quantity, and the information quantity expansion is the way to make functional innovation and extension for a species. Therefore, the increase of coding information quantity of a genome is a measure of the acquired new function, and it determines the directionality of genome evolution.

  18. Changes in striatal dopamine metabolism during the development of morphine physical dependence in rats: observations using in vivo microdialysis.

    PubMed

    Schrater, P R; Russo, A C; Stanton, T L; Newman, J R; Rodriguez, L M; Beckman, A L

    1993-01-01

    The present study examined the effect of prolonged morphine treatment on striatal dopamine (DA) release and metabolism, during the initial phase of the development of morphine dependence. Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted with chronic guides for microdialysis of the striatum. Morphine (two 75-mg pellets, subcutaneous implant) or placebo was given (12 hr) to pentobarbital anesthetized animals. Following recovery from anesthesia, morphine physical dependence was verified by the naloxone-evoked abstinence syndrome. Morphine produced significant increases in the dialysate level of DA nad its metabolites (DOPAC and HVA) above baseline compared to placebo treatment. HVA levels began to increase immediately following morphine administration, whereas DA and DOPAC levels began to increase after a latency of one and three hr, respectively. Morphine effects on striatal DA metabolism included changes in the metabolic disposition of DA. Increases in HVA concentration accompanied increases in DOPAC concentration up to a threshold value of DOPAC efflux; further increases in DOPAC level were associated with decreases in HVA level. These in vivo data suggest that morphine-induced changes in the regulation of striatal dopaminergic function may be an important component of the development of physical dependence. PMID:8483382

  19. Simultaneous Assimilation of Physical and Biological Observations into a 3D Coupled Marine Ecosystem Model Using Joint and Dual Kalman Filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoteit, I.; Korres, G.; Triantafyllou, G.

    2007-05-01

    Two assimilation systems based on a suboptimal extended Kalman filter have been developed to simultaneously assimilate physical and biochemical data into a complex ecosystem model of the Eastern Mediterranean. The three-dimensional ecosystem model is composed of two on-line coupled sub-models: the Princeton Ocean Model (POM) and the European Regional Seas Ecosystem Model (ERSEM). The filter is a variant of the extended Kalman filter which operates with low-rank error covariance matrices to reduce computational burden. Two different approaches have been considered: the "joint approach" and the "dual approach". In the first approach, one filter is used in which the state vector of the filter is composed of all prognostic variables of POM and ERSEM models. Basically, the numerical models are integrated forward in time to produce the (physical and biochemical) forecasts. The observations are then assimilated jointly to correct all forecast variables using the cross-correlations between all physical and biochemical forecast errors, which simultaneously provides the analyses for the physics and for the ecology. The dual approach consists of two filters, operating separately on the physics and on the ecology. We describe the two assimilation systems and discuss results of assimilation experiments.

  20. Physical characteristics of faint meteors by light curve and high-resolution observations, and the implications for parent bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subasinghe, Dilini; Campbell-Brown, Margaret D.; Stokan, Edward

    2016-04-01

    Optical observations of faint meteors (10-7 < mass < 10-4 kg) were collected by the Canadian Automated Meteor Observatory between 2010 April and 2014 May. These high-resolution (metre scale) observations were combined with two-station light-curve observations and the meteoroid orbit to classify meteors and attempt to answer questions related to meteoroid fragmentation, strength, and light-curve shape. The F parameter was used to classify the meteor light-curve shape; the observed morphology was used to classify the fragmentation mode; and the Tisserand parameter described the origin of the meteoroid. We find that most meteor light curves are symmetric (mean F parameter 0.49), show long distinct trails (continuous fragmentation), and are cometary in origin. Meteors that show no obvious fragmentation (presumably single body objects) show mostly symmetric light curves, surprisingly, and this indicates that light-curve shape is not an indication of fragility or fragmentation behaviour. Approximately 90 per cent of meteors observed with high-resolution video cameras show some form of fragmentation. Our results also show, unexpectedly, that meteors which show negligible fragmentation are more often on high-inclination orbits (i > 60°) than low-inclination ones. We also find that dynamically asteroidal meteors fragment as often as dynamically cometary meteors, which may suggest mixing in the early Solar system, or contamination between the dynamic groups.

  1. Estimating historical landfill quantities to predict methane emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyons, Seán; Murphy, Liam; Tol, Richard S. J.

    2010-10-01

    There are no observations for methane emissions from landfill waste in Ireland. Methane emissions are imputed from waste data. There are intermittent data on waste sent to landfill. We compare two alternative ways to impute the missing waste "data" and evaluate the impact on methane emissions. We estimate Irish historical landfill quantities from 1960-2008 and Irish methane emissions from 1968-2006. A model is constructed in which waste generation is a function of income, price of waste disposal and, household economies of scale. A transformation ratio of waste to methane is also included in the methane emissions model. Our results contrast significantly with the Irish Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) figures due to the differences in the underlying assumptions. The EPA's waste generation and methane emission figures are larger than our estimates from the early 1990s onwards. Projections of the distance to target show that the EPA overestimates the required policy effort.

  2. Physical structure of the photodissociation regions in NGC 7023. Observations of gas and dust emission with Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köhler, M.; Habart, E.; Arab, H.; Bernard-Salas, J.; Ayasso, H.; Abergel, A.; Zavagno, A.; Polehampton, E.; van der Wiel, M. H. D.; Naylor, D. A.; Makiwa, G.; Dassas, K.; Joblin, C.; Pilleri, P.; Berné, O.; Fuente, A.; Gerin, M.; Goicoechea, J. R.; Teyssier, D.

    2014-09-01

    Context. The determination of the physical conditions in molecular clouds is a key step towards our understanding of their formation and evolution of associated star formation. We investigate the density, temperature, and column density of both dust and gas in the photodissociation regions (PDRs) located at the interface between the atomic and cold molecular gas of the NGC 7023 reflection nebula. We study how young stars affect the gas and dust in their environment. Aims: Several Herschel Space Telescope programs provide a wealth of spatial and spectral information of dust and gas in the heart of PDRs. We focus our study on Spectral and Photometric Image Receiver (SPIRE) Fourier-Transform Spectrometer (FTS) fully sampled maps that allow us for the first time to study the bulk of cool/warm dust and warm molecular gas (CO) together. In particular, we investigate if these populations spatially coincide, if and how the medium is structured, and if strong density and temperature gradients occur, within the limits of the spatial resolution obtained with Herschel. Methods: The SPIRE FTS fully sampled maps at different wavelengths are analysed towards the northwest (NW) and the east (E) PDRs in NGC 7023. We study the spatial and spectral energy distribution of a wealth of intermediate rotational 12CO 4 ≤ Ju ≤ 13 and 13CO 5 ≤ Ju ≤ 10 lines. A radiative transfer code is used to assess the gas kinetic temperature, density, and column density at different positions in the cloud. The dust continuum emission including Spitzer, the Photoconductor Array Camera and Spectrometer (PACS), and SPIRE photometric and the Institute for Radio Astronomy in the Millimeter Range (IRAM) telescope data is also analysed. Using a single modified black body and a radiative transfer model, we derive the dust temperature, density, and column density. Results: The cloud is highly inhomogeneous, containing several irradiated dense structures. Excited 12CO and 13CO lines and warm dust grains localised at the edge of the dense structures reveal high column densities of warm/cool dense matter. Both tracers give a good agreement in the local density, column density, and physical extent, leading to the conclusion that they trace the same regions. The derived density profiles show a steep gradient at the cloud edge reaching a maximum gas density of 105-106 cm-3 in the PDR NGC 7023 NW and 104-105 cm-3 in the PDR NGC 7023 E and a subsequent decrease inside the cloud. Close to the PDR edges, the dust temperature (30 K and 20 K for the NW and E PDRs, respectively) is lower than the gas temperature derived from CO lines (65-130 K and 45-55 K, respectively). Further inside the cloud, the dust and gas temperatures are similar. The derived thermal pressure is about 10 times higher in NGC 7023 NW than in NGC 7023 E. Comparing the physical conditions to the positions of known young stellar object candidates in NGC 7023 NW, we find that protostars seem to be spatially correlated with the dense structures. Conclusions: Our approach combining both dust and gas delivers strong constraints on the physical conditions of the PDRs. We find dense and warm molecular gas of high column density in the PDRs. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  3. Un/Covering: Female Religious Converts Learning the Problems and Pragmatics of Physical Observance in the Secular World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galman, Sally Campbell

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the experiences of three women who have chosen to move from secular, assimilated lives to lives characterized by the distinctive dress and practice associated with observant Islam, Orthodox Judaism, and Orthodox Christianity, respectively. All three relied upon informal, peer, and distance learning strategies for their…

  4. Physical studies of asteroids. XXIII - Photometric observations of the asteroids 6, 32, 196, 243, 416, 532 and 1580

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erikson, A.; Lagerkvist, C.-I.; Lindgren, M.; Cutispoto, G.; Debehogne, H.; Hahn, G.; Magnusson, P.

    1991-12-01

    Photometric studies of seven asteroids observed at the European Southern Observatory (La Sill a, Chile) with the 50 cm ESO telescope are presented. For these asteroids (6 Hebe, 32 Pomona, 196 Philomela, 243 Ida, 416 Vaticana, 532 Herculina and 1580 Betulia) composite lightcurves are presented. Mean colour indexes, calculated for some of the nights, are also given.

  5. A geochemical module for "AMDTreat" to compute caustic quantity, effluent quantity, and sludge volume

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cravotta, Charles A., III; Parkhurst, David L.; Means, Brent P; McKenzie, Bob; Morris, Harry; Arthur, Bill

    2010-01-01

    Treatment with caustic chemicals typically is used to increase pH and decrease concentrations of dissolved aluminum, iron, and/or manganese in largevolume, metal-laden discharges from active coal mines. Generally, aluminum and iron can be removed effectively at near-neutral pH (6 to 8), whereas active manganese removal requires treatment to alkaline pH (~10). The treatment cost depends on the specific chemical used (NaOH, CaO, Ca(OH)2, Na2CO3, or NH3) and increases with the quantities of chemical added and sludge produced. The pH and metals concentrations do not change linearly with the amount of chemical added. Consequently, the amount of caustic chemical needed to achieve a target pH and the corresponding effluent composition and sludge volume can not be accurately determined without empirical titration data or the application of geochemical models to simulate the titration of the discharge water with caustic chemical(s). The AMDTreat computer program (http://amd.osmre.gov/ ) is widely used to compute costs for treatment of coal-mine drainage. Although AMDTreat can use results of empirical titration with industrial grade caustic chemicals to compute chemical costs for treatment of net-acidic or net-alkaline mine drainage, such data are rarely available. To improve the capability of AMDTreat to estimate (1) the quantity and cost of caustic chemicals to attain a target pH, (2) the concentrations of dissolved metals in treated effluent, and (3) the volume of sludge produced by the treatment, a titration simulation is being developed using the geochemical program PHREEQC (wwwbrr.cr.usgs.gov/projects/GWC_coupled/phreeqc/) that will be coupled as a module to AMDTreat. The simulated titration results can be compared with or used in place of empirical titration data to estimate chemical quantities and costs. This paper describes the development, evaluation, and potential utilization of the PHREEQC titration module for AMDTreat.

  6. Intensive quantities: why they matter to developmental research.

    PubMed

    Howe, Christine; Nunes, Terezinha; Bryant, Peter

    2010-06-01

    A distinction can be drawn between extensive and intensive quantities. Extensive quantities (e.g., volume, distance), which have been the focus of developmental research, depend upon additive combination. Intensive quantities (e.g., density, speed), which have been relatively neglected, derive from proportional relations between variables. Thus, while proportional relations can be expressed with extensive quantities, these relations are constitutive with intensive quantities. One consequence is that factors, which are theorized as marginal with extensive quantities, are conceptually central in intensive contexts, and may need to be recognized in developmental models. Two such factors, termed variable salience and relational focus, are examined here, via a study where 963 Scottish children aged 7-12 years were asked to solve 42 intensive quantity problems in comparison and missing value format. Reasoning improved with age, but at all ages it was strongly influenced by variable salience and relational focus. Moreover, the manner in which these two factors interacted with other factors differed from what might be expected from models of proportional reasoning with extensive quantities. Based upon these results, it is argued that the distinction between extensive and intensive quantities is theoretically significant, and intensive quantities need to be granted more attention in the future. PMID:20481390

  7. HIGH-PRESSURE PHYSICS. Direct observation of an abrupt insulator-to-metal transition in dense liquid deuterium.

    PubMed

    Knudson, M D; Desjarlais, M P; Becker, A; Lemke, R W; Cochrane, K R; Savage, M E; Bliss, D E; Mattsson, T R; Redmer, R

    2015-06-26

    Eighty years ago, it was proposed that solid hydrogen would become metallic at sufficiently high density. Despite numerous investigations, this transition has not yet been experimentally observed. More recently, there has been much interest in the analog of this predicted metallic transition in the dense liquid, due to its relevance to planetary science. Here, we show direct observation of an abrupt insulator-to-metal transition in dense liquid deuterium. Experimental determination of the location of this transition provides a much-needed benchmark for theory and may constrain the region of hydrogen-helium immiscibility and the boundary-layer pressure in standard models of the internal structure of gas-giant planets. PMID:26113719

  8. Simultaneous conjugate observations of small-scale structures in Saturn's dayside ultraviolet auroras: Implications for physical origins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meredith, C. J.; Cowley, S. W. H.; Hansen, K. C.; Nichols, J. D.; Yeoman, T. K.

    2013-05-01

    Small-scale features in Saturn's dayside UV auroras are examined using images obtained on 32 Hubble Space Telescope visits close to Saturn equinox when both northern and southern emissions were simultaneously observed, allowing their interhemispheric conjugacy to be investigated. Eastward-propagating patches in the dawn-to-noon sector were observed on ~70% of visits, which when present were nearly always observed both north and south. The patches were generally not closely conjugate, however, but typically displaced in local time by ~0.5-1 h, with maxima in one hemisphere falling near minima in the other. Averaged angular velocities were ~80% of rigid corotation, larger than plasma angular velocities reported in the outer magnetosphere to which the emissions are likely conjugate. We suggest the patches are associated with field-aligned currents of eastward-propagating ULF waves, specifically second harmonic Alfvén resonances with typical azimuthal wave numbers m ≈ 20 and plasma rest frame periods ~80 min, plausibly driven by drift-bounce resonance with hot magnetospheric water ions. Transient dusk sector emissions of ~10-30 min duration were also observed on ~40% of visits, and found to be strictly nonconjugate, with enhancements in one hemisphere, north or south, being unaccompanied by enhancements in the other. We suggest an association with open flux tubes, and discuss one scenario where hemispheric symmetry is broken on newly opened flux tubes via the interplanetary magnetic field Y component, plausibly consistent with nonconjugate events north and south, preferential postnoon occurrence, and time scales of a few tens of minutes, though the expected relationship with the Y component remains to be established.

  9. Atmospheric coupling of Tsunami: observations from Tohoku and impact on tsunami physical properties and phase/group velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lognonne, P. H.; Kherani, E. A.; Coisson, P.; Astafyeva, E.; Occhipinti, G.; Rolland, L. M.; Yahagi, T.; Khelfi, K.; Sladen, A.; Hebert, H.; Makela, J. J.

    2012-12-01

    Tsunamis, through a dynamic coupling between the ocean and atmosphere, are generating atmospheric waves, detected in the ionosphere for tsunamis with amplitudes as much as 1 cm in the open ocean. Signals associated to the Tohoku tsunami have therefore been observed with huge signal to noise ratio, not only over Japan, but all over the Pacific, up to Chili. These signals have been moreover modelled, not only for the Total Electronic Contents perturbation signals, but also of the airglow detected for the first time over Hawaii and for the magnetic perturbations detected in Japan. We present in this paper the two sides of this coupling. The first side resumes the different observations and modelling of the Tohoku ionospheric signals observed by GEONET, by the GSI magnetic network and by Airglow cameras in Hawaii and Chili. Comparison between data and modelling are shown. The second side present the effects of the atmospheric coupling on the tsunami properties, i.e. amplitudes, phase/group velocities and excitation coefficients. By taking into account the coupling of tsunami with both the solid Earth and atmosphere, we show that specific resonances between the ocean and the atmosphere exist, enabling to understand the large and peaked signal spectrum. Local Time and geographical variations of this coupling is studied, as well as its dependence with the ocean depth. The impacts of atmospheric coupling on the propagation travel time of tsunamis is finally presented and discussed.

  10. Observation and manipulation of subsurface hydride in Pd{111} and its effect on surface chemical, physical, and electronic properties

    PubMed Central

    Sykes, E. Charles H.; Fernández-Torres, Luis C.; Nanayakkara, Sanjini U.; Mantooth, Brent A.; Nevin, Ryan M.; Weiss, Paul S.

    2005-01-01

    We report the observation and manipulation of hydrogen atoms beneath the surface of a Pd{111} crystal by using low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy. These subsurface hydride sites have been postulated to have critical roles in hydrogen storage, metal embrittlement, fuel cells, and catalytic reactions, but they have been neither observed directly nor selectively populated previously. We demonstrate that the subsurface region of Pd can be populated with hydrogen atoms from the bulk by applying voltage pulses from a scanning tunneling microscope tip. This phenomenon is explained with an inelastic excitation mechanism, whereby hydrogen atoms in the bulk are excited by tunneling electrons and are promoted to more stable sites in the subsurface region. We show that this selectively placed subsurface hydride affects the electronic, geometric, and chemical properties of the surface. Specifically, we observed the effects of hydride formation on surface deformation and charge and on adsorbed hydrogen on the surface. Hydrogen segregation and overlayer vacancy ordering on the Pd{111} have been characterized and explained in terms of the surface changes attributable to selective hydrogen occupation of subsurface hydride sites in Pd{111}. PMID:16322103

  11. Observation and manipulation of subsurface hydride in Pd[111] and its effect on surface chemical, physical, and electronic properties.

    PubMed

    Sykes, E Charles H; Fernández-Torres, Luis C; Nanayakkara, Sanjini U; Mantooth, Brent A; Nevin, Ryan M; Weiss, Paul S

    2005-12-13

    We report the observation and manipulation of hydrogen atoms beneath the surface of a Pd[111] crystal by using low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy. These subsurface hydride sites have been postulated to have critical roles in hydrogen storage, metal embrittlement, fuel cells, and catalytic reactions, but they have been neither observed directly nor selectively populated previously. We demonstrate that the subsurface region of Pd can be populated with hydrogen atoms from the bulk by applying voltage pulses from a scanning tunneling microscope tip. This phenomenon is explained with an inelastic excitation mechanism, whereby hydrogen atoms in the bulk are excited by tunneling electrons and are promoted to more stable sites in the subsurface region. We show that this selectively placed subsurface hydride affects the electronic, geometric, and chemical properties of the surface. Specifically, we observed the effects of hydride formation on surface deformation and charge and on adsorbed hydrogen on the surface. Hydrogen segregation and overlayer vacancy ordering on the Pd[111] have been characterized and explained in terms of the surface changes attributable to selective hydrogen occupation of subsurface hydride sites in Pd[111]. PMID:16322103

  12. Using Observational Data to Inform Physically Based Models of Subsurface Thermal Hydrology Properties and Active Layer Thickness at the Barrow Environmental Observatory, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atchley, A. L.; Harp, D. R.; Painter, S. L.; Coon, E.; Wilson, C. J.; Romanovsky, V. E.; Liljedahl, A.

    2014-12-01

    Climate change is profoundly impacting permafrost regions and reshaping carbon rich tundra ecosystems from carbon sinks to potential carbon sources triggering a positive feedback to climate change. The annual maximum depth of ice-free soil with above 0°C temperatures, which is known as the active-layer thickness (ALT), determines the volume of carbon-rich stores available for decomposition and therefore potential greenhouse gas release into the atmosphere. Despite the increased vulnerability of permafrost regions to climate change, predictive tools and precise parameterization of physical characteristics to estimate projected ALT in tundra ecosystems have been developed slowly and often are not adequately representing natural systems due to the complex nature of corresponding atmospheric-surface-subsurface hydrological and energy interactions undergoing freeze-thaw dynamics. A model-observation-experiment process (ModEx) is employed to generate three 1D models representing characteristic micro-topographical land-formations, which are capable of simulating present ALT from current climate conditions. Observational soil temperature data from a tundra site located near Barrow, AK is used to calibrate thermal properties of moss, peat, and sandy loam soil to be used in the multiphysics Arctic Terrestrial Simulator (ATS) models. In the process of calibration and model formulation key physical processes and appropriate model parameters are identified, which showcases the importance of correctly representing physical processes and reformulating models based on observational data. Iterative execution of the ModEx concept identified key processes that control thermal propagation into the subsurface: 1) physical representation of thermal conduction, 2) liquid, ice, and gas partitioning in the subsurface, 3) snowpack distribution and dynamics, and 4) precipitation delivery of water to the surface/subsurface. This work was supported by LANL Laboratory Directed Research and Development Project LDRD201200068DR and by the The Next-Generation Ecosystem Experiments (NGEE Arctic) project. NGEE-Arctic is supported by the Office of Biological and Environmental Research in the DOE Office of Science.

  13. Physical and biogeochemical observations of the Ross Sea polynya using Seagliders during the 2010-2011 austral spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Queste, B. Y.; Smith, W. O., Jr.; Asper, V. L.; Lee, C. M.; Dinniman, M. S.; Gobat, J. I.; Heywood, K. J.

    2012-04-01

    The Antarctic is critical in regulating the global marine carbon cycle through its interactions with the atmosphere and its export of deep water. In particular, the Ross Sea is known to be one of the most productive regions of the Southern Ocean, partly due to the persistent large areas of open water, or polynyas, present there. It has been suggested that it is responsible for 28% of the total flux of atmospheric CO2 and thus has a dominant role in global carbon sequestration. The polynyas remain largely under-sampled due to the challenges caused by sea-ice and weather conditions. From November 2010 to February 2011, two Seagliders were deployed in the Ross polynya to observe the initiation and evolution of the spring bloom. Seagliders were a novel and effective tool to bypass the sampling difficulties at a fraction of the cost and inconvenience. Equipped with fluorometers, oxygen sensors, CTDs, and the ability to estimate current speeds, the gliders were able to obtain data in the polynya before access was possible by oceanographic vessels. Observations were also obtained along a 40 km transect under pack ice and during a 2 day excursion under the ice shelf. We present observations of phytoplankton dynamics, export of organic matter and related fluctuations in dissolved oxygen concentrations during the spring bloom in the polynya. A bloom was first observed at the end of November in the McMurdo polynya whilst a much larger diatom bloom began the second week of December in the Ross polynya. A second bloom then started the second week of January with a different planktonic composition at the same location. A small decrease in dissolved oxygen saturation was present as this organic matter was exported. Alongside these data, we show hydrographic sections under the sea ice and the ice shelf. Oceanographic features identified by the Seagliders include mesoscale fronts and eddies. A thermocline formed gradually deepening to about 50m as the sea-ice melted. Strong vertical mixing was observed injecting warm fresh water down to 400m and carrying phytoplankton as far down as 200m. The high spatial and temporal sampling frequency of Seagliders is compared with what would have been obtained using conventional ship-based surveys, highlighting the importance of scale in oceanographic surveys.

  14. Relations between physical properties of local and global image-based elements and the performance of human observers in lung nodule detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietrzyk, Mariusz W.; Manning, David J.; Dix, Alan; Donovan, Tim

    2008-03-01

    Aim: The study aims to help our understanding of the relationship between physical characteristics of local and global image features and the location of visual attention by observers. Background: Neurological visual pathways are specified at least in part by particular spatial frequency ranges at different orientations. High spatial frequencies, which carry the information of local perturbations like edges, are assembled mainly by foveal vision, whereas peripheral vision provides more global information coded by low frequencies. Recent visual-search studies in mammography (C Mello-Thoms et al) have shown that observers allocate visual attention to regions of the image depending on; i) spatial frequency characteristics of regions that capture attention and ii) the level of experience of the observer. Both aspects are considered in this study. Methods: A spatial frequency analysis of postero-anterior (PA) chest images containing pulmonary nodules has been performed by wavelet packet transforms at different scales. This image analysis has provided regional physical information over the whole image field on locations both with nodules present and nodules absent. The relationship between such properties as spatial frequency, orientation, scales, contrast, and phase of localised perturbations has been compared with eye-tracked search strategies and decision performance of observers with different levels of expertise. Results: The work is in progress and the results of this initial stage of the project will be presented with a critical appraisal of the methods used.

  15. Losing Sleep over It: Daily Variation in Sleep Quantity and Quality in Canadian Students' First Semester of University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galambos, Nancy L.; Dalton, Andrea L.; Maggs, Jennifer L.

    2009-01-01

    Daily covariation of sleep quantity and quality with affective, stressful, academic, and social experiences were observed in a sample of Canadian 17-19-year-olds in their first year of university. Participants (N = 191) completed web-based checklists for 14 consecutive days during their first semester. Multilevel models predicting sleep quantity

  16. Higher Education in Kenya: The Rising Tension between Quantity and Quality in the Post-Massification Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owuor, Nickanor Amwata

    2012-01-01

    This paper was designed to be an empirical study, looking at the disparity between quantity and quality in higher education in Kenya. To enable a systematic look at quality and quantity within context, a combination of approaches: case study, Delphi technique, observation and interviews were adopted for the purpose of this study. The research…

  17. Seasonal Variations in Physical Characteristics of the South Australian Shelf Waters -Results from the Southern Australian Integrated Marine Observing System (SAIMOS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, C.; Luick, J.; Leterme, S. C.; Middleton, J.; Seuront, L.

    2009-04-01

    The Southern Australia Integrated Marine Observing System, or SAIMOS, is one of five nodes operating as part of the Australia-wide Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS). This is a collaborative program designed to observe Australia's oceans, both coastal and blue-water. Since February 2008 Physical Data has been collected for SAIMOS in both summer and winter months during 8 surveys. The data collected during summer are used to characterise the nature and dynamics of the Kangaroo Island-Eyre Peninsula upwelling system during a record upwelling event in February 2008. During this event a plume of very cool water was observed along the bottom from South of KI to the Eyre Peninsula. This plume dissipated rapidly after the end of upwelling favourable winds and by March 2008 had disappeared entirely from the observations. The data are also used to study the dense high salinity outflow from Spencer Gulf observed during the winter months. The dense plume result from surface cooling of high salinity waters at the head of Spencer Gulf. One striking result of these observations is that the outflow occurs during a series of strong pulses with a period of approximately 2 weeks and duration of 1-3 days. During these pulses bottom velocities at 100 m can exceed 1 m/s.

  18. Measuring self-regulation in a physically active context: Psychometric analyses of scores derived from an observer-rated measure of self-regulation

    PubMed Central

    Lakes, Kimberley D.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to report psychometric properties of scores obtained using a novel observer-rated measure of children’s self-regulation, the Response to Challenge Scale (RCS). The RCS was developed to rate children’s self-regulatory abilities in a physically active context (e.g., while completing a physical challenge course). The RCS and other study measures were administered in a private school sample of 207 children. Analyses of score distributions indicated that the RCS was able to capture variance among children in self-regulatory abilities; the distribution was normal for the Affective, Cognitive, and Total Self-Regulation scales. Validity analyses revealed significant positive correlations between Cognitive, Affective, Motor, and Total Self-Regulation and executive function task performance; significant negative correlations between Cognitive Regulation and teacher-rated hyperactivity and inattention; significant negative correlations between Affective, Motor, and Total Self-Regulation and teacher ratings of peer problems; and significant positive correlations between Cognitive and Affective Regulation and parent ratings of prosocial behavior. Parent and teacher rated Total Difficulties scores were both negatively correlated with RCS Total Self-Regulation scores. Results suggest that it is possible for observers to rate self-regulatory abilities in the context of physical activities, and that these ratings correspond with performance on tasks requiring executive function as well as teacher and parent ratings of children’s difficulties. PMID:25750662

  19. Evaluation of Cloud Physical Properties of ECMWF Analysis and Re-Analysis (ERA-40 and ERA Interim) against CERES Tropical Deep Convective Cloud Object Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Kuan-Man

    2008-01-01

    This study presents an approach that converts the vertical profiles of grid-averaged cloud properties from large-scale models to probability density functions (pdfs) of subgrid-cell cloud physical properties measured at satellite footprints. Cloud physical and radiative properties, rather than just cloud and precipitation occurrences, of assimilated cloud systems by the European Center for Medium-range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) operational analysis (EOA) and ECMWF Re-Analyses (ERA-40 and ERA Interim) are validated against those obtained from Earth Observing System satellite cloud object data for January-August 1998 and March 2000 periods. These properties include ice water path (IWP), cloud-top height and temperature, cloud optical depth and solar and infrared radiative fluxes. Each cloud object, a contiguous region with similar cloud physical properties, is temporally and spatially matched with EOA and ERA-40 data. Results indicate that most pdfs of EOA and ERA-40 cloud physical and radiative properties agree with those of satellite observations of the tropical deep convective cloud-object type for the January-August 1998 period. There are, however, significant discrepancies in selected ranges of the cloud property pdfs such as the upper range of EOA cloud top height. A major discrepancy is that the dependence of the pdfs on the cloud object size for both EOA and ERA-40 is not as strong as in the observations. Modifications to the cloud parameterization in ECMWF that occurred in October 1999 eliminate the clouds near the tropopause but shift power of the pdf to lower cloud-top heights and greatly reduce the ranges of IWP and cloud optical depth pdfs. These features persist in ERA-40 due to the use of the same cloud parameterizations. The downgrade of data assimilation technique and the lack of snow water content information in ERA-40, not the coarser horizontal grid resolution, are also responsible for the disagreements with observed pdfs of cloud physical properties although the detection rates of cloud object occurrence are improved for small size categories. A possible improvement to the convective parameterization is to introduce a stronger dependence of updraft penetration heights with grid-cell dynamics. These conclusions will be rechecked using the ERA Interim data, due to recent changes in the ECMWF convective parameterization (Bechtold et al. 2004, 2008). Results from the ERA Interim will be presented at the meeting.

  20. Feasibility of a nuclear gauge for fuel quantity measurement aboard aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Signh, J. J.; Mall, G. H.; Sprinkle, D. R.; Chegini, H.

    1986-01-01

    Capacitance fuel gauges have served as the basis for fuel quantity indicating systems in aircraft for several decades. However, there have been persistent reports by the airlines that these gauges often give faulty indications due to microbial growth and other contaminants in the fuel tanks. This report describes the results of a feasibility study of using gamma ray attenuation as the basis for measuring fuel quantity in the tanks. Studies with a weak Am-241 59.5-keV radiation source indicate that it is possible to continuously monitor the fuel quantity in the tanks to an accuracy of better than 1 percent. These measurements also indicate that there are easily measurable differences in the physical properties and resultant attenuation characteristics of JP-4, JP-5, and Jet A fuels. The experimental results, along with a suggested source-detector geometrical configuration are described.