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1

Measurements, Physical Quantities, and Units.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains the significance of the mole as a unit of measure by showing the relationship between physical quantities and their mathematical representations. Offers a summary of the principles of metrology that make creation of physical quantities and units seem reasonable. A table of base physical quantities and units is included. (RT)

Wilson, Laurence E.

1988-01-01

2

A state estimation method with matching between a physical energy quantity and a decibel scaled noisy observation for a sound environmental system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A state estimation method for an energy stochastic system with a decibel observation mechanism is presented. The problem is to get a decibel-valued estimate of an energy state variable by using the decibel-valued noisy observation data, where the stochastic system of concern is physically driven on energy scale. The main attention is paid to matching between the physical energy principle

E. Uchino; M. Ohta; K. Hatakeyama

1992-01-01

3

Substance-like physical quantities in special relativity  

E-print Network

Handling substance-like physical quantities in the limits of special relativity theory we should make a net distinction between those which present a proper (rest) magnitude and those which have not. We show how the theory relates them via relativistic transformation equations.

Bernhard Rothenstein

2005-05-26

4

WHAT PHYSICAL QUANTITIES MAKE SENSE IN NONEQUILIBRIUM STATISTICAL MECHANICS?  

E-print Network

WHAT PHYSICAL QUANTITIES MAKE SENSE IN NONEQUILIBRIUM STATISTICAL MECHANICS? by David Ruelle*. Abstract. Statistical mechanics away from equilibrium is in a formative stage, where general concepts: ruelle@ihes.fr 1 #12; 1 Introduction. Statistical mechanics, as seen by Boltzmann, is an attempt

Ruelle, David

5

WHAT PHYSICAL QUANTITIES MAKE SENSE IN NONEQUILIBRIUM STATISTICAL MECHANICS?  

E-print Network

WHAT PHYSICAL QUANTITIES MAKE SENSE IN NONEQUILIBRIUM STATISTICAL MECHANICS? by David Ruelle*. Abstract. Statistical mechanics away from equilibrium is in a formative stage, where general concepts;1 Introduction. Statistical mechanics, as seen by Boltzmann, is an attempt to understand the bulk properties

Ruelle, David

6

Eight types of symmetrically distinct vectorlike physical quantities.  

PubMed

The Letter draws the attention to the spatiotemporal symmetry of various vectorlike physical quantities. The symmetry is specified by their invariance under the action of symmetry operations of the nonrelativistic space-time rotation group O(3)×(1,1') = O'(3), where 1' is a time-reversal operation, the symbol × stands for the group direct product, and O(3) is a group of proper and improper rotations. It is argued that along with the canonical polar vector, there are another seven symmetrically distinct classes of stationary physical quantities, which can be--and often are--denoted as standard three-component vectors, even though they do not transform as a static polar vector under all operations of O'(3). The octet of symmetrically distinct "directional quantities" can be exemplified by two kinds of polar vectors (electric dipole moment P and magnetic toroidal moment T), two kinds of axial vectors (magnetization M and electric toroidal moment G), two kinds of chiral "bidirectors" C and F (associated with the so-called true and false chirality, respectively) and still another two bidirectors N and L, achiral ones, transforming as the nematic liquid crystal order parameter and as the antiferromagnetic order parameter of the hematite crystal ?-Fe(2)O(3), respectively. PMID:25361266

Hlinka, J

2014-10-17

7

Eight Types of Symmetrically Distinct Vectorlike Physical Quantities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Letter draws the attention to the spatiotemporal symmetry of various vectorlike physical quantities. The symmetry is specified by their invariance under the action of symmetry operations of the nonrelativistic space-time rotation group O(3)×{1,1'}=O'(3), where 1' is a time-reversal operation, the symbol×stands for the group direct product, and O(3) is a group of proper and improper rotations. It is argued that along with the canonical polar vector, there are another seven symmetrically distinct classes of stationary physical quantities, which can be—and often are—denoted as standard three-component vectors, even though they do not transform as a static polar vector under all operations of O'(3). The octet of symmetrically distinct "directional quantities" can be exemplified by two kinds of polar vectors (electric dipole moment P and magnetic toroidal moment T), two kinds of axial vectors (magnetization M and electric toroidal moment G), two kinds of chiral "bidirectors" C and F (associated with the so-called true and false chirality, respectively) and still another two bidirectors N and L, achiral ones, transforming as the nematic liquid crystal order parameter and as the antiferromagnetic order parameter of the hematite crystal ?-Fe2O3, respectively.

Hlinka, J.

2014-10-01

8

Reconstruction of the fields of physical quantities in RBMK  

SciTech Connect

The authors propose a new approach to the determination the fields of physical quantities in RBMK and the correction. of starting data for the neutron-physical calculation. The neutron flux density field is reconstructed by fitting the computed data to the indications of the intrareactor monitoring sensors. The macroconstants in the neutron-physical calculation are then corrected in order to decrease the methodical error of the calculation to a level determined by the model used. The proposed algorithm can be used as a supplement to the existing algorithm in the centralized control system. It can be used to calibrate separate sensors, determine the temperature fields and reconstruct the energy-release and neutron flux fields with very high accuracy.

Zhitnov, A.D.; Nikitin, V.D.; Shaposhnikov, V.P.; Sirotkin, A.P.

1986-01-01

9

"Physical quantity" and " Physical reality" in Quantum Mechanics: an epistemological path  

E-print Network

We reconsider briefly the relation between "physical quantity" and "physical reality in the light of recent interpretations of Quantum Mechanics. We argue, that these interpretations are conditioned from the epistemological relation between these two fundamental concepts. In detail, the choice as ontic level of the concept affect, the relative interpretation. We note, for instance, that the informational view of quantum mechanics (primacy of the subjectivity) is due mainly to the evidence of the "random" physical quantities as ontic element. We will analyze four positions: Einstein, Rovelli, d'Espagnat and Zeilinger.

David Vernette; Michele Caponigro

2006-12-05

10

Lecture Demonstrations in Modern Physics: Quality vs. Quantity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In a study conducted in modern physics courses, our investigation shows that inappropriate and an excessive number of demonstrations can lead to ineffective results. We carefully observed and recorded the activities done in all lectures in two modern physics classes throughout a quarter and analyzed students' responses to the end of the quarter questionnaires. We found a significant number of students did not recall many of the in-class demonstrations and were confused about the results of different demonstrations they had seen in lectures. In this paper, we will explore the possible reasons for this outcome and discuss implications for instructors who use demonstrations in lectures.

Sadaghiani, Homeyra R.; Bao, Lei

2005-10-20

11

Physical observability of horizons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Event horizons are (generically) not physically observable. In contrast, apparent horizons (and the closely related trapping horizons) are generically physically observable—in the sense that they can be detected by observers working in finite-size regions of spacetime. Consequently event horizons are inappropriate tools for defining astrophysical black holes, or indeed for defining any notion of an evolving black hole (evolving either due to accretion or Hawking radiation). The only situation in which an event horizon becomes physically observable is for the very highly idealized stationary or static black holes, when the event horizon is a Killing horizon which is degenerate with the apparent and trapping horizons, and then it is the physical observability of the apparent/trapping horizons that is fundamental—the event horizon merely comes along for the ride.

Visser, Matt

2014-12-01

12

Heisenberg uncertainty principle and economic analogues of basic physical quantities  

E-print Network

From positions, attained by modern theoretical physics in understanding of the universe bases, the methodological and philosophical analysis of fundamental physical concepts and their formal and informal connections with the real economic measurings is carried out. Procedures for heterogeneous economic time determination, normalized economic coordinates and economic mass are offered, based on the analysis of time series, the concept of economic Plank's constant has been proposed. The theory has been approved on the real economic dynamic's time series, including stock indices, Forex and spot prices, the achieved results are open for discussion.

Vladimir Soloviev; Vladimir Saptsin

2011-11-10

13

Calculation of ex-core physical quantities using the 3D importance functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diverse physical quantities are calculated in engineering studies with penalizing hypotheses to assure the required operation margins for each reactor. Today, these physical quantities are obtained by direct calculations from deterministic or Monte Carlo codes. The related states are critical or sub-critical. The current physical quantities are for example: the SRD counting rates (source range detector) in the sub-critical state, the IRD (intermediary range detector) and PRD (power range detector) counting rates (neutron particles only), the deposited energy in the reflector (neutron + photon particles), the fluence or the DPA (displacement per atom) in the reactor vessel (neutron particles only). The reliability of the proposed methodology is tested in the EPR reactor. The main advantage of the new methodology is the simplicity to obtain the physical quantities by an easy matrix calculation importance linked to nuclear power sources for all the cycles of the reactor. This method also allows to by-pass the direct calculations of the physical quantity of irradiated cores by Monte Carlo Codes, these calculations being impossible today (too many isotopic concentrations / MCNP5 limit). This paper presents the first feasibility study for the physical quantities calculation outside of the core by the importance method instead of the direct calculations used currently by AREVA.

Trakas, Christos; De Laubiere, Xavier

2014-06-01

14

W, F, and I : Three quantities basic to radiation physics.  

SciTech Connect

The W value is an index of the mean number of ions produced in a gas subjected to ionizing radiation. Formally, it is defined as the radiation energy absorbed (usually expressed in units of eV) ''per ion pair of either sign produced'', or, in a simpler language, ''per electron liberated''. The basic knowledge up to 1961 is eloquently articulated in a classic essay by Platzman [1], which Professor Doke loves to cite. The theme of Platzman was to explain from the point of view of basic physics the magnitude and characteristics of the ratio W/I, where I is the (first) ionization threshold energy. In summary, major characteristics are as follows. (1) The W value for a given gas depends weakly on the properties of the radiation such as the mass and charge of particles or initial energies (provided they are sufficiently high). This makes the ionization measurement useful as a method of dosimetry, viz., the determination of the absorbed energy. (2) The ratio W/I is always greater than unity because a part of the absorbed energy must be used in nonionizing events such as discrete excitation or molecular dissociation into neutral fragments and also in producing subexcitation electrons, viz., electrons with kinetic energies too low to cause electronic excitation or ionization [2]. (3) The ratio W/I is 1.7-1.8 for rare gases, and 2.1-2.6 for gases of common molecules (depending on the electronic structure, going from ''hard'' to ''soft''). Calculation of the W value is possible from three approaches: (i) the energy balance of Platzman, heuristic for general understanding and appropriate for an estimate; (ii) the Fowler equation [3] for the direct evaluation of the mean number of ions produced; and (iii) the method of Spencer and Fano [4] through the degradation spectra (or the track length distributions) of charged particles, most importantly of electrons, present in the medium. The Fowler method is good for obtaining the mean number of ions or excited states resulting from the incidence of particles of relatively low energies, while the Spencer-Fano method is good for the incidence of high-energy particles.

Inokuti, M.

1998-11-11

15

Interaction between Truth and Belief as the key to entropy and other quantities of statistical physics  

E-print Network

The notion of entropy penetrates much of science. A key feature of the all-important notion of Boltzmann-Gibbs-Shannon entropy is its extensivity (additivity over independent subsystems). However, there is a need for other quantities. In statistical physics a parameterized family of non-extensive entropy measures, now mainly known under the name of Tsallis-entropies, have received much attention but also been met with criticism due mainly to a lack of convincing interpretations. Based on the hypothesis that interaction between Truth, held by ``Nature'', and Belief, as expressed by man, may take place, classical- as well as non-classical measures of entropy and other essential quantities are derived. The approach aims at providing a genuine interpretation, rather than relying either on analogies based on formal mathematical manipulations or else - more fruitfully, but not satisfactory - on axiomatic characterizations.

Flemming Topsoe

2008-07-27

16

A Systematic Review of Mapping Strategies for the Sonification of Physical Quantities  

PubMed Central

The field of sonification has progressed greatly over the past twenty years and currently constitutes an established area of research. This article aims at exploiting and organizing the knowledge accumulated in previous experimental studies to build a foundation for future sonification works. A systematic review of these studies may reveal trends in sonification design, and therefore support the development of design guidelines. To this end, we have reviewed and analyzed 179 scientific publications related to sonification of physical quantities. Using a bottom-up approach, we set up a list of conceptual dimensions belonging to both physical and auditory domains. Mappings used in the reviewed works were identified, forming a database of 495 entries. Frequency of use was analyzed among these conceptual dimensions as well as higher-level categories. Results confirm two hypotheses formulated in a preliminary study: pitch is by far the most used auditory dimension in sonification applications, and spatial auditory dimensions are almost exclusively used to sonify kinematic quantities. To detect successful as well as unsuccessful sonification strategies, assessment of mapping efficiency conducted in the reviewed works was considered. Results show that a proper evaluation of sonification mappings is performed only in a marginal proportion of publications. Additional aspects of the publication database were investigated: historical distribution of sonification works is presented, projects are classified according to their primary function, and the sonic material used in the auditory display is discussed. Finally, a mapping-based approach for characterizing sonification is proposed. PMID:24358192

Dubus, Gaël; Bresin, Roberto

2013-01-01

17

Transverse geometry and physical observers  

E-print Network

It is proposed that the mathematical formalism that is most appropriate for the study of spatially non-integrable cosmological models is the transverse geometry of a one-dimensional foliation (congruence) defined by a physical observer. By that means, one can discuss the geometry of space, as viewed by that observer, without the necessity of introducing a complementary sub-bundle to the line bundle of the observer or a codimension-one foliation transverse to the foliation of the observer. The concept of groups of transverse isometries acting on such a spacetime and the relationship of transverse geometry to spacetime threadings (1+3 decompositions) is also discussed.

David Delphenich

2007-11-13

18

Physics 343 Observational Radio Astronomy  

E-print Network

Physics 343 Observational Radio Astronomy course number = 01:750:343 web page = http will be on reserve in SERC, and an online "Essential Radio Astronomy" course taught at the University of Virginia, or programs that you write yourself. #12; Course meetings Lectures: Serin 401, once a week, M 10

Baker, Andrew J.

19

Physics 343 Observational Radio Astronomy  

E-print Network

Physics 343 Observational Radio Astronomy course number = 01:750:343 web page = http Radio Astronomy" course taught at the University of Virginia is linked from our main web page. Pre do numbercrunching with Excel or programs that you write. #12; Course meetings Lectures: Serin

Baker, Andrew J.

20

Evidence for direct retrieval of relative quantity information in a quantity judgment task: Decimals, integers, and the role of physical similarity  

PubMed Central

Participants' reaction times in numerical judgment tasks in which one must determine which of two numbers are greater generally follow a monotonically decreasing function of the numerical distance between the two presented numbers. Here, I present three experiments that assess the relative influences of numerical distance and physical similarity in just such a task using integers and decimals as stimuli. The data reveal that numerical distance is the primary feature controlling participants' RTs when integers are presented. However, the physical similarity between the decade place of the standard and the probe is the primary feature controlling participants' RTs when decimals are presented. I conclude that the unique qualities of decimals do not lend themselves to share the place coding representation of integers, thus a direct retrieval mechanism for judging the relative quantity of decimals has developed. PMID:20804282

Cohen, Dale J.

2010-01-01

21

Nature of the Physical Observer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nature of the observer has long plagued physical science. Here we review the current status of cognitive science in the context of a cosmology of mind in an Anthropic Multiverse. The concept of an élan vital or life force has long been considered the elementary action principle driving the evolution of living-systems by theologically minded scientists and individuals. Sufficiently extending Einstein's original model of a Static Universe, to a Holographic Anthropic Multiverse (HAM), provides a context for solving this centuries old problem for introducing this type of teleological principle into Physics, Biology, Medicine and Psychology. This means the contemporary framework of biological mechanism should no longer be considered the formal philosophical basis for describing living systems and contemporary allopathic (scientific) medicine. The new noetic action principle has far reaching implications for medicine and transpersonal psychology.

Osoroma, Drahcir S.

2010-12-01

22

A wireless interrogation system exploiting narrowband acoustic resonator for remote physical quantity measurement  

SciTech Connect

Monitoring physical quantities using acoustic wave devices can be advantageously achieved using the wave characteristic dependence to various parametric perturbations (temperature, stress, and pressure). Surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonators are particularly well suited to such applications as their resonance frequency is directly influenced by these perturbations, modifying both the phase velocity and resonance conditions. Moreover, the intrinsic radio frequency (rf) nature of these devices makes them ideal for wireless applications, mainly exploiting antennas reciprocity and piezoelectric reversibility. In this paper, we present a wireless SAW sensor interrogation unit operating in the 434 MHz centered ISM band--selected as a tradeoff between antenna dimensions and electromagnetic wave penetration in dielectric media--based on the principles of a frequency sweep network analyzer. We particularly focus on the compliance with the ISM standard which reveals complicated by the need for switching from emission to reception modes similarly to radar operation. In this matter, we propose a fully digital rf synthesis chain to develop various interrogation strategies to overcome the corresponding difficulties and comply with the above-mentioned standard. We finally assess the reader interrogation range, accuracy, and dynamics.

Friedt, J.-M [SENSeOR, 32 Avenue de l'Observatoire, 25044 Besancon (France); Droit, C.; Martin, G.; Ballandras, S. [Department of Time and Frequency, FEMTO-ST, 32 Avenue de l'Observatoire, 25044 Besancon (France)

2010-01-15

23

A wireless interrogation system exploiting narrowband acoustic resonator for remote physical quantity measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monitoring physical quantities using acoustic wave devices can be advantageously achieved using the wave characteristic dependence to various parametric perturbations (temperature, stress, and pressure). Surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonators are particularly well suited to such applications as their resonance frequency is directly influenced by these perturbations, modifying both the phase velocity and resonance conditions. Moreover, the intrinsic radio frequency (rf) nature of these devices makes them ideal for wireless applications, mainly exploiting antennas reciprocity and piezoelectric reversibility. In this paper, we present a wireless SAW sensor interrogation unit operating in the 434 MHz centered ISM band—selected as a tradeoff between antenna dimensions and electromagnetic wave penetration in dielectric media—based on the principles of a frequency sweep network analyzer. We particularly focus on the compliance with the ISM standard which reveals complicated by the need for switching from emission to reception modes similarly to radar operation. In this matter, we propose a fully digital rf synthesis chain to develop various interrogation strategies to overcome the corresponding difficulties and comply with the above-mentioned standard. We finally assess the reader interrogation range, accuracy, and dynamics.

Friedt, J.-M.; Droit, C.; Martin, G.; Ballandras, S.

2010-01-01

24

Abstract--The wireless measurement of various physical quantities from the analysis of the RADAR Cross Sections  

E-print Network

modulation of passive electromagnetic (EM) sensors and then remotely measured from FMCW RADAR interrogation and chipless sensors; millimeter-wave FMCW radar; radar cross section I. INTRODUCTION he wireless measurement of a physical quantity from the analysis of the RADAR Cross Section (RCS) variability of passive sensors

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

25

Observational physics of mirror world  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The existence of the whole world of shadow particles, interacting with each other and having no mutual interactions with ordinary particles except gravity is a specific feature of modern superstring models, being considered as models of the theory of everything. The presence of shadow particles is the necessary condition in the superstring models, providing compensation of the asymmetry of left and right chirality states of ordinary particles. If compactification of additional dimensions retains the symmetry of left and right states, shadow world turns to be the mirror one, with particles and fields having properties strictly symmetrical to the ones of corresponding ordinary particles and fields. Owing to the strict symmetry of physical laws for ordinary and mirror particles, the analysis of cosmological evolution of mirror matter provides rather definite conclusions on possible effects of mirror particles in the universe. A general qualitative discussion of possible astronomical impact of mirror matter is given, in order to make as wide as possible astronomical observational searches for the effects of mirror world, being the unique way to test the existence of mirror partners of ordinary particles in the Nature.

Khlopov, M. YA.; Beskin, G. M.; Bochkarev, N. E.; Pustilnik, L. A.; Pustilnik, S. A.

1989-01-01

26

Physically Observable Cryptography Silvio Micali # Leonid Reyzin +  

E-print Network

.) inherent in the physical execution of any cryptographic algorithm. Such ``physical observation attacks the physical execution of cryptographic algorithms. Our general model allows for a variety of adversaries­physical attack against a cryptographic algorithm A is one in which the adversary is given some access to (at

Reyzin, Leonid

27

Variational symmetries, conserved quantities and identities for several equations of mathematical physics  

SciTech Connect

We find variational symmetries, conserved quantities and identities for several equations: envelope equation, Böcher equation, the propagation of sound waves with losses, flow of a gas with losses, and the nonlinear Schrödinger equation with losses or gains, and an electro-magnetic interaction. Most of these equations do not have a variational description with the classical variational principle and we find such a description with the generalized variational principle of Herglotz.

Donchev, Veliko, E-mail: velikod@ie.bas.bg [Laboratory “Physical Problems of Electron and Ion Technologies,” Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72 Tzarigradsko shosse, 1784 Sofia (Bulgaria)] [Laboratory “Physical Problems of Electron and Ion Technologies,” Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72 Tzarigradsko shosse, 1784 Sofia (Bulgaria)

2014-03-15

28

Measuring the quality and quantity of professional intrapartum support: testing a computerised systematic observation tool in the clinical setting  

PubMed Central

Background Continuous support in labour has a significant impact on a range of clinical outcomes, though whether the quality and quantity of support behaviours affects the strength of this impact has not yet been established. To identify the quality and quantity of support, a reliable means of measurement is needed. To this end, a new computerised systematic observation tool, the ‘SMILI’ (Supportive Midwifery in Labour Instrument) was developed. The aim of the study was to test the validity and usability of the ‘Supportive Midwifery in Labour Instrument’ (SMILI) and to test the feasibility and acceptability of the systematic observation approach in the clinical intrapartum setting. Methods Systematic observation was combined with a postnatal questionnaire and the collection of data about clinical processes and outcomes for each observed labour. The setting for the study was four National Health Service maternity units in Scotland, UK. Participants in this study were forty five midwives and forty four women. The SMILI was used by trained midwife observers to record labour care provided by midwives. Observations were undertaken for an average of two hours and seventeen minutes during the active first stage of labour and, in 18 cases, the observation included the second stage of labour. Content validity of the instrument was tested by the observers, noting the extent to which the SMILI facilitated the recording of all key aspects of labour care and interactions. Construct validity was tested through exploration of correlations between the data recorded and women’s feelings about the support they received. Feasibility and usability data were recorded following each observation by the observer. Internal reliability and construct validity were tested through statistical analysis of the data. Results One hundred and four hours of labour care were observed and recorded using the SMILI during forty nine labour episodes. Conclusion The SMILI was found to be a valid and reliable instrument in the intrapartum setting in which it was tested. The study identified that the SMILI could be used to test correlations between the quantity and quality of support and outcomes. The systematic observational approach was found to be an acceptable and feasible method of enquiry. PMID:23945049

2013-01-01

29

A comparison of water vapor quantities from model short-range forecasts and ARM observations  

SciTech Connect

Model evolution and improvement is complicated by the lack of high quality observational data. To address a major limitation of these measurements the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program was formed. For the second quarter ARM metric we will make use of new water vapor data that has become available, and called the 'Merged-sounding' value added product (referred to as OBS, within the text) at three sites: the North Slope of Alaska (NSA), Darwin Australia (DAR) and the Southern Great Plains (SGP) and compare these observations to model forecast data. Two time periods will be analyzed March 2000 for the SGP and October 2004 for both DAR and NSA. The merged-sounding data have been interpolated to 37 pressure levels (e.g., from 1000hPa to 100hPa at 25hPa increments) and time averaged to 3 hourly data for direct comparison to our model output.

Hnilo, J J

2006-03-17

30

Near-Earth asteroids: Observer alert network and physical observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This project strives to obtain physical observations on newly discovered Near-Earth Objects (NEO's) in order to provide fundamental data needed to assess the resources available in the population. The goal is acquiring data on all objects brighter than magnitude V= 17.0. To accomplish this, an electronic mail alert and observer information service that informs observers around the world as to the status of physical observations on currently observable NEO's was established. Such data is also acquired ourselves through a cooperative program with European colleagues that uses telescopes on La Palma to obtain spectra of NEO's and through observations made from a local telescope on Tumamoc Hill. This latter telescope has the advantage that large amounts of observing time are available, so that whenever a new NEO's discovered, we can be assured of getting time to observe it.

Davis, Donald R.; Chapman, Clark R.

1992-01-01

31

(Astro)Physics 343 Observational Radio Astronomy  

E-print Network

(Astro)Physics 343 Observational Radio Astronomy astrophysics course number = 01 will be on reserve in the physics library, and an online "Essential Radio Astronomy" course taught at the University. Other: a scientific calculator; access to a computer that can do numbercrunching with Excel or programs

Baker, Andrew J.

32

Quantity and Quality of Physical Activity Are Influenced by Outdoor Temperature in People with Knee Osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Purpose: Environmental factors are known to influence physical activity (PA) levels of healthy people, but little work has explored these factors in people with osteoarthritis (OA). The purpose of this study was to explore the influence of outdoor temperature on PA in people with knee OA. Methods: A total of 38 people with knee OA (10 women; mean age 54 y) wore an accelerometer around their waist for 7 consecutive days. Dependent variables from the accelerometers were three PA measures: (1) activity counts/day and time spent at or above moderate levels of PA with (2) a cut-point of 1,041 activity counts/minute (MVPA1041) and (3) a cut-point of 1,952 activity counts/minute (MVPA1952). Independent variables were age, sex, body mass index (BMI), and maximum daily outdoor temperature. Three linear regression analyses were conducted using the three PA dependent variables and independent variables. Results: After controlling for age, sex, and BMI, maximum daily outdoor temperature explained 9% of the variance in activity counts/day (p=0.042), 10% of variance in MVPA1041 (p=0.032), and 14% of variance in MVPA1952 (p=0.016). Participants who engaged in more PA were younger and were exposed to warmer temperatures. Conclusions: Outdoor temperature and age influence the PA levels of people with knee OA. These factors should be considered when designing PA programmes. PMID:24403695

Jones, Gareth R.; Birmingham, Trevor B.; Maly, Monica R.

2013-01-01

33

Evidence for Direct Retrieval of Relative Quantity Information in a Quantity Judgment Task: Decimals, Integers, and the Role of Physical Similarity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Participants' reaction times (RTs) in numerical judgment tasks in which one must determine which of 2 numbers is greater generally follow a monotonically decreasing function of the numerical distance between the two presented numbers. Here, I present 3 experiments in which the relative influences of numerical distance and physical similarity are…

Cohen, Dale J.

2010-01-01

34

X ray timing observations and gravitational physics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Photon-rich x ray observations on bright compact galactic sources will make it possible to detect many fast processes that may occur in these systems on millisecond and submillisecond timescales. Many of these processes are of direct relevance to gravitational physics because they arise in regions of strong gravity near neutron stars and black holes where the dynamical timescales for compact objects of stellar mass are milliseconds. To date, such observations have been limited by the detector area and telemetry rates available. However, instruments such as the proposed X ray Large Array (XLA) would achieve collecting areas of about 100 sq m. This instrument has been described elsewhere (Wood and Michelson 1988) and was the subject of a recent prephase A feasibility study at Marshall Space Flight Center. Observations with an XLA class instrument will directly impact five primary areas of astrophysics research: the attempt to detect gravitational radiation, the study of black holes, the physics of mass accretion onto compact objects, the structure of neutron stars and nuclear matter, and the characterization of dark matter in the universe. Those observations are discussed that are most directly relevant to gravitational physics: the search for millisecond x ray pulsars that are potential sources of continuous gravitational radiation; and the use of x ray timing observations to probe the physical conditions in extreme relativistic regions of space near black holes, both stellar-sized and supermassive.

Michelson, Peter F.; Wood, Kent S.

1989-01-01

35

A topos foundation for theories of physics: III. The representation of physical quantities with arrows ??[sup o](A):?&barbelow;?R[sup [succeeds, curly eq  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is the third in a series whose goal is to develop a fundamentally new way of viewing theories of physics. Our basic contention is that constructing a theory of physics is equivalent to finding a representation in a topos of a certain formal language that is attached to the system. In Paper II, we studied the topos representations of the propositional language PL(S ) for the case of quantum theory, and in the present paper we do the same thing for the, more extensive, local language L(S ). One of the main achievements is to find a topos representation for self-adjoint operators. This involves showing that, for any physical quantity A, there is an arrow ??o(A):?&barbelow;?R?&barbelow;, whereR?&barbelow; is the quantity-value object for this theory. The construction of ??o(Â) is an extension of the daseinisation of projection operators that was discussed in Paper II. The objectR?&barbelow; is a monoid object only in the topos, ??=SetsV(H)op, of the theory, and to enhance the applicability of the formalism, we apply toR?&barbelow; a topos analog of the Grothendieck extension of a monoid to a group. The resulting object, k(R ?&barbelow;), is an abelian group object in ??. We also discuss another candidate,R?&barbelow;, for the quantity-value object. In this presheaf, both inner and outer daseinisations are used in a symmetric way. Finally, there is a brief discussion of the role of unitary operators in the quantum topos scheme.

Döring, A.; Isham, C. J.

2008-05-01

36

Physical observations and taxonomy of asteroids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Physical asteroid observations are summarized and the classification scheme to describe asteroid surfaces in relation to mineralogical composition is detailed. The principle classes, distinguished on the basis of a number of parameters involving albedo and color, are called C, S, and M.

Morrison, D.

1978-01-01

37

Physical observables for noncommutative Landau levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quantum mechanics of a point particle on a noncommutative plane in a magnetic field is implemented in the present work as a deformation of the algebra which defines the Landau levels. I show how to define, in this deformed quantum mechanics, the physical observables, such as the density correlation functions and the Green function, on the completely filled ground

Mauro Riccardi; G. Sansone

2006-01-01

38

A Holoinformational Model of the Physical Observer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The author proposes a holoinformational view of the observer based, on the holonomic theory of brain/mind function and quantum brain dynamics developed by Karl Pribram, Sir John Eccles, R.L. Amoroso, Hameroff, Jibu and Yasue, and in the quantumholographic and holomovement theory of David Bohm. This conceptual framework is integrated with nonlocal information properties of the Quantum Field Theory of Umesawa, with the concept of negentropy, order, and organization developed by Shannon, Wiener, Szilard and Brillouin, and to the theories of self-organization and complexity of Prigogine, Atlan, Jantsch and Kauffman. Wheeler's "it from bit" concept of a participatory universe, and the developments of the physics of information made by Zureck and others with the concepts of statistical entropy and algorithmic entropy, related to the number of bits being processed in the mind of the observer are also considered. This new synthesis gives a self-organizing quantum nonlocal informational basis for a new model of awareness in a participatory universe. In this synthesis, awareness is conceived as meaningful quantum nonlocal information interconnecting the brain and the cosmos, by a holoinformational unified field (integrating nonlocal holistic (quantum) and local (Newtonian). We propose that the cosmology of the physical observer is this unified nonlocal quantum-holographic cosmos manifesting itself through awareness, interconnected in a participatory holistic and indivisible way the human mind-brain to all levels of the self-organizing holographic anthropic multiverse.

Biase, Francisco Di

2013-09-01

39

If physics is an information science, what is an observer?  

E-print Network

Interpretations of quantum theory have traditionally assumed a "Galilean" observer, a bare "point of view" implemented physically by a quantum system. This paper investigates the consequences of replacing such an informationally-impoverished observer with an observer that satisfies the requirements of classical automata theory, i.e. an observer that encodes sufficient prior information to identify the system being observed and recognize its acceptable states. It shows that with reasonable assumptions about the physical dynamics of information channels, the observations recorded by such an observer will display the typical characteristics predicted by quantum theory, without requiring any specific assumptions about the observer's physical implementation.

Chris Fields

2012-02-11

40

Physics 229 Lecture 1 1 Spring 2008 Lecture 1 -Introduction and Review: Newton's Laws, Conserved Quantities and N-  

E-print Network

of Sir Isaac Newton. Newton's first law of motion states that, if the vector sum of the forces actingPhysics 229 Lecture 1 1 Spring 2008 Lecture 1 - Introduction and Review: Newton's Laws, Conserved and motion. For our purposes the word "classical" implies two points. The first point is that classical means

Ellis, Steve

41

Combining electric field and aurora observations from DE 1 and 2 with ground magnetometer records to estimate ionospheric electromagnetic quantities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Global distribution of electric fields and currents in the high-latitude ionosphere was estimated using data from the ground-based network of magnetometers and from nearly simultaneous observations with DE 1 and DE 2 satellites. The electric field and current distributions at high altitudes were calculated from instantaneous ionospheric conductivity (estimated from the DE 1 auroral data), using the Kamide et al. (1981) magnetogram inversion technique; an optimum conductivity was then chosen iteratively so that the resultant electric fields would become consistent with electric field deduced from ion drifts measured along the DE-2 orbit. It is demonstrated that, when analyzing the large-scale electrodynamics of individual substorms, statistical conductivity models are not fully adequate for use with the magnetogram inversion technique.

Kamide, Y.; Ishihara, Y.; Killeen, T. L.; Craven, J. D.; Frank, L. A.

1989-01-01

42

Black hole physics: recent developments and observational perspectives  

E-print Network

Black hole physics: recent developments and observational perspectives ´Eric Gourgoulhon'Astrophysique Fran¸caise Montpellier, France 5 May 2013 ´Eric Gourgoulhon (LUTH) Black hole physics: new perspectives SF2A, Montpellier, 5 May 2013 1 / 45 #12;Outline 1 The current observational status of black holes

Gourgoulhon, Eric

43

Urban Mining: Quality and quantity of recyclable and recoverable material mechanically and physically extractable from residual waste  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: • Material recycling and recovery from residual waste by physical and mechanical process has been investigated. • About 6% of recyclable can be extracted by NIR and 2-3Dimension selector. • Another 2% of construction materials can be extracted by adopting modified soil washing process. • Extracted material quality is quite high even some residual heavy metal have been detected by leaching test. - Abstract: The mechanically sorted dry fraction (MSDF) and Fines (<20 mm) arising from the mechanical biological treatment of residual municipal solid waste (RMSW) contains respectively about 11% w/w each of recyclable and recoverable materials. Processing a large sample of MSDF in an existing full-scale mechanical sorting facility equipped with near infrared and 2-3 dimensional selectors led to the extraction of about 6% w/w of recyclables with respect to the RMSW weight. Maximum selection efficiency was achieved for metals, about 98% w/w, whereas it was lower for Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE), about 2% w/w. After a simulated lab scale soil washing treatment it was possible to extract about 2% w/w of inert exploitable substances recoverable as construction materials, with respect to the amount of RMSW. The passing curve showed that inert materials were mainly sand with a particle size ranging from 0.063 to 2 mm. Leaching tests showed quite low heavy metal concentrations with the exception of the particles retained by the 0.5 mm sieve. A minimum pollutant concentration was in the leachate from the 10 and 20 mm particle size fractions.

Di Maria, Francesco, E-mail: francesco.dimaria@unipg.it; Micale, Caterina; Sordi, Alessio; Cirulli, Giuseppe; Marionni, Moreno

2013-12-15

44

Langmuir probe-based observables for plasma-turbulence code validation and application to the TORPEX basic plasma physics experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The methodology for plasma-turbulence code validation is discussed, with focus on the quantities to use for the simulation-experiment comparison, i.e., the validation observables, and application to the TORPEX basic plasma physics experiment [A. Fasoli et al., Phys. Plasmas 13, 055902 (2006)]. The considered validation observables are deduced from Langmuir probe measurements and are ordered into a primacy hierarchy, according to

Paolo Ricci; C. Theiler; A. Fasoli; I. Furno; B. Labit; S. H. Mueller; M. Podestà; F. M. Poli

2009-01-01

45

Quantity Stickiness versus Stackelberg Leadership  

SciTech Connect

We study the endogenous Stackelberg relations in a dynamic market. We analyze a twice-repeated duopoly where, in the beginning, each firm chooses either a quantity-sticky production mode or a quantity-flexible production mode. The size of the market becomes observable after the first period. In the second period, a firm can adjust its quantity if, and only if, it has adopted the flexible mode. Hence, if one firm chooses the sticky mode whilst the other chooses the flexible mode, then they respectively play the roles of a Stackelberg leader and a Stackelberg follower in the second marketing period. We compute the supply quantities at equilibrium and the corresponding expected profits of the firms. We also analyze the effect of the slope parameter of the demand curve on the expected supply quantities and on the profits.

Ferreira, F. A. [ESEIG, Instituto Politecnico do Porto, Rua D. Sancho I, 981, 4480-876 Vila do Conde (Portugal)

2008-10-30

46

Quantities of Spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The total energy emitted by a plasma as electromagnetic radiation per unit time is called its radiative loss and plays a crucial role in all power balance considerations. As a physical quantity it is a radiant flux ? (through the surface of the plasma), and its unit is watt (W). It is also called radiant power. Radiant flux density ? refers to the flux per unit area ? = d?/dA with the unit Wm-2, irrespective of whether the radiation is emitted from an area, crosses an imaginary surface in space, or falls onto an area A. In this latter case, it is customary to call this flux density at the surface irradiance E. The energy deposited per unit area during a given time is the fluence H = ? Edt, with the unit Jm-2.

Kunze, Hans-Joachim

47

Panel discussion on chiral extrapolation of physical observables  

E-print Network

This is an approximate reconstruction of the panel discussion on chiral extrapolation of physical observables. The session consisted of brief presentations from panelists, followed by responses from the panel, and concluded with questions and comments from the floor with answers from panelists. In the following, the panelists have summarized their statements, and the ensuing discussion has been approximately reconstructed from notes.

Claude Bernard; Shoji Hashimoto; Derek B. Leinweber; Peter Lepage; Elisabetta Pallante; Stephen R. Sharpe; Hartmut Wittig

2002-09-06

48

PHYSICS OF PLANETS: OBSERVING EXTRASOLAR GIANT PLANETS WITH Tristan Guillot  

E-print Network

for those objects with little or no atmosphere). On the other hand, extrasolar giant planets represent a new1 PHYSICS OF PLANETS: OBSERVING EXTRASOLAR GIANT PLANETS WITH DARWIN/TPF Tristan Guillot of such instruments as DARWIN or TPF represents a great opportunity to study in detail a new population

Guillot, Tristan

49

The Impact of Transit Observations on Planetary Physics  

E-print Network

We highlight the importance of transit observations on understanding the physics of planetary atmospheres and interiors. Transmission spectra and emission spectra allow us to characterize this exotic atmospheres, which possess TiO, VO, H2O, CO, Na, and K, as principal absorbers. We calculate mass-radius relations for water-rock-iron and gas giant planets and examine these relations in light of current and future transit observations. A brief review is given of mechanisms that could lead to the large radii observed for some transiting planets.

Jonathan J. Fortney

2008-01-31

50

Physical Activity Surveillance in Parks Using Direct Observation  

PubMed Central

Introduction Primary features of observational public health surveillance instruments are that they are valid, can reliably estimate physical activity behaviors, and are useful across diverse geographic settings and seasons by different users. Previous studies have reported the validity and reliability of Systematic Observation of Play and Recreation in Communities (SOPARC) to estimate park and user characteristics. The purpose of this investigation was to establish the use of SOPARC as a surveillance instrument and to situate the findings from the study in the context of the previous literature. Methods We collected data by using SOPARC for more than 3 years in 4 locations: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Columbus, Ohio; Chapel Hill/Durham, North Carolina; and Albuquerque, New Mexico during spring, summer, and autumn. Results We observed a total of 35,990 park users with an overall observer reliability of 94% (range, 85%–99%) conducted on 15% of the observations. We monitored the proportion of park users engaging in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and found marginal differences in MVPA by both city and season. Park users visited parks significantly more on weekend days than weekdays and visitation rates tended to be lower during summer than spring. Conclusion SOPARC is a highly reliable observation instrument that can be used to collect data across diverse geographic settings and seasons by different users and has potential as a surveillance system. PMID:24384304

McKenzie, Thomas L.; Cohen, Deborah; Evenson, Kelly R.; Golinelli, Daniela; Hillier, Amy; Lapham, Sandra C.; Williamson, Stephanie

2014-01-01

51

Conserved quantities for the Sitter particles$^*$  

E-print Network

Recent observations of the luminosity-red shift relation of distant type Ia supernovae established the fact that the expansion of the universe is accelerated. This is interpreted by saying that there exists some kind of agent (called dark energy), which exerts an overall repulsive effect on ordinary matter. Dark energy contributes today in the amount of about 73 % to the total energy content of the universe, and its spatial distribution is compatible with perfect uniformity. The simplest possible explanation for dark energy is to assume that it is just a universal constant, the so called cosmological constant. This would mean that the background arena for all natural phenomena, once all physical matter-energy has been ideally removed, is the de Sitter space time. Thus, the Poincar\\'e group should be replaced by the de Sitter group, and one is naturally led to a reformulation of the theory of special relativity on these grounds. The absence of a privileged class of equivalent frames (inertial frames) suggests that, in de Sitter relativity it would be desirable, to characterize significant physical quantities in an intrinsic way, namely in a manner independent of the choice of any particular coordinate patch. In this talk we would like to show how this can be accomplished for any set of independent conserved quantities along the geodesic motion of a free de Sitter particle. These quantities allow for a natural discussion of classical pointlike scattering and decay processes.

Sergio L. Cacciatori

2009-09-06

52

The determination of asteroid physical properties from Gaia observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Gaia mission, scheduled to be launched in 2011 by the European Space Agency, is expected to be a major milestone in the history of asteroid science. In particular, it is expected that Gaia will directly measure for the first time and for large number of objects several fundamental physical properties that have been so far beyond the capability of remote sensing. The current state of the art in the simulations of the determination of asteroid physical properties from Gaia observations is briefly reviewed. The major technical problems that are encountered in the determination of asteroid albedos and in the inversion of disk-integrated photometry to derive spin and shape properties are discussed. The role played by the properties of light scattering from asteroid surfaces in the measurement of angular sizes and the determination of the offset between the observed photocenter of the signal and the location of the projection in the sky of the object's center of mass is also discussed.

Cellino, Alberto; Dell Oro, Aldo; Tanga, Paolo; Delbo, Marco

53

Investigation of physical parameters in stellar flares observed by GINGA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This program involves analysis and interpretation of results from GINGA Large Area Counter (LAC) observations from a group of large stellar x-ray flares. All LAC data are re-extracted using the standard Hayashida method of LAC background subtraction and analyzed using various models available with the XSPEC spectral fitting program. Temperature-emission measure histories are available for a total of 5 flares observed by GINGA. These will be used to compare physical parameters of these flares with solar and stellar flare models.

Stern, Robert A.

1994-01-01

54

Investigation of physical parameters in stellar flares observed by GINGA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This program involves analysis and interpretation of results from GINGA Large Area Counter (LAC) observations from a group of large stellar X-ray flares. All LAC data are re-extracted using the standard Hayashida method of LAC background subtraction and analyzed using various models available with the XSPEC spectral fitting program.Temperature-emission measure histories are available for a total of 5 flares observed by GINGA. These will be used to compare physical parameters of these flares with solar and stellar flare models.

Stern, Robert A.

1994-01-01

55

Strongly intensive quantities  

SciTech Connect

Analysis of fluctuations of hadron production properties in collisions of relativistic particles profits from use of measurable intensive quantities which are independent of system size variations. The first family of such quantities was proposed in 1992; another is introduced in this paper. Furthermore we present a proof of independence of volume fluctuations for quantities from both families within the framework of the grand canonical ensemble. These quantities are referred to as strongly intensive ones. Influence of conservation laws and resonance decays is also discussed.

Gorenstein, M. I. [Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kiev (Ukraine); Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Frankfurt (Germany); Gazdzicki, M. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, University of Frankfurt, Frankfurt (Germany); Jan Kochanowski University, Kielce (Poland)

2011-07-15

56

Physics of the inner heliosphere: Mechanisms, models and observational signatures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Selected problems concerned with the important physical processes that occur in the corona and solar wind acceleration region, particularly time dependent phenomena were studied. Both the physics of the phenomena and the resultant effects on observational signatures, particularly spectroscopic signatures were also studied. Phenomena under study include: wave motions, particularly Alfven and fast mode waves; the formation of standing shocks in the inner heliosphere as a result of momentum and/or heat addition to the wind; and coronal transient phenomena where momentum and/or heat are deposited in the corona to produce transient plasma heating and/or mass ejection. The development of theoretical models for the inner heliosphere, the theoretical investigation of spectroscopic plasma diagnostics for this region, and the analysis of existing skylab and other relevant data are also included.

Withbroe, George L.

1987-01-01

57

Report on Physics of Channelization: Theory, Experiment, and Observation  

SciTech Connect

The project involved a study of physical processes that create eroded channel and drainage networks. A particular focus was on how the shape of the channels and the network depended on the nature of the fluid flow. Our approach was to combine theoretical, experimental, and observational studies in close collaboration with Professor Daniel Rothman of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Laboratory -scaled experiments were developed and quantitative data on the shape of the pattern and erosion dynamics are obtained with a laser-aided topography technique and fluorescent optical imaging techniques.

Kudrolli, Arshad [Clark University] [Clark University

2014-05-19

58

Observation of asteroids with GRAVITY - Physical characterization of binary systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Density and internal structures are among the most important characteristics of asteroids, yet these properties are also some of the least known. For distant asteroids (in the Main Belt and beyond) these properties were up to now accessible only for the largest (>100 km in size) asteroids. Going to smaller and fainter asteroids can revolutionize our understanding because we will be sampling a new regime in physical properties. Here we discuss how ground-based optical interferometry with the GRAVITY instrument can be used to observe the motion of asteroid satellites to determine the mass of small binary systems. Following the expected sensitivity performances in K-band of GRAVITY, we present a sample of binary targets potentially observable in single-field mode. The feasibility of such observations will strongly be dependent on the ability of the control software of GRAVITY to track objects moving at high rate on the sky (differential motion ˜f 10 mas.s^{-1}). Although the dual-field mode could allow to increase the sample of small binary asteroids observable, it seems to be currently unfeasible given the high differential motion of asteroids.

Matter, A.; Delbo, M.; Carry, B.; Tanga, P.

2014-12-01

59

Observations of umbral dots and their physical models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Hinode satellite opens a new era in sunspot research, because of its high spatial resolution and temporal stability. Fine-scale structures in sunspots, called umbral dots (UDs), have become one of the hottest topics in terms of close observations of magnetoconvection. In this paper, a brief review of the observed properties of UDs is given based on recent literature. UDs born in the periphery of the umbra exhibit inward migration, and their speeds are positively correlated with the magnetic field inclination. Longer-lasting UDs tend to be larger and brighter, while the lifetimes of UDs show no relation to their background magnetic field strength. UDs tend to disappear, or stop their proper motion by colliding with a locally strong field region. The spatial distribution of UDs is not uniform over an umbra, but is rather located at the boundaries of cellular patterns. From our two-dimensional correlation analysis, we measured the characteristic width of the cell boundaries (? 0{^''.}5) and the size of the cells (? 6?). We then performed a simplified analysis to obtain statistics of how the UD distribution is random or clustered using Hinode blue continuum images. We have found a hint that the UDs become less dense and more clustered for later-phase sunspots. These results may be related to the evolutional change of the subsurface structure of a sunspot. Based on these observational results, we discuss their physical models by means of numerical simulations of magnetoconvection.

Watanabe, Hiroko

2014-12-01

60

Physics of the inner heliosphere: Mechanisms, models and observational signatures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The physics of the solar wind acceleration phenomena (e.g. effect of transient momentum deposition on the temporal and spatial variation of the temperature, density and flow speed of the solar wind, formation of shocks, etc.) and the resultant effects on observational signatures, particularly spectroscopic signature are studied. Phenomena under study include: (1) wave motions, particularly spectroscopic signatures are studied. Phenomena under study include:(1) wave motions, particularly Alfven and fast mode waves, (2) the formation of standing shocks in the inner heliosphere as a result of momentum and/or heat addition to the wind and (3) coronal transient phenomena where momentum and/or heat are deposited in the corona to produce transient plasma heating and/or mass ejections. Also included are the theoretical investigation of spectroscopic plasma diagnostics for the inner heliosphere and the analysis of existing Skylab and other relevant data.

Withbroe, G. L.

1985-01-01

61

Langmuir probe-based observables for plasma-turbulence code validation and application to the TORPEX basic plasma physics experiment  

SciTech Connect

The methodology for plasma-turbulence code validation is discussed, with focus on the quantities to use for the simulation-experiment comparison, i.e., the validation observables, and application to the TORPEX basic plasma physics experiment [A. Fasoli et al., Phys. Plasmas 13, 055902 (2006)]. The considered validation observables are deduced from Langmuir probe measurements and are ordered into a primacy hierarchy, according to the number of model assumptions and to the combinations of measurements needed to form each of them. The lowest levels of the primacy hierarchy correspond to observables that require the lowest number of model assumptions and measurement combinations, such as the statistical and spectral properties of the ion saturation current time trace, while at the highest levels, quantities such as particle transport are considered. The comparison of the observables at the lowest levels in the hierarchy is more stringent than at the highest levels. Examples of the use of the proposed observables are applied to a specific TORPEX plasma configuration characterized by interchange-driven turbulence.

Ricci, Paolo; Theiler, C.; Fasoli, A.; Furno, I.; Labit, B. [Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas, Association EURATOM-Confederation Suisse, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Mueller, S. H. [Center for Energy Research, University of California, San Diego, California 92093 (United States); Podesta, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Poli, F. M. [Department of Physics, Center for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)

2009-05-15

62

OBSERVED ENVIRONMENTAL FEATURES AND THE PHYSICAL ACTIVITY OF ADOLESCENT MALES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Background: It has recently been reported that adult physical activity was associated with environmental features. The aim of this study was to determine whether environmental features were associated with physical activity among male adolescents. Methods: Physical activity levels of 210 Boy Scouts ...

63

Exploratory Observations of Physical Processes in the upper Sulu Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sulu Sea extends roughly 600 km in all directions, is up to 5 km deep, and is connected to the Pacific Ocean, but only via surrounding seas through several straits of varying width and depth. The Dipolog Strait between the Philippine islands of Mindanao and Negros connects the Sulu to the Bohol Sea. Straits between the islands of Panay, Palawan and Borneo connect the Sulu to the South China Sea. Straits between Borneo and Mindanao connect the Sulu to the Sulawesi Sea. External interactions with the Sulu Sea include strait currents, monsoon wind stress, tides and internal waves propagating into the sea from the perimeter. Mooring observations indicate large intraseasonal signals in currents through the Dipolog Strait and the Cuyo East Passage, west of Panay. Known impacts on the Sulu thus have timescales ranging from a day to a year. Currents through the boundary straits reverse direction with depth and so have a complex interaction with the Sulu Sea. To explore physical processes in the Sulu Sea, four in situ surveys were conducted between June 2007 and March 2009 during the Philippines Straits Dynamics Experiment (PhilEx). Observations collected include current from hull-mounted Doppler sonar and temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen and fluorescence from station casts and underway surface measurements. Horizontal shear dominates the surface current pattern. The shear’s horizontal scales are small compared to the Sulu Sea’s dimensions. The surface water also has significant density fronts at scales similar to the horizontal shear. This horizontal structure is described by viewing observed properties on maps and as a function of along-track position. Horizontal structure is quantified by computing basic statistics along-track and through spectral and wavelet analysis. A topic investigated is the relative role of boundary strait current variability and wind forcing in generating the observed horizontal shear and density fronts. When currents directed into the Sulu are stronger, more energy could be available for eddies in the sea and these eddies could have sizes related to strait dimensions. Sulu Sea water is traced to sources in boundary straits. One example is relatively warm and fresh surface water which appears to come from the Balabac Strait between Palawan and Borneo. A broader horizontal picture of the Sulu Sea is established by using remote sensing and numerical model output.

Martin, J. P.; Gordon, A. L.

2010-12-01

64

Synoptic Observations for Physical Characterization of Fast Rotator NEOs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NEOs can be studied not only dynamically, to learn about their impact hazard, but also physically, to establish various properties important both to better address their potential hazard and also to understand what they can tell us about the origin of the solar system and its ongoing processes.Taking advantage of the two-meter-class telescopes around Tucson, we plan to observe NEOs synoptically using telescopes at three different locations: VATT (Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope) at Mount Graham (longitude: -109.8719, latitude: 32.7016, elevation: 10469 feet), Bok 2.3 m at Kitt Peak (longitude: -111.6004, latitude: 31.9629, elevation: 6795 feet) and Kuiper 1.5-m at Mount Bigelow (longitude: -110.7345, latitude: 32.4165, elevation: 8235 feet). All three telescopes will aim simultaneously at the same object, each with a different instrument. The three telescopes will be part of the Arizona Robotic Telescope (ART) network, a University of Arizona initiative to provide near real-time observations of Target of Opportunity objects across the visible and near-infrared wavelengths. The VATT-4K optical imager mounted on the VATT has already been used for photometry. In the future we plan to utilize the BCSpec (Boller & Chivens Spectrograph) for visible spectroscopy on Bok 2.3 meter and a near-infrared instrument on Kuiper 1.5 meter. We report here the preliminary results of several NEOs whose rotation rate and color have been estimated using photometry with images recorded with VATT-4K. 2009 SQ104 has a rotation rate of 6.85+/- 0.03 h, 2014 AY28 has a rotation rate of 0.91 +/- 0.02 h, 2014 EC of 0.54 +/-0.04 h, 2014 FA44 of 3.45 +/- 0.05 h, and 2014 KS40 of 1.11 +/- 0.06 h.

Kikwaya Eluo, Jean-Baptiste; Hergenrother, Carl W.

2014-11-01

65

Observations and Inferred Physical Characteristics of Compact Intracloud Discharges  

SciTech Connect

Compact intracloud discharges (CIDS) represent a distinct class of electrical discharges that occur within intense regions of thunderstorms. They are singular discharges that produce brief (typically 3 µs in duration) broadband RF emissions that are 20 to 30 dB more powerful than radiation from all other recorded lightning processes in the HF and VHF radio spectrum. Far field electric field change recordings of CIDS consist of a single, large-amplitude bipolar pulse that begins to rise during the RF-producing phase of the CID and typically lasts for 20 µs. During the summer of 1998 we operated a 4-station array of electric field change meters in New Mexico to support FORTE satellite observations of transient RF and optical sources and to learn more about the phenomenology and physical characteristics of CIDS. Over 800 CIDS were detected and located during the campaign. The events were identified on the basis of their unique field change waveforms. CID source heights determined using the relative delays of ionospherically reflected source emissions were typically between 4 and 11 km above ground level. Events of both positive and negative polarity were observed with events' of initially- negative polarity (indicative of discharges occurring between underlying positive and overlying negative charge) occurring at slightly higher altitudes. Within CID field change waveforms the CID pulse was often followed within a few ms by one or more smaller-amplitude pulses. We associate these subsequent pulses with the initial activity of a "normal" intracloud flash, the inference being that some fraction of the time, a CID initiates an intracloud lightning flash.

Argo, P.E.; Eack, K.B.; Holden, D.N.; Massey, R.S.; Shao, X.; Smith, D.A.; Wiens, K.C.

1999-02-01

66

Blue Stragglers in Globular Clusters: Observations, Statistics and Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This chapter explores how we might use the observed statistics of blue stragglers in globular clusters to shed light on their formation. This means we will touch on topics also discussed elsewhere in this book, such as the discovery and implications of bimodal radial distributions and the "double sequences" of blue stragglers that have recently been found in some clusters. However, we will focus particularly on the search for a "smoking gun" correlation between the number of blue stragglers in a given globular cluster and a physical cluster parameter that would point towards a particular formation channel. As we shall see, there is little evidence for an intrinsic correlation between blue straggler numbers and stellar collision rates, even in dense cluster cores. On the other hand, there is a clear correlation between blue straggler numbers and the total (core) mass of the cluster. This would seem to point towards a formation channel involving binaries, rather than dynamical encounters. However, the correlation between blue straggler numbers and actual binary numbers—which relies on recently determined empirical binary fractions—is actually weaker than that with core mass. We explain how this surprising result may be reconciled with a binary formation channel if binary fractions depend almost uniquely on core mass. If this is actually the case, it would have significant implications for globular cluster dynamics more generally.

Knigge, Christian

67

Saddle quantities and applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we make the connection between the theoretical study of the generalized homoclinic loop bifurcation (GHB ?) and the practical computational aspects. For this purpose we first compare the Dulac normal form with the Joyal normal form. These forms were both used to prove the GHB ? theorem. But the second one is far more practical from the algorithmic point of view. We then show that the information carried by these normal forms can be computed in a much simpler way, using what we shall call dual Lyapunov constants. The coefficients of a normal form or the dual Lyapunov quantities are particular cases of what we shall call saddle quantities. We calculate the saddle quantities for quadratic systems, and we show that no more than three limit cycles can appear in a homoclinic loop bifurcation. We also study the homoclinic loop bifurcation of order 5, appearing in a 6-parameter family close to a Hamiltonian system. To our knowledge, this is the first time that one can find a complete description of a GHB ? of such high order. Finally we calculate the saddle quantities for a symmetric cubic vector field, and we deduce a bound for the number of limit cycles that appear in a GHB ?.

Joyal, Pierre; Rousseau, Christiane

68

Assessing Children's Physical Activity in Their Homes: The Observational System for Recording Physical Activity in Children-Home  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study describes the development and pilot testing of the Observation System for Recording Physical Activity in Children-Home version. This system was developed to document physical activity and related physical and social contexts while children are at home. An analysis of interobserver agreement and a description of children's…

McIver, Kerry L.; Brown, William H.; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; Dowda, Marsha; Pate, Russell R.

2009-01-01

69

Assessing Children's Physical Activity in Their Homes: The Observational System for Recording Physical Activity in Children–Home  

PubMed Central

The present study describes the development and pilot testing of the Observation System for Recording Physical Activity in Children–Home version. This system was developed to document physical activity and related physical and social contexts while children are at home. An analysis of interobserver agreement and a description of children's physical activity in various settings are presented. The system, which was shown to be reliable, provides a direct observation tool for researchers who are interested in assessing and intervening in physical activity in the home environment. PMID:19721726

McIver, Kerry L; Brown, William H; Pfeiffer, Karin A; Dowda, Marsha; Pate, Russell R

2009-01-01

70

Observations and simulations of physical and biological processes at ocean weather station P, 1951-1980  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Physical and biological processes in the mixed layer at ocean weather station (OWS) P (50°N, 145°W) over a 30-year period (1951-1980) were investigated using observations and model simulations. The observations include 30 years of surface meteorological and sea surface temperature data collected at OWS P and Ekman upwelling velocities derived from the Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set, 14 years (1953-1966) of daily temperature profiles, nearly 150 chlorophyll a profiles spanning all months of the year, monthly climatological solar irradiances, and 0- to 50-m integrated nitrate concentrations. The simulations incorporated models for the estimation of surface solar downwelling irradiance, surface heat fluxes, subsurface diffuse attenuation, mixed layer dynamics, and biological processes. The time-dependent model inputs were the surface observations of cloud cover, air temperature, dew point temperature, and wind speed. The atmospheric irradiance, marine diffuse attenuation, and mixed layer models were adapted from existing models developed by others. The biological model, developed by the authors, has four components (nitrate, ammonium, phytoplankton nitrogen, and zooplankton nitrogen) and computes a variety of additional quantities, including chlorophyll a concentration and gross and new production. Model comparisons with in situ time series showed that predictions of sea surface temperature and mixed layer depth were reasonably accurate. Climatological monthly profiles of chlorophyll a and temperature were within 1 standard deviation of the observed values at nearly all depths. Also, the climatological annual cycles of solar irradiance and 0- to 50-m integrated nitrate accurately reproduced observed values. Annual primary production was estimated to be ˜190 g C m-2 yr-1 and varied by no more than ±5% in any year. This estimate is consistent with recent observations but is much greater than earlier estimates, indicating that carbon cycling in the North Pacific is much more important to the global carbon budget than previously thought. Significant interannual variability in sea surface temperature, Ekman upwelling, mixed layer depth, and surface nitrate concentration had little impact on productivity. The model also indicates that the nitrate supply to the euphotic zone is very sensitive to Ekman upwelling and that amplification of the wind stress curl can result in complete nitrate depletion when the winds are persistently downwelling favorable.

McClain, Charles R.; Arrigo, Kevin; Tai, King-Sheng; Turk, Daniella

1996-02-01

71

Physical observations of comets: Their composition, origin and evolution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Observations of Comet P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1 (SW1) during one observing run each in 1989 and 1990 are discussed, and the new significant information that was obtained is presented. Also discussed are near-UV observations of comets. The near-UV is a mostly unexplored spectral region for comets since it is not visible to spacecraft such as IUE and most ground-based detectors and spectrographs are not sensitive in the near-UV.

Cochran, Anita L.; Barker, Edwin S.; Cochran, William D.

1991-01-01

72

The JMU Mineral Museum - Observing Physical Properties of Minerals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Mineral museums provide a resourse for students to explore beautiful examples of minerals. During the exploration process, they can also apply or reinforce visual observation skills they have learned in lab. The James Madison University Mineral Museum (http://csm.jmu.edu/minerals/) provides educational opportunities for both introductory geology and earth science courses as well as advanced major. In this exercise, students have possibly their first opportunity to enjoy the wonderous world of minerals in an exhilerating display. During the exploration process, students are provided a reinforcment of visual observation skills previously experienced in lab and an introduction to mineral names and classifications.

Kearns, Cynthia A.

73

A physical model to estimate snowfall over land using AMSU-B observations  

E-print Network

A physical model to estimate snowfall over land using AMSU-B observations Min-Jeong Kim,1,2 J. A a physical model to retrieve snowfall rate over land using brightness temperature observations from NOAA at all five frequencies. Retrieved snowfall rates compare favorably with the near-concurrent National

Houze Jr., Robert A.

74

Contribution of resonance tunneling of molecule to physical observables  

E-print Network

Probabilities of resonant tunneling through a potential barrier are compared for a rigid molecule and an excited molecule. It is shown that the resonance spectrum is mainly governed by the transmission resonance spectrum of the rigid molecule. Analytical expressions for the probability for the tunneling of the rigid molecule through a barrier allow resonance-spectrum-averaged observables, including quantum diffusion, to be estimated.

P. M. Krassovitskiy; F. M. Pen'kov

2014-12-12

75

Loop Quantum Gravity Phenomenology: Linking Loops to Observational Physics  

E-print Network

Research during the last decade demonstrates that effects originating on the Planck scale are currently being tested in multiple observational contexts. In this review we discuss quantum gravity phenomenological models and their possible links to loop quantum gravity. Particle frameworks, including kinematic models, broken and deformed Poincar\\'e symmetry, non-commutative geometry, relative locality and generalized uncertainty principle, and field theory frameworks, including Lorentz violating operators in effective field theory and non-commutative field theory, are discussed. The arguments relating loop quantum gravity to models with modified dispersion relations are reviewed, as well as, arguments supporting the preservation of local Lorentz invariance. The phenomenology related to loop quantum cosmology is briefly reviewed, with a focus on possible effects that might be tested in the near future. As the discussion makes clear, there remains much interesting work to do in establishing the connection between the fundamental theory of loop quantum gravity and these specific phenomenological models, in determining observational consequences of the characteristic aspects of loop quantum gravity, and in further refining current observations. Open problems related to these developments are highlighted. characteristic aspects of loop quantum gravity, and in further refining current observations. Open problems related to these developments are highlighted.

Florian Girelli; Franz Hinterleitner; Seth A. Major

2012-10-04

76

Giacobini-Zinner comet: polarimetric and physical observations  

SciTech Connect

The results of observations of the Giacobini-Zinner comet on 25 and 31 October 1959 are presented. The magnitude of the comet was measured photoelectrically in two spectral regions. The radius is on the order of one kilometer. The photoelectric measurements of comets 1959b and 1957c were used to measure the abundances of the CN and C2 radicals and of solid particles in the heads.

Martel, M.T.; Maines, P.; Grudzinska, S.; Stawikowski, A.

1984-10-01

77

Calculation of liquid petroleum quantities  

SciTech Connect

This class will describe the procedures to be applied when calculating bulk oil quantities (i.e. volume or weight) either held in tankage (Static Measurement) or moving in pipelines through meters (Dynamic Measurement). The procedures follow the calculation methods recommended by the API Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards. Other classes at the School will have shown you how to collect the required data, this lesson will show the basic calculation procedures to be followed. Careful physical measurements will be neutralized if the same attention to detail is not applied to the calculations. With present day technology it is necessary to more specifically define the rules for calculating petroleum quantities. If this is not precisely stated in the number of digits to be entered and the rules for rounding, truncating and calculating, then different parties will not arrive at the same answers. With the use of computers and scientific calculators It soon became clear that; A x B x C is not always the same as C x B x A and that B x C x A may be different to the other two. This class sets out calculation rules for static and dynamic measurement together with examples of various types of calculations. For internal accounting, loss control and custody transfer requirements, oil volumes are corrected to a standard temperature. For simplicity, the calculation procedures given in this lesson assume that the standard reference temperature is 60{degrees}F. In order to establish real losses, it is necessary to convert all volumes to the same reference temperature. Sampling is mandatory for the accurate measurement of oil transfers. Samples must either be taken from each tank involved in the transfer or an automatic line sampler must be used to obtain an integrated sample representative of the transfer.

Yeandle, M.J. [BP Oil Pipeline Co., Vandalia, OH (United States)

1995-12-01

78

Learning Physics from the Real World by Direct Observation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is axiomatic that hands-on experience provides many learning opportunities, which lectures and textbooks cannot match. Moreover, experiments involving the real world are beneficial in helping students to gain a level of understanding that they might not otherwise achieve. One practical limitation with the real world is that simplifications and approximations are sometimes necessary to make the material accessible; however, these types of adjustments can be viewed with misgiving when they appear arbitrary and/or convenience-based. The present work describes a very familiar feature of everyday life, whose underlying physics is examined without modifications to mitigate difficulties from the lack of control in a non-laboratory environment. In the absence of any immediate formula to process results, students are encouraged to reach ab initio answers with guidance provided by a structured series of worksheets. Many of the latter can be completed as homework assignments prior to activity in the field. This approach promotes thinking and inquiry as valuable attributes instead of unquestioningly following a prescribed path.

Shaibani, Saami J.

2012-03-01

79

Accelerometer-monitored sedentary behavior and observed physical function loss.  

PubMed

Objectives. We examined whether objectively measured sedentary behavior is related to subsequent functional loss among community-dwelling adults with or at high risk for knee osteoarthritis. Methods. We analyzed longitudinal data (2008-2012) from 1659 Osteoarthritis Initiative participants aged 49 to 83 years in 4 cities. Baseline sedentary time was assessed by accelerometer monitoring. Functional loss (gait speed and chair stand testing) was regressed on baseline sedentary time and covariates (baseline function; socioeconomics [age, gender, race/ethnicity, income, education], health factors [obesity, depression, comorbidities, knee symptoms, knee osteoarthritis severity, prior knee injury, other lower extremity pain, smoking], and moderate-to-vigorous activity). Results. This cohort spent almost two thirds of their waking hours (average?=?9.8 h) in sedentary behaviors. Sedentary time was significantly positively associated with subsequent functional loss in both gait speed (-1.66 ft/min decrease per 10% increment sedentary percentage waking hours) and chair stand rate (-0.75 repetitions/min decrease), controlling for covariates. Conclusions. Being less sedentary was related to less future decline in function, independent of time spent in moderate-to-vigorous activity. Both limiting sedentary activities and promoting physical activity in adults with knee osteoarthritis may be important in maintaining function. PMID:25602883

Semanik, Pamela A; Lee, Jungwha; Song, Jing; Chang, Rowland W; Sohn, Min-Woong; Ehrlich-Jones, Linda S; Ainsworth, Barbara E; Nevitt, Michael M; Kwoh, C Kent; Dunlop, Dorothy D

2015-03-01

80

Ionosphere TEC disturbances before strong earthquakes: observations, physics, modeling (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The phenomenon of the pre-earthquake ionospheric disturbances is discussed. A number of typical TEC (Total Electron Content) relative disturbances is presented for several recent strong earthquakes occurred in different ionospheric conditions. Stable typical TEC deviations from quiet background state are observed few days before the strong seismic events in the vicinity of the earthquake epicenter and treated as ionospheric earthquake precursors. They don't move away from the source in contrast to the disturbances related with geomagnetic activity. Sunlit ionosphere approach leads to reduction of the disturbances up to their full disappearance, and effects regenerate at night. The TEC disturbances often observed in the magnetically conjugated areas as well. At low latitudes they accompany with equatorial anomaly modifications. The hypothesis about the electromagnetic channel of the pre-earthquake ionospheric disturbances' creation is discussed. The lithosphere and ionosphere are coupled by the vertical external electric currents as a result of ionization of the near-Earth air layer and vertical transport of the charged particles through the atmosphere over the fault. The external electric current densities exceeding the regular fair-weather electric currents by several orders are required to produce stable long-living seismogenic electric fields such as observed by onboard measurements of the 'Intercosmos-Bulgaria 1300' satellite over the seismic active zones. The numerical calculation results using the Upper Atmosphere Model demonstrate the ability of the external electric currents with the densities of 10-8-10-9 A/m2 to produce such electric fields. The sumulations reproduce the basic features of typical pre-earthquake TEC relative disturbances. It is shown that the plasma ExB drift under the action of the seismogenic electric field leads to the changes of the F2 region electron number density and TEC. The upward drift velocity component enhances NmF2 and TEC and the downward component decreases it, while horizontal components redistribute plasma in the horizontal plane around the source. The UAM calculations also show that the external electric currents of the seismic origin generate the small disturbances of the neutral atmosphere with the characteristics of the internal gravity waves but they don't influence noticeably on the relative pre-earthquake TEC disturbances.

Namgaladze, A. A.

2013-12-01

81

Exact fluctuation theorem without ensemble quantities.  

PubMed

Evaluating the entropy production (EP) along a stochastic trajectory requires the knowledge of the system probability distribution, an ensemble quantity notoriously difficult to measure. In this paper we show that the EP of nonautonomous systems in contact with multiple reservoirs can be expressed solely in terms of physical quantities measurable at the single-trajectory level with a suitable preparation of the initial condition. As a result, we identify universal energy and particle fluctuation relations valid for any measurement time. We apply our findings to an electronic junction model, which may be used to verify our prediction experimentally. PMID:25353751

Bulnes Cuetara, Gregory; Esposito, Massimiliano; Imparato, Alberto

2014-05-01

82

Exact fluctuation theorem without ensemble quantities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evaluating the entropy production (EP) along a stochastic trajectory requires the knowledge of the system probability distribution, an ensemble quantity notoriously difficult to measure. In this paper we show that the EP of nonautonomous systems in contact with multiple reservoirs can be expressed solely in terms of physical quantities measurable at the single-trajectory level with a suitable preparation of the initial condition. As a result, we identify universal energy and particle fluctuation relations valid for any measurement time. We apply our findings to an electronic junction model, which may be used to verify our prediction experimentally.

Bulnes Cuetara, Gregory; Esposito, Massimiliano; Imparato, Alberto

2014-05-01

83

Radar Observations and Physical Model of Asteroid 6489 Golevka  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report 8510-MHz (3.5-cm) radar observations of the Earth-crossing asteroid (ECA) 6489 Golevka (1991 JX) obtained between June 3 and June 15, 1995, at Goldstone, the Very Large Array and the Evpatoria (Ukraine) and Kashima (Japan) radio antennas. One-dimensional Doppler spectra are used to estimate the object's convex hull, refine the ephemeris, and yield four possible pole directions. Three-dimensional modeling using two-dimensional delay-Doppler images and published lightcurves unambiguously defines the pole and reveals an extraordinarily angular shape with flat sides, sharp edges and corners, and peculiar concavities. The equivalent diameter of the object is 530±30 m, with moments of inertia about the (long, intermediate, short) axes proportional to (1.00, 1.38, 1.39) ±0.1. The asteroid's pole direction is ?=202±5°, ?=-45±5°, and its sidereal period is P=6.0289±0.0001 h. The asteroid's circular polarization ratio, SC/OC=0.23±0.02, is lower than the average for radar-detected near-Earth asteroids and reveals only a modest degree of near-surface roughness at scales near the 3.5-cm wavelength. However, the approximately Lambertian radar scattering law implies considerable surface roughness at larger scales. The asteroid's radar scattering law is modeled as ?cos n?, with ?=0.25±0.12 and n=1.7±0.7 giving an equivalent spherical albedo of 0.18±0.09. This value is in the middle of the distribution of albedos of S-class asteroid's previously imaged by radar. The Hapke parameters describing the object's optical scattering properties are w=0.173±0.006, h=0.024±0.012, B0=1.03±0.45, g=-0.34±0.02, and overline?=20±5°. Both the optical and the radar scattering properties are consistent with those of a typical S-class asteroid. Goldstone-VLA plane-of-sky images do not resolve the asteroid but do provide astrometry with uncertainties less than 0.1 arcsec. Integration of an orbit based on all available radar and optical astrometry shows that Golevka has an insignificant probability of collision with any planet during at least the next nine centuries. We investigate Golevka's dynamical environment, assuming uniform density. Some areas of the surface are characterized by large enough slopes that we expect that they are exposed, solid, monolithic rock.

Hudson, R. S.; Ostro, S. J.; Jurgens, R. F.; Rosema, K. D.; Giorgini, J. D.; Winkler, R.; Rose, R.; Choate, D.; Cormier, R. A.; Franck, C. R.; Frye, R.; Howard, D.; Kelley, D.; Littlefair, R.; Slade, M. A.; Benner, L. A. M.; Thomas, M. L.; Mitchell, D. L.; Chodas, P. W.; Yeomans, D. K.; Scheeres, D. J.; Palmer, P.; Zaitsev, A.; Koyama, Y.; Nakamura, A.; Harris, A. W.; Meshkov, M. N.

2000-11-01

84

Development of a Direct Observation Instrument to Measure Environmental Characteristics of Parks for Physical Activity  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The study's purpose is to describe the development and evaluate the reliability (inter-observer agreement) and validity (rater agreement with a gold standard) of a direct observation instrument to assess park characteristics that may be related to physical activity. A direct observation instrument ...

85

CVT/GPL phase 2 integrated testing. [in earth observations, space physics, and material sciences  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experiments representing earth observations, space physics, and material sciences disciplines were installed in the General Purpose Laboratory (GPL). The experiments and the GPL are described. The experiments interfaces the GPL and GPL support systems are assessed. The experiments were cloud physics, ionospheric disturbances, material sciences, high energy astronomy, and superfluid helium.

Shurney, R. E.; Maybee, G.; Schmitt, S.

1974-01-01

86

OBSERVED, GIS, AND SELF-REPORTED ENVIRONMENTAL FEATURES AND ADOLESCENT PHYSICAL ACTIVITY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Purpose: Examine associations among observed, self-reported, and Geographical Information Systems (GIS) environmental features and physical activity among adolescent males. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Boy Scout troops and neighborhoods in Houston, Texas. Subjects: Two hundred and ten ...

87

Mond's Acceleration Scale as a Fundamental Quantity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some quantum-cosmic scaling relations indicate that the MOND acceleration parameter a0 could be a fundamental quantity ruling the self-gravitating structures, ranging from stars and globular clusters up to superclusters of galaxies and the whole observed universe. We discuss such coincidence relations starting from the Dirac quantization condition ruling the masses of primordial black holes.

Bernal, Tula; Capozziello, Salvatore; Cristofano, Gerardo; de Laurentis, Mariafelicia

88

Physics 344 Lab 2 Visual Observations with the 0.5 m Telescope  

E-print Network

on your report who your observing partner(s) was/were. 1) Setting up the telescope: Use The Sky to point identify. Do not use the Moon or planets unless you are desperate. 2) Planets: Point the telescopePhysics 344 Lab 2 Visual Observations with the 0.5 m Telescope Due: Thursday, September 26 Text

Glashausser, Charles

89

On Whether People Have the Capacity to Make Observations of Mutually Excl usive Physical Phenomena Simultaneously  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been shown by Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen that in quantum mechanics two different wave functions can simultaneously characterize the same physical existent. This result means that one can make predictions regarding simultaneous, mutually exclusive features of a physical existent. It is important to ask whether people have the capacity to make observations of mutually exclusive phenomena simultaneously? Our everyday experience informs us that a human observer is capable of observing only one set of physical circumstances at a time. Evidence from psychology, though, indicates that people indeed have the capacity to make observations of mutually exclusive phenomena simultaneously, even though this capacity is not generally recognized. Working independently, Sigmund Freud and William James provided some of this evidence. How the nature of the quantum mechanical wave function is associated with the problem posed by Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen, is addressed at the end of the paper.

Snyder

1998-04-01

90

In situ observations of aerosol physical and optical properties in northern India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The southern Asia, including India, is exposed to substantial quantities of particulate air pollution originating mainly from fossil fuel combustion and biomass burning. Besides serious adverse health effects, these aerosols cause a large reduction of solar radiation at the surface accompanied by a substantial atmospheric heating, which is expected to have significant influences on the air temperature, crop yields, livestock and water resources over the southern Asia. The various influences by aerosols in this region depend crucially on the development of aerosol emissions from household, industrial, transportation and biomass burning sectors. The main purpose of this study is to investigate several measured aerosol optical and physical properties. We take advantage of observations from two measurement stations which have been established by the Finnish Meteorological Institute and The Energy and Resources Institute. Another station is on the foothills of Himalayas, in Mukteshwar, about 350 km east of New Delhi at elevation about 2 km ASL. This site is considered as a rural background site. Measurements of aerosol size distribution (7-500 nm), PM10, PM2.5, aerosol scattering and absorption coefficients and weather parameters have been conducted since 2006. Another station is located at the outskirts of New Delhi, in Gual Pahari, about 35 km south of city centre. It is considered as an urban background site. Measurements of aerosol size distribution (7 nm- 10 ?m), PM10, PM2.5, aerosol scattering and absorption coefficients, aerosol optical depth, aerosol vertical distribution (LIDAR), aerosol filter sampling for chemical characterization and weather parameters were conducted between 2008 and 2010. On the overall average PM10 and PM2.5 values were about 3-4 times higher in Gual Pahari than in Mukteshwar as expected, 216 and 126 ?g m^-3, respectively. However, difference depended much on the season, so that during winter time PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations were about 9 and 6 times higher in Gual Pahari than in Mukteshwar. During the pre-monsoon the concentrations in Gual Pahari were only twofold compared to Mukteshwar. The monsoon cleans the atmosphere from particulate matter so that PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations reduced to more than half compared to pre-monsoon values. We also found a very clear diurnal cycle on both station, except during the monsoon season. However the phase of the cycle was different between stations. This annual and diurnal variation is controlled besides emissions by evolution of boundary layer and transport of aerosols from Indo- Gangetic plains to the background site in Mukteshwar. Basically all measured aerosol properties behaved similarly. We also analyzed the data to observe the so called elevated heat pump hypothesis and trends in long term aerosol properties, although six years of data is not enough to make solid conclusions.

Lihavainen, H.; Hyvarinen, A.; Hooda, R. K.; Raatikainen, T. E.; Sharma, V.; Komppula, M.

2012-12-01

91

A comparison of cloud microphysical quantities with forecasts from cloud prediction models  

SciTech Connect

Numerical weather prediction models (ECMWF, NCEP) are evaluated using ARM observational data collected at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. Cloud forecasts generated by the models are compared with cloud microphysical quantities, retrieved using a variety of parameterizations. Information gained from this comparison will be utilized during the FASTER project, as models are evaluated for their ability to reproduce fast physical processes detected in the observations. Here the model performance is quantified against the observations through a statistical analysis. Observations from remote sensing instruments (radar, lidar, radiometer and radiosonde) are used to derive the cloud microphysical quantities: ice water content, liquid water content, ice effective radius and liquid effective radius. Unfortunately, discrepancies in the derived quantities arise when different retrieval schemes are applied to the observations. The uncertainty inherent in retrieving the microphysical quantities using various retrievals is estimated from the range of output microphysical values. ARM microphysical retrieval schemes (Microbase, Mace) are examined along with the CloudNet retrieval processing of data from the ARM sites for this purpose. Through the interfacing of CloudNet and “ARM” processing schemes an ARMNET product is produced and employed as accepted observations in the assessment of cloud model predictions.

Dunn, M.; Jensen, M.; Hogan, R.; O’Connor, E.; Huang, D.

2010-03-15

92

Research in space physics at the University of Iowa. [astronomical observatories, spaceborne astronomy, satellite observation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Various research projects in space physics are summarized. Emphasis is placed on: (1) the study of energetic particles in outer space and their relationships to electric, magnetic, and electromagnetic fields associated with the earth, the sun, the moon, the planets, and interplanetary medium; (2) observational work on satellites of the earth and the moon, and planetary and interplanetary spacecraft; (3) phenomenological analysis and interpretation; (4) observational work by ground based radio-astronomical and optical techniques; and (5) theoretical problems in plasma physics. Specific fields of current investigations are summarized.

Vanallen, J. A.

1974-01-01

93

Organizations for Standardization of Quantities and Units  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many international organizations have contributed to the development of the International System of Units (SI). The highest international authority on units is the General Conference on Weights and Measures (CGPM), which is an intergovernmental body. Legal aspects of units and metrology are dealt with by the International Organization of Legal Metrology (OIML), whereas scientific questions in this field are dealt with by scientific unions such as the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP), and the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC). Among their many tasks the international standards organizations, i.e. the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), implement the SI as adopted by the CGPM. They also standardize quantities, i.e. their definitions, names, and letter symbols. The main purpose of this article is to present these two organizations for standardization and to describe their role in the standardization of quantities and units.

Højgaard Jensen, H.; Thor, A. J.

1995-01-01

94

Observed Initiation and Reciprocity of Physical Aggression in Young, At-Risk Couples  

PubMed Central

The present study examined sex differences in initiation of physical aggression as observed during discussion tasks and in the likelihood of a similar response from the partner. In addition, patterns for men and women in the prevalence of aggression initiation and partner reciprocation across 4 time points spanning approximately 9 years from late adolescence through the mid-20s are examined, as well as overall associations with reported aggression and injuries. Findings indicated that the young women were more likely than the men to initiate physical aggression at late adolescence, but by the mid-20s in early adulthood there were no significant sex differences in initiation rates. The average rates of reciprocation across the 4 time points appeared to be similar for men and women. Women and men appeared more likely to report injuries if the couples observed physical aggression involved mutual aggression in their interactions. PMID:17468783

Capaldi, Deborah M.; Kim, Hyoun K.; Shortt, Joann Wu

2006-01-01

95

Trigonometric functions of nonlinear quantities  

SciTech Connect

Trigonometric functions of nonlinear quantities are introduced. Functions of the form {line_integral}(x{sup a}), {line_integral}(x{sup y}), and {line_integral}{sup n}(x{sup a}) are reported, where {line_integral} is a trigonometric function such as cos, sin, tan, cot, sec, or csc; x is a variable; a is a constant; y is a variable; and n is a constant. Sums, products and quotients of these functions are defined. Trigonometric functions of nonlinear quantities involving constants to variable powers also are mentioned. Possible applications to quantum mechanics, gravity, and a final theory of matter are discussed.

Wester, D.W.

1994-08-01

96

Post-Lesson Observation Conferencing of University Supervisors and Physical Education Teacher Education Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of our descriptive study was to examine post-lesson observation conferencing discourse between university supervisors (USs) and physical education teacher education students (PTs). Three USs completed a questionnaire related to demographic information and their perceptions of their role as a supervisor. These USs then audio-recorded…

Wright, Steven; Grenier, Michelle; Channell, Kathy

2012-01-01

97

Tri-Axial Accelerometry and Heart Rate Telemetry: Relation and Agreement with Behavioral Observation in Elementary Physical Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relation and agreement of tri-axial accelerometry and heart rate telemetry in measuring moderate to vigorous physical activity were examined in association to behavioral observation during 1st- and 2nd-grade physical education. In Study 1, physical activity measures of heart rate and behavioral observation were collected on 346 participants…

Scruggs, Philip W.; Beveridge, Sandy K.; Clocksin, Brian D.

2005-01-01

98

Quantity Estimation Of The Interactions  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we present some considerations about quantity estimations, regarding the range of interaction and the conservations laws in various types of interactions. Our estimations are done under classical and quantum point of view and have to do with the interaction's carriers, the radius, the influence range and the intensity of interactions.

Gorana, Agim; Malkaj, Partizan; Muda, Valbona [Department of Physics, Polytechnic University of Tirana, Sheshi 'Neenee Tereza' No 4, Tirana (Albania)

2007-04-23

99

The system for observing fitness instruction time (SOFIT) as a measure of energy expenditure during classroom based physical activity  

E-print Network

The aim of this investigation was to develop an equation to estimate physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) during a 10-min physically active academic lesson using The System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time ...

Honas, Jeffery J.; Washburn, Richard A.; Smith, Bryan K.; Greene, Leon; Cook-Wiens, Galen; Donnelly, Joseph E.

2008-01-01

100

Child Endowments, and the Quantity and Quality of Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper brings together and integrates social interactions and the special relation between quantity and quality. We are able to show that the observed quality income elasticity would be relatively high and the quantity elasticity relatively low and sometimes negative, even if the true \\

Gary S. Becker; Nigel Tomes

1976-01-01

101

Inclusion of Linearized Moist Physics in Nasa's Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation Tools  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Inclusion of moist physics in the linearized version of a weather forecast model is beneficial in terms of variational data assimilation. Further, it improves the capability of important tools, such as adjoint-based observation impacts and sensitivity studies. A linearized version of the relaxed Arakawa-Schubert (RAS) convection scheme has been developed and tested in NASA's Goddard Earth Observing System data assimilation tools. A previous study of the RAS scheme showed it to exhibit reasonable linearity and stability. This motivates the development of a linearization of a near-exact version of the RAS scheme. Linearized large-scale condensation is included through simple conversion of supersaturation into precipitation. The linearization of moist physics is validated against the full nonlinear model for 6- and 24-h intervals, relevant to variational data assimilation and observation impacts, respectively. For a small number of profiles, sudden large growth in the perturbation trajectory is encountered. Efficient filtering of these profiles is achieved by diagnosis of steep gradients in a reduced version of the operator of the tangent linear model. With filtering turned on, the inclusion of linearized moist physics increases the correlation between the nonlinear perturbation trajectory and the linear approximation of the perturbation trajectory. A month-long observation impact experiment is performed and the effect of including moist physics on the impacts is discussed. Impacts from moist-sensitive instruments and channels are increased. The effect of including moist physics is examined for adjoint sensitivity studies. A case study examining an intensifying Northern Hemisphere Atlantic storm is presented. The results show a significant sensitivity with respect to moisture.

Holdaway, Daniel; Errico, Ronald; Gelaro, Ronaldo; Kim, Jong G.

2013-01-01

102

Physical characterisation of near-Earth asteroid (1620) Geographos. Reconciling radar and thermal-infrared observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. The Yarkovsky (orbital drift) and YORP (spin state change) effects play important roles in the dynamical and physical evolution of asteroids. Thermophysical modelling of these observed effects, and of thermal-infrared observations, allows a detailed physical characterisation of an individual asteroid to be performed. Aims: We perform a detailed physical characterisation of near-Earth asteroid (1620) Geographos, a potential meteor stream source and former spacecraft target, using the same techniques as previously used for (1862) Apollo. Methods: We use the advanced thermophysical model (ATPM) on published light-curve, radar, and thermal-infrared observations to constrain the thermophysical properties of Geographos. The derived properties are used to make detailed predictions of the Yarkovsky orbital drift and YORP rotational acceleration, which are then compared against published measurements to determine Geographos's bulk density. Results: We find that Geographos has a thermal inertia of 340-100+140 J m-2 K-1 s-1/2, a roughness fraction of ?50%, and a bulk density of 2100-450+550 kg m-3 when using the light-curve-derived shape model with the radar-derived maximum equatorial diameter of 5.04 ± 0.07 km. It is also found that the radar observations had overestimated the z-axis in Geographos's shape model because of their near-equatorial view. This results in a poor fit to the thermal-infrared observations if its effective diameter is kept fixed in the model fitting. Conclusions: The thermal inertia derived for Geographos is slightly higher than the typical values for a near-Earth asteroid of its size, and its derived bulk density suggests a rubble-pile interior structure. Large uncertainties in shape model z-axes are likely to explain why radar and thermal-infrared observations sometimes give inconsistent diameter determinations for other asteroids.

Rozitis, B.; Green, S. F.

2014-08-01

103

Observations of Asteroid 2577 Litva with Analysis of Physical Properties Through Bayesian Interence Based Modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations of asteroid 2577 Litva, a known multiple system, were taken from Robinson Observatory at the University of Central Florida spanning several weeks from late 2013 to early 2014. This work outlines a modified Bayesian Inference methodology for determining periodicities within the data as well as correcting for orbital effects with pole determination, and compares our results with previously published works. For the primary object, Litva, we find the most probable period to be 2.812186±5x10 ? 6 hours, the most probable for the pole direction to be at 26.96 ± 2 , 298.8 ± 11 degrees latitude and longitude. The secondary system does not appear to eclipse the primary object, most likely due orbital geometries. For the third object we find the most probable rotation period to be 5.68389 ± 0.0005 hours. We discuss how to extend this work to determine the direction of the rotation axis for the third body, as well as the pole direction for the eclipsing satellite. This methodology is a novel tool for generating probability distributions for each measured quantity handling low signal-to-noise observations, working with widely spaced data, and detecting periodicities.

Lust, Nathaniel B.; Britt, Daniel

2014-11-01

104

Physical properties (particle size, rock abundance) from thermal infrared remote observations: Implications for Mars landing sites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Critical to the assessment of potential sites for the 1997 Pathfinder landing is estimation of general physical properties of the martian surface. Surface properties have been studied using a variety of spacecraft and earth-based remote sensing observations, plus in situ studies at the Viking lander sites. Because of their value in identifying landing hazards and defining scientific objectives, we focus this discussion on thermal inertia and rock abundance derived from middle-infrared (6 to 30 microns) observations. Used in conjunction with other datasets, particularly albedo and Viking orbiter images, thermal inertia and rock abundance provide clues about the properties of potential Mars landing sites.

Christensen, P. R.; Edgett, Kenneth S.

1994-01-01

105

Assessment and Selection of GCM Perturbed Physics Ensemble Members Using Observed Top-of-Atmosphere Fluxes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study presents a new method for constraining general circulation model (GCM) perturbed physics ensembles (PPEs) using observed top-of-atmosphere (TOA) shortwave and longwave radiation fluxes. One problem frequently encountered when using perturbed physics ensembles to produce probabilistic forecasts is efficiency; hundreds or thousands of simulations may be required to identify a sample of models that agree well with historical observations. In the present study, we address such limitations through the use of multiple linear regression analysis (MLR) to estimate optimal parameter values with respect to the error in TOA fluxes. We choose the TOA radiative fluxes as our performance measure because balancing the globally averaged top-of-atmosphere energy budget is a tuning procedure common to all comprehensive climate models. For our analysis we use HadAM3P, an atmosphere-only GCM. The predictors for the regression model are uncertain parameters that have been identified in previous studies as making an important contribution to simulation uncertainty (e.g., entrainment coefficient, ice fall velocity), while the predictand is the simulated global mean error in TOA fluxes with respect to satellite observations (CERES EBAF). The MLR model is trained on an historical (1990-1999) 300-member HadAM3P perturbed-physics ensemble produced using the climateprediction.net project. The regression model is then used to predict multiple parameter sets that minimise the error in top-of-atmosphere radiative fluxes. After identifying suitable parameter sets, they are used to produce an ensemble forecast of near-future climate (2040-2050). In order to account for uncertainty in the lower boundary conditions, sea surface temperatures and sea ice from the CMIP5 ensemble are used to drive HadAM3P. Our overall aim is to demonstrate an alternative and efficient technique for assessing and selecting perturbed physics ensemble members for probabilistic forecasting.

Rye, C.; Massey, N.; Ingram, W.; Jones, R.; Allen, M.

2012-12-01

106

Satellite observations of asymmetrical physical and biological responses to Hurricane Earl  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Asymmetrical physical and biological responses to Hurricane Earl in 2010 are revealed with a combined data set of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) ocean color and Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer EOS (AMSR-E) SST observations onboard the satellite Aqua. Hurricane Earl induced broad SST drops and elevated chlorophyll-a concentrations along its track. The ocean's physical and biological responses are notably right-biased when the hurricane passed along the U.S. East Coast. In the ranges within 100 km off the track, the SST dropped 1.85°C and 1.23°C on the right and left sides, respectively. On the other hand, the ratios of the chlorophyll-a concentration before and after the passage of Hurricane Earl are 2.04 on the right side and 1.33 on the left. In addition to the satellite-observed sea surface changes, temperature and salinity profiles of an Argo float on Earl's track show the ocean's physical response occurred mostly within the mixed layer and thermocline in the upper 70 m water column.

Shi, Wei; Wang, Menghua

2011-02-01

107

Unobservability of short-lived unstable particles and its implications for observational claims and theories in physics  

E-print Network

The physics literature contains many claims that elementary particles have been observed: such observational claims are, of course, important for the development of existential knowledge. Regarding claimed observations of short-lived unstable particles in particular, the term `observation' is not used with reference to any particular concept of observation: physicists merely use the word `observation' based on the convention in physics that the observation of a short-lived unstable particle can be claimed when its predicted decay products have been observed with a significance of 5 sigma. However, using Fox's recent concepts of direct and indirect observation, this paper shows that unstable particles with a lifetime of less than 0.01 attosecond are fundamentally unobservable. This cognitive inaccessibility of parts of the subatomic world has far-reaching implications for physics, not the least of which is that the aforementioned convention is untenable: claims that such short-lived unstable particles have bee...

Cabbolet, Marcoen J T F

2015-01-01

108

Controlling symmetry-breaking states by a hidden quantity in multiplicative noise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The inhomogeneity of multiplicative white noise leads to various coupling modes between deterministic and stochastic forces. We investigate the phase transition induced by the variation of the coupling mode through manipulating its characteristic parameter continuously. Even when the noise strength is fixed, an increase of this parameter can enhance or inhibit the symmetry-breaking state. We also propose a scheme to implement these phase transitions experimentally. Our result demonstrates that the coupling mode previously considered to be a mathematical convention serves as an additional quantity leading to physically observable phase transitions. This observation provides a mechanism to control the effect of noise without regulating the noise strength.

Tang, Ying; Yuan, Ruoshi; Chen, Jianhong; Ao, Ping

2014-11-01

109

Controlling symmetry-breaking states by a hidden quantity in multiplicative noise.  

PubMed

The inhomogeneity of multiplicative white noise leads to various coupling modes between deterministic and stochastic forces. We investigate the phase transition induced by the variation of the coupling mode through manipulating its characteristic parameter continuously. Even when the noise strength is fixed, an increase of this parameter can enhance or inhibit the symmetry-breaking state. We also propose a scheme to implement these phase transitions experimentally. Our result demonstrates that the coupling mode previously considered to be a mathematical convention serves as an additional quantity leading to physically observable phase transitions. This observation provides a mechanism to control the effect of noise without regulating the noise strength. PMID:25493754

Tang, Ying; Yuan, Ruoshi; Chen, Jianhong; Ao, Ping

2014-11-01

110

Assessing agreement of self-reported and observed physical exposures of the upper extremity  

PubMed Central

Assessment of workplace physical exposures by self-reported questionnaires has logistical advantages in population studies but is subject to exposure misclassification. This study measured agreement between eight self-reported and observer-rated physical exposures to the hands and wrists, and evaluated predictors of inter-method agreement. Workers (n=341) from three occupational categories (clerical/technical, construction, and service) completed self-administered questionnaires and worksite assessments. Analyses compared self-reported and observed ratings using a weighted kappa coefficient. Personal and psychosocial factors, presence of upper extremity symptoms and job type were evaluated as predictors of agreement. Weighted kappa values were substantial for lifting (0.67) and holding vibrating tools (0.61), moderate for forceful grip (0.58) and fair to poor for all other exposures. Upper extremity symptoms did not predict greater disagreement between self-reported and observed exposures. Occupational category was the only significant predictor of inter-method agreement. Self-reported exposures may provide a useful estimate of some work exposures for population studies. PMID:20166314

Dale, Ann Marie; Strickland, Jaime; Gardner, Bethany; Symanzik, Jürgen; Evanoff, Bradley

2012-01-01

111

Unobservability of short-lived unstable particles and its implications for observational claims and theories in physics  

E-print Network

The physics literature contains many claims that elementary particles have been observed: such observational claims are, of course, important for the development of existential knowledge. Regarding claimed observations of short-lived unstable particles in particular, the term `observation' is not used with reference to any particular concept of observation: physicists merely use the word `observation' based on the convention in physics that the observation of a short-lived unstable particle can be claimed when its predicted decay products have been observed with a significance of 5 sigma. However, using Fox's recent concepts of direct and indirect observation, this paper shows that unstable particles with a lifetime of less than 0.01 attosecond are fundamentally unobservable. This cognitive inaccessibility of parts of the subatomic world has far-reaching implications for physics, not the least of which is that the aforementioned convention is untenable: claims that such short-lived unstable particles have been observed will thus have to be retracted. The main implications are two incompleteness theorems for physics, respectively stating (i) that experiments cannot prove completeness of a physical theory predicting short-lived unstable particles, and (ii) that experiments cannot prove correctness of such a theory - one can at most test its empirical adequacy. On a general note, the conclusion is that the importance of philosophical arguments for particle physics is herewith demonstrated: it is, thus, a widespread misconception that philosophical arguments can be completely avoided.

Marcoen J. T. F. Cabbolet

2015-02-03

112

Physical properties of dust particles in different comets inferred from observations and experimental simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

1.Introduction Remote observations of solar light scattered by cometary dust particles provide information on the dust properties for a large variety of comets, in complement to the exceptional in-situ observations (with or without sample returns). The scattered light is partially linearly polarized, with a polarization degree depending on the geometry of observations (phase angle ?) and on the physical properties of the particles. Differences in polarization have been found in cometary comae, pointing to different physical properties of the dust (e.g. sizes of the grains, of the aggregates, structures and porosities, complex refractive indices) [1, 2]. Such differences, as well as an observed polarimetric wavelength effect, tend to show that large aggregates made of submicron-sized grains could be present in some cometary comae regions [3, 4]. On the opposite, more compact particles seem to be present in other comae regions and/or comets [5, 6]. 2. Results We will present observations of different comets. The variations of the dust properties in the coma and their evolution will be discussed. The results will be compared to the results obtained by other observational techniques. On the images of comet 9P/Tempel 1 (at ?=41°) some hours after Deep Impact, two kinds of dust particles are detected: more compact particles with small velocities and fluffy particles ejected by the impact with larger velocities. On the images of comet 73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3, in the tail direction of fragment B, a disruption is observed. The dust coma around fragment C is more symmetric. For both A and B, important dust jets are ejected by the nucleus, which are visible on the intensity images in the solar and antisolar directions, and on the polarization maps. 3. Interpretation and conclusion Numerical (7,8,9) and experimental simulations provide an interpretation of the observations in terms of the physical properties of the particles. Experimental simulations have been performed on numerous levitating samples (compact and fluffy) with the PROGRA2 experiment, either in reduced gravity conditions (parabolic flights) [10,11], or lifted by an air-draught (laboratory conditions) [12,13]. The variations of the polarization are correlated to variations in the size of the grains and aggregates and are a function of the complex refractive index and its evolution. The correlation between the variations of the scattered intensity and the linear polarization maps allows us to disentangle different physical properties of the dust. The results are compared to results obtained from previous observations by the same methods. References [1] E. Hadamcik and A.C. Levasseur-Regourd, JQSRT 79-80, 661-678 (2003) [2] A.C. Levasseur-Regourd, E. Hadamcik, JQSRT 79-80, 903-910 (2003) [3] E. Hadamcik, A.C. Levasseur-Regourd, A&A 403, 757- 768 (2003) [4] L. Kolokolova et al., In: Comets II, M.C. Festou et al. (eds), pp 577 (2004) [5] E. Hadamcik, A.C. Levasseur-Regourd, Icarus 166, 188-194 (2003) [6] E. Hadamcik et al., Icarus, accepted. [7] J. Lasue, A.C. Levasseur-Regourd, JQSRT 100, 220-236 (2006) [8] H. Kimura et al., A&A 449, 1243-1254 (2006) [9] A.C. Levasseur-Regourd et al., PSS, in press, available on line (2007) [10] J.-B. Renard et al. Appl. Opt 41, 609-618 (2002) [11] J.-B. Renard et al., Adv. Space Res. 31, 2511-2518 (2003) [12] E. Hadamcik et al., JQSRT 100, 143-156 (2006) [13] E. Hadamcik et al., Icarus, in press, available on line (2007)

Hadamcik, E.; Levasseur-Regourd, A. C.

2007-08-01

113

Transformative Relation of Kinematical Descriptive Quantities Defined by Different Spatial Referential Frame, Its Property and Application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantitative transformations between corresponding kinetic quantities defined by any two spatial referential frames, whose relative kinematics relations (purely rotational and translational movement) are known, are presented based on necessarily descriptive definitions of the fundamental concepts (instant, time, spatial referential frame that distinguishes from Maths. Coordination, physical point) had being clarified by directly empirical observation with artificially descriptive purpose. Inductive investigation of the transformation reveals that all physical quantities such as charge, temperature, time, volume, length, temporal rate of the quantities and relations like temporal relation between signal source and observer as such are independent to spatial frames transformation except above kinematical quantities transformations, kinematics related dynamics such as Newton ’ s second law existing only in inertial frames and exchange of kinetic energy of mass being valid only in a selected inertial frame. From above bas is, we demonstrate a series of inferences and applications such as phase velocity of light being direct respect to medium (including vacuum) rather than to the frame, using spatial referential frame to describe any measurable field (electric field, magnetic field, gravitational field) and the field ’ s variation; and have tables to contrast and evaluate all aspects of those hypotheses related with spacetime such as distorted spacetime around massive stellar, four dimension spacetime, gravitational time dilation and non - Euclid geometry with new one. The demonstration strongly suggests all the hypotheses are invalid in capable tested concepts ’ meaning and relations. The conventional work on frame transformation and its property, hypothesized by Voigt, Heaviside, Lorentz, Poincare and Einstein a century ago with some mathematical speculation lacking rigorous definition of the fundamental concepts such as instant, time, spatial reference, straight line, plane area, merely good in building up patchwork to do self p referred explanation by making up derivative concepts or accumulating new hypothesis, has disturbed people to describe the physical nature by setting up the sound basis of concept and relations with capable tested method, it’s time to be replaced by empirically effective alternative.

Luo, Ji

2012-08-01

114

Balancing Teacher Quality and Quantity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The world is facing a shortage of trained teachers. According to the 2010 Global Monitoring Report approximately 10.3 million teachers will be needed globally to staff classrooms from Bangkok to Canada. The situation is worse in Sub-Saharan Africa. Estimates suggest that approximately 1.2 million new teachers will be needed in Sub-Saharan Africa alone to achieve universal primary education goals by 2015. Increases in primary school enrollments, drought, and HIV-AIDS have exacerbated the need for well trained teachers. Despite the need, the focus is on balancing quality with quantity. An effective teacher is deemed a critical element, although not the only one, in a student's success in the classroom. This paper focuses on the dilemma of meeting universal primary education goals in Sub-Saharan Africa, while maintaining teacher quality in fragile contexts.

Bond, Helen

115

What the complex joint probabilities observed in weak measurements can tell us about quantum physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantummechanics does not permit joint measurements of non-commuting observables. However, it is possible to measure the weak value of a projection operator, followed by the precise measurement of a different property. The results can be interpreted as complex joint probabilities of the two non-commuting measurement outcomes. Significantly, it is possible to predict the outcome of completely different measurements by combining the joint probabilities of the initial state with complex conditional probabilities relating the new measurement to the possible combinations of measurement outcomes used in the characterization of the quantum state. We can therefore conclude that the complex conditional probabilities observed in weak measurements describe fundamental state-independent relations between non-commuting properties that represent the most fundamental form of universal laws in quantum physics.

Hofmann, Holger F.

2014-12-01

116

Observations of physical-biogeochemical coupling in the tropical Northeast Atlantic using a fleet of gliders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To study the coupling between physical and biogeochemical parameters, high-spatial resolution, multi-parameter measurements are required. This poses a challenge to ocean observing systems. We present results from a study in the tropical Northeast Atlantic, employing simultaneous observations from 5 gliders. Each glider recorded temperature, salinity, chlorophyll, oxygen and turbidity for the duration of 50 days. A 45 by 45 km wide area was sampled using butterfly-shaped courses, to optimize the area coverage of the gliders. Our analysis focuses on the quantification of the spatial scales of variability in the recorded parameters and the demonstration of coupling between physical and biogeochemical parameters. The gliders observed strong variability in form of changes of thermohaline properties including pronounced submesoscale variability. The scale-dependence of the different parameters is presented. Below the mixed layer, changes in oxygen and salinity imply spatio-temporal variability of the ratio of North to South Atlantic waters. We report the passing of an open-ocean salinity front, associated with pronounced changes in both the vertical chlorophyll distribution and the possible communication between the mixed layer base and the sub-surface chlorophyll maximum. Our results imply, that these variations might pose challenges to estimating chlorophyll profiles by remote sensing.Salinity (upper panel) and chlorophyll fluorescence (lower panel), as observed from a glider north of the Cape Verde Islands. Also shown are the mixed laxer base (magenta line) and a potential density surface (black line). Note that the mixed layer base ceases to reach the subsurface chlorophyll maximum after passing through the salinity front.

Kanzow, T.; Krahmann, G.; Karstensen, J.

2012-12-01

117

DENSITY ESTIMATION FOR PROJECTED EXOPLANET QUANTITIES  

SciTech Connect

Exoplanet searches using radial velocity (RV) and microlensing (ML) produce samples of 'projected' mass and orbital radius, respectively. We present a new method for estimating the probability density distribution (density) of the unprojected quantity from such samples. For a sample of n data values, the method involves solving n simultaneous linear equations to determine the weights of delta functions for the raw, unsmoothed density of the unprojected quantity that cause the associated cumulative distribution function (CDF) of the projected quantity to exactly reproduce the empirical CDF of the sample at the locations of the n data values. We smooth the raw density using nonparametric kernel density estimation with a normal kernel of bandwidth {sigma}. We calibrate the dependence of {sigma} on n by Monte Carlo experiments performed on samples drawn from a theoretical density, in which the integrated square error is minimized. We scale this calibration to the ranges of real RV samples using the Normal Reference Rule. The resolution and amplitude accuracy of the estimated density improve with n. For typical RV and ML samples, we expect the fractional noise at the PDF peak to be approximately 80 n{sup -log2}. For illustrations, we apply the new method to 67 RV values given a similar treatment by Jorissen et al. in 2001, and to the 308 RV values listed at exoplanets.org on 2010 October 20. In addition to analyzing observational results, our methods can be used to develop measurement requirements-particularly on the minimum sample size n-for future programs, such as the microlensing survey of Earth-like exoplanets recommended by the Astro 2010 committee.

Brown, Robert A., E-mail: rbrown@stsci.edu [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

2011-05-20

118

Computer simulating observations of the Lunar physical libration for the Japanese Lunar project ILOM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the frame of the second stage of the Japanese space mission SELENE-2 (Hanada et al. 2009) the project ILOM (In-situ Lunar Orientation Measurement) planned after 2017years is a kind of instrument for positioning on the Moon. It will be set near the lunar pole and will determine parameters of lunar physical libration by positioning of several tens of stars in the field of view regularly for longer than one year. Presented work is dedicated to analyses of computer simulating future observations. It's proposed that for every star crossing lunar prime meridian its polar distance will be to measure. The methods of optimal star observation are being developed for the future experiment. The equations are constructed to determine libration angles ? (t),?(t),?(t)- on the basis of observed polar distances pobs: (| f1(?,?,I?,pobs) = 0 |{ f2(?,?,I?,pobs) = 0 | f3(?,?,I?,pobs) = 0 |( or f(X) = 0, where ; f = ? f1 ? | f2 | |? f3 |? X = ? ? ? | ? | |? I? |? (1) At the present stage we have developed the software for selection of stars for these future polar observations. Stars were taken from various stellar catalogues, such as the UCAC2-BSS, Hipparcos, Tycho and FK6. The software reduces ICRS coordinates of star to selenographical system at the epoch of observation (Petrova et al., 2009). For example, to the epochs 2017 - 2018 more than 50 stars brighter than m = 12 were selected for the northern pole. In total, these stars give about 600 crossings of the prime meridian during one year. Nevertheless, only a few stars (2-5) may be observed in a vicinity of the one moment. This is not enough to have sufficient sample to exclude various kind of errors. The software includes programmes which can determine the moment of transition of star across the meridian and theoretical values of libration angles at this moments. A serious problem arises when we try to solve equations (1) with the purpose to determine libration angles on the basis of simulated pobs.. Polar distances are calculated using the analytical theory of physical libration Petrova et al. (2008; 2009). We cannot use Newton's method for solution of the equation, because the Jacobian | | || ??fx11 ??fx12 ??f1x3-|| || ??fx2 ??fx2 ??f2x-|| J(X ) = || ?f13 ?f23 ?3f3-|| = 0. || ?x1 ?x2 ?x3 || We transformed equations to the iteration form xi = ?i(X). Used iteration methods have unsatisfactory convergence: inaccuracy in polar distance of 1 milliseconds of arc causes inaccuracy of 0.01arcsec in ? and in I?, and 0.1 arcsec in ?. Results of our computer simulating showed It's necessary to carry out measuring of polar distances of stars in several meridians simultaneously to increase sample of stars. It's necessary to find additional links (relations) between observed parameters and libration angles to have stable mathematical methods to receive solutions for lunar rotation with high accuracy. The research was supported by the Russian-Japanese grant RFFI-JSPS 09-02-92113, (2009-2010) References: Hanada H., Noda H., Kikuchi F. et al., 2009. Different kind of observations of lunar rotation and gravity for SELENE-2. Proc of conf. Astrokazan-2009, August 19 - 26, Kazan, Russia. p. 172-175 Petrova N., Gusev A., Kawano N., Hanada H., 2008. Free librations of the two-layer Moon and the possibilities of their detection. Advances in Space Res., v 42, p. 1398-1404 Petrova N., Gusev A., Hanada H., Ivanova T., Akutina V., 2009. Application of the analytical theory of Lunar physical libration for simulating observations of stars for the future Japanese project ILOM. Proc of conf. Astrokazan-2009, August 19 - 26, Kazan, Russia. p.197 - 201.

Petrova, Natalia; Hanada, Hideo

2010-05-01

119

IMOS National Reference Stations: A Continental-Wide Physical, Chemical and Biological Coastal Observing System  

PubMed Central

Sustained observations allow for the tracking of change in oceanography and ecosystems, however, these are rare, particularly for the Southern Hemisphere. To address this in part, the Australian Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS) implemented a network of nine National Reference Stations (NRS). The network builds on one long-term location, where monthly water sampling has been sustained since the 1940s and two others that commenced in the 1950s. In-situ continuously moored sensors and an enhanced monthly water sampling regime now collect more than 50 data streams. Building on sampling for temperature, salinity and nutrients, the network now observes dissolved oxygen, carbon, turbidity, currents, chlorophyll a and both phytoplankton and zooplankton. Additional parameters for studies of ocean acidification and bio-optics are collected at a sub-set of sites and all data is made freely and publically available. Our preliminary results demonstrate increased utility to observe extreme events, such as marine heat waves and coastal flooding; rare events, such as plankton blooms; and have, for the first time, allowed for consistent continental scale sampling and analysis of coastal zooplankton and phytoplankton communities. Independent water sampling allows for cross validation of the deployed sensors for quality control of data that now continuously tracks daily, seasonal and annual variation. The NRS will provide multi-decadal time series, against which more spatially replicated short-term studies can be referenced, models and remote sensing products validated, and improvements made to our understanding of how large-scale, long-term change and variability in the global ocean are affecting Australia's coastal seas and ecosystems. The NRS network provides an example of how a continental scaled observing systems can be developed to collect observations that integrate across physics, chemistry and biology. PMID:25517905

Lynch, Tim P.; Morello, Elisabetta B.; Evans, Karen; Richardson, Anthony J.; Rochester, Wayne; Steinberg, Craig R.; Roughan, Moninya; Thompson, Peter; Middleton, John F.; Feng, Ming; Sherrington, Robert; Brando, Vittorio; Tilbrook, Bronte; Ridgway, Ken; Allen, Simon; Doherty, Peter; Hill, Katherine; Moltmann, Tim C.

2014-01-01

120

IMOS National Reference Stations: A Continental-Wide Physical, Chemical and Biological Coastal Observing System.  

PubMed

Sustained observations allow for the tracking of change in oceanography and ecosystems, however, these are rare, particularly for the Southern Hemisphere. To address this in part, the Australian Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS) implemented a network of nine National Reference Stations (NRS). The network builds on one long-term location, where monthly water sampling has been sustained since the 1940s and two others that commenced in the 1950s. In-situ continuously moored sensors and an enhanced monthly water sampling regime now collect more than 50 data streams. Building on sampling for temperature, salinity and nutrients, the network now observes dissolved oxygen, carbon, turbidity, currents, chlorophyll a and both phytoplankton and zooplankton. Additional parameters for studies of ocean acidification and bio-optics are collected at a sub-set of sites and all data is made freely and publically available. Our preliminary results demonstrate increased utility to observe extreme events, such as marine heat waves and coastal flooding; rare events, such as plankton blooms; and have, for the first time, allowed for consistent continental scale sampling and analysis of coastal zooplankton and phytoplankton communities. Independent water sampling allows for cross validation of the deployed sensors for quality control of data that now continuously tracks daily, seasonal and annual variation. The NRS will provide multi-decadal time series, against which more spatially replicated short-term studies can be referenced, models and remote sensing products validated, and improvements made to our understanding of how large-scale, long-term change and variability in the global ocean are affecting Australia's coastal seas and ecosystems. The NRS network provides an example of how a continental scaled observing systems can be developed to collect observations that integrate across physics, chemistry and biology. PMID:25517905

Lynch, Tim P; Morello, Elisabetta B; Evans, Karen; Richardson, Anthony J; Rochester, Wayne; Steinberg, Craig R; Roughan, Moninya; Thompson, Peter; Middleton, John F; Feng, Ming; Sherrington, Robert; Brando, Vittorio; Tilbrook, Bronte; Ridgway, Ken; Allen, Simon; Doherty, Peter; Hill, Katherine; Moltmann, Tim C

2014-01-01

121

Physical Characteristics of Faint Meteors by Light Curve and High-resolution Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The physical structure of a meteoroid may be inferred from optical observations, particularly the light curve, of a meteor. For example: a classically shaped (late peaked) light curve is seen as evidence of a solid single body, whereas a symmetric light curve may indicate a dustball structure. High-resolution optical observations show how the meteoroid fragments: continuously, leaving a long wake, or discretely, leaving several distinct pieces. Calculating the orbit of the meteoroid using two station data then allows the object to be associated with asteroidal or cometary parent bodies. Optical observations thus provide simultaneous information on meteoroid structure, fragmentation mode, and origin.CAMO (the Canadian Automated Meteor Observatory) has been continuously collecting faint (masses < 10-4 kg) two station optical meteors with image-intensified narrow field (with a resolution of up to 3 meters per pixel) and wide field (26 by 19 degrees) cameras since 2010. The narrow field, telescopic cameras allow the meteor fragmentation to be studied using a pair of mirrors to track the meteor. The wide-field cameras provide the light curve and trajectory solution.We present preliminary results from classifying light curves and high-resolution optical observations for 3000 faint meteors recorded since 2010. We find that most meteors (both asteroidal and cometary) show long trails, while meteors with short trails are the second most common morphology. It is expected that meteoroids that experience negligible fragmentation have the shortest trails, so our results imply that the majority of small meteoroids fragment during ablation. A surprising observation is that almost equal fractions of asteroidal and cometary meteors fragment (showing long trails), implying a similar structure for both types of meteoroids.

Subasinghe, Dilini; Campbell-Brown, Margaret D.; Stokan, Edward

2014-11-01

122

Physical Properties of Spicules from Simultaneous Spectropolarimetric Observations of He I and Ca II Lines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present full Stokes observations from SPINOR (Spectro-Polarimeter for INfrared and Optical Regions, at the Dunn Solar Telescope) in the Ca II infrared triplet and the He I multiplet at 1083 nm from which some properties of spicules have been derived. There are important advantages in multiline observations, particularly from different elements. We find that the orientation of the plane of polarization is very different for the Ca and He lines, which provides new model-independent direct evidence of magnetic fields in spicules. Our data show that the Ca and He lines have almost identical widths. Since the Ca atom is 10 times heavier than He, we are able to conclude that most of the broadening is nonthermal (~=16 km s-1) and to set an upper limit of 13 kK to the spicular temperatures. The bisectors of the lines span a velocity range of over 15 km s-1 for the He line and 30 km s-1 for the Ca ones. The vertical gradient of line-of-sight velocities is also very different for both elements. We obtain 2.8 km s-1 Mm-1 from He versus 6.4 km s-1 Mm-1 from Ca. These properties, and others from similar observations, should be taken into account in future physical models of spicules.

Socas-Navarro, H.; Elmore, D.

2005-02-01

123

Discerning new physics in toverline t production using top spin observables at hadron colliders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Copious production of top-anti top quark pairs at hadron colliders has enabled various probes into the properties and interactions of top quarks. Among the various presently measured observables, the forward-backward asymmetry (FBA) in toverline t production measured at the Tevatron significantly deviates from the standard model predictions, and many models of new physics have been invented to explain the puzzle. We consider the consistency of the simplified single-resonance models containing a color octet axial-vector ("axigluon"), color triplet or sextet weak singlet scalars, weak isodoublet scalar, flavor-changing neutral Z ', or charged W ' vector boson with existing toverline t production measurements. Among the considered models only an axigluon can reproduce all Tevatron observables, without being in severe tension with the recent LHC results on toverline t production cross section, charge asymmetry and top-spin correlations. The LHC charge asymmetry measurements exclude the W ' and Z ' explanations of the Tevatron FBA anomaly. On the other hand, all scalar models predict notable deviations in several top spin observables, and the recent top spin correlation measurement using the "helicity" spin quantization axis by ATLAS already provides a significant constraint on possible explanations of the Tevatron FBA anomaly. Future precise measurements of top spin correlations and especially top polarization could differentiate between scalar t-channel models, while they are less sensitive to pure axigluon contributions.

Fajfer, Svjetlana; Kamenik, Jernej F.; Meli?, Blaženka

2012-08-01

124

Quantity, Revisited: An Object-Oriented Reusable Class  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

"Quantity", a prototype implementation of an object-oriented class, was developed for two reasons: to help engineers and scientists manipulate the many types of quantities encountered during routine analysis, and to create a reusable software component to for large domain-specific applications. From being used as a stand-alone application to being incorporated into an existing computational mechanics toolkit, "Quantity" appears to be a useful and powerful object. "Quantity" has been designed to maintain the full engineering meaning of values with respect to units and coordinate systems. A value is a scalar, vector, tensor, or matrix, each of which is composed of Value Components, each of which may be an integer, floating point number, fuzzy number, etc., and its associated physical unit. Operations such as coordinate transformation and arithmetic operations are handled by member functions of "Quantity". The prototype has successfully tested such characteristics as maintaining a numeric value, an associated unit, and an annotation. In this paper we further explore the design of "Quantity", with particular attention to coordinate systems.

Funston, Monica Gayle; Gerstle, Walter; Panthaki, Malcolm

1998-01-01

125

Assimilation of streamflow and soil moisture observations in a distributed physically-based hydrological model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data assimilation techniques not only enhance model simulations and predictions, they also give the opportunity to pose a diagnostic on both model and observations used in the assimilation process. The goal of this research is to assimilate streamflow and soil moisture in a distributed physically-based hydrological model, CATHY (CATchment HYdrology). The study site is the des Anglais Watershed, a 690-km2 river basin located in southern Québec, Canada. An ensemble Kalman filter was used to assimilate streamflow observations at the basin outlet and at interior locations, as well as soil moisture at different depths (15, 45, and 90 cm) measured with probes (6 stations) and surface soil moisture estimated from radar remote sensing. The use of a Latin hypercube sampling instead of the Monte Carlo method to generate the ensemble reduced the size of ensemble, and therefore the calculation time. An important issue in data assimilation is the estimation of error covariance matrices. Different post-assimilation diagnostics, based on innovations (observation-minus-background), analysis residuals (observation-minus-analysis) and analysis increments (analysis-minus-background) were used to evaluate assimilation optimality. A calibration approach was performed to determine the standard deviation of model parameters, forcing data and observations that lead to optimal assimilations. The analysis of innovations showed a lag between the model prediction and the observation during rainfall events. The assimilation of streamflow observations (outlet or interior locations) corrected this discrepancy. The assimilation of outlet streamflow observations improved the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiencies (NSE) at both outlet and interior point locations. The structure of the state vector used in this study allowed the assimilation of outlet streamflow observations to have an impact over streamflow simulations at interior point locations. Indeed, the state vector contains the outlet streamflow (Qout) and the incoming streamflow (Qin), since both these informations are used by the Muskingum-Cunge surface routing equation in CATHY. However, assimilation of streamflow observations increased systematically the soil moisture values simulated at 15 and 45 cm. The combined assimilation of outlet streamflow and soil moisture improved the NSE of streamflow without degrading the simulation of soil moisture. Moreover, the assimilation of streamflow and soil moisture observations from one station (at 45 cm depth) appeared to have a similar impact on soil moisture simulations compared to a combined assimilation of streamflow and soil moisture observations from five stations. Finally, it was found that the frequency of the assimilation of soil moisture observations has a greater impact on the results than the spatial coverage of the assimilation: assimilation of daily soil moisture measured with probes at six stations gives better results than the assimilation of surface soil moisture estimated from radar remote sensing 8 times over the course of a summer season.

Trudel, M.; Leconte, R.; Paniconi, C.

2012-04-01

126

Parameterization of Stratospheric Aerosol Physical Properties on the Basis of Nd:YAG Lidar Observations.  

PubMed

An extension to the 355- and 1064-nm wavelengths of a numerical optical model originally developed at 532 nm is presented. The resulting parameterization allows estimates of stratospheric aerosol surface area, volume, and extinction-to-backscatter ratio from lidar measurements obtained at one of the two Nd:YAG laser wavelengths. Functional relationships that link single-wavelength backscatter to each of the physical variables are provided for sulfate aerosol types ranging from background to heavy volcanic under environmental conditions representative of the global lower stratosphere. The behavior of the functional relationships at the three Nd:YAG wavelengths is compared. Relative errors of model estimates range between 10% and 50%, depending on wavelength and backscatter cross sections. These values are comparable with the ones that characterize in situ particle counters. The inference of particle effective radius and the application of the method to the interpretation of supercooled polar stratospheric cloud observations are discussed. PMID:18285928

Gobbi, G P

1998-07-20

127

A physically insightful approach to the design and accuracy assessment of flux observers for field oriented induction machine drives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rotor flux observers can provide an attractive means for achieving direct field oriented control of induction machines. This paper presents a physics-based design methodology and uses it to evaluate open-loop observers and to develop a new closed-loop flux observer. It is shown that the new flux observer is a straightforward structure with properties that combine the best features of known

Patrick L. Jansen; Robert D. Lorenz

1994-01-01

128

A Physical Model to Estimate Snowfall over Land using AMSU-B Observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this study, we present an improved physical model to retrieve snowfall rate over land using brightness temperature observations from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Advanced Microwave Sounder Unit-B (AMSU-B) at 89 GHz, 150 GHz, 183.3 +/- 1 GHz, 183.3 +/- 3 GHz, and 183.3 +/- 7 GHz. The retrieval model is applied to the New England blizzard of March 5, 2001 which deposited about 75 cm of snow over much of Vermont, New Hampshire, and northern New York. In this improved physical model, prior retrieval assumptions about snowflake shape, particle size distributions, environmental conditions, and optimization methodology have been updated. Here, single scattering parameters for snow particles are calculated with the Discrete-Dipole Approximation (DDA) method instead of assuming spherical shapes. Five different snow particle models (hexagonal columns, hexagonal plates, and three different kinds of aggregates) are considered. Snow particle size distributions are assumed to vary with air temperature and to follow aircraft measurements described by previous studies. Brightness temperatures at AMSU-B frequencies for the New England blizzard are calculated using these DDA calculated single scattering parameters and particle size distributions. The vertical profiles of pressure, temperature, relative humidity and hydrometeors are provided by MM5 model simulations. These profiles are treated as the a priori data base in the Bayesian retrieval algorithm. In algorithm applications to the blizzard data, calculated brightness temperatures associated with selected database profiles agree with AMSU-B observations to within about +/- 5 K at all five frequencies. Retrieved snowfall rates compare favorably with the near-concurrent National Weather Service (NWS) radar reflectivity measurements. The relationships between the NWS radar measured reflectivities Z(sub e) and retrieved snowfall rate R for a given snow particle model are derived by a histogram matching technique. All of these Z(sub e)-R relationships fall in the range of previously established Z(sub e)-R relationships for snowfall. This suggests that the current physical model developed in this study can reliably estimate the snowfall rate over land using the AMSU-B measured brightness temperatures.

Kim, Min-Jeong; Weinman, J. A.; Olson, W. S.; Chang, D.-E.; Skofronick-Jackson, G.; Wang, J. R.

2008-01-01

129

Data base on physical observations of near-Earth asteroids and establishment of a network to coordinate observations of newly discovered near-Earth asteroids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This program consists of two tasks: (1) development of a data base of physical observations of near-earth asteroids and establishment of a network to coordinate observations of newly discovered earth-approaching asteroids; and (2) a simulation of the surface of low-activity comets. Significant progress was made on task one and, and task two was completed during the period covered by this progress report.

Davis, D. R.; Chapman, C. R.; Campins, H.

1990-01-01

130

Physical Conditions in Quasar Outflows: VLT Observations of QSO 2359-1241  

E-print Network

We analyze the physical conditions of the outflow seen in QSO 2359-1241 (NVSS J235953-124148), based on high resolution spectroscopic VLT observations. This object was previously studied using Keck/HIRES data. The main improvement over the HIRES results is our ability to accurately determine the number density of the outflow. For the major absorption component, level population from five different Fe II excited level yields n_H=10^4.4 cm^-3 with less than 20% scatter. We find that the Fe ii absorption arises from a region with roughly constant conditions and temperature greater than 9000 K, before the ionization front where temperature and electron density drop. Further, we model the observed spectra and investigate the effects of varying gas metalicities and the spectral energy distribution of the incident ionizing radiation field. The accurately measured column densities allow us to determine the ionization parameter log(U) = -2.4 and total column density of the outflow (log(N_H) = 20.6 cm^-2). Combined with the number density finding, these are stepping stones towards determining the mass flux and kinetic luminosity of the outflow, and therefore its importance to AGN feedback processes.

Kirk Korista; Manuel Bautista; Nahum Arav; Maxwell Moe; Elisa Costantini; Chris Benn

2008-07-01

131

Some Mineral Physics Observations Pertinent to the Rheological Properties of Super-Earths  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Both orbital and thermal evolution of recently discovered super-Earths (terrestrial planets whit mass exceeding that of Earth) depends critically on the rheological properties of their mantle. Although direct experimental studies on rheological properties are unavailable under the conditions equivalent to the deep mantles of these planets (~1 TPa and ~5000 K), a review of key materials science observations suggests that the deep mantle of these planets have much lower viscosity than most of the shallower regions of these planets. The key observations are: (i) phase transformations likely occur under these conditions including the B1 to B2 transition in MgO (1) and the dissociation of MgSiO3 into two oxides (MgO and SiO2) (2), (ii) the systematics in high-temperature creep show that materials with NaCl (B1) structures have much smaller viscosity than other oxides compared at the same normalized conditions (3), and (iii) diffusion coefficients in most of materials have a minimum at certain pressure and above that pressure it increases with pressure (due to mechanism transition) (4). In addition, a review of existing studies also shows that the ionic solids with B2 (CsCl) structure have larger diffusion coefficients than their B1 counter parts. Furthermore, if metallization transition occurs in any of these materials, delocalized electrons will further weaken the material. All of these observations or concepts suggest that even though the viscosity of a planet (below the asthenosphere) increases with depth in the relatively shallow regions, viscosity likely starts to decrease with depth below some critical depth (>~2000 km). The inferred low viscosity of super-Earths implies a large tidal dissipation and relatively rapid orbital evolution. Also such a rheological properties likely promote a layered mantle convection that enhances a weak deep mantle and retards the thermal evolution. 1. A. R. Oganov, M. J. Gillan, G. D. Price, Journal of Chemical Physics 118, 10174 (2003). 2. K. Umemoto, R. M. Wentzcovitch, P. B. Allen, Science 311, 983 (2006). 3. S. Karato, Physics of Earth and Planetary Interiors 55, 234 (1989). 4. S. Karato, Programme and Abstracts, The Seismological Society of Japan 1, 216 (1978).

Karato, S.

2010-12-01

132

SuperIso Relic: A program for calculating relic density and flavor physics observables in Supersymmetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe SuperIso Relic, a public program for evaluation of relic density and flavor physics observables in the minimal supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model (MSSM). SuperIso Relic is an extension of the SuperIso program which adds to the flavor observables of SuperIso the computation of all possible annihilation and coannihilation processes of the LSP which are required for the relic density calculation. All amplitudes have been generated at the tree level with FeynArts/FormCalc, and widths of the Higgs bosons are computed with FeynHiggs at the two-loop level. SuperIso Relic also provides the possibility to modify the assumptions of the cosmological model, and to study their consequences on the relic density. Catalogue identifier: AEGD_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEGD_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: yes No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 2?274?720 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 6?735?649 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C (C99 Standard compliant) and Fortran Computer: 32- or 64-bit PC, Mac Operating system: Linux, MacOS RAM: 100 Mb Classification: 1.9, 11.6 External routines: ISASUGRA/ISAJET and/or SOFTSUSY, FeynHiggs Does the new version supersede the previous version?: No (AEAN_v2_0) Nature of problem: Calculation of the lightest supersymmetric particle relic density, as well as flavor physics observables, in order to derive constraints on the supersymmetric parameter space. Solution method: SuperIso Relic uses a SUSY Les Houches Accord file, which can be either generated automatically via a call to SOFTSUSY or ISAJET, or provided by the user. This file contains the masses and couplings of the supersymmetric particles. SuperIso Relic then computes the lightest supersymmetric particle relic density as well as the most constraining flavor physics observables. To do so, it calculates first the widths of the Higgs bosons with FeynHiggs, and then it evaluates the squared amplitudes of the diagrams needed for the relic density calculation. These thousands of diagrams have been previously generated with the FeynArts/FormCalc package. SuperIso Relic is able to perform the calculations in different supersymmetry breaking scenarios, such as mSUGRA, NUHM, AMSB and GMSB. Reasons for new version: This version incorporates the calculation of the relic density, which is often used to constrain Supersymmetry. Summary of revisions:Addition of the relic density calculationReplacement of "float" type by "double". Unusual features: SuperIso Relic includes the possibility of altering the underlying cosmological model and testing the influence of the cosmological assumptions. Additional comments: This program is closely associated with the "SuperIso" program - CPC Program Library, Catalogue Id. AEAN. Running time:Compilation time: a couple of hours for the statically linked version, a few minutes for the dynamically linked version. Running time: about 1 second, or a few seconds if libraries need to be compiled on the fly.

Arbey, A.; Mahmoudi, F.

2010-07-01

133

Observing the Sun with ALMA: A New Window into Solar Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) is a joint North American, European, and East Asian interferometric array that opens the mm-submm wavelength part of the electromagnetic spectrum for general astrophysical exploration, providing high resolution imaging in frequency bands. Despite being a general purpose instrument, provisions have been made to enable solar observations with ALMA, thereby offering a new window into solar physics. Radiation emitted at ALMA wavelengths originates mostly from the chromosphere, which plays an important role in the transport of energy and matter and the heating of the outer layers of the solar atmosphere. Despite decades of intensive research, an understanding of the chromosphere is still elusive, and challenging to observe owing to the complicated formation mechanisms of currently available diagnostics. ALMA will change the scene substantially as it serves as a nearly linear thermometer at high spatial, temporal, and spectral resolution, enabling us to study the complex interaction of magnetic fields and shock waves and yet-to-be-discovered dynamical processes.Moreover, ALMA will play an important role in the study of energetic emissions associated with solar flares at sub-THz frequencies.This presentations introduces ALMA to the solar physcis community and motivates the science that can be addressed by ALMA using a number of examples based on 3D MHD simulations. In addition, the means by which ALMA is used to acquire and calibrate solar observations will be discussed. Finally, we encourage potential users to join us in further defining and articulating the exciting science to be explored with this fundamentally new instrument.

Bastian, Timothy S.; Shimojo, Masumi; Wedemeyer-Bohm, Sven; ALMA North American Solar Development Team

2015-01-01

134

Physical and orbital properties of micrometeors observed using the 430 MHz Arecibo observatory radar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Physical and orbital properties of 1200+ radar micrometeors are deduced from more than 8000+ event detections using the 430 MHz Arecibo radar in Puerto Rico. These results are very distinct from classical HF/VHF radar observations in that the head-echo (radar scattering from the region immediately surrounding the meteoroid) is always observed, leading uniquely to very accurate Doppler speed determinations. A multi-pulse technique has been developed that permits the direct measurement of Doppler velocities from the micrometeor leading-edge (or head-echo), and in some 26% of the sample, micrometeor deceleration is also accurately measured. The results from those showing decelerations are described in some detail. The average measured micrometeor velocity is around ˜50 km/sec unlike that obtained with classical low-power VHF radars which is nearly a factor of two lower. The observed micrometeor decelerations range from a few km/sec2 to ˜1000 km/sec2. The measurements of highly resolved meteor altitudes, velocities and decelerations are crucial for understanding a number of aeronomical and astronomical problems in meteor science. One important property, the particle meteor ballistic parameter (BP)---the ratio of the meteoroid mass to cross-sectional area---gives a physical characterization of the decelerating particles independent of any assumption about meteoroid shape and mass density. The BP calculation for these micrometeors results in a distribution that covers a wide range (10-4--10 -1gm/cm2). The sizes and masses that these results represent, when the meteoroid is assumed to be a sphere of density 3 gm/cm3, are radii ˜0.5 x 10-4--2 x 10-2 cm and masses of a fraction of a nanogram to 10 mugm. An original criterion to separate particles that are travelling down-the-beam from those with a more significant across-the-beam velocity component was developed. This criterion is based on the variation of the meteor BP during the time the particles are observed by the AO radar. The particle size estimates given above were obtained using the air densities from the MSIS-E-90 model atmosphere and the measured decelerations. Upward numerical integration of the standard drag equation gives the meteor extra-atmospheric speeds for those particles which by the criterion are considered to be most directly travelling in the down-the-beam. In addition, the accurate AO (narrow beam) pointing information provides similarly precise meteoroid radiants. The meteoroid extra-atmospheric velocity and radiant positions are then used to calculate present day orbital elements at 1 AU. The results have not been corrected for perturbation effects such as radiation pressure, Poynting-Robertson, attraction by the planets and particle charging effects. Such calculations are very complicated, require massive supercomputer time with many months of effort to investigate fully, and were not attempted here. Even without the inclusion of perturbative effects, several important and hitherto unknown, statistical orbit properties of particles larger than 0.5 mum have been discovered. The most important of these are probably (a) a depletion of post-perihelion particles with small perihelion distance suggesting the possibility of collisional and thermal destruction into smaller ones and (b) an enhancement of particles with perihelia in the zone between Mercury and Venus. Also discussed are a group 40 hyperbolic beta-meteoroids (all with radii less than 0.5 mum) that appear dynamically related to the elliptical orbit population with q < 0.7 AU. These are semi-qualitatively interpreted on the basis of Poynting-Robertson and the solar activity electromagnetic resonant effects as proposed by Morfill and Grun [65].

Janches, Diego

135

Large quantity discrimination by North Island robins (Petroica longipes).  

PubMed

While numerosity-representation and enumeration of different numbers of objects-and quantity discrimination in particular have been studied in a wide range of species, very little is known about the numerical abilities of animals in the wild. This study examined spontaneous relative quantity judgments (RQJs) by wild North Island robins (Petroica longipes) of New Zealand. In Experiment 1, robins were tested on a range of numerical values of up to 14 versus 16 items, which were sequentially presented and hidden. In Experiment 2, the same numerical contrasts were tested on a different group of subjects but quantities were presented as whole visible sets. Experiment 3 involved whole visible sets that comprised of exceedingly large quantities of up to 56 versus 64 items. While robins shared with other species a ratio-based representation system for representing very large values, they also appeared to have developed an object indexing system with an extended upper limit (well beyond 4) that may be an evolutionary response to ecological challenges faced by scatter-hoarding birds. These results suggest that cognitive mechanism influencing an understanding of physical quantity may be deployed more flexibly in some contexts than previously thought, and are discussed in light of findings across other mammalian and avian species. PMID:22825034

Garland, Alexis; Low, Jason; Burns, Kevin C

2012-11-01

136

Chemical and Physical Properties of Bulk Aerosols within Four Sectors Observed during TRACE-P  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Chemical and physical aerosol data collected on the DC-8 during TRACE-P were grouped into four sectors based on back trajectories. The four sectors represent long-range transport from the west (WSW), regional circulation over the western Pacific and Southeast Asia (SE Asia), polluted transport from Northern Asia with substantial sea salt at low altitudes (NNW) and a substantial amount of dust (Channel). WSW has generally low mixing ratios at both middle and high altitudes, with the bulk of the aerosol mass due to non-sea-salt water-soluble inorganic species. Low altitude SE Asia also has low mean mixing ratios in general, with the majority of the aerosol mass comprised of non-sea-salts, however, soot is also relatively important m this region. "w had the highest mean sea salt mixing ratios, with the aerosol mass at low altitudes (a km) evenly divided between sea salts, mm-sea-salts, and dust. The highest mean mixing ratios of water-soluble ions and soot were observed at the lowest altitudes (a km) in the Channel sector. The bulk of the aerosol mass exported from Asia emanates h m Channel at both low and midaltitudes, due to the prevalence of dust compared to other sectors. Number densities show enhanced fine particles for Channel and NNW, while their volume distributions are enhanced due to sea salt and dust Low-altitude Channel exhibits the highest condensation nuclei ((34) number densities along with enhanced scattering coefficients, compared to the other sectors. At midaltitudes (2-7 km), low mean CN number densities coupled with a high proportion of nonvolatile particles (265%) observed in polluted sectors (Channel and NNW) are attributed to wet scavenging which removes hygroscopic CN particles. Low single scatter albedo m SE Asia reflects enhanced soot

Jordan, C. E.; Anderson, B. E.; Talbot, R. W.; Dibb, J. E.; Fuelberg, E.; Hudgins, C. H.; Kiley, C. M.; Russo, R.; Scheuer, E.; Seid, G.

2003-01-01

137

Reverse Rotation of the Accretion Disk in RW Aur A: Observations and a Physical Model  

E-print Network

Speckle interferometry of the young binary system RW Aur was performed with the 6-m telescope of the Special Astrophysical Observatory of the Russian Academy of Sciences using filters with central wavelengths of 550 nm and 800 nm and pass-band halfwidths of 20 nm and 100 nm, respectively. The angular separation of the binary components was 1.448"{\\pm}0.005 and the position angle of the system was 255.9{\\deg}{\\pm}0.3{\\deg} at the observation epoch (JD 2 454 255.9). We find using published data that these values have been changing with mean rates of +0.002"/yr and +0.02{\\deg}/yr, respectively, over the past 70 years. This implies that the direction of the orbital motion of the binary system is opposite to the direction of the disk rotation in RW Aur A. We propose a physical model to explain the formation of circumstellar accretion disks rotating in the reverse direction relative to young binary stars surrounded by protoplanetary disks. Our model can explain the characteristic features of the matter flow in RW A...

Bisikalo, D V; Kaygorodov, P V; Lamzin, S A; Malogolovets, E V; Fateeva, A M; 10.1134/S1063772912090028

2012-01-01

138

PHYSICAL CONDITIONS IN A CORONAL MASS EJECTION FROM HINODE, STEREO, AND SOHO OBSERVATIONS  

SciTech Connect

In the present work, we analyze multiwavelength observations from Hinode, Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), and STEREO of the early phases of a coronal mass ejection (CME). We use Hinode/EIS and SOHO/UVCS high-resolution spectra to measure the physical properties of the CME ejecta as a function of time at 1.1 and 1.9 solar radii. Hinode/XRT images are used in combination with EIS spectra to constrain the high temperature plasma properties of the ejecta. SECCHI/EUVI, SECCHI/COR 1, SOHO/EIT, and SOHO/LASCO images are used to measure the CME trajectory, velocity, and acceleration. The combination of measurements of plane of the sky velocities from two different directions allows us to determine the total velocity of the CME plasma up to 5 solar radii. Plasma properties, dynamical status, thermal structure, and brightness distributions are used to constrain the energy content of the CME plasma and to determine the heating rate. We find that the heating is larger than the kinetic energy, and compare it to theoretical predictions from models of CME plasma heating and acceleration.

Landi, E. [Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Raymond, J. C.; Miralles, M. P. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Hara, H. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

2010-03-01

139

Physical properties of young stellar populations in 24 starburst galaxies observed with FUSE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the main physical properties of very young stellar populations seen with the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer in 24 individual starbursts. These characteristics have been obtained using the evolutionary spectral synthesis technique in the far-ultraviolet range with the LAVALSB code. For each starburst, quantitative values for age, metallicity, initial mass function slope, stellar mass and internal extinction have been obtained and discussed in details. Limits of the code have been tested. One main conclusion is that most starbursts (and probably all of them) cannot be represented by any continuous star formation burst in the far ultraviolet. Also, quantitative values of various optical diagnostics related to these stellar populations have been predicted. Underlying stellar populations, dominated by B-type stars, have been detected in NGC1140, NGC4449 and possibly NGC3991. We characterized the young stellar populations of less than 5Myr in Seyfert2 nuclei. Based on observations made with the NASA-CNES-CSA Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer. Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) is operated for NASA by the Johns Hopkins University under NASA contract NAS5-32985. E-mail: pellerin@stsci.edu (AP); carobert@phy.ulaval.ca (CR)

Pellerin, Anne; Robert, Carmelle

2007-10-01

140

Weight Preoccupation as a Function of Observed Physical Attractiveness: Ethnic Differences Among Normal-Weight Adolescent Females  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To examine the association between observer ratings of physical attractiveness and weight preoccupation for female adolescents, and to explore any ethnic differences between Caucasian, African-American, and Hispanic females. Methods Normal-weight female ado- lescents who had participated in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health in-home Wave II survey were included (n = 4,324). Physical attractiveness ratings were made in

Natalie Colabianchi; Carolyn E. Ievers-Landis; Elaine A. Borawski

2005-01-01

141

Staging Aristotle and natural observation against Galileo and (stacked) scientific experiment or physics lectures as rhetorical events  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This study was designed to understand lectures in a redesigned physics course for prospective elementary teachers. Our understanding was based on videotaped lectures and interviews with students and the professor. We show that the lectures can be understood as a rhetorical move. The professor staged Aristotle, natural philosophy, and students' observations and intuitive knowledge in opposition to Galileo, controlled (stacked) experiment, and mathematical inscriptions in the form of numbers, plotted data pairs, and curves. We conclude that this form of instructional delivery does not help students to become proficient in physics discourse, and offer alternatives that would facilitate students' construction and appropriation of physics discourse.

Roth, Wolff-Michael; Tobin, Kenneth

2005-11-23

142

A Sketch of a Theory of Quantity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantities are ubiquitous and an important part of our understanding about the world - we talk of engine horsepower, size, mileage, price of cars; GDP, population, area of countries; wingspan, weight, surface area of birds, and so on. In this paper, we present a sketch of a theory of quantity - cognitively sound representations and principles for generating those representations.

Praveen K. Paritosh

2003-01-01

143

Rethinking Intensive Quantities via Guided Mediated Abduction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some intensive quantities, such as slope, velocity, or likelihood, are perceptually privileged in the sense that they are experienced as holistic, irreducible sensations. However, the formal expression of these quantities uses "a/b" analytic metrics; for example, the slope of a line is the quotient of its rise and run. Thus, whereas students'…

Abrahamson, Dor

2012-01-01

144

Explorational Rock Physics – The Link Between Geological Processes and Geophysical Observables  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The field of rock physics represents the link between qualitative geological parameters and quantitative geophysical measurements.\\u000a Increasingly over the last decade, rock physics has become an integral part of quantitative seismic interpretation and stands\\u000a out as a key technology in petroleum geophysics. Ultimately, the application of rock physics tools can reduce exploration\\u000a risk and improve reservoir forecasting in the petroleum

Per Avseth

145

Number versus Continuous Quantity in Numerosity Judgments by Fish  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In quantity discrimination tasks, adults, infants and animals have been sometimes observed to process number only after all continuous variables, such as area or density, have been controlled for. This has been taken as evidence that processing number may be more cognitively demanding than processing continuous variables. We tested this hypothesis…

Agrillo, Christian; Piffer, Laura; Bisazza, Angelo

2011-01-01

146

Modeling ice streams: Derived quantities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The model addressed is a finite-element, map-plane, time-dependent, column-averaged continuity equation solver. The key to the fitting process involves the balance between ice motion dominated by flow in internal layers, and ice motion dominated by sliding at the bed. The fitting process involves an iterative process carried out in the time domain. Beginning with the portion of the ice sheet being modeled identical to the present ice sheet with uniform flow, sliding, and fraction specified at nominal values, the model monitors each nodal point surface elevation. As the calculated surface elevation deviates from the present surface, a correction proportional to the difference is applied to selected parameter sets. This correction is in a sense that would tend to improve the fit at the particular nodal point. A calculated surface elevation that was higher than the present surface would result in an increased fraction, which would tend to lower the calculated surface (if the flow or sliding constant were being used as the fitting parameter, they would be lowered to improve the fit). This process is allowed to proceed as long as is necessary for the situation to stabilize. Typically, this takes tens of thousands of model years, but the rate is dependent on other external forcings such as the accumulation rate. The primary result is that while a typical sample of ice streams from around Antarctica can be fitted quite reasonably using only the fraction of the velocity due to sliding, a different mechanism seems to be in play along the Siple Coast, where reduced sliding constants are required to attain a reasonable fit. Flow is more strongly channelized in this region, and velocities are, in general, higher than are observed in other regions. It is unlikely that the mechanism that controls the ice movement along the Siple Coast is exactly similar to the mechanisms in the other ice streams. The concept of deformable sediments and their contribution to the fast flow along the Siple Coast may have limited applicability to other Antarctic ice streams.

Fastook, James

1993-01-01

147

Physical and Chemical Properties of Cometary Dust Derived from Modeling of Mid-Infrared Imaging Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Significant constraints are placed on the physical and chemical properties of cometary dust grains by analyzing mid-infrared imaging data obtained with the UCSD 'Golden Gopher' infrared camera at the 1.5-meter telescope at Mt. Lemmon Observatory. Dust grains are modeled as Mie spheres composed of either amorphous olivine (a silicate glass) or an organic residue mixture, and the results show that the optical characteristics of the two materials are quite different. The equilibrium temperatures of organic grains are much higher than for olivine grains (for the same size grains), and their respective mid-infrared emission properties are rather distinct. The results of these calculations are applied to multi-wavelength imaging of comets C/1996 B2 Hyakutake and C/1995 O1 Hale-Bopp, and it is found that the observed thermal emission from these comets can be duplicated by emission from a mixture of olivine and organic grains. For Hyakutake, the best fit to the data is achieved using 1 ?m olivine grains and 7 ?m organic grains, with an olivine mass fraction of 10%. For Hale-Bopp the predominant grain radii are 1 ?m for olivine and 2.5 ?m for organics, with a much higher olivine mass fraction of 40%. Dynamical simulations are performed using these grains in order to interpret 11.7 ?m images of comet 109P/Swift-Tuttle taken over a three week period in November 1992. The nucleus of the comet is found to be in a simple rotational state (at least over short time-scales), undergoing prograde rotation with an obliquity of 45o± 10o relative to its orbital plane. At perihelion, the angle between the rotation axis and the Sun is 115o± 10o, so that the 'Southern' hemisphere of the comet is generally sunward. Assuming a spherical nucleus rotating with a period of 67.5 hours, three major emission regions on the surface are identified from the recurring jet pattern. The observed dust morphology is best simulated using a grain size distribution of the form f(a)~ a-? for grain radii in the range 0.6 < a < 10/ ?m with ? = 2.5 ± 0.5, and using jets whose opening angles are between 50o and 80o.

Sarmecanic, James Richard

1997-12-01

148

Plankton dynamics: observed and modelled responses to physical conditions in Prince William Sound, Alaska  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plankton populations in Prince William Sound, Alaska, exhibited pronounced seasonal, annual and longer-period variability in composition and standing stock in response to physically influenced differences in nutrient availabil- ity, and possibly currents that modify local biomass by exchanges with water from the bordering Gulf of Alaska. During springs in which early, strong physical stratifica- tion developed, intense, short-lived phytoplankton blooms

DAVID L. ESLINGER; R. TED COONEY; C. PETER MCROY; ALISON WARD; THOMAS C. KLINE; E. PAUL SIMPSON; JIA WANG; JENNIFER R. ALLEN

2002-01-01

149

Difference in quantity discrimination in dogs and wolves.  

PubMed

Certain aspects of social life, such as engaging in intergroup conflicts, as well as challenges posed by the physical environment, may facilitate the evolution of quantity discrimination. In lack of excessive comparative data, one can only hypothesize about its evolutionary origins, but human-raised wolves performed well when they had to choose the larger of two sets of 1-4 food items that had been sequentially placed into two opaque cans. Since in such paradigms, the animals never see the entire content of either can, their decisions are thought to rely on mental representation of the two quantities rather than on some perceptual factors such as the overall volume or surface area of the two amounts. By equaling the time that it takes to enter each quantity into the cans or the number of items entered, one can further rule out the possibility that animals simply choose based on the amount of time needed to present the two quantities. While the wolves performed well even in such a control condition, dogs failed to choose the larger one of two invisible quantities in another study using a similar paradigm. Because this disparity could be explained by procedural differences, in the current study, we set out to test dogs that were raised and kept identically as the previously tested wolves using the same set-up and procedure. Our results confirm the former finding that dogs, in comparison to wolves, have inferior skills to represent quantities mentally. This seems to be in line with Frank's (1980) hypothesis suggesting that domestication altered the information processing of dogs. However, as discussed, also alternative explanations may exist. PMID:25477834

Range, Friederike; Jenikejew, Julia; Schröder, Isabelle; Virányi, Zsófia

2014-01-01

150

Difference in quantity discrimination in dogs and wolves  

PubMed Central

Certain aspects of social life, such as engaging in intergroup conflicts, as well as challenges posed by the physical environment, may facilitate the evolution of quantity discrimination. In lack of excessive comparative data, one can only hypothesize about its evolutionary origins, but human-raised wolves performed well when they had to choose the larger of two sets of 1–4 food items that had been sequentially placed into two opaque cans. Since in such paradigms, the animals never see the entire content of either can, their decisions are thought to rely on mental representation of the two quantities rather than on some perceptual factors such as the overall volume or surface area of the two amounts. By equaling the time that it takes to enter each quantity into the cans or the number of items entered, one can further rule out the possibility that animals simply choose based on the amount of time needed to present the two quantities. While the wolves performed well even in such a control condition, dogs failed to choose the larger one of two invisible quantities in another study using a similar paradigm. Because this disparity could be explained by procedural differences, in the current study, we set out to test dogs that were raised and kept identically as the previously tested wolves using the same set-up and procedure. Our results confirm the former finding that dogs, in comparison to wolves, have inferior skills to represent quantities mentally. This seems to be in line with Frank’s (1980) hypothesis suggesting that domestication altered the information processing of dogs. However, as discussed, also alternative explanations may exist. PMID:25477834

Range, Friederike; Jenikejew, Julia; Schröder, Isabelle; Virányi, Zsófia

2014-01-01

151

An Observational Study on Physical Properties of the Molecular Gas in External Galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To study the physical properties of the molecular gas in luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs), this thesis presents the preliminary results of a small local sample, a case study on a distant LIRG IRAS F10214+4724 at z=2.286 and another case study on a local LIRG ARP 302. The molecular gas in Perseus A, the cD galaxy in the center of the Perseus Cluster, is presented in high angular resolution observation to study the gas distribution and its kinematics. A small sample of 5 LIRGs was observed and the CO (J=3?2) mapping results reveal the gas distribution concentrated in the galactic centers or the centers of mergers and their overlapping regions. For NGC 3256, the maps in the CO (J=3?2), CO (J=4?3) and CO (J=7?6) transitions are obtained. Together with the measurements in the lower transitions from literatures, the peak of the spectral energy distribution (SED) of CO line was found between CO (J=5?4) and CO (J=6?5). With the radiation transfer model and the CO ladder, the gas density is constrained to n(H2)=103.7~104.1 cm-3 for a kinematic temperature T kin=40~45 K adopted from the literature. Local LIRG NGC 3256 shows the similar excitation conditions as the submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) in the early universe, further supporting the view that the SMGs are the same type of the local LIRGs, but only at the early epoch. The CI (3P2?3P1), CO (J=3?2), CO (J=4?3), CO (J=6?5) and CO (J=7?6) transitions as well as the dust continuum at 3 mm and 1 mm were detected towards the distant LIRG IRAS F10214+4724 at z=2.286. IRAS F10214+4724 now belongs to a sample of only 3 extragalactic sources at any redshift where both of the carbon fine structure lines have been detected. The source is spatially resolved by our CI (3P2?3P1) observation and we detect a velocity gradient along the east-west direction. The CI line ratio allows us to derive a carbon excitation temperature of 42+12-9 K. The carbon excitation in conjunction with the CO ladder and the dust continuum constrains the gas density to n(H2)=103.6~104.0 cm-3 and the kinematic temperature to Tkin=45~80 K, similar to the excitation conditions found in nearby starburst galaxies. The rest-frame 360 ?m dust continuum morphology is more compact than the line emitting region. This supports previous findings that the far infrared (FIR) luminosity arises from regions closer to the AGN. High angular resolution observation in CO (J=2?1) was carried out towards ARP 302N, the northern galaxy of the early merging system ARP 302, revealing the extended spatial distribution of the molecular gas in ARP 302N. The molecular gas was shown as a very asymmetric distribution with two strong concentrations on both sides of the center together with a weaker one offset by about 8 kpc to the north. The molecular gas distribution is also found to be consistent with that from the hot dust as traced by the 24 ?m continuum emission observed by Spitzer. For an observed line ratio of CO (J=2?1/1?0), excitation analysis suggests that the gas density is low, less than 103 cm-3, over the entire galaxy. By fitting the SED of ARP 302N in the FIR band, we obtain a dust temperature of Td=26~36 K and a dust mass of M dust=2.0~3.6×10^8 M?. The good spatial correspondence among the 3.6 cm radio continuum emission, the Spitzer 8 & 24?m data and the high resolution CO (J=2?1) observation from the SMA (submillimeter array) shows that there are asymmetrical star forming activities in ARP 302N. The molecular gas in Perseus A (Per A) has been imaged in CO (J=2?1) at a spatial resolution of ~1 kpc over a central region of radius ~10 kpc. Per A is known to contain ~1.3×10^10 M? of molecular gas, which has been proposed to be captured from mergers or ram-pressure stripping of gas-rich galaxies, or accreted from an X-ray cooling flow. For the first time, the molecular gas detected in our images can be seen to be concentrated in three radial filaments with lengths ranging from 1.1 kpc to 2.4 kpc. These all lie in the east-west directions, spanning from the center of the galaxy to radii of

Ao, Y. P.

2011-01-01

152

Multimodal Semantic Quantity Representations: Further Evidence from Korean Sign Language  

PubMed Central

Korean deaf signers performed a number comparison task on pairs of Arabic digits. In their response times profiles, the expected magnitude effect was systematically modified by properties of number signs in Korean sign language in a culture-specific way (not observed in hearing and deaf Germans or hearing Chinese). We conclude that finger-based quantity representations are automatically activated even in simple tasks with symbolic input although this may be irrelevant and even detrimental for task performance. These finger-based numerical representations are accessed in addition to another, more basic quantity system which is evidenced by the magnitude effect. In sum, these results are inconsistent with models assuming only one single amodal representation of numerical quantity. PMID:22291669

Domahs, Frank; Klein, Elise; Moeller, Korbinian; Nuerk, Hans-Christoph; Yoon, Byung-Chen; Willmes, Klaus

2012-01-01

153

Physical activity behaviour and coronary heart disease mortality among South Asian people in the UK: an observational longitudinal study  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThe aim of this study was to investigate the contribution of physical inactivity to the excess mortality from coronary heart disease (CHD) observed in the UK South Asian population.DesignAn observational longitudinal study with follow-up mortality data from NHS registries.SettingData from the Health Survey for England, 1999 and 2004.Participants13 293 White and 2120 South Asian participants aged ?35 years consented to

Emily D Williams; Emmanuel Stamatakis; Tarani Chandola; Mark Hamer

2010-01-01

154

Physical Properties of Polar Coronal Rays and Holes as Observed with the SPARTAN 201-01 Coronagraph  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physical conditions and characteristics of polar coronal rays and polar coronal holes are derived from white- light coronal observations aboard the Spartan 201-01 spacecraft and the ground-based K-coronameter in Mauna Loa, Hawaii, on 1993 April 11--12. An array of polar rays extending from 1.16 to 5.0 R&sun; was observed in both the north and south polar coronal hole regions. They

Richard Fisher; Madhulika Guhathakurta

1995-01-01

155

PHYSICAL REVIEW B 88, 144307 (2013) Direct observation of the phonon dispersion of a three-dimensional solid/solid  

E-print Network

of the Brillouin zone. Theoretical calculations, based on the finite element method and the finite-difference time) and finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) methods offer tremendous insights on the phonon dispersion relationsPHYSICAL REVIEW B 88, 144307 (2013) Direct observation of the phonon dispersion of a three-dimensional

Deymier, Pierre

156

A Computer-Based Observational Assessment of the Teaching Behaviours that Influence Motivational Climate in Physical Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The primary purpose of this study was to use an established behavioural taxonomy (Ames, 1992b) as a computer-based observational coding system to assess the teaching behaviours that influence perceptions of the motivational climate in Physical Education (PE). The secondary purpose was to determine the degree of congruence between the behavioural…

Morgan, Kevin; Sproule, John; Weigand, Daniel; Carpenter, Paul

2005-01-01

157

PHYSICAL REVIEW B 83, 094503 (2011) Observation of supercurrent in PbIn-graphene-PbIn Josephson junction  

E-print Network

. A superconductor-graphene (SG) hybrid system, such as a superconductor-graphene-superconductor (SGS) junctionPHYSICAL REVIEW B 83, 094503 (2011) Observation of supercurrent in PbIn-graphene-PbIn Josephson) Superconductor-graphene-superconductor (SGS) junction provides a unique platform to study relativistic

Lee, Hu-Jong

158

Solar Physics (2004) 224: 34 C Springer 2005 The topical issue of "Space Climate: Direct and Indirect Observations of  

E-print Network

Solar Physics (2004) 224: 3­4 C Springer 2005 PREFACE The topical issue of "Space Climate: Direct and Indirect Observations of Long-Term Solar Activity" is based on contributions presented at the First of solar activity, and their effects in the near-Earth environment and technoculture. As an analogy

Usoskin, Ilya G.

159

Discrimination of small quantities by fish (redtail splitfin, Xenotoca eiseni).  

PubMed

Discrimination of quantity has been argued to rely on two non-verbal representational systems: an object file system (OFS) for representing small values (?3-4) and an analog magnitude system (AMS) for representing large magnitudes (>4). Infants' ability to discriminate 1 versus 2, 1 versus 3, 2 versus 3, but not 1 versus 4 or 2 versus 4 seems to prove the independence of such systems. Here, we show that redtail splitfin fish (Xenotoca eiseni) performed relative quantity estimations preferring to approach the location previously occupied by the larger in number between two groups of conspecifics (no longer visible at test) in sets of 1 versus 2 and 2 versus 3 items, but failed at 3 versus 4 items, thus showing the same set-size limit as infants for discrimination of small quantities. However, when tested with quantities that spanned the boundary of the two systems, that is, 1 versus 4 and 2 versus 4, fish succeeded. These results thus point to either the use of continuous physical variables and/or the use of the AMS also for small numerousness in fish in this task. PMID:23288253

Stancher, Gionata; Sovrano, Valeria Anna; Potrich, Davide; Vallortigara, Giorgio

2013-03-01

160

The Constitution of Objects in Classical Physics and in Quantum Physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In quantum physics as well as in classical physics we are usually concerned with observable quantities and their time dependence,\\u000a but not with objects as carriers of observable properties. However, for establishing objectivity of our cognition in addition\\u000a to the observable properties objects must be constituted in classical mechanics as well as in quantum mechanics. This problem\\u000a can be traced

Peter Mittelstaedt

161

Arsenic Treatment Residuals: Quantities, Characteristics and Disposal  

EPA Science Inventory

This presentation provides information on the quantities, the characteristics and the disposal options for the common arsenic removal technologies. The technologies consist of adsorption media, iron removal, coagulation/filtration and ion exchange. The information for the prese...

162

7 CFR 929.14 - Marketable quantity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES OF MASSACHUSETTS, RHODE ISLAND, CONNECTICUT...quantity means for a crop year the number of pounds of cranberries necessary to meet the total market demand and to...

2012-01-01

163

7 CFR 929.14 - Marketable quantity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES OF MASSACHUSETTS, RHODE ISLAND, CONNECTICUT...quantity means for a crop year the number of pounds of cranberries necessary to meet the total market demand and to...

2013-01-01

164

7 CFR 929.14 - Marketable quantity.  

...FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES OF MASSACHUSETTS, RHODE ISLAND, CONNECTICUT...quantity means for a crop year the number of pounds of cranberries necessary to meet the total market demand and to...

2014-01-01

165

Lighting Quantity and Quality in Educational Facilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses educational facility lighting management, and examines how light quantity, distribution, and quality-enhancement strategies can improve the indoor environment while reducing lighting costs. Informational tables provide lighting pattern, color, and illuminance data. (GR)

Elwazanim, Salim A.

1998-01-01

166

Average Transverse Momentum Quantities Approaching the Lightfront  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this contribution to Light Cone 2014, three average transverse momentum quantities are discussed: the Sivers shift, the dijet imbalance, and the p T broadening. The definitions of these quantities involve integrals over all transverse momenta that are overly sensitive to the region of large transverse momenta, which conveys little information about the transverse momentum distributions of quarks and gluons inside hadrons. TMD factorization naturally suggests alternative definitions of such integrated quantities, using Bessel-weighting and rapidity cut-offs, with the conventional definitions as limiting cases. The regularized quantities are given in terms of integrals over the TMDs of interest that are well-defined and moreover have the advantage of being amenable to lattice evaluations.

Boer, Daniël

2015-01-01

167

Zero-gravity quantity gaging system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Zero-Gravity Quantity Gaging System program is a technology development effort funded by NASA-LeRC and contracted by NASA-JSC to develop and evaluate zero-gravity quantity gaging system concepts suitable for application to large, on-orbit cryogenic oxygen and hydrogen tankage. The contract effective date was 28 May 1985. During performance of the program, 18 potential quantity gaging approaches were investigated for their merit and suitability for gaging two-phase cryogenic oxygen and hydrogen in zero-gravity conditions. These approaches were subjected to a comprehensive trade study and selection process, which found that the RF modal quantity gaging approach was the most suitable for both liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen applications. This selection was made with NASA-JSC concurrence.

1989-01-01

168

7 CFR 985.12 - Salable quantity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ...ORDER REGULATING THE HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating...means the total quantity of each class of oil which handlers may purchase from, or...

2010-01-01

169

7 CFR 985.12 - Salable quantity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ...ORDER REGULATING THE HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating...means the total quantity of each class of oil which handlers may purchase from, or...

2012-01-01

170

7 CFR 985.12 - Salable quantity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ...ORDER REGULATING THE HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating...means the total quantity of each class of oil which handlers may purchase from, or...

2011-01-01

171

7 CFR 985.12 - Salable quantity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ...ORDER REGULATING THE HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating...means the total quantity of each class of oil which handlers may purchase from, or...

2013-01-01

172

7 CFR 985.12 - Salable quantity.  

...MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ...ORDER REGULATING THE HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating...means the total quantity of each class of oil which handlers may purchase from, or...

2014-01-01

173

7 CFR 966.53 - Minimum quantities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating Handling Regulation § 966.53 Minimum quantities. The committee, with the...

2011-01-01

174

7 CFR 966.53 - Minimum quantities.  

... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating Handling Regulation § 966.53 Minimum quantities. The committee, with the...

2014-01-01

175

48 CFR 52.247-62 - Specific Quantities Unknown.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Specific Quantities Unknown. 52.247-62 Section...247-62 Specific Quantities Unknown. As prescribed in 47...shipments will be made are known, but the specific quantity...contract. Specific Quantities Unknown (APR 1984) (a) For...

2011-10-01

176

48 CFR 52.247-62 - Specific Quantities Unknown.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Specific Quantities Unknown. 52.247-62 Section...247-62 Specific Quantities Unknown. As prescribed in 47...shipments will be made are known, but the specific quantity...contract. Specific Quantities Unknown (APR 1984) (a) For...

2010-10-01

177

48 CFR 52.247-62 - Specific Quantities Unknown.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Specific Quantities Unknown. 52.247-62 Section...247-62 Specific Quantities Unknown. As prescribed in 47...shipments will be made are known, but the specific quantity...contract. Specific Quantities Unknown (APR 1984) (a) For...

2012-10-01

178

48 CFR 52.247-62 - Specific Quantities Unknown.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Specific Quantities Unknown. 52.247-62 Section...247-62 Specific Quantities Unknown. As prescribed in 47...shipments will be made are known, but the specific quantity...contract. Specific Quantities Unknown (APR 1984) (a) For...

2013-10-01

179

16 CFR 500.19 - Conversion of SI metric quantities to inch/pound quantities and inch/pound quantities to SI...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Conversion of SI metric quantities to inch/pound quantities and inch/pound quantities to SI metric quantities. 500.19 Section 500...ACT § 500.19 Conversion of SI metric quantities to inch/pound...

2010-01-01

180

Physical Units  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page describes units of measurement, unit conversions, dimensional analysis and basic mechanical quantities. Length, Mass and Time link to separate pages that go into more detail on the physical quantities and their definitions. Also included is a link to a page that does unit conversions for the user.

Nave, Carl R.

2004-12-15

181

On the Representation of Physical Quantities in Natural Language Text  

E-print Network

that water will eventually boil if you heat it on a stove, that a ball placed at the top of a steep ramp with temperature, unlike `The water is hot.' However, the techniques for the extraction of information about

Forbus, Kenneth D.

182

Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics 68 (2006) 539557 Ionogram heighttimeintensity observations of descending  

E-print Network

Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics 68 (2006) 539­557 Ionogram height rates and tidal periodicities of Es, is applied on ionogram recordings made during a summer period from solstice to equinox on the island of Milos (36.71N; 24.51E). On the average, the ionogram HTI analysis

Christakis, Nikolaos

183

Recent advances in observing the physical oceanography of the western Mediterranean Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mediterranean Sea has been investigated intensively since the early nineties, using modern techniques and collaborative approaches. This overview summarizes some of the resulting advances that were made concerning the physical oceanography of the western Mediterranean. The water mass formation processes are now much better understood and have been quantified to a large extent. The boundary conditions of the system

Uwe Send; Gerd Krahmann; Claude Millot; Monika Rhein; Joaquin Tintoref

1999-01-01

184

"In Situ" Observation of a Soap-Film Catenoid--A Simple Educational Physics Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The solution to the Euler-Lagrange equation is an extremal functional. To understand that the functional is stationary at local extrema (maxima or minima), we propose a physics experiment that involves using a soap film to form a catenoid. A catenoid is a surface that is formed between two coaxial circular rings and is classified mathematically as…

Ito, Masato; Sato, Taku

2010-01-01

185

Atmospheric physics and Earth observations: sample performance of the grille spectrometer.  

PubMed

The grille spectrometer observed the setting and rising sun 18 times during the Spacelab 1 mission. In addition to solar absorption lines, many of which had not been observed before, atmospheric spectral absorptions due to carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide were observed at heights tangent to the thermosphere (greater than 85 kilometers), and absorptions due to ozone, water, methane, and nitrous oxide were observed in the mesosphere (greater than 50 kilometers). The strongly coupled molecules NO-NO(2) and HC1-HF were observed as pairs in the stratosphere. Methane is presented as an example of the instrumental operations because of the characteristic aspect of the Q branch of its v(3) band. PMID:17837928

Lemaitre, M P; Laurent, J; Besson, J; Girard, A; Lippens, C; Muller, C; Vercheval, J; Ackerman, M

1984-07-13

186

Observation of CP violation in $D^0 \\rightarrow K^- ?^+ $ as a smoking gun for New Physics  

E-print Network

In this paper, we study the Cabibbo favored non-leptonic $D^0$ decays into $K^- \\pi^+$ decays. First we show that, within the Standard Model, the corresponding CP asymmetry is strongly suppressed and out of the experimental range even taking into account the large strong phases coming from final state Interactions. We show also that although new physics models with extra sequential generation can enhance the CP asymmetry by few orders of magnitude however the resulting CP asymmetry is still far from experimental range. The most sensitive New Physics Models to this CP asymmetry comes from no-manifest Left-Right models where a CP asymmetry up to 10% can be reached and general two Higgs models extension of SM where a CP asymmetry of order $10^{-2}$ can be obtained without being in contradiction with the experimental constraints on these models.

David Delepine; Gaber Faisel; Carlos A. Ramirez

2012-12-27

187

Physical Properties Of Asteroids Observed In The S-COSMOS Field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Spitzer COSMOS program provides a unique opportunity to examine the size distributions and physical properties of smaller, darker asteroids. Although this project is designed as an extragalactic survey, the preliminary “MIPS-deep” component is sensitive to point sources as faint as 70 ?Jy at 24 ?m, corresponding to asteroids with diameters as small as a few tens of meters. The data have been taken near ?Ecl = -9 ° over a period of 52 hours, reobserving a 20’ x 30’ field fifteen times. The high number of exposures taken by S-COSMOS allows for the identification of slow-moving outer solar system small bodies as well as Main Belt Asteroids. We present numbers counts, photometric measurements, and distances for selected objects and use these values to derive physical properties. More than 60 moving sources have been identified, and fewer than 20% of these sources correspond to previously known asteroids in the JPL/Horizons database.

Bhattacharya, Bidushi; Salvato, M.; Aussel, H.; Chesley, S.; Ilbert, O.; Sanders, D. B.; Scoville, N.; S-COSMOS Team

2007-05-01

188

Sedna, Eris and Quaoar: physical properties of prominent trans-Neptunian objects, based on Herschel observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The family of Trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) may represent the most ancient form of the material from which the entire Solar System has been formed. Thus, studying both the physical and dynamical properties of these objects helps us to better understand the origin and evolution of the Solar System and we might be able to extrapolate our conclusions to other stellar, disk and planetary systems as well. Due to the enormous distance of these objects, it is not obvious to obtain even their basic physical properties. Complex and combined methods are required to derive these properties, including diameter, albedo, mass, rotational period, shape elongation and other surface parameters. Techniques obtaining these data include optical photometry, direct imaging, detection of companions, differential astrometry and detecting thermal emission.

Kiss, C.; Pál, A.; Müller, T.; Santos-Sanz, P.; Vilenius, E.; Szalai, N.; Lellouch, E.; Bönhardt, H.

2011-10-01

189

An observational study of nutrition and physical activity behaviours, knowledge, and advice in pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Background Maternal obesity, excess weight gain and lifestyle behaviours during pregnancy have been associated with future overweight and other adverse health outcomes for mothers and babies. This study compared the nutrition and physical activity behaviours of Australian healthy (BMI ? 25 k/m2) and overweight (BMI ? 25?kg/m2) pregnant women and described their knowledge and receipt of health professional advice early in pregnancy. Methods Pregnant women (n=58) aged 29±5 (mean±s.d.) years were recruited at 16±2 weeks gestation from an Australian metropolitan hospital. Height and weight were measured using standard procedures and women completed a self administered semi-quantitative survey. Results Healthy and overweight women had very similar levels of knowledge, behaviour and levels of advice provided except where specifically mentioned. Only 8% and 36% of participants knew the correct recommended daily number of fruit and vegetable serves respectively. Four percent of participants ate the recommended 5 serves/day of vegetables. Overweight women were less likely than healthy weight women to achieve the recommended fruit intake (4% vs. 8%, p=0.05), and more likely to consume soft drinks or cordial (55% vs 43%, p=0.005) and take away foods (37% vs. 25%, p=0.002) once a week or more. Less than half of all women achieved sufficient physical activity. Despite 80% of women saying they would have liked education about nutrition, physical activity and weight gain, particularly at the beginning of pregnancy, less than 50% were given appropriate advice regarding healthy eating and physical activity. Conclusion Healthy pregnancy behaviour recommendations were not being met, with overweight women less likely to meet some of the recommendations. Knowledge of dietary recommendations was poor and health care professional advice was limited. There are opportunities to improve the health care practices and education pregnant women received to improve knowledge and behaviours. Pregnant women appear to want this. PMID:23688111

2013-01-01

190

The relationship between physical activity and low back pain outcomes: a systematic review of observational studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although clinical guidelines advocate exercise and activity in the management of non-specific low back pain (NSLBP), the link\\u000a between levels of physical activity and outcomes is unclear. This systematic review investigated the relationships between\\u000a free living activity levels after onset of low back pain (LBP) and measures of pain, and disability in patients with NSLBP.\\u000a Cohort and cross-sectional studies were

Paul HendrickS; S. Milosavljevic; L. Hale; D. A. Hurley; S. McDonough; B. Ryan; G. D. Baxter

2011-01-01

191

Shoot-the-Shower: real-time observations for astroparticle physics using the FRAM robotic telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The FRAM telescope operates as an atmospheric monitoring device for the Pierre Auger Observatory in Argentina. In addition to regular photometric observations aimed to determine the overall aerosol content and characteristic in the atmosphere above the Observatory, FRAM is also a part of the rapid monitoring program. When a ultra-high energy shower is detected by the fluorescence telescopes of the Observatory, the FRAM telescope takes a series of images to measure atmospheric transparency along the trajectory of the shower. These observations are critical for the identification of showers with anomalous profiles. If such showers were clearly observed, they can significantly constrain the hadronic interaction models at very high energies.

Ebr, J.; Jane?ek, P.; Prouza, M.; Kubánek, P.; Jelínek, M.; Mašek, M.; Ebrová, I.; ?erný, J.

2014-12-01

192

Non-physical practice improves task performance in an unstable, perturbed environment: motor imagery and observational balance training  

PubMed Central

For consciously performed motor tasks executed in a defined and constant way, both motor imagery (MI) and action observation (AO) have been shown to promote motor learning. It is not known whether these forms of non-physical training also improve motor actions when these actions have to be variably applied in an unstable and unpredictable environment. The present study therefore investigated the influence of MI balance training (MI_BT) and a balance training combining AO and MI (AO+MI_BT) on postural control of undisturbed and disturbed upright stance on unstable ground. As spinal reflex excitability after classical (i.e., physical) balance training (BT) is generally decreased, we tested whether non-physical BT also has an impact on spinal reflex circuits. Thirty-six participants were randomly allocated into an MI_BT group, in which participants imagined postural exercises, an AO+MI_BT group, in which participants observed videos of other people performing balance exercises and imagined being the person in the video, and a non-active control group (CON). Before and after 4 weeks of non-physical training, balance performance was assessed on a free-moving platform during stance without perturbation and during perturbed stance. Soleus H-reflexes were recorded during stable and unstable stance. The post-measurement revealed significantly decreased postural sway during undisturbed and disturbed stance after both MI_BT and AO+MI_BT. Spinal reflex excitability remained unchanged. This is the first study showing that non-physical training (MI_BT and AO+MI_BT) not only promotes motor learning of “rigid” postural tasks but also improves performance of highly variable and unpredictable balance actions. These findings may be relevant to improve postural control and thus reduce the risk of falls in temporarily immobilized patients. PMID:25538598

Taube, Wolfgang; Lorch, Michael; Zeiter, Sibylle; Keller, Martin

2014-01-01

193

Associations between perceived and observational physical environmental factors and the use of walking paths: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background How to promote physical activity is an important public health problem that is attracting increasing attention. Although the application of environmental approaches is believed to promote resident walking, there remains insufficient evidence of the effectiveness of these interventions. Methods This study employed direct observation and questionnaires. Observations were performed on each Tuesday, Thursday, Saturday, and Sunday from April 13th to May 16th. Fourteen trained observers observed six community walking paths, and an additional walking path in a park. The trained observers filled out 2388 observation forms in the field, including 228 forms rating the permanent environment, and 1080 forms assessing the current environment and counting the number of walkers. A total of 1800 questionnaireswere administered to community residents. Results The results of both observation and questionnaires showed good association regarding the characteristics of walking path users (for observation, female = 54.4%; for questionnaire interviews, female, OR = 1.441), and the environmental features associated with walking path utilization (for observation, positive associations were observed between the utilization index and observational environmental variables; for questionnaire interviews, roads and aesthetics were important, OR = 1.044). There were positive associations between path use and time, a preference for brisk walking, and the observed current and permanent environmental variables. Female participants were more likely to use walking paths than males (OR = 1.441, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.126–1.846). BMI and traffic hazard safety were significantly negatively associated with walking path use (OR = 0.948, 95% CI 0.915–0.981, and OR = 0.933, 95% CI 0.887–0.981, respectively). Roads, aesthetics, and knowledge of physical activity were significantly positively correlated with use of walking paths (OR = 1.044, 95% CI 1.017–1.072, and OR = 1.175, 95% CI 1.043–1.323). Participants that resided further than 1 km from the park were less likely to use walking paths (OR = 0.703, 95% CI 0.530–0.933). Gender-specific associations were also found. Conclusions Both perceived and objective environmental factors were associated with walking path use. Data suggested that the permanent and current conditions of the paths might influence walking path utilization, and that gender-specific promotion strategies should be considered. PMID:24950936

2014-01-01

194

Observations of the Natural Planetary Satellites for Dynamical and Physical Purpose  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the Institut de mecanique celeste-Bureau des longitudes, we started several programs of observation of the natural planetary satellites. First, we took the opportunity of the transit of the Earth and the Sun in the equatorial plane of Jupiter to observe the mutual phenomena of the Galilean satellites. These observations provide astrometric data of high accuracy useful for dynamical studies of the motions of the satellites and photometric data allowing to characterize the surfaces of the satellites. A campaign was organized leading to 400 light curves made throughout the world in about 40 countries. Second, we started astrometric CCD observations of the faint satellites of Jupiter JVI to JXIII and of the satellite of Saturn Phoebe (SIX) for dynamical purpose at Observatoire de Haute Provence using the 120cm-telescope. PPM, Hipparcos and USNO A.2 catalogue were used for calibration in order to get absolute J2000 R.A. and declination of these objects. In August and December, 1998, CCD observations provided 43 absolute positions of JVI, 23 of JVII, 53 of JVIII, 35 of JIX, 29 of JX, 27 of JXI, 18 of JXII, 16 of JXIII and 135 of SIX (Phoebe). A campaign will also take place in 1999.

Arlot, J. E.; Thuillot, W.; Fienga, A.; Bec-Borsenberger, A.; Baron, N.; Berthier, J.; Colas, F.; Descamps, P.

1999-12-01

195

Defining Information Flow Quantity Gavin Lowe #  

E-print Network

Defining Information Flow Quantity Gavin Lowe # August 17, 2004 Abstract We extend definitions at least one bit of information to Low. However, in many circumstances, some flow of information will be in of information flow so as to quantify the amount of information passed; in other words, we give a formal

Lowe, Gavin

196

Geometrical quantities on a fuzzy sphere  

E-print Network

In this paper, we consider the geometrical quantities on the fuzzy sphere from the spectral point of view, such as the area and the dimension. We find that, in contract to the standard sphere, the area and the dimension are the functions of the energy scale of the fuzzy sphere.

Jingbo Wang; Yanshen Wang

2010-07-12

197

Observation of Hypervelocity Dust in Dense Supersonic Plasma Flows: Physics and Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Synthetic diamond and graphite dust powders with a wide range of sizes, from a few to several tens of microns in diameter were accelerated to velocities up to 4 km/s in vacuum by plasma jet produced in a coaxial gun. Some of the key features of the plasma flow are high density, of the order of 1022 m-3, low ion and electron temperatures, of only a few eV, and good collimation over a distance of ?2 m due to confinement by the self-generated magnetic field. The main features of this plasma-drag acceleration technique are presented and discussed. From basic science point of view hypervelocity dust is useful for studying the physics of dust interaction with energetic plasma flows at microscopic level. In physical applications, it has been proposed to use hypervelocity dust for diagnostic or control of magnetically confined fusion plasmas. In engineering, hypervelocity dusty plasmas are extensively employed in industrial processes involved in the processing of surfaces.

Tico?, C. M.; Wang, Z.; Wurden, G. A.; Shukla, P. K.

2008-10-01

198

Physical and Chemical Structure of Planet-Forming Disks Probed by Millimeter Observations and Modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Protoplanetary disks composed of dust and gas are ubiquitous around young stars and are commonly recognized as nurseries of planetary systems. Their lifetime, appearance, and structure are determined by an interplay between stellar radiation, gravity, thermal pressure, magnetic field, gas viscosity, turbulence, and rotation. Molecules and dust serve as major heating and cooling agents in disks. Dust grains dominate the disk opacities, reprocess most of the stellar radiation, and shield molecules from ionizing ultraviolet (UV)/X-ray photons. Disks also dynamically evolve by building up planetary systems, which drastically change their gas and dust density structures. Over the past decade, significant progress has been achieved in our understanding of disk chemical composition thanks to the upgrade or advent of new millimeter/infrared (IR) facilities [Submillimeter Array (SMA), Plateau de Bure Interferometer (PdBI), Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA), Herschel, Expanded Very Large Array (e-VLA), Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA)]. Some major breakthroughs in our comprehension of the disk physics and chemistry have been done since Protostars and Planets V (Reipurth et al., 2007). This review will present and discuss the impact of such improvements on our understanding of the disk physical structure and chemical composition.

Dutrey, A.; Semenov, D.; Chapillon, E.; Gorti, U.; Guilloteau, S.; Hersant, F.; Hogerheijde, M.; Hughes, M.; Meeus, G.; Nomura, H.; Piétu, V.; Qi, C.; Wakelam, V.

199

Observation of Hypervelocity Dust in Dense Supersonic Plasma Flows: Physics and Applications  

SciTech Connect

Synthetic diamond and graphite dust powders with a wide range of sizes, from a few to several tens of microns in diameter were accelerated to velocities up to 4 km/s in vacuum by plasma jet produced in a coaxial gun. Some of the key features of the plasma flow are high density, of the order of 10{sup 22} m{sup -3}, low ion and electron temperatures, of only a few eV, and good collimation over a distance of {approx_equal}2 m due to confinement by the self-generated magnetic field. The main features of this plasma-drag acceleration technique are presented and discussed. From basic science point of view hypervelocity dust is useful for studying the physics of dust interaction with energetic plasma flows at microscopic level. In physical applications, it has been proposed to use hypervelocity dust for diagnostic or control of magnetically confined fusion plasmas. In engineering, hypervelocity dusty plasmas are extensively employed in industrial processes involved in the processing of surfaces.

Ticos, C. M. [National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Bucharest (Romania); Wang, Z.; Wurden, G. A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Shukla, P. K. [Institut fuer Teoretische Physik IV, Fakueltat fuer Physik und Astronomie, Ruhr-Universtaet Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany)

2008-10-15

200

16 CFR 500.25 - Net quantity, average quantity, permitted variations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...statement shall declare the net quantity of the contents that will be expelled when the instructions for use are followed. The propellant is included in the net quantity statement. (b) Variations from the stated weight or mass or measure shall be...

2010-01-01

201

APPENDIX B FEDERAL TRAFFICKING PENALTIES DRUG/SCHEDULE QUANTITY PENALTIES QUANTITY PENALTIES  

E-print Network

APPENDIX B FEDERAL TRAFFICKING PENALTIES DRUG/SCHEDULE QUANTITY PENALTIES QUANTITY PENALTIES imprisonment PENALTIES Other Schedule I & II drugs (and any drug product containing Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid million if an individual, $10 million if not an individual Other Schedule III drugs Any amount

Subramanian, Venkat

202

Fate of Deepwater Horizon oil in Alabama's beach system: Understanding physical evolution processes based on observational data.  

PubMed

The impact of MC252 oil on northern Gulf of Mexico (GOM) beaches from the 2010 Deepwater Horizon (DWH) catastrophe was extensive along Alabama's beaches. While considerable amount of cleanup has occurred along these beaches, as of August 2014, DWH oil spill residues continue to be found as surface residual balls (SRBs), and also occasionally as submerged oil mats (SOMs). Four years of field observations informing the fate and transport of DWH SRBs in Alabama's beach system are presented here, along with a conceptual framework for describing their physical evolution processes. The observation data show that SRBs containing MC252 residues currently remain in Alabama's beach system, although their relationship to SOMs is not fully known. Based on our field observations we conclude that small DWH SRBs are likely to persist for several years along the Alabama shoreline. PMID:25496697

Hayworth, Joel S; Prabakhar Clement, T; John, Gerald F; Yin, Fang

2015-01-15

203

Physical studies of asteroids II - Photoelectric observations of the asteroids 63, 93, 135 and 409  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results from photoelectric UBV photometry are presented for the asteroids 63 Ausonia, 93 Minerva, 135 Hertha and 409 Aspasia. A remarkably large amplitude. 0m.95, was found for 63 m Ausonia. For 135 Hertha the most probable period seems to be 0°.429, with a lightcurve amplitude of 0m.17. UBV colours were determined for all the observed asteroids.

Lagerkvist, C.-I.

1981-06-01

204

Role of subsurface physics in the assimilation of surface soil moisture observations  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Soil moisture controls the exchange of water and energy between the land surface and the atmosphere and exhibits memory that may be useful for climate prediction at monthly time scales. Though spatially distributed observations of soil moisture are increasingly becoming available from remotely sense...

205

Aircraft Observations of Sub-cloud Aerosol and Convective Cloud Physical Properties  

E-print Network

This research focuses on aircraft observational studies of aerosol-cloud interactions in cumulus clouds. The data were collected in the summer of 2004, the spring of 2007 and the mid-winter and spring of 2008 in Texas, central Saudi Arabia...

Axisa, Duncan

2011-02-22

206

The Laboratory and Observational Study of 2-BUTANONE as a Test for Organic Chemical Complexity in Various Interstellar Physical Environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have undertaken a combined laboratory, observational, and modeling research program in an attempt to more fully understand the effects that physical environment has on the chemical composition of astronomical sources. To this end, deep millimeter and submillimeter spectral line surveys of multiple interstellar sources with varied physical conditions have been collected. These sources cover a range of physical environments, including hot cores, shocked regions, low-mass star forming regions, and stellar outflows. We have conducted broadband spectral line surveys at ? =1.3 mm of 10 sources at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO). These are forerunner observations to our Herschel OT1 program to continue these line surveys at higher frequencies. Only a fraction of the lines observed in the CSO spectra can be assigned to known molecules. Laboratory spectra of many additional candidates for interstellar detection must therefore be collected before these spectral line surveys can be fully-analyzed. One such molecular target is 2-butanone [also known as methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), CH_3COCH_2CH_3], which contains similar functional groups to other known interstellar molecules and is therefore a likely product of interstellar organic chemistry. The microwave spectrum for MEK was collected with the chirped-pulse waveguide Fourier Transform Microwave (FTMW) spectrometer at New College Florida, and the millimeter and submillimeter spectrum was collected using the direct absorption flow cell spectrometer at Emory University. We will report here both on the laboratory characterization of MEK and the analysis of the observational line surveys in the context of the identification of new, complex organic molecules in the ISM.

Kroll, Jay A.; Weaver, Susanna L. Widicus; Shipman, Steven T.

2011-06-01

207

Physical characterization of Warm Spitzer-observed near-Earth objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Near-infrared spectroscopy of Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) connects diagnostic spectral features to specific surface mineralogies. The combination of spectroscopy with albedos and diameters derived from thermal infrared observations can increase the scientific return beyond that of the individual datasets. For instance, some taxonomic classes can be separated into distinct compositional groupings with albedo and different mineralogies with similar albedos can be distinguished with spectroscopy. To that end, we have completed a spectroscopic observing campaign to complement the ExploreNEOs Warm Spitzer program that obtained albedos and diameters of nearly 600 NEOs (Trilling, D.E. et al. [2010]. Astron. J. 140, 770-784. http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0004-6256/140/3/770). The spectroscopy campaign included visible and near-infrared observations of ExploreNEOs targets from various observatories. Here we present the results of observations using the low-resolution prism mode (˜0.7-2.5 ?m) of the SpeX instrument on the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF). We also include near-infrared observations of ExploreNEOs targets from the MIT-UH-IRTF Joint Campaign for Spectral Reconnaissance. Our dataset includes near-infrared spectra of 187 ExploreNEOs targets (125 observations of 92 objects from our survey and 213 observations of 154 objects from the MIT survey). We identify a taxonomic class for each spectrum and use band parameter analysis to investigate the mineralogies for the S-, Q-, and V-complex objects. Our analysis suggests that for spectra that contain near-infrared data but lack the visible wavelength region, the Bus-DeMeo system misidentifies some S-types as Q-types. We find no correlation between spectral band parameters and ExploreNEOs albedos and diameters. We investigate the correlations of phase angle with Band Area Ratio and near-infrared spectral slope. We find slightly negative Band Area Ratio (BAR) correlations with phase angle for Eros and Ivar, but a positive BAR correlation with phase angle for Ganymed. The results of our phase angle study are consistent with those of (Sanchez, J.A., Reddy, V., Nathues, A., Cloutis, E.A., Mann, P., Hiesinger, H. [2012]. Icarus 220, 36-50. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.icarus.2012.04.008, arXiv:1205.0248). We find evidence for spectral phase reddening for Eros, Ganymed, and Ivar. We identify the likely ordinary chondrite type analog for an appropriate subset of our sample. Our resulting proportions of H, L, and LL ordinary chondrites differ from those calculated for meteorite falls and in previous studies of ordinary chondrite-like NEOs.

Thomas, Cristina A.; Emery, Joshua P.; Trilling, David E.; Delbó, Marco; Hora, Joseph L.; Mueller, Michael

2014-01-01

208

New Physics with 1020 ev Neutrinos and Advantages of Space-Based Observation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nature accelerates cosmic particles to energies as high as 1020 eV. The rates for neutrino-initiated quasi-horizontal air showers (HASs) and upgoing air showers (UASs) have different dependences on ?? N. Therefore, a measurement of HAS and UAS rates would allow an inference of ?? N at energies far beyond what is conceivable with terrestrial accelerators. At a minimum, such a measurement provides a microscope/telescope for QCD evolution. More ambitiously, such a measurement may reveal energy thresholds of completely new physics. The feasibility of this measurement is examined. Favorable conclusions result, especially for proposed space-based observatories. The latter benefit from a larger field of view and from a UAS rate enhanced by {O}(10) over oceans compared to over land.

Weiler, Thomas J.

209

Quantity-Quality: The Positive Effect of Family Size  

E-print Network

Many policy makers in developing countries see restricting family size as a good strategy for increasing average human capital investment. This belief is consistent with the observed negative correlation between quantity and quality of children both across countries and across households within countries. However, because parents simultaneously choose the quantity and quality of their children, the observed correlation may reflect parental preferences rather than the causal relationship of quantity on quality. In addition, the decision to have a second child may be positively correlated with the quality of the first child. This paper exploits exogenous changes in family size caused by relaxations in China’s One Child Policy to estimate the effect of family size on school enrollment. Specifically, it uses the relaxation that allows a rural household to have a second child if the first is a girl. First, it shows that the "1-son-2-child" rule increased family size for first born girls. Second, it uses the exogenous increase in family size to find that an additional sibling significantly increases school enrollment of the first child. Furthermore, this paper shows that the One Child Policy dramatically increased sex-imbalance in

Nancy Qian

2006-01-01

210

Physical and observable characteristics of cloud-to-ground lightning over the Pearl River Delta region of South China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

(CG) lightning characteristic parameters deduced from the lightning location system (LLS) for five differing microenvironmental areas relative to megacity, city, municipal town, hilly suburban area, and mountainous rural area conditions were examined in our 2009-2011 Pearl River Delta (PRD) study. Our LLS data analysis showed that there were high variation of lightning characteristics and phenomenal changes among these areas. As a supplement to the usual study of physical characteristics, an observation-based methodology had been developed to study the lightning behavior, while the respective thunderstorms were traversing through these observation areas. Special features and phenomenal changes related to the lightning characteristic parameters, such as observable lightning stroke days (OLSDs) and observable lightning stroke frequency and density for an OLSD, were also addressed. Microenvironmental variation due to change in topography, degree of urbanization, urban effect, and thunderstorm strength was found to affect the spatial distribution of lightning stroke and the severity of lightning activities over the observation areas. This approach increases our understanding of lightning in subtropical China. It also tells us more about the behavior of lightning while the thunderstorm traverses through an observation area. This information is lacking in previous studies.

Liu, Yonglin; Chan, L. Y.; Lin, Qinhao; Feng, Wanxing; Bi, Xinhui; Chen, Jiahong; Tao, Hantao; Wang, Xinming; Chen, Duohong; Sheng, Guoying; Fu, Jiamo

2014-05-01

211

Physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Physics is the scientific study of the basic principles of the universe, including matter, energy, motion and force, and their interactions. Major topics include classical mechanics, thermodynamics, light and optics, electromagnetism and relativity.

K-12 Outreach,

212

Conserved Quasilocal Quantities and General Covariant Theories in Two Dimensions  

E-print Network

General matterless--theories in 1+1 dimensions include dilaton gravity, Yang--Mills theory as well as non--Einsteinian gravity with dynamical torsion and higher power gravity, and even models of spherically symmetric d = 4 General Relativity. Their recent identification as special cases of 'Poisson--sigma--models' with simple general solution in an arbitrary gauge, allows a comprehensive discussion of the relation between the known absolutely conserved quantities in all those cases and Noether charges, resp. notions of quasilocal 'energy--momentum'. In contrast to Noether like quantities, quasilocal energy definitions require some sort of 'asymptotics' to allow an interpretation as a (gauge--independent) observable. Dilaton gravitation, although a little different in detail, shares this property with the other cases. We also present a simple generalization of the absolute conservation law for the case of interactions with matter of any type.

W. Kummer; P. Widerin

1995-02-15

213

Observations on the relation of the shortwave reflectivity of recently deposited snow to its physical properties  

SciTech Connect

The integrated albedo for solar radiation in the 0.4--0.7 ..mu..m wavlength range was measured near noon over a wet snow cover before and after a new snowfall. Observed values were compared with those estimated from measurements of surface density, air permeability, and the total-to-diffuse-flux ratio by means of five models described in the literature and by using empirical correlations to estimate grain size.

Bergen, J.D.; Hutchison, B.A.; McMillen, R.T.; Ozment, A.D.; Gottfried, G.J.

1983-02-01

214

48 CFR 14.212 - Economic purchase quantities (supplies).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Economic purchase quantities (supplies). ...BIDDING Solicitation of Bids 14.212 Economic purchase quantities (supplies). Contracting officers shall comply with the economic purchase quantity planning...

2010-10-01

215

Geoethics: IPCC disgraced by violation of observational facts and physical laws in their sea level scenario  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sea level may rise due to glacier melting, heat expansion of the oceanic water column, and redistribution of the waster masses - all these factors can be handled as to rates and amplitudes (provided one knows what one is talking about). In key areas over the entire Indian Ocean and in many Pacific Islands there are no traces of and sea level rise over the last 40-50 years. This is also the case for test-areas like Venice and the North Sea coasts. In the Kattegatt Sea one can fix the sea level factor to a maximum rise of 1.0-0.9 mm/year over the last century. The 204 tide gauges selected by NOAA for their global sea level monitoring provide a strong and sharp maximum (of 182 sites) in the range of 0.0-2.0 mm/yr. Satellite altimetry is said to give a rise of 3.2 mm/yr; this, however, is a value achieved after a quite subjective and surely erroneous "correction". The IPCC is talking about exceptionally much higher rates, and even worse are some "boy scouts" desperate try to launce real horror ratios. Physical laws set the frames of the rate and amount of ice melting, and so do records of events in the past (i.e. the geological records). During the Last Ice Age so much ice was accumulated on land, that the sea level dropped by about 120 m. When the process was reversed and ice melted under exceptionally strong climate forcing, sea level rose at a maximum rate of about 10 mm/yr (a meter per century). This can never happen under today's climate conditions. Even with IPCC's hypothetical scenarios, the true sea rise must be far less. When people like Rahmstorf (claiming 1 m or more by 2100) and Hansen (claiming a 4 m rise from 2080 to 2100) give their values, they exceed what is possible according to physical laws and accumulated geological knowledge. The expansion of the oceanic water column may reach amounts of sea level rise in the order of a few centimetres, at the most a decimetre. Old temperature measurements may record a temperature rise over the last 50 years in the order of 0.4o C. The improved ARGO measurements starting 2004 give virtually no change, however. The physically possible amount of expansion decreases, of course, with the decreasing water columns towards the coasts, and at the coasts it is zero (±0.0 mm). The redistribution of water masses in response to the Earth's rotation, surface current beat, wind stress, air pressure, etc. is an important factor. It gives local to regional changes, cancelled out on the global scale, however. From a geoethical point of view, it is of course quite blameworthy that IPCC excels in spreading these horror scenarios of a rapid, even accelerating, sea level rise. Besides, modern understanding of the planetary-solar-terrestrial interaction shows that we are now on our way into grand solar minimum with severely colder climate - that is just the opposite to IPCC's talk about an accelerating warming. In science we should debate - but we should not dictate (as IPCC insist upon), and it is here the perspectives of geoethics comes into the picture.

Mörner, Nils-Axel

2014-05-01

216

The effect of the action observation physical training on the upper extremity function in children with cerebral palsy  

PubMed Central

The purpose this study was to investigate the effect of action observation physical training (AOPT) on the functioning of the upper extremities in children with cerebral palsy (CP), using an evaluation framework based on that of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). The subjects were divided into an AOPT group and a physical training (PT) group. AOPT group practiced repeatedly the actions they observed on video clips, in which normal child performed an action with their upper extremities. PT group performed the same actions as the AOPT group did after observing landscape photographs. The subjects participated in twelve 30-min sessions, 3 days a week, for 4 weeks. Evaluation of upper extremity function using the following: the power of grasp and Modified Ashworth Scale for body functions and structures, a Box and Block test, an ABILHAND-Kids questionnaire, and the WeeFIM scale for activity and participation. Measurements were performed before and after the training, and 2 weeks after the end of training. The results of this study showed that, in comparison with the PT group, the functioning of the upper extremities in the AOPT group was significantly improved in body functions and activity and participation according to the ICF framework. This study demonstrates that AOPT has a positive influence on the functioning of the upper extremities in children with CP. It is suggested that this alternative approach for functioning of the upper extremities could be an effective method for rehabilitation in children with CP. PMID:25061598

Kim, Jin-young; Kim, Jong-man; Ko, Eun-young

2014-01-01

217

Self-determined motivation towards physical activity in adolescents treated for obesity: an observational study  

PubMed Central

Background Within the Self-Determination Theory (SDT) framework, the first major study aim was to investigate the SDT tenets in an obese adolescent population by examining the factor structure of the Behavioural Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire-2 (BREQ-2) and by investigating associations between physical activity (PA) and motivation in obese adolescents. The second aim was to study differences in motivation according to adolescents' educational level, since lower educated obese adolescent are a sub-risk group for lower PA levels among the obese adolescents. The third aim was to investigate whether attending a residential obesity treatment program could lead to an increase in autonomous motivation towards PA and to see if the treatment effect on motivation was different in low versus high educated youth. Methods For the first study aim, the sample comprised 177 obese adolescents at the start of a 10-month multidisciplinary residential obesity treatment program (BMI = 35.9 ± 6.0 kg/m2, 15.1 ± 1.5 years, 62% girls). A subsample of 65 adolescents (stratified by educational level) were divided into low (n = 34) versus high educated (n = 31) as part of the second and third study aim. Motivation was assessed using the BREQ-2 and PA using the Flemish Physical Activity Questionnaire. Results Exploratory factor analysis showed sufficient validations with the original factor for 17 out of 19 BREQ-2 items. Significant positive correlations were found between PA and the composite score of relative autonomy (r = 0.31, p < 0.001), introjected (r = 0.23, p < 0.01), identified (r = 0.31, p < 0.001) and intrinsic regulation (r = 0.38, p < 0.001). Higher educated adolescents scored higher on the composite score of relative autonomy, introjected, identified and intrinsic regulation at the start of treatment (F = 3.68, p < 0.001). The composite score of relative autonomy, external, identified and intrinsic regulation significantly increased during treatment for all adolescents (F = 6.65, p < 0.001). Introjected regulation significantly increased for lower educated adolescents (F = 25.57, p < 0.001). Conclusions The BREQ-2 can be used in an obese adolescent population. Higher levels of autonomous motivation towards PA were related to higher PA levels. Adolescents had increases in both autonomous and controlled forms of motivation during treatment. Special attention for lower educated adolescents during treatment is needed, as they have a lower autonomous motivation at the start of treatment and an increase in introjected regulation during treatment. PMID:21923955

2011-01-01

218

Viking landing sites, remote-sensing observations, and physical properties of Martian surface materials  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Important problems that confront future scientific exploration of Mars include the physical properties of Martian surface materials and the geologic processes that formed the materials. The design of landing spacecraft, roving vehicles, and sampling devices and the selection of landing sites, vehicle traverses, and sample sites will be, in part, guided by the physical properties of the materials. Four materials occur in the sample fields of the Viking landers: (1) drift, (2) crusty to cloddy, (3) blocky, and (4) rock. The first three are soillike. Drift materials is weak, loose, and porous. We estimate that it has a dielectric constant near 2.4 and a thermal inertia near 1 ?? 10-3 to 3 ?? 10-3 (cal cm-2 sec 1 2 K-1) because of its low bulk density, fine grain size, and small cohesion. Crusty to cloddy material is expected to have a dielectric constant near 2.8 and a thermal inertia near 4 ?? 10-3 to 7 ?? 10-3 because of its moderate bulk density and cementation of grains. Blocky material should have a dielectric constant near 3.3 and a thermal inertia near 7 ?? 10-3 to 9 ?? 10-3 because of its moderate bulk density and cementation. Common basaltic rocks have dielectric constans near 8 and thermal inertias near 30 ?? 10-3 to 60 ?? 10-3. Comparisons of estimated dielectric constants and thermal inertias of the materials at the landing sites with those obtained remotely by Earth-based radars and Viking Orbiter thermal sensors suggest that the materials at the landing sites are good analogs for materials elsewhere on Mars. Correlation of remotely estimated dielectric constant and thermal inertias indicates two modal values for paired values of dielectric constants and thermal inertias near (A) 2 and 2 ?? 10-3 and (B) 3 and 6 ?? 10-3, respectively. These two modes are comparable to the dielectric constants and thermal inertias for drift and crusty to cloddy material, respectively. Dielectric constants and thermal inertias for blocky material are larger but conistent with values in the northern plains. Our interprertations are compatible with an aeolian origin for drift and similar materials elsewhere on Mars. The postulate that moderate dielectric constants and thermal inertias larger than 3 or 4 ?? 10-3 are produced by cementation of soillike materials is partly consistent with the data. The average dielectric constant and thermal inertia and their correlation with one another suggest that most of the surface of Mars should present few difficulties to future surface exploration, but some surfaces may present difficulties for spacecraft that are not suitably designed. ?? 1989.

Moore, H.J.; Jakosky, B.M.

1989-01-01

219

Monthly Deaths Number And Concomitant Environmental Physical Activity: 192 Months Observation (1990-2005)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human life and health state are dependent on many endogenous and exogenous influence factors. The aim of this study is to check the possible links between monthly deaths distribution and concomitant activity of three groups of cosmophysical factors: solar (SA), geomagnetic (GMA) and cosmic ray (CRA) activities. 192 months death number in years 1990-2005 (n=674004) at the Republic of Lithuania were analyzed. Total and both gender data were considered. In addition to the total death numbers, groups of ischemic heart disease (IHD), stroke (CVA), non-cardiovascular (NCV), accident, traffic accident and suicide-related deaths were studied. Sunspot number and solar radio flux (for SA), Ap, Cp and Am indices (for GMA) and neutron activity on the Earth s surface (for CRA) were the environmental physical activity parameters used in this study. Yearly and monthly deaths distributions were also studied. Pearson correlation coefficients (r) and their probabilities (p) were calculated. Multivariate analysis was conducted. Results revealed: 1) significant correlation of monthly deaths number with CRA (total, stroke, NCV and suicides) and inverse with SA and GMA; 2) significant correlation of monthly number of traffic accidents number with SA and GMA, and inverse with CRA; 3) a strong negative relationship between year and IHD/CVA victims number (an evidence for growing role of stroke in cardiovascular mortality); 4) significant links of rising cardiovascular deaths number at the beginning of the year and traffic accidents victims at the end of the year. It is concluded that CRA is related to monthly deaths distribution.

Stoupel, E.; Kalediene, R.; Petrauskiene, J.; Starkuviene, S.; Abramson, E.; Israelevich, P.; Sulkes, J.

2007-12-01

220

Aerosol physical, chemical and optical properties observed in the ambient atmosphere during haze pollution conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aerosol’s properties in the ambient atmosphere may differ significantly from sampling results due to containing of abundant water content. We performed sun-sky radiometer measurements in Beijing during 2011 and 2012 winter to obtain distribution of spectral and angular sky radiance. The measurements are then used to retrieve aerosol physical, chemical and optical properties, including single scattering albedo, size distribution, complex refractive indices and aerosol component fractions identified as black carbon, brown carbon, mineral dust, ammonium sulfate-like components and water content inside particle matters. We found that during winter haze condition aerosol is dominated by fine particles with center radius of about 0.2 micron. Fine particles contribute about 93% to total aerosol extinction of solar light, and result in serious decrease of atmospheric visibility during haze condition. The percentage of light absorption of haze aerosol can up to about 10% among its total extinction, much higher than that of unpolluted conditions, that causes significant radiative cooling effects suppressing atmospheric convection and dispersion of pollutants. Moreover, the average water content occupies about one third of the ambient aerosol in volume which suggests the important effect of ambient humidity in the formation of haze pollution.

Li, Zhengqiang; Xie, Yisong; Li, Donghui; Li, Kaitao; Zhang, Ying; Li, Li; Lv, Yang; Qie, Lili; Xu, Hua

221

Panchromatic Observations of the Textbook GRB 110205A: Constraining Physical Mechanisms of Prompt Emission and Afterglow  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present a comprehensive analysis of a bright, long duration (T(sub 90) approx. 257 s) GRB 110205A at redshift z = 2.22. The optical prompt emission was detected by Swift/UVOT, ROTSE-IIIb and BOOTES telescopes when the GRB was still radiating in the gamma-ray band. Thanks to its long duration, nearly 200 s of observations were obtained simultaneously from optical, X-ray to gamma-ray (1 eV - 5 MeV), which makes it one of the exceptional cases to study the broadband spectral energy distribution across 6 orders of magnitude in energy during the prompt emission phase. In particular, by fitting the time resolved prompt spectra, we clearly identify, for the first time, an interesting two-break energy spectrum, roughly consistent with the standard GRB synchrotron emission model in the fast cooling regime. Although the prompt optical emission is brighter than the extrapolation of the best fit X/ -ray spectra, it traces the -ray light curve shape, suggesting a relation to the prompt high energy emission. The synchrotron + synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) scenario is disfavored by the data, but the models invoking a pair of internal shocks or having two emission regions can interpret the data well. Shortly after prompt emission (approx. 1100 s), a bright (R = 14.0) optical emission hump with very steep rise ( alpha approx. 5.5) was observed which we interpret as the emission from the reverse shock. It is the first time that the rising phase of a reverse shock component has been closely observed.

Zheng, W.; Shen, R. F.; Sakamoto, T.; Beardmore, A. P.; De Pasquale, M.; Wu, X. F.; Gorosabel, J.; Urata, Y.; Sugita, S.; Zhang, B.; Pozanenko, A.; Nissinen, M.; Sahu, D. K.; Im, M.; Ukwatta, T. N.; Andreev, M.; Klunko, E.; Volnova, A.; Akerlof, C. W.; Anto, P.; Barthelmy, S. D.; Breeveld, A.; Carsenty, U.; Gehrels, N.; Sonbas, E.

2011-01-01

222

PANCHROMATIC OBSERVATIONS OF THE TEXTBOOK GRB 110205A: CONSTRAINING PHYSICAL MECHANISMS OF PROMPT EMISSION AND AFTERGLOW  

SciTech Connect

We present a comprehensive analysis of a bright, long-duration (T{sub 90} {approx} 257 s) GRB 110205A at redshift z = 2.22. The optical prompt emission was detected by Swift/UVOT, ROTSE-IIIb, and BOOTES telescopes when the gamma-ray burst (GRB) was still radiating in the {gamma}-ray band, with optical light curve showing correlation with {gamma}-ray data. Nearly 200 s of observations were obtained simultaneously from optical, X-ray, to {gamma}-ray (1 eV to 5 MeV), which makes it one of the exceptional cases to study the broadband spectral energy distribution during the prompt emission phase. In particular, we clearly identify, for the first time, an interesting two-break energy spectrum, roughly consistent with the standard synchrotron emission model in the fast cooling regime. Shortly after prompt emission ({approx}1100 s), a bright (R = 14.0) optical emission hump with very steep rise ({alpha} {approx} 5.5) was observed, which we interpret as the reverse shock (RS) emission. It is the first time that the rising phase of an RS component has been closely observed. The full optical and X-ray afterglow light curves can be interpreted within the standard reverse shock (RS) + forward shock (FS) model. In general, the high-quality prompt and afterglow data allow us to apply the standard fireball model to extract valuable information, including the radiation mechanism (synchrotron), radius of prompt emission (R{sub GRB} {approx} 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 13} cm), initial Lorentz factor of the outflow ({Gamma}{sub 0} {approx} 250), the composition of the ejecta (mildly magnetized), the collimation angle, and the total energy budget.

Zheng, W. [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, 450 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Shen, R. F. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3H4 (Canada); Sakamoto, T. [Center for Research and Exploration in Space Science and Technology (CRESST), NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Beardmore, A. P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); De Pasquale, M. [Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, Holmbury Road, Holmbury St. Mary, Dorking RH5 6NT (United Kingdom); Wu, X. F.; Zhang, B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nevada Las Vegas, Las Vegas, NV 89154 (United States); Gorosabel, J. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia (IAA-CSIC), 18008 Granada (Spain); Urata, Y. [Institute of Astronomy, National Central University, Chung-Li 32054, Taiwan (China); Sugita, S. [EcoTopia Science Institute, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, chikusa, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Pozanenko, A. [Space Research Institute (IKI), 84/32 Profsoyuznaya St., Moscow 117997 (Russian Federation); Nissinen, M. [Taurus Hill Observatory, Haerkaemaeentie 88, 79480 Kangaslampi (Finland); Sahu, D. K. [CREST, Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Koramangala, Bangalore 560034 (India); Im, M. [Center for the Exploration of the Origin of the Universe, Department of Physics and Astronomy, FPRD, Seoul National University, Shillim-dong, San 56-1, Kwanak-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ukwatta, T. N. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Andreev, M. [Terskol Branch of Institute of Astronomy of RAS, Kabardino-Balkaria Republic 361605 (Russian Federation); Klunko, E., E-mail: zwk@umich.edu, E-mail: rfshen@astro.utoronto.ca, E-mail: zhang@physics.unlv.edu [Institute of Solar-Terrestrial Physics, Lermontov St., 126a, Irkutsk 664033 (Russian Federation); and others

2012-06-01

223

Enzyme catalysis with small ionic liquid quantities.  

PubMed

Enzyme catalysis with minimal ionic liquid quantities improves reaction rates, stereoselectivity and enables solvent-free processing. In particular the widely used lipases combine well with many ionic liquids. Demonstrated applications are racemate separation, esterification and glycerolysis. Minimal solvent processing is also an alternative to sluggish solvent-free catalysis. The method allows simplified down-stream processing, as only traces of ionic liquids have to be removed. PMID:21107639

Fischer, Fabian; Mutschler, Julien; Zufferey, Daniel

2011-04-01

224

Quantity Flexibility Contracts and Supply Chain Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Quantity Flexibility (QF) contract is a method for coordinating materials and information flows in supply chains operating under rolling-horizon planning. It stipulates a maximum percentage revision each element of the period-by-period replenishment schedule is allowed per planning iteration. The supplier is obligated to cover any requests that remain within the upside limits. The bounds on reductions are a form

A. A. Tsay; W. S. Lovejoy

1999-01-01

225

Mass quantity gauging by RF mode analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Work done to date is reported concerning Radio Frequency Mass Quantity Gauging. Experimental apparatus has been designed and tested which measures the resonant frequencies of a tank in the time domain. These frequencies correspond to the total mass of fluid within the tank. Experimental results are discussed for nitrogen and hydrogen in normal gravity both in the supercritical state and also in the two phase (liquid-gas) region. Theoretical discussions for more general cases are given.

Collier, R. S.; Ellerbruch, D.; Cruz, J. E.; Stokes, R. W.; Luft, P. E.; Peterson, R. G.; Hiester, A. E.

1973-01-01

226

Quantity Discrimination in Wolves (Canis lupus).  

PubMed

Quantity discrimination has been studied extensively in different non-human animal species. In the current study, we tested 11 hand-raised wolves (Canis lupus) in a two-way choice task. We placed a number of food items (one to four) sequentially into two opaque cans and asked the wolves to choose the larger amount. Moreover, we conducted two additional control conditions to rule out non-numerical properties of the presentation that the animals might have used to make the correct choice. Our results showed that wolves are able to make quantitative judgments at the group, but also at the individual level even when alternative strategies such as paying attention to the surface area or time and total amount are ruled out. In contrast to previous canine studies on dogs (Canis familiaris) and coyotes (Canis latrans), our wolves' performance did not improve with decreasing ratio, referred to as Weber's law. However, further studies using larger quantities than we used in the current set-up are still needed to determine whether and when wolves' quantity discrimination conforms to Weber's law. PMID:23181044

Utrata, Ewelina; Virányi, Zsófia; Range, Friederike

2012-01-01

227

What Physical Attributes Underlie Self-Reported vs. Observed Ability to Walk 400 m in Later Life?  

PubMed Central

Objective The aims of this study were to evaluate and contrast the physical attributes that are associated with self-reported vs. observed ability to walk 400 m among older adults. Design Analysis of baseline and 3-yr data from 1026 participants 65 yrs or older in the InCHIANTI (Invecchiare in Chianti) study was conducted. Observed and self-reported ability to walk 400 m at baseline and at 3 yrs were primary outcomes. Predictors included leg speed, leg strength, leg strength symmetry, range of motion, balance, and kyphosis. Results Balance, leg speed, leg strength, kyphosis, leg strength symmetry, and knee range of motion were associated with self-reported ability to walk 400 m at baseline (P < 0.001, c = 0.85). Balance, leg speed, and knee range of motion were associated with observed 400-m walk (P < 0.001, c = 0.85) at baseline. Prospectively, baseline leg speed and leg strength were predictive of both self-reported (P < 0.001, c = 0.79) and observed (P < 0.001, c = 0.72) ability to walk 400 m at 3 yrs. Conclusions The profiles of attributes that are associated with self-reported vs. observed walking ability differ. The factor most consistently associated with current and future walking ability is leg speed. These results draw attention to important foci for rehabilitation. PMID:24322434

Beauchamp, Marla K.; Leveille, Suzanne G.; Patel, Kushang V.; Kiely, Dan K.; Phillips, Caroline L.; Bandinelli, Stefania; Ferrucci, Luigi; Guralnik, Jack; Bean, Jonathan F.

2015-01-01

228

Erosion and Gully formation in the Ethiopian Highlands: physical observations and community perspectives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aims of this investigation are to analyze spatio-temporal variations in sediment transport to waterways in a small agricultural watershed by: (i) locating sediment sources using modeling and bio-physical scientific approaches, (ii) locating sediment sources and erosion processes through age- and gender-differentiated focus group discussions and transect walks, and (iii) linking sediment sources to changes in soil nutrient concentrations. The collected field measurements, modeling results, and community perceptions have been gathered on an area encompassing a previous study site (14 ha) on a currently larger scale (95 ha) in the Debre Mewi watershed to develop a fuller picture of the social and environmental conditions that are leading to induced or controlled erosion and gully formation. Farmers provided their perspectives on erosion processes and these were complemented by and compared to soil and water field measurements during the rainy season. Sixteen sites were selected for monitoring and measuring groundwater, soil nutrient changes, and soil depth change on the 95 ha study area, based on land use and slope angle -- half represent grazing or fallow land and half are located on cultivated land. A set of stable gullies and actively forming gullies were monitored and measured simultaneously along hillslope locations in the top, middle and bottom areas. In addition, sediment concentration samples were collected at 4 weir locations in the 95 ha watershed and also at the final outlet to this watershed. Modeling efforts emphasize steep cropland as most vulnerable, whereas community members pointed out waterlogged black soils and lower areas as vulnerable. The data demonstrate that saturated pathways in the landscape provide areas for the development and widening of gullies and that flat cropland areas experience deposition rather than erosion, while soil nutrient concentrations are decreasing upslope and increasing downslope.

Guzman, C. D.; Admassu, S.; Derebe, A.; Yitaferu, B.; Steenhuis, T. S.

2013-12-01

229

Ship wake signatures in radar/optical images of the sea surface: observations and physical mechanisms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ship wakes can be clearly seen in satellite radar and optical images of the sea surface, and understanding of physical mechanisms responsible for the wake signatures is very important to develop methods of ship detection/identification. The wake surface signatures at small and intermediate stages are characterized by a smooth centerline area where surface waves are depressed due to the vessel turbulence and by a pair of rough bands at the sides of the centerline wake. At large wake ages two slick bands (a "railroad track" wake) appear instead of the rough bands, while the smooth centerline band is practically absent. In this paper results of field studies of the mean flow structure near the wake are presented. It is shown that two mean circulating currents ("rolls") rotating in the opposite directions are formed at two sides of the median vertical plane of the wake. Near the water surface the rolls result in diverging horizontal flows, decreasing near the wake edges. Wind waves propagating against the diverging currents are amplified due to a wave straining mechanism thus increasing the surface roughness. Film sampling was carried out when crossing the wakes and analysis of films collected within the "railroad" slick bands and outside the bands has revealed enhanced surface wave damping, obviously due to accumulation of surfactants in the slick bands; the surfactant compression is explained by the action of the diverging currents. The diverging currents as part of the rolls and the surfactant transport to the water surface are supposed to be associated with air bubbles generated by ship propellers.

Ermakov, S.; Kapustin, I.; Lazareva, T.

2014-10-01

230

Physical connectivity in the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System inferred from 9 years of ocean color observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ocean color images acquired from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) from 1998 to 2006 were used to examine the patterns of physical connectivity between land and reefs, and among reefs in the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System (MBRS) in the northwestern Caribbean Sea. Connectivity was inferred by tracking surface water features in weekly climatologies and a time series of weekly mean chlorophyll- a concentrations derived from satellite imagery. Frequency of spatial connections between 17 pre-defined, geomorphological domains that include the major reefs in the MBRS and river deltas in Honduras and Nicaragua were recorded and tabulated as percentage of connections. The 9-year time series of 466 weekly mean images portrays clearly the seasonal patterns of connectivity, including river plumes and transitions in the aftermath of perturbations such as hurricanes. River plumes extended offshore from the Honduras coast to the Bay Islands (Utila, Cayo Cochinos, Guanaja, and Roatán) in 70% of the weekly mean images. Belizean reefs, especially those in the southern section of the barrier reef and Glovers Atoll, were also affected by riverine discharges in every one of the 9 years. Glovers Atoll was exposed to river plumes originating in Honduras 104/466 times (22%) during this period. Plumes from eastern Honduras went as far as Banco Chinchorro and Cozumel in Mexico. Chinchorro appeared to be more frequently connected to Turneffe Atoll and Honduran rivers than with Glovers and Lighthouse Atolls, despite their geographic proximity. This new satellite data analysis provides long-term, quantitative assessments of the main pathways of connectivity in the region. The percentage of connections can be used to validate predictions made using other approaches such as numerical modeling, and provides valuable information to ecosystem-based management in coral reef provinces.

Soto, I.; Andréfouët, S.; Hu, C.; Muller-Karger, F. E.; Wall, C. C.; Sheng, J.; Hatcher, B. G.

2009-06-01

231

Testing conceptual and physically based soil hydrology schemes against observations for the Amazon Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study analyzes the performance of the two soil hydrology schemes of the land surface model ORCHIDEE in estimating Amazonian hydrology and phenology for five major sub-basins (Xingu, Tapajós, Madeira, Solimões and Negro), during the 29-year period 1980-2008. A simple 2-layer scheme with a bucket topped by an evaporative layer is compared to an 11-layer diffusion scheme. The soil schemes are coupled with a river routing module and a process model of plant physiology, phenology and carbon dynamics. The simulated water budget and vegetation functioning components are compared with several data sets at sub-basin scale. The use of the 11-layer soil diffusion scheme does not significantly change the Amazonian water budget simulation when compared to the 2-layer soil scheme (+3.1 and -3.0% in evapotranspiration and river discharge, respectively). However, the higher water-holding capacity of the soil and the physically based representation of runoff and drainage in the 11-layer soil diffusion scheme result in more dynamic soil water storage variation and improved simulation of the total terrestrial water storage when compared to GRACE satellite estimates. The greater soil water storage within the 11-layer scheme also results in increased dry-season evapotranspiration (+0.5 mm d-1, +17%) and improves river discharge simulation in the southeastern sub-basins such as the Xingu. Evapotranspiration over this sub-basin is sustained during the whole dry season with the 11-layer soil diffusion scheme, whereas the 2-layer scheme limits it after only 2 dry months. Lower plant drought stress simulated by the 11-layer soil diffusion scheme leads to better simulation of the seasonal cycle of photosynthesis (GPP) when compared to a GPP data-driven model based on eddy covariance and satellite greenness measurements. A dry-season length between 4 and 7 months over the entire Amazon Basin is found to be critical in distinguishing differences in hydrological feedbacks between the soil and the vegetation cover simulated by the two soil schemes. On average, the multilayer soil diffusion scheme provides little improvement in simulated hydrology over the wet tropical Amazonian sub-basins, but a more significant improvement is found over the drier sub-basins. The use of a multilayer soil diffusion scheme might become critical for assessments of future hydrological changes, especially in southern regions of the Amazon Basin where longer dry seasons and more severe droughts are expected in the next century.

Guimberteau, M.; Ducharne, A.; Ciais, P.; Boisier, J. P.; Peng, S.; De Weirdt, M.; Verbeeck, H.

2014-06-01

232

ON THE TRANSITIONAL DISK CLASS: LINKING OBSERVATIONS OF T TAURI STARS AND PHYSICAL DISK MODELS  

SciTech Connect

Two decades ago 'transitional disks' (TDs) described spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of T Tauri stars with small near-IR excesses, but significant mid- and far-IR excesses. Many inferred this indicated dust-free holes in disks possibly cleared by planets. Recently, this term has been applied disparately to objects whose Spitzer SEDs diverge from the expectations for a typical full disk (FD). Here, we use irradiated accretion disk models to fit the SEDs of 15 such disks in NGC 2068 and IC 348. One group has a 'dip' in infrared emission while the others' continuum emission decreases steadily at all wavelengths. We find that the former have an inner disk hole or gap at intermediate radii in the disk and we call these objects 'transitional disks' and 'pre-transitional disks' (PTDs), respectively. For the latter group, we can fit these SEDs with FD models and find that millimeter data are necessary to break the degeneracy between dust settling and disk mass. We suggest that the term 'transitional' only be applied to objects that display evidence for a radical change in the disk's radial structure. Using this definition, we find that TDs and PTDs tend to have lower mass accretion rates than FDs and that TDs have lower accretion rates than PTDs. These reduced accretion rates onto the star could be linked to forming planets. Future observations of TDs and PTDs will allow us to better quantify the signatures of planet formation in young disks.

Espaillat, C.; Andrews, S.; Qi, C.; Wilner, D. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS-78, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Ingleby, L.; Calvet, N. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 830 Dennison Building, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Hernandez, J. [Centro de Investigaciones de Astronomia (CIDA), Merida 5101-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Furlan, E. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); D'Alessio, P. [Centro de Radioastronomia y Astrofisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, 58089 Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Muzerolle, J., E-mail: cespaillat@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: sandrews@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: cqi@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: dwilner@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: lingleby@umich.edu, E-mail: ncalvet@umich.edu, E-mail: jesush@cida.ve, E-mail: Elise.Furlan@jpl.nasa.gov, E-mail: p.dalessio@crya.unam.mx, E-mail: muzerol@stsci.edu [Space Telescope Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

2012-03-10

233

On the Transitional Disk Class: Linking Observations of T Tauri Stars and Physical Disk Models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two decades ago "transitional disks" (TDs) described spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of T Tauri stars with small near-IR excesses, but significant mid- and far-IR excesses. Many inferred this indicated dust-free holes in disks possibly cleared by planets. Recently, this term has been applied disparately to objects whose Spitzer SEDs diverge from the expectations for a typical full disk (FD). Here, we use irradiated accretion disk models to fit the SEDs of 15 such disks in NGC 2068 and IC 348. One group has a "dip" in infrared emission while the others' continuum emission decreases steadily at all wavelengths. We find that the former have an inner disk hole or gap at intermediate radii in the disk and we call these objects "transitional disks" and "pre-transitional disks" (PTDs), respectively. For the latter group, we can fit these SEDs with FD models and find that millimeter data are necessary to break the degeneracy between dust settling and disk mass. We suggest that the term "transitional" only be applied to objects that display evidence for a radical change in the disk's radial structure. Using this definition, we find that TDs and PTDs tend to have lower mass accretion rates than FDs and that TDs have lower accretion rates than PTDs. These reduced accretion rates onto the star could be linked to forming planets. Future observations of TDs and PTDs will allow us to better quantify the signatures of planet formation in young disks.

Espaillat, C.; Ingleby, L.; Hernández, J.; Furlan, E.; D'Alessio, P.; Calvet, N.; Andrews, S.; Muzerolle, J.; Qi, C.; Wilner, D.

2012-03-01

234

Changes in mouse cognition and hippocampal gene expression observed in a mild physical- and blast-traumatic brain injury  

PubMed Central

Warfare has long been associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI) in militarized zones. Common forms of TBI can be caused by a physical insult to the head-brain or by the effects of a high velocity blast shock wave generated by the detonation of an explosive device. While both forms of trauma are distinctly different regarding the mechanism of trauma induction, there are striking similarities in the cognitive and emotional status of survivors. Presently, proven effective therapeutics for the treatment of either form of TBI are unavailable. To be able to develop efficacious therapies, studies involving animal models of physical- and blast-TBI are required to identify possible novel or existing medicines that may be of value in the management of clinical events. We examined indices of cognition and anxiety-like behavior and the hippocampal gene transcriptome of mice subjected to both forms of TBI. We identified common behavioral deficits and gene expression regulations, in addition to unique injury-specific forms of gene regulation. Molecular pathways presented a pattern similar to that seen in gene expression. Interestingly, pathways connected to Alzheimer’s disease displayed a markedly different form of regulation depending on the type of TBI. While these data highlight similarities in behavioral outcomes after trauma, the divergence in hippocampal transcriptome observed between models suggests that, at the molecular level, the TBIs are quite different. These models may provide tools to help define therapeutic approaches for the treatment of physical- and blast-TBIs. Based upon observations of increasing numbers of personnel displaying TBI related emotional and behavioral changes in militarized zones, the development of efficacious therapies will become a national if not a global priority. PMID:23454194

Tweedie, David; Rachmany, Lital; Rubovitch, Vardit; Zhang, Yongqing; Becker, Kevin G.; Perez, Evelyn; Hoffer, Barry J.; Pick, Chaim G.; Greig, Nigel H.

2013-01-01

235

Consumer-Resource Dynamics: Quantity, Quality, and Allocation  

PubMed Central

Background The dominant paradigm for modeling the complexities of interacting populations and food webs is a system of coupled ordinary differential equations in which the state of each species, population, or functional trophic group is represented by an aggregated numbers-density or biomass-density variable. Here, using the metaphysiological approach to model consumer-resource interactions, we formulate a two-state paradigm that represents each population or group in a food web in terms of both its quantity and quality. Methodology and Principal Findings The formulation includes an allocation function controlling the relative proportion of extracted resources to increasing quantity versus elevating quality. Since lower quality individuals senesce more rapidly than higher quality individuals, an optimal allocation proportion exists and we derive an expression for how this proportion depends on population parameters that determine the senescence rate, the per-capita mortality rate, and the effects of these rates on the dynamics of the quality variable. We demonstrate that oscillations do not arise in our model from quantity-quality interactions alone, but require consumer-resource interactions across trophic levels that can be stabilized through judicious resource allocation strategies. Analysis and simulations provide compelling arguments for the necessity of populations to evolve quality-related dynamics in the form of maternal effects, storage or other appropriate structures. They also indicate that resource allocation switching between investments in abundance versus quality provide a powerful mechanism for promoting the stability of consumer-resource interactions in seasonally forcing environments. Conclusions/Significance Our simulations show that physiological inefficiencies associated with this switching can be favored by selection due to the diminished exposure of inefficient consumers to strong oscillations associated with the well-known paradox of enrichment. Also our results demonstrate how allocation switching can explain observed growth patterns in experimental microbial cultures and discuss how our formulation can address questions that cannot be answered using the quantity-only paradigms that currently predominate. PMID:21283752

Getz, Wayne M.; Owen-Smith, Norman

2011-01-01

236

Asteroid (2867) Steins: Shape, topography and global physical properties from OSIRIS observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Rosetta spacecraft flew by Asteroid (2867) Steins on 5 September 2008, allowing the onboard OSIRIS cameras to collect the first images of an E-type asteroid. We implemented several three-dimensional reconstruction techniques to retrieve its shape. Limb profiles, combined with stereo control points, were used to reconstruct an approximate shape model. This model was refined using a stereophotoclinometry technique to accurately retrieve the topography of the hemisphere observed by OSIRIS. The unseen part of the surface was constrained by the technique of light curves inversion. The global shape resembles a top with dimensions along the principal axes of inertia of 6.83 × 5.70 × 4.42 km. It is conspicuously more regular than other small asteroids like (233) Eros and (25143) Itokawa. Its mean radius is Rm = 2.70 km and its equivalent radius (radius of a sphere of equivalent volume) is Rv = 2.63 km. The north pole is oriented at RA = 99 ± 5° and Dec = -59 ± 5°, which implies a very large obliquity of 172° and a retrograde rotation. Maps of the gravitational field and slopes were calculated for the well-imaged part of the asteroid. Together with the shape, they helped characterizing the most prominent topographic features identified at the surface of (2867) Steins: an equatorial ridge restricted to the extremities of the long axis, a large crater having dimensions of 2100 × 1800 m in the southern hemisphere, and an elongated hill in the northern hemisphere. We conjecture that the equatorial ridge was formed by centrifugal acceleration as the asteroid was spun up by the Yarkovsky-O’Keefe-Radzievskii-Paddack effect.

Jorda, L.; Lamy, P. L.; Gaskell, R. W.; Kaasalainen, M.; Groussin, O.; Besse, S.; Faury, G.

2012-11-01

237

Physical characteristics of the meteoroids by the results of combined radar and optical observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes a method determining of the light and ionization curves by the results of combined radio - TV observations meteors in 1978-1980 in Hissar Astronomical Observatory of the Institute of Astrophysics of Sciences of Tajikistan, the calculation results of photographic and radar meteoroid mass and analysis of the shape of light curves of meteors within the theory of evaporation and the theory of the quasi-continuous fragmentation. The photographic meteoroid mass from the light curve were defined: a) by the value of maximum luminescence intensity at the height hm and b) by the integration light curve. It is based on analysis of the data of the mass were obtained correction factor that takes into account the effect of fragmentation and other factors to determine the mass of meteoroids first method. Average value of the mass of meteoroids calculated by the light curve for meteors with magnitude M?1 is 19.10-3 g, and the average value of the mass found on magnitude of the luminescence intensity at the height the maximum brightness consist 18.2.10-3 that is in satisfactory agreement. The meteoroid’s masses was calculated also radio method by value of maximum linear electron density at the height of maximum ionization (n). The framework of the classical theory and the theory quasi-continuous fragmentation, the shape of the light curves of simultaneous radio - optical meteors were analyzed. It is shown that the main mechanism of ablation 60% of simultaneous radio - optical meteors is a quasi-continuous fragmentation. The bulk density and porosity of showers and sporadic meteoroids were determined. Found that the Geminids meteoroids and ?-Aquariids have the largest bulk densities (?o = 3.6 g/cm3). A meteoroids of the showers Orionids and Leonids have the lowest bulk density (?o ? 0.6 g/cm3), and the highest value of the porosity (60 ? K ? 80%). The mass fragments of flow and sporadic meteoroids lie in the range of 5.10-8÷10-5g.

Mirhusen, Narziev

238

A Cooperative Game Theory Model of Quantity Discounts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantity discounts offered by a monopolist are considered in the context of a bargaining problem in which the buyer and the seller negotiate over the order quantity and the average unit price. All-units and incremental quantity discounts that permit transaction at a negotiated outcome are described. The effects of risk sensitivity and bargaining power on quantity discounts are discussed for

Rajeev Kohli

1989-01-01

239

Evaluation of Specific Absorption Rate as a Dosimetric Quantity for Electromagnetic Fields Bioeffects  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluate SAR as a dosimetric quantity for EMF bioeffects, and identify ways for increasing the precision in EMF dosimetry and bioactivity assessment. Methods We discuss the interaction of man-made electromagnetic waves with biological matter and calculate the energy transferred to a single free ion within a cell. We analyze the physics and biology of SAR and evaluate the methods of its estimation. We discuss the experimentally observed non-linearity between electromagnetic exposure and biological effect. Results We find that: a) The energy absorbed by living matter during exposure to environmentally accounted EMFs is normally well below the thermal level. b) All existing methods for SAR estimation, especially those based upon tissue conductivity and internal electric field, have serious deficiencies. c) The only method to estimate SAR without large error is by measuring temperature increases within biological tissue, which normally are negligible for environmental EMF intensities, and thus cannot be measured. Conclusions SAR actually refers to thermal effects, while the vast majority of the recorded biological effects from man-made non-ionizing environmental radiation are non-thermal. Even if SAR could be accurately estimated for a whole tissue, organ, or body, the biological/health effect is determined by tiny amounts of energy/power absorbed by specific biomolecules, which cannot be calculated. Moreover, it depends upon field parameters not taken into account in SAR calculation. Thus, SAR should not be used as the primary dosimetric quantity, but used only as a complementary measure, always reporting the estimating method and the corresponding error. Radiation/field intensity along with additional physical parameters (such as frequency, modulation etc) which can be directly and in any case more accurately measured on the surface of biological tissues, should constitute the primary measure for EMF exposures, in spite of similar uncertainty to predict the biological effect due to non-linearity. PMID:23750202

Panagopoulos, Dimitris J.; Johansson, Olle; Carlo, George L.

2013-01-01

240

Dietary fat and cardiovascular disease risk: quantity or quality?  

PubMed

When considering dietary fat quantity, there are two main factors to consider, impact on body weight and plasma lipoprotein profiles. Data supporting a major role of dietary fat quantity in determining body weight are weak and may be confounded by differences in energy density, dietary fiber, and dietary protein. With respect to plasma lipoprotein profiles, relatively consistent evidence indicates that under isoweight conditions, decreasing the total fat content of the diet causes an increase in triglyceride and decrease in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels. When considering dietary fat quality, current evidence suggests that saturated fatty acids tend to increase low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels, whereas monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids tend to decrease LDL cholesterol levels. Long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) (20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (22:6n-3), are associated with decreased triglyceride levels in hypertriglyceridemic patients and decreased risk of developing coronary heart disease (CHD). Dietary trans-fatty acids are associated with increased LDL cholesterol levels. Hence, a diet low in saturated and trans-fatty acids, with adequate amounts of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, would be recommended to reduce the risk of developing CHD. Additionally, the current data suggest it is necessary to go beyond dietary fat, regardless of whether the emphasis is on quantity or quality, and consider lifestyle. This would include encouraging abstinence from smoking, habitual physical activity, avoidance of weight gain with age, and responsible limited alcohol intake (one drink for females and two drinks for males per day). PMID:12737709

Lichtenstein, Alice H

2003-03-01

241

Quantity judgments and individuation: evidence that mass nouns count.  

PubMed

Three experiments explored the semantics of the mass-count distinction in young children and adults. In Experiments 1 and 2, the quantity judgments of participants provided evidence that some mass nouns refer to individuals, as such. Participants judged one large portion of stuff to be "more" than three tiny portions for substance-mass nouns (e.g. mustard, ketchup), but chose according to number for count nouns (e.g. shoes, candles) and object-mass nouns (e.g. furniture, jewelry). These results suggest that some mass nouns quantify over individuals, and that therefore reference to individuals does not distinguish count nouns from mass nouns. Thus, Experiments 1 and 2 failed to support the hypothesis that there exist one-to-one mappings between mass-count syntax and semantics for either adults or young children. In Experiment 3, it was found that for mass-count flexible terms (e.g. string, stone) participants based quantity judgments on number when the terms were used with count syntax, but on total amount of stuff when used with mass syntax. Apparently, the presence of discrete physical objects in a scene (e.g. stones) is not sufficient to permit quantity judgments based on number. It is proposed that object-mass nouns (e.g. furniture) can be used to refer to individuals due to lexically specified grammatical features that normally occur in count syntax. Also, we suggest that children learning language parse words that refer to individuals as count nouns unless given morpho-syntactic and referential evidence to the contrary, in which case object-mass nouns are acquired. PMID:16139586

Barner, David; Snedeker, Jesse

2005-08-01

242

Effective dose: a radiation protection quantity.  

PubMed

Modern radiation protection is based on the principles of justification, limitation, and optimisation. Assessment of radiation risks for individuals or groups of individuals is, however, not a primary objective of radiological protection. The implementation of the principles of limitation and optimisation requires an appropriate quantification of radiation exposure. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has introduced effective dose as the principal radiological protection quantity to be used for setting and controlling dose limits for stochastic effects in the regulatory context, and for the practical implementation of the optimisation principle. Effective dose is the tissue weighted sum of radiation weighted organ and tissue doses of a reference person from exposure to external irradiations and internal emitters. The specific normalised values of tissue weighting factors are defined by ICRP for individual tissues, and used as an approximate age- and sex-averaged representation of the relative contribution of each tissue to the radiation detriment of stochastic effects from whole-body low-linear energy transfer irradiations. The rounded values of tissue and radiation weighting factors are chosen by ICRP on the basis of available scientific data from radiation epidemiology and radiation biology, and they are therefore subject to adjustment as new scientific information becomes available. Effective dose is a single, risk-related dosimetric quantity, used prospectively for planning and optimisation purposes, and retrospectively for demonstrating compliance with dose limits and constraints. In practical radiation protection, it has proven to be extremely useful. PMID:23089010

Menzel, H-G; Harrison, J

2012-01-01

243

Observations of NEAs at Arecibo Observatory and NASA's IRTF: Combining Radar and Thermal Measurements to Better Understand NEA Physical Properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As we sample ever-smaller sizes of near-Earth asteroids (NEAs), we see an increasing variation in the range of physical properties. Radar experiments show a diverse range of shapes, surface features, and rotation states among NEAs. Infrared observations of these objects are equally varied, illustrating a range of spectral types and thermal characteristics. While spacecraft missions will reveal details of a few NEAs, only ground-based observations will provide an overall understanding of the population of these small bodies, for which the size and albedo distributions are still poorly understood. The goal of our investigation is to use both radar images and near-IR spectra to better understand the regolith of different types and shapes of NEAs. The regolith on an asteroid surface controls its thermal properties and often its radar reflectance as well, and at smaller sizes the irregular shape plays an increasingly important role. To accomplish our goal, we have established a program in which we choose NEAs that will be observed well enough with radar to have high-quality shape models and also observe these objects with SpeX at the NASA IRTF (2-4 microns) at several different viewing geometries and rotation phases to see how the inferred thermal properties depend on the detailed shape. We then use this knowledge to quantify the systematic biases in existing thermal models that are based on simple assumptions such as spherical shape or zero thermal inertia. We will present a summary of our observations to date and preliminary results of the thermal modeling.

Nolan, Michael C.; Vervack, R. J.; Howell, E. S.; Magri, C.; Fernandez, Y. R.; Taylor, P. A.; Mueller, M.; Rivkin, A. S.; Benner, L. A. M.

2010-10-01

244

The Pecina-Ceplecha functional as a tool to evaluate physical parameters of fireball bodies from observational data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aims.We have investigated the sum of squares of differences between the theoretical and observed values of distances along the fireball path (the Pecina-Ceplecha functional) as a tool to evaluate physical parameters of fireball bodies from observational data.Methods.Using the functional to solve the fireball inverse problem, we verify its dependence of body disruption processes or gas flow conditions along the fireball path. We evaluate the functional directly after the numerical integration of the differential equations of motion and ablation for a single fireball-generating body and for a progressively disrupted one in the Earth's atmosphere. We use a continuous-flow gas-dynamic model of interaction of the body with the atmosphere by the action of radiative and convective heating. We have minimized the functional varying the values of model parameters and tested the functional on the model fireballs and on those of the Prairie network.Results.A systematic course of the residuals with time obtained applying the functional to the observations of fireballs results not from a gross fragmentation, i.e. a sudden, instantaneous breakup of the fireball-generating body, but from the variability of the coefficient of heat transfer to the body along its path.Conclusions. Methods based on application of the functional may be a useful supplement to the locally-ballistic method of solving this problem as the actual values of the parameters sought for usually fall in between the two solutions.

Kalenichenko, V. V.

2006-03-01

245

Aerosol backscattering determined from chemical and physical properties and lidar observations over the east coast of Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In August to September 1995 a field experiment was conducted over the Gulf of Maine and Bay of Fundy to study the radiative forcing of pollution aerosols. The chemical and physical characteristics of two pollution cases were studied in detail in contrast to a clean atmosphere case. In the pollution cases, NH4++SO4= showed a unimodal distribution with a peak at 0.24 µm diameter. It was dominant among identified chemical components, including inorganic ions and organic compounds. However, the identified components were only about 1/3 of the aerosol mass as determined from the physical measurements. The unidentified mass, with a large accumulation mode, was likely due to unmeasured organic matter. In the clean case, sea salt was the dominant species with a bimodal distribution. The results were used to calculate the direct backscatter coefficient ?? at 0.532 and 1.064 µm using the Mie theory for comparison with LIDAR observations to determine the contributions by the chemical components. In the clean case, the sea salt aerosols contributed about half of ??. In the pollution cases, NH4++SO4=contributed 20-40% to ??. The unidentified mass had contributions to ?? of >40% and >70% for the two pollution cases. The LIDAR ?? results were inverted to derive optical depths over the 300-2400 m altitude range. Using these optical depths, the direct backscattered fraction of radiative flux for the pollution aerosols was estimated to be about 5 times higher than aerosols in the clean atmosphere.

Li, Shao-Meng; Strawbridge, Kevin B.; Leaitch, W. Richard; Macdonald, Anne Marie

246

Physical conditions in high-redshift GRB-DLA absorbers observed with VLT/UVES: implications for molecular hydrogen searches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aims: We aim to understand the nature of the absorbing neutral gas in the galaxies hosting high-redshift long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and to determine their physical conditions. Methods: A detailed analysis of high-quality VLT/UVES spectra of the optical afterglow of GRB 050730 and other Swift-era bursts is presented. Results: We report the detection of a significant number of previously unidentified allowed transition lines of Fe^+, involving the fine structure of the ground term ( ^6D{7/2}, ^6D{5/2}, ^6D{3/2}, ^6D{1/2}) and that of other excited levels (^4F{9/2}, ^4F{7/2}, ^4F{5/2}, ^4F{3/2}, ^4D{7/2}, ^4D{5/2}), from the zabs = 3.969, log N(H^0) = 22.10, damped Lyman-? (DLA) system located in the host galaxy of GRB 050730. No molecular hydrogen (H2) is detected down to a molecular fraction of log f < -8.0. We derive accurate metal abundances for Fe^+, S^+, N^0, Ni^+, and, for the first time in this system, Si+ and Ar^0. The absorption lines are best-fit as a single narrow velocity component at zabs = 3.96857. The time-dependent evolution of the observed Fe+ energy-level populations is modelled by assuming the excitation mechanism is fluorescence following excitation by ultraviolet photons emitted by the afterglow of GRB 050730. This UV pumping model successfully reproduces the observations, yielding a total Fe+ column density of log N = 15.49±0.03, a burst/cloud distance (defined to the near-side of the cloud) of d = 440±30 pc, and a linear cloud size of l = 520^+240-190 pc. This application of our photo-excitation code demonstrates that burst/DLA distances can be determined without strong constraints on absorption-line variability provided enough energy levels are detected. From the cloud size, we infer a particle density of nH ? 5-15 cm-3. Conclusions: We discuss these results in the context of no detections of H2 and C i lines (with log N(C^0)/N(S^+) < -3) in a sample of seven z > 1.8 GRB host galaxies observed with VLT/UVES. We show that the lack of H2 can be explained by the low metallicities, [X/H] < -1, low depletion factors, and, at most, moderate particle densities of the systems. This points to a picture where GRB-DLAs typically exhibiting very high H0 column densities are diffuse metal-poor atomic clouds with high kinetic temperatures, Tkin ? 1000 K, and large physical extents, l ? 100 pc. The properties of GRB-DLAs observed at high spectral resolution towards bright GRB afterglows differ markedly from the high metal and dust contents of GRB-DLAs observed at lower resolution. This difference likely results from the effect of a bias, against systems of high metallicity and/or close to the GRB, due to dust obscuration in the magnitude-limited GRB afterglow samples observed with high-resolution spectrographs. Based on Target-Of-Opportunity observations carried out in service mode under progs. ID 075.A-0603, P.I. Fiore, and 075.A-0385, 077.D-0661, 080.D-0526, and 081.A-0856, P.I. Vreeswijk, with the Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph (UVES) installed at the Nasmyth-B focus of the Very Large Telescope (VLT), Unit 2 - Kueyen, operated by the European Southern Observatory (ESO) on Cerro Paranal in Chile.

Ledoux, C.; Vreeswijk, P. M.; Smette, A.; Fox, A. J.; Petitjean, P.; Ellison, S. L.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Savaglio, S.

2009-11-01

247

Minimum Long Quantity in Perception and Long Quantity in Production between Japanese and Finnish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Minimum long segments of quantity in 120 discrimination tests at the word level were compared between a binary (Test A) and tripartite choices (Test B), and with production test results, utilising the same syllable structures. In the perception test, the materials were eight kinds of bisyllabic synthetic nonsense words. These structures were used in the production test for purposes of

Toshiko Isei-Jaakkola

248

Combined effects of physics and physiology explain the observed pattern of nitrate uptake kinetics in the ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent trait-based modeling of nutrient uptake by microorganisms (Aksnes & Cao. Marine Ecology Progress Series 440, p. 41-51, 2011; Fiksen et al. Limnology and Oceanography 58, p. 193-202, 2013) has advanced our understanding of how the nutrient uptake kinetics should depend on cell size and extracellular diffusion of nutrient molecules. This has provided a basis for better understanding observed patterns in terms of traits and fundamental physical processes, and for formulating more realistic models of plankton ecosystems. Here we extend the trait-based models using the principle of optimality subject to a physiological trade-off between the maximum uptake rate vs. the number of uptake sites. Then we test the predictions of each model, with and without the trade-off, against observed patterns for kinetic parameters describing the rate of nitrate uptake by natural assemblages of oceanic plankton as measured by ship-board experiments. The new model is able to reproduce: 1) the tendency of half-saturation constants to increase with nitrate concentration in the ocean, in terms of the trade-off, and 2) the wide variability in measured half-saturation constants, in terms of a realistic range of cell sizes for oceanic phytoplankton. We finally present a coherent explanation for the observed pattern in terms of both adaptation of physiology to environmental nutrient concentrations, which results in greater half- saturation constants for cells of any size adapted to higher vs. lower nutrient concentrations, and cell size, which tends to increase with ambient nutrient concentration. This provides a basis for modeling size as an adaptive trait in planktonic ecosystem models.

Smith, S. L.; Hohn, S.; Brandt, G.; Merico, A.; Yoshikawa, C.

2013-12-01

249

Automated in situ observations of upper ocean biogeochemistry, bio-optics, and physics and their potential use for global studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The processes controlling the flux of carbon in the upper ocean have dynamic ranges in space and time of at least nine orders of magnitude. These processes depend on a broad suite of inter-related biogeochemical, bio-optical, and physical variables. These variables should be sampled on scales matching the relevant phenomena. Traditional ship-based sampling, while critical for detailed and more comprehensive observations, can span only limited portions of these ranges because of logistical and financial constraints. Further, remote observations from satellite platforms enable broad horizontal coverage which is restricted to the upper few meters of the ocean. For these main reasons, automated subsurface measurement systems are important for the fulfillment of research goals related to the regional and global estimation and modeling of time varying biogeochemical fluxes. Within the past few years, new sensors and systems capable of autonomously measuring several of the critical variables have been developed. The platforms for deploying these systems now include moorings and drifters and it is likely that autonomous underwater vehicles (AUV's) will become available for use in the future. Each of these platforms satisfies particular sampling needs and can be used to complement both shipboard and satellite observations. In the present review, (1) sampling considerations will be summarized, (2) examples of data obtained from some of the existing automated in situ sampling systems will be highlighted, (3) future sensors and systems will be discussed, (4) data management issues for present and future automated systems will be considered, and (5) the status of near real-time data telemetry will be outlined. Finally, we wish to make it clear at the outset that the perspectives presented here are those of the authors and are not intended to represent those of the United States JGOFS program, the International JGOFS program, NOAA's C&GC program, or other global ocean programs.

Dickey, Tommy D.; Granata, Timothy C.; Taupier-Letage, Isabelle

1992-01-01

250

Time Series of Physical and Optical Parameters off Shimane, Japan, during Fall of 1993: First Observation by Moored Optical Buoy System for ADEOS Data Verification  

Microsoft Academic Search

A moored optical buoy system has been developed by the National Space Developmental Agency of Japan (NASDA) for verification of the ocean-observing sensors of the Advanced Earth Observation Satellite (ADEOS). The buoy was operated from August 25 to November 26, 1993, in the Japan Sea, off Shimane, Japan. Three-months time series of physical parameters indicate that the decrease of insolation

J. ISHIZAKA; I. ASANUMA; N. EBUCHI; H. FUKUSHIMA; H. KAWAMURA; K. KAWASAKI

1997-01-01

251

Measuring Physical Activity in Preschoolers: Reliability and Validity of the System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time for Preschoolers (SOFIT-P)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is describe the initial feasibility, reliability, and validity of an instrument to measure physical activity in preschoolers using direct observation. The System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time for Preschoolers was developed and tested among 3- to 6-year-old children over fall 2008 for feasibility and reliability…

Sharma, Shreela V.; Chuang, Ru-Jye; Skala, Katherine; Atteberry, Heather

2011-01-01

252

LTU Physlet: Vector Quantities in Simple Kinematics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This applet is an animation of an object moving with a constant acceleration in one dimension. It shows the velocity and acceleration vectors on the animation in real-time, as well as the position, velocity, and acceleration graphs as a function of time. The applet offers four distinct scenarios with different accelerations and initial positions and velocities. Standard controls allow the user to start, pause, step, and reset the animation. This is part of a large collection of Physlet-based (Physics Java Applet) illustrations and tutorials covering introductory physics.

Schneider, Scott

2006-09-02

253

48 CFR 16.502 - Definite-quantity contracts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...CONTRACTS Indefinite-Delivery Contracts 16.502 ...definite-quantity contract provides for delivery of a definite quantity...for a fixed period, with deliveries or performance to be scheduled at designated locations upon order. (b)...

2011-10-01

254

48 CFR 16.502 - Definite-quantity contracts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...CONTRACTS Indefinite-Delivery Contracts 16.502 ...definite-quantity contract provides for delivery of a definite quantity...for a fixed period, with deliveries or performance to be scheduled at designated locations upon order. (b)...

2012-10-01

255

48 CFR 16.502 - Definite-quantity contracts.  

...CONTRACTS Indefinite-Delivery Contracts 16.502 ...definite-quantity contract provides for delivery of a definite quantity...for a fixed period, with deliveries or performance to be scheduled at designated locations upon order. (b)...

2014-10-01

256

48 CFR 16.502 - Definite-quantity contracts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CONTRACTS Indefinite-Delivery Contracts 16.502 ...definite-quantity contract provides for delivery of a definite quantity...for a fixed period, with deliveries or performance to be scheduled at designated locations upon order. (b)...

2010-10-01

257

48 CFR 16.502 - Definite-quantity contracts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONTRACTS Indefinite-Delivery Contracts 16.502 ...definite-quantity contract provides for delivery of a definite quantity...for a fixed period, with deliveries or performance to be scheduled at designated locations upon order. (b)...

2013-10-01

258

10 CFR 40.22 - Small quantities of source material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Small quantities of source material. 40.22 Section 40.22...REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SOURCE MATERIAL General Licenses § 40.22 Small quantities of source material. (a) A general...

2010-01-01

259

Social Support in Women with Fibromyalgia: Is Quality More Important than Quantity?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study is an examination of the effects of quality and quantity of social support on the psychological and physical well-being of women with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). Participants were 568 women who were members of a health maintenance organization (HMO) with a confirmed diagnosis of FMS. Participants were administered a battery of…

Franks, Heather M.; Cronan, Terry A.; Oliver, Karen

2004-01-01

260

Quantity matching by an orangutan (Pongo abelii).  

PubMed

An adult male orangutan (Pongo abelii) was presented with a series of delayed matching-to-sample (DMTS) tasks in which he was to match images based on (a) the number of individual animals depicted in the photograph (from 1 to 4), (b) the number of abstract shapes presented in the stimulus (from 1 to 4), or (c) the number of dots presented in the stimulus (from 1 to 4, 4-7, or 7-10). The spatial arrangement of the dots and the background color of the stimuli varied, and the size of the dots was manipulated to control for overall ratio of foreground to background. The subject's performance was not affected by these perceptual features, but was affected by the absolute difference and ratio between number of elements in the comparison stimuli. However, the relationship between these variables and his performance was not always linear as predicted by the analog magnitude model. In addition, the subject showed a high degree of transfer to novel numerosities up to ten, indicating that orangutans are capable of estimating quantity for a greater number of items than can presumably be subtilized by humans. PMID:23873480

Vonk, Jennifer

2014-03-01

261

A horizontal mobile measuring system for atmospheric quantities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fully automatic horizontal mobile measuring system (HMMS) for atmospheric quantities has been developed. The HMMS is based on the drive mechanism of a garden railway system and can be installed at any location and along any measuring track. In addition to meteorological quantities (temperature, humidity and short-/long-wave down/upwelling radiation), HMMS also measures trace gas concentrations (carbon dioxide and ozone). While sufficient spatial resolution is a problem even for measurements on distributed towers, this could be easily achieved with the HMMS, which has been specifically developed to obtain higher information density about horizontal gradients in a heterogeneous forest ecosystem. There, horizontal gradients of meteorological quantities and trace gases could be immense, particularly at the transition from a dense forest to an open clearing, with large impact on meteorological parameters and exchange processes. Consequently, HMMS was firstly applied during the EGER IOP3 project (ExchanGE processes in mountainous Regions - Intense Observation Period 3) in the Fichtelgebirge Mountains (SE Germany) during summer 2011. At a constant 1 m above ground, the measuring track of the HMMS consisted of a straight line perpendicular to the forest edge, starting in the dense spruce forest and leading 75 m into an open clearing. Tags with bar codes, mounted every metre on the wooden substructure, allowed (a) keeping the speed of the HMMS constant (approx. 0.5 m s-1) and (b) operation of the HMMS in a continuous back and forth running mode. During EGER IOP3, HMMS was operational for almost 250 h. Results show that - due to considerably long response times (between 4 and 20 s) of commercial temperature, humidity and the radiation sensors - true spatial variations of the meteorological quantities could not be adequately captured (mainly at the forest edge). Corresponding dynamical (spatial) errors of the measurement values were corrected on the basis of well-defined individual response times of the sensors and application of a linear correction algorithm. Due to the very short response times (? 1 s) of the applied commercial CO2 and O3 analysers, dynamical errors for the trace gas data were negligible and no corrections were done.

Hübner, J.; Olesch, J.; Falke, H.; Meixner, F. X.; Foken, T.

2014-09-01

262

A horizontal mobile measuring system for atmospheric quantities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fully automatic Horizontal Mobile Measuring System (HMMS) for atmospheric quantities has been developed. The HMMS is based on the drive mechanism of a garden railway system and can be installed at any location and with any measuring track. In addition to meteorological quantities (temperature, humidity and short/long-wave down/upwelling radiation), HMMS also measures trace gas concentrations (carbon dioxide and ozone). While sufficient spatial resolution is a problem even for measurements on distributed towers, this could be easily achieved with the HMMS, which has been specifically developed to obtain higher information density about horizontal gradients in a heterogeneous forest ecosystem. There, horizontal gradients of meteorological quantities and trace gases could be immense, particularly at the transition from a dense forest to an open clearing, with large impact on meteorological parameters and exchange processes. Consequently, HMMS was firstly applied during EGER IOP3 project (ExchanGE processes in mountainous Regions - Intense Observation Period 3) in the Fichtelgebirge Mountains (SE Germany) during summer 2011. At a constant 1 m above ground, the measuring track of the HMMS consisted of a straight line perpendicular to the forest edge, starting in the dense spruce forest and leading 75 m into an open clearing. Tags with bar codes, mounted every meter on the wooden substructure, allowed (a) keeping the speed of the HMMS constant (approx. 0.5 m s-1) and (b) operation of the HMMS in a continuous back and forth running mode. During EGER IOP3, HMMS was operational for almost 250 h. Results show that - due to considerably long response times (between 4 s and 20 s) of commercial temperature, humidity and the radiation sensors - true spatial variations of the meteorological quantities could not be adequately captured (mainly at the forest edge). Corresponding dynamical (spatial) errors of the measurement values were corrected on the basis of well defined individual response times of the sensors and application of a linear correction algorithm. Due to the very short response times (? 1 s) of the applied commercial CO2 and O3 analysers, dynamical errors for the trace gas data were negligible and no corrections were done.

Hübner, J.; Olesch, J.; Falke, H.; Meixner, F. X.; Foken, T.

2014-05-01

263

The IMPEx data model - a common metadata standard for the analysis of simulated and observational space plasma physics data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The FP7-SPACE project IMPEx (http://impex-fp7.oeaw.ac.at/) was established to provide a web-based infrastructure to facilitate the inter-comparison and joint use of spacecraft in-situ measurements and computational models in the fields of planetary plasma science. Within this project several observational (CDAWeb, AMDA, CLWeb), as well as numerical simulation (FMI, LATMOS, SINP) databases provide datasets, which can be combined for further analysis and scientific investigation. The major goal of this project consists in providing an environment for the connection and joint operation of the different types of numerical and observational data sources in order to validate numerical simulations with spacecraft observations and vice versa. As an important milestone of IMPEx, a common metadata standard was developed for the description of the currently integrated simulation models and the archived datasets. This standard is called IMPEx Data Model (DM). It is based on the SPASE DM, which originates from the Heliospheric physics community, and which was developed for the description of observational data. A considerable part of the project effort is dedicated to the development of standardized (web service-) interfaces and protocols using the IMPEx DM as an extension of the standard SPASE DM for the communication between the different tools and databases of the IMPEx research infrastructure. For the visualization and analysis of the archived datasets available within IMPEx and beyond, several tools (AMDA, 3DView, ClWeb) were upgraded to be able to work with the newly developed metadata standards and protocols. To meet the requirement of extendibility, the IMPEx DM as well as the established communication protocols have been designed to be as compact as possible and yet general and powerful enough to integrate a wide range of data sets and to allow for simple procedures when attaching new components to the system. Furthermore the IMPEx DM has by now also been successfully applied outside the project’s core infrastructure: A prototype for UCLA MHD model description can be seen at LatHyS (LATMOS Hybrid Simulation Database). The so-called ‘IMPEx portal’, a dedicated entry point for all integrated services and tools, is currently being built up to leverage the advantages of the applied IMPEx standards and to provide efficient access to IMPEx services for the broad scientific community and general public. This presentation will give an insight on the technological challenges of distributed data infrastructures, the evident need of a common DM for interoperability between different data sources and their future in cloud-based environments.

Al-Ubaidi, Tarek

264

Research Article Impacts of data quantity on fisheries stock assessment  

E-print Network

Research Article Impacts of data quantity on fisheries stock assessment Yong Chen1, *, Liqiao Chen2 fishery as an example, we demon- strate the importance of data quantity in stock assessment and management. Deficiency in data quantity tends to yield biased assessment of the status of fisheries stock and increase

Chen, Yong

265

FISH &SHELLFISH BUYING GUIDE and QUANTITY RECIPES for  

E-print Network

DO UMENTS ·FISH &SHELLFISH BUYING GUIDE and QUANTITY RECIPES for I. ~RSITY Or vaEGON TYPE ASCHOOL. Introduction to Fish and Shellfish Buying Guide and Quantity Recipes for Type A School Lunches A-I The Type BUYING GUIDE and QUANTITY RECIPES FOR TYPE A SCHOOL LUNCHES General Information A- I This publication

266

Price and Quantity Competition in a Differentiated Duopoly  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article analyzes the duality of prices and quantities in a differentiated duopoly. It is shown that if firms can only make two types of binding contracts with consumers, the price contract and the quantity contract, it is a dominant strategy for each firm to choose the quantity (price) contract, provided the goods are substitutes (complements).

Nirvikar Singh; Xavier Vives

1984-01-01

267

ORIGINAL PAPER Large quantity discrimination by North Island robins  

E-print Network

spontaneous relative quantity judgments (RQJs) by wild North Island robins (Petroica longipes) of New ZealandORIGINAL PAPER Large quantity discrimination by North Island robins (Petroica longipes) Alexis other mammalian and avian species. Keywords New Zealand robin Á Quantity discrimination Á Large number

268

European Marine Observation and DataNetwork (EMODNET)- physical parameters: A support to marine science and operational oceanography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The overall objectives of EMODNET - physical parameters is to provide access to archived and real-time data on physical conditions in Europe's seas and oceans and to determine how well the data meet the needs of users. In particular it will contribute towards the definition of an operational European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet) and contribute to developing the definition of the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) marine core service. Access to data and metadata will consider measurements from fixed stations that will cover at least: 1. wave height and period; 2. temperature of the water column; 3. wind speed and direction; 4. salinity of the water column; 5. horizontal velocity of the water column ; 6. light attenuation; 7. sea level. A first running prototype of the portal active from the end of 2011, the final release of the EMODnet PP is due by half June 2012. Then there are 6 months for testing and users' feedback acquisition and management. The project finishes 16th December 2013 after one year of maintenance. Compliance with INSPIRE framework and temporal and geographical data coverage are ensured under the requirements contained in the several Commission Regulations issued from 2008 until 2010. The metadata are based upon the ISO 19115 standard and are compliant with the INSPIRE directive and regulations. This assures also a minimum metadata content in both systems that will facilitate the setting up of a portal that can provide information on data and access to them, depending on the internal data policy of potential contributors. Data coverage: There are three pillars sustaining EMODnet PP: EuroGOOS ROOSs (the EuroGOOS regional Operational Systems), MyOcean and SeaDataNet. MyOcean and EuroGOOS have agreed in EuroGOOS general assemblies (2008-2009-2010) to share their efforts to set up a common infrastructure for real-time data integration for operational oceanography needs extending the global and regional portals set up by MyOcean to handle additional variables and observation providers. SeaDataNet is a Pan-European infrastructure for oceans and marine data management, that provides access to archived data residing in distributed information systems. EMODNet Physics held three workshops with institutions working in operational data collection in the Baltin, North Sea, East Atlantic, Mediterranean and Black Sea. They allowed to list most of the existing fixed stations in the seas of European interest. The workshops and the follow up are constructing a common collaborative framework within EuroGOOS ROOSs. Behind the ROOSs there is a wide number of institutions, scientists and technicians, whose participation to EMODnet PP will be acknowledged and made visible through the web pages, newsletters, and EuroGOOS publications. This common collaborative framework is producing an important network of data centres that can support GMES for the years to come.

Dahlin, Hans; Gies, Tobias; Giordano, Marco; Gorringe, Patrick; Manzella, Giuseppe; Maudire, Gilbert; Novellino, Antonio; Pagnani, Maureen; Petersson, Sian; Pouliquen, Sylvie; Rickards, Lesley; Schaap, Dick; Tijsse, Peter; van der Horste, Serge

2013-04-01

269

Observations and Modeling of Long Negative Laboratory Discharges: Identifying the Physics Important to an Electrical Spark in Air  

SciTech Connect

There are relatively few reports in the literature focusing on negative laboratory leaders. Most of the reports focus exclusively on the simpler positive laboratory leader that is more commonly encountered in high voltage engineering [Gorin et al., 1976; Les Renardieres Group, 1977; Gallimberti, 1979; Domens et al., 1994; Bazelyan and Raizer 1998]. The physics of the long, negative leader and its positive counterpart are similar; the two differ primarily in their extension mechanisms [Bazelyan and Raizer, 1998]. Long negative sparks extend primarily by an intermittent process termed a 'step' that requires the development of secondary leader channels separated in space from the primary leader channel. Long positive sparks typically extend continuously, although, under proper conditions, their extension can be temporarily halted and begun again, and this is sometimes viewed as a stepping process. However, it is emphasized that the nature of positive leader stepping is not like that of negative leader stepping. There are several key observational studies of the propagation of long, negative-polarity laboratory sparks in air that have aided in the understanding of the stepping mechanisms exhibited by such sparks [e.g., Gorin et al., 1976; Les Renardieres Group, 1981; Ortega et al., 1994; Reess et al., 1995; Bazelyan and Raizer, 1998; Gallimberti et al., 2002]. These reports are reviewed below in Section 2, with emphasis placed on the stepping mechanism (the space stem, pilot, and space leader). Then, in Section 3, reports pertaining to modeling of long negative leaders are summarized.

Biagi, C J; Uman, M A

2011-12-13

270

Division of Astronomy and Space Physics Computer models  

E-print Network

Division of Astronomy and Space Physics Computer models of proto-planetary disks New-born stars planets form. Their structure and evolution directly influences how the resulting planetary system transport, we can emulate observable quantities for disks with or without planets forming inside them

271

Quantity-Quality: The Positive Effect of Family Size on School Enrollment in China (Incomplete)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many policy makers in developing countries see restricting family size as a good strategy for increasing average human capital investment. This belief is consistent with the observed negative correlation between quan- tity and quality of children both across countries and across households within countries. However, because parents simultaneously choose the quantity and quality of their children, the observed correlation may

Nancy Qian

272

Infrasound Observations from the Source Physics Experiment (Tests 1, 2, and 3) at the Nevada National Security Site  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The overall mission of the National Center for Nuclear Security (NCNS) Source Physics Experiment (SPE-N) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) near Las Vegas, Nevada is to improve upon and develop new physics-based models for underground nuclear explosions using scaled, underground chemical explosions as proxies. Infrasound has been used for many years to study explosive sources both above and below ground. For most of these studies, the explosions were single shot events located in different areas. With the SPE-N series of explosions, we have the rare opportunity to study infrasound generated by a well-characterized source from the same borehole. This reduces the number of variables that must be accounted for when generating models using the acoustic data. At the time of submission, the first three explosive tests (SPE-N-1, SPE-N-2, and SPE-N-3) were successfully conducted on May 3, 2011, October 25, 2011, and July 24, 2012, respectively. SPE-N-1 had a yield of 0.1 ton at a depth of 60 m with a scaled depth of burial of 1,026 m. This explosion was used as a calibration shot as it was the first in the series. SPE-N-2 and SPE-N-3 both had a yield of 1 ton at a depth of 45 m, corresponding to a scaled depth of burial of 357 m. The acoustic amplitudes ranged from ~0.5 Pa at 225 m, to not being detected after 1 km for the SPE-N-1; and ~14 Pa at 225 m, to ~0.1 Pa at 5 km for SPE-N-2 and ~10 Pa to ~0.1 Pa for SPE-N-3. We will focus on detailed acoustic observations from all three tests as well as our efforts to model the infrasound generation at the surface in the area above the explosion.lt;img border=0 src="images/S21C-04_B.jpg">

Jones, K. R.; Arrowsmith, S.; Whitaker, R. W.

2012-12-01

273

Assessing Characteristics of Drought and Its physical mechanism over Ethiopia using Observational and RegCM4 Driven Indices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study focuses on the analysis of dryness/wetness over Ethiopia from 1982 to 2009 using Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI), which are derived from observational and RegCM4 dataset over Ethiopia. Trend empirical orthogonal function (TEOF), regression and wavelet analysis are used to investigate the long term change, frequency and intra-annual variability of drought over Ethiopia. All method analysis of PDSI and SPI are consistent and showed, the southern regions to be more drought-prone than other regions of Ethiopia and statistically significant dry trend are dominated in particular during the recent decade. By contrast, the likelihood of drought occurrence of northern regions is considerably less and dominated by low frequency signals. Both indices indicated that the North and Northwest regions experienced frequent and worst drought conditions centered at the year 1983/1984 and similar conditions centered at the year 2007-2009 over the southern and southwestern regions have been identified. The first two most dominant trend principal components (TPCs) of observational driven PDSI and SPI-12 with corresponding RegCM4 driven TPCs of PDSI and SPI-12 indicates significant correlations (correlation exceeding ~0.8). In addition, the corresponding patterns (TEOFs) of RegCM4 and observational driven drought indices are so similar. Generally, the RegCM4 shows a good performance in simulating the multi-scale spatial and temporal variability of drought occurrence over Ethiopia. The correlation pattern of trend principal components (TPCs) of PDSI and SPI-12 with raw sea surface temperature (SST) indicates that the possible association of the observed variability of drought. The equatorial pacific, the northern and equatorial Atlantic are correlated significantly with first dominant TPC of drought indices, whereas ENSO, Indian and Atlantic Ocean significantly correlated with the second dominant TPC of drought indices. In addition we observe the association between ocean basin and drought indices is highly seasonal dependant with the strongest association in the spring. The physical mechanisms responsible for such linkage in the atmosphere are examined using both ERA-Interim (ERIM) and RegCM4 dataset. Moreover, it was found that droughts occurred in events of strong El Niño years mainly severe and wider areal coverage. During events of negative values of Indian Ocean dipole (-IOD) the southern and west border regions of the country hit by severe drought. The northern and some part of Ethiopia during events of negative anomaly SST of North Atlantic suffered at a significant level by drought conditions. Overall, the common power variance, phase, frequency and confidence of the time-lagged relationships between oceanic basin TPC and drought indices TPCs indicate that oceanic parameters can be used as indicators of drought occurrence in Ethiopia.

Zeleke, T. T.; Tsidu, G. M.; Giorgi, F.; Diro, G. T.

2012-12-01

274

Quantity-Quality and the One Child Policy: The postive effect of family size on education in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a negative correlation between quantity and quality of chil- dren across countries and across households within a country. How- ever, because parents simultaneously choose the quantity and quality of their children, the observed correlation between family size and child outcomes cannot be interpreted as causal. This paper exploits exoge- nous changes in family size caused by relaxations in

Nancy Qian

275

Convergent Validity of Four Accelerometer Cutpoints with Direct Observation of Preschool Children's Outdoor Physical Activity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: More than one fifth of American preschool-aged children are classified as overweight/obese. Increasing physical activity is one means of slowing/reversing progression to overweight or obesity. Measurement of physical activity in this age group relies heavily on motion sensors such as accelerometers. Output is typically interpreted through…

Kahan, David; Nicaise, Virginie; Reuben, Karen

2013-01-01

276

Physical Activity and Reduced Risk of Incident Sporadic Colorectal Adenomas: Observational Support for Mechanisms Involving Energy Balance and Inflammation Modulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the role of physical activity, energy balance, and inflammation on the risk of incident sporadic colorectal adenoma, the authors conducted a community- and colonoscopy-based case-control study (n = 177 cases, n = 228 controls) in Winston-Salem and Charlotte, North Carolina, from 1995 to 1997. Participants reported energy intake by a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire, daily physical activity levels

Keith G. Hauret; Roberd M. Bostick; Charles E. Matthews; James R. Hussey

277

Feasibility of a nuclear gauge for fuel quantity measurement aboard aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Capacitance fuel gauges have served as the basis for fuel quantity indicating systems in aircraft for several decades. However, there have been persistent reports by the airlines that these gauges often give faulty indications due to microbial growth and other contaminants in the fuel tanks. This report describes the results of a feasibility study of using gamma ray attenuation as the basis for measuring fuel quantity in the tanks. Studies with a weak Am-241 59.5-keV radiation source indicate that it is possible to continuously monitor the fuel quantity in the tanks to an accuracy of better than 1 percent. These measurements also indicate that there are easily measurable differences in the physical properties and resultant attenuation characteristics of JP-4, JP-5, and Jet A fuels. The experimental results, along with a suggested source-detector geometrical configuration are described.

Signh, J. J.; Mall, G. H.; Sprinkle, D. R.; Chegini, H.

1986-01-01

278

Feasibility of a nuclear gauge for fuel quantity measurement aboard aircraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Capacitance fuel gauges have served as the basis for fuel quantity indicating systems in aircraft for several decades. However, there have been persistent reports by the airlines that these gauges often give faulty indications due to microbial growth and other contaminants in the fuel tanks. This report describes the results of a feasibility study of using gamma ray attenuation as the basis for measuring fuel quantity in the tanks. Studies with a weak Am-241 59.5-keV radiation source indicate that it is possible to continuously monitor the fuel quantity in the tanks to an accuracy of better than 1 percent. These measurements also indicate that there are easily measurable differences in the physical properties and resultant attenuation characteristics of JP-4, JP-5, and Jet A fuels. The experimental results, along with a suggested source-detector geometrical configuration are described.

Signh, J. J.; Mall, G. H.; Sprinkle, D. R.; Chegini, H.

1986-08-01

279

Knowledge base for growth and innovation in ocean economy: assembly and dissemination of marine data for seabed mapping - European Marine Observation Data Network - EMODnet Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Physics preparatory action (MARE/2010/02 - Lot [SI2.579120]) had the overall objectives to provide access to archived and near real-time data on physical conditions as monitored by fixed stations and Ferrybox lines in all the European sea basins and oceans and to determine how well the data meet the needs of users. The existing EMODnet-Physics portal, www.emodnet-physics.eu, includes systems for physical data from the whole Europe (wave height and period, temperature of the water column, wind speed and direction, salinity of the water column, horizontal velocity of the water column, light attenuation, and sea level) provided mainly by fixed stations and ferry-box platforms, discovering related data sets (both near real time and historical data sets), viewing and downloading of the data from about 470 platforms across the European Sea basins. It makes layers of physical data and their metadata available for use and contributes towards the definition of an operational European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet). It is based on a strong collaboration between EuroGOOS member institutes and its regional operational oceanographic systems (ROOSs), and it brings together two marine, but different, communities : the "real time" ocean observing institutes and centers and the National Oceanographic Data Centres (NODCs) that are in charge for archived ocean data validation, quality check and continuous update of data archives for marine environmental monitoring. EMODnet Physics is a Marine Observation and Data Information System that provides a single point of access to near real time and historical achieved data, it is built on existing infrastructure by adding value and avoiding any unnecessary complexity, it provides data access to any relevant user, and is aimed at attracting new data holders and providing better and more data. With a long term-vision for a sustained pan European Ocean Observation System EMODnet Physics is supporting the coordination of the EuroGOOS ROOSs and the empowerment and improvement of their observing and data management infrastructure. The on-going EMODnet Physics preparatory action has recently been extended (MARE/2012/06 - Lot 6) with the aim to enlarge the coverage with additional monitoring systems (e.g. Argos, Gliders, HF Radars etc) and products and strengthening the underlying infrastructure. The presentation will show how to exploit the EMODnet portal and access to the metadata and data of connected platforms.

Novellino, Antonio; Gorringe, Patrick; Schaap, Dick; Pouliquen, Sylvie; Rickards, Lesley; Manzella, Giuseppe

2014-05-01

280

"High Resolution Solar Physics: Theory, Observations, and Techniques", Eds. T. Rimmele, K. Balasubramiam and R. Radick, Procs. NSO/SP Summer Workshop Astron. Soc. Pac. Conf.  

E-print Network

"High Resolution Solar Physics: Theory, Observations, and Techniques", Eds. T. Rimmele, K resolution. Adding liquid-crystal polarization encoding before the fiber pickup would permit multi- line full. In the solar case, the fibers should map the focal plane with angular resolution at the diffraction limit

Rutten, Rob

281

Occupational exposure control: the problem of quantities in radiation protection.  

PubMed

The paper explores the quantities and units used in radiation protection with special emphasis on their applications in occupational exposure control. An overview of the current situation reveals that there seem to be too many different quantities associated with the same unit. Some of these quantities are defined in a quite complicated manner and, therefore, may cause some confusion in their interpretation and practical use in the field. Some suggestions towards the simplification of the present system are also proposed. PMID:21084329

Sabol, J; Navrátil, L; Rosina, J

2011-03-01

282

Tracking of food quantity by coyotes (Canis latrans).  

PubMed

Previous studies have demonstrated that Weber's Law mediates quantitative discrimination abilities across various species. Here, we tested coyotes' (Canis latrans) ability to discriminate between various quantities of food and investigated whether this ability conforms to predictions of Weber's Law. We demonstrate herein that coyotes are capable of reliably discriminating large versus small quantities of discrete food items. As predicted by Weber's Law, coyotes' quantitative discrimination abilities are mediated by the ratio between the large and small quantities of food and exhibit scalar variability. Furthermore, in this task coyotes were not discriminating large versus small quantities based on olfactory cues alone. PMID:21856389

Baker, Joseph M; Shivik, John; Jordan, Kerry E

2011-10-01

283

One as a ‘unit’ in expressing the magnitudes of quantities  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years the Comité International des Poids et Mesures has assigned the unit one to all dimensionless quantities and to some countable quantities. This article examines the reasons for that decision and questions their logical basis. It draws attention to some of its undesirable consequences.

W H Emerson

2004-01-01

284

On the algebra of quantities and their units  

Microsoft Academic Search

The International System of Units is presented in the SI brochure, where not only are the base units of the System defined, but many of the System's derived units are also proposed. The latter are of quantities that the brochure names but does not define; they are well-known quantities or are derived in definitions to be found elsewhere. However, many

W H Emerson

2004-01-01

285

Fuzzy Economic Order Quantity Inventory Models Without Backordering  

Microsoft Academic Search

In economic order quantity models without backordering, both the stock cost of each unit quantity and the order cost of each cycle are characterized as independent fuzzy variables rather than fuzzy numbers as in previous studies. Based on an expected value criterion or a credibility criterion, a fuzzy expected value model and a fuzzy dependent chance programming (DCP) model are

Xiaobin Wang; Wansheng Tang; Ruiqing Zhao

2007-01-01

286

Finite difference approximation of hedging quantities in the Heston model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This note concerns the hedging quantities Delta and Gamma in the Heston model for European-style financial options. A modification of the discretization technique from In 't Hout & Foulon (2010) is proposed, which enables a fast and accurate approximation of these important quantities. Numerical experiments are given that illustrate the performance.

in't Hout, Karel

2012-09-01

287

46 CFR 108.433 - Quantity of CO2: General.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Quantity of CO2: General. 108.433 Section 108.433 Shipping...Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.433 Quantity of CO2: General. Each CO2 system must have enough gas to meet the...

2010-10-01

288

46 CFR 108.433 - Quantity of CO2: General.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Quantity of CO2: General. 108.433 Section 108.433 Shipping...Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.433 Quantity of CO2: General. Each CO2 system must have enough gas to meet the...

2011-10-01

289

Corporate tax effects on the quality and quantity of FDI  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper measures the relative importance of quality and quantity effects of corporate taxation on foreign direct investment. Quantity is affected if corporate taxes reduce the equilibrium stock of foreign capital in a given country. Quality effects arise if taxes decrease the extent to which investment contributes to the corporate tax base and the capital intensity of production. Depending on

Johannes Becker; Clemens Fuest; Nadine Riedel

2010-01-01

290

REGULAR ARTICLE The effects of substrate composition, quantity, and diversity  

E-print Network

REGULAR ARTICLE The effects of substrate composition, quantity, and diversity on microbial activity in- cluded in the high-diversity treatment. Finally, in a comparison of measures of microbial that while composition, quantity, and diversity of inputs to microbial communities all affect microbial

Minnesota, University of

291

Tracking of food quantity by coyotes ( Canis latrans)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have demonstrated that Weber's Law mediates quantitative discrimination abilities across various species. Here, we tested coyotes’ (Canis latrans) ability to discriminate between various quantities of food and investigated whether this ability conforms to predictions of Weber's Law. We demonstrate herein that coyotes are capable of reliably discriminating large versus small quantities of discrete food items. As predicted by

Joseph M. Baker; John Shivik; Kerry E. Jordan

2011-01-01

292

LOCAL SENSITIVITY, FUNCTIONAL DERIVATIVES AND NONLINEAR POSTERIOR QUANTITIES  

E-print Network

LOCAL SENSITIVITY, FUNCTIONAL DERIVATIVES AND NONLINEAR POSTERIOR QUANTITIES by Sanjib Basu 1 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701 February, 1994 Abstract The local sensitivity of a posterior quantities are established under these definitions. Local sensitivity is measured by maxi­ mizing

Basu, Sanjib

293

9 CFR 381.121 - Quantity of contents.  

...Quantity of contents. (a) The label shall bear a statement of the quantity of contents...types of consumer packages which do not bear a statement of the net weight that would...Provided, That the shipping container bears a statement “Net weight to be marked...

2014-01-01

294

Judgments of Discrete and Continuous Quantity: An Illusory Stroop Effect  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evidence from human cognitive neuroscience, animal neurophysiology, and behavioral research demonstrates that human adults, infants, and children share a common nonverbal quantity processing system with nonhuman animals. This system appears to represent both discrete and continuous quantity, but the proper characterization of the relationship…

Barth, Hilary C.

2008-01-01

295

Beginning to edit physics  

SciTech Connect

A physicist-turned-editor shows you the basics required for copyediting physics papers (physical quantities, symbols, units, scientific notation, the structure of mathematical expressions, the nature of graphs), and points the way to learning enough ``editorial physics`` to begin substantive editing.

Murphy, P.W.

1995-02-01

296

Prevalence of epilepsy--an unknown quantity.  

PubMed

The incidence, prevalence, and mortality of epilepsy vary across countries with different economies. Differences can be explained by methodological problems, premature mortality, seizure remission, socioeconomic factors, and stigma. Diagnostic misclassification-one possible explanation-may result from inclusion of patients with acute symptomatic or isolated unprovoked seizures. Other sources of bias include age and ethnic origin of the target population, definitions of epilepsy, retrospective versus prospective ascertainment, sources of cases, and experienced and perceived stigma. Premature mortality is an issue in low-income countries (LICs), where treatment gap, brain infections, and traumatic brain injuries are more common than in high-income countries (HICs). Death rates may reflect untreated continued seizures or inclusion of acute symptomatic seizures. Lack of compliance with antiepileptic drugs has been associated with increased risk for death, increased hospital admissions, motor vehicle accidents, and fractures in poor communities. Epilepsy is a self-remitting clinical condition in up to 50% of cases. Studies in untreated individuals from LICs have shown that the proportion of remissions overlaps that of countries where patients receive treatment. When the identification of patients is based on spontaneous reports (e.g., door-to-door surveys), patients in remission may be less likely to disclose the disease for fear of stigmatization with no concurrent benefits. This might lead to underascertainment of cases when assessing the lifetime prevalence of epilepsy. In LICs, the proportion of people living in poverty is greater than in HICs. Poverty is associated with risk factors for epilepsy, risk for developing epilepsy, and increased mortality. The high incidence and prevalence of epilepsy found in LICs is also observed in low income individuals from HICs. Epileptogenic conditions are associated with an increased mortality. This may partly explain the difference between incidence and lifetime prevalence of epilepsy in LICs. Poverty within LICs and HICs could be a preventable cause of mortality in epilepsy. PMID:24966095

Beghi, Ettore; Hesdorffer, Dale

2014-07-01

297

Physics is the study of matter and energy and their inter-actions. Based on observations, hypotheses and testing,  

E-print Network

and deep because everything is composed of matter and energy. Physics deals with matter as small as sub and optics (telecommunications, optometry, holography, etc.) · nuclear power (reactor design, containment.) · environmental concerns (weather, climate, oceanography, pollution, etc.) · medical imaging and treatment

Saldin, Dilano

298

Observation and Analysis of Teaching Behaviour in Schools for Physically Handicapped Children: A Research and Development Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper examines problems in special education teacher preparation in the Federal Republic of Germany and presents the author's own experiences as a teacher of physically handicapped students. The development of an interactional teaching style which minimizes verbal communication, capitalizes on everyday learning, and encourages pupils to use…

Henkel-Ungericht, Renate

299

An Investigation of Quantity Discrimination in Clark's Nutcrackers (Nucifraga columbiana).  

PubMed

We examined quantity discrimination in the Clark's nutcracker (Nucifraga columbiana), a corvid bird with a strong dependence upon caching and recovering nuts. We presented 2 sets of nuts simultaneously, in 21 different conditions, to see if the nutcrackers could choose the larger of the 2 quantities. The nutcrackers displayed a strong ability to discriminate quantities of nuts. Like other animals tested previously, the nutcrackers' performance decreased as the ratio of the 2 quantities approached 1. Interestingly, at constant distances, the nutcrackers did not have more difficulty with contrasts containing larger quantities. Thus, nutcrackers have a fine sensitivity for discriminating between 2 quantities. We review the relevant literature and explore the possibility that nutcrackers, like some other birds, may have developed a keen ability to discriminate quantities. This ability may have developed as an adaptive specialization to cope with their scatter-hoarding ecology, though the evidence for such a conclusion is mixed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25150963

Tornick, Jan K; Callahan, Emily S; Gibson, Brett M

2014-08-25

300

Conceptual Model of Quantities, Units, Dimensions, and Values  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

JPL collaborated with experts from industry and other organizations to develop a conceptual model of quantities, units, dimensions, and values based on the current work of the ISO 80000 committee revising the International System of Units & Quantities based on the International Vocabulary of Metrology (VIM). By providing support for ISO 80000 in SysML via the International Vocabulary of Metrology (VIM), this conceptual model provides, for the first time, a standard-based approach for addressing issues of unit coherence and dimensional analysis into the practice of systems engineering with SysML-based tools. This conceptual model provides support for two kinds of analyses specified in the International Vocabulary of Metrology (VIM): coherence of units as well as of systems of units, and dimension analysis of systems of quantities. To provide a solid and stable foundation, the model for defining quantities, units, dimensions, and values in SysML is explicitly based on the concepts defined in VIM. At the same time, the model library is designed in such a way that extensions to the ISQ (International System of Quantities) and SI Units (Systeme International d Unites) can be represented, as well as any alternative systems of quantities and units. The model library can be used to support SysML user models in various ways. A simple approach is to define and document libraries of reusable systems of units and quantities for reuse across multiple projects, and to link units and quantity kinds from these libraries to Unit and QuantityKind stereotypes defined in SysML user models.

Rouquette, Nicolas F.; DeKoenig, Hans-Peter; Burkhart, Roger; Espinoza, Huascar

2011-01-01

301

Minimum quantity lubrication machining of aluminum and magnesium alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) machining, i.e. drilling and tapping of aluminum and magnesium alloys using very low quantities of cutting fluids was studied and the MQL machining performance was compared to dry and conventional flooded conditions. An experimental drilling station with an MQL system was built to measure torque and thrust force responses. Uncoated and diamond-like carbon (DLC) coated HSS drills were tested against 319 Al and AZ91 alloys using 10--50 ml/h of distilled water (H 2O-MQL) and a fatty acid based MQL agent (FA-MQL). The results indicated that H2O-MQL used in conjunction with non-hydrogenated DLC (NH-DLC) coatings reduced the average torque and thrust-force compared to dry cutting and achieved a performance comparable with conventional flooded drilling. At least 103 holes could be drilled using NH-DLC in H2O-MQL and uncoated HSS in FA-MQL in drilling of both 319 Al and AZ91. MQL drilling and tapping provided a stable machining performance, which was evident from the uniform torque and force patterns and also resulted in desirable hole surface, thread quality and chip segments. The maximum temperature generated in the workpiece during MQL machining was lower than that observed in dry drilling and tapping, and comparable to flooded conditions. The mechanical properties of the material adjacent to drilled holes, as evaluated through plastic strain and hardness measurements, revealed a notable softening in case of dry drilling, with magnesium alloys exhibiting a recrystallized grain zone, but not for MQL drilling. Softened aluminum and magnesium promoted adhesion to the tools resulted built-up edge formation and consequently high torques and thrust-forces were generated. NH-DLC coatings' low COF in H 2O-MQL against 319 Al (0.10) and AZ91 (0.12) compared to uncoated HSS (0.63 and 0.65) limited the temperature increase during NH-DLC in H2 O-MQL drilling and hence both torques and thrust forces were effectively reduced.

Bhowmick, Sukanta

2011-12-01

302

Using a physics-based reflection model to study the reddening effect observed in spectrometric measurements of artificial space objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Almost all remote spectrometric measurements obtained of artificial space objects in the last decade contained an unexpected and unexplained reddening of reflectance spectra when compared to either modelled predictions or ground truth measurements of sample spacecraft material. During the spectrometric characterization experiment of an engineering model (EM) of the CanX-1 nanosatellite, an increase of the slope of the overall reflectance curve was observed in various illumination and sensor geometries. Observation of the reddening effect such as was seen during the CanX-1 EM experiment has not been reported to have been observed in a laboratory environment before. With this in mind, a study was initiated to assess how the specular component of the spectral reflectance, from metallic surfaces and photovoltaic cells, varied as a function of changing illumination and sensor geometry. This paper presents the preliminary results of a new approach aimed at explaining the reddening effect commonly observed in remote spectrometric measurements of artificial space objects.

Bedard, D.

2011-09-01

303

1991 Urey Prize Lecture: Physical evolution in the solar system - Present observations as a key to the past  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present evaluation of the use of new observational methods for exploring solar system evolutionary processes gives attention to illustrative cases from the constraining of near-earth asteroid sources and the discovery of main-belt asteroid fragments which indicate Vesta to be a source of basaltic achondrite meteorites. The coupling of observational constraints with numerical models clarifies cratering and collisional evolution for both main-belt and Trojan asteroids.

Binzel, Richard P.

1992-01-01

304

Physical origin of observed nonlinearities in Poly (1-naphthyl methacrylate): Using a single transistor—transistor logic modulated laser beam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A thermal lens technique is adopted using a single modulated continuous wave (cw) 532-nm laser beam to evaluate the nonlinear refractive index n2, and the thermo-optic coefficient dn/dT, in polymer Poly (1-naphthyl methacrylate) (P-1-NM) dissolved in chloroform, tetrahydrofuran (THF), and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solvents. The results are compared with Z-scan and diffraction ring techniques. The comparison reveals the effectiveness and the simplicity of the TTL modulation technique. The physical origin is discussed for the obtained results.

Qusay, M. A. Hassan; Hussain, A. Badran; Alaa, Y. AL-Ahmad; Chassib, A. Emshary

2013-11-01

305

7 CFR 983.53 - Testing of minimal quantities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA, ARIZONA, AND...entire inventory of hulled and dried pistachios for the aflatoxin certification before...the testing of minimal quantities of pistachios for quality. [74 FR 56540,...

2013-01-01

306

7 CFR 983.53 - Testing of minimal quantities.  

...NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA, ARIZONA, AND...entire inventory of hulled and dried pistachios for the aflatoxin certification before...the testing of minimal quantities of pistachios for quality. [74 FR 56540,...

2014-01-01

307

7 CFR 983.53 - Testing of minimal quantities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA, ARIZONA, AND...entire inventory of hulled and dried pistachios for the aflatoxin certification before...the testing of minimal quantities of pistachios for quality. [74 FR 56540,...

2010-01-01

308

7 CFR 983.53 - Testing of minimal quantities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA, ARIZONA, AND...entire inventory of hulled and dried pistachios for the aflatoxin certification before...the testing of minimal quantities of pistachios for quality. [74 FR 56540,...

2011-01-01

309

7 CFR 983.53 - Testing of minimal quantities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA, ARIZONA, AND...entire inventory of hulled and dried pistachios for the aflatoxin certification before...the testing of minimal quantities of pistachios for quality. [74 FR 56540,...

2012-01-01

310

48 CFR 16.504 - Indefinite-quantity contracts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...should establish a reasonable maximum quantity based on market research, trends on recent contracts for similar supplies or...Based on the contracting officer's knowledge of the market, more favorable terms and conditions, including...

2010-10-01

311

49 CFR 173.4a - Excepted quantities.  

...UN2803 (Gallium) and UN2809 (Mercury); and (9) Class 9, except for UN1845 (Carbon dioxide, solid or Dry ice), and lithium batteries and cells. (c) Inner packaging limits. The maximum quantity of hazardous materials in each inner...

2014-10-01

312

49 CFR 173.4a - Excepted quantities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...UN2803 (Gallium) and UN2809 (Mercury); and (9) Class 9, except for UN1845 (Carbon dioxide, solid or Dry ice), and lithium batteries and cells. (c) Inner packaging limits . The maximum quantity of hazardous materials in each inner...

2012-10-01

313

49 CFR 173.4a - Excepted quantities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...UN2803 (Gallium) and UN2809 (Mercury); and (9) Class 9, except for UN1845 (Carbon dioxide, solid or Dry ice), and lithium batteries and cells. (c) Inner packaging limits . The maximum quantity of hazardous materials in each inner...

2013-10-01

314

7 CFR 945.54 - Minimum quantity exemption.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Regulations § 945.54 Minimum quantity exemption. The...

2013-01-01

315

Inequalities between geometric quantities of operators in Banach spaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relations concerning entropy quantities and s-numbers are established. In particular, we derive inequalities between entropy numbers and Weyl numbers. Furthermore, we give eigenvalue distributions for operators of lp,u-type.

Bernd Carl

1982-01-01

316

26 CFR 50.6 - Ascertainment of quantity mined.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...THE TAX IMPOSED WITH RESPECT TO CERTAIN HYDRAULIC MINING § 50.6 Ascertainment of quantity mined. Each person engaged in hydraulic mining operations within the scope...surveys of the premises on which such hydraulic mining operations are conducted...

2010-04-01

317

7 CFR 1434.9 - Determination of quantity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...MARKETING ASSISTANCE LOAN AND LDP REGULATIONS FOR HONEY § 1434.9 Determination of quantity. ...and verified by the county office representative for honey on Form CCC-633 (Honey) that is eligible to be pledged as security...

2010-01-01

318

19 CFR 159.21 - Quantity upon which duties based.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...shall be based upon the quantity of such merchandise at the time of its importation, except in the following cases: (a) Manipulation in warehouse. If any merchandise covered by a warehouse entry has been cleaned, sorted, repacked, or...

2011-04-01

319

19 CFR 159.21 - Quantity upon which duties based.  

...shall be based upon the quantity of such merchandise at the time of its importation, except in the following cases: (a) Manipulation in warehouse. If any merchandise covered by a warehouse entry has been cleaned, sorted, repacked, or...

2014-04-01

320

Propagating S-parameter uncertainties to other measurement quantities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The law of propagation of uncertainty is first reviewed using matrix notation. This notation is appropriate because the uncertainty in a complex-valued quantity can be expressed as a matrix. This approach is then applied to propagate uncertainty from complex-valued S-parameters to other quantities that occur elsewhere in other microwave measurement applications. The procedure is consistent with the ISO Guide to

Nick M Ridler; Martin J Salter

2001-01-01

321

(Non)Invariance of Dynamical Quantities for Orbit Equivalent Flows  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study how dynamical quantities such as Lyapunov exponents, metric entropy, topological pressure, recurrence rates, and\\u000a dimension-like characteristics change under a time reparameterization of a dynamical system. These quantities are shown to\\u000a either remain invariant, transform according to a multiplicative factor or transform through a convoluted dependence that\\u000a may take the form of an integral over the initial local values.

Katrin Gelfert; Adilson E. Motter

2010-01-01

322

Conserved quantities in Lemaitre–Tolman–Bondi cosmology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study linear perturbations to a Lemaître–Tolman–Bondi (LTB) background spacetime. Studying the transformation behaviour of the perturbations under gauge transformations, we construct gauge invariant quantities. We show, using the perturbed energy conservation equation, that there are conserved quantities in LTB, in particular a spatial metric trace perturbation, {{\\zeta }SMTP}, which is conserved on all scales. We then briefly extend our discussion to the Lemaître spacetime, and construct gauge-invariant perturbations in this extension of LTB spacetime.

Leithes, Alexander; Malik, Karim A.

2015-01-01

323

Physical State And Composition Of Mars Polar Caps And Seasonal Condensations By Radiative Transfer Modelling Of Visible-IR Spectra From OMEGA/MEX Observations.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The determination of the physical state of the ices composing the surface layer of the Mars polar caps and seasonal condensations is of prime importance for the understanding of the microphysics of the sublimation/condensation/deposition processes of volatiles. It is also a prerequisite for an accurate mapping of the abundance of the ices and of their physical characteristics by spectral inversion of the OMEGA observations. Four observations covering about the whole bright south polar cap have been recorded by the OMEGA imaging spectrometer before the southern autumn equinox and a whole series of observations of the north polar cap and the retreating seasonal condensations have been acquired during the full northern spring. We first extracted several end-member and representative spectra of the different types of icy terrains determined from statistical analyses (ACP) of selected observations of the south and north polar regions. Then, using our radiative transfer code in layered media (Douté and Schmitt 1998) together with laboratory spectra on ices we study the coexistence modes at the centimetre scale (granular mixtures, layered deposits, Å) and at the pixel scale (geographical mixture) of CO2 ice, H2O ice and dust on the polar caps and seasonal condensations. Finally we derive their corresponding relative abundances (mass fraction, layer thickness, surface fractions) and compare the values obtained from different north and south polar area. From these results the sublimation/condensation/deposition processes of volatiles and dust in both hemispheres are discussed. We acknowledge support from CNES.

Schmitt, B.; Douté, S.; Altieri, F.; Bellucci, G.; OMEGA

2004-11-01

324

Systematics analyses on nucleon isovector observables in 2+1-flavor dynamical domain-wall lattice QCD near physical mass  

E-print Network

Analyses on possible systematics in some isovector nucleon observables in the RBC+UKQCD 2+1-flavor dynamical domain-wall fermion (DWF) lattice-QCD are presented. The vector charge, axial charge, quark momentum and helicity fractions, and transversity are discussed using mainly the Iwasaki\\(\\times\\)DSDR ensemble at pion mass of 170 MeV. No autocorrelation issue is observed in the vector charge and quark momentum and helicity fractions. Blocked Jack-knife analyses expose significant growth of estimated error for the axial charge with increasing block sizes that are similar to or larger than the known autocorrelation time of the gauge-field topological charge. Similar growth is seen in the transversity. These two observables, however, do not seem correlated with the topological charge.

Shigemi Ohta

2014-10-30

325

The Nexus between Cosmology and Elementary Particle Physics: Testing Theoretical Speculations through Observations of the Cosmic Microwave Background Anisotropies  

E-print Network

The origin of the large scale structure in the universe - galaxies, quasars, clusters, voids, sheets - is one of the most important questions in cosmology. One can show that some non-thermal energy density fluctuations must have been present in the early universe. These fluctuations grew by gravitational instability to form the observed structures. There are at present two families of models to explain the origin of these initial fluctuations: inflationary models and topological defect scenarios. Current observational developments provide a link with theoretical predictions, allowing us to test our theoretical models. In this contribution, I present a sketch of the current status of the origin of cosmological structure formation.

Mairi Sakellariadou

1996-12-07

326

Analysis of the hydrological response of a distributed physically-based model using post-assimilation (EnKF) diagnostics of streamflow and in situ soil moisture observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data assimilation techniques not only enhance model simulations and forecast, they also provide the opportunity to obtain a diagnostic of both the model and observations used in the assimilation process. In this research, an ensemble Kalman filter was used to assimilate streamflow observations at a basin outlet and at interior locations, as well as soil moisture at two different depths (15 and 45 cm). The simulation model is the distributed physically-based hydrological model CATHY (CATchment HYdrology) and the study site is the Des Anglais watershed, a 690 km2 river basin located in southern Quebec, Canada. Use of Latin hypercube sampling instead of a conventional Monte Carlo method to generate the ensemble reduced the size of the ensemble, and therefore the calculation time. Different post-assimilation diagnostics, based on innovations (observation minus background), analysis residuals (observation minus analysis), and analysis increments (analysis minus background), were used to evaluate assimilation optimality. An important issue in data assimilation is the estimation of error covariance matrices. These diagnostics were also used in a calibration exercise to determine the standard deviation of model parameters, forcing data, and observations that led to optimal assimilations. The analysis of innovations showed a lag between the model forecast and the observation during rainfall events. Assimilation of streamflow observations corrected this discrepancy. Assimilation of outlet streamflow observations improved the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiencies (NSE) between the model forecast (one day) and the observation at both outlet and interior point locations, owing to the structure of the state vector used. However, assimilation of streamflow observations systematically increased the simulated soil moisture values.

Trudel, Mélanie; Leconte, Robert; Paniconi, Claudio

2014-06-01

327

Physical and chemical observations in marine stratus during the 1993 North Atlantic Regional Experiment: Factors controlling cloud droplet number concentrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Airborne observations from 14 flights in marine stratus over the Gulf of Maine and Bay of Fundy in August and September of 1993 are examined for the relationships among the cloud droplet number concentrations (Nd), the out-of-cloud aerosol particle number concentrations (Na), the major ion concentrations in the cloud water, and turbulence in cloud. There was a wide range of

W. R. Leaitch; C. M. Banic; G. A. Isaac; M. D. Couture; P. S. K. Liu; I. Gultepe; S.-M. Li; L. Kleinman; P. H. Daum; J. I. MacPherson

1996-01-01

328

Un/Covering: Female Religious Converts Learning the Problems and Pragmatics of Physical Observance in the Secular World  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents the experiences of three women who have chosen to move from secular, assimilated lives to lives characterized by the distinctive dress and practice associated with observant Islam, Orthodox Judaism, and Orthodox Christianity, respectively. All three relied upon informal, peer, and distance learning strategies for their…

Galman, Sally Campbell

2013-01-01

329

Physical structure of the photodissociation regions in NGC 7023. Observations of gas and dust emission with Herschel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. The determination of the physical conditions in molecular clouds is a key step towards our understanding of their formation and evolution of associated star formation. We investigate the density, temperature, and column density of both dust and gas in the photodissociation regions (PDRs) located at the interface between the atomic and cold molecular gas of the NGC 7023 reflection nebula. We study how young stars affect the gas and dust in their environment. Aims: Several Herschel Space Telescope programs provide a wealth of spatial and spectral information of dust and gas in the heart of PDRs. We focus our study on Spectral and Photometric Image Receiver (SPIRE) Fourier-Transform Spectrometer (FTS) fully sampled maps that allow us for the first time to study the bulk of cool/warm dust and warm molecular gas (CO) together. In particular, we investigate if these populations spatially coincide, if and how the medium is structured, and if strong density and temperature gradients occur, within the limits of the spatial resolution obtained with Herschel. Methods: The SPIRE FTS fully sampled maps at different wavelengths are analysed towards the northwest (NW) and the east (E) PDRs in NGC 7023. We study the spatial and spectral energy distribution of a wealth of intermediate rotational 12CO 4 ? Ju ? 13 and 13CO 5 ? Ju ? 10 lines. A radiative transfer code is used to assess the gas kinetic temperature, density, and column density at different positions in the cloud. The dust continuum emission including Spitzer, the Photoconductor Array Camera and Spectrometer (PACS), and SPIRE photometric and the Institute for Radio Astronomy in the Millimeter Range (IRAM) telescope data is also analysed. Using a single modified black body and a radiative transfer model, we derive the dust temperature, density, and column density. Results: The cloud is highly inhomogeneous, containing several irradiated dense structures. Excited 12CO and 13CO lines and warm dust grains localised at the edge of the dense structures reveal high column densities of warm/cool dense matter. Both tracers give a good agreement in the local density, column density, and physical extent, leading to the conclusion that they trace the same regions. The derived density profiles show a steep gradient at the cloud edge reaching a maximum gas density of 105-106 cm-3 in the PDR NGC 7023 NW and 104-105 cm-3 in the PDR NGC 7023 E and a subsequent decrease inside the cloud. Close to the PDR edges, the dust temperature (30 K and 20 K for the NW and E PDRs, respectively) is lower than the gas temperature derived from CO lines (65-130 K and 45-55 K, respectively). Further inside the cloud, the dust and gas temperatures are similar. The derived thermal pressure is about 10 times higher in NGC 7023 NW than in NGC 7023 E. Comparing the physical conditions to the positions of known young stellar object candidates in NGC 7023 NW, we find that protostars seem to be spatially correlated with the dense structures. Conclusions: Our approach combining both dust and gas delivers strong constraints on the physical conditions of the PDRs. We find dense and warm molecular gas of high column density in the PDRs. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

Köhler, M.; Habart, E.; Arab, H.; Bernard-Salas, J.; Ayasso, H.; Abergel, A.; Zavagno, A.; Polehampton, E.; van der Wiel, M. H. D.; Naylor, D. A.; Makiwa, G.; Dassas, K.; Joblin, C.; Pilleri, P.; Berné, O.; Fuente, A.; Gerin, M.; Goicoechea, J. R.; Teyssier, D.

2014-09-01

330

Observation of the CIV effect in interstellar clouds: a speculation on the physical mechanism for their existence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations of neutral hydrogen (H I) emission profiles produced by gas in the local interstellar medium are found to be characterized by four linewidth regimes. Dominant and pervasive features have widths on average of 5.2, 13, and 31 km\\/s, and a very broad component approximately 50 km\\/s wide. A striking coincidence exists between these linewidths and the magnitudes of the

Anthony L. Peratt; Gerrit L. Verschuur

2000-01-01

331

Optimal-observable analysis of possible new physics using the b-quark in ???t t¯?bX  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study possible anomalous top-quark couplings generated by SU(2)×U(1) gauge-invariant dimension-6 effective operators, using the final b-quark momentum distribution in ???tt¯?bX. Taking into account non-standard tt¯?, tbW and ??H couplings, we perform an optimal-observable analysis in order to estimate the precision for the determination of all relevant non-standard couplings.

Grzadkowski, Bohdan; Hioki, Zenr?; Ohkuma, Kazumasa; Wudka, José

2004-07-01

332

Observation and manipulation of subsurface hydride in Pd[111] and its effect on surface chemical, physical, and electronic properties.  

PubMed

We report the observation and manipulation of hydrogen atoms beneath the surface of a Pd[111] crystal by using low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy. These subsurface hydride sites have been postulated to have critical roles in hydrogen storage, metal embrittlement, fuel cells, and catalytic reactions, but they have been neither observed directly nor selectively populated previously. We demonstrate that the subsurface region of Pd can be populated with hydrogen atoms from the bulk by applying voltage pulses from a scanning tunneling microscope tip. This phenomenon is explained with an inelastic excitation mechanism, whereby hydrogen atoms in the bulk are excited by tunneling electrons and are promoted to more stable sites in the subsurface region. We show that this selectively placed subsurface hydride affects the electronic, geometric, and chemical properties of the surface. Specifically, we observed the effects of hydride formation on surface deformation and charge and on adsorbed hydrogen on the surface. Hydrogen segregation and overlayer vacancy ordering on the Pd[111] have been characterized and explained in terms of the surface changes attributable to selective hydrogen occupation of subsurface hydride sites in Pd[111]. PMID:16322103

Sykes, E Charles H; Fernández-Torres, Luis C; Nanayakkara, Sanjini U; Mantooth, Brent A; Nevin, Ryan M; Weiss, Paul S

2005-12-13

333

Quantity Effect of Radial Cracks on the Cracking Propagation Behavior and the Crack Morphology  

PubMed Central

In this letter, the quantity effect of radial cracks on the cracking propagation behavior as well as the circular crack generation on the impacted glass plate within the sandwiched glass sheets are experimentally investigated via high-speed photography system. Results show that the radial crack velocity on the backing glass layer decreases with the crack number under the same impact conditions during large quantities of repeated experiments. Thus, the “energy conversion factor” is suggested to elucidate the physical relation between the cracking number and the crack propagation speed. Besides, the number of radial crack also takes the determinative effect in the crack morphology of the impacted glass plate. This study may shed lights on understanding the cracking and propagation mechanism in laminated glass structures and provide useful tool to explore the impact information on the cracking debris. PMID:25048684

Chen, Jingjing; Xu, Jun; Liu, Bohan; Yao, Xuefeng; Li, Yibing

2014-01-01

334

Can One Take the Logarithm or the Sine of a Dimensioned Quantity or a Unit? Dimensional Analysis Involving Transcendental Functions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The fate of dimensions of dimensioned quantities that are inserted into the argument of transcendental functions such as logarithms, exponentiation, trigonometric, and hyperbolic functions is discussed. Emphasis is placed on common misconceptions that are not often systematically examined in undergraduate courses of physical sciences. The argument…

Matta, Cherif F.; Massa, Lou; Gubskaya, Anna V.; Knoll, Eva

2011-01-01

335

Trained Quantity Abilities in Horses (Equus caballus): A Preliminary Investigation  

PubMed Central

Once believed to be a human prerogative, the capacity to discriminate between quantities now has also been reported in several vertebrates. To date, only two studies investigated numerical abilities in horses (Equus caballus) but reported contrasting data. To assess whether horses can be trained to discriminate between quantities, I have set up a new experimental protocol using operant conditioning. One adult female was trained to discriminate between 1 and 4 (Test 1) in three different conditions: non-controlled continuous variables (numerical and continuous quantities that co-vary with number are simultaneously available), 50% controlled continuous variables (intermediate condition), and 100% controlled continuous variables (only numerical information available). The subject learned the discrimination in all conditions, showing the capacity to process numerical information. When presented with a higher numerical ratio (2 vs. 4, Test 2), the subject still discriminated between the quantities but its performance was statistically significant only in the non-controlled condition, suggesting that the subject used multiple cues in presence of a more difficult discrimination. On the whole, the results here reported encourage the use of this experimental protocol as a valid tool to investigate the capacity to process numerical and continuous quantities in horses in future research. PMID:25379278

Miletto Petrazzini, Maria Elena

2014-01-01

336

Trained Quantity Abilities in Horses (Equus caballus): A Preliminary Investigation.  

PubMed

Once believed to be a human prerogative, the capacity to discriminate between quantities now has also been reported in several vertebrates. To date, only two studies investigated numerical abilities in horses (Equus caballus) but reported contrasting data. To assess whether horses can be trained to discriminate between quantities, I have set up a new experimental protocol using operant conditioning. One adult female was trained to discriminate between 1 and 4 (Test 1) in three different conditions: non-controlled continuous variables (numerical and continuous quantities that co-vary with number are simultaneously available), 50% controlled continuous variables (intermediate condition), and 100% controlled continuous variables (only numerical information available). The subject learned the discrimination in all conditions, showing the capacity to process numerical information. When presented with a higher numerical ratio (2 vs. 4, Test 2), the subject still discriminated between the quantities but its performance was statistically significant only in the non-controlled condition, suggesting that the subject used multiple cues in presence of a more difficult discrimination. On the whole, the results here reported encourage the use of this experimental protocol as a valid tool to investigate the capacity to process numerical and continuous quantities in horses in future research. PMID:25379278

Miletto Petrazzini, Maria Elena

2014-09-01

337

Quantity analysis of micro-organisms in bottled water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water is necessary to human being and all kinds of animals and plants. In recently years, Bottled Water become the main drinking water whatever for families or for institutions. But most of them have no conception of the water's safety or quality. To have conceptions of the count and distributing of the microorganisms in bucket pure water, we use fluorescent microscope counting stained with SYBR Green I to research the microorganisms (including virus) quantity in Bottled Water for six samples produced in different place. Analyzing shows that the quantity of the microorganisms in these water are different. Some up to 11.912×106 virus/ m L. The quality of Bottled Water needs to be improved. And the quantity of microorganisms in the water is different with different ways to keep the water. At the same time, it shows that fluorescent microscope counting stained with SYBR Green I method is simple and high sensitive to such low microorganisms quantity water sample. It can be used in the microorganisms dynamic quantity research in drinking water.

Li, Juan; Li, Xiangyong

2008-12-01

338

TRANSIT TIMING OBSERVATIONS FROM KEPLER. IV. CONFIRMATION OF FOUR MULTIPLE-PLANET SYSTEMS BY SIMPLE PHYSICAL MODELS  

SciTech Connect

Eighty planetary systems of two or more planets are known to orbit stars other than the Sun. For most, the data can be sufficiently explained by non-interacting Keplerian orbits, so the dynamical interactions of these systems have not been observed. Here we present four sets of light curves from the Kepler spacecraft, each which of shows multiple planets transiting the same star. Departure of the timing of these transits from strict periodicity indicates that the planets are perturbing each other: the observed timing variations match the forcing frequency of the other planet. This confirms that these objects are in the same system. Next we limit their masses to the planetary regime by requiring the system remain stable for astronomical timescales. Finally, we report dynamical fits to the transit times, yielding possible values for the planets' masses and eccentricities. As the timespan of timing data increases, dynamical fits may allow detailed constraints on the systems' architectures, even in cases for which high-precision Doppler follow-up is impractical.

Fabrycky, Daniel C. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Ford, Eric B.; Moorhead, Althea V. [Astronomy Department, University of Florida, 211 Bryant Space Sciences Center, Gainesville, FL 32111 (United States); Steffen, Jason H. [Fermilab Center for Particle Astrophysics, P.O. Box 500, MS 127, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Rowe, Jason F.; Christiansen, Jessie L. [SETI Institute, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States); Carter, Joshua A.; Fressin, Francois; Geary, John [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Batalha, Natalie M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, San Jose State University, San Jose, CA 95192 (United States); Borucki, William J.; Bryson, Steve; Haas, Michael R. [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA, 94035 (United States); Buchhave, Lars A. [Department of Astrophysics and Planetary Science, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Ciardi, David R. [NASA Exoplanet Science Institute/Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91126 (United States); Cochran, William D.; Endl, Michael [McDonald Observatory, The University of Texas, Austin TX 78730 (United States); Fanelli, Michael N. [Bay Area Environmental Research Institute/NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Fischer, Debra [Astronomy Department, Yale University, New Haven, CT (United States); Hall, Jennifer R., E-mail: daniel.fabrycky@gmail.com [Orbital Sciences Corporation/NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); and others

2012-05-10

339

Plasma Physical Parameters along Coronal-mass-ejection-driven Shocks. I. Ultraviolet and White-light Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, UV and white-light (WL) coronagraphic data are combined to derive the full set of plasma physical parameters along the front of a shock driven by a coronal mass ejection. Pre-shock plasma density, shock compression ratio, speed, and inclination angle are estimated from WL data, while pre-shock plasma temperature and outflow velocity are derived from UV data. The Rankine-Hugoniot (RH) equations for the general case of an oblique shock are then applied at three points along the front located between 2.2 and 2.6 R ? at the shock nose and at the two flanks. Stronger field deflection (by ~46°), plasma compression (factor ~2.7), and heating (factor ~12) occur at the nose, while heating at the flanks is more moderate (factor 1.5-3.0). Starting from a pre-shock corona where protons and electrons have about the same temperature (Tp ~ Te ~ 1.5 × 106 K), temperature increases derived with RH equations could better represent the proton heating (by dissipation across the shock), while the temperature increase implied by adiabatic compression (factor ~2 at the nose, ~1.2-1.5 at the flanks) could be more representative of electron heating: the transit of the shock causes a decoupling between electron and proton temperatures. Derived magnetic field vector rotations imply a draping of field lines around the expanding flux rope. The shock turns out to be super-critical (sub-critical) at the nose (at the flanks), where derived post-shock plasma parameters can be very well approximated with those derived by assuming a parallel (perpendicular) shock.

Bemporad, A.; Susino, R.; Lapenta, G.

2014-04-01

340

Optical measurement of pulp quantity in a rotating disc refiner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An optical method based on light extinction was used in measuring pulp quantity in the plate gap of a 10 MW thermomechanical pulping refiner for the first time. The relationship between pulp quantity and light extinction was determined by empirical laboratory experiments. The empirical relationship was then applied to interpret the image data obtained from field measurements. The results show the local distribution of pulp in the refiner plate gap for different rotor plate positions and refiner operation points. The maximum relative uncertainty in the measured pulp quantity was 50%. Relative pulp distributions were measured at higher accuracy. The measurements have influenced the development of a laser-based optical diagnostic method that can be applied to the quantitative visualization of technically demanding industrial processes.

Alahautala, Taito; Lassila, Erkki; Hernberg, Rolf; Härkönen, Esko; Vuorio, Petteri

2004-11-01

341

Worksite physical activity interventions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:National objectives for public health have targeted worksites as important settings for interventions to increase physical activity. However, expert reviews reveal no scientific consensus about the effectiveness of worksite interventions for increasing physical activity or fitness.Methods: We judged the quantity and quality of existing evidence against scientific standards for the internal and external validity of the research design and the

Rod K. Dishman; Brian Oldenburg; Heather O’Neal; Roy J. Shephard

1998-01-01

342

Zooming in on Extreme Environments: Using JVLA Observations and Kinematic Models of Arp 220 to Study Physical Conditions in ULIRGs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using new Jansky VLA capabilities we observe Arp 220, the nearest ULIRG. With a high star formation rate similar to high-z galaxies, but at a close distance from the Milky Way, Arp 220 allows us to explore these extreme conditions at high resolution. With the availability of high-frequency (K, Ka, and Q band) receivers and wide bandwidths, we detect multiple line species, in particular multiple metastable ammonia inversions which are excellent tracers of kinetic temperature and density. Conditions and composition vary greatly throughout Arp 220, especially when offset from the two bright nuclei. By characterizing the temperature and density throughout the system, we can better understand the conditions associated with high star formation rates, which can then be applied to ULIRGs at high-z. Additionally, the strength and isolation of some lines allows for detailed kinematic modeling in both absorption and emission, allowing us to isolate anomalous material and characterize the dynamics of the system.

Zschaechner, Laura K.; Walter, Fabian; Ott, Juergen; Momjian, Emmanuel; Meier, David S.

2015-01-01

343

Physical activity levels and torso orientations of hospitalized patients at risk of developing a pressure injury: An observational study.  

PubMed

Pressure injury guidelines recommend regular repositioning yet patients' mobility and repositioning patterns are unknown. An observational study using activity monitors was undertaken to describe the 24?h activity patterns of 84 hospitalized patients at risk of developing a pressure injury. The vast majority of participants' time was spent in the sedentary activity range (94%?±?3%) followed by the light range (5%?±?4 %). Patients changed their posture a median of 94 (interquartile range 48) time in the 24-h period (range 11-154), or ??3.8 times per hour. Although a main focus for pressure injury prevention has been on repositioning, this study shows that patients with restricted mobility are actually moving quite often. Therefore, it might be appropriate to focus more attention on other pressure injury prevention strategies such as adequate nutrition, appropriate support surfaces and good skin care. PMID:24118408

Chaboyer, Wendy; Mills, Peter M; Roberts, Shelley; Latimer, Sharon

2015-02-01

344

Unraveling ICM Physics and AGN Feedback with Deep Chandra X-ray Observations of the Galaxy Group NGC 5813  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results from deep (650 ks) Chandra X-ray observations of the galaxy group NGC 5813. This system shows three pairs of colinear cavities, with each pair associated with an elliptical AGN outburst shock. Due to the relatively regular morphology of this system, and the unique unambiguous detection of three distinct AGN outburst shocks, it is particularly well-suited for the study of kinetic mode AGN feedback and the AGN outburst history. Topics presented include results on the role of shock heating in AGN feedback, feedback as a solution to the cooling flow problem, the variability of the AGN outburst power over long timescales, and constraints on the microphysics of the ICM.

Randall, Scott W.; Nulsen, Paul; Clarke, Tracy E.; Forman, William R.; Jones, Christine; Kraft, Ralph P.; Blanton, Elizabeth L.

2014-06-01

345

A shared system of representation governing quantity discrimination in canids.  

PubMed

One way to investigate the evolution of cognition is to compare the abilities of phylogenetically related species. The domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris), for example, still shares cognitive abilities with the coyote (Canis latrans). Both of these canids possess the ability to make psychophysical "less/more" discriminations of food based on quantity. Like many other species including humans, this ability is mediated by Weber's Law: discrimination of continuous quantities is dependent on the ratio between the two quantities. As two simultaneously presented quantities of food become more similar, choice of the large or small option becomes random in both dogs and coyotes. It remains unknown, however, whether these closely related species within the same family - one domesticated, and one wild - make such quantitative comparisons with comparable accuracy. Has domestication honed or diminished this quantitative ability? Might different selective and ecological pressures facing coyotes drive them to be more or less able to accurately represent and discriminate food quantity than domesticated dogs? This study is an effort to elucidate this question concerning the evolution of non-verbal quantitative cognition. Here, we tested the quantitative discrimination ability of 16 domesticated dogs. Each animal was given nine trials in which two different quantities of food were simultaneously displayed to them. The domesticated dogs' performance on this task was then compared directly to the data from 16 coyotes' performance on this same task reported by Baker et al. (2011). The quantitative discrimination abilities between the two species were strikingly similar. Domesticated dogs demonstrated similar quantitative sensitivity as coyotes, suggesting that domestication may not have significantly altered the psychophysical discrimination abilities of canids. Instead, this study provides further evidence for similar non-verbal quantitative abilities across multiple species. PMID:23060847

Baker, Joseph M; Morath, Justice; Rodzon, Katrina S; Jordan, Kerry E

2012-01-01

346

Construct validity of the Chelsea critical care physical assessment tool: an observational study of recovery from critical illness  

PubMed Central

Introduction Intensive care unit-acquired weakness (ICU-AW) is common in survivors of critical illness, resulting in global weakness and functional deficit. Although ICU-AW is well described subjectively in the literature, the value of objective measures has yet to be established. This project aimed to evaluate the construct validity of the Chelsea Critical Care Physical Assessment tool (CPAx) by analyzing the association between CPAx scores and hospital-discharge location, as a measure of functional outcome. Methods The CPAx was integrated into practice as a service-improvement initiative in an 11-bed intensive care unit (ICU). For patients admitted for more than 48 hours, between 10 May 2010 and 13 November 2013, the last CPAx score within 24 hours of step down from the ICU or death was recorded (n?=?499). At hospital discharge, patients were separated into seven categories, based on continued rehabilitation and care needs. Descriptive statistics were used to explore the association between ICU discharge CPAx score and hospital-discharge location. Results Of the 499 patients, 171 (34.3%) returned home with no ongoing rehabilitation or care input; 131 (26.2%) required community support; 28 (5.6%) went to inpatient rehabilitation for <6 weeks; and 25 (5.0%) went to inpatient rehabilitation for >6 weeks; 27 (5.4%) required nursing home level of care; 80 (16.0%) died in the ICU, and 37 (7.4%) died in hospital. A significant difference was found in the median CPAx score between groups (P?

2014-01-01

347

Trends and interactions of physical and bio-geo-chemical features in the Adriatic Sea as derived from satellite observations.  

PubMed

Time series of satellite data, generated by the AVHRR (1981-1999), CZCS (1979-1985) and SeaWiFS (1998-2002), have been used to assess trends and interactions of physical and bio-geo-chemical features in the Adriatic Sea. The images were processed to estimate Sea Surface Temperature (SST) and Chlorophyll-like Pigment Concentration (CPC). Long-term composites and climatologies were derived, using fixed geographical grids and projections. The AVHRR data show an apparent warming trend, when plotting the sequence of seasonal cycles (monthly mean SST, averaged over the whole basin) against time, due to a steady rise of summer values. Considering 3 regions (north, central and south), split into east and west sections, the northern Adriatic shows high SST fluctuations (possibly associated with the cycle of winter cooling and summer warming, typical of the relatively shallow sub-basin), while the southern Adriatic exhibits a lower variability (possibly influenced by the periodic water incoming from, and outflowing to the Ionian Sea). During summer, an east-west gradient prevails, while during winter only a general north-south gradient can be found. The SeaWiFS-derived CPC values, distributions and trends appear to be consistent with the historical CZCS record. Persistent differences in the quantitative assessment of CPC for coastal waters is due to the use of improved algorithms, less influenced by the presence of dissolved organics and suspended sediments in the water column, for the processing of SeaWiFS data. Apparent incongruities of the space and time patterns in the SeaWiFS record with respect to the reference climatology, obtained by CZCS more than a decade before, occur chiefly when considering the spring bloom in the southern Adriatic and the summer development of the north Adriatic front. The comparison of the long-term times series of satellite data shows that there is a high correlation between patterns in the thermal field and in the colour field. This suggests that different surface waters, identified by the SST index, are also traced by different ecological features, identified by the CPC index. Both indices also show a high correlation with the classical cyclonic circulation scheme of the Adriatic Sea, proposing once again an intimate relationship between the water dynamics and its bio-geo-chemistry. PMID:16271746

Barale, Vittorio; Schiller, Christian; Tacchi, Ruggero; Marechal, Cecile

2005-12-15

348

Physical conditions of molecular gas in the Circinus galaxy Multi-J CO and Ci 3PP0 observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report mapping observations of the 12CO J = 3 ? 2, 4 ? 3, 6 ? 5, and 7 ? 6 transitions and the Ci 3PP0 (Ci) 492GHz transition toward the central 40'' × 40'' region of the Circinus galaxy, using the Atacama Pathfinder EXperiment (APEX) telescope. We also detected 13COJ = 3 ? 2 at the central position of Circinus. These observations are to date the highest CO transitions reported in Circinus. With large velocity gradient (LVG) modeling and likelihood analysis we try to obtain density, temperature, and column density of the molecular gas in three regions: the nuclear region (D < 18''~ 360 pc), the entire central 45'' (D < 45''~ 900 pc) region, and the star-forming (S-F) ring (18'' < D < 45''). In the nuclear region, we can fit the CO excitation with a single excitation component, yielding an average condition of nH2~103.2 cm-3, Tkin~ 200 K, and d?/dr~3 km s-1 pc-1. In the entire 45'' region, which covers both the nucleus and the S-F ring, two excitation components are needed with nH2~ 104.2 cm-3 and 103.0 cm-3, Tkin~ 60 K and 30 K, and MH2~2.3 × 107 M? and 6.6 × 107 M?, respectively. The gas excitation in the S-F ring can also be fitted with two LVG components, after subtracting the CO fluxes in the 18'' nuclear region. The S-F ring region contributes 80% of the molecular mass in the 45'' region. For the entire 45'' region, we find a standard conversion factor of N(H2) /ICO 1 ? 0 = 0.37 × 1020cm-2(K km s-1)-1, about 1/5 of the Galactic disk value. The luminosity ratios of Ci and 12COJ = 3 ? 2 (RCI/CO 3 ? 2) in Circinus basically follow a linear trend, similar to that obtained in high-redshift galaxies. The average RCI/CO J = 3 ? 2 in Circinus is found to be ~0.2, lying at an intermediate value between non-AGN nuclear regions and high-redshift galaxies. Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

Zhang, Zhi-Yu; Henkel, Christian; Gao, Yu; Güsten, Rolf; Menten, Karl M.; Papadopoulos, Padelis P.; Zhao, Yinghe; Ao, Yiping; Kaminski, Tomasz

2014-08-01

349

A UNIFIED EMPIRICAL MODEL FOR INFRARED GALAXY COUNTS BASED ON THE OBSERVED PHYSICAL EVOLUTION OF DISTANT GALAXIES  

SciTech Connect

We reproduce the mid-infrared to radio galaxy counts with a new empirical model based on our current understanding of the evolution of main-sequence (MS) and starburst (SB) galaxies. We rely on a simple spectral energy distribution (SED) library based on Herschel observations: a single SED for the MS and another one for SB, getting warmer with redshift. Our model is able to reproduce recent measurements of galaxy counts performed with Herschel, including counts per redshift slice. This agreement demonstrates the power of our 2-Star-Formation Modes (2SFM) decomposition in describing the statistical properties of infrared sources and their evolution with cosmic time. We discuss the relative contribution of MS and SB galaxies to the number counts at various wavelengths and flux densities. We also show that MS galaxies are responsible for a bump in the 1.4 GHz radio counts around 50 {mu}Jy. Material of the model (predictions, SED library, mock catalogs, etc.) is available online.

Bethermin, Matthieu; Daddi, Emanuele; Sargent, Mark T.; Elbaz, David; Mullaney, James; Pannella, Maurilio [Laboratoire AIM-Paris-Saclay, CEA/DSM/Irfu - CNRS - Universite Paris Diderot, CEA-Saclay, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Magdis, Georgios [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Keble Road, Oxford, OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Hezaveh, Yashar [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 Rue University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 2T8 (Canada); Le Borgne, Damien [UPMC Univ. Paris 06, UMR7095, Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, F-75014 Paris (France); Buat, Veronique [Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille, OAMP, Universite Aix-Marseille, CNRS, 38 rue Frederic Joliot-Curie, F-13388 Marseille Cedex 13 (France); Charmandaris, Vassilis [Department of Physics and Institute of Theoretical and Computation Physics, University of Crete, 71003 Heraklion (Greece); Lagache, Guilaine [Institut d'Astrophysique Spatiale (IAS), batiment 121, Universite Paris-Sud 11 and CNRS (UMR 8617), F-91405 Orsay (France); Scott, Douglas, E-mail: matthieu.bethermin@cea.fr [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada)

2012-10-01

350

A New Ground-Based Network for Synoptic Solar Observations: The Solar Physics Research Integrated Network Group (SPRING)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SPRING is a project to develop a geographically distributed network of instrumentation to obtain synoptic solar observations. Building on the demonstrated success of networks to provide nearly-continuous long-term data for helioseismology, SPRING will provide data for a wide range of solar research areas. Scientific objectives include internal solar dynamics and structure; wave transport in the solar atmosphere; the evolution of the magnetic field over the activity cycle; irradiance fluctuations; and space weather origins. Anticipated data products include simultaneous full-disk multi-wavelength Doppler and vector magnetic field images; filtergrams in H-Alpha, CaK, and white light; and PSPT-type irradiance support. The data will be obtained with a duty cycle of around 90% and at a cadence no slower than one minute. The current concept is a multi-instrument platform installed in at least six locations, and which will also provide context information for large-aperture solar telescopes such as EST and the DKIST. There is wide support for the idea within the EU and the US solar research communities. The project is in the early planning stages, and we are open to and looking for participants in the science and instrument definition.

Hill, Frank; Roth, Markus; Thompson, Michael; Gusain, Sanjay

2014-06-01

351

Atomic Carbon in M82: Physical conditions derived from simultaneous observations of the [CI] fine structure submillimeter wave transitions  

E-print Network

We report the first extragalactic detection of the neutral carbon [CI] 3P2-3P1 fine structure line at 809 GHz. The line was observed towards M82 simultaneously with the 3P1-3P0 line at 492 GHz, providing a precise measurement of the J=2-1/J=1-0 integrated line ratio of 0.96 (on a [K km s^-1] -scale). This ratio constrains the [CI] emitting gas to have a temperature of at least 50 K and a density of at least 10^4 cm^-3. Already at this minimum temperature and density, the beam averaged CI-column density is large, 2.1 10^18 cm^-2, confirming the high CI/CO abundance ratio of approximately 0.5 estimated earlier from the 492 GHz line alone. We argue that the [CI] emission from M82 most likely arises in clouds of linear size around a few pc with a density of about 10^4 cm^-3 or slightly higher and temperatures of 50 K up to about 100 K.

J. Stutzki; U. U. Graf; S. Haas; C. E. Honingh; D. Hottgenroth; K. Jacobs; R. Schieder; R. Simon; J. Staguhn; G. Winnewisser; R. N. Martin; W. L. Peters; J. P. McMullin

1996-12-12

352

Cardiac looping may be driven by compressive loads resulting from unequal growth of the heart and pericardial cavity. Observations on a physical simulation model  

PubMed Central

The transformation of the straight embryonic heart tube into a helically wound loop is named cardiac looping. Such looping is regarded as an essential process in cardiac morphogenesis since it brings the building blocks of the developing heart into an approximation of their definitive topographical relationships. During the past two decades, a large number of genes have been identified which play important roles in cardiac looping. However, how genetic information is physically translated into the dynamic form changes of the looping heart is still poorly understood. The oldest hypothesis of cardiac looping mechanics attributes the form changes of the heart loop (ventral bending ? simple helical coiling ? complex helical coiling) to compressive loads resulting from growth differences between the heart and the pericardial cavity. In the present study, we have tested the physical plausibility of this hypothesis, which we call the growth-induced buckling hypothesis, for the first time. Using a physical simulation model, we show that growth-induced buckling of a straight elastic rod within the confined space of a hemispherical cavity can generate the same sequence of form changes as observed in the looping embryonic heart. Our simulation experiments have furthermore shown that, under bilaterally symmetric conditions, growth-induced buckling generates left- and right-handed helices (D-/L-loops) in a 1:1 ratio, while even subtle left- or rightward displacements of the caudal end of the elastic rod at the pre-buckling state are sufficient to direct the buckling process toward the generation of only D- or L-loops, respectively. Our data are discussed with respect to observations made in biological “models.” We conclude that compressive loads resulting from unequal growth of the heart and pericardial cavity play important roles in cardiac looping. Asymmetric positioning of the venous heart pole may direct these forces toward a biased generation of D- or L-loops. PMID:24772086

Bayraktar, Meriç; Männer, Jörg

2014-01-01

353

Are Physical Activity, Smoking and Alcohol Drinking Associated with the Development of Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms in Men or Women? Results from a Population-Based Observational Study  

PubMed Central

Purpose Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms (LUTS) are highly prevalent and reduce quality of life. Lifestyle behaviors and LUTS development are largely unexamined. The objective of this study was to investigate physical activity, smoking, and alcohol drinking and LUTS development in men and women. Materials and Methods Data were from a longitudinal observational study, the Boston Area Community Health Survey. Baseline (2002–2005) in-person interviews assessed activity, smoking and alcohol. Five-year follow-up interviews (2006–2010, N=4,145) assessed new reports of moderate-to-severe LUTS, defined by the American Urological Association Symptom Index (AUASI). Analysis used multivariable logistic regression. Results LUTS developed among 7.7% and 12.7% of at-risk men and women, respectively. Women were 68% less likely to develop LUTS (OR=0.32, 95% CI: 0.17–0.60, P<0.001) if they had high vs. low physically activity. Although the association was similar among men, it was not statistically significant upon adjustment for medical or sociodemographic characteristics in the multivariable model. Women smokers were twice as likely to develop LUTS, particularly storage symptoms (OR=2.15, 95% CI: 1.30–3.56, P=0.003), compared to never-smokers. Among men, smoking was not associated with LUTS. Results for alcohol intake were inconsistent by intake level and symptom subtype. Conclusions Low physical activity was associated with 2–3 times higher likelihood of LUTS development. Smoking may contribute to LUTS development in women, but not men. Clinicians should continue to promote physical activity and smoking cessation noting the additional potential benefits of LUTS prevention, particularly for women. PMID:22704109

Maserejian, Nancy N.; Kupelian, Varant; Miyasato, Gavin; McVary, Kevin T.; McKinlay, John B.

2012-01-01

354

Kinematics, influence functions and field quantities for disturbance propagation from moving disturbance sources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A unified method is presented for deriving the influence functions of moving singularities which determine the field quantities in aerodynamics and aeroacoustics. The moving singularities comprise volume and surface distributions having arbitrary orientations in space and to the trajectory. Hence one generally valid formula for the influence functions which reveal some universal relationships and remarkable properties in the disturbance fields. The derivations used are completely consistent with the physical processes in the propagation field, such that treatment renders new descriptions for some standard concepts. The treatment is uniformly valid for subsonic and supersonic Mach numbers.

Das, A.

1984-01-01

355

Ageing and endurance training effects on quantity and quality of pulmonary vascular bed in healthy men  

PubMed Central

It has recently been demonstrated that in healthy individuals, peak oxygen consumption is associated with a greater pulmonary capillary blood volume and a more distensible pulmonary circulation. Our cross-sectional study suggests that, in healthy men aged 20 to 60 years (n?=?63), endurance sport practice (vigorous-intensity domain of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire) is associated with better quantity (pulmonary capillary blood volume) and quality (slope of increase in lung diffusion for carbon monoxide on exercise) of the pulmonary vascular bed, partly counterbalancing the deleterious effects of ageing, which remains to be demonstrated in a prospective longitudinal design. PMID:24460636

2014-01-01

356

Design of the Coordinate Transformation Function for Cylindrical Acoustic Cloaks with a Quantity of Discrete Layers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acoustic cloak based on coordinate transformation is of great topical interest and has promise in potential applications such as sound transparency and insulation. The frequency response of acoustic cloaks with a quantity of discrete homogeneous layers is analyzed by the acoustic scattering theory. The effect of coordinate transformation function on the acoustic total scattering cross section is discussed to achieve low scattering with only a few layers of anisotropic metamaterials. Also, the physics of acoustic wave interaction with the interfaces between the discrete layers inside the cloak shell is discussed. These results provide a better way of designing a multilayered acoustic cloak with fewer layers.

Cai, Li; Wen, Ji-Hong; Yu, Dian-Long; Lu, Zhi-Miao; Wen, Xi-Sen

2014-09-01

357

Approximate models for the study of exponential changed quantities: Application on the plasma waves growth rate or damping  

SciTech Connect

Many physical phenomena that concern the research these days are basically complicated because of being multi-parametric. Thus, their study and understanding meets with big if not unsolved obstacles. Such complicated and multi-parametric is the plasmatic state as well, where the plasma and the physical quantities that appear along with it have chaotic behavior. Many of those physical quantities change exponentially and at most times they are stabilized by presenting wavy behavior. Mostly in the transitive state rather than the steady state, the exponentially changing quantities (Growth, Damping etc) depend on each other in most cases. Thus, it is difficult to distinguish the cause from the result. The present paper attempts to help this difficult study and understanding by proposing mathematical exponential models that could relate with the study and understanding of the plasmatic wavy instability behavior. Such instabilities are already detected, understood and presented in previous publications of our laboratory. In other words, our new contribution is the study of the already known plasmatic quantities by using mathematical models (modeling and simulation). These methods are both useful and applicable in the chaotic theory. In addition, our ambition is to also conduct a list of models useful for the study of chaotic problems, such as those that appear into the plasma, starting with this paper's examples.

Xaplanteris, C. L., E-mail: cxaplanteris@yahoo.com [Plasma Physics Laboratory, IMS, NCSR “Demokritos”, Athens, Greece and Hellenic Army Academy, Vari Attica (Greece); Xaplanteris, L. C. [School of Physics, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens (Greece)] [School of Physics, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens (Greece); Leousis, D. P. [Technical High School of Athens, Athens (Greece)] [Technical High School of Athens, Athens (Greece)

2014-03-15

358

Quantity, Quality, and Satisfaction with Mentoring: What Matters Most?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

According to Kram's mentor role theory, satisfaction with mentoring and mentorship quality are key indicators of effective and successful mentoring. We contribute to mentoring research by demonstrating the relative importance of mentorship quantity, mentorship quality, and satisfaction with mentoring to the prediction of job satisfaction,…

Xu, Xiaohong; Payne, Stephanie C.

2014-01-01

359

Economics of California Agriculture and Water Quality and Quantity  

E-print Network

Economics of California Agriculture and Water Quality and Quantity December 2012 Daniel A. Sumner share of the total land mass is suitable for high-productivity irrigated crops #12;California County in the South #12;Animal Products 10% Field Crops 16% Fruits 20%Tree Nuts 27% Vegetables 7% Wine 7

California at Davis, University of

360

Children's Multiplicative Transformations of Discrete and Continuous Quantities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent studies have documented an evolutionarily primitive, early emerging cognitive system for the mental representation of numerical quantity (the analog magnitude system). Studies with nonhuman primates, human infants, and preschoolers have shown this system to support computations of numerical ordering, addition, and subtraction involving…

Barth, Hilary; Baron, Andrew; Spelke, Elizabeth; Carey, Susan

2009-01-01

361

Hazardous Waste Management for the Small Quantity Generator. Teacher Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This instructional package for teaching about the regulations imposed on small quantity generators by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under the Resource Conservation Recovery Act is organized around ll program objectives: students will be able to (l) determine a hazardous waste from lists or by identifying characteristics; (2) identify…

Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

362

Markets for Reputation: Evidence on Quality and Quantity in Academe  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop a theory of the market for individual reputation, an indicator of regard by one?s peers and others. The central questions are: 1) Does the quantity of exposures raise reputation independent of their quality? and 2) Assuming that overall quality matters for reputation, does the quality of an individual?s most important exposure have an extra effect on reputation? Using

Daniel S. Hamermesh; Gerard Antonie Pfann

2009-01-01

363

9 CFR 381.121 - Quantity of contents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Quantity of contents. 381.121 Section 381.121 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...from other label information appearing to the left or right of the statement, by a space at least equal in...

2010-01-01

364

Daphnia magna Maternal food quantity affects offspring feeding rate in  

E-print Network

Daphnia magna Maternal food quantity affects offspring feeding rate in Jennie S. Garbutt and Tom J rate in Daphnia magna. Biol. Lett. 10: 20140356. http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2014.0356 Received: 1 affects offspring feeding rate in Daphnia magna Jennie S. Garbutt and Tom J. Little Institute

Obbard, Darren

365

Water Quality and Quantity Concerns Population growth, increasing water demands,  

E-print Network

. Water-conservation programs have resulted in a potential savings of 611 million gallons annually, valuedWater Quality and Quantity Concerns Population growth, increasing water demands, contamination issues and drought have placed the state's water supply under tremendous stress. Water demand in Texas

366

Quasinormal frequencies and thermodynamic quantities for the Lifshitz black holes  

E-print Network

We find the connection between thermodynamic quantities and quasinormal frequencies in Lifshitz black holes. It is shown that the globally stable Lifshitz black holes have pure imaginary quasinormal frequencies. We also show that by employing the Maggiore's method, both the horizon area and the entropy can be quantized for these black holes.

Yun Soo Myung; Taeyoon Moon

2012-06-20

367

Quantity Food Production Instructor: Jim Vernere Teaching Assistant  

E-print Network

Quantity Food Production 11:709:344 Instructor: Jim Vernere Teaching Assistant: Department of Nutritional Sciences Yang Wang vernere@rci.rutgers.edu yw274@scarletmail.rutgers.edu Office hours 900 -1000 = A 850-899 = B+ 800 - 849 = B 750 - 799 = C+ 700 - 749 = C 600- 699 = D Below 600 = F #12

Chen, Kuang-Yu

368

Quantity Food Production Instructor: Jim Vernere Teaching Assistant  

E-print Network

Quantity Food Production 11:709:344 Instructor: Jim Vernere Teaching Assistant: Department of Nutritional Sciences KATIE BELUSKA Vernere@rci.rutgers.edu Katie.Beluska@Gmail.com Office hours -1000 = A 850-899 = B+ 800 - 849 = B 750 - 799 = C+ 700 - 749 = C 600- 699 = D Below 600 = F #12;* All

Chen, Kuang-Yu

369

48 CFR 16.504 - Indefinite-quantity contracts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Quantity limits may be stated as number of units or as dollar values...potential users, or any other rational basis. (2) To ensure...the contract, including the number of options and the period for...name, address, telephone number, facsimile number, and...

2012-10-01

370

48 CFR 16.504 - Indefinite-quantity contracts.  

...Quantity limits may be stated as number of units or as dollar values...potential users, or any other rational basis. (2) To ensure...the contract, including the number of options and the period for...name, address, telephone number, facsimile number, and...

2014-10-01

371

48 CFR 16.504 - Indefinite-quantity contracts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Quantity limits may be stated as number of units or as dollar values...potential users, or any other rational basis. (2) To ensure...the contract, including the number of options and the period for...name, address, telephone number, facsimile number, and...

2013-10-01

372

48 CFR 16.504 - Indefinite-quantity contracts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Quantity limits may be stated as number of units or as dollar values...potential users, or any other rational basis. (2) To ensure...the contract, including the number of options and the period for...name, address, telephone number, facsimile number, and...

2011-10-01

373

A Quantity Discount Pricing Model to Increase Vendor Profits  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we analyze how a supplier can structure the terms of an optimal quantity discount schedule. The vendor's challenge is to adjust his present pricing schedule to entice his major customer to increase his present order size by a factor of \\

James P. Monahan

1984-01-01

374

A Generalized Quantity Discount Pricing Model to Increase Supplier's Profits  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the joint problem of ordering and offering price discount by a supplier to his sole\\/major buyer is analyzed. The objective is to induce the buyer to alter his order schedule and size so that the supplier can benefit from lower set up, ordering, and inventory holding costs. We generalize the quantity discount pricing model of Monahan (Monahan,

Hau L. Lee; Meir J. Rosenblatt

1986-01-01

375

Linear actuation using milligram quantities of CL-20 and TAGDNAT.  

SciTech Connect

There are numerous applications for small-scale actuation utilizing pyrotechnics and explosives. In certain applications, especially when multiple actuation strokes are needed, or actuator reuse is required, it is desirable to have all gaseous combustion products with no condensed residue in the actuator cylinder. Toward this goal, we have performed experiments on utilizing milligram quantities of high explosives to drive a millimeter-diameter actuator with a stroke of 30 mm. Calculations were performed to select proper material quantities to provide 0.5 J of actuation energy. This was performed utilizing the thermochemical code Cheetah to calculate the impetus for numerous propellants and to select quantities based on estimated efficiencies of these propellants at small scales. Milligram quantities of propellants were loaded into a small-scale actuator and ignited with an ignition increment and hot wire ignition. Actuator combustion chamber pressure was monitored with a pressure transducer and actuator stroke was monitored using a laser displacement meter. Total actuation energy was determined by calculating the kinetic energy of reaction mass motion against gravity. Of the materials utilized, the best performance was obtained with a mixture of 2,4,6,8,10,12-hexanitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20) and bis-triaminoguanidinium(3,3{prime}dinitroazotriazolate) (TAGDNAT).

Snedigar, Shane; Salton, Jonathan Robert; Tappan, Alexander Smith; Ball, James Patrick; Basiliere, Marc; Fischer, Gary John

2009-07-01

376

Sharing shipment quantity information in the supply chain  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper evaluates the benefit of a strategy of sharing shipment information, where one stage in a supply chain shares shipment quantity information with its immediate downstream customers—a practice also known as advanced shipping notice. Under a periodic review inventory policy, one supply-chain member places an order on its supplier every period. However, due to supplier's imperfect service, the supplier

Cheng Zhang; Gek-Woo Tan; David J. Robb; Xin Zheng

2006-01-01

377

Unraveling water quality and quantity effects of biofuels production  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Developing a sustainable biofuels industry is crucial for several reasons, but what impact will it have on soil water quantity and quality? This popular press article for ISU alumni, teachers, middle/high school students and others is written to help them understand the complexity of this seemingly ...

378

How Do Our Actions Affect Water Quantity and Quality?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Water is an essential resource for all living things. How we live on our watershed can impact water quantity and quality. It is important to recognize how humans alter watershed dynamics, but students often find it challenging to visualize watershed processes and understand how decisions that they make as individuals and together as a community…

Gordon, Jessica

2008-01-01

379

Quantity Judgments and Individuation: Evidence that Mass Nouns Count  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three experiments explored the semantics of the mass-count distinction in young children and adults. In Experiments 1 and 2, the quantity judgments of participants provided evidence that some mass nouns refer to individuals, as such. Participants judged one large portion of stuff to be ''more'' than three tiny portions for substance-mass nouns…

Barner, David; Snedeker, Jesse

2005-01-01

380

16 CFR Table 3 to Part 1512 - Minimum Acceptable Values for the Quantity A Defined in the Retroreflective Tire and Rim Test...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Acceptable Values for the Quantity A Defined in the Retroreflective Tire and Rim Test Procedure 3 Table 3 to Part 1512 Commercial...Acceptable Values for the Quantity A Defined in the Retroreflective Tire and Rim Test Procedure Observation angle (degrees)...

2010-01-01

381

Ratio-dependent quantity discrimination in quorum sensing ants.  

PubMed

To optimise behaviour, organisms require information on the quantity of various components of their environment, and the ability of animals to discriminate quantity has been a subject of considerable recent interest. This body of research hints at generalised mechanisms of quantity discrimination in vertebrates, but data on invertebrates are still relatively scarce. In this study, I present data on the quantification abilities of an invertebrate in a novel context: quorum sensing. Quorum sensing generates a behavioural response in group-living animals once a threshold number of individuals, a 'quorum', is detected performing some key action. This process forms the basis for consensus decision-making in many species and allows group-living organisms to decide among mutually exclusive alternatives without compromising group integrity. To determine when a quorum is achieved, individuals must assess the number of group members performing the key action. Social insects employ quorum decisions to decide among potential nest sites when searching for a new home. In the Japanese ant, Myrmecina nipponica, quorum thresholds increase with colony size, providing an opportunity to assess the accuracy of quantity discrimination at different stimulus magnitudes. In this study, I demonstrate that the variation in individual quorum thresholds around the mean increases with increasing colony size. This indicates that the quantity discrimination ability of ants decreases with stimulus magnitude, and thus exhibits ratio dependence in the manner of Weber's Law. This may have implications for the accuracy of consensus decision-making and other collective actions in a range of group-living organisms. PMID:24844665

Cronin, Adam L

2014-11-01

382

Monitoring quantity and characteristics of municipal solid waste in Dhaka City.  

PubMed

A reliable estimate of the quantity of solid waste generation in the city is very important for proper solid waste planning and management. However, reported estimates of solid waste generation vary widely and lead to questionability. The reported values have been derived on the assumption of demography, standard rate of waste generation by households, density values, number of trucks engaged for waste transportation and monitoring of truck movement at dump sites, etc. This diverse nature of the available data and the question of accuracy necessitate a rigorous study that has tried to document the waste quantity in the recently formulated master plan of Dhaka City. The socio-economic parameters, behavioral characteristics, generation sources, seasonality, and per capita growth rate are considered in estimating the waste quantity along with its future projections. The findings from the estimation of waste quantities state that seasonal differences in the municipal solid waste stream are not substantial. The most seasonably variable material in the municipal solid waste stream is food waste. Residential waste is relatively homogeneous. Although there are some differences in waste generation depending on demographic and other local factors, most households dispose of essentially similar types of wastes. Variation occurs in waste composition dependent upon income levels and category of sources. Variation also occurs based upon the extent of source reduction and recycling opportunities. As opportunities exist to recycle wastes, the recycling facilities might have to grow at a similar pace to the generation of waste. Physical and chemical characteristics of solid waste are important to implement the waste disposal and management plan for the selection of resource and energy recovery potentials. A number of studies have been conducted to determine the composition of wastes including moisture content and calorific value. The data show that the moisture content in city waste is significantly higher and the calorific value is much lower, which determines the viability of composting or anaerobic digestions rather than waste combustion. PMID:17503211

Yousuf, Tariq Bin; Rahman, Mostafizur

2007-12-01

383

1.Bisi, M.M., Fallows, R.A., Breen, A.R., O'Neill, I.J. Interplanetary Scintillation Observations of Stream Interaction Regions in the Solar Wind. Solar Physics  

E-print Network

Observations of Stream Interaction Regions in the Solar Wind. Solar Physics 261, 149-172 (2010). 2.Eastwood, J.Goussies, N., Stenborg, G., Vourlidas, A., Howard, R. Tracking of Coronal White- Light Events by Texture. Solar Physics online 8 (2010). 5.Harrison, R.A.,Davis, C.J., Bewsher, D., Davies, J.A., Eyles, C

Christian, Eric

384

Quantity processing in deaf and hard of hearing children: evidence from symbolic and nonsymbolic comparison tasks.  

PubMed

Deaf children usually achieve lower scores on numerical tasks than normally hearing peers. Explanations for mathematical disabilities in hearing children are based on quantity representation deficits (Geary, 1994) or on deficits in accessing these representations (Rousselle & Noël, 2008). The present study aimed to verify, by means of symbolic (Arabic digits) and nonsymbolic (dot constellations and hands) magnitude comparison tasks, whether deaf children show deficits in representations or in accessing numerical representations. The study participants were 10 prelocutive deaf children and 10 normally hearing children. Numerical distance and magnitude were manipulated. Response time (RT) analysis showed similar magnitude and distance effects in both groups on the 3 tasks. However, slower RTs were observed among the deaf participants on the symbolic task alone. These results suggest that although both groups' quantity representations were similar, the deaf group experienced a delay in accessing representations from symbolic codes. PMID:25051881

Rodríguez-Santos, José Miguel; Calleja, Marina; García-Orza, Javier; Iza, Mauricio; Damas, Jesús

2014-01-01

385

Improved quality and quantity of written feedback is associated with a structured feedback proforma.  

PubMed

Facilitating the provision of detailed, deep and useful feedback is an important design feature of any educational programme. Here we evaluate feedback provided to medical students completing short transferable skills projects. Feedback quantity and depth were evaluated before and after a simple intervention to change the structure of the feedback-provision form from a blank free-text feedback form to a structured proforma that asked a pair of short questions for each of the six domains being assessed. Each pair of questions consisted of asking the marker 'what was done well?' and 'what changes would improve the assignment?' Changing the form was associated with a significant increase in the quantity of the feedback and in the amount and quality of feedback provided to students. We also observed that, for these double-marked projects, the marker designated as 'marker 1' consistently wrote more feedback than the marker designated 'marker 2'. PMID:22916317

Newton, Philip M; Wallace, Melisa J; McKimm, Judy

2012-01-01

386

Improved quality and quantity of written feedback is associated with a structured feedback proforma  

PubMed Central

Facilitating the provision of detailed, deep and useful feedback is an important design feature of any educational programme. Here we evaluate feedback provided to medical students completing short transferable skills projects. Feedback quantity and depth were evaluated before and after a simple intervention to change the structure of the feedback-provision form from a blank free-text feedback form to a structured proforma that asked a pair of short questions for each of the six domains being assessed. Each pair of questions consisted of asking the marker 'what was done well?' and 'what changes would improve the assignment?' Changing the form was associated with a significant increase in the quantity of the feedback and in the amount and quality of feedback provided to students. We also observed that, for these double-marked projects, the marker designated as 'marker 1' consistently wrote more feedback than the marker designated 'marker 2'. PMID:22916317

Wallace, Melisa J.; McKimm, Judy

2012-01-01

387

Planning a School Physics Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a model for planning the measurement of physical quantities. Provides two examples of optimizing the conditions of indirect measurement for laboratory experiments which involve measurements of acceleration due to gravity and of viscosity by means of Stokes' formula. (ML)

Blasiak, Wladyslaw

1986-01-01

388

40 CFR 273.8 - Applicability-household and conditionally exempt small quantity generator waste.  

...and conditionally exempt small quantity generator waste. 273.8 Section 273.8...and conditionally exempt small quantity generator waste. (a) Persons managing the...Conditionally exempt small quantity generator wastes that are exempt under §...

2014-07-01

389

40 CFR 261.5 - Special requirements for hazardous waste generated by conditionally exempt small quantity...  

...generated by conditionally exempt small quantity generators. 261.5 Section 261.5 Protection of...generated by conditionally exempt small quantity generators. (a) A generator is a conditionally exempt small quantity...

2014-07-01

390

40 CFR 273.8 - Applicability-household and conditionally exempt small quantity generator waste.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...and conditionally exempt small quantity generator waste. 273.8 Section 273.8...and conditionally exempt small quantity generator waste. (a) Persons managing the...Conditionally exempt small quantity generator wastes that are exempt under §...

2013-07-01

391

40 CFR 273.8 - Applicability-household and conditionally exempt small quantity generator waste.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...and conditionally exempt small quantity generator waste. 273.8 Section 273.8...and conditionally exempt small quantity generator waste. (a) Persons managing the...Conditionally exempt small quantity generator wastes that are exempt under §...

2012-07-01

392

40 CFR 273.8 - Applicability-household and conditionally exempt small quantity generator waste.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and conditionally exempt small quantity generator waste. 273.8 Section 273.8...and conditionally exempt small quantity generator waste. (a) Persons managing the...Conditionally exempt small quantity generator wastes that are exempt under §...

2010-07-01

393

40 CFR 273.8 - Applicability-household and conditionally exempt small quantity generator waste.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...and conditionally exempt small quantity generator waste. 273.8 Section 273.8...and conditionally exempt small quantity generator waste. (a) Persons managing the...Conditionally exempt small quantity generator wastes that are exempt under §...

2011-07-01

394

40 CFR 261.5 - Special requirements for hazardous waste generated by conditionally exempt small quantity...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...generated by conditionally exempt small quantity generators. 261.5 Section 261.5 Protection of...generated by conditionally exempt small quantity generators. (a) A generator is a conditionally exempt small quantity...

2011-07-01

395

48 CFR 52.207-4 - Economic Purchase Quantity-Supplies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Economic Purchase Quantity-Supplies. 52...Provisions and Clauses 52.207-4 Economic Purchase Quantity—Supplies. As...203, insert the following provision: Economic Purchase Quantity—Supplies (AUG...

2010-10-01

396

48 CFR 217.174 - Multiyear contracts that employ economic order quantity procurement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Multiyear contracts that employ economic order quantity procurement. 217...174 Multiyear contracts that employ economic order quantity procurement. (a...1) A multiyear contract providing for economic order quantity procurement in...

2010-10-01

397

48 CFR 52.247-8 - Estimated Weights or Quantities Not Guaranteed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Estimated Weights or Quantities Not Guaranteed. 52...and Clauses 52.247-8 Estimated Weights or Quantities Not Guaranteed. As...transportation-related services when weights or quantities are estimates:...

2011-10-01

398

48 CFR 52.247-8 - Estimated Weights or Quantities Not Guaranteed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Estimated Weights or Quantities Not Guaranteed. 52...and Clauses 52.247-8 Estimated Weights or Quantities Not Guaranteed. As...transportation-related services when weights or quantities are estimates:...

2010-10-01

399

AKARI OBSERVATIONS OF BROWN DWARFS. III. CO, CO{sub 2}, AND CH{sub 4} FUNDAMENTAL BANDS AND PHYSICAL PARAMETERS  

SciTech Connect

We investigate variations in the strengths of three molecular bands, CH{sub 4} at 3.3 {mu}m, CO at 4.6 {mu}m, and CO{sub 2} at 4.2 {mu}m, in 16 brown dwarf spectra obtained by AKARI. Spectral features are examined along the sequence of source classes from L1 to T8. We find that the CH{sub 4} 3.3 {mu}m band is present in the spectra of brown dwarfs later than L5, and the CO 4.6 {mu}m band appears in all spectral types. The CO{sub 2} absorption band at 4.2 {mu}m is detected in late-L and T-type dwarfs. To better understand brown dwarf atmospheres, we analyze the observed spectra using the Unified Cloudy Model. The physical parameters of the AKARI sample, i.e., atmospheric effective temperature T {sub eff}, surface gravity log g, and critical temperature T {sub cr}, are derived. We also model IRTF/SpeX and UKIRT/CGS4 spectra in addition to the AKARI data in order to derive the most probable physical parameters. Correlations between the spectral type and the modeled parameters are examined. We confirm that the spectral-type sequence of late-L dwarfs is not related to T {sub eff}, but instead originates as a result of the effect of dust.

Sorahana, S. [Department of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Yamamura, I., E-mail: sorahana@ir.isas.jaxa.jp [Department of Space Astronomy and Astrophysics, Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS), Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan)

2012-12-01

400

Goddard Laboratory for Atmospheric Sciences physical retrieval system for remote determination of weather and climate parameter from HIRS2 and MSU observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

At the Goddard Laboratory for Atmospheric Sciences (GLAS) a physically based satellite temperature sounding retrieval system, involving the simultaneous analysis of HIRS2 and MSU sounding data, was developed for determining atmospheric and surface conditions which are consistent with the observed radiances. In addition to determining accurate atmospheric temperature profiles even in the presence of cloud contamination, the system provides global estimates of day and night sea or land surface temperatures, snow and ice cover, and parameters related to cloud cover. Details of the system are described elsewhere. A brief overview of the system is presented, as well as recent improvements and previously unpublished results, relating to the sea-surface intercomparison workshop, the diurnal variation of ground temperatures, and forecast impact tests.

Susskind, J.

1984-01-01

401

A new insight into the observation of spectroscopic strength reduction in atomic nuclei: implication for the physical meaning of spectroscopic factors  

E-print Network

Experimental studies of one nucleon knockout from magic nuclei suggest that their nucleon orbits are not fully occupied. This conflicts a commonly accepted view of the shell closure associated with such nuclei. The conflict can be reconciled if the overlap between initial and final nuclear states in a knockout reaction are calculated by a non-standard method. The method employs an inhomogeneous equation based on correlation-dependent effective nucleon-nucleon (NN) interactions and allows the simplest wave functions, in which all nucleons occupy only the lowest nuclear orbits, to be used. The method also reproduces the recently established relation between reduction of spectroscopic strength, observed in knockout reactions on other nuclei, and nucleon binding energies. The implication of the inhomogeneous equation method for the physical meaning of spectroscopic factors is discussed.

N. K. Timofeyuk

2009-11-26

402

Physics for Physical Sciences: Graphing Motion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This introductory tutorial provides examples and visualizations for beginners in the fundamentals of graphing Velocity vs. Time and Position vs. Time. Physical quantities are related to graphical features, such as the relationship between slope and velocity. Images and Flash animations are used to present the material, along with examples that demonstrate problem-solving using formulas relating to displacement and constant velocity.

2004-03-14

403

Does the semantic activation of quantity representations influence motor parameters?  

PubMed

In size and parity judgment tasks, we investigated whether the activation of numerical quantity exerts an influence on motor response parameters such as response force. Results showed typically strong effects on reaction time of numerical distance in the size judgment task (Experiments 1 and 2) and SNARC-compatibility (Experiment 1) in both tasks, indicating that semantic quantity representations were activated. Response force, however, varied at most weakly with the numerical magnitudes of the digits. Our results place limits on previously suggested interconnections of the magnitude and response systems. Activations within the magnitude system seem to have a strong influence on the initiation and selection of which action to produce, but only a little influence on the dynamics of response production (i.e., response execution). PMID:18521582

Fischer, Rico; Miller, Jeff

2008-08-01

404

Monitoring the eye lens: which dose quantity is adequate?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent epidemiological studies suggest a rather low dose threshold (below 0.5 Gy) for the induction of a cataract of the eye lens. Some other studies even assume that there is no threshold at all. Therefore, protection measures have to be optimized and current dose limits for the eye lens may be reduced in the future. The question of which personal dose equivalent quantity is appropriate for monitoring the dose to the eye lens arises from this situation. While in many countries dosemeters calibrated in terms of the dose equivalent quantity Hp(0.07) have been seen as being adequate for monitoring the dose to the eye lens, this might be questionable in the case of reduced dose limits and, thus, it may become necessary to use the dose equivalent quantity Hp(3) for this purpose. To discuss this question, the dose conversion coefficients for the equivalent dose of the eye lens (in the following eye lens dose) were determined for realistic photon and beta radiation fields and compared with the values of the corresponding conversion coefficients for the different operational quantities. The values obtained lead to the following conclusions: in radiation fields where most of the dose comes from photons, especially x-rays, it is appropriate to use dosemeters calibrated in terms of Hp(0.07) on a slab phantom, while in other radiation fields (dominated by beta radiation or unknown contributions of photon and beta radiation) dosemeters calibrated in terms of Hp(3) on a slab phantom should be used. As an alternative, dosemeters calibrated in terms of Hp(0.07) on a slab phantom could also be used; however, in radiation fields containing beta radiation with the end point energy near 1 MeV, an overestimation of the eye lens dose by up to a factor of 550 is possible.

Behrens, R.; Dietze, G.

2010-07-01

405

Monitoring the eye lens: which dose quantity is adequate?  

PubMed

Recent epidemiological studies suggest a rather low dose threshold (below 0.5 Gy) for the induction of a cataract of the eye lens. Some other studies even assume that there is no threshold at all. Therefore, protection measures have to be optimized and current dose limits for the eye lens may be reduced in the future. The question of which personal dose equivalent quantity is appropriate for monitoring the dose to the eye lens arises from this situation. While in many countries dosemeters calibrated in terms of the dose equivalent quantity H(p)(0.07) have been seen as being adequate for monitoring the dose to the eye lens, this might be questionable in the case of reduced dose limits and, thus, it may become necessary to use the dose equivalent quantity H(p)(3) for this purpose. To discuss this question, the dose conversion coefficients for the equivalent dose of the eye lens (in the following eye lens dose) were determined for realistic photon and beta radiation fields and compared with the values of the corresponding conversion coefficients for the different operational quantities. The values obtained lead to the following conclusions: in radiation fields where most of the dose comes from photons, especially x-rays, it is appropriate to use dosemeters calibrated in terms of H(p)(0.07) on a slab phantom, while in other radiation fields (dominated by beta radiation or unknown contributions of photon and beta radiation) dosemeters calibrated in terms of H(p)(3) on a slab phantom should be used. As an alternative, dosemeters calibrated in terms of H(p)(0.07) on a slab phantom could also be used; however, in radiation fields containing beta radiation with the end point energy near 1 MeV, an overestimation of the eye lens dose by up to a factor of 550 is possible. PMID:20601777

Behrens, R; Dietze, G

2010-07-21

406

Equivalent network representation of boundary conditions involving generalized trial quantities  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Abstract  Virtual adjustable sources are introduced in equivalent network representation of boundary conditions. For this purpose, integral\\u000a equations are to be solved simple application of analog Kirchoff’s and Ohm’s laws. These adjustable sources represent generalized\\u000a trial quantities. In order to illustrate this proposed approach, equivalent network representation of lossy planar transmission\\u000a lines with arbitrary metallization thickness is presented.

Henri Baudrand; Hervé Aubert; Damienne Bajon; Farid Bouzidi

1997-01-01

407

Radio frequency tank eigenmode sensor for propellant quantity gauging  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method for measuring the quantity of fluid in a tank may include the steps of selecting a match between a measured set of electromagnetic eigenfrequencies and a simulated plurality of sets of electromagnetic eigenfrequencies using a matching algorithm, wherein the match is one simulated set of electromagnetic eigenfrequencies from the simulated plurality of sets of electromagnetic eigenfrequencies, and determining the fill level of the tank based upon the match.

Zimmerli, Gregory A. (Inventor)

2013-01-01

408

The Quantity Flexibility Contract and Supplier-Customer Incentives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consider a supply chain consisting of two independent agents, a supplier (e.g., a manufacturer) and its customer (e.g., a retailer), the latter in turn serving an uncertain market demand. To reconcile manufacturing\\/procurement time lags with a need for timely response to the market, such supply chains often must commit resources to production quantities based on forecasted rather than realized demand.

Andy A. Tsay

1999-01-01

409

Extragalactic jets as current carrying systems. II - Magnetohydrodynamic turbulence, relativistic electron distribution, and observable quantities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relativistic electrons in extragalactic radio jets could act as tracers of only a restricted area of a magnetic field generated by the current structure. A model for a conical distribution of relativistic electrons inside a cylindrical thermal jet which obeys the MHD model of Chiuderi et al.(1989) is presented. Two different geometries are explained on the basis of stochastic diffusion

Edvige Corbelli; Pierluigi Veltri

1989-01-01

410

Insomnia among patients with advanced disease during admission in a Palliative Care Unit: a prospective observational study on its frequency and association with psychological, physical and environmental factors  

PubMed Central

Background The aims of this study were: 1) to assess the frequency of insomnia among patients during admission in a Palliative Care Unit (PCU); 2) to study the association between emotional distress and insomnia, taking physical, environmental and other psychological factors into account. Methods Prospective observational study including patients consecutively admitted to a PCU during eight months, excluding those with severe cognitive problems or too low performance status. Insomnia was assessed by asking a single question and by using the Sleep Disturbance Scale (SDS), and emotional distress using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Physical, environmental and other psychological factors potentially interfering with sleep quality were evaluated. Association between insomnia and the factors evaluated was studied using univariate and multivariate regression analyses. Results 61 patients were included (mean age 71.5 years; 95% with oncological disease); 38 (62%) answered “yes” to the insomnia single question and 29 (47%) showed moderate to severe insomnia according to the SDS. 65% showed clinically significant emotional distress and 79% had nocturnal rumination. The physical symptoms most often mentioned as interfering with sleep quality were pain (69%) and dyspnoea (36%). 77% reported at least one environmental disturbance. In the univariate analysis, answering “yes” to the insomnia single question was significantly associated with higher HADS score, anxiety, nocturnal rumination, clear knowledge of the diagnosis, higher performance status and dyspnoea; moderate to severe insomnia was significantly associated with nocturnal rumination, higher performance status, environmental disturbances and daytime sleepiness. In the multivariate regression analysis, answering “yes” to the single question was associated with dyspnoea (OR 7.2 [1.65-31.27]; p?=?0.009), nocturnal rumination (OR 5.5 [1.05-28.49]; p?=?0.04) and higher performance status (OR 14.3 [1.62-125.43]; p?=?0.017), and moderate to severe insomnia with nocturnal rumination (OR 5.6 [1.1-29.1]; p?=?0.041), and inversely associated with daytime sleepiness (OR 0.25 [0.07-0.9]; p?=?0.043). Conclusions Insomnia was highly frequent. Several physical, psychological and environmental factors seemed to influence insomnia. Within the multimodal management of insomnia, the assessment of nocturnal rumination may be of particular interest, irrespective of emotional distress. Further studies with larger sample sizes could confirm this result. PMID:25136263

2014-01-01

411

Invariant quantities in the scalar-tensor theories of gravitation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider the general scalar-tensor gravity without derivative couplings. By rescaling of the metric and reparametrization of the scalar field, the theory can be presented in different conformal frames and parametrizations. In this work we argue that while due to the freedom to transform the metric and the scalar field, the scalar field itself does not carry a physical meaning (in a generic parametrization), there are functions of the scalar field and its derivatives which remain invariant under the transformations. We put forward a scheme to construct these invariants, discuss how to formulate the theory in terms of the invariants, and show how the observables like parametrized post-Newtonian parameters and characteristics of the cosmological solutions can be neatly expressed in terms of the invariants. In particular, we describe the scalar field solutions in Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker cosmology in Einstein and Jordan frames and explain their correspondence despite the approximate equations turning out to be linear and nonlinear in different frames.

Järv, Laur; Kuusk, Piret; Saal, Margus; Vilson, Ott

2015-01-01

412

Defining value through quantity and quality-Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) undervalue food quantities when items are broken.  

PubMed

Decision-making largely is influenced by the relative value of choice options, and the value of such options can be determined by a combination of different factors (e.g., the quantity, size, or quality of a stimulus). In this study, we examined the competing influences of quantity (i.e., the number of food items in a set) and quality (i.e., the original state of a food item) of choice items on chimpanzees' food preferences in a two-option natural choice paradigm. In Experiment 1, chimpanzees chose between sets of food items that were either entirely whole or included items that were broken into pieces before being shown to the chimpanzees. Chimpanzees exhibited a bias for whole food items even when such choice options consisted of a smaller overall quantity of food than the sets containing broken items. In Experiment 2, chimpanzees chose between sets of entirely whole food items and sets of initially whole items that were subsequently broken in view of the chimpanzees just before choice time. Chimpanzees continued to exhibit a bias for sets of whole items. In Experiment 3, chimpanzees chose between sets of new food items that were initially discrete but were subsequently transformed into a larger cohesive unit. Here, chimpanzees were biased to choose the discrete sets that retained their original qualitative state rather than toward the cohesive or clumped sets. These results demonstrate that beyond a food set's quantity (i.e., the value dimension that accounts for maximization in terms of caloric intake), other seemingly non-relevant features (i.e., quality in terms of a set's original state) affect how chimpanzees assign value to their choice options. PMID:25447509

Parrish, Audrey E; Evans, Theodore A; Beran, Michael J

2015-02-01

413

Quality and Quantity of Leachate in Aerobic Pilot-Scale Landfills  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, two pilot-scale aerobic landfill reactors with (A1) and without (A2) leachate recirculation are used to obtain detailed information on the quantity and quality of leachate in aerobic landfills. The observed parameters of leachate quality are pH, chloride (Cl-), chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N), and nitrate (NO3 --N). pH values of the leachate increased to 7 after 50 days in reactor A1 and after 70 days in reactor A2. Cl- concentrations increased rapidly to 6100 (A1) and 6900 (A2) mg/L after 80 days, from initial values of 3000 and 2800 mg/L, respectively. COD and BOD values decreased rapidly in the A1 landfill reactor, indicating the rapid oxidation of organic matter. The BOD/COD ratio indicates that leachate recirculation slightly increases the degradation of solid waste in aerobic landfills. NH3-N concentrations decreased as a result of the nitrification process. Denitrification occurred in parts of the reactors as a result of intermittent aeration; this process causes a decrease in NO3 - concentrations. There is a marked difference between the A1 and A2 reactors in terms of leachate quantity. Recirculated leachate made up 53.3% of the leachate generated from the A1 reactor during the experiment, while leachate quantity decreased by 47.3% with recirculation when compared with the aerobic dry landfill reactor.

Bilgili, Memmet Sinan; Demir, Ahmet; Özkaya, Bestamin

2006-08-01

414

Quality and quantity of leachate in aerobic pilot-scale landfills.  

PubMed

In this study, two pilot-scale aerobic landfill reactors with (A1) and without (A2) leachate recirculation are used to obtain detailed information on the quantity and quality of leachate in aerobic landfills. The observed parameters of leachate quality are pH, chloride (Cl-), chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N), and nitrate (NO3(-)-N). pH values of the leachate increased to 7 after 50 days in reactor A1 and after 70 days in reactor A2. Cl- concentrations increased rapidly to 6100 (A1) and 6900 (A2) mg/L after 80 days, from initial values of 3000 and 2800 mg/L, respectively. COD and BOD values decreased rapidly in the A1 landfill reactor, indicating the rapid oxidation of organic matter. The BOD/COD ratio indicates that leachate recirculation slightly increases the degradation of solid waste in aerobic landfills. NH3-N concentrations decreased as a result of the nitrification process. Denitrification occurred in parts of the reactors as a result of intermittent aeration; this process causes a decrease in NO3(-) concentrations. There is a marked difference between the A1 and A2 reactors in terms of leachate quantity. Recirculated leachate made up 53.3% of the leachate generated from the A1 reactor during the experiment, while leachate quantity decreased by 47.3% with recirculation when compared with the aerobic dry landfill reactor. PMID:16788857

Bilgili, Memmet Sinan; Demir, Ahmet; Ozkaya, Bestamin

2006-08-01

415

Macroscopic Properties of Restacked, Redox-Liquid Exfoliated Graphite and Graphite Mimics Produced in Bulk Quantities  

SciTech Connect

The excellent properties exhibited by monolayer graphene have spurred the development of exfoliation techniques using bulk graphite to produce large quantities of pristine monolayer sheets. Development of simple chemistry to exfoliate and intercalate graphite and graphite mimics in large quantities is required for numerous applications. To determine the macroscopic behavior of restacked, exfoliated bulk materials, a systematic approach is presented using a simple, redox-liquid sonication process along to obtain large quantities of 2D and 3D hexagonally layered graphite, molybdenum disulfi de, and boron nitride, which are subsequently characterized to observe chemical and structural changes. For MoS 2 sonicated with the antioxidant sodium bisulfi te, results from Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and electron microscopy indicate the presence of distorted phases from different polymorphs, and apparent nanotube structures in the bulk, restacked powder. Furthermore, using thermograviemtric analysis, the antioxidant enhances the resistance to oxidative degradation of MoS 2 , upon thermal treatment up to 900 C. The addition of the ionic antioxidant decreased dispersion stability in non-polar solvent, suggesting decreased compatibility with non-polar systems. Using simple chemical methods, the ability to generate tailored multidimensional layered materials with unique macroscopic properties is critical for numerous applications, including electrical devices, reinforced polymer composites, lithium ion capacitors, and chemical sensing.

Srivastava, Vikram K [ORNL; Quinlan, Ronald [ORNL; Agapov, Alexander L [ORNL; Dunlap, John R [ORNL; Nelson, Kimberly M [ORNL; Duranty, Edward R [ORNL; Sokolov, Alexei P [ORNL; Bhat, Gajanan [ORNL; Mays, Jimmy [ORNL

2014-01-01

416

The Quantities of Vitamin A Required by Growing Chicks.  

E-print Network

~t~ra~ 8 Mechmi4 !be,Re of reXas G~~~~~~ sSla:i2t 7,' $ The Quantities of Vitam~n f Required By Growing Chicks AGRICULTURAZl AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE OF' TEXAS T. 0. WALTON, President 'IF the ( must ment ing 2 per : chick varie 6118 W from... for I that ie vitamin A in the feed of the hen laying the eggs from which chicks are hatched and the vitamin A intake of the chicks , be adequate if good results are to be obtained. These e'xperi- ;s showed that chicks hatched from eggs laid by hens...

Sherwood, R. M. (Ross Madison); Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

1936-01-01

417

Application of optimisation techniques in groundwater quantity and quality management  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the state-of-the-art on application of optimisation techniques in groundwater quality and quantity management.\\u000a In order to solve optimisation-based groundwater management models, researchers have used various mathematical programming\\u000a techniques such as linear programming (LP), nonlinear programming (NLP), mixed-integer programming (MIP), optimal control\\u000a theory-based mathematical programming, differential dynamic programming (DDP), stochastic programming (SP), combinatorial\\u000a optimisation (CO), and multiple objective

Amlan Das; Bithin Datta

2001-01-01

418

Typical development of quantity comparison in school-aged children.  

PubMed

Although basic numerical skills have been widely studied in the last years, very few studies have undertaken a developmental approach. The present study evaluated the development of the magnitude comparison basic numerical ability, in children from first, third and sixth grades by means of the subject's response time in numerical tasks presented in symbolic and non-symbolic formats. The results showed a significant decrease on quantities processing speed as age increases, which suggests numerical skills tend to become automatic with instruction. The differences found, concerning the general achievement pattern in each school year, might express the maturational specificities of the numerical representation system through development. PMID:21568164

Castro Cañizares, Danilka; Estévez Pérez, Nancy; Pérez Marrero, Otmara

2011-05-01

419

Ontogeny of the capacity to compare discrete quantities in fish.  

PubMed

Numerical abilities of adult fish equal or even exceed those of many birds and mammals. The ability to estimate shoal size was previously found to be inborn in guppies, although it improves with age and experience. To study the influence of stimulus variables, here 4- to 9-day-old fish were trained to discriminate between groups of two-dimensional geometric figures when they could use both numbers and cues that co-varied with numerosity (e.g., area) or numerical information only. Subjects rapidly learned to discriminate between quantities under the first condition, but failed to discriminate in the number only condition even with very easy discriminations (1 vs. 4 items). Newborns also failed when stimuli differed in area but not in number, suggesting that, unlike adult fish, newborns can solve this quantity task only if they can use multiple cues. Comparison with shoal discrimination experiments indicates that newborns' capacity to use number is specific to social context. Differences in developmental trajectories suggest the presence in fish of multiple quantification mechanisms which are domain-specific and serve to solve a limited set of problems. PMID:23775761

Miletto Petrazzini, Maria Elena; Agrillo, Christian; Piffer, Laura; Bisazza, Angelo

2014-04-01

420

Adjoint sensitivity analysis of time averaged quantities for unsteady flows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sensitivity analysis is an essential gradient for data assimilation, aerodynamic design, uncertainty quantification and optimal flow control. In particular. the adjoint sensitivity analysis method has been shown to solve very high dimensional optimization problems typically found these applications. This talk focuses on recent developments in extending adjoint sensitivity analysis to unsteady flows. The adjoint equation of unsteady flows must be integrated backwards in time. Each backward time step must use the flow solution at the corresponding time. As a result, the entire time history of the flow solution must be either stored or recalculated. The invention of checkpointing schemes provides an economic solution to this challenge. In particular, the dynamic checkpointing scheme makes this solution more practical for computational fluid dynamics problems. In unsteady flows, the quantities of interest are often long time averages. We demonstrate that sensitivity analysis of these long time averaged quantities poses significant new challenge. A novel windowing scheme is developed to compute correct sensitivity for periodic unsteady flows, such as in laminar vortex shedding. Initial investigation of sensitivity analysis of chaotic unsteady flows, i.e., transitional and turbulent flows, is also discussed.

Wang, Qiqi

2011-11-01

421

Influence on SPF of the quantity of sunscreen product applied.  

PubMed

It is now a clearly established fact that ultraviolet radiation is involved in the induction of skin cancer such as carcinoma and melanoma. The most efficient means of protection is by using clothes. For uncovered areas, it is essential to apply a sun product. For some time, various authors have been wondering about the inefficiency or indeed the dangerousness of sun products. Cases of sunburn are still just as frequent in children. We have chosen to study the influence of the quantity of sun product applied on the skin on the level of efficiency obtained. Twenty commercially-available products with SPFs varying between 10 and 50+ and belonging to all levels of protection, that is to say "low", "medium" and "high", were tested in vitro at 5 different doses (5.0, 7.5, 10.0, 12.5 and 15.0 mg for a surface area of 25 cm(2)). We were able to demonstrate that there was a polynomial relationship between the SPF and the quantity of product on the skin's surface. It can be seen that when the dose is halved, the SPF is divided by a variable factor according to the product, from 1.5 to 3.8. PMID:22939963

Couteau, C; Paparis, E; El-Bourry-Alami, S; Coiffard, L J M

2012-11-01

422

Bulky waste quantities and treatment methods in Denmark.  

PubMed

Bulky waste is a significant and increasing waste stream in Denmark. However, only little research has been done on its composition and treatment. In the present study, data about collection methods, waste quantities and treatment methods for bulky waste were obtained from two municipalities. In addition a sorting analysis was conducted on combustible waste, which is a major fraction of bulky waste in Denmark. The generation of bulky waste was found to be 150-250 kg capita(-1) year(-1), and 90% of the waste was collected at recycling centres; the rest through kerbside collection. Twelve main fractions were identified of which ten were recyclable and constituted 50-60% of the total quantity. The others were combustible waste for incineration (30-40%) and non-combustible waste for landfilling (10%). The largest fractions by mass were combustible waste, bricks and tile, concrete, non-combustible waste, wood, and metal scrap, which together made up more than 90% of the total waste amounts. The amount of combustible waste could be significantly reduced through better sorting. Many of the waste fractions consisted of composite products that underwent thorough separation before being recycled. The recyclable materials were in many cases exported to other countries which made it difficult to track their destination and further treatment. PMID:21890876

Larsen, Anna W; Petersen, Claus; Christensen, Thomas H

2012-02-01

423

Statistically relevant conserved quantities for truncated quasigeostrophic flow  

PubMed Central

Systematic applications of ideas from equilibrium statistical mechanics lead to promising strategies for assessing the unresolved scales of motion in many problems in science and engineering. A scientific debate over more than the last 25 years involves which conserved quantities among the formally infinite list are statistically relevant for the large-scale equilibrium statistical behavior. Here this important issue is addressed by using suitable discrete numerical approximations for geophysical flows with many conserved quantities as a numerical laboratory. The results of numerical experiments are presented here for these truncated geophysical flows with topography in a suitable regime. These experiments establish that the integrated third power of potential vorticity besides the familiar constraints of energy, circulation, and enstrophy (the integrated second power) is statistically relevant in this regime for the coarse-grained equilibrium statistical behavior at large scales. Furthermore, the integrated higher powers of potential vorticity larger than three are statistically irrelevant for the large-scale equilibrium statistical behavior in the examples studied here. PMID:12642678

Abramov, Rafail V.; Majda, Andrew J.

2003-01-01

424

In-Situ Partial Pressure Measurements and Visual Observation during Crystal Growth of ZnSe by Seeded Physical Vapor Transport  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An in-situ monitoring furnace was constructed with side windows to perform partial pressure measurements by optical absorption and visual observation of the growing crystal. A fused silica -rowth ampoule with a 4.5 cm long square tube between the source and the seed was prepared for the optical absorption measurements. A ZnSe crystal was grown by the seeded physical vapor transport (PVT) technique in the horizontal configuration. The growth temperature was 1120 C and the furnace translation rate was 3nmVday. Partial pressures of Se2, P(sub Se2), at three locations along the length of the growth ampoule were measured at 90 min intervals during the growth process. The measured P (sub Se2) were in the range of 2.0 to 6.5 x 10(exp -3) atm. The P(sub Se2) results indicated that the partial pressure profile was inconsistent with the results of the one-dimensional diffusion mass transport model and that the source composition shifted toward Se-rich during the run, i.e. the grown crystal was more Zn-rich than the source. The visual observation showed that the seed crystal first etched back, with greater thermal etching occurring along the edges of the seed crystal. Once the growth started, the crystal crew in a predominately contactless mode and facets were evident during growth. The crystal did not grow symmetrically which is believed to be due to the unintentional asymmetry of the radial thermal profile in the furnace.

Su, Ching-Hua; Feth, Shari; Lehoczky, Sandor L.

1999-01-01

425

Observation of ^239Pu NMR in PuO2-A new frontier for the physics and chemistry of plutonium compounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In actinide science, in general, NMR studies have been forced to limit their scope to nuclei associated with ligand atoms. The only exception of direct observation of NMR in actinide nuclei is that of ^235U NMR in UO2. There have been extensive efforts to realize NMR in actinide compounds since the electronic properties of these materials are predominantly governed by the actinide atom itself. We report the first observation of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) on the ^239Pu nucleus in any material. Our ^239Pu NMR measurements were performed on plutonium dioxide, PuO2, for a wide range of external magnetic field values (Ho=3˜8T) at a temperature of T=4K. By mapping the external field dependence of the measured resonance frequency, we determined the nuclear gyromagnetic ratio to be ^239?n(PuO2)=2.856 ± .001 MHz/T. Assuming a free ion value for the Pu^4+ hyperfine coupling constant, we estimated a bare value of ^239?n=2.29MHz/T for the ^239Pu nucleus, hence a nuclear magnetic moment of ?n=.15?N (where ?N is the nuclear magneton). Our findings put an end to a fifty-year long search for Pu NMR and open potentially a new horizon for the solid state physics, nuclear materials science and complex chemistry in Pu compounds.[4pt] Work done in collaboration with G. Koutroulakis, S. Richmond, K. Veirs, E. D. Bauer, J. D. Thompson, G. Jarvinen, and D. L. Clark, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM.

Hiroshi, Yasuoka

2013-03-01

426

How do I convert the numbers stored in the files to physical quantities?  

... which means that they must be multiplied by a scale factor to obtain radiance in units of Watts/square meters/steradian/micrometer. These ... described above. The conversion from scaled radiance to radiance (Watts/square meters/steradian/micrometer) requires multiplication ...

2014-12-08

427

Observational Constraints on the Topology (Global Geometry) of the Universe  

E-print Network

The Universe is a physical object. Physical objects have shapes and sizes. General relativity is insufficient to describe the global shape and size of the Universe: the Hilbert-Einstein equations only treat limiting quantities towards an arbitrary point. Empirical work on measuring the shape and size of the Universe (formally: the ``3-manifold of the spatial hypersurface at constant cosmological time'', and, e.g. the ``injectivity diameter'' respectively) has progressed significantly in the late 1980's and the 1990's, using observational catalogues of galaxy clusters, of quasars and of the microwave background, though the analyses are still hindered by simplifying (and often observationally unsupported) assumptions. A review of the different observational strategies and claimed constraints was presented at the meeting.

B. F. Roukema

2002-01-07

428

Estimation of cloud condensation nuclei concentration from aerosol optical quantities: influential factors and uncertainties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large-scale measurements of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) are difficult to obtain on a routine basis, whereas aerosol optical quantities are more readily available. This study investigates the relationship between CCN and aerosol optical quantities for some distinct aerosol types using extensive observational data collected at multiple Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (CRF) sites around the world. The influences of relative humidity (RH), aerosol hygroscopicity (fRH) and single scattering albedo (SSA) on the relationship are analyzed. Better relationships are found between aerosol optical depth (AOD) and CCN at the Southern Great Plains (US), Ganges Valley (India) and Black Forest sites (Germany) than those at the Graciosa Island (the Azores) and Niamey (Niger) sites, where sea salt and dust aerosols dominate, respectively. In general, the correlation between AOD and CCN decreases as the wavelength of the AOD measurement increases, suggesting that AOD at a shorter wavelength is a better proxy for CCN. The correlation is significantly improved if aerosol index (AI) is used together with AOD. The highest correlation exists between CCN and aerosol scattering coefficients (?sp) and scattering AI measured in situ. The CCN-AOD (AI) relationship deteriorates with increasing RH. If RH exceeds 75%, the relationship where AOD is used as a proxy for CCN becomes invalid, whereas a tight ?sp-CCN relationship exists for dry particles. Aerosol hygroscopicity has a weak impact on the ?sp-CCN relationship. Particles with low SSA are generally associated with higher CCN concentrations, suggesting that SSA affects the relationship between CCN concentration and aerosol optical quantities. It may thus be used as a constraint to reduce uncertainties in the relationship. A significant increase in ?sp and decrease in CCN with increasing SSA is observed, leading to a significant decrease in their ratio (CCN / ?sp) with increasing SSA. Parameterized relationships are developed for estimating CCN, which account for RH, particle size, and SSA.

Liu, Jianjun; Li, Zhanqing

2014-01-01

429

Physics 321 Course Introduction  

E-print Network

Physics 321 Hour 1 Newton's Laws of Motion Before Newton What is the natural motion of an object? · Greeks Newton's 0th Law The quantity of motion is the measure of the of matter conjointly. = Huygen's definition of motion Newton's 1st Law uniform motion in a right line, unless it is compelled to change that state

Hart, Gus

430

Physics of climate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physics of Climate is a suitable text for at least part of a general circulation course. The quantity and quality of information in this book are such that anyone involved in the study of the atmosphere or climate will wish to have it handy. In particular, anyone working with a general circulation model will want to see how his model

Jose? P. Peixoto; Abraham H. Oort; Curt Covey; Karl Taylor

1992-01-01

431

Physical analysis on improving the recovery accuracy of the Earth's gravity field by a combination of satellite observations in along-track and cross-track directions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The physical investigations on the accuracy improvement to the measurement of the Earth's gravity field recovery are carried out based on the next-generation Pendulum-A/B out-of-plane twin-satellite formation in this paper. Firstly, the Earth's gravity field complete up to degree and order 100 is, respectively, recovered by the collinear and pendulum satellite formations using the orbital parameters of the satellite and the matching accuracies of key payloads from the twin GRACE satellites. The research results show that the accuracy of the Earth's gravity field model from the Pendulum-A/B satellite formation is about two times higher than from the collinear satellite formation, and the further improvement of the determination accuracy of the Earth's gravity field model is feasible by the next-generation Pendulum-A/B out-of-plane twin-satellite formation. Secondly, the Earth's gravity field from Pendulum-A/B complete up to degree and order 100 is accurately recovered based on the orbital parameters of the satellite (e.g., an orbital altitude of 400 km, an intersatellite range of 100 km, an orbital inclination of 89° and an orbital eccentricity of 0.001), the matching accuracies of space-borne instruments (e.g. 10?6 m in the intersatellite range, 10?3 m in the orbital position, 10?6 m/s in orbital velocity, and 10?11 m/s2 in non-conservative force), an observation time of 30 days and a sampling interval of 10 s. The measurement accuracy of the Earth's gravity field from the next-generation Pendulum-A/B out-of-plane twin-satellite formation is full of promise for being improved by about 10 times compared with that from the current GRACE satellite formation. Finally, the physical requirements for the next-generation Pendulum-A/B out-of-plane twin-satellite formation are analyzed, and it is proposed that the satellite orbital altitude be preferably designed to be close to 400±50 km and the matching precision of key sensors from the Pendulum-A/B mission be about one order of magnitude higher than from the GRACE program.

Zheng, Wei; Hsu, Hou-Tse; Zhong, Min; Yun, Mei-Juan

2014-10-01

432

Determination of the Thermodynamic Scaling Exponent from Static, Ambient-Pressure Quantities  

E-print Network

An equation is derived that expresses the thermodynamic scaling exponent, g, which superposes relaxation times and other measures of molecular mobility determined over a range of temperatures and densities, in terms of static, physical quantities. The latter are available in the literature or can be measured at ambient pressure. We show for 13 materials, both molecular liquids and polymers, that the calculated g are equivalent to the scaling exponents obtained directly by superpositioning. The assumptions of the analysis are that the glass transition is isochronal and that the first Ehrenfest relation is valid; the first assumption is true by definition, while the second has been corroborated for many glass-forming materials at ambient pressure. However, we find that the Ehrenfest relation breaks down at elevated pressure, although this limitation is of no consequence herein, since the appeal of the new equation is its applicability to ambient pressure data.

R. Casalini; C. M. Roland

2014-03-18

433

Three-year lidar observational studies of physics and chemistry in the polar mesosphere and lower thermosphere at McMurdo, Antarctica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The polar mesosphere and thermosphere provide a unique natural laboratory for studying the complex physical, chemical, neutral dynamical and electrodynamics processes in the Earth’s atmosphere and space environment. However, this region remains one of the least understood regions of the atmosphere. In particular, very little is known about the neutral atmosphere in the altitude range of 100-200 km because observations of the neutral thermosphere were woefully incomplete and in critical need to advance our understanding of and ability to predict the Space-Atmosphere Interaction Region. The first lidar discovery of neutral iron (Fe) layers with gravity wave signatures in the thermosphere up to 155 km made by Chu lidar group in 2011 at McMurdo (77.8S, 166.7E), Antarctica was a breakthrough in the upper atmosphere research. Not only was this the first time for a single instrument to trace gravity waves from 30 to 155 km, but also it enabled the first direct measurements of neutral temperatures deep into the E-region, revealing the neutral-ion coupling and aurora-enhanced Joule heating. These new observations have opened the door to exploring the polar neutral thermosphere with ground-based instruments. Such a discovery is only a small portion of the rich datasets collected from McMurdo. Since December 2010 we have deployed an Fe Boltzmann lidar to McMurdo (77.8S, 166.7E), Antarctica via collaboration between the United States Antarctic Program (USAP) and Antarctica New Zealand (AntNZ). Nearly 4000 hours of data have been collected in the last three years covering all 12 months of a year, and the campaign is being continued for another five years to acquiring long-term datasets for polar research. Many new science discoveries have emerged from the data. In this paper we will focus on two record-setting events: One is the lidar detection of neutral Fe layers reaching over 170 km in the thermosphere, and another is the lidar marathon run of 174-hour continuous observations at McMurdo. The thermospheric Fe layers are mainly detected from March to September when the lidar delivers high-resolution data under low solar background. These layers exhibit various forms under various neutral and electromagnetic conditions. We will investigate their morphology and interactions with various driving factors in the polar region. The lidar marathon run was from 29 December 2013 to 5 January 2014, which was part of four summer seasons of lidar observations at McMurdo. We will study how polar mesospheric clouds and meteoric Fe layers vary through multiple days and how they are affected by geomagnetic activities and solar events. These observations have opened new areas of scientific inquiry regarding the composition, chemistry, neutral dynamics, thermodynamics, and electrodynamics of the least-understood region in the atmosphere.

Chu, Xinzhao; McDonald, Adrian; Fuller-Rowell, Tim; Vadas, Sharon; Chen, Cao; Gardner, Chester S.; Yu, Zhibin; Lu, Xian; Zhao, GRA. Jian; Fong, Weichun; Huang, Wentao

434

Atomic layer deposition on gram quantities of multi-walled carbon nanotubes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atomic layer deposition (ALD) was employed to grow coaxial thin films of Al2O3 and Al2O3 /W bilayers on multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). Although the MWCNTs have an extremely high surface area, a rotary ALD reactor was successfully employed to perform ALD on gram quantities of MWCNTs. The uncoated and ALD-coated MWCNTs were characterized with transmission electron microscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Al2O3 ALD on untreated MWCNTs was characterized by nucleation difficulties that resulted in the growth of isolated Al2O3 nanospheres on the MWCNT surface. The formation of a physisorbed NO2 monolayer provided an adhesion layer for the nucleation and growth of Al2O3 ALD films. The NO2 monolayer facilitated the growth of extremely conformal coaxial Al2O3 ALD coatings on the MWCNTs. Cracks were also observed in the coaxial Al2O3 ALD films on the MWCNTs. After cracking, the coaxial Al2O3 ALD films were observed to slide on the surface of the MWCNTs and expose regions of bare MWCNTs. The Al2O3 ALD film also served as a seed layer for the growth of W ALD on the MWCNTs. The W ALD films can significantly reduce the resistance of the W/Al2O3/MWCNT wire. The results demonstrate the potential for ALD films to tune the properties of gram quantities of very high surface area MWCNTs.

Cavanagh, Andrew S.; Wilson, Christopher A.; Weimer, Alan W.; George, Steven M.

2009-06-01

435

Quantity change in collagen following 830-nm diode laser welding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The actual mechanism for production of laser welding of tissue is presently unknown, but collagen plays an important role is tissue welded after laser irradiance. The quantity change in collagen extracted from the abdominal aorta of Wistar rats after tissue welding using an 830 nm diode laser was investigated. The collagen contents following repeated pepsin digestion after acetic acid extraction were determined with Sircol collagen assay. Compared with untreated aorta, the collagen content of the treated vessel was obvious decreased immediately after laser irradiation and following an initial increase on day 3, there was a peak at day 10. The results suggest that a part of collagen molecules is denatured by the heat of laser. There is an effect of stimulating collagen synthesis after laser welding with parameters used in this study.

Tang, Jing; O'Callaghan, David; Rouy, Simone; Godlewski, Guilhem; Prudhomme, Michel

1996-12-01

436

Thinking involving very large and very small quantities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Intuitively a million is a lot more like a billion than ten is like one hundred, because our intuition has some grasp of ten and one hundred, but we have little grasp of what millions and billions involve. Fortunately, there is often a way to make intelligent decisions involving big quantities. Use arithmetic! Typically we don't need more than multiplication and division to put things into terms we can deal with. If we are unwilling or unable to do the calculations, we should at least recognize that our intuitive judgement might be way off the mark. Subheadings are dvided among large numbers, small numbers and both, and include these topics national finances, terrorism, airplane crashes and lotteries among others.

Korn, Bob

2005-01-01

437

How Do Our Actions Affect Water Quantity and Quality?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Water is an essential resource for all living things. How we live on our watershed can impact water quantity and quality. It is important to recognize how humans alter watershed dynamics, but students often find it challenging to visualize watershed processes and understand how decisions that they make as individuals and together as a community can affect water resources. Hydrogeology models can provide students with the opportunity to see firsthand how ground cover affects surface runoff and groundwater recharge and how pollution travels through creeks, streams, and aquifers. In the lab experiment described here, students interact with hydrogeology models to help them gain a deeper understanding of scientific processes while engaging in the activities of a scientist.

Jessica Gordon

2008-02-01

438

Cognition versus Constitution of Objects: From Kant to Modern Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Classical mechanics in phase space as well as quantum mechanics in Hilbert space lead to states and observables but not to objects that may be considered as carriers of observable quantities. However, in both cases objects can be constituted as new entities by means of invariance properties of the theories in question. We show, that this way of reasoning has a long history in physics and philosophy and that it can be traced back to the transcendental arguments in Kant’s critique of pure reason.

Mittelstaedt, Peter

2009-07-01

439

Regression models for estimating urban storm-runoff quality and quantity in the United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Urban planners and managers need information about the local quantity of precipitation and the quality and quantity of storm runoff if they are to plan adequately for the effects of storm runoff from urban areas. As a result of this need, linear regression models were developed for the estimation of storm-runoff loads and volumes from physical, land-use, and climatic characteristics of urban watersheds throughout the United States. Three statistically different regions were delineated, based on mean annual rainfall, to improve linear regression models. One use of these models is to estimate storm-runoff loads and volumes at gaged and ungaged urban watersheds. The most significant explanatory variables in all linear regression models were total storm rainfall and total contributing drainage area. Impervious area, land-use, and mean annual climatic characteristics were also significant explanatory variables in some linear regression models. Models for dissolved solids, total nitrogen, and total ammonia plus organic nitrogen as nitrogen were the most accurate models for most areas, whereas models for suspended solids were the least accurate. The most accurate models were those for more arid western United States, and the least accurate models were those for areas that had large quantities of mean annual rainfall.Linear regression models were developed for the estimation of storm-runoff loads and volumes from physical, land-use, and climatic characteristics of urban watersheds throughout the United States. Three statistically different regions were delineated, based on mean annual rainfall, to improve linear regression models. One use of these models is to estimate storm-runoff loads and volumes at gaged and ungaged urban watersheds. The most significant explanatory variables in all linear regression models were total storm rainfall and total contributing drainage area. Impervious area, land-use, and mean annual climatic characteristics were also significant explanatory variables in some linear regression models. Models for dissolved solids, total nitrogen, and total ammonia plus organic nitrogen as nitrogen were the most accurate models for most areas, whereas models for suspended solids were the least accurate. The most accurate models were those for the more arid western United States.

Driver, N.E.; Troutman, B.M.

1989-01-01

440

Proposals for nomenclature to clarify the expression of units for counting quantities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The explicit use of the number ‘1’ in quotient-based expressions of units for intensive quantities involving counting, together with a full description of the quantity being measured, is recommended as an improvement on product-based expressions that omit the number 1 and do not fully explain the quantity presented. The benefits of these recommendations over proposals for new ‘units’ as special names for ‘one’ is also highlighted. In particular the nomenclature emphasizes the aspect of pure number counting associated with these quantities and helps to provide a distinction between intensive and extensive quantities which would otherwise be lost, especially if the quantity being measured is not fully described.

Brown, Richard J. C.; Brewer, Paul J.

2015-02-01