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1

Physical Quantities, Measurement Sets, Theories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A methodology is proposed to develop efficient, robust and expressive data models. The idea is to transform objects described using our human language into mathematical objects which can then be used efficiently in information systems. This is done using topological spaces and algebras to model data types. Technically it is implemented using parametric polymorphism. Two examples are shown, 1) a simple well known object, the physical quantities, and 2) a data-base object, the measurement sets which bind the measurements to their experimental contexts. This leads to theories. The result is high expressiveness by formulating equations and data base operations by means of ? calculi. The theory of the measurement set encapsulates the relational model. Using topoi it is a generalization, a category above the sets.

Viallefond, F.

2012-09-01

2

Informationally complete sets of physical quantities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The notion of informational completeness is formulated within the convex state (or operational) approach to statistical physical theories and employed to introduce a type of statistical metrics. Further, a criterion for a set of physical quantities to be informationally complete is proven. Some applications of this result are given within the algebraic and Hilbert space formulations of quantum theory.

Paul Busch

1991-01-01

3

Temperature as a Basic Physical Quantity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The various aspects of the concept of temperature as a basic quantity in physics are discussed. After a brief historical introduction, the thermodynamic basis of the definition of temperature is given. In § 3 the statistical definition of temperature in terms of the canonical ensemble of statistical mechanics is presented and the equivalence with the thermodynamic definition is stressed. Attention

J de Boer

1965-01-01

4

Average observational quantities in the timescape cosmology  

SciTech Connect

We examine the properties of a recently proposed observationally viable alternative to homogeneous cosmology with smooth dark energy, the timescape cosmology. In the timescape model cosmic acceleration is realized as an apparent effect related to the calibration of clocks and rods of observers in bound systems relative to volume-average observers in an inhomogeneous geometry in ordinary general relativity. The model is based on an exact solution to a Buchert average of the Einstein equations with backreaction. The present paper examines a number of observational tests which will enable the timescape model to be distinguished from homogeneous cosmologies with a cosmological constant or other smooth dark energy, in current and future generations of dark energy experiments. Predictions are presented for comoving distance measures; H(z); the equivalent of the dark energy equation of state, w(z); the Om(z) measure of Sahni, Shafieloo, and Starobinsky; the Alcock-Paczynski test; the baryon acoustic oscillation measure, D{sub V}; the inhomogeneity test of Clarkson, Bassett, and Lu; and the time drift of cosmological redshifts. Where possible, the predictions are compared to recent independent studies of similar measures in homogeneous cosmologies with dark energy. Three separate tests with indications of results in possible tension with the {lambda}CDM model are found to be consistent with the expectations of the timescape cosmology.

Wiltshire, David L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8140, New Zealand, and International Center for Relativistic Astrophysics Network (ICRANet), Piazzale le della Repubblica 10, Pescara 65121 (Italy)

2009-12-15

5

Can the Lorenz-gauge potentials be considered physical quantities?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two results support the idea that the scalar and vector potentials in the Lorenz gauge can be considered to be physical quantities: (i) they separately satisfy the properties of causality and propagation at the speed of light and do not imply spurious terms and (ii) they can naturally be written in a manifestly covariant form. In this paper we introduce

José A. Heras; Guillermo Fernández-Anaya

2010-01-01

6

Can the Lorenz-Gauge Potentials Be Considered Physical Quantities?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two results support the idea that the scalar and vector potentials in the Lorenz gauge can be considered to be physical quantities: (i) they separately satisfy the properties of causality and propagation at the speed of light and do not imply spurious terms and (ii) they can naturally be written in a manifestly covariant form. In this paper we…

Heras, Jose A.; Fernandez-Anaya, Guillermo

2010-01-01

7

Do Speakers and Listeners Observe the Gricean Maxim of Quantity?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Gricean Maxim of Quantity is believed to govern linguistic performance. Speakers are assumed to provide as much information as required for referent identification and no more, and listeners are believed to expect unambiguous but concise descriptions. In three experiments we examined the extent to which naive participants are sensitive to the…

Engelhardt, Paul E.; Bailey, Karl G. D.; Ferreira, Fernanda

2006-01-01

8

W, F, and I : Three quantities basic to radiation physics.  

SciTech Connect

The W value is an index of the mean number of ions produced in a gas subjected to ionizing radiation. Formally, it is defined as the radiation energy absorbed (usually expressed in units of eV) ''per ion pair of either sign produced'', or, in a simpler language, ''per electron liberated''. The basic knowledge up to 1961 is eloquently articulated in a classic essay by Platzman [1], which Professor Doke loves to cite. The theme of Platzman was to explain from the point of view of basic physics the magnitude and characteristics of the ratio W/I, where I is the (first) ionization threshold energy. In summary, major characteristics are as follows. (1) The W value for a given gas depends weakly on the properties of the radiation such as the mass and charge of particles or initial energies (provided they are sufficiently high). This makes the ionization measurement useful as a method of dosimetry, viz., the determination of the absorbed energy. (2) The ratio W/I is always greater than unity because a part of the absorbed energy must be used in nonionizing events such as discrete excitation or molecular dissociation into neutral fragments and also in producing subexcitation electrons, viz., electrons with kinetic energies too low to cause electronic excitation or ionization [2]. (3) The ratio W/I is 1.7-1.8 for rare gases, and 2.1-2.6 for gases of common molecules (depending on the electronic structure, going from ''hard'' to ''soft''). Calculation of the W value is possible from three approaches: (i) the energy balance of Platzman, heuristic for general understanding and appropriate for an estimate; (ii) the Fowler equation [3] for the direct evaluation of the mean number of ions produced; and (iii) the method of Spencer and Fano [4] through the degradation spectra (or the track length distributions) of charged particles, most importantly of electrons, present in the medium. The Fowler method is good for obtaining the mean number of ions or excited states resulting from the incidence of particles of relatively low energies, while the Spencer-Fano method is good for the incidence of high-energy particles.

Inokuti, M.

1998-11-11

9

Calculation of ex-core physical quantities using the 3D importance functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diverse physical quantities are calculated in engineering studies with penalizing hypotheses to assure the required operation margins for each reactor. Today, these physical quantities are obtained by direct calculations from deterministic or Monte Carlo codes. The related states are critical or sub-critical. The current physical quantities are for example: the SRD counting rates (source range detector) in the sub-critical state, the IRD (intermediary range detector) and PRD (power range detector) counting rates (neutron particles only), the deposited energy in the reflector (neutron + photon particles), the fluence or the DPA (displacement per atom) in the reactor vessel (neutron particles only). The reliability of the proposed methodology is tested in the EPR reactor. The main advantage of the new methodology is the simplicity to obtain the physical quantities by an easy matrix calculation importance linked to nuclear power sources for all the cycles of the reactor. This method also allows to by-pass the direct calculations of the physical quantity of irradiated cores by Monte Carlo Codes, these calculations being impossible today (too many isotopic concentrations / MCNP5 limit). This paper presents the first feasibility study for the physical quantities calculation outside of the core by the importance method instead of the direct calculations used currently by AREVA.

Trakas, Christos; De Laubiere, Xavier

2014-06-01

10

Physical quantities in the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formalisms for systems with constraints  

SciTech Connect

The conditions a function must obey to be considered as a physical quantity are studied in the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formalisms. A proof of the equivalence of these conditions is given for the systems having primary and secondary first-class Hamiltonian constraints.

Chaichian, M. (Research Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Helsinki, Siltavuorenpenger 20 C, SF-00170 Helsinki (Finland) Centre de Physique Theorique, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Luminy, Case 907, 13288 Marseille (France)); Martinez, D.L. (International School for Advanced Studies, Strada Costiera 11, 34014 Trieste (Italy) Grupo de Fisica Teorica, Instituto de Cibernetica, Matematica y Fisica, Academia de Ciencias de Cuba, Calle E, No. 309, Vedado, Habana 4 (Cuba))

1992-08-15

11

10 CFR 37.73 - Applicability of physical protection of category 1 and category 2 quantities of radioactive...  

...2014-01-01 false Applicability of physical protection of category 1 and category... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF CATEGORY 1 AND CATEGORY...QUANTITIES OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL Physical Protection in Transit §...

2014-01-01

12

10 CFR 37.79 - Requirements for physical protection of category 1 and category 2 quantities of radioactive...  

...2014-01-01 false Requirements for physical protection of category 1 and category... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF CATEGORY 1 AND CATEGORY...QUANTITIES OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL Physical Protection in Transit §...

2014-01-01

13

The role of macroinstrument and microinstrument and of observable quantities in the new conception of thermodynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the first part of the paper, we introduce the concept of observable quantities associated with a macroinstrument measuring the density and temperature and with a microinstrument determining the radius of a molecule and its free path length, and also the relationship between these observable quantities. The concept of the number of degrees of freedom, which relates the observable quantities listed above, is generalized to the case of low temperatures. An analogy between the creation and annihilation operators for pairs (dimers) and the creation and annihilation operators for particles (molecules) is carried out. A generalization of the concept of a Bose condensate is introduced for classical molecules as an analog of an ideal liquid (without attraction). The negative pressure in the liquid is treated as holes (of exciton type) in the density of the Bose condensate. The phase transition gas-liquid is calculated for an ideal gas (without attraction). A comparison with experimental data is carried out. In the other part of the paper, we introduce the concept of new observable quantity, namely, of a pair (a dimer), as a result of attraction between nearest neighbors. We treat in a new way the concepts of Boyle temperature T B (as the temperature above which the dimers disappear) and of the critical temperature T c (below which the trimers and clusters are formed). The equation for the Zeno line is interpreted as the relation describing the dependence of the temperature on the density at which the dimers disappear. We calculate the maximal density of the liquid and also the maximal density of the holes. The law of corresponding states is derived as a result of an observation by a macrodevice which cannot distinguish between molecules of distinct gases, and a comparison of theoretical and experimental data is carried out.

Maslov, V. P.

2013-03-01

14

Solar Physics with Radio Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radio observations contribute a unique perspective on the many physical phenomena, which occur on the Sun. From thermal bremsstrahlung emission in the quiet solar atmosphere and filaments, to thermal gyroresonance emission in strongly magnetized solar active regions, to the nonthermal emission from MeV electrons accelerated in flares, observations of radio emission provide a powerful probe of physical conditions on the Sun and provide an additional means of understanding the myriad phenomena which occur there. Moreover, radio observing techniques have led the way in developing and exploiting Fourier synthesis imaging techniques. The Nobeyama Radioheliograph, commissioned in June, 1992, soon after the launch of Yohkoh satellite in August, 1991, is the most powerful, solar-dedicated Fourier synthesis in the world, now capable of imaging the full disk of the Sun simultaneously at frequencies of 17 and 34 GHz, with an angular resolution as much as 10" and 5", respectively, and with a time resolution as fine as 100 msec. Between 27-30 October, 1998, the Nobeyama Radio Observatory and the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan hosted the Nobeyama Symposium on Solar Physics with Radio Observations, an international meeting bringing more than sixty participants together at the Seisenryo Hotel in Kiyosato, for a meeting devoted to reviewing recent progress in outstanding problems in solar physics. Emphasis was placed on radio observations and, in particular, radio observations from the very successful Nobeyama Radioheliograph. These results were compared and contrasted with those that have emerged from the Yohkoh mission. In addition, looking forward to the next solar maximum, new instruments, upgrades, and collaborative efforts were discussed. The result is the more than seventy invited and contributed papers that appear in this volume.

Bastian, T. S.; Gopalswamy, N.; Shibasaki, K.

1999-12-01

15

Nature of the Physical Observer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nature of the observer has long plagued physical science. Here we review the current status of cognitive science in the context of a cosmology of mind in an Anthropic Multiverse. The concept of an élan vital or life force has long been considered the elementary action principle driving the evolution of living-systems by theologically minded scientists and individuals. Sufficiently extending Einstein's original model of a Static Universe, to a Holographic Anthropic Multiverse (HAM), provides a context for solving this centuries old problem for introducing this type of teleological principle into Physics, Biology, Medicine and Psychology. This means the contemporary framework of biological mechanism should no longer be considered the formal philosophical basis for describing living systems and contemporary allopathic (scientific) medicine. The new noetic action principle has far reaching implications for medicine and transpersonal psychology.

Osoroma, Drahcir S.

2010-12-01

16

Estimation of methane hydrate quantities from marine seismic data and physical modeling (time-average method)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine seismic reflection data collected from offshore southwestern Taiwan show that prominent seismic bottom simulating reflectors (BSRs) are observed that indicate the existence of gas hydrate in the seafloor sediment with free gas zone underneath. We apply a theoretical rock physics model to analyze 2D marine seismic data to determine gas hydrate and free gas saturation. High-porosity marine sediment is

C. Tsai; C. Liu; P. Schnurle; H. Chen

2005-01-01

17

A wireless interrogation system exploiting narrowband acoustic resonator for remote physical quantity measurement  

SciTech Connect

Monitoring physical quantities using acoustic wave devices can be advantageously achieved using the wave characteristic dependence to various parametric perturbations (temperature, stress, and pressure). Surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonators are particularly well suited to such applications as their resonance frequency is directly influenced by these perturbations, modifying both the phase velocity and resonance conditions. Moreover, the intrinsic radio frequency (rf) nature of these devices makes them ideal for wireless applications, mainly exploiting antennas reciprocity and piezoelectric reversibility. In this paper, we present a wireless SAW sensor interrogation unit operating in the 434 MHz centered ISM band--selected as a tradeoff between antenna dimensions and electromagnetic wave penetration in dielectric media--based on the principles of a frequency sweep network analyzer. We particularly focus on the compliance with the ISM standard which reveals complicated by the need for switching from emission to reception modes similarly to radar operation. In this matter, we propose a fully digital rf synthesis chain to develop various interrogation strategies to overcome the corresponding difficulties and comply with the above-mentioned standard. We finally assess the reader interrogation range, accuracy, and dynamics.

Friedt, J.-M [SENSeOR, 32 Avenue de l'Observatoire, 25044 Besancon (France); Droit, C.; Martin, G.; Ballandras, S. [Department of Time and Frequency, FEMTO-ST, 32 Avenue de l'Observatoire, 25044 Besancon (France)

2010-01-15

18

Observational physics of mirror world  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The existence of the whole world of shadow particles, interacting with each other and having no mutual interactions with ordinary particles except gravity is a specific feature of modern superstring models, being considered as models of the theory of everything. The presence of shadow particles is the necessary condition in the superstring models, providing compensation of the asymmetry of left and right chirality states of ordinary particles. If compactification of additional dimensions retains the symmetry of left and right states, shadow world turns to be the mirror one, with particles and fields having properties strictly symmetrical to the ones of corresponding ordinary particles and fields. Owing to the strict symmetry of physical laws for ordinary and mirror particles, the analysis of cosmological evolution of mirror matter provides rather definite conclusions on possible effects of mirror particles in the universe. A general qualitative discussion of possible astronomical impact of mirror matter is given, in order to make as wide as possible astronomical observational searches for the effects of mirror world, being the unique way to test the existence of mirror partners of ordinary particles in the Nature.

Khlopov, M. YA.; Beskin, G. M.; Bochkarev, N. E.; Pustilnik, L. A.; Pustilnik, S. A.

1989-01-01

19

Techniques of evaluation of QCD low-energy physical quantities with running coupling with infrared fixed point  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Perturbative QCD (pQCD) running coupling a(Q2) (??s(Q2)/?) is expected to get modified at low spacelike momenta 0physical QCD quantities in terms of such A(Q2) couplings (with an IR fixed point) at a level beyond one loop are usually performed with a (truncated) power series in A(Q2). We argue that such an evaluation is not correct, because the NP terms in general get out of control as the number of terms in the power series increases. The series consequently become increasingly unstable under the variation of the renormalization scale and have a fast asymptotic divergent behavior compounded by the renormalon problem. We argue that an alternative series in terms of logarithmic derivatives of A(Q2) should be used. Furthermore, a Padé-related resummation based on this series gives results which are renormalization scale independent and show very good convergence. Timelike low-energy observables can be evaluated analogously, by using the integral transformation which relates the timelike observable with the corresponding spacelike observable.

Cveti?, Gorazd

2014-02-01

20

Evaluations of Low-Energy Physical Quantities in QCD with IR Freezing of the Coupling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The {{overlineMS}} -like schemes in QCD have in general the running coupling which contains Landau singularities, i.e., singularities outside the timelike semi-axis, at low squared momenta. As a consequence, evaluation of the spacelike quantities, such as current correlators, in terms of (powers of) such a coupling then results in quantities which contradict the basic principles of quantum field theories. On the other hand, in those QCD frameworks where the running coupling remains finite at low squared momenta (IR freezing), the coupling usually does not have Landau singularities in the complex plane of the squared momenta. I argue that in such QCD frameworks the spacelike quantities should not be evaluated as a power series, but rather as a series in derivatives of the coupling with respect to the logarithm of the squared momenta. Such series show considerably better convergence properties. Moreover, Padé-related resummations of such logarithmic derivative series give convergent series, thus eliminating the practical problem of series divergence due to renormalons.

Cveti?, Gorazd

2014-01-01

21

Status of women in physics in China-Taipei from the view of quantity and quality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Working Group for Women in Physics in Taiwan was registered to the Physical Society of the Republic of China (PSROC) in December 1999 and was formally announced at the 2001 annual assembly of PSROC. In 2003 the group became a formal committee under PSROC. The current committee includes seven female and two male members. In the last 10 years, many milestones were achieved. In particular, the percentage of female physics faculties in universities and research institutes has increased to 12% from 8% within the last 10 years. In this paper we will present the results of our survey on the changes of the percentage of female physics faculties/students within the last 10 years and express our need to improve the working environment for female faculties in Taiwan in the future.

Lin, Jauyn Grace; Ho, Mon-Shu; Lin, Keng-Ching; Chen, Yi-Chun; Chiu, Ya-Ping; Hu, Shu-Fen; Hsiung, Yee Bob; Chang, Yuan-Huei; Chang, Ching Ray

2013-03-01

22

The Ubiquitous Quantities: Explorations That Inform the Design of Instruction on the Physical Properties of Matter.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores high school student's postinstructional knowledge about mass, volume, weight, and density in terms of what students need to know to successfully solve academic physical science problems. Presents definitions of the concepts, discusses hypothesized knowledge deficiencies, and suggests implications for instructional design. (Contains 31…

Klopfer, L. E.; And Others

1992-01-01

23

Quantity, Type, and Correlates of Physical Activity among American Middle Eastern University Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The prevalence of hypokinetic disease among persons of Middle Eastern heritage is higher than whites and research on American young adults of this population is limited. Therefore 214 tertiary students of Middle Eastern descent self-reported their physical activity (PA) over a 1-week monitoring period using pedometers and daily activity logs.…

Kahan, David

2009-01-01

24

An exploratory investigation of the intuition of physical quantity among 15 to 17 year old high school students from an evolutionary epistemological perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examines the issue of perception of extreme amounts of various physical quantities among 14 to 17 year old public schools students. The methods used in this investigation consisted of combined multiple-choice-open response questions and clinical interviews. The subjects in this study have relatively well defined ideas about quantitative relationships of the physical world as long as the quantities involved lie within their perceptual limits. Beyond these limits, their quantitative understanding was vague across all concepts with respect to their inability to do adequate quantitative comparisons. Very small physical quantities as well as very small changes in quantities did not seem to be present in the mental frameworks of the subjects. Most subjects were able to comprehend micro-quantities and micro-changes by relating them to those within their mesocosmical range. Analogical reasoning appeared to be central to this process. The subjects failed to perceive identical physical situations as analogical if one of them involved mesocosmical quantities and the other contained those lying beyond their mental mesocosmical range. Crossing mesocosmical boundaries in one's mind caused interruption in analogical reasoning. Very large physical quantities, namely those beyond the human range of sensual perception, were present in the subjects' mental frameworks. However, they were unable to reason adequately about quantitative differences between distinct quantities of the same concept if these quantities were beyond their sensual range. The findings of this study provide empirical support to Vollmer's (1984) theory of mesocosmical mind.

Chernavski, Ghennady

25

Near-Earth asteroids: Observer alert network and physical observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This project strives to obtain physical observations on newly discovered Near-Earth Objects (NEO's) in order to provide fundamental data needed to assess the resources available in the population. The goal is acquiring data on all objects brighter than magnitude V= 17.0. To accomplish this, an electronic mail alert and observer information service that informs observers around the world as to the status of physical observations on currently observable NEO's was established. Such data is also acquired ourselves through a cooperative program with European colleagues that uses telescopes on La Palma to obtain spectra of NEO's and through observations made from a local telescope on Tumamoc Hill. This latter telescope has the advantage that large amounts of observing time are available, so that whenever a new NEO's discovered, we can be assured of getting time to observe it.

Davis, Donald R.; Chapman, Clark R.

1992-01-01

26

Walking: a matter of quantity and quality physical activity for type 2 diabetes management.  

PubMed

Walking is often prescribed as a mode of physical activity for people with type 2 diabetes (T2D). We and others have found that although people with T2D may increase the amount that they walk (e.g., more steps per day), improvements in key health outcomes are rarely achieved. We agree that walking is an acceptable approach for people with T2D to meet current clinical practice guidelines, but consideration of both the total number of daily steps and the walking speed of a portion of those total daily steps are necessary to gain health benefit. PMID:18641725

Johnson, Steven T; Boulé, Normand G; Bell, Gordon J; Bell, Rhonda C

2008-08-01

27

A comparison of water vapor quantities from model short-range forecasts and ARM observations  

SciTech Connect

Model evolution and improvement is complicated by the lack of high quality observational data. To address a major limitation of these measurements the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program was formed. For the second quarter ARM metric we will make use of new water vapor data that has become available, and called the 'Merged-sounding' value added product (referred to as OBS, within the text) at three sites: the North Slope of Alaska (NSA), Darwin Australia (DAR) and the Southern Great Plains (SGP) and compare these observations to model forecast data. Two time periods will be analyzed March 2000 for the SGP and October 2004 for both DAR and NSA. The merged-sounding data have been interpolated to 37 pressure levels (e.g., from 1000hPa to 100hPa at 25hPa increments) and time averaged to 3 hourly data for direct comparison to our model output.

Hnilo, J J

2006-03-17

28

The Built Environment Predicts Observed Physical Activity  

PubMed Central

Background: In order to improve our understanding of the relationship between the built environment and physical activity, it is important to identify associations between specific geographic characteristics and physical activity behaviors. Purpose: Examine relationships between observed physical activity behavior and measures of the built environment collected on 291 street segments in Indianapolis and St. Louis. Methods: Street segments were selected using a stratified geographic sampling design to ensure representation of neighborhoods with different land use and socioeconomic characteristics. Characteristics of the built environment on-street segments were audited using two methods: in-person field audits and audits based on interpretation of Google Street View imagery with each method blinded to results from the other. Segments were dichotomized as having a particular characteristic (e.g., sidewalk present or not) based on the two auditing methods separately. Counts of individuals engaged in different forms of physical activity on each segment were assessed using direct observation. Non-parametric statistics were used to compare counts of physically active individuals on each segment with built environment characteristic. Results: Counts of individuals engaged in physical activity were significantly higher on segments with mixed land use or all non-residential land use, and on segments with pedestrian infrastructure (e.g., crosswalks and sidewalks) and public transit. Conclusion: Several micro-level built environment characteristics were associated with physical activity. These data provide support for theories that suggest changing the built environment and related policies may encourage more physical activity.

Kelly, Cheryl; Wilson, Jeffrey S.; Schootman, Mario; Clennin, Morgan; Baker, Elizabeth A.; Miller, Douglas K.

2014-01-01

29

In-situ observation of irradiation quantities using a tethered balloon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Irradiance is a key parameter in Earth's weather and climate system. Accurate observations of the components of the radiation budget are therefore essential to create reliable time series, to analyse spatial variability and to test, validate and adapt satellite-based algorithms. This holds true for near surface measurements as well as for in-situ observations in the lower troposphere. Such measurements are difficult to realise and therefore rarely performed. A tethered balloon system manufactured by Vailsala (9 cbm) is utilised as a carrier of a radiation budget sonde operating up to 1000 m above ground. Application is limited to fair weather conditions with maximum winds of 20 km/h and visibility greater than 3 km at ground level. The experimental setup is composed of a downward and upward looking pair of Kipp&Zonen CM11 (0.305-2.8 ?m) and a corresponding pair of Kipp&Zonen CG4 (4.5 - 42 ?m). Instruments are categorized as WMO 'secondary standard' according to ISO9660 and can be characterised as sufficiently robust and with acceptable response time for this purpose. Instrumentation is complemented by meteorological sensors (wind, temperature, humidity) flown on a dedicated suspension close (less than 50 m distance) to radiation sonde. In-situ measurements of irradiation in flowing and turbulent air are subjected to errors due to moving platform (roll/yaw/pitch). Potential deviations to near-surface measurements are discussed and an error estimate is given. Some comparisons of results of radiative transfer calculations for simple meteorological conditions have been made so far. It can be accomplished either by referring to profiles or by evaluating time series taken at elevated levels. Profiling lacks stationarity most time of a day due to high variability of shortwave downward and thus must be interpreted carefully. First results for longwave profiles as well as evaluation of time series obtained at distinct levels above ground show good correspondence.

Becker, Ralf; Gross, Steffen; Behrens, Klaus

2014-05-01

30

Evidence for Direct Retrieval of Relative Quantity Information in a Quantity Judgment Task: Decimals, Integers, and the Role of Physical Similarity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Participants' reaction times (RTs) in numerical judgment tasks in which one must determine which of 2 numbers is greater generally follow a monotonically decreasing function of the numerical distance between the two presented numbers. Here, I present 3 experiments in which the relative influences of numerical distance and physical similarity are…

Cohen, Dale J.

2010-01-01

31

X ray timing observations and gravitational physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photon-rich x ray observations on bright compact galactic sources will make it possible to detect many fast processes that may occur in these systems on millisecond and submillisecond timescales. Many of these processes are of direct relevance to gravitational physics because they arise in regions of strong gravity near neutron stars and black holes where the dynamical timescales for compact objects of stellar mass are milliseconds. To date, such observations have been limited by the detector area and telemetry rates available. However, instruments such as the proposed X ray Large Array (XLA) would achieve collecting areas of about 100 sq m. This instrument has been described elsewhere (Wood and Michelson 1988) and was the subject of a recent prephase A feasibility study at Marshall Space Flight Center. Observations with an XLA class instrument will directly impact five primary areas of astrophysics research: the attempt to detect gravitational radiation, the study of black holes, the physics of mass accretion onto compact objects, the structure of neutron stars and nuclear matter, and the characterization of dark matter in the universe. Those observations are discussed that are most directly relevant to gravitational physics: the search for millisecond x ray pulsars that are potential sources of continuous gravitational radiation; and the use of x ray timing observations to probe the physical conditions in extreme relativistic regions of space near black holes, both stellar-sized and supermassive.

Michelson, Peter F.; Wood, Kent S.

1989-08-01

32

X ray timing observations and gravitational physics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Photon-rich x ray observations on bright compact galactic sources will make it possible to detect many fast processes that may occur in these systems on millisecond and submillisecond timescales. Many of these processes are of direct relevance to gravitational physics because they arise in regions of strong gravity near neutron stars and black holes where the dynamical timescales for compact objects of stellar mass are milliseconds. To date, such observations have been limited by the detector area and telemetry rates available. However, instruments such as the proposed X ray Large Array (XLA) would achieve collecting areas of about 100 sq m. This instrument has been described elsewhere (Wood and Michelson 1988) and was the subject of a recent prephase A feasibility study at Marshall Space Flight Center. Observations with an XLA class instrument will directly impact five primary areas of astrophysics research: the attempt to detect gravitational radiation, the study of black holes, the physics of mass accretion onto compact objects, the structure of neutron stars and nuclear matter, and the characterization of dark matter in the universe. Those observations are discussed that are most directly relevant to gravitational physics: the search for millisecond x ray pulsars that are potential sources of continuous gravitational radiation; and the use of x ray timing observations to probe the physical conditions in extreme relativistic regions of space near black holes, both stellar-sized and supermassive.

Michelson, Peter F.; Wood, Kent S.

1989-01-01

33

X ray timing observations and gravitational physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photon-rich x ray observations on bright compact galactic sources will make it possible to detect many fast processes that may occur in these systems on millisecond and submillisecond timescales. Many of these processes are of direct relevance to gravitational physics because they arise in regions of strong gravity near neutron stars and black holes where the dynamical timescales for compact

Peter F. Michelson; Kent S. Wood

1989-01-01

34

The trinucleons: Physical observables and model properties  

SciTech Connect

Our progress in understanding the properties of {sup 3}H and {sup 3}He in terms of a nonrelativistic Hamiltonian picture employing realistic nuclear forces is reviewed. Trinucleon model properties are summarized for a number of contemporary force models, and predictions for physical observables are presented. Disagreement between theoretical model results and experimental results are highlighted.

Gibson, B.F.

1992-01-01

35

The trinucleons: Physical observables and model properties  

SciTech Connect

Our progress in understanding the properties of {sup 3}H and {sup 3}He in terms of a nonrelativistic Hamiltonian picture employing realistic nuclear forces is reviewed. Trinucleon model properties are summarized for a number of contemporary force models, and predictions for physical observables are presented. Disagreement between theoretical model results and experimental results are highlighted.

Gibson, B.F.

1992-05-01

36

A Holoinformational Model of the Physical Observer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The author proposes a holoinformational view of the observer based, on the holonomic theory of brain/mind function and quantum brain dynamics developed by Karl Pribram, Sir John Eccles, R.L. Amoroso, Hameroff, Jibu and Yasue, and in the quantumholographic and holomovement theory of David Bohm. This conceptual framework is integrated with nonlocal information properties of the Quantum Field Theory of Umesawa, with the concept of negentropy, order, and organization developed by Shannon, Wiener, Szilard and Brillouin, and to the theories of self-organization and complexity of Prigogine, Atlan, Jantsch and Kauffman. Wheeler's "it from bit" concept of a participatory universe, and the developments of the physics of information made by Zureck and others with the concepts of statistical entropy and algorithmic entropy, related to the number of bits being processed in the mind of the observer are also considered. This new synthesis gives a self-organizing quantum nonlocal informational basis for a new model of awareness in a participatory universe. In this synthesis, awareness is conceived as meaningful quantum nonlocal information interconnecting the brain and the cosmos, by a holoinformational unified field (integrating nonlocal holistic (quantum) and local (Newtonian). We propose that the cosmology of the physical observer is this unified nonlocal quantum-holographic cosmos manifesting itself through awareness, interconnected in a participatory holistic and indivisible way the human mind-brain to all levels of the self-organizing holographic anthropic multiverse.

Biase, Francisco Di

2013-09-01

37

Scalings between Physical and their Observationally Related Quantities of Merger Remnants  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present scaling relations between the virial velocity (V) and the one-dimensional central velocity dispersion (sigma0); the gravitational radius (Rv) and the effective radius (Re); and the total mass (M) and the luminous mass (ML) found in N-body simulations of binary mergers of spiral galaxies. These scalings are of the form V2 ? sigma0alpha, Rv ? Rebeta and M? MLgamma.

Hector Aceves; H. Velázquez

2005-01-01

38

Electronic Structure Studies of Solids. IV. Physical Quantities from Rigorous Hartree-Fock Results for Lithium Crystals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Quantities associated with soft x ray emission, the work function, the pseudo-potential and Compton profiles for body centred cubic (bcc) and face centred cubic (fcc) lithium crystals have been calculated in the Hartree-Fock approximation of Kumar, Monkho...

L. Kumar H. J. Monkhorst

1974-01-01

39

Quantities, Units, and Symbols.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet provides a reference to the quantities, units, and their symbols which are used in physical science. It is a revision of a 1969 report and takes account of the progress which has been made in obtaining international agreement on the definitions, names, and symbols for units and on the rules for the expression of relations involving…

Royal Society, London (England).

40

Physical fitness training reference manual for security force personnel at fuel cycle facilities possessing formula quantities of special nuclear materials  

SciTech Connect

The recommendations contained throughout this NUREG are being provided to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) as a reference manual which can be used by licensee management as they develop a program plan for the safe participation of guards, Tactical Response Team members (TRTs), and all other armed response personnel in physical fitness training and in physical performance standards testing. The information provided in this NUREG will help licensees to determine if guards, TRTs, and other armed response personnel can effectively perform their normal and emergency duties without undue hazard to themselves, to fellow employees, to the plant site, and to the general public. The recommendations in this NUREG are similar in part to those contained within the Department of Energy (DOE) Medical and Fitness Implementation Guide which was published in March 1991. The guidelines contained in this NUREG are not requirements, and compliance is not required. 25 refs.

Arzino, P.A.; Caplan, C.S.; Goold, R.E. (California State Univ., Hayward, CA (United States). Foundation)

1991-09-01

41

X ray Timing Observations and Gravitational Physics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Photon-rich x ray observations on bright compact galactic sources will make it possible to detect many fast processes that may occur in these systems on millisecond and submillisecond timescales. Many of these processes are of direct relevance to gravitat...

P. F. Michelson K. S. Wood

1989-01-01

42

Provenance in Observational Solar Physics Data Pipelines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A limiting factor for virtual observatories which intend to make diverse data sets available to a diverse user base is that the following use cases are very difficult to implement: 1. Determine which flat field calibration was applied to the image taken on January, 26, 2005 around 2100UT by the ACOS Mark IV polarimeter. 2. What processing steps were completed to obtain the ACOS PICS limb image of the day for January 26, 2005. 3. What was the cloud cover and atmospheric seeing conditions during the local morning of January 26, 2005 at MLSO. Key to addressing these use cases often requires information that was either not collected from different stages in the data processing pipeline or it was but was not carried forward when the datasets were made available on-line. Collectively, this information is called provenance and in a semantic web data framework; knowledge provenance. In this presentation, we describe the knowledge provenance requirements that have emerged in our previous work on virtual observatories as well as requirements identified from a series of uses cases collected from scientific data users and instrument scientists. We will describe the progress we are making on meeting these requirements in the context of solar physics image data processing pipelines. The Semantic Provenance Capture in Data Ingest Systems (SPCDIS) is a NSF OCI/SDCI-funded project to implement an extensible meta data provenance scheme within the Virtual Solar-Terrestrial Observatory.

McGuinness, D.; Fox, P.; Garcia, J.; Zednik, S.

2008-05-01

43

Acoustic Observation of Snowpack Physical Properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent research has demonstrated the ability to determine Snow Water Equivalent (SWE) by the digital signal processing of an audible sound wave produced by a loudspeaker situated at nadir to the snow surface. Sound waves reflected by the snowpack are recorded by a sensor situated above the snow surface at an offset distance from the source. To determine the impulse response of a snowpack, two types of source signals were considered. Frequency-swept sound pulses were sent into the snowpack, and digitally homodyned with the source signal to determine reflection events. The reflections were related to SWE by a recursive algorithm. Broadband acoustic pulses comprised of Maximum Length Sequences (MLS) were also used as source signals. Processing of the reflected MLS sound wave with the Fast Hadamard Transform (FHT) allowed for determination of the snowpack impulse response, from which the attenuation coefficient spectrum and the SWE were determined. The accuracy of SWE determination by these two methods was assessed by comparison to snowpit measurements of depth and density. The possibility of measuring the structural and related thermal conduction properties of snow from the impulse response was also considered. Application of a Gabor filter suggests that the speed of the sound wave in the pore spaces of the snowpack is related to the frequencies present in the broadband MLS source spectrum. From this speed-frequency relationship, the basic parameters of the Biot model of sound propagation through porous media were calculated. By using a mixture theory approach and coupling the Biot model with the Jackson-Black theory, structural metrics and thermal conductivity were estimated and compared to thermal and structural measurements in the field. These non-invasive measurements of snow physical properties could be potentially used as inputs for models of snowpack evolution. Further aspects of measurement system implementation and limitations of the models will also be discussed.

Kinar, N. J.; Pomeroy, J. W.

2009-05-01

44

Combining electric field and aurora observations from DE 1 and 2 with ground magnetometer records to estimate ionospheric electromagnetic quantities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Global distribution of electric fields and currents in the high-latitude ionosphere was estimated using data from the ground-based network of magnetometers and from nearly simultaneous observations with DE 1 and DE 2 satellites. The electric field and current distributions at high altitudes were calculated from instantaneous ionospheric conductivity (estimated from the DE 1 auroral data), using the Kamide et al. (1981) magnetogram inversion technique; an optimum conductivity was then chosen iteratively so that the resultant electric fields would become consistent with electric field deduced from ion drifts measured along the DE-2 orbit. It is demonstrated that, when analyzing the large-scale electrodynamics of individual substorms, statistical conductivity models are not fully adequate for use with the magnetogram inversion technique.

Kamide, Y.; Ishihara, Y.; Killeen, T. L.; Craven, J. D.; Frank, L. A.

1989-01-01

45

19. Detail of southeast corner of physical plant showing observation ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

19. Detail of southeast corner of physical plant showing observation lookout (view is looking northwest) - Skinner Meat Packing Plant, Main Plant, 6006 South Twenty-seventh Street, Omaha, Douglas County, NE

46

Observing Zeta Geminorum as a High Scholl Physics Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zeta Geminorum, a Cepheld variable, was observed for 35 days as a high school physics project. The shape, amplitude, and time of maximum of the phase curve are in excellent agreement with predictions.

Percy, John R.; Rincón, Andreá M.

47

Observable Quantities in Weyl Gravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the cosmological "constant" and the Hubble parameter are considered in the Weyl theory of gravity, by taking them as functions of r and t, respectively. Based on this theory and in the linear approximation, we obtain the values of H0 and ?0 which are in good agreement with the known values of the parameters for the current state of the universe.

Tanhayi, Mohammad Reza; Fathi, Mohsen; Takook, Mohammad Vahid

48

Information-based physics: an observer-centric foundation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is generally believed that physical laws, reflecting an inherent order in the universe, are ordained by nature. However, in modern physics the observer plays a central role raising questions about how an observer-centric physics can result in laws apparently worthy of a universal nature-centric physics. Over the last decade, we have found that the consistent apt quantification of algebraic and order-theoretic structures results in calculi that possess constraint equations taking the form of what are often considered to be physical laws. I review recent derivations of the formal relations among relevant variables central to special relativity, probability theory and quantum mechanics in this context by considering a problem where two observers form consistent descriptions of and make optimal inferences about a free particle that simply influences them. I show that this approach to describing such a particle based only on available information leads to the mathematics of relativistic quantum mechanics as well as a description of a free particle that reproduces many of the basic properties of a fermion. The result is an approach to foundational physics where laws derive from both consistent descriptions and optimal information-based inferences made by embedded observers.

Knuth, Kevin H.

2014-01-01

49

Objectivity of Thermodynamic Quantities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two papers that were published a decade ago are reviewed. One of them is The fight against the second law of thermodynamics and the other is Szilard's demon revisited. This review focuses on the claim that thermodynamic quantities (e.g. the temperature) of a system can depend on the way they are measured. In turn, this can depend on the knowledge the observer has about the system.

Berger, Jorge

2002-11-01

50

Characteristic quantities and dimensional analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phenomena in the physical sciences are described with quantities that have a numerical value and a dimension, i.e., a physical unit. Dimensional analysis is a powerful aspect of modeling and simulation. Characteristic quantities formed by a combination of model parameters can give new insights without detailed analytic or numerical calculations. Dimensional requirements lead to Buckingham's ? theorem - a general mathematical structure of all models in physics. These aspects are illustrated with many examples of modeling, e.g., an elastic beam on supports, wave propagation on a liquid surface, the Lennard-Jones potential for the interaction between atoms, the Lindemann melting rule, and saturation phenomena in electrical and thermal conduction.

Grimvall, Göran

51

Characteristic quantities and dimensional analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phenomena in the physical sciences are described with quantities that have a numerical value and a dimension, i.e., a physical unit. Dimensional analysis is a powerful aspect of modeling and simulation. Characteristic quantities formed by a combination of model parameters can give new insights without detailed analytic or numerical calculations. Dimensional requirements lead to Buckingham's ? theorem—a general mathematical structure of all models in physics. These aspects are illustrated with many examples of modeling, e.g., an elastic beam on supports, wave propagation on a liquid surface, the Lennard-Jones potential for the interaction between atoms, the Lindemann melting rule, and saturation phenomena in electrical and thermal conduction.

Grimvall, Göran

52

Physical Activity Surveillance in Parks Using Direct Observation  

PubMed Central

Introduction Primary features of observational public health surveillance instruments are that they are valid, can reliably estimate physical activity behaviors, and are useful across diverse geographic settings and seasons by different users. Previous studies have reported the validity and reliability of Systematic Observation of Play and Recreation in Communities (SOPARC) to estimate park and user characteristics. The purpose of this investigation was to establish the use of SOPARC as a surveillance instrument and to situate the findings from the study in the context of the previous literature. Methods We collected data by using SOPARC for more than 3 years in 4 locations: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Columbus, Ohio; Chapel Hill/Durham, North Carolina; and Albuquerque, New Mexico during spring, summer, and autumn. Results We observed a total of 35,990 park users with an overall observer reliability of 94% (range, 85%–99%) conducted on 15% of the observations. We monitored the proportion of park users engaging in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and found marginal differences in MVPA by both city and season. Park users visited parks significantly more on weekend days than weekdays and visitation rates tended to be lower during summer than spring. Conclusion SOPARC is a highly reliable observation instrument that can be used to collect data across diverse geographic settings and seasons by different users and has potential as a surveillance system.

McKenzie, Thomas L.; Cohen, Deborah; Evenson, Kelly R.; Golinelli, Daniela; Hillier, Amy; Lapham, Sandra C.; Williamson, Stephanie

2014-01-01

53

Short Gamma-ray Bursts: Observations and Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of the workshop, which will be held at the scenic Ringberg castle, is supposed to bring together astrophysicists, physicists, and astronomers from different fields in order to discuss recent observational and theoretical discoveries and developments on short gamma-ray bursts. In particular, we plan to address the following topics: * recent short GRB observations * environments and host galaxies of short GRBs * is there a 3rd class of GRBs? * modeling GRB engines and jet outflows * rate and redshift predictions for short GRBs * the fireball model and short GRBs * gravitational-wave signals from short GRBs * neutrino signals from short GRBs * microphysics needed for modeling short GRBs and their engines Scientific and Local organizing committee members: H.-Thomas Janka (Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics, Garching), Miguel Aloy (University of Valencia), Jochen Greiner (Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics), Sandra Savaglio (Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics), Shri Kulkarni (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena)

Janka, H.-Thomas

2007-04-01

54

Inversion of Water Maser Observations to Shock Physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

We demonstrate using the rich water maser cluster W49N as an example, how simultaneously obtained 22 GHz single-dish and multi-epoch VLBI observations of the masing water line can be used to quantitatively diagnose shocked and turbulent regions around protostars. The principal factors that determine the physical properties of a shocked region are the preshock density, the shock velocity (obtained from

Tarja Liljestrøm; Carl Gwinn

1999-01-01

55

Investigation of physical parameters in stellar flares observed by GINGA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This program involves analysis and interpretation of results from GINGA Large Area Counter (LAC) observations from a group of large stellar X-ray flares. All LAC data are re-extracted using the standard Hayashida method of LAC background subtraction and analyzed using various models available with the XSPEC spectral fitting program.Temperature-emission measure histories are available for a total of 5 flares observed by GINGA. These will be used to compare physical parameters of these flares with solar and stellar flare models.

Stern, Robert A.

1994-01-01

56

Investigation of physical parameters in stellar flares observed by GINGA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This program involves analysis and interpretation of results from GINGA Large Area Counter (LAC) observations from a group of large stellar x-ray flares. All LAC data are re-extracted using the standard Hayashida method of LAC background subtraction and analyzed using various models available with the XSPEC spectral fitting program. Temperature-emission measure histories are available for a total of 5 flares observed by GINGA. These will be used to compare physical parameters of these flares with solar and stellar flare models.

Stern, Robert A.

1994-01-01

57

Physical properties of Moving Magnetic Features observed around a pore  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Movies of magnetograms of sunspots often show small-size magnetic patches that move radially away and seem to be expelled from the field of the spot. These patches are named Moving Magnetic Features (MMFs). They have been mostly observed around spots and have been interpreted as manifestations of penumbral filaments. Nevertheless, few observations of MMFS streaming out from spots without penumbra have been reported. He we investigate the physical properties of MMFs observed around the field of a pore derived by the analyses of high spectral, spatial and temporal resolution data acquired at the Dunn Solar Telescope with IBIS. We find that the main properties of the investigated features agree with those reported for MMFs observed around regular spots. These results indicate that an improvement of current numerical simulations is required to understand the generation of MMFs in the lack of penumbrae.

Criscuoli, S.; Del Moro, D.; Giannattasio, F.; Viticchié, B.; Giorgi, F.; Ermolli, I.; Zuccarello, F.; Berrilli, F.

2012-06-01

58

Quantity Stickiness versus Stackelberg Leadership  

SciTech Connect

We study the endogenous Stackelberg relations in a dynamic market. We analyze a twice-repeated duopoly where, in the beginning, each firm chooses either a quantity-sticky production mode or a quantity-flexible production mode. The size of the market becomes observable after the first period. In the second period, a firm can adjust its quantity if, and only if, it has adopted the flexible mode. Hence, if one firm chooses the sticky mode whilst the other chooses the flexible mode, then they respectively play the roles of a Stackelberg leader and a Stackelberg follower in the second marketing period. We compute the supply quantities at equilibrium and the corresponding expected profits of the firms. We also analyze the effect of the slope parameter of the demand curve on the expected supply quantities and on the profits.

Ferreira, F. A. [ESEIG, Instituto Politecnico do Porto, Rua D. Sancho I, 981, 4480-876 Vila do Conde (Portugal)

2008-10-30

59

To observe or not to observe peers when learning physical examination skills; that is the question  

PubMed Central

Background Learning physical examination skills is an essential element of medical education. Teaching strategies include practicing the skills either alone or in-group. It is unclear whether students benefit more from training these skills individually or in a group, as the latter allows them to observing their peers. The present study, conducted in a naturalistic setting, investigated the effects of peer observation on mastering psychomotor skills necessary for physical examination. Methods The study included 185 2nd-year medical students, participating in a regular head-to-toe physical examination learning activity. Students were assigned either to a single-student condition (n = 65), in which participants practiced alone with a patient instructor, or to a multiple-student condition (n = 120), in which participants practiced in triads under patient instructor supervision. The students subsequently carried out a complete examination that was videotaped and subsequently evaluated. Student’s performance was used as a measure of learning. Results Students in the multiple-student condition learned more than those who practiced alone (81% vs 76%, p < 0.004). This result possibly derived from a positive effect of observing peers; students who had the possibility to observe a peer (the second and third students in the groups) performed better than students who did not have this possibility (84% vs 76%, p <. 001). There was no advantage of observing more than one peer (83.7% vs 84.1%, p > .05). Conclusions The opportunity to observe a peer during practice seemed to improve the acquisition of physical examination skills. By using small groups instead of individual training to teach physical examination skills, health sciences educational programs may provide students with opportunities to improve their performance by learning from their peers through modelling.

2013-01-01

60

The neutrino charge radius as a physical observable  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a method which allows, at least in principle, the direct extraction of the gauge-invariant and process-independent neutrino charge radius (NCR) from experiments. Under special kinematic conditions, the judicious combination of neutrino and anti-neutrino forward differential cross-sections allows the exclusion of all target-dependent contributions, such as gauge-independent box-graphs, not related to the NCR. We show that the remaining contributions contain universal, renormalization group invariant combinations, such as the electroweak effective charge and the running mixing angle, which must be also separated out. By considering the appropriate number of independent experiments we show that one may systematically eliminate these universal terms, and finally express the NCR entirely in terms of physical cross-sections. Even though the kinematic conditions and the required precision may render the proposed experiments unfeasible, at the conceptual level the analysis presented here allows for the promotion of the NCR into a genuine physical observable.

Bernabéu, J.; Papavassiliou, J.; Vidal, J.

2004-03-01

61

Taxonomy of quantities  

PubMed Central

The adjectives “generic”, “subgeneric”, “specific”, and “individual” are proposed to be added to the term “quantity”, depending on the case, in order to diminish the ambiguity of this term and to classify the different types of quantities.

Fuentes-Arderiu, Xavier

2012-01-01

62

Physical models of ten asteroids from an observers' collaboration network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aims:We present physical models of ten asteroids obtained by means of lightcurve inversion. A substantial part of the photometric data was observed by amateur astronomers. We emphasize the importance of a coordinated network of observers that will be of extreme importance for future all-sky asteroid photometric surveys. Methods: The lightcurve inversion method was used to derive spin states and shape models of the asteroids. Results: We derived spin states and shape model for ten new asteroids: (110) Lydia, (125) Liberatrix, (130) Elektra, (165) Loreley, (196) Philomela, (218) Bianca, (306) Unitas, (423) Diotima, (776) Berbericia, and (944) Hidalgo. This increases the number of asteroid models up to nearly one hundred. Tables [see full text]-[see full text] are only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

?urech, J.; Kaasalainen, M.; Marciniak, A.; Allen, W. H.; Behrend, R.; Bembrick, C.; Bennett, T.; Bernasconi, L.; Berthier, J.; Bolt, G.; Boroumand, S.; Crespo da Silva, L.; Crippa, R.; Crow, M.; Durkee, R.; Dymock, R.; Fagas, M.; Fauerbach, M.; Fauvaud, S.; Frey, M.; Gonçalves, R.; Hirsch, R.; Jardine, D.; Kami?ski, K.; Koff, R.; Kwiatkowski, T.; López, A.; Manzini, F.; Micha?owski, T.; Pacheco, R.; Pan, M.; Pilcher, F.; Poncy, R.; Pray, D.; Pych, W.; Roy, R.; Santacana, G.; Slivan, S.; Sposetti, S.; Stephens, R.; Warner, B.; Wolf, M.

2007-04-01

63

Name Those Quantities  

SciTech Connect

The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has created a number of radiation protection quantities since its Publication 26 appeared in 1977. The ensuing years have brought chaos in the form of multiple definitions and symbols for the same and similar quantities, conflicting definitions, mathematical absurdities, and a proliferation of terms. Despite this, the most commonly used radiation protection quantities in the USA and in the International Atomic Energy Agency's Basic Safety Standards have not been named or clearly defined by the ICRP. This paper proposes the names "total effective dose" for the prospective quantity, and "total personal effective dose" for the quantity pertaining to an exposed individual.

Strom, Daniel J.

2004-03-22

64

A Roadmap to Fundamental Physics from LISA EMRI Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna is a future space-based gravitational-wave observatory (a joint mission between the European Space Agency and the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration) that is expected to be launched during the next decade. It will operate in the low-frequency gravitational-wave band, probably the richest part of the gravitational-wave spectrum in terms of science potential, where we find: massive black hole mergers as the outcome of galaxy collisions; many galactic compact binaries; the capture and subsequent inspiral of a stellar compact object into a massive black hole; and gravitational-wave signatures from early universe physical processes connected to high-energy physics and physics not yet fully understood. In this article we focus on the third type of source, the so-called extreme-mass-ratio inspirals, a high precision tool for gravitational wave astronomy that can be used, among other things, to advance in our understanding of fundamental physics questions like the nature and structure of black holes and the details of the gravitational interaction in regimes not yet proven by other experiments/observatories. Here, we give an account of some of the progress made in the development of tools to exploit the future LISA EMRI observations, we discuss what scientific questions we can try to answer from this information and, finally, we discuss the main theoretical challenges that we face in order to develop all the necessary tools to maximize the scientific outcome and some avenues that can be followed to make progress in the near future.

Sopuerta, Carlos F.

2010-09-01

65

Extensive quantities in thermodynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A literature survey shows little consistency in the definitions of the term ‘extensive quantity’ (a.k.a. extensive property) as used in thermodynamics. A majority assumes that extensive quantities are those that are proportional to mass. Taking the mathematical meaning of proportional and taking the ‘mass’ to be that of the system or subsystem, it is shown that the proportionality assumption is only correct for a few extensive quantities under condition of constant composition. A large subset of extensive quantities are completely independent of mass; for most systems extensive quantities are not proportional to mass, but mass is the (extensive) constant of proportionality. The definition by IUPAC, based on the additivity of extensive quantities, is the preferred baseline for discussing this subject. It is noted however, that two types of additivity need to be distinguished and that a few intensive quantities are also additive. This paper leaves several interesting questions open to further scrutiny.

Mannaerts, Sebastiaan H.

2014-05-01

66

Characteristic quantities and dimensional analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phenomena in the physical sciences are described with quantities that have a numerical value and a dimension, i.e., a physical unit. Dimensional analysis is a powerful aspect of modeling and simulation. Characteristic quantities formed by a combination of model parameters can give new insights without detailed analytic or numerical calculations. Dimensional requirements lead to Buckingham’s ? theorem—a general mathematical structure of all models in physics. These aspects are illustrated with many examples of modeling, e.g., an elastic beam on supports, wave propagation on a liquid surface, the Lennard-Jones potential for the interaction between atoms, the Lindemann melting rule, and saturation phenomena in electrical and thermal conduction.

Grimvall, Göran

2008-04-01

67

Physics of the inner heliosphere: Mechanisms, models and observational signatures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The physics of the solar wind acceleration phenomena (e.g. effect of transient momentum deposition on the temporal and spatial variation of the temperature, density and flow speed of the solar wind, formation of shocks, etc.) and the resultant effects on observational signatures, particularly spectroscopic signature are studied. Phenomena under study include: (1) wave motions, particularly spectroscopic signatures are studied. Phenomena under study include:(1) wave motions, particularly Alfven and fast mode waves, (2) the formation of standing shocks in the inner heliosphere as a result of momentum and/or heat addition to the wind and (3) coronal transient phenomena where momentum and/or heat are deposited in the corona to produce transient plasma heating and/or mass ejections. Also included are the theoretical investigation of spectroscopic plasma diagnostics for the inner heliosphere and the analysis of existing Skylab and other relevant data.

Withbroe, G. L.

1985-01-01

68

Assessing Preschool Children's Physical Activity: The Observational System for Recording Physical Activity in Children-Preschool Version  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper we present initial information concerning a new direct observation system--the Observational System for Recording Physical Activity in Children-Preschool Version. The system will allow researchers to record young children's physical activity levels while also coding the topography of their physical activity, as well as detailed…

Brown, William H.; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; McIver, Kerry L.; Dowda, Marsha; Almeida, M. Joao C. A.; Pate, Russell R.

2006-01-01

69

Physical properties of orbital debris from spectroscopic observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Currently, certain physical properties, such as material type and albedo, of orbital debris are assumed when used to determine the size of the objects. A study to ascertain whether or not the assumed values are valid has begun using reflectance spectroscopy as a means of determining the material type of the object. What appears to some as a squiggly line is actually the reflectance of sunlight from the object. By comparing the location, depth, and width of the absorption features on the squiggly lines, the material type of the debris object is identified. Once the material type is known, the albedo of the object can be determined. This paper discusses the results from observations of large rocket bodies and satellites in both lower and geosynchronous Earth orbits (LEO and GEO, respectively) taken at the air force maui optical and supercomputing (AMOS) site located in Maui, Hawaii. Using the 1.6-m telescope and a spectral range of 0.3-0.9 ?m, differences between rocket bodies of different types and launch dates, as well as satellites of different types and launch dates are determined. Variations seen in the squiggle lines are due to colors of paint, space weathering, and for the satellites, orientation and size of the solar panels. Future direction of the project will be discussed as well as plans for future observations.

Jorgensen, K.; Africano, J.; Hamada, K.; Stansbery, E.; Sydney, P.; Kervin, P.

2004-01-01

70

Seaglider observations of surface mixed layer physics and biogeochemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Ocean Surface Mixing, Ocean Sub-mesoscale Interaction Study (OSMOSIS) aims to develop new, physically-based parameterisations of processes that deepen and shoal the ocean surface boundary layer. As part of this project, 2 Seagliders were deployed in September 2012 at the Porcupine Abyssal Plain (PAP) site in the North Atlantic, to measure the structure and evolution of the ocean surface boundary layer over the seasonal cycle. The gliders measured temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, dive-averaged currents, chlorophyll fluorescence, CDOM fluorescence and PAR. We present results from the first 6 months of the Seaglider deployments, examining particular case studies of deepening/shoaling events and their impact on the biogeochemistry. Shoaling events appear to be more abrupt than deepening events. We also discuss the water masses found in the area, in particular, the occurrences of Mediterranean Water observed at a depth of approximately 800 m. As a contribution to the GROOM project, we assess the advantages and challenges of maintaining a continuous glider-based multidisciplinary observing system at the PAP site, with 2 gliders being turned around approximately every 4 months.

Damerell, Gillian; Heywood, Karen; Thompson, Andrew; Henson, Stephanie; Rumyantseva, Anya

2013-04-01

71

Exploratory Observations of Physical Processes in the upper Sulu Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sulu Sea extends roughly 600 km in all directions, is up to 5 km deep, and is connected to the Pacific Ocean, but only via surrounding seas through several straits of varying width and depth. The Dipolog Strait between the Philippine islands of Mindanao and Negros connects the Sulu to the Bohol Sea. Straits between the islands of Panay, Palawan and Borneo connect the Sulu to the South China Sea. Straits between Borneo and Mindanao connect the Sulu to the Sulawesi Sea. External interactions with the Sulu Sea include strait currents, monsoon wind stress, tides and internal waves propagating into the sea from the perimeter. Mooring observations indicate large intraseasonal signals in currents through the Dipolog Strait and the Cuyo East Passage, west of Panay. Known impacts on the Sulu thus have timescales ranging from a day to a year. Currents through the boundary straits reverse direction with depth and so have a complex interaction with the Sulu Sea. To explore physical processes in the Sulu Sea, four in situ surveys were conducted between June 2007 and March 2009 during the Philippines Straits Dynamics Experiment (PhilEx). Observations collected include current from hull-mounted Doppler sonar and temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen and fluorescence from station casts and underway surface measurements. Horizontal shear dominates the surface current pattern. The shear’s horizontal scales are small compared to the Sulu Sea’s dimensions. The surface water also has significant density fronts at scales similar to the horizontal shear. This horizontal structure is described by viewing observed properties on maps and as a function of along-track position. Horizontal structure is quantified by computing basic statistics along-track and through spectral and wavelet analysis. A topic investigated is the relative role of boundary strait current variability and wind forcing in generating the observed horizontal shear and density fronts. When currents directed into the Sulu are stronger, more energy could be available for eddies in the sea and these eddies could have sizes related to strait dimensions. Sulu Sea water is traced to sources in boundary straits. One example is relatively warm and fresh surface water which appears to come from the Balabac Strait between Palawan and Borneo. A broader horizontal picture of the Sulu Sea is established by using remote sensing and numerical model output.

Martin, J. P.; Gordon, A. L.

2010-12-01

72

Observations and Inferred Physical Characteristics of Compact Intracloud Discharges  

SciTech Connect

Compact intracloud discharges (CIDS) represent a distinct class of electrical discharges that occur within intense regions of thunderstorms. They are singular discharges that produce brief (typically 3 µs in duration) broadband RF emissions that are 20 to 30 dB more powerful than radiation from all other recorded lightning processes in the HF and VHF radio spectrum. Far field electric field change recordings of CIDS consist of a single, large-amplitude bipolar pulse that begins to rise during the RF-producing phase of the CID and typically lasts for 20 µs. During the summer of 1998 we operated a 4-station array of electric field change meters in New Mexico to support FORTE satellite observations of transient RF and optical sources and to learn more about the phenomenology and physical characteristics of CIDS. Over 800 CIDS were detected and located during the campaign. The events were identified on the basis of their unique field change waveforms. CID source heights determined using the relative delays of ionospherically reflected source emissions were typically between 4 and 11 km above ground level. Events of both positive and negative polarity were observed with events' of initially- negative polarity (indicative of discharges occurring between underlying positive and overlying negative charge) occurring at slightly higher altitudes. Within CID field change waveforms the CID pulse was often followed within a few ms by one or more smaller-amplitude pulses. We associate these subsequent pulses with the initial activity of a "normal" intracloud flash, the inference being that some fraction of the time, a CID initiates an intracloud lightning flash.

Argo, P.E.; Eack, K.B.; Holden, D.N.; Massey, R.S.; Shao, X.; Smith, D.A.; Wiens, K.C.

1999-02-01

73

Physical properties of young radio sources: VLBA observations of high-frequency peaking radio sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multifrequency Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) observations were performed to study the radio morphology and synchrotron spectra of four high-frequency peaking radio sources. They are resolved into several compact components and the radio emission is dominated by hotspots/lobes. The core region is detected unambiguously in J1335+5844 and J1735+5049. The spectra of the main source components peak above 3 GHz. Assuming that the spectral peak is produced by synchrotron self-absorption, we estimate the magnetic field directly from observable quantities: in half of the components it agrees with the equipartition field, while in the others the difference exceeds an order of magnitude. By comparing the physical properties of the targets with those of larger objects, we found that the luminosity increases with linear size for sources smaller than a few kpc, while it decreases for larger objects. The asymmetric sources J1335+5844 and J1735+5049 suggest that the ambient medium is inhomogeneous and is able to influence the evolution of the radio emission even during its first stages. The core luminosity increases with linear size for sources up to a few kpc, while it seems constant for larger sources, suggesting an evolution independent of source total luminosity.

Orienti, M.; Dallacasa, D.

2014-02-01

74

Quality versus Quantity: The Use of Observation by Early Childhood Educators in Improving the Performance of Children Enrolled in Preschool Programs in Ghana  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the current study, the authors explored how early childhood educators used observation to support children in the learning environment. The objectives set were to find out the observation methods teachers used, ascertain their understanding of child observation, find out activities children undertook, and how teachers documented what children…

Tackie-Ofosu, Vivian; Bentum, Kwesi

2013-01-01

75

Langmuir probe-based observables for plasma-turbulence code validation and application to the TORPEX basic plasma physics experiment  

SciTech Connect

The methodology for plasma-turbulence code validation is discussed, with focus on the quantities to use for the simulation-experiment comparison, i.e., the validation observables, and application to the TORPEX basic plasma physics experiment [A. Fasoli et al., Phys. Plasmas 13, 055902 (2006)]. The considered validation observables are deduced from Langmuir probe measurements and are ordered into a primacy hierarchy, according to the number of model assumptions and to the combinations of measurements needed to form each of them. The lowest levels of the primacy hierarchy correspond to observables that require the lowest number of model assumptions and measurement combinations, such as the statistical and spectral properties of the ion saturation current time trace, while at the highest levels, quantities such as particle transport are considered. The comparison of the observables at the lowest levels in the hierarchy is more stringent than at the highest levels. Examples of the use of the proposed observables are applied to a specific TORPEX plasma configuration characterized by interchange-driven turbulence.

Ricci, Paolo; Theiler, C.; Fasoli, A.; Furno, I.; Labit, B. [Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas, Association EURATOM-Confederation Suisse, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Mueller, S. H. [Center for Energy Research, University of California, San Diego, California 92093 (United States); Podesta, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Poli, F. M. [Department of Physics, Center for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)

2009-05-15

76

Normalization of strongly intensive quantities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, two strongly intensive quantities, ?[A,B] and ?[A,B], designed for the study of event-by-event fluctuations in high-energy collisions were introduced. They are defined in terms of two extensive event observables A and B. In this paper a special normalization of the ?[A,B] and ?[A,B] fluctuation measures is proposed. It ensures that they are dimensionless and yields a common scale required for a quantitative comparison of fluctuations of different, in general dimensional, extensive quantities. Namely, the properly normalized strongly intensive measures assume the value one for fluctuations given by the independent particle model, and they are equal to zero when the A and B observables have constant values in all collision events.

Gazdzicki, M.; Gorenstein, M. I.; Mackowiak-Pawlowska, M.

2013-08-01

77

Saddle quantities and applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we make the connection between the theoretical study of the generalized homoclinic loop bifurcation (GHB ?) and the practical computational aspects. For this purpose we first compare the Dulac normal form with the Joyal normal form. These forms were both used to prove the GHB ? theorem. But the second one is far more practical from the algorithmic point of view. We then show that the information carried by these normal forms can be computed in a much simpler way, using what we shall call dual Lyapunov constants. The coefficients of a normal form or the dual Lyapunov quantities are particular cases of what we shall call saddle quantities. We calculate the saddle quantities for quadratic systems, and we show that no more than three limit cycles can appear in a homoclinic loop bifurcation. We also study the homoclinic loop bifurcation of order 5, appearing in a 6-parameter family close to a Hamiltonian system. To our knowledge, this is the first time that one can find a complete description of a GHB ? of such high order. Finally we calculate the saddle quantities for a symmetric cubic vector field, and we deduce a bound for the number of limit cycles that appear in a GHB ?.

Joyal, Pierre; Rousseau, Christiane

78

Accuracy of physical activity assessment during pregnancy: an observational study  

PubMed Central

Background Prenatal physical activity may improve maternal and infant health and lower future disease risk for both mother and baby; however, very few physical activity assessment methods have been validated for use during pregnancy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of a subjective physical activity record (PAR) and an objective activity monitor, against a reference standard to quantify moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in pregnant women. The reference standard was based on participant interviews to determine if a woman was an exerciser and confirmed with information obtained from the PAR and a heart rate monitor. Methods Fifty-two pregnant women completed a physical activity record (PAR) and wore a SenseWear® Mini Armband (SWA) activity monitor over a 7-day period at 18 weeks gestation. Total minutes spent in MVPA were totaled from both modalities and evaluated against the reference standard using contingency analysis and Pearson's chi-square test to evaluate the number of women meeting minimum prenatal physical activity recommendations (at least 3, 30 minute sessions of exercise per week). Both modalities were also tested individually and collectively to assess their ability as indicators of activity using empirically determined cut-offs as indicated by receiver-operator characteristic curves. These experimentally-derived criteria were also tested with Pearson's chi-square test. Results According to the reference standard, 13 of 52 participants (25%) met the criterion of 3, 30 minute sessions of volitional, moderate-intensity activity. When compared to the reference standard, both the PAR and SWA overestimated exercise status; 42 (81%) and 52 (100%) participants, respectively, achieved 90 minutes of MVPA (P < 0.0001 for both comparisons). Single-modality predictors of MVPA did not show a significant correlation. A composite predictor of MVPA offered the most favorable option for sensitivity and specificity (true positives, n = 8 and true negatives, n = 36) using cut-offs of 280 and 385 minutes/week for the PAR and SWA, respectively. Conclusion Compared to the reference standard, time spent in MVPA obtained from the PAR or SWA overestimated the prevalence of women meeting prenatal exercise recommendations. The most accurate predictor of women meeting current prenatal exercise guidelines was identified by using the PAR and SWA collectively.

2011-01-01

79

Characteristics of cloud microphysical properties observed at the Cloud Physical Observation System (CPOS) site in Korea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Cloud Physics Observation Site (CPOS) site was established in 2004 over the mountainous area in the eastern part of Korea to collect cloud physics data on a long term basis. The instruments installed included a Micro Rain Radar (MRR), a Forward Scattering Spectrometer Probe (FSSP), a Microwave radiometer (MWR), and a disdrometer. This study mainly focuses on the bright band and raindrop size distribution (RDSD) characteristics of precipitating clouds measured at the CPOS site for the three year period of 2004-2006. As a comparison we also analyzed the MRR data measured at a western coastal site in Korea, Hae-Nam, HN. First we classified the vertical equivalent reflectivity factor profiles from MRR into three types, low level rain (Type 1), rain with a distinct bright band (Type 2), and convective rain (Type 3). It was found that the mountainous site (CPOS) had more proportion of Types 1 and 2 profiles while Type 3 covered 51% of the coastal site (HN) precipitation, suggesting the prevalence of orographically induced stratiform precipitation at the CPOS and convective precipitation at HN. Furthermore, the bright band appeared to be thicker but the sharpness of the band is weaker for the CPOS Type 2 profiles than those of HN. It was argued that the contrast was due to the dominant growth and melting of unrimed snow particles at HN and the prevailing rimmed ice crystals with the supercooled drops at the CPOS in stratiform precipitation. Preliminary analysis showed that on average the RDSD of HN is larger than those of the CPOS. The difference in RDSD was prominent for the diameter greater than 2.5 mm, where the RDSD of HN was definitely larger than those of the CPOS. As discussed above, these results might be due to the differences in geographical settings between the CPOS and HN; HN was generally affected by convective precipitation and the CPOS has more occurrence of straitform precipitation. Further analyses of the date from other instruments will be presented at the conference

Cha, J.; Yum, S.; Chang, K.

2007-12-01

80

Radar observations and physical model of asteroid 6489 Golevka  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We report 8510-MHz (3,5-cm) radar observations of the Earth crossing asteroid (ECA) 6489 Golevka (1991 JX) obtained between June 3 and June 15, 1995, at Goldstone, the Very Large Array and the Evpatoria (Ukraine) and Kashima (Japan) radio antennas.

Hudson, R.; Ostro, S.; Jurgens, R.; Rosema, K.; Giorgini, J.; Winkler, R.; Rose, R.; Choate, D.; Cormier, R.; Franck, C.; Frye, R.; Howard, D.; Kelley, D.; Littlefair, R.; Slade, M.; Benner, L.; Thomas, M.; Mitchell, D.; Chodas, P.; Yeomans, D.; Scheeres, D.; Palmer, P.; Zaitsev, A.; Koyama, Y.; Nakamura, A.

2000-01-01

81

Physical Oceanography of the Caribbean Sea: Some Recent Observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent oceanographic observations in the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico (the Intra-Americas Sea) have contributed to our understanding of IAS circulation, the dynamics forcing the circulation, and the role of the IAS in hemispheric ocean processes. Specifically, recent results from several programs will be presented and discussed: The Windward Islands Passages Program, designed to measure upper ocean transport and

D. Wilson; W. E. Johns

2001-01-01

82

Near-Earth Asteroid Physical Observations: 1993-1995  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In September 1993, we initiated a regular program of photometric observations of Near-Earth objects. Since that time we have been allocated 5-7 nights per month at the 42'' Hall telescope at Anderson Mesa. There are three goals of our observing program for each asteroid: (1) to obtain an accurate rotation period and characterization of the lightcurve, (2) to obtain the surface color, and (3) to measure the photometric parameters, H and G. All of the lightcurve observations are made in Kron-Cousins R and we always obtain a V-R color. Limited ECAS colors are also obtained when the objects are bright enough. We have secured periods for 9 asteroids, 1864 Daedalus, 1866 Sisyphus, 3200 Phaethon, 4954 Eric, 5693 (1993 EA), 5836 (1993 MF), 6489 (1991 JX), 1993 QP, and 1993 WD. Some of these periods are a confimation of an earlier result but most are new. We obtained colors for all these objects as well as four additional asteroids, 5407 (1992 AX), 1993 UC, 1993 VW, and 1994 LW. We have additional (as yet unreduced) observations of 2062 Aten, 2212 Hephaistos, 3752 Camillo, 5143 Heracles, 5863 (1983 RB), 6053 (1993 BW3), 7025 (1993 QA), 7092 (1992 LC), 1989 VA, 1992 TC, 1994 RC, and 1995 YA3. The fastest rotation period we find is 2.402 hours for 1866 Sisyphus and the slowest is 93QP at ~ 24 hours. The colors for these objects range from V-R=0.34 for 3200 Phaethon to V-R=0.49 for 1866 Sisyphus and 4954 Eric. Most colors fall near V-R=0.43. These observations should help to provide a more complete understanding of the surface properties and rotational states of the Near-Earth asteroids. This work was supported by NASA Grant NAGW-1470.

Skiff, B. A.; Buie, M. W.; Bowell, E.

1996-09-01

83

RF Modal Quantity Gaging  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary objective is to provide a concept of a radio frequency (RF) modal resonance technique which is being investigated as a method for gaging the quantities of subcritical cryogenic propellants in metallic tanks. Of special interest are the potential applications of the technique to microgravity propellant gaging situations. The results of concept testing using cryogenic oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen, as well as paraffin simulations of microgravity fluid orientations, are reported. These test results were positive and showed that the gaging concept was viable.

Vanleuven, K.

1989-01-01

84

Observable gravitational and electromagnetic orbits and trajectories in discrete physics  

SciTech Connect

Our discrete and finite version of relativistic quantum mechanics provides an elementary particle physics consistent with the standard model of quarks and leptons. Our recent relativistic calculation of the bound state spectrum of hydrogen has allowed us to make a combinatorial correction to the first order estimate of 1/..cap alpha.. = /Dirac h/c/e/sup 2/ = 137 derived from the combinatorial hierarchy and achieve agreement with experiment up to terms of order ..cap alpha../sup 3/. The same theory requires that to first order /Dirac h/c/Gm/sub p//sup 2/ = 2/sup 127/ + 136 approx. = 1.7 /times/ 10/sup 38/. Using the emission and absorption of spin 1 photons and spin 2 gravitons in this framework, we try to show that we can meet the three additional tests of general relativity---solar red shift, solar bending of light, and precession of the perihelion of Mercury. We predict that a macroscopic electromagnetic orbit would have four times the Sommerfeld precession for basically the same reason that Mercury has six times the Sommerfeld precession. 20 refs.

Noyes, H.P.; McGoveran, D.O.

1988-11-28

85

Physical Parameters of a Rosette Observed in H-alpha  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In May 2002, the solar chromosphere was observed in H? with the two-dimensional 'Gottingen' Fabry-Perot spectrometer which is mounted in the German Vacuum Tower Telescope (VTT) at the Observatorio del Teide/Tenerife. The data consist of broad-band and narrow-band images which were taken by scanning through this line. For a short period of this time series, we calculated the source function, the line-of-sight velocity, the Doppler width and the optical depth using Becker's cloud model. We also estimated the number densities and the temperature of the structure under investigation. Here, we present several results of this study.

Al Erdogan, N.; Bostanci, Z. F.; Gultekin, A.

2008-09-01

86

Ionosphere TEC disturbances before strong earthquakes: observations, physics, modeling (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The phenomenon of the pre-earthquake ionospheric disturbances is discussed. A number of typical TEC (Total Electron Content) relative disturbances is presented for several recent strong earthquakes occurred in different ionospheric conditions. Stable typical TEC deviations from quiet background state are observed few days before the strong seismic events in the vicinity of the earthquake epicenter and treated as ionospheric earthquake precursors. They don't move away from the source in contrast to the disturbances related with geomagnetic activity. Sunlit ionosphere approach leads to reduction of the disturbances up to their full disappearance, and effects regenerate at night. The TEC disturbances often observed in the magnetically conjugated areas as well. At low latitudes they accompany with equatorial anomaly modifications. The hypothesis about the electromagnetic channel of the pre-earthquake ionospheric disturbances' creation is discussed. The lithosphere and ionosphere are coupled by the vertical external electric currents as a result of ionization of the near-Earth air layer and vertical transport of the charged particles through the atmosphere over the fault. The external electric current densities exceeding the regular fair-weather electric currents by several orders are required to produce stable long-living seismogenic electric fields such as observed by onboard measurements of the 'Intercosmos-Bulgaria 1300' satellite over the seismic active zones. The numerical calculation results using the Upper Atmosphere Model demonstrate the ability of the external electric currents with the densities of 10-8-10-9 A/m2 to produce such electric fields. The sumulations reproduce the basic features of typical pre-earthquake TEC relative disturbances. It is shown that the plasma ExB drift under the action of the seismogenic electric field leads to the changes of the F2 region electron number density and TEC. The upward drift velocity component enhances NmF2 and TEC and the downward component decreases it, while horizontal components redistribute plasma in the horizontal plane around the source. The UAM calculations also show that the external electric currents of the seismic origin generate the small disturbances of the neutral atmosphere with the characteristics of the internal gravity waves but they don't influence noticeably on the relative pre-earthquake TEC disturbances.

Namgaladze, A. A.

2013-12-01

87

BEACHES: an observational system for assessing children's eating and physical activity behaviors and associated events.  

PubMed Central

An integrated system for coding direct observations of children's dietary and physical activity behaviors was developed. Associated environmental events were also coded, including physical location, antecedents, and consequences. To assess the instrument's reliability and validity, 42 children, aged 4 to 8 years, were observed for 8 consecutive weeks at home and at school. Results indicated that four 60-min observations at home produced relatively stable estimates for most of the 10 dimensions. Interobserver reliabilities during live and videotaped observations were high, with the exception of "consequences" categories that occurred in less than 1% of observed intervals. Evidence of validity was provided by findings that antecedents were associated with respective dietary and physical activity behaviors. The five physical activity categories were validated by heartrate monitoring in a second study. The Behaviors of Eating and Activity for Children's Health Evaluation System is appropriate for studying influences on diet and physical activity in children in a variety of settings.

McKenzie, T L; Sallis, J F; Nader, P R; Patterson, T L; Elder, J P; Berry, C C; Rupp, J W; Atkins, C J; Buono, M J; Nelson, J A

1991-01-01

88

MOLECULAR LINE OBSERVATIONS OF INFRARED DARK CLOUDS. II. PHYSICAL CONDITIONS  

SciTech Connect

Using a source selection biased toward high-mass star-forming regions, we used a large velocity gradient code to calculate the H{sub 2} densities and CS column densities for a sample of Midcourse Space Experiment 8 mum infrared dark cores. Our average H{sub 2} density and CS column density were 1.14 x 10{sup 6}cm{sup -3} and 1.21 x 10{sup 13} cm{sup -2}, respectively. In addition, we have calculated the Jeans mass and Virial mass for each core to get a better understanding of their gravitational stability. We found that core masses calculated from observations of N{sub 2}H{sup +} J = 1->0 and C{sup 18}O J = 1->0 by Ragan et al. (Paper I) were sufficient for collapse, though most regions are likely to form protoclusters. We have explored the star-forming properties of the molecular gas within our sample and find some diversity which extends the range of infrared dark clouds from the very massive clouds that will create large clusters, to clouds that are similar to some of our local counterparts (e.g., Serpens, Ophiuchus).

Gibson, David; Plume, Rene; Evans, Natalie [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4 (Canada); Bergin, Edwin; Ragan, Sarah [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

2009-11-01

89

A Viewpoint on the Quantity "Plane Angle"  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Properties of the quantity "plane angle" are explored under the hypothesis that it is a dimensional quantity. The exploration proceeds especially with respect to the physical concept, its mathematical treatment, vector concepts, measurement theory, units of related quantities, engineering pragmatism, and SI. An attempt is made to bring these different relations into a rational, logical and consistent framework, and thus to justify the hypothesis. Various types of vectorial quantities are recognized, and their properties described with an outline of the necessary algebraic manipulations. The concept of plane angle is amplified, and its interdependence with the circular arc is explored. The resulting units of plane angle form a class of similar scales of measurement. Consequences of the confirmed hypothesis are developed for mathematical expressions involving trigonometric functions, rotational volumes and areas, mathematical limits, differentiation and series expansion. Consequences for mechanical rotational quantities are developed, with proposals for revisions to a number of expressions for derived units within SI. A revised definition for the quantity "plane angle" is stated to take account of the developed insights. There is a clear need to reconsider the status of plane angle and some other quantities within the international framework of SI.

Eder, W. E.

1982-01-01

90

Physical Therapy Observation and Assessment in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents the elements of the Observation and Assessment section of the Infant Care Path for Physical Therapy in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). The types of physical therapy assessments presented in this path are evidence-based and the suggested timing of these assessments is primarily based on practice knowledge from expert…

Byrne, Eilish; Campbell, Suzann K.

2013-01-01

91

A Method for Observing Physical Activity on Residential Sidewalks and Streets  

PubMed Central

Assessment of physical activity needs to improve in order to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the relationship between characteristics of the environment and physical activity. Our study evaluated a method [Block Walk Method (BWM)] for observing physical activity along residential sidewalks and streets. The BWM was utilized in 12 U.S. Census block groups over a three-month period. Examination transportation routes (ETRs), 1,524 m in length, were constructed and examined in each block group. On 6 days, ETRs were traversed by a trained observer for 50 min. Physical activities, street names, and geographical locations (e.g., addresses) were recorded. We found encouraging results for the BWM. The level of agreement between independent observers was >98% for activity type. The number of individuals seen walking, running, or biking did not differ significantly between the days of the week or observation times. The number of individuals observed was correlated with block group characteristics (e.g., percent walking/biking to work) and weather (e.g., temperature). The BWM is an easy to use, economically viable observational approach to obtaining reliable information concerning physical activities performed on residential streets and sidewalks. Its use could help advance our understanding about the environment–physical activity relationship.

Petosa, Rick L.; Stevens, Emily

2006-01-01

92

Exact fluctuation theorem without ensemble quantities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evaluating the entropy production (EP) along a stochastic trajectory requires the knowledge of the system probability distribution, an ensemble quantity notoriously difficult to measure. In this paper we show that the EP of nonautonomous systems in contact with multiple reservoirs can be expressed solely in terms of physical quantities measurable at the single-trajectory level with a suitable preparation of the initial condition. As a result, we identify universal energy and particle fluctuation relations valid for any measurement time. We apply our findings to an electronic junction model, which may be used to verify our prediction experimentally.

Bulnes Cuetara, Gregory; Esposito, Massimiliano; Imparato, Alberto

2014-05-01

93

Features and amenities of school playgrounds: A direct observation study of utilization and physical activity levels outside of school time  

PubMed Central

Background A significant amount of research has examined whether park or playground availability is associated with physical activity. However, little research has examined whether specific features or amenities of parks or playgrounds, such as the number of unique types of playground equipment or the safety of the equipment is associated with utilization of the facility or physical activity levels while at the facility. There are no studies that use direct observation and a detailed park assessment to examine these associations. Methods Twenty urban schoolyards in the Midwest, ten of which were renovated, were included in this study. Using a detailed environmental assessment tool (i.e., Environmental Assessment of Public Recreation Spaces), information on a variety of playground attributes was collected. Using direct observation (i.e., System for Observing Play and Leisure Activity in Youth), the number of adults, girls and boys attending each schoolyard and their physical activity levels were recorded. Each schoolyard was observed ten times for 90 minutes each time outside of school hours. Clustered multivariable negative binomial regressions and linear regressions were completed to examine the association between playground attributes and utilization of the schoolyard and the proportion active on the playground, respectively. Effect modification by renovation status was also examined. Results At renovated schoolyards, the total number of play features was significantly associated with greater utilization in adults and girls; overall cleanliness was significantly associated with less utilization in girls and boys; and coverage/shade for resting features was significantly associated with greater utilization in adults and boys. At unrenovated schoolyards, overall safety was significantly associated with greater utilization in boys. No playground attribute was associated with the proportion active on the playground after adjusting for all other significant playground attributes. Conclusions Having a large quantity of play features and shade at renovated playgrounds were positively associated with utilization of the schoolyard. Modifying playgrounds to have these features may increase the utilization of these facilities outside of school time. Additional research should explore what features and amenities are associated with increased physical activity levels of children and adults who utilize the facilities.

2011-01-01

94

Observation and numerical simulation of cloud physical processes associated with torrential rain of the Meiyu front  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cloud micro-physical structures in a precipitation system associated with the Meiyu front are observed using the balloon-borne Precipitation Particle Image Sensor at Baoshan observatory station, Shanghai during June and July 1999. The vertical distributions of various cloud particle size, number density, and mass density are retrieved from the observations. Analyses of observations show that ice-phase particles (ice crystals, graupel, snowflakes,

P. Y. Wang; J. Yang

2003-01-01

95

In situ observations of aerosol physical and optical properties in northern India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The southern Asia, including India, is exposed to substantial quantities of particulate air pollution originating mainly from fossil fuel combustion and biomass burning. Besides serious adverse health effects, these aerosols cause a large reduction of solar radiation at the surface accompanied by a substantial atmospheric heating, which is expected to have significant influences on the air temperature, crop yields, livestock and water resources over the southern Asia. The various influences by aerosols in this region depend crucially on the development of aerosol emissions from household, industrial, transportation and biomass burning sectors. The main purpose of this study is to investigate several measured aerosol optical and physical properties. We take advantage of observations from two measurement stations which have been established by the Finnish Meteorological Institute and The Energy and Resources Institute. Another station is on the foothills of Himalayas, in Mukteshwar, about 350 km east of New Delhi at elevation about 2 km ASL. This site is considered as a rural background site. Measurements of aerosol size distribution (7-500 nm), PM10, PM2.5, aerosol scattering and absorption coefficients and weather parameters have been conducted since 2006. Another station is located at the outskirts of New Delhi, in Gual Pahari, about 35 km south of city centre. It is considered as an urban background site. Measurements of aerosol size distribution (7 nm- 10 ?m), PM10, PM2.5, aerosol scattering and absorption coefficients, aerosol optical depth, aerosol vertical distribution (LIDAR), aerosol filter sampling for chemical characterization and weather parameters were conducted between 2008 and 2010. On the overall average PM10 and PM2.5 values were about 3-4 times higher in Gual Pahari than in Mukteshwar as expected, 216 and 126 ?g m^-3, respectively. However, difference depended much on the season, so that during winter time PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations were about 9 and 6 times higher in Gual Pahari than in Mukteshwar. During the pre-monsoon the concentrations in Gual Pahari were only twofold compared to Mukteshwar. The monsoon cleans the atmosphere from particulate matter so that PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations reduced to more than half compared to pre-monsoon values. We also found a very clear diurnal cycle on both station, except during the monsoon season. However the phase of the cycle was different between stations. This annual and diurnal variation is controlled besides emissions by evolution of boundary layer and transport of aerosols from Indo- Gangetic plains to the background site in Mukteshwar. Basically all measured aerosol properties behaved similarly. We also analyzed the data to observe the so called elevated heat pump hypothesis and trends in long term aerosol properties, although six years of data is not enough to make solid conclusions.

Lihavainen, H.; Hyvarinen, A.; Hooda, R. K.; Raatikainen, T. E.; Sharma, V.; Komppula, M.

2012-12-01

96

Channel Coordination and Quantity Discounts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a model for analyzing the impact of joint decision policies on channel coordination in a system consisting of a supplier and a group of homogeneous buyers. The joint decision policy characterized by the unit selling price and the order quantity is coordinated through quantity discounts and franchise fees. Both the annual demand rate and the operating cost---including

Z. Kevin Weng

1995-01-01

97

Eyes on the Block: Measuring Urban Physical Disorder Through In-Person Observation  

PubMed Central

In this paper, we present results from measuring physical disorder in Los Angeles neighborhoods. Disorder measures came from structured observations conducted by trained field interviewers. We examine inter-rater reliability of disorder measures in depth. We assess the effects of observation conditions on the reliability of reporting. Finally, we examine the relationships between disorder, other indicators of neighborhood status, and selected individual outcomes. Our results indicate that there is considerable variation in the level of agreement among independent observations across items, although overall agreement is moderate to high. Durable indicators of disorder provide the most reliable measures of neighborhood conditions. Circumstances of observation have statistically significant effects on the observers’ perceived level of disorder. Physical disorder is significantly related to other indicators of neighborhood status, and to children’s reading and behavior development. This result suggests a need for further research into the effects of neighborhood disorder on children.

Pebley, Anne R.; Sastry, Narayan

2011-01-01

98

Research in space physics at the University of Iowa. [astronomical observatories, spaceborne astronomy, satellite observation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Various research projects in space physics are summarized. Emphasis is placed on: (1) the study of energetic particles in outer space and their relationships to electric, magnetic, and electromagnetic fields associated with the earth, the sun, the moon, the planets, and interplanetary medium; (2) observational work on satellites of the earth and the moon, and planetary and interplanetary spacecraft; (3) phenomenological analysis and interpretation; (4) observational work by ground based radio-astronomical and optical techniques; and (5) theoretical problems in plasma physics. Specific fields of current investigations are summarized.

Vanallen, J. A.

1974-01-01

99

On the complete characterization of the physical observables of radio emissions from arbitrary sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Like all forms of electromagnetic radiation, radio emissions of cosmic origin contain a diversity of physical observables that are constants of motion. Each of these observables carry unique information about the physics of the source(s) from which the radiation emanates and the medium through which it propagates. While the electromagnetic observables used in present-day radio and radar studies of space are limited to the energy (radiometry) and the linear momentum (radio astronomy, space radio and radar applications), the angular momentum and the boost momentum of the radiation are typically discarded and thereby important information wasted. We show how all electromagnetic observables can be measured and analysed, yielding information about vorticity and other topological properties as well as turbulence of radio sources and propagation media. Both theoretical predictions and experimental results confirming these predictions will be presented.

Thidé, Bo; Tamburini, Fabrizio

2014-05-01

100

School sport policy and school-based physical activity environments and their association with observed physical activity in middle school children.  

PubMed

Empirical research on the effects of school sport policies on children's physical activity is limited. This study examined sport policies (intramural vs. varsity), physical settings within schools, and supervision in relation to physical activity using the System for Observing Play and Leisure in Youth (SOPLAY). Data were collected on physical activity levels of children in four middle schools. Regression analyses assessed the main effects of sport policy, type of physical activity setting, and supervision as well as interactions. Regression models were stratified by gender. Children in intramural schools were more likely to use indoor spaces and be boys. Regression models indicated that varsity sport programs were associated with lower physical activity levels among boys but not girls. Significant associations between type of physical activity settings and physical activity levels were observed only for boys. Adult supervision was not associated with children's physical activity levels. Finally, descriptive results showed athletic facilities were under-utilized in all schools. PMID:21900034

Bocarro, Jason N; Kanters, Michael A; Cerin, Ester; Floyd, Myron F; Casper, Jonathan M; Suau, Luis J; McKenzie, Thomas L

2012-01-01

101

Observed Initiation and Reciprocity of Physical Aggression in Young, At-Risk Couples  

PubMed Central

The present study examined sex differences in initiation of physical aggression as observed during discussion tasks and in the likelihood of a similar response from the partner. In addition, patterns for men and women in the prevalence of aggression initiation and partner reciprocation across 4 time points spanning approximately 9 years from late adolescence through the mid-20s are examined, as well as overall associations with reported aggression and injuries. Findings indicated that the young women were more likely than the men to initiate physical aggression at late adolescence, but by the mid-20s in early adulthood there were no significant sex differences in initiation rates. The average rates of reciprocation across the 4 time points appeared to be similar for men and women. Women and men appeared more likely to report injuries if the couples observed physical aggression involved mutual aggression in their interactions.

Capaldi, Deborah M.; Kim, Hyoun K.; Shortt, Joann Wu

2006-01-01

102

Observational (Physical) Meaning of NonStandard (Non?Additive) Probabilities from Algebraic Quantum Field Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditionally, physicists deduce the observational (physical) meaning of probabilistic predictions from the implicit assumption that the well- defined events whose probabilities are 0 never occur. For example, the conclusion that in a potentially infinite sequence of identical experiments with probability 0.5 (like coin tossing), the frequency of Heads tends to 0.5, follows from the theorem that sequences for which the

Vladik Kreinovich; Luc Longpre

103

An Observational Assessment of Physical Activity Levels and Social Behaviour during Elementary School Recess  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The purpose of the present study was to assess children's physical activity, social play behaviour, activity type and social interactions during elementary school recess using a pre-validated systematic observation system. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Two elementary schools located in Merseyside, England. Method: Fifty-six…

Roberts, Simon J.; Fairclough, Stuart J.; Ridgers, Nicola D.; Porteous, Conor

2013-01-01

104

2009 C. H. McCloy Lecture. Seeing Is Believing: Observing Physical Activity and Its Contexts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Direct (systematic) observation has been a mainstay of my research for over three decades. I believe it is an important tool for assessing physical activity, because it can simultaneously provide contextually rich data on the setting in which the activity occurs. It is particularly useful for those interested in using ecological and…

McKenzie, Thomas L.

2010-01-01

105

Optimal estimation of a physical observable's expectation value for pure states  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the optimal way to estimate the quantum expectation value of a physical observable when a finite number of copies of a quantum pure state are presented. The optimal estimation is determined by minimizing the squared error averaged over all pure states distributed in a unitary invariant way. We find that the optimal estimation is ``biased'' though the optimal

A. Hayashi; M. Horibe; T. Hashimoto

2006-01-01

106

Optimal estimation of a physical observable's expectation value for pure states  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the optimal way to estimate the quantum expectation value of a physical observable when a finite number of copies of a quantum pure state are presented. The optimal estimation is determined by minimizing the squared error averaged over all pure states distributed in a unitary invariant way. We find that the optimal estimation is 'biased' though the optimal

A. Hayashi; M. Horibe; T. Hashimoto

2006-01-01

107

Occurrence, Physical Conditions, and Observations of Super-Ios and Hyper-Ios  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

If a volcanic activity similar to that of Io occurs in Exo-Earths or super-Earths, these objects would correspond to super-Ios and even more hyper-Ios. We study extreme physical conditions of these objects and their very special observational features.

Briot, D.; Schneider, J.

2010-10-01

108

Tri-Axial Accelerometry and Heart Rate Telemetry: Relation and Agreement with Behavioral Observation in Elementary Physical Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relation and agreement of tri-axial accelerometry and heart rate telemetry in measuring moderate to vigorous physical activity were examined in association to behavioral observation during 1st- and 2nd-grade physical education. In Study 1, physical activity measures of heart rate and behavioral observation were collected on 346 participants…

Scruggs, Philip W.; Beveridge, Sandy K.; Clocksin, Brian D.

2005-01-01

109

Western North Pacific Integrated Physical-Biogeochemical Ocean Observation Experiment (INBOX): Biogeochemical impact of mesoscale disturbance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Combination of autonomous float and biogeochemical sensor technologies has enabled concurrent measurements of physical and biogeochemical parameters for wide spatial and temporal ranges, which could open a new world of synergistic use of those data to advance not only each discipline but also a holistic understanding of the ocean. Study of mesoscale processes is one of those areas greatly benefitted from the synergistic use of physical and biogeochemical data acquired by autonomous platforms, because our understanding of those processes is still limited mainly due to the difficulty in measuring them despite their importance widely recognized. To acquire physical-biogeochemical data which could resolve mesoscale phenomena in the western North Pacific, JAMSTEC launched an interdisciplinary project "Western North Pacific Integrated Physical-Biogeochemical Ocean Observation Experiment (INBOX)" in 2010. INBOX aims to quantify impacts of physical processes on biogeochemical phenomena, so that we could also ultimately utilize biogeochemical information for understanding physical processes. Through a series of field experiments, we also hope that INBOX could contribute to designing effectively sustained biogeochemical observing system. As the first phase of INBOX, profiling floats with oxygen sensors were intensively deployed around the biogeochemical mooring station S1 maintained since spring 2010 at 30N, 145E, further south of the Kuroshio Extension. We have deployed 5 floats in fall 2010 and 25 floats in summer 2011 with profiling cycles of 2-3 days in the 150 km-square area centered at the S1. In this presentation, following the overall description of INBOX, we will highlight cyclonic eddies captured by the INBOX float array and impacts of their passage on primary production. In order to fully utilize data from the float array with a nominal resolution of "30 km x 2 days" for describing mesoscale physical-biogeochemical fields, oxygen sensors should be calibrated appropriately. The calibration procedure will be also presented briefly.

Suga, T.; Hosoda, S.; Sato, K.; Kita, T.; Inoue, R.; Kouketsu, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobashi, F.; Toyama, K.; Honda, M. C.; Kawano, T.; Saino, T.

2012-12-01

110

Physical activity before IVF and ICSI cycles in infertile obese women: an observational cohort study.  

PubMed

This study assessed the relationship between regular physical activity and reproductive performance in obese infertile patients who receive assisted reproduction cycles with stable bodyweight. A total of 216 obese infertile women at their first fresh assisted reproduction attempt with stable body mass index (BMI) and available data on their physical activity carried out up to the beginning of the treatment cycle were enrolled in this observational cohort study. Clinical and biological data were recorded and analysed. There were 41 obese patients who did regular physical activity and 175 obese controls who did not. Total pregnancies (16/41, 39.0% versus 28/175, 16.0%, respectively; P=0.002) and live births (10/41, 24.4% versus 13/175, 7.4%, respectively; P=0.004) were significantly higher in patients who did physical activity regularly compared with those who did not. After adjusting for confounders, in obese infertile patients who did physical activity regularly, the relative risks for a clinical pregnancy and live birth were 3.22 (95% CI 1.53-6.78; P=0.002) and 3.71 (95% CI 1.51-9.11; P=0.004), respectively. In conclusion, regular physical activity carried out before a assisted reproduction cycle is significantly related with improved reproductive performance in obese infertile patients, irrespective of bodyweight loss. Body weight loss improves not only spontaneous pregnancy rates but also those of assisted reproductive techniques (ARTs). Moreover, almost all studies refer to body weight loss due to lifestyle intervention programs consisting in hypocaloric diet and increased physical activity. Instead, very little is known about the specific effects of physical activity alone on human reproduction. Based on these considerations, we designed the present study to assess the relationship between regular physical activity and reproductive outcome in infertile obese patients who receive ARTs. Two-hundred-sixteen obese infertile women with stable body mass index (BMI) and at their first fresh ART attempt were enrolled, and clinical and biological data were recorded and analyzed. Our results demonstrate that the chances to obtain a pregnancy and a baby are 3-fold higher in obese infertile patients who does physical activity regularly in comparison with those who does not, suggesting that regular physical activity before ART cycles improves the reproductive performance in obese women irrespective to body weight loss. PMID:24813759

Palomba, Stefano; Falbo, Angela; Valli, Barbara; Morini, Daria; Villani, Maria Teresa; Nicoli, Alessia; La Sala, Giovanni Battista

2014-07-01

111

Organizations for Standardization of Quantities and Units  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many international organizations have contributed to the development of the International System of Units (SI). The highest international authority on units is the General Conference on Weights and Measures (CGPM), which is an intergovernmental body. Legal aspects of units and metrology are dealt with by the International Organization of Legal Metrology (OIML), whereas scientific questions in this field are dealt with by scientific unions such as the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP), and the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC). Among their many tasks the international standards organizations, i.e. the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), implement the SI as adopted by the CGPM. They also standardize quantities, i.e. their definitions, names, and letter symbols. The main purpose of this article is to present these two organizations for standardization and to describe their role in the standardization of quantities and units.

Højgaard Jensen, H.; Thor, A. J.

1995-01-01

112

Observations of General Learning Patterns in an Upper-Level Thermal Physics Course  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

I discuss some observations from using interactive-engagement instructional methods in an upper-level thermal physics course over a two-year period. From the standpoint of the subject matter knowledge of the upper-level students, there was a striking persistence of common learning difficulties previously observed in students enrolled in the introductory course, accompanied, however, by some notable contrasts between the groups. More broadly, I comment on comparisons and contrasts regarding general pedagogical issues among different student sub-populations, for example: differences in the receptivity of lower- and upper-level students to diagrammatic representations; varying receptivity to tutorial-style instructional approach within the upper-level population; and contrasting approaches to learning among physics and engineering sub-populations in the upper-level course with regard to use of symbolic notation, mathematical equations, and readiness to employ verbal explanations.

Meltzer, David E.

2010-03-11

113

Spitzer Observations of Supernova Remnants. II. Physical Conditions and Comparison with HH7 and HH54  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have studied the shock-excited molecular regions associated with four supernova remnants (SNRs)---IC443C, W28, W44, and 3C391---and two Herbig-Haro objects---HH7 and HH54---using Spitzer's Infrared Spectrograph (IRS). The physical conditions within the observed areas (roughly ~1' × 1' in size) are inferred from spectroscopic data obtained from IRS and from the Short and Long Wavelength Spectrometers on board the Infrared Space

Yuan Yuan; David A. Neufeld

2011-01-01

114

Observed Initiation and Reciprocity of Physical Aggression in Young, At-Risk Couples  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined sex differences in initiation of physical aggression as observed during discussion tasks and in\\u000a the likelihood of a similar response from the partner. In addition, patterns for men and women in the prevalence of aggression\\u000a initiation and partner reciprocation across 4 time points spanning approximately 9 years from late adolescence through the\\u000a mid-20s are examined, as

Deborah M. Capaldi; Hyoun K. Kim; Joann Wu Shortt

2007-01-01

115

Trigonometric functions of nonlinear quantities  

SciTech Connect

Trigonometric functions of nonlinear quantities are introduced. Functions of the form {line_integral}(x{sup a}), {line_integral}(x{sup y}), and {line_integral}{sup n}(x{sup a}) are reported, where {line_integral} is a trigonometric function such as cos, sin, tan, cot, sec, or csc; x is a variable; a is a constant; y is a variable; and n is a constant. Sums, products and quotients of these functions are defined. Trigonometric functions of nonlinear quantities involving constants to variable powers also are mentioned. Possible applications to quantum mechanics, gravity, and a final theory of matter are discussed.

Wester, D.W.

1994-08-01

116

Physical properties (particle size, rock abundance) from thermal infrared remote observations: Implications for Mars landing sites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Critical to the assessment of potential sites for the 1997 Pathfinder landing is estimation of general physical properties of the martian surface. Surface properties have been studied using a variety of spacecraft and earth-based remote sensing observations, plus in situ studies at the Viking lander sites. Because of their value in identifying landing hazards and defining scientific objectives, we focus this discussion on thermal inertia and rock abundance derived from middle-infrared (6 to 30 microns) observations. Used in conjunction with other datasets, particularly albedo and Viking orbiter images, thermal inertia and rock abundance provide clues about the properties of potential Mars landing sites.

Christensen, P. R.; Edgett, Kenneth S.

1994-01-01

117

Physical parameters in long-decay coronal enhancements. [from Skylab X ray observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Four well-observed long-decay X-ray enhancements (LDEs) are examined which were associated with filament eruptions, white-light transients, and loop prominence systems. In each case the physical parameters of the X-ray-emitting plasma are determined, including the spatial distribution and temporal evolution of temperature and density. The results and recent analyses of other aspects of the four LDEs are compared with current models of loop prominence systems. It is concluded that only a magnetic-reconnection model, such as that proposed by Kopp and Pneuman (1976) is consistent with the observations.

Maccombie, W. J.; Rust, D. M.

1979-01-01

118

16 CFR 500.25 - Net quantity, average quantity, permitted variations.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Net quantity, average quantity, permitted...PACKAGING AND LABELING ACT § 500.25 Net quantity, average quantity, permitted variations. (a) The statement of net quantity of contents shall...

2014-01-01

119

Assessing physical activity during youth sport: the observational system for recording activity in children: youth sports.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the validity and interrater reliability of the Observational System for Recording Activity in Children: Youth Sports (OSRAC:YS). Children (N = 29) participating in a parks and recreation soccer program were observed during regularly scheduled practices. Physical activity (PA) intensity and contextual factors were recorded by momentary time-sampling procedures (10-second observe, 20-second record). Two observers simultaneously observed and recorded children's PA intensity, practice context, social context, coach behavior, and coach proximity. Interrater reliability was based on agreement (Kappa) between the observer's coding for each category, and the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) for percent of time spent in MVPA. Validity was assessed by calculating the correlation between OSRAC:YS estimated and objectively measured MVPA. Kappa statistics for each category demonstrated substantial to almost perfect interobserver agreement (Kappa = 0.67-0.93). The ICC for percent time in MVPA was 0.76 (95% C.I. = 0.49-0.90). A significant correlation (r = .73) was observed for MVPA recorded by observation and MVPA measured via accelerometry. The results indicate the OSRAC:YS is a reliable and valid tool for measuring children's PA and contextual factors during a youth soccer practice. PMID:24277926

Cohen, Alysia; McDonald, Samantha; McIver, Kerry; Pate, Russell; Trost, Stewart

2014-05-01

120

Physical Oceanography (Program Description)  

NSF Publications Database

... of Ocean Sciences Physical Oceanography Description The Physical Oceanography Program supports ... various quantities, with the way the ocean's physical structure interacts with the biological and ...

121

Pricing Policies for Quantity Discounts  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we analyze the seller's decision to offer quantity discounts to the buyer. We build on an existing model as follows. We first characterize the range of order sizes and prices which reduce costs for the buyer and seller, and develop related pricing schemes. The model is then extended to allow inventory carrying costs to be a function

Maqbool Dada; K. N. Srikanth

1987-01-01

122

The optimal quantity of debt  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a model for calculating the optimal quantity of debt and then apply it to the U.S. economy. The model consists of a large number of infinitely-lived households whose saving behavior is influenced by precautionary saving motives and borrowing constraints. This model incorporates a different role for government debt than the standard representative agent growth model and captures different

S. Rao Aiyagari; Ellen R. McGrattan

1994-01-01

123

Quantity Estimation Of The Interactions  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we present some considerations about quantity estimations, regarding the range of interaction and the conservations laws in various types of interactions. Our estimations are done under classical and quantum point of view and have to do with the interaction's carriers, the radius, the influence range and the intensity of interactions.

Gorana, Agim; Malkaj, Partizan; Muda, Valbona [Department of Physics, Polytechnic University of Tirana, Sheshi 'Neenee Tereza' No 4, Tirana (Albania)

2007-04-23

124

Cool atmosphere models and observations: liability and limits of brown dwarfs and exoplanets physical parameters determination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of cool atmospheres is currently a fruitful field of interaction between theorists developing better atmosphere models and observers discovering new cool objects and analysing their emission spectrum. Save for a few close binaries with known parallax and a dynamical mass determination, comparison of spectra to models is the only method available to observers to derive the fundamental physical parameters of a substellar object, such as mass, temperature, age or metallicity. Most of our knowledge of key substellar parameters thus rests upon theoretical models reliability. This issue is particularly acute for the newly imaged exoplanets, whose parameter range of youth and extreme low-mass has not been probed before, but we show that model reliability remains problematic even for field L and T dwarfs, whose observed spectra have guided the model development over the past fifteen years. We present several models-to-observations comparisons, which remind that even the last-generation atmosphere models keep having trouble quantitatively reproducing overall spectral parameters such as absorption band strength measured through spectral indices and broad band absolute magnitudes. These tests confirm that the models cannot yet be used at face value to read off physical parameters, and need empirical calibration on well constrained benchmarks. While the models are sufficiently predictive to produce useful differential measurements over limited parameter ranges, using them without empirical rescaling and anchoring generally leads to significantly inaccurate results.

Delorme, P.; Weidner, C.

2010-10-01

125

Probing the Fundamental Physics of the Solar Corona with Lunar Solar Occultation Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Imaging and spectroscopy of the solar corona, coupled with polarimetry, are the only tools available at present to capture signatures of physical processes responsible for coronal heating and solar wind acceleration within the first few solar radii above the solar limb. With the recent advent of improved detector technology and image processing techniques, broad-band white light and narrow-band multi-wavelength observations of coronal forbidden lines, made during total solar eclipses, have started to yield new views about the thermodynamic and magnetic properties of coronal structures. This paper outlines these unique capabilities, which until present, have been feasible primarily with observations during natural total solar eclipses. This work also draws attention to the exciting possibility of greatly increasing the frequency and duration of solar eclipse observations with Moon orbiting observatories utilizing lunar limb occultation of the solar disk for coronal measurements.

Habbal, S. Rifai; Morgan, H.; Druckmüller, M.; Ding, A.; Cooper, J. F.; Daw, A.; Sittler, E. C.

2013-07-01

126

Physical parameter analysis of an intense, compact subflare. [from solar observations onboard Skylab  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results of analysis of Skylab X-ray proportional counter data (10-s averages) and X-ray telescope filtergrams for the August 9, 1973 (SN/M2) subflare from McMath 12474 (NOAA AR 185) are presented. The event flux profiles and profiles of temperature, volume emission-measure, and a quantity equivalent to thermal energy content are shown. Using the proportional counter data, a peak temperature in excess of 20,000,000 K at 1552:05 UT, a peak volume emission measure of 7 x 10 to the 48th per cu cm at 1553:25 UT, and a peak value of thermal energy content of 2 x 10 to the 16th evgs/cm to the 3/2 power at 1552:45 UT were derived. Based on the analysis of spatially-resolved X-ray images during the period near flare-peak through flare-decay, the flare is observed to be both intense and compact and to consist of at least two identifiable loops whose volumes remained essentially unchanged throughout the event.

Wilson, R. M.; Smith, J. B., Jr.; Speich, D. M.

1979-01-01

127

General Relativity: Geometry Meets Physics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Observing the relationship of general relativity and the geometry of space-time, the author questions whether the rest of physics has geometrical explanations. As a partial answer he discusses current research on subatomic particles employing geometric transformations, and cites the existence of geometrical definitions of physical quantities such…

Thomsen, Dietrick E.

1975-01-01

128

Assessing agreement of self-reported and observed physical exposures of the upper extremity  

PubMed Central

Assessment of workplace physical exposures by self-reported questionnaires has logistical advantages in population studies but is subject to exposure misclassification. This study measured agreement between eight self-reported and observer-rated physical exposures to the hands and wrists, and evaluated predictors of inter-method agreement. Workers (n=341) from three occupational categories (clerical/technical, construction, and service) completed self-administered questionnaires and worksite assessments. Analyses compared self-reported and observed ratings using a weighted kappa coefficient. Personal and psychosocial factors, presence of upper extremity symptoms and job type were evaluated as predictors of agreement. Weighted kappa values were substantial for lifting (0.67) and holding vibrating tools (0.61), moderate for forceful grip (0.58) and fair to poor for all other exposures. Upper extremity symptoms did not predict greater disagreement between self-reported and observed exposures. Occupational category was the only significant predictor of inter-method agreement. Self-reported exposures may provide a useful estimate of some work exposures for population studies.

Dale, Ann Marie; Strickland, Jaime; Gardner, Bethany; Symanzik, Jurgen; Evanoff, Bradley

2012-01-01

129

Child Endowments, and the Quantity and Quality of Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper brings together and integrates social interactions and the special relation between quantity and quality. We are able to show that the observed quality income elasticity would be relatively high and the quantity elasticity relatively low and sometimes negative, even if the true \\

Gary S. Becker; Nigel Tomes

1976-01-01

130

A physical model to estimate snowfall over land using AMSU-B observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we present a physical model to retrieve snowfall rate over land using brightness temperature observations from NOAA's Advanced Microwave Sounder Unit-B (AMSU-B) at 89 GHz, 150 GHz, 183.3 ± 1 GHz, 183.3 ± 3 GHz, and 183.3 ± 7 GHz. The retrieval model is applied to the New England blizzard of 5 March 2001 which deposited about 75 cm of snow over much of Vermont, New Hampshire, and northern New York. In this physical model, prior retrieval assumptions about snowflake shape, particle size distributions, environmental conditions, and optimization methodology have been updated. Here, single scattering parameters for snow particles are calculated with the discrete-dipole approximation (DDA) method instead of assuming spherical shapes. Five different snow particle models are considered. Snow particle size distributions are assumed to vary with air temperature and to follow aircraft measurements described by previous studies. Brightness temperatures at AMSU-B frequencies for the New England blizzard are calculated using these DDA calculated single scattering parameters and particle size distributions. The vertical profiles of pressure, temperature, relative humidity and hydrometeors are provided by MM5 model simulations. These profiles are treated as the a priori database in the Bayesian retrieval algorithm. In algorithm applications to the blizzard data, calculated brightness temperatures associated with selected database profiles agree with AMSU-B observations to within about ±5 K at all five frequencies. Retrieved snowfall rates compare favorably with the near-concurrent National Weather Service (NWS) radar reflectivity measurements. The relationships between the NWS radar measured reflectivities Ze and retrieved snowfall rate R for a given snow particle model are derived by a histogram matching technique. All of these Ze-R relationships fall in the range of previously established Ze-R relationships for snowfall. This suggests that the current physical model developed in this study can reliably estimate the snowfall rate over land using the AMSU-B measured brightness temperatures.

Kim, Min-Jeong; Weinman, J. A.; Olson, W. S.; Chang, D.-E.; Skofronick-Jackson, G.; Wang, J. R.

2008-05-01

131

Computer simulating observations of the Lunar physical libration for the Japanese Lunar project ILOM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the frame of the second stage of the Japanese space mission SELENE-2 (Hanada et al. 2009) the project ILOM (In-situ Lunar Orientation Measurement) planned after 2017years is a kind of instrument for positioning on the Moon. It will be set near the lunar pole and will determine parameters of lunar physical libration by positioning of several tens of stars in the field of view regularly for longer than one year. Presented work is dedicated to analyses of computer simulating future observations. It's proposed that for every star crossing lunar prime meridian its polar distance will be to measure. The methods of optimal star observation are being developed for the future experiment. The equations are constructed to determine libration angles ? (t),?(t),?(t)- on the basis of observed polar distances pobs: (| f1(?,?,I?,pobs) = 0 |{ f2(?,?,I?,pobs) = 0 | f3(?,?,I?,pobs) = 0 |( or f(X) = 0, where ; f = ? f1 ? | f2 | |? f3 |? X = ? ? ? | ? | |? I? |? (1) At the present stage we have developed the software for selection of stars for these future polar observations. Stars were taken from various stellar catalogues, such as the UCAC2-BSS, Hipparcos, Tycho and FK6. The software reduces ICRS coordinates of star to selenographical system at the epoch of observation (Petrova et al., 2009). For example, to the epochs 2017 - 2018 more than 50 stars brighter than m = 12 were selected for the northern pole. In total, these stars give about 600 crossings of the prime meridian during one year. Nevertheless, only a few stars (2-5) may be observed in a vicinity of the one moment. This is not enough to have sufficient sample to exclude various kind of errors. The software includes programmes which can determine the moment of transition of star across the meridian and theoretical values of libration angles at this moments. A serious problem arises when we try to solve equations (1) with the purpose to determine libration angles on the basis of simulated pobs.. Polar distances are calculated using the analytical theory of physical libration Petrova et al. (2008; 2009). We cannot use Newton's method for solution of the equation, because the Jacobian | | || ??fx11 ??fx12 ??f1x3-|| || ??fx2 ??fx2 ??f2x-|| J(X ) = || ?f13 ?f23 ?3f3-|| = 0. || ?x1 ?x2 ?x3 || We transformed equations to the iteration form xi = ?i(X). Used iteration methods have unsatisfactory convergence: inaccuracy in polar distance of 1 milliseconds of arc causes inaccuracy of 0.01arcsec in ? and in I?, and 0.1 arcsec in ?. Results of our computer simulating showed It's necessary to carry out measuring of polar distances of stars in several meridians simultaneously to increase sample of stars. It's necessary to find additional links (relations) between observed parameters and libration angles to have stable mathematical methods to receive solutions for lunar rotation with high accuracy. The research was supported by the Russian-Japanese grant RFFI-JSPS 09-02-92113, (2009-2010) References: Hanada H., Noda H., Kikuchi F. et al., 2009. Different kind of observations of lunar rotation and gravity for SELENE-2. Proc of conf. Astrokazan-2009, August 19 - 26, Kazan, Russia. p. 172-175 Petrova N., Gusev A., Kawano N., Hanada H., 2008. Free librations of the two-layer Moon and the possibilities of their detection. Advances in Space Res., v 42, p. 1398-1404 Petrova N., Gusev A., Hanada H., Ivanova T., Akutina V., 2009. Application of the analytical theory of Lunar physical libration for simulating observations of stars for the future Japanese project ILOM. Proc of conf. Astrokazan-2009, August 19 - 26, Kazan, Russia. p.197 - 201.

Petrova, Natalia; Hanada, Hideo

2010-05-01

132

SPITZER OBSERVATIONS OF SUPERNOVA REMNANTS. II. PHYSICAL CONDITIONS AND COMPARISON WITH HH7 AND HH54  

SciTech Connect

We have studied the shock-excited molecular regions associated with four supernova remnants (SNRs)-IC443C, W28, W44, and 3C391-and two Herbig-Haro objects-HH7 and HH54-using Spitzer's Infrared Spectrograph (IRS). The physical conditions within the observed areas (roughly {approx}1' x 1' in size) are inferred from spectroscopic data obtained from IRS and from the Short and Long Wavelength Spectrometers on board the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO), together with photometric data from Spitzer's Infrared Array Camera. Adopting a power-law distribution for the gas temperature in the observed region, with the mass of gas at temperature T to T+dT assumed proportional to T{sup -b} dT, the H{sub 2} S(0) to S(7) spectral line maps obtained with IRS were used to constrain the gas density, yielding estimated densities n(H{sub 2}) in the range of {approx} (2-4)x10{sup 3} cm{sup -3}. The excitation of H{sub 2} S(9) to S(12) and high-J CO pure rotational lines, however, require environments several times denser. The inconsistency among the best-fit densities estimated from different species can be explained by density fluctuations within the observed regions. The best-fit power-law index b is smaller than the value 3.8 predicted for a paraboloidal C-type bow shock, suggesting that the shock front has a 'flatter' shape than that of a paraboloid. The best-fit parameters for SNRs and Herbig-Haro objects do not differ significantly between the two classes of sources, except that for the SNRs the ortho-to-para ratio (OPR) of hot gas (T> 1000 K) is close to the local thermal equilibrium value 3, while for HH7 and HH54 even the hottest gas exhibits an OPR smaller than 3; we interpret this difference as resulting from environmental differences between these classes of sources, molecular material near SNRs being subject to stronger photodissociation that results in faster para-to-ortho conversion. Finally, we mapped the physical parameters within the regions observed with IRS and found that the mid-lying H{sub 2} emissions-S(3) to S(5)-tend to trace the hot component of the gas, while the intensities of S(6) and S(7) are more sensitive to the density of the gas compared to S(3) to S(5).

Yuan Yuan; Neufeld, David A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

2011-01-10

133

Balancing Teacher Quality and Quantity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The world is facing a shortage of trained teachers. According to the 2010 Global Monitoring Report approximately 10.3 million teachers will be needed globally to staff classrooms from Bangkok to Canada. The situation is worse in Sub-Saharan Africa. Estimates suggest that approximately 1.2 million new teachers will be needed in Sub-Saharan Africa alone to achieve universal primary education goals by 2015. Increases in primary school enrollments, drought, and HIV-AIDS have exacerbated the need for well trained teachers. Despite the need, the focus is on balancing quality with quantity. An effective teacher is deemed a critical element, although not the only one, in a student's success in the classroom. This paper focuses on the dilemma of meeting universal primary education goals in Sub-Saharan Africa, while maintaining teacher quality in fragile contexts.

Bond, Helen

134

A Physical Model to Estimate Snowfall over Land using AMSU-B Observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this study, we present an improved physical model to retrieve snowfall rate over land using brightness temperature observations from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Advanced Microwave Sounder Unit-B (AMSU-B) at 89 GHz, 150 GHz, 183.3 +/- 1 GHz, 183.3 +/- 3 GHz, and 183.3 +/- 7 GHz. The retrieval model is applied to the New England blizzard of March 5, 2001 which deposited about 75 cm of snow over much of Vermont, New Hampshire, and northern New York. In this improved physical model, prior retrieval assumptions about snowflake shape, particle size distributions, environmental conditions, and optimization methodology have been updated. Here, single scattering parameters for snow particles are calculated with the Discrete-Dipole Approximation (DDA) method instead of assuming spherical shapes. Five different snow particle models (hexagonal columns, hexagonal plates, and three different kinds of aggregates) are considered. Snow particle size distributions are assumed to vary with air temperature and to follow aircraft measurements described by previous studies. Brightness temperatures at AMSU-B frequencies for the New England blizzard are calculated using these DDA calculated single scattering parameters and particle size distributions. The vertical profiles of pressure, temperature, relative humidity and hydrometeors are provided by MM5 model simulations. These profiles are treated as the a priori data base in the Bayesian retrieval algorithm. In algorithm applications to the blizzard data, calculated brightness temperatures associated with selected database profiles agree with AMSU-B observations to within about +/- 5 K at all five frequencies. Retrieved snowfall rates compare favorably with the near-concurrent National Weather Service (NWS) radar reflectivity measurements. The relationships between the NWS radar measured reflectivities Z(sub e) and retrieved snowfall rate R for a given snow particle model are derived by a histogram matching technique. All of these Z(sub e)-R relationships fall in the range of previously established Z(sub e)-R relationships for snowfall. This suggests that the current physical model developed in this study can reliably estimate the snowfall rate over land using the AMSU-B measured brightness temperatures.

Kim, Min-Jeong; Weinman, J. A.; Olson, W. S.; Chang, D.-E.; Skofronick-Jackson, G.; Wang, J. R.

2008-01-01

135

Observation and Numerical Simulation of Cloud Physical Processes Associated with Torrential Rain of the Meiyu Front  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cloud micro-physical structures in a precipitation system associated with the Meiyu front are observed using the balloon-borne Precipitation Particle Image Sensor at Baoshan observatory station, Shanghai during June and July 1999. The vertical distributions of various cloud particle size, number density, and mass density are retrieved from the observations. Analyses of observations show that ice-phase particles (ice crystals, graupel, snowflakes, and frozen drops) often exist in the cloud of torrential rain associated with the Meiyu front. Among the various particles, ice crystals and graupel are the most numerous, but graupel and snow have the highest mass density. Ice-phase particles coexist with liquid water droplets near the 0°C level. The graupel is similarly distributed with height as the ice crystals. Raindrops below the 0°C level are mainly from melted grauple, snowflakes and frozen drops. They may further grow larger by coalescence with smaller ones as they fall from the cloud base. Numerical simulations using the non-hydrostatic meso-scale model MM5 with the Reisner graupel explicit moisture scheme confirm the main observational results. Rain water at the lower level is mainly generated from the melting of snow and graupel falling from the upper level where snow and graupel are generated and grown from collection with cloud and rain water. Thus the mixed-phase cloud process, in which ice phase coexists and interacts with liquid phase (cloud and rain drops), plays the most important role in the formation and development of heavy convective rainfall in the Meiyu frontal system.

Wang, Pengyun; Yang, Jing

2003-01-01

136

Physical retrieval of precipitation cell parameters using passive 118-GHz observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Physical retrieval of precipitation parameters from 118-GHz spectra is investigated using an iterative planar-stratified numerical radiative-transfer model. Liquid and frozen hydrometeors are modeled as spherical Marshall-Palmer and Sekhon-Srivastava (SS) distributed Mie-scattering polydispersions, respectively, with Henyey-Greenstein phase functions. A comparison of 118-GHz rain-cell spectral perturbations observed during Cohmex with model calculations based on coincident radar data yields + or - 10 percent agreement over the convective core region, although a mean ice size 50 percent larger than that given by the SS distribution is required for agreement over the anvil region. A rain-cell model parameterized by top-altitude and total water density suggests that the dominant 118-GHz spectral modes can be used to retrieve top-layer altitude with rms errors of about 1-1.5 km, consistent with statistical retrieval results. Model calculations also suggest that cell density is not observable using 118-GHz spectra alone.

Gasiewski, A. J.; Staelin, D. H.

1989-01-01

137

Physical and chemical structure of the IC 63 nebula. 1: Millimeter and far-infrared observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present results of a (sub)millimeter and far-infrared study of the reflection/emission nebula IC 63, located close to the BO.5p star gamma Cas. The source has been mapped in the (12)CO 2 - 1 and 3 - 2, (13)CO 2 - 1, and CS 2 - 1 lines and shows a small molecular cloud less than 1'x 2' in extent, which coincides with the brightest optical nebulosity and IRAS 100 micrometer emission. IC 63 is therefore an excellent example of a nearby (d approximately = 230 pc), edge-on photon-dominated region (PDR). Various other molecules have been observed at the peak position through their rotational transitions, in order to probe the physical parameters and to derive abundances. The measured CO, HCO(+) HCN, CS and H2CO line ratios suggest that the cloud is warm, T approximately = 50 K, and dense, n (H2) approximately = 5 x 10(exp 4)/cu cm. Excitation of molecules by electrons may play a significant role in this PDR. On the basis of these physical conditions, column densities have been determined from the observed line strengths. Several different methods are discussed to constrain the H2 column density, including the use of measured submillimeter continuum fluxes. The resulting abundances of species such as CN and CS are similar to those found in cold, dark clouds like TMC-1 and L134N. However, the abundances of other simple molecules such as HNC, HCO(+) and possibly C2H are lower by factors of at least three, probably because of the enhanced photodissociation rates at a distance of 1.3 pc from a B star. Surprisingly, only the abundance of the H2S molecule appears enhanced. More complex, volatile molecules such as CH3OH CH3CN and HNCO, and the sulfur-oxides SO and SO2 have not been found in this cloud. Limited observations of molecules in the reflection nebulea NGC 2023 are presented as well, and the resulting molecular abundances are compared with those found for IC 63.

Jansen, David J.; Van Dishoeck, Ewine F.; Black, John H.

1994-01-01

138

Some Mineral Physics Observations Pertinent to the Rheological Properties of Super-Earths  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Both orbital and thermal evolution of recently discovered super-Earths (terrestrial planets whit mass exceeding that of Earth) depends critically on the rheological properties of their mantle. Although direct experimental studies on rheological properties are unavailable under the conditions equivalent to the deep mantles of these planets (~1 TPa and ~5000 K), a review of key materials science observations suggests that the deep mantle of these planets have much lower viscosity than most of the shallower regions of these planets. The key observations are: (i) phase transformations likely occur under these conditions including the B1 to B2 transition in MgO (1) and the dissociation of MgSiO3 into two oxides (MgO and SiO2) (2), (ii) the systematics in high-temperature creep show that materials with NaCl (B1) structures have much smaller viscosity than other oxides compared at the same normalized conditions (3), and (iii) diffusion coefficients in most of materials have a minimum at certain pressure and above that pressure it increases with pressure (due to mechanism transition) (4). In addition, a review of existing studies also shows that the ionic solids with B2 (CsCl) structure have larger diffusion coefficients than their B1 counter parts. Furthermore, if metallization transition occurs in any of these materials, delocalized electrons will further weaken the material. All of these observations or concepts suggest that even though the viscosity of a planet (below the asthenosphere) increases with depth in the relatively shallow regions, viscosity likely starts to decrease with depth below some critical depth (>~2000 km). The inferred low viscosity of super-Earths implies a large tidal dissipation and relatively rapid orbital evolution. Also such a rheological properties likely promote a layered mantle convection that enhances a weak deep mantle and retards the thermal evolution. 1. A. R. Oganov, M. J. Gillan, G. D. Price, Journal of Chemical Physics 118, 10174 (2003). 2. K. Umemoto, R. M. Wentzcovitch, P. B. Allen, Science 311, 983 (2006). 3. S. Karato, Physics of Earth and Planetary Interiors 55, 234 (1989). 4. S. Karato, Programme and Abstracts, The Seismological Society of Japan 1, 216 (1978).

Karato, S.

2010-12-01

139

SuperIso Relic: A program for calculating relic density and flavor physics observables in Supersymmetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe SuperIso Relic, a public program for evaluation of relic density and flavor physics observables in the minimal supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model (MSSM). SuperIso Relic is an extension of the SuperIso program which adds to the flavor observables of SuperIso the computation of all possible annihilation and coannihilation processes of the LSP which are required for the relic density calculation. All amplitudes have been generated at the tree level with FeynArts/FormCalc, and widths of the Higgs bosons are computed with FeynHiggs at the two-loop level. SuperIso Relic also provides the possibility to modify the assumptions of the cosmological model, and to study their consequences on the relic density. Catalogue identifier: AEGD_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEGD_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: yes No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 2?274?720 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 6?735?649 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C (C99 Standard compliant) and Fortran Computer: 32- or 64-bit PC, Mac Operating system: Linux, MacOS RAM: 100 Mb Classification: 1.9, 11.6 External routines: ISASUGRA/ISAJET and/or SOFTSUSY, FeynHiggs Does the new version supersede the previous version?: No (AEAN_v2_0) Nature of problem: Calculation of the lightest supersymmetric particle relic density, as well as flavor physics observables, in order to derive constraints on the supersymmetric parameter space. Solution method: SuperIso Relic uses a SUSY Les Houches Accord file, which can be either generated automatically via a call to SOFTSUSY or ISAJET, or provided by the user. This file contains the masses and couplings of the supersymmetric particles. SuperIso Relic then computes the lightest supersymmetric particle relic density as well as the most constraining flavor physics observables. To do so, it calculates first the widths of the Higgs bosons with FeynHiggs, and then it evaluates the squared amplitudes of the diagrams needed for the relic density calculation. These thousands of diagrams have been previously generated with the FeynArts/FormCalc package. SuperIso Relic is able to perform the calculations in different supersymmetry breaking scenarios, such as mSUGRA, NUHM, AMSB and GMSB. Reasons for new version: This version incorporates the calculation of the relic density, which is often used to constrain Supersymmetry. Summary of revisions:Addition of the relic density calculationReplacement of "float" type by "double". Unusual features: SuperIso Relic includes the possibility of altering the underlying cosmological model and testing the influence of the cosmological assumptions. Additional comments: This program is closely associated with the "SuperIso" program - CPC Program Library, Catalogue Id. AEAN. Running time:Compilation time: a couple of hours for the statically linked version, a few minutes for the dynamically linked version. Running time: about 1 second, or a few seconds if libraries need to be compiled on the fly.

Arbey, A.; Mahmoudi, F.

2010-07-01

140

Linking observations at active volcanoes to physical processes through conduit flow modelling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low frequency seismic events observed on volcanoes such as Soufriere hills, Montserrat may offer key indications about the state of a volcanic system. To obtain a better understanding of the source of these events and of the physical processes that take place within a volcano it is necessary to understand the conditions of magma a depth. This can be achieved through conduit flow modelling (Collier & Neuberg, 2006). 2-D compressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved through a Finite Element approach, for differing initial water and crystal contents, magma temperatures, chamber overpressures and geometric shapes of conduit. In the fully interdependent modelled system each of these variables has an effect on the magma density, viscosity, gas content, and also the pressure within the flow. These variables in turn affect the magma ascent velocity and the overall eruption dynamics of an active system. Of particular interest are the changes engendered in the flow by relativity small variations in the conduit geometry. These changes can have a profound local effect of the ascent velocity of the magma. By restricting the width of 15m wide, 5000m long vertical conduit over a 100m distance a significant acceleration of the magma is seen in this area. This has implications for the generation of Low-Frequency (LF) events at volcanic systems. The strain-induced fracture of viscoelastic magma or brittle failure of melt has been previously discussed as a possible source of LF events by several authors (e.g. Tuffen et al., 2003; Neuberg et al., 2006). The location of such brittle failure however has been seen to occur at relativity shallow depths (<1000m), which does not agree with the location of recorded LF events. By varying the geometry of the conduit and causing accelerations in the magma flow, localised increases in the shear strain rate of up to 30% are observed. This provides a mechanism of increasing the depth over witch brittle failure of melt may occur. A key observable of the Low frequency events observed on Montserrat is their tightly confined source region. The high degree of similarity of the waveforms from such events indicates a stationary common source within a finite volume of 150m x 150m x 150m (Neuberg et al., 2006). By modelling the physical processes that occur at depth within the volcano it has been possible to identify a potential source region of these events caused by the shape of the conduit, that has a fixed position and will have the potential cause repeatable events whenever magma is moving within the system. Making links of this type is essential to form a better understanding of what the observations made by monitoring systems actually relate to in terms of the volcanoes activity. Tuffen, H., Dingwell, D.B., and Pinkerton, H. 2003. Repeated fracture and healing of silicic magma generate flow banding and earthquakes? Geology, 31(12), 1089-1092. Collier, L. and Neuberg, J. 2006. Incorporating seismic observations into 2D conduit flow modelling. Journal of volcanology and geothermal research, 152, 331-346. Neuberg, J., Tuffen, H., Collier, L., Green, D., Powell, T., and Dingwell, P. 2006. The trigger mechanisms of low-frequency swarms on Montserrat. Journal of volcanology and geothermal research, 153, 37-50.

Thomas, Mark; Neuberg, Jurgen

2010-05-01

141

Change in physical structure of a phenol-spiked sapric histosol observed by Differential Scanning Calorimetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interactions of pollutants with soil organic matter (SOM), their fate and transformation are crucial for understanding of soil functions and properties. In past, many papers dealing with sorption of organic and inorganic compounds have been published. However, their aim was almost exceptionally fo-cused on the pollutants themselves, determination of sorption isotherms and influence of external factors, while the change in SOM supramolecular structure was usually ignored. The SOM structure is, however, very important, since the adsorbed pollutant might have a significant influence on soil stability and functions. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) represents a technique, which has been successfully used to analyze the physical structure and physico-chemical aging of SOM. It has been found out that water molecules progressively stabilize SOM (water molecule bridge (WaMB)) (Schaumann & Bertmer 2008). Those bridges connect and stabilize SOM and can be disrupted at higher temperature (WaMB transition; (Kunhi Mouvenchery et al. 2013; Schaumann et al. 2013). In the same temperature region melting of aliphatic moieties can be observed (Hu et al. 2000; Chilom & Rice 2005; Kucerik et al. submitted 2013). In this work, we studied the effect of phenol on the physical structure of sapric histosol. Phenol was dissolved in various solvents (water, acetone, hexane, methanol) and added to soils. After the evaporation of solvents by air drying, the sample was equilibrated at 76% relative humidity for 3 weeks. Using DSC, we investigated the influence of phenol on histosol structure and time dependence of melting temperature of aliphatic moieties and WaMB transition. While addition of pure organic solvent only resulted in slightly increased transition temperatures, both melting temperature and WaMB transition temperature were significantly reduced in most cases if phenol was dissolved in these solvents. Water treatment caused a decrease in WaMB transition temperature but increased melting temperature. During the 150 days of physico-chemical aging, an increase in WaMB transition and melting temperature of aliphatic crystallites was was observed. Several types of treatments contrasting with this development were attributed to specific solvent -phenol interactions and will be discussed in this contribution. The results indicate that after introduction of phenol and during the consequent relaxation of the SOM structure, the re-formation of water molecule bridges is significantly reduced and decelerated. WaMB has been suggested as one SOM stabilizing mechanism (Schaumann & Bertmer 2008); the incorporation of phenol destabilizes the physical structure of SOM. It is assumed that phenol can penetrate into the WaMB hotspots, competes with water and/or disrupts WaMB or participate in WaMB formation. Simultaneously, phenol can penetrate and irreversibly change also the aliphatic crystallites, which are traditionally not considered being actively involved in sorption processes. It furthermore could compete with the organic matter for the hydration water. In this contribution, we will discuss these mechanisms. The results clearly demonstrate the potential of DSC to probe labile (physical) structures in soil organic matter and to elucidate interaction of organic chemicals with SOM moieties. References Chilom, G. & Rice, J.A. (2005). Glass transition and crystallite melting in natural organic matter. Organic Geochemistry, 36, 1339-1346. Hu, W.-G.; Mao, J.; Xing, B. & Schmidt-Rohr, K. (2000). Poly(methylene) crystallites in humic substances detected by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. Environmental Science and Technology, 34, 530-534. Kucerik, J.; Schwarz, J.; Jaeger, A.; Bertmer, M. & Schaumann, G. (submitted 2013). Character of transitions causing physicochemical aging of a sapric histosol. Kunhi Mouvenchery, Y.; Jaeger, A.; Aquino, A.J.A.; Tunega, D.; Diehl, D.; Bertmer, M. & Schaumann, G.E. (2013). Restructuring of a peat in interaction with multivalent cations: Effect of cation type and aging time. PLoS ONE, 8, e65359. Scha

Ondruch, Pavel; Kucerik, Jiri; Schaumann, Gabriele E.

2014-05-01

142

Physically Consistent Responses of the Global Atmospheric Hydrological Cycle in Models and Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Robust and physically understandable responses of the global atmospheric water cycle to a warming climate are presented. By considering interannual responses to changes in surface temperature ( T), observations and AMIP5 simulations agree on an increase in column integrated water vapor at the rate 7 %/K (in line with the Clausius-Clapeyron equation) and of precipitation at the rate 2-3 %/K (in line with energetic constraints). Using simple and complex climate models, we demonstrate that radiative forcing by greenhouse gases is currently suppressing global precipitation ( P) at ˜-0.15 %/decade. Along with natural variability, this can explain why observed trends in global P over the period 1988-2008 are close to zero. Regional responses in the global water cycle are strongly constrained by changes in moisture fluxes. Model simulations show an increased moisture flux into the tropical wet region at 900 hPa and an enhanced outflow (of smaller magnitude) at around 600 hPa with warming. Moisture transport explains an increase in P in the wet tropical regions and small or negative changes in the dry regions of the subtropics in CMIP5 simulations of a warming climate. For AMIP5 simulations and satellite observations, the heaviest 5-day rainfall totals increase in intensity at ˜15 %/K over the ocean with reductions at all percentiles over land. The climate change response in CMIP5 simulations shows consistent increases in P over ocean and land for the highest intensities, close to the Clausius-Clapeyron scaling of 7 %/K, while P declines for the lowest percentiles, indicating that interannual variability over land may not be a good proxy for climate change. The local changes in precipitation and its extremes are highly dependent upon small shifts in the large-scale atmospheric circulation and regional feedbacks.

Allan, Richard P.; Liu, Chunlei; Zahn, Matthias; Lavers, David A.; Koukouvagias, Evgenios; Bodas-Salcedo, Alejandro

2014-05-01

143

DENSITY ESTIMATION FOR PROJECTED EXOPLANET QUANTITIES  

SciTech Connect

Exoplanet searches using radial velocity (RV) and microlensing (ML) produce samples of 'projected' mass and orbital radius, respectively. We present a new method for estimating the probability density distribution (density) of the unprojected quantity from such samples. For a sample of n data values, the method involves solving n simultaneous linear equations to determine the weights of delta functions for the raw, unsmoothed density of the unprojected quantity that cause the associated cumulative distribution function (CDF) of the projected quantity to exactly reproduce the empirical CDF of the sample at the locations of the n data values. We smooth the raw density using nonparametric kernel density estimation with a normal kernel of bandwidth {sigma}. We calibrate the dependence of {sigma} on n by Monte Carlo experiments performed on samples drawn from a theoretical density, in which the integrated square error is minimized. We scale this calibration to the ranges of real RV samples using the Normal Reference Rule. The resolution and amplitude accuracy of the estimated density improve with n. For typical RV and ML samples, we expect the fractional noise at the PDF peak to be approximately 80 n{sup -log2}. For illustrations, we apply the new method to 67 RV values given a similar treatment by Jorissen et al. in 2001, and to the 308 RV values listed at exoplanets.org on 2010 October 20. In addition to analyzing observational results, our methods can be used to develop measurement requirements-particularly on the minimum sample size n-for future programs, such as the microlensing survey of Earth-like exoplanets recommended by the Astro 2010 committee.

Brown, Robert A., E-mail: rbrown@stsci.edu [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

2011-05-20

144

Density Estimation for Projected Exoplanet Quantities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exoplanet searches using radial velocity (RV) and microlensing (ML) produce samples of "projected" mass and orbital radius, respectively. We present a new method for estimating the probability density distribution (density) of the unprojected quantity from such samples. For a sample of n data values, the method involves solving n simultaneous linear equations to determine the weights of delta functions for the raw, unsmoothed density of the unprojected quantity that cause the associated cumulative distribution function (CDF) of the projected quantity to exactly reproduce the empirical CDF of the sample at the locations of the n data values. We smooth the raw density using nonparametric kernel density estimation with a normal kernel of bandwidth ?. We calibrate the dependence of ? on n by Monte Carlo experiments performed on samples drawn from a theoretical density, in which the integrated square error is minimized. We scale this calibration to the ranges of real RV samples using the Normal Reference Rule. The resolution and amplitude accuracy of the estimated density improve with n. For typical RV and ML samples, we expect the fractional noise at the PDF peak to be approximately 80 n -log 2. For illustrations, we apply the new method to 67 RV values given a similar treatment by Jorissen et al. in 2001, and to the 308 RV values listed at exoplanets.org on 2010 October 20. In addition to analyzing observational results, our methods can be used to develop measurement requirements—particularly on the minimum sample size n—for future programs, such as the microlensing survey of Earth-like exoplanets recommended by the Astro 2010 committee.

Brown, Robert A.

2011-05-01

145

40 CFR 201.21 - Quantities measured.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Quantities measured. The quantities to be measured under the test conditions described below, are the A-weighted sound levels for âfastâ or âslowâ meter response as defined in the American National Standard...

2013-07-01

146

A Study on Tribology in Minimal Quantity Lubrication Cutting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the fact that minimal quantity lubrication (MQL) machining produces almost similar cutting performance to conventional flood supply machining while using much less metal working fluid (MWF), it has not been fully utilized in industry due to lack of understanding of the fundamental process physics. To take full advantage of MQL machining and expand its applicability, an understanding of its

S. Min; I. Inasaki; S. Fujimura; T. Wada; S. Suda; T. Wakabayashi

2005-01-01

147

Environmental and Social Correlates of Physical Activity in Neighborhood Parks: An Observational Study in Tampa and Chicago  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study used observational methods to examine physical activity (PA) and selected correlates in 28 parks in Tampa, Florida, and Chicago, Illinois. We observed 9,454 park users within predetermined activity zones and coded their activity as sedentary, walking (i.e., moderate intensity), or vigorous PA. In Tampa, higher temperature, unorganized activity, lower amounts of shade, lower neighborhood income, Hispanic neighborhood ethnicity,

Myron F. Floyd; J. O. Spengler; Jay E. Maddock; Paul H. Gobster; Luis Suau

2008-01-01

148

What Do Infants Know about Continuous Quantity?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated infants' sensitivity to amount of continuous quantity and to change in amount of continuous quantity. Using a habituation procedure, Experiment 1 examined whether 6-month-old infants can distinguish between different amounts of liquid in a container. Infants looked significantly longer at a novel quantity than at the familiar quantity. Using a violation-of-expectation paradigm, Experiment 2 examined whether 9-month-old infants

Fan Gao; Susan C. Levine; Janellen Huttenlocher

2000-01-01

149

Physical Processes of Substorm Onset and Current Disruption Observed by AMPTE/CCE  

SciTech Connect

A new scenario of AMPTE/CCE observation of substorm onset and current disruption and the corresponding physical processes is presented. Toward the end of the late growth phase, plasma beta increases to greater than or equal to 50 and a low-frequency instability with a wave period of 50-75 seconds is excited and grows exponentially to a large amplitude at the onset of current disruption. At the current disruption onset, higher-frequency instabilities are excited so that the plasma and electromagnetic field form a turbulent state. Plasma transport and heating take place to reduce plasma beta and modify the ambient plasma pressure and velocity profiles so that the ambient magnetic field recovers from a tail-like geometry to a more dipole- like geometry. To understand the excitation of the low-frequency global instability, a new theory of kinetic ballooning instability (KBI) is proposed to explain the high critical beta threshold (greater than or equal to 50) of the low-frequency global instability observed by the AMPTE/CCE. The stabilization kinetic effects of trapped electron and finite ion Larmor radii give rise to a large parallel electric field and hence a parallel current that greatly enhances the stabilizing effect of field line tension to the ballooning mode. As a result, the high critical beta threshold for excitation of KBI is greatly increased over the ideal MHD ballooning instability threshold by greater than O(10 squared). The wave-ion magnetic drift resonance effect typically reduces the high critical beta threshold by up to 20% and produces a perturbed resonant ion velocity distribution with a duskward velocity roughly equal to the average ion magnetic drift velocity as the KBI grows to a large amplitude. Higher-frequency instabilities, such as the cross-field current instability (CCI), can be excited by the additional velocity space free energy associated with the positive slope in the perturbed resonant ion velocity distribution.

Cheng, C.Z. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ (United States); Lui, A.T.Y. [Applied Physics Laboratory, Johns Hopkins Uniersity, Laurel, MD (United States)

1998-03-01

150

Analysis of the physical state of one Arctic polar stratospheric cloud based on observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the Arctic Airborne Stratospheric Expedition (AASE) simultaneous measurements of aerosol size distribution and NO(y)(HN03 + NO + NO2 + 2(N205)) were made along ER-2 flight paths. The flow characteristics of the NO(y) instrument allow us to derive the condensed NO(y) amount (assumed to be HN03) present during polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) events. Analysis of the January 24th flight indicates that this condensed HN03 amount does not agree well with the aerosol volume if the observed PSCs are composed of solid nitric acid trihydrate (NAT), as is generally assumed. However, the composition agrees well with that predicted for liquid H2S04/HN03/H20 solution droplets using a new Aerosol Physical Chemistry Model (APCM). The agreement corresponds in detail to variations in temperature and humidity. The weight percentages of H2SO4, HN03, and H2O derived from the measurements all correspond to those predicted for ternary, liquid solutions.

Drdla, K.; Tabazadeh, A.; Turco, R. P.; Jacobson, M. Z.; Dye, J. E.; Twohy, C.; Baumgardner, D.

1994-11-01

151

Observation of a physical matrix effect during cold vapour generation measurement of mercury in emissions samples.  

PubMed

The observation of a physical matrix effect during the cold vapour generation-atomic fluorescence measurement of mercury in emissions samples is reported. The effect is as a result of the different efficiencies of liberation of reduced mercury from solution as the matrix of the solution under test varies. The result of this is that peak area to peak height ratios decease as matrix concentration increases, passing through a minimum, before the ratio then increases as matrix concentration further increases. In the test matrices examined - acidified potassium dichromate and sodium chloride solutions - the possible biases caused by differences between the calibration standard matrix and the test sample matrix were as large as 2.8% (relative) representing peak area to peak height ratios for calibration standards and matrix samples of 45 and 43.75, respectively. For the system considered there is a good correlation between the density of the matrix and point of optimum liberation of dissolved mercury for both matrix types. Several methods employing matrix matching and mathematical correction to overcome the bias are presented and their relative merits discussed; the most promising being the use of peak area, rather than peak height, for quantification. PMID:24746349

Brown, Richard J C; Webb, William R; Goddard, Sharon L

2014-05-01

152

Rethinking Intensive Quantities via Guided Mediated Abduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some intensive quantities, such as slope, velocity, or likelihood, are perceptually privileged in the sense that they are experienced as holistic, irreducible sensations. However, the formal expression of these quantities uses a\\/b analytic metrics; for example, the slope of a line is the quotient of its rise and run. Thus, whereas students' sensation of an intensive quantity could serve as

Dor Abrahamson

2011-01-01

153

48 CFR 36.516 - Quantity surveys.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Quantity surveys. 36.516 Section 36.516 Federal...Contract Clauses 36.516 Quantity surveys. The contracting officer may insert the clause at 52.236-16, Quantity Surveys, in solicitations and contracts...

2013-10-01

154

Occurrence and quantity of precipitation can be modelled simultaneously  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many statistical models exist for modelling precipitation. One difficulty is that two issues need to be addressed: the probability of precipitation occurring, and then the quantity of precipitation recorded. This paper considers a family of distributions for modelling the quantity of precipitation, including those observations in which exactly no precipitation is recorded. Two examples are then discussed showing the distributions model the precipitation patterns well.

Dunn, Peter K.

2004-08-01

155

Quantity, Revisited: An Object-Oriented Reusable Class  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

"Quantity", a prototype implementation of an object-oriented class, was developed for two reasons: to help engineers and scientists manipulate the many types of quantities encountered during routine analysis, and to create a reusable software component to for large domain-specific applications. From being used as a stand-alone application to being incorporated into an existing computational mechanics toolkit, "Quantity" appears to be a useful and powerful object. "Quantity" has been designed to maintain the full engineering meaning of values with respect to units and coordinate systems. A value is a scalar, vector, tensor, or matrix, each of which is composed of Value Components, each of which may be an integer, floating point number, fuzzy number, etc., and its associated physical unit. Operations such as coordinate transformation and arithmetic operations are handled by member functions of "Quantity". The prototype has successfully tested such characteristics as maintaining a numeric value, an associated unit, and an annotation. In this paper we further explore the design of "Quantity", with particular attention to coordinate systems.

Funston, Monica Gayle; Gerstle, Walter; Panthaki, Malcolm

1998-01-01

156

Observation and identification of zonal flows in a basic physics experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of self-generated zonal flows (ZF) in transport regulation in magnetic confinement devices via its shear is a potent concept and a physics issue. However, as the experimental evidence of its existence in tokamaks is meagre, a basic physics experimental study of ZF associated with ion temperature gradient (ITG) drift modes has been performed in the Columbia Linear Machine.

V. Sokolov; X. Wei; A. K. Sen; K. Avinash

2006-01-01

157

On the origin of the D'' discontinuity: Combining seismological observations with mineral physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The D'' region is one of the most seismologically complex and intriguing parts of the Earth. Many independent studies have observed reflections of both P and/or S waves from structures located c. 100-400 km above the CMB. These structures are often assumed to demarcate the top of the D'' layer and loosely referred to as 'the D'' discontinuity'. Unlike the major discontinuities of the upper mantle, which appear readily in global seismic inversions of 1-D structure but may be absent in regional seismic datasets, the D'' discontinuity is typically absent from 1-D reference models yet readily observed in regional seismic datasets. Furthermore, significant lateral variations are seen in the amplitude, polarity and timing of P and S wave reflections, both within and between different studies, and in some regions no reflections are detected. It is thus not clear if D'' reflections represent a globally ubiquitous discontinuity, or arise from local to regional scale heterogeneity. Most recently, a popular hypothesis is that the D'' discontinuity represents the phase change from perovskite to post-perovskite. This hypothesis is based on a consistency between the seismic properties of D'' reflections in the Caribbean region (where typically strong S-wave reflections are accompanied by weaker P-wave reflections) and the experimentally-inferred transformation pressure and velocity contrast of the phase change. However, it becomes more difficult to explain D'' reflections in terms of the pv-ppv transformation in regions such as Siberia, where strong reflections are seen in both P and S waves. Accordingly, we consider the possibility that D'' reflections may be generated by a range of alternative thermochemical phenomena. We compile observations of D'' reflections from several locations around the globe, and quantitatively assess how well different thermochemical models fit the seismic properties of the reflections at each location. Our compilation includes both published seismic datasets, and new data from the Atlantic, and samples both 'fast' and 'slow' regions according to long-wavelength tomography models. We use the polarity and amplitude of D'' reflections to infer the sign and magnitude of velocity changes across the reflectors, while equation-of-state modelling is used to convert changes in temperature and mineralogy into corresponding seismic structure. For a given thermochemical model, a Monte-Carlo sampling of the composition space and uncertainties in mineral elastic parameters is applied, which allows us to resolve trade-offs between temperature and composition, as well as the seismic manifestation of mineral physics uncertainties. Our results indicate that it may be possible to discriminate between different possible origins for D?? reflections on the basis of polarity observations alone. Amplitude measurements may provide further constraints but must be treated with caution due to a large number of factors that can influence waveform amplitudes. While in some regions it is easiest to fit the seismic data with a pv-ppv phase change, in other regions subduction-related chemical heterogeneity or anisotropy may play a significant role in generating D'' reflections.

Cobden, L. J.; Thomas, C.

2013-12-01

158

Physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Physics is the scientific study of the basic principles of the universe, including matter, energy, motion and force, and their interactions. Major topics include classical mechanics, thermodynamics, light and optics, electromagnetism and relativity.

K-12 Outreach,

159

38 CFR 17.41 - Persons eligible for hospital observation and physical examination.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...obscure disorder. (c) Employees of the Department of Veterans Affairs when necessary to determine their mental or physical fitness to perform official duties. (d) Claimants or beneficiaries of other Federal agencies: (1) Department of...

2013-07-01

160

Physical and Orbital Properties of the (22) Kalliope System from Mutual Eclipse Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In February and March of 2012, binary asteroid (22) Kalliope and its satellite Linus entered a season of mutual eclipses. Analysis of lightcurves taken during eclipses allow for improvement of both the physical and orbital properties of the system.

Springmann, A.; Dalba, P.; Marchis, F.; Vachier, F.; Berthier, J.; Descamps, P.; Morris, B.; Marciniak, A.; Santana i Ros, T.; Kryszczynska, A.

2012-05-01

161

Physical Units  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page, authored by Rod Nave at Georgia State University, describes units of measurement, unit conversions, dimensional analysis and basic mechanical quantities. Length, Mass and Time link to separate pages that go into more detail on the physical quantities and their definitions. Also included is a link to a page that does unit conversions for the user.

Nave, Rod

2010-01-14

162

Physical mechanism of strong negative storm effects in the daytime ionospheric F2 region observed with EISCAT  

Microsoft Academic Search

A self-consistent method for daytime F-region modelling was applied to EISCAT observations during two periods comprising the very disturbed days 3 April 1992 and 10 April 1990. The observed strong Ne decrease at F2-layer heights originated from different physical mechanisms in the two cases. The negative F2-layer storm effect with an NmF2 decrease by a factor of 6.4 on 3

A. Mikhailov; K. Schlegel

1998-01-01

163

The Physical Therapy and Society Summit (PASS) Meeting: observations and opportunities.  

PubMed

The construct of delivering high-quality and cost-effective health care is in flux, and the profession must strategically plan how to meet the needs of society. In 2006, the House of Delegates of the American Physical Therapy Association passed a motion to convene a summit on "how physical therapists can meet current, evolving, and future societal health care needs." The Physical Therapy and Society Summit (PASS) meeting on February 27-28, 2009, in Leesburg, Virginia, sent a clear message that for physical therapists to be effective and thrive in the health care environment of the future, a paradigm shift is required. During the PASS meeting, participants reframed our traditional focus on the physical therapist and the patient/client (consumer) to one in which physical therapists are an integral part of a collaborative, multidisciplinary health care team with the health care consumer as its focus. The PASS Steering Committee recognized that some of the opportunities that surfaced during the PASS meeting may be disruptive or may not be within the profession's present strategic or tactical plans. Thus, adopting a framework that helps to establish the need for change that is provocative and potentially disruptive to our present care delivery, yet prioritizes opportunities, is a critical and essential step. Each of us in the physical therapy profession must take on post-PASS roles and responsibilities to accomplish the systemic change that is so intimately intertwined with our destiny. This article offers a perspective of the dynamic dialogue and suggestions that emerged from the PASS event, providing further opportunities for discussion and action within our profession. PMID:20829448

Kigin, Colleen M; Rodgers, Mary M; Wolf, Steven L

2010-11-01

164

Analysis of observational cases measured by MRR and PARSIVEL disdrometer for understanding the physical characteristics of precipitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The methods measuring the precipitation drop size distribution(hereafter referred to as DSD) at Cloud Physics Observation System (CPOS) in Daegwallyeong are to use PARSIVEL (PARticle SIze and VELocity) disdrometer (hereafter referred to as PARSIVEL) and Micro Rain Radar (hereafter referred to as MRR). First of all, PARSIVEL and MRR give good correlation coefficients between their rain rates and those of

J. Cha; K. Chang; J. Jeoung; J. Bae; Y. Choi; Y. Kim

2010-01-01

165

Large quantity discrimination by North Island robins (Petroica longipes).  

PubMed

While numerosity-representation and enumeration of different numbers of objects-and quantity discrimination in particular have been studied in a wide range of species, very little is known about the numerical abilities of animals in the wild. This study examined spontaneous relative quantity judgments (RQJs) by wild North Island robins (Petroica longipes) of New Zealand. In Experiment 1, robins were tested on a range of numerical values of up to 14 versus 16 items, which were sequentially presented and hidden. In Experiment 2, the same numerical contrasts were tested on a different group of subjects but quantities were presented as whole visible sets. Experiment 3 involved whole visible sets that comprised of exceedingly large quantities of up to 56 versus 64 items. While robins shared with other species a ratio-based representation system for representing very large values, they also appeared to have developed an object indexing system with an extended upper limit (well beyond 4) that may be an evolutionary response to ecological challenges faced by scatter-hoarding birds. These results suggest that cognitive mechanism influencing an understanding of physical quantity may be deployed more flexibly in some contexts than previously thought, and are discussed in light of findings across other mammalian and avian species. PMID:22825034

Garland, Alexis; Low, Jason; Burns, Kevin C

2012-11-01

166

Observational Analysis of Student Activity Modes, Lesson Contexts and Teacher Interactions during Games Classes in High School (11-16 Years) Physical Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This purpose of this study was to examine student activity, lesson contexts and teacher interactions during secondary school physical education, using a recently validated systematic observation instrument termed the System for Observing the Teaching of Games in Physical Education (SOTG-PE). Thirty, single-gender high school (11-16 years) physical

Roberts, Simon; Fairclough, Stuart

2011-01-01

167

Quantity-activity relationship of denitrifying bacteria and environmental scaling in streams of a forested watershed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spatial variability of subreach denitrification rates in streams was evaluated with respect to controlling environmental conditions, molecular examination of denitrifying bacteria, and dimensional analysis. Denitrification activities ranged from 0 and 800 ng-N gsed-1 d-1 with large variations observed within short distances (<50 m) along stream reaches. A log-normal probability distribution described the range in denitrification activities and was used to define low (16% of the probability distribution), medium (68%), and high (16%) denitrification potential groups. Denitrifying bacteria were quantified using a competitive polymerase chain reaction (cPCR) technique that amplified the nirK gene that encodes for nitrite reductase. Results showed a range of nirK quantities from 103 to 107 gene-copy-number gsed-1. A nonparametric statistical test showed no significant difference in nirK quantities among stream reaches, but revealed that samples with a high denitrification potential had significantly higher nirK quantities. Denitrification activity was positively correlated with nirK quantities with scatter in the data that can be attributed to varying environmental conditions along stream reaches. Dimensional analysis was used to evaluate denitrification activities according to environmental variables that describe fluid-flow properties, nitrate and organic material quantities, and dissolved oxygen flux. Buckingham's pi theorem was used to generate dimensionless groupings and field data were used to determine scaling parameters. The resulting expressions between dimensionless NO3- flux and dimensionless groupings of environmental variables showed consistent scaling, which indicates that the subreach variability in denitrification rates can be predicted by the controlling physical, chemical, and microbiological conditions.

O'Connor, Ben L.; Hondzo, Miki; Dobraca, Dina; Lapara, Timothy M.; Finlay, Jacques C.; Brezonik, Patrick L.

2006-12-01

168

High Resolution Time Series Observations of Bio-Optical and Physical Variability in the Arabian Sea.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The FUOD mooring instrumented with optical and physical sensors within the upper 300 m was deployed for two 6-month periods (10/15/94 through 10/20/95) in the central Arabian Sea (15 deg 30'N, 61 deg 30'E). Both the northeast and southwest monsoons were o...

T. D. Dickey

1998-01-01

169

High Resolution Time Series Observations of Bio-Optical and Physical Variability in the Arabian Sea.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A mooring instrumented with optical and physical sensors within the upper 300 m was deployed for two consecutive 6-month periods (October 15, 1994 through October 20, 1995) in the central Arabian Sea (15 degrees 30'N, 61 degrees 30'E). Both the Northeast ...

T. D. Dickey

2000-01-01

170

Modeling ice streams: Derived quantities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The model addressed is a finite-element, map-plane, time-dependent, column-averaged continuity equation solver. The key to the fitting process involves the balance between ice motion dominated by flow in internal layers, and ice motion dominated by sliding at the bed. The fitting process involves an iterative process carried out in the time domain. Beginning with the portion of the ice sheet being modeled identical to the present ice sheet with uniform flow, sliding, and fraction specified at nominal values, the model monitors each nodal point surface elevation. As the calculated surface elevation deviates from the present surface, a correction proportional to the difference is applied to selected parameter sets. This correction is in a sense that would tend to improve the fit at the particular nodal point. A calculated surface elevation that was higher than the present surface would result in an increased fraction, which would tend to lower the calculated surface (if the flow or sliding constant were being used as the fitting parameter, they would be lowered to improve the fit). This process is allowed to proceed as long as is necessary for the situation to stabilize. Typically, this takes tens of thousands of model years, but the rate is dependent on other external forcings such as the accumulation rate. The primary result is that while a typical sample of ice streams from around Antarctica can be fitted quite reasonably using only the fraction of the velocity due to sliding, a different mechanism seems to be in play along the Siple Coast, where reduced sliding constants are required to attain a reasonable fit. Flow is more strongly channelized in this region, and velocities are, in general, higher than are observed in other regions. It is unlikely that the mechanism that controls the ice movement along the Siple Coast is exactly similar to the mechanisms in the other ice streams. The concept of deformable sediments and their contribution to the fast flow along the Siple Coast may have limited applicability to other Antarctic ice streams.

Fastook, James

1993-01-01

171

Quantity Discounts: Managerial Issues and Research Opportunities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marketing managers frequently administer pricing policies involving substantial quantity discounts. However, our understanding of the precise role of these discounts, and their design, is quite limited. This paper reviews and integrates the economics and marketing literature and presents a detailed analysis of the policies of four firms in order to: (i) specify the variety of motivations for quantity discounts, (ii)

Robert J. Dolan

1987-01-01

172

Keeping Secrets : Quantity, Quality and Consequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Keeping Secrets deals with the consequences of an elusive yet everyday phenomenon. It addresses both the quantity and quality of secret-keeping. With respect to quantity, it presents research on the intra- and interpersonal consequences of keeping secrets from parents in adolescence. With respect to quality, it presents research that investigates and compares two types of secrets: Secrets that are kept

T. Frijns

2005-01-01

173

Rethinking Intensive Quantities via Guided Mediated Abduction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some intensive quantities, such as slope, velocity, or likelihood, are perceptually privileged in the sense that they are experienced as holistic, irreducible sensations. However, the formal expression of these quantities uses "a/b" analytic metrics; for example, the slope of a line is the quotient of its rise and run. Thus, whereas students'…

Abrahamson, Dor

2012-01-01

174

Active buildings: modelling physical activity and movement in office buildings. An observational study protocol  

PubMed Central

Introduction Health benefits of regular participation in physical activity are well documented but population levels are low. Office layout, and in particular the number and location of office building destinations (eg, print and meeting rooms), may influence both walking time and characteristics of sitting time. No research to date has focused on the role that the layout of the indoor office environment plays in facilitating or inhibiting step counts and characteristics of sitting time. The primary aim of this study was to investigate associations between office layout and physical activity, as well as sitting time using objective measures. Methods and analysis Active buildings is a unique collaboration between public health, built environment and computer science researchers. The study involves objective monitoring complemented by a larger questionnaire arm. UK office buildings will be selected based on a variety of features, including office floor area and number of occupants. Questionnaires will include items on standard demographics, well-being, physical activity behaviour and putative socioecological correlates of workplace physical activity. Based on survey responses, approximately 30 participants will be recruited from each building into the objective monitoring arm. Participants will wear accelerometers (to monitor physical activity and sitting inside and outside the office) and a novel tracking device will be placed in the office (to record participant location) for five consecutive days. Data will be analysed using regression analyses, as well as novel agent-based modelling techniques. Ethics and dissemination The results of this study will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications and scientific presentations. Ethical approval was obtained through the University College London Research Ethics Committee (Reference number 4400/001).

Smith, Lee; Ucci, Marcella; Marmot, Alexi; Spinney, Richard; Laskowski, Marek; Sawyer, Alexia; Konstantatou, Marina; Hamer, Mark; Ambler, Gareth; Wardle, Jane; Fisher, Abigail

2013-01-01

175

Radar and optical observations and physical modeling of near-Earth Asteroid 10115 (1992 SK)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We estimate Asteroid 1992 SK's physical properties from delay–Doppler images and Doppler-only echo spectra obtained during March 22–27, 1999, at Goldstone and from optical lightcurves obtained during February–March 1999 at Ond?ejov Observatory. The images span only about 15° of sky motion and are not strong, but they place up to twenty 40 m by 160 m pixels on the asteroid

Michael W. Busch; Steven J. Ostro; Lance A. M. Benner; Jon D. Giorgini; Raymond F. Jurgens; Randy Rose; Christopher Magri; Petr Pravec; Daniel J. Scheeres; Stephen B. Broschart

2006-01-01

176

Physical connectivity in the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System inferred from 9 years of ocean color observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ocean color images acquired from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) from 1998 to 2006 were used to examine\\u000a the patterns of physical connectivity between land and reefs, and among reefs in the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System (MBRS)\\u000a in the northwestern Caribbean Sea. Connectivity was inferred by tracking surface water features in weekly climatologies and\\u000a a time series of weekly

I. Soto; S. Andréfouët; C. Hu; F. E. Muller-Karger; C. C. Wall; J. Sheng; B. G. Hatcher

2009-01-01

177

An observational study of nutrition and physical activity behaviours, knowledge, and advice in pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Background Maternal obesity, excess weight gain and lifestyle behaviours during pregnancy have been associated with future overweight and other adverse health outcomes for mothers and babies. This study compared the nutrition and physical activity behaviours of Australian healthy (BMI ? 25 k/m2) and overweight (BMI ? 25?kg/m2) pregnant women and described their knowledge and receipt of health professional advice early in pregnancy. Methods Pregnant women (n=58) aged 29±5 (mean±s.d.) years were recruited at 16±2 weeks gestation from an Australian metropolitan hospital. Height and weight were measured using standard procedures and women completed a self administered semi-quantitative survey. Results Healthy and overweight women had very similar levels of knowledge, behaviour and levels of advice provided except where specifically mentioned. Only 8% and 36% of participants knew the correct recommended daily number of fruit and vegetable serves respectively. Four percent of participants ate the recommended 5 serves/day of vegetables. Overweight women were less likely than healthy weight women to achieve the recommended fruit intake (4% vs. 8%, p=0.05), and more likely to consume soft drinks or cordial (55% vs 43%, p=0.005) and take away foods (37% vs. 25%, p=0.002) once a week or more. Less than half of all women achieved sufficient physical activity. Despite 80% of women saying they would have liked education about nutrition, physical activity and weight gain, particularly at the beginning of pregnancy, less than 50% were given appropriate advice regarding healthy eating and physical activity. Conclusion Healthy pregnancy behaviour recommendations were not being met, with overweight women less likely to meet some of the recommendations. Knowledge of dietary recommendations was poor and health care professional advice was limited. There are opportunities to improve the health care practices and education pregnant women received to improve knowledge and behaviours. Pregnant women appear to want this.

2013-01-01

178

Method of ``optimum observables'' and implementation of neural networks in physics investigations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A separation of a signal of various physics processes from an overwhelming background is one of the most important problems in contemporary high-energy physics. The application of various multivariate statistical methods, such as the neural-network method, has become one of the popular steps toward optimizing relevant analyses. The choice of optimum variables that would disclose distinctions between a signal and a background is one of the important elements in the application of neural networks. A universal method for determining an optimum set of such kinematical variables is described in the present article. The method is based on an analysis of Feynman diagrams contributing to signal and background processes. This method was successfully implemented in searches for single top-quark production with the D0 detector (Tevatron, Fermilab) in analyzing Run I and Run II data. Brief recommendations concerning an optimum implementation of the neural-network method in physics analysis are given on the basis of experience gained in searches for single top-quark production with the D0 detector.

Boos, E. E.; Bunichev, V. E.; Dudko, L. V.; Markina, A. A.

2008-02-01

179

Method of 'optimum observables' and implementation of neural networks in physics investigations  

SciTech Connect

A separation of a signal of various physics processes from an overwhelming background is one of the most important problems in contemporary high-energy physics. The application of various multivariate statistical methods, such as the neural-network method, has become one of the popular steps toward optimizing relevant analyses. The choice of optimum variables that would disclose distinctions between a signal and a background is one of the important elements in the application of neural networks. A universal method for determining an optimum set of such kinematical variables is described in the present article. The method is based on an analysis of Feynman diagrams contributing to signal and background processes. This method was successfully implemented in searches for single top-quark production with the D0 detector (Tevatron, Fermilab) in analyzing Run I and Run II data. Brief recommendations concerning an optimum implementation of the neural-network method in physics analysis are given on the basis of experience gained in searches for single top-quark production with the D0 detector.

Boos, E. E.; Bunichev, V. E.; Dudko, L. V.; Markina, A. A. [Moscow State University, Institute of Nuclear Physics (Russian Federation)

2008-02-15

180

Number versus Continuous Quantity in Numerosity Judgments by Fish  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In quantity discrimination tasks, adults, infants and animals have been sometimes observed to process number only after all continuous variables, such as area or density, have been controlled for. This has been taken as evidence that processing number may be more cognitively demanding than processing continuous variables. We tested this hypothesis…

Agrillo, Christian; Piffer, Laura; Bisazza, Angelo

2011-01-01

181

Observation of Hypervelocity Dust in Dense Supersonic Plasma Flows: Physics and Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Synthetic diamond and graphite dust powders with a wide range of sizes, from a few to several tens of microns in diameter were accelerated to velocities up to 4 km/s in vacuum by plasma jet produced in a coaxial gun. Some of the key features of the plasma flow are high density, of the order of 1022 m-3, low ion and electron temperatures, of only a few eV, and good collimation over a distance of ~2 m due to confinement by the self-generated magnetic field. The main features of this plasma-drag acceleration technique are presented and discussed. From basic science point of view hypervelocity dust is useful for studying the physics of dust interaction with energetic plasma flows at microscopic level. In physical applications, it has been proposed to use hypervelocity dust for diagnostic or control of magnetically confined fusion plasmas. In engineering, hypervelocity dusty plasmas are extensively employed in industrial processes involved in the processing of surfaces.

Tico?, C. M.; Wang, Z.; Wurden, G. A.; Shukla, P. K.

2008-10-01

182

Observation of Hypervelocity Dust in Dense Supersonic Plasma Flows: Physics and Applications  

SciTech Connect

Synthetic diamond and graphite dust powders with a wide range of sizes, from a few to several tens of microns in diameter were accelerated to velocities up to 4 km/s in vacuum by plasma jet produced in a coaxial gun. Some of the key features of the plasma flow are high density, of the order of 10{sup 22} m{sup -3}, low ion and electron temperatures, of only a few eV, and good collimation over a distance of {approx_equal}2 m due to confinement by the self-generated magnetic field. The main features of this plasma-drag acceleration technique are presented and discussed. From basic science point of view hypervelocity dust is useful for studying the physics of dust interaction with energetic plasma flows at microscopic level. In physical applications, it has been proposed to use hypervelocity dust for diagnostic or control of magnetically confined fusion plasmas. In engineering, hypervelocity dusty plasmas are extensively employed in industrial processes involved in the processing of surfaces.

Ticos, C. M. [National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Bucharest (Romania); Wang, Z.; Wurden, G. A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Shukla, P. K. [Institut fuer Teoretische Physik IV, Fakueltat fuer Physik und Astronomie, Ruhr-Universtaet Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany)

2008-10-15

183

Zero-gravity quantity gaging system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Zero-Gravity Quantity Gaging System program is a technology development effort funded by NASA-LeRC and contracted by NASA-JSC to develop and evaluate zero-gravity quantity gaging system concepts suitable for application to large, on-orbit cryogenic oxygen and hydrogen tankage. The contract effective date was 28 May 1985. During performance of the program, 18 potential quantity gaging approaches were investigated for their merit and suitability for gaging two-phase cryogenic oxygen and hydrogen in zero-gravity conditions. These approaches were subjected to a comprehensive trade study and selection process, which found that the RF modal quantity gaging approach was the most suitable for both liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen applications. This selection was made with NASA-JSC concurrence.

1989-01-01

184

Arsenic Treatment Residuals: Quantities, Characteristics and Disposal  

EPA Science Inventory

This presentation provides information on the quantities, the characteristics and the disposal options for the common arsenic removal technologies. The technologies consist of adsorption media, iron removal, coagulation/filtration and ion exchange. The information for the prese...

185

Lighting Quantity and Quality in Educational Facilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses educational facility lighting management, and examines how light quantity, distribution, and quality-enhancement strategies can improve the indoor environment while reducing lighting costs. Informational tables provide lighting pattern, color, and illuminance data. (GR)

Elwazanim, Salim A.

1998-01-01

186

Tropical Cirrus Physical and Radiation Characteristics from the NASA Aircraft Observations in Toga/Coare  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the Toga/Coare experiment in the tropical west Pacific, a cloud radiation experiment involving measurement from the NASA ER-2 high altitude aircraft and DC-8 airborne laboratory was performed. Observations include multispectral visible/IR and microwave radiometric imaging, active lidar profiling and radiation flux measurements. On a number of missions coordinated flights were made for simultaneous cloud observations with the ER-2 remote sensing and DC-8 below cloud and in cloud measurements. Since the field experiment there has been systematic analysis of the observations. Intercomparison of retrieved measurements will be presented. These include the relation between visible bi-directional reflectivity and infrared emissivity of tropical cirrus. Upper troposphere microwave water vapor retrievals and cirrus optical parameters have been correlated. The relation observed short wave flux divergence to retrieved cloud thickness and type has been studied. Calculations and statistics for the short and long wave heating profiles of observed clouds have been derived. A summary of key results will be presented.

Spinhirne, James D.; Hart, W. D.; Duda, D. P.; Wang, J. R.; Hlavka, D.

1999-01-01

187

Observations in particle physics from two neutrinos to the standard model.  

PubMed

The two-neutrino experiment established a relationship between particles, muon and muon neutrino, electron and electron neutrino, which evolved into the standard model of particle physics. The theme of this article is a personal one, which reviews a series of experiments at the Columbia Synchrocyclotron, the Brookhaven Cosmotron, the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron, the CERN intersecting storage rings, the Fermilab 400-gigavolt proton synchrotron, and the Cornell electron storage rings, all of which were important in the evolution of the standard model. In some cases the fermion particles were discovered (the second neutrino vmicro, b quark); in other cases fields of research were opened (muon spin resonance, neutral kaons and charge-parity violation, dimuons and the Drell-Yan process), which led to further development of the standard model. Finally, the current ignorance about the properties of now three neutrinos is reviewed. PMID:17740338

Lederman, L M

1989-05-12

188

Observable n-n oscillations with new physics at the LHC  

SciTech Connect

We explore extensions of the minimal supersymmetric standard model in which TeV scale vectorlike multiplets can mediate observable n-n oscillations, without causing conflict with the proton decay experiments, with a U(1) symmetry playing an important role. The colored vectorlike particles, in particular, may be found at the LHC through some decay modes arising from their direct couplings to quarks.

Ajaib, M. Adeel; Gogoladze, I.; Shafi, Q. [Bartol Research Institute, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States); Mimura, Yukihiro [Department of Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)

2009-12-15

189

Winds and the underlying physical parameters of hot stars - An observational approach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The predicted values of wind terminal velocity calculated using the formalism of Kudritzki et al. (1989) are compared with observed values for 4 OB binaries with well determined component masses, radii, and temperatures. The aim is to derive the value of the force multiplier parameter alpha appropriate to the winds from these stars.

Corcoran, M. F.; Heap, S. R.

1990-01-01

190

Observations of sudden changes in aerosol properties along the coast: Separating artifact from physics in the littoral zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Both in-situ and satellite observations of coastal regions frequently detect large changes in aerosol particle microphysics and loadings across the littoral boundary. Given the complexity of measuring aerosol properties in both clean marine and continental environments, the transitional littoral zone has proven the most difficult to monitor and model. This has proved an impediment to our understanding of aerosol transport physics, especially in its implementation in data assimilation and inverse modeling. A significant and unresolved question for the aerosol community is whether the large changes in aerosol optical depth and particle microphysics observed along coastlines by satellites are real or a result of retrieval artifacts. In this talk we extract findings from five field campaigns to examine how aerosol particles evolve along coast lines and how artifacts can quickly confound an analysis. These studies include EOPACE, RED and SEAS for clean conditions, and UAE2 and SAMI-A for more polluted regions. Remote sensing data includes MISR, MODIS and AERONET. Overall, the physics of the land/sea breeze and coastal stratus, as well as internal boundary level development can explain a fair portion of the observed transition. However, significant issues still remain in retrieval algorithms; with artifacts in addition to the well known "change of algorithm" and class two waters problems accounting for a large portion of the observed discontinuity.

Reid, J.; Zhang, J.; Porter, J. N.; Raman, S.; Kahn, R. A.; Eck, T. F.

2006-12-01

191

Herschel observations of EXtra-Ordinary Sources (HEXOS): Methanol as a probe of physical conditions in Orion KL  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have examined methanol emission from Orion KL withthe Herschel/HIFI instrument, and detected two methanol bands centered at 524 GHz and 1061 GHz. The 524 GHz methanol band (observed in HIFI band 1a) is dominated by the isolated ?J = 0, K = -4 ? -3, vt = 0 Q branch, and includes 25 E-type and 2 A-type transitions. The 1061 GHz methanol band (observed in HIFI band 4b) is dominated by the ?J = 0, K = 7 ? 6, vt = 0 Q branch transitions which are mostly blended. We have used the isolated E-type vt = 0 methanol transitions to explore the physical conditions in the molecular gas. With HIFI's high velocity resolution, the methanol emission contributed by different spatial components along the line of sight toward Orion KL (hot core, low velocity flow, and compact ridge) can be distinguished and studied separately. The isolated transitions detected in these bands cover a broad energy range (upper state energy ranging from 80 K to 900 K), which provides a unique probe of the thermal structure in each spatial component. The observations further show that the compact ridge is externally heated. These observations demonstrate the power of methanol lines as probes of the physical conditions in warm regions in close proximity to young stars. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

Wang, S.; Bergin, E. A.; Crockett, N. R.; Goldsmith, P. F.; Lis, D. C.; Pearson, J. C.; Schilke, P.; Bell, T. A.; Comito, C.; Blake, G. A.; Caux, E.; Ceccarelli, C.; Cernicharo, J.; Daniel, F.; Dubernet, M.-L.; Emprechtinger, M.; Encrenaz, P.; Gerin, M.; Giesen, T. F.; Goicoechea, J. R.; Gupta, H.; Herbst, E.; Joblin, C.; Johnstone, D.; Langer, W. D.; Latter, W. B.; Lord, S. D.; Maret, S.; Martin, P. G.; Melnick, G. J.; Menten, K. M.; Morris, P.; Müller, H. S. P.; Murphy, J. A.; Neufeld, D. A.; Ossenkopf, V.; Pérault, M.; Phillips, T. G.; Plume, R.; Qin, S.-L.; Schlemmer, S.; Stutzki, J.; Trappe, N.; van der Tak, F. F. S.; Vastel, C.; Yorke, H. W.; Yu, S.; Zmuidzinas, J.

2011-03-01

192

Associations between perceived and observational physical environmental factors and the use of walking paths: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background How to promote physical activity is an important public health problem that is attracting increasing attention. Although the application of environmental approaches is believed to promote resident walking, there remains insufficient evidence of the effectiveness of these interventions. Methods This study employed direct observation and questionnaires. Observations were performed on each Tuesday, Thursday, Saturday, and Sunday from April 13th to May 16th. Fourteen trained observers observed six community walking paths, and an additional walking path in a park. The trained observers filled out 2388 observation forms in the field, including 228 forms rating the permanent environment, and 1080 forms assessing the current environment and counting the number of walkers. A total of 1800 questionnaireswere administered to community residents. Results The results of both observation and questionnaires showed good association regarding the characteristics of walking path users (for observation, female = 54.4%; for questionnaire interviews, female, OR = 1.441), and the environmental features associated with walking path utilization (for observation, positive associations were observed between the utilization index and observational environmental variables; for questionnaire interviews, roads and aesthetics were important, OR = 1.044). There were positive associations between path use and time, a preference for brisk walking, and the observed current and permanent environmental variables. Female participants were more likely to use walking paths than males (OR = 1.441, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.126–1.846). BMI and traffic hazard safety were significantly negatively associated with walking path use (OR = 0.948, 95% CI 0.915–0.981, and OR = 0.933, 95% CI 0.887–0.981, respectively). Roads, aesthetics, and knowledge of physical activity were significantly positively correlated with use of walking paths (OR = 1.044, 95% CI 1.017–1.072, and OR = 1.175, 95% CI 1.043–1.323). Participants that resided further than 1 km from the park were less likely to use walking paths (OR = 0.703, 95% CI 0.530–0.933). Gender-specific associations were also found. Conclusions Both perceived and objective environmental factors were associated with walking path use. Data suggested that the permanent and current conditions of the paths might influence walking path utilization, and that gender-specific promotion strategies should be considered.

2014-01-01

193

Geoethics: IPCC disgraced by violation of observational facts and physical laws in their sea level scenario  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sea level may rise due to glacier melting, heat expansion of the oceanic water column, and redistribution of the waster masses - all these factors can be handled as to rates and amplitudes (provided one knows what one is talking about). In key areas over the entire Indian Ocean and in many Pacific Islands there are no traces of and sea level rise over the last 40-50 years. This is also the case for test-areas like Venice and the North Sea coasts. In the Kattegatt Sea one can fix the sea level factor to a maximum rise of 1.0-0.9 mm/year over the last century. The 204 tide gauges selected by NOAA for their global sea level monitoring provide a strong and sharp maximum (of 182 sites) in the range of 0.0-2.0 mm/yr. Satellite altimetry is said to give a rise of 3.2 mm/yr; this, however, is a value achieved after a quite subjective and surely erroneous "correction". The IPCC is talking about exceptionally much higher rates, and even worse are some "boy scouts" desperate try to launce real horror ratios. Physical laws set the frames of the rate and amount of ice melting, and so do records of events in the past (i.e. the geological records). During the Last Ice Age so much ice was accumulated on land, that the sea level dropped by about 120 m. When the process was reversed and ice melted under exceptionally strong climate forcing, sea level rose at a maximum rate of about 10 mm/yr (a meter per century). This can never happen under today's climate conditions. Even with IPCC's hypothetical scenarios, the true sea rise must be far less. When people like Rahmstorf (claiming 1 m or more by 2100) and Hansen (claiming a 4 m rise from 2080 to 2100) give their values, they exceed what is possible according to physical laws and accumulated geological knowledge. The expansion of the oceanic water column may reach amounts of sea level rise in the order of a few centimetres, at the most a decimetre. Old temperature measurements may record a temperature rise over the last 50 years in the order of 0.4o C. The improved ARGO measurements starting 2004 give virtually no change, however. The physically possible amount of expansion decreases, of course, with the decreasing water columns towards the coasts, and at the coasts it is zero (±0.0 mm). The redistribution of water masses in response to the Earth's rotation, surface current beat, wind stress, air pressure, etc. is an important factor. It gives local to regional changes, cancelled out on the global scale, however. From a geoethical point of view, it is of course quite blameworthy that IPCC excels in spreading these horror scenarios of a rapid, even accelerating, sea level rise. Besides, modern understanding of the planetary-solar-terrestrial interaction shows that we are now on our way into grand solar minimum with severely colder climate - that is just the opposite to IPCC's talk about an accelerating warming. In science we should debate - but we should not dictate (as IPCC insist upon), and it is here the perspectives of geoethics comes into the picture.

Mörner, Nils-Axel

2014-05-01

194

Physical and Chemical Processes Affecting Permeability during Geologic Carbon Sequestration in Arkose and Dolostone: Experimental Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geologic carbon sequestration in saline sedimentary basins provides a promising option to reduce anthropogenic CO2 emissions. We are conducting experiments using a novel flow system at elevated temperatures and pressures to better understand the physical and chemical processes that result from CO2 injection into these basins and the effects of these processes on system permeability. Here we present experimental results on arkose (primarily K-feldspar and quartz) and dolostone, focusing on CO2 exsolution and fluid-mineral reactions. Following heating-induced CO2 exsolution in an arkose sediment (90-125 ?m) core, XRCT scans revealed abundant pores several times larger than the average grain size. The pores likely grew as exsolved CO2 accumulated in the pores and exerted outspread forces on the surrounding grains. These trapped CO2 accumulations blocked flow pathways, reducing measured permeability by 10,000 times. Another reported experiment on a solid arkose core and water with aqueous CO2 concentrations at 80% saturation dissolved K-feldspar, as evidenced by 3 to 1 ratios of Si to K in sampled fluids, and precipitated an Al-rich mineral, likely gibbsite. SEM images revealed extensive clay precipitation on K-feldspar mineral surfaces. Alteration reduced permeability from 5 × 10-14 m2 to 3 × 10-14 m2 during this 52-day experiment. The third reported experiment on a dolostone core and 1 molal NaCl brine with an aqueous CO2 concentration at 75% saturation caused extensive dissolution and a large increase in permeability. This three-day experiment produced a wormhole of 2 mm in diameter that penetrated the entire 2.6 cm long core with a diameter of 1.3 cm. High, initial Ca and Mg fluid concentrations that quickly receded imply early formation of the wormhole that grew in diameter with time. Our experimental results show that formation permeability can change dramatically from both physical and chemical processes, and these changes should be accounted for during geologic carbon sequestration.

Luhmann, A. J.; Kong, X.; Tutolo, B. M.; Saar, M. O.; Seyfried, W. E.

2012-12-01

195

Self-determined motivation towards physical activity in adolescents treated for obesity: an observational study  

PubMed Central

Background Within the Self-Determination Theory (SDT) framework, the first major study aim was to investigate the SDT tenets in an obese adolescent population by examining the factor structure of the Behavioural Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire-2 (BREQ-2) and by investigating associations between physical activity (PA) and motivation in obese adolescents. The second aim was to study differences in motivation according to adolescents' educational level, since lower educated obese adolescent are a sub-risk group for lower PA levels among the obese adolescents. The third aim was to investigate whether attending a residential obesity treatment program could lead to an increase in autonomous motivation towards PA and to see if the treatment effect on motivation was different in low versus high educated youth. Methods For the first study aim, the sample comprised 177 obese adolescents at the start of a 10-month multidisciplinary residential obesity treatment program (BMI = 35.9 ± 6.0 kg/m2, 15.1 ± 1.5 years, 62% girls). A subsample of 65 adolescents (stratified by educational level) were divided into low (n = 34) versus high educated (n = 31) as part of the second and third study aim. Motivation was assessed using the BREQ-2 and PA using the Flemish Physical Activity Questionnaire. Results Exploratory factor analysis showed sufficient validations with the original factor for 17 out of 19 BREQ-2 items. Significant positive correlations were found between PA and the composite score of relative autonomy (r = 0.31, p < 0.001), introjected (r = 0.23, p < 0.01), identified (r = 0.31, p < 0.001) and intrinsic regulation (r = 0.38, p < 0.001). Higher educated adolescents scored higher on the composite score of relative autonomy, introjected, identified and intrinsic regulation at the start of treatment (F = 3.68, p < 0.001). The composite score of relative autonomy, external, identified and intrinsic regulation significantly increased during treatment for all adolescents (F = 6.65, p < 0.001). Introjected regulation significantly increased for lower educated adolescents (F = 25.57, p < 0.001). Conclusions The BREQ-2 can be used in an obese adolescent population. Higher levels of autonomous motivation towards PA were related to higher PA levels. Adolescents had increases in both autonomous and controlled forms of motivation during treatment. Special attention for lower educated adolescents during treatment is needed, as they have a lower autonomous motivation at the start of treatment and an increase in introjected regulation during treatment.

2011-01-01

196

Viking landing sites, remote-sensing observations, and physical properties of Martian surface materials  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Important problems that confront future scientific exploration of Mars include the physical properties of Martian surface materials and the geologic processes that formed the materials. The design of landing spacecraft, roving vehicles, and sampling devices and the selection of landing sites, vehicle traverses, and sample sites will be, in part, guided by the physical properties of the materials. Four materials occur in the sample fields of the Viking landers: (1) drift, (2) crusty to cloddy, (3) blocky, and (4) rock. The first three are soillike. Drift materials is weak, loose, and porous. We estimate that it has a dielectric constant near 2.4 and a thermal inertia near 1 ?? 10-3 to 3 ?? 10-3 (cal cm-2 sec 1 2 K-1) because of its low bulk density, fine grain size, and small cohesion. Crusty to cloddy material is expected to have a dielectric constant near 2.8 and a thermal inertia near 4 ?? 10-3 to 7 ?? 10-3 because of its moderate bulk density and cementation of grains. Blocky material should have a dielectric constant near 3.3 and a thermal inertia near 7 ?? 10-3 to 9 ?? 10-3 because of its moderate bulk density and cementation. Common basaltic rocks have dielectric constans near 8 and thermal inertias near 30 ?? 10-3 to 60 ?? 10-3. Comparisons of estimated dielectric constants and thermal inertias of the materials at the landing sites with those obtained remotely by Earth-based radars and Viking Orbiter thermal sensors suggest that the materials at the landing sites are good analogs for materials elsewhere on Mars. Correlation of remotely estimated dielectric constant and thermal inertias indicates two modal values for paired values of dielectric constants and thermal inertias near (A) 2 and 2 ?? 10-3 and (B) 3 and 6 ?? 10-3, respectively. These two modes are comparable to the dielectric constants and thermal inertias for drift and crusty to cloddy material, respectively. Dielectric constants and thermal inertias for blocky material are larger but conistent with values in the northern plains. Our interprertations are compatible with an aeolian origin for drift and similar materials elsewhere on Mars. The postulate that moderate dielectric constants and thermal inertias larger than 3 or 4 ?? 10-3 are produced by cementation of soillike materials is partly consistent with the data. The average dielectric constant and thermal inertia and their correlation with one another suggest that most of the surface of Mars should present few difficulties to future surface exploration, but some surfaces may present difficulties for spacecraft that are not suitably designed. ?? 1989.

Moore, H. J.; Jakosky, B. M.

1989-01-01

197

Observations on the relation of the shortwave reflectivity of recently deposited snow to its physical properties  

SciTech Connect

The integrated albedo for solar radiation in the 0.4--0.7 ..mu..m wavlength range was measured near noon over a wet snow cover before and after a new snowfall. Observed values were compared with those estimated from measurements of surface density, air permeability, and the total-to-diffuse-flux ratio by means of five models described in the literature and by using empirical correlations to estimate grain size.

Bergen, J.D.; Hutchison, B.A.; McMillen, R.T.; Ozment, A.D.; Gottfried, G.J.

1983-02-01

198

Far-Infrared and Submillimeter Observations and Physical Models of the Reflection Nebula Cederblad 201  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) [C II] 158 mum, [O I] 63 mum, and H_2 9 and 17 mum observations are presented of the reflection nebula Ced 201, which is a photon-dominated region (PDR) illuminated by a B9.5 star with a color temperature of 10,000 K (a cool PDR). In combination with ground-based [C I] 609 mum, CO, ^13CO, CS, and

Ciska Kemper; Marco Spaans; David J. Jansen; Michiel R. Hogerheijde; Ewine F. van Dishoeck; Alexander G. G. M. Tielens

1999-01-01

199

Multi-physics simulations of Van Allen Probes observations of November 14, 2012  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On November 14th, 2012 the Van Allen Probes observed significant ion and electron flux dropouts at ring current and radiation belt energies. These dropouts appear to be lobe crossings with the magnetic field in very stretched 'tail-like' configuration. Such a conclusion is quite extraordinary given the fact that the satellite position would indicate it is in the inner magnetosphere and on the dawn side. We have simulated this event using the fully coupled CRCM+BATSRUS model of the magnetosphere ring current system in a variety of configurations. The coupling of the bounce averaged kinetic model of the ring current (CRCM) with the global MHD model of the magnetosphere (BATSRUS) represented a comprehensive and consistent treatment of the inner and outer magnetosphere. The model was setup with no feedback of the ring current pressure and density to the magnetosphere (one-way coupling), with feedback (two-way coupling), and using both isotropic and anisotropic MHD to represent the effects of pitch-angle variation in the global magnetosphere. Moreover, the simulated magnetic field and ring current ion fluxes were extracted along the Van Allen Probes trajectories for direct comparison with the observations. We found that ring current feedback is essential to capturing the observed dropouts, and that the dropouts become more pronounced when pitch-angle anisotropy is included in the representation of the magnetosphere. Complete simulation results and comparisons with data are presented.

Glocer, A.; Buzulukova, N.; Fok, M. H.; Sibeck, D. G.; Chen, S.

2013-12-01

200

Observation on Physical Growth of Nonmetallic Inclusion in Liquid Steel During Ladle Treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The behaviors of several types of inclusions at a high temperature were examined using a confocal scanning laser microscope (CSLM, 1LM21H/SVF17SP). Although alumina inclusions tended to impact on each other, agglomerate, and grow quickly, no other inclusion type, such as spinel as well as solid and liquid calcium aluminate, was observed to attract each other. The results of confocal microscope study were compared with the industrial investigation. For this purpose, many steel samples were taken at different stages of ladle treatment. The samples were analyzed by scanning and light optical microscopes. Approximately 50,000 inclusions of several types were examined. Only alumina inclusions were attracted to each other and agglomerate. No agglomeration by attractive behavior was observed in the other types of inclusions, including liquid inclusions. Both the industrial data and the in situ observation by CSLM indicate that, although the attraction force and the agglomeration play a significant role in the growth of alumina inclusions, the agglomeration of spinel and calcium aluminate inclusions does not need special consideration in ladle treatment. The agglomeration of liquid calcium aluminate inclusions took place only when they occasionally met as a result of external force, which led to low collision probability. However, the agglomeration of the liquid calcium aluminate inclusions along with alumina particles could be detrimental in the casting process.

Kang, Youngjo; Sahebkar, Bahman; Scheller, Piotr R.; Morita, Kazuki; Sichen, Du

2011-06-01

201

Monthly Deaths Number And Concomitant Environmental Physical Activity: 192 Months Observation (1990-2005)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human life and health state are dependent on many endogenous and exogenous influence factors. The aim of this study is to check the possible links between monthly deaths distribution and concomitant activity of three groups of cosmophysical factors: solar (SA), geomagnetic (GMA) and cosmic ray (CRA) activities. 192 months death number in years 1990-2005 (n=674004) at the Republic of Lithuania were analyzed. Total and both gender data were considered. In addition to the total death numbers, groups of ischemic heart disease (IHD), stroke (CVA), non-cardiovascular (NCV), accident, traffic accident and suicide-related deaths were studied. Sunspot number and solar radio flux (for SA), Ap, Cp and Am indices (for GMA) and neutron activity on the Earth s surface (for CRA) were the environmental physical activity parameters used in this study. Yearly and monthly deaths distributions were also studied. Pearson correlation coefficients (r) and their probabilities (p) were calculated. Multivariate analysis was conducted. Results revealed: 1) significant correlation of monthly deaths number with CRA (total, stroke, NCV and suicides) and inverse with SA and GMA; 2) significant correlation of monthly number of traffic accidents number with SA and GMA, and inverse with CRA; 3) a strong negative relationship between year and IHD/CVA victims number (an evidence for growing role of stroke in cardiovascular mortality); 4) significant links of rising cardiovascular deaths number at the beginning of the year and traffic accidents victims at the end of the year. It is concluded that CRA is related to monthly deaths distribution.

Stoupel, E.; Kalediene, R.; Petrauskiene, J.; Starkuviene, S.; Abramson, E.; Israelevich, P.; Sulkes, J.

2007-12-01

202

Mars physical parameters as determined from Mariner 9 observations of the natural satellites and Doppler tracking  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mariner 9 Doppler tracking data and television photographs of Deimos and Phobos were analyzed to determine the gravity field, mass, and spin-axis direction of Mars and the natural satellite orbits. The solutions agree with previously published results. Radio data consisted of an apoapsis state vector for each of revolutions 5-195 obtained from one-revolution fits of Doppler data. Optical data consisted of TV photographs of Phobos and Deimos taken between revolutions 25 and 221. A first-order analytical theory, extended to include dominant second-order resonance effects on the Mariner 9 orbit, was used to calculate the motion of the spacecraft, Deimos, and Phobos. The feasibility of combining radio and optical data in long-arc solutions for accurate determination of orbits and physical parameters is demonstrated. The analytical theory developed for the evolution of a highly eccentric orbit in shallow resonance is accurate to plus or minus 1 km in the apoapsis state vector of Mariner 9 over a period of 200 revolutions.

Born, G. H.

1974-01-01

203

The Laboratory and Observational Study of 2-BUTANONE as a Test for Organic Chemical Complexity in Various Interstellar Physical Environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have undertaken a combined laboratory, observational, and modeling research program in an attempt to more fully understand the effects that physical environment has on the chemical composition of astronomical sources. To this end, deep millimeter and submillimeter spectral line surveys of multiple interstellar sources with varied physical conditions have been collected. These sources cover a range of physical environments, including hot cores, shocked regions, low-mass star forming regions, and stellar outflows. We have conducted broadband spectral line surveys at ? =1.3 mm of 10 sources at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO). These are forerunner observations to our Herschel OT1 program to continue these line surveys at higher frequencies. Only a fraction of the lines observed in the CSO spectra can be assigned to known molecules. Laboratory spectra of many additional candidates for interstellar detection must therefore be collected before these spectral line surveys can be fully-analyzed. One such molecular target is 2-butanone [also known as methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), CH_3COCH_2CH_3], which contains similar functional groups to other known interstellar molecules and is therefore a likely product of interstellar organic chemistry. The microwave spectrum for MEK was collected with the chirped-pulse waveguide Fourier Transform Microwave (FTMW) spectrometer at New College Florida, and the millimeter and submillimeter spectrum was collected using the direct absorption flow cell spectrometer at Emory University. We will report here both on the laboratory characterization of MEK and the analysis of the observational line surveys in the context of the identification of new, complex organic molecules in the ISM.

Kroll, Jay A.; Weaver, Susanna L. Widicus; Shipman, Steven T.

2011-06-01

204

Our Sun IV: The Standard Model and Helioseismology: Consequences of Uncertainties in Input Physics and in Observed Solar Parameters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Helioseismic frequency observations provide an extremely accurate window into the solar interior; frequencies from the Michaelson Doppler Imager (MDI) on the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) spacecraft, enable the adiabatic sound speed and adiabatic index to be inferred with an accuracy of a few parts in 10(exp 4) and the density with an accuracy of a few parts in 10(exp 3). This has become a Serious challenge to theoretical models of the Sun. Therefore, we have undertaken a self-consistent, systematic study of the sources of uncertainties in the standard solar models. We found that the largest effect on the interior structure arises from the observational uncertainties in the photospheric abundances of the elements, which affect the sound speed profile at the level of 3 parts in 10(exp 3). The estimated 4% uncertainty in the OPAL opacities could lead to effects of 1 part in 10(exp 3); the approximately 5%, uncertainty in the basic pp nuclear reaction rate would have a similar effect, as would uncertainties of approximately 15% in the diffusion constants for the gravitational settling of helium. The approximately 50% uncertainties in diffusion constants for the heavier elements would have nearly as large an effect. Different observational methods for determining the solar radius yield results differing by as much as 7 parts in 10(exp 4); we found that this leads to uncertainties of a few parts in 10(exp 3) in the sound speed int the solar convective envelope, but has negligible effect on the interior. Our reference standard solar model yielded a convective envelope position of 0.7135 solar radius, in excellent agreement with the observed value of 0.713 +/- 0.001 solar radius and was significantly affected only by Z/X, the pp rate, and the uncertainties in helium diffusion constants. Our reference model also yielded envelope helium abundance of 0.2424, in good agreement with the approximate range of 0.24 to 0.25 inferred from helioseismic observations; only extreme Z/X values yielded envelope helium abundance outside this range. We found that other current uncertainties, namely, in the solar age and luminosity, in nuclear rates other than the pp reaction, in the low-temperature molecular opacities, and in the low-density equation of state, have no significant effect on the quantities that can be inferred from helioseismic observations. The predicted pre-main-sequence lithium depletion is uncertain by a factor of 2. The predicted neutrino capture rate is uncertain by approximately 30% for the Cl-27 experiment and by approximately 3% for Ga-71 experiments, while the B-8 neutrino flux is uncertain by approximately 30%.

Boothroyd, Arnold I.; Sackmann, I.-Juliana

2001-01-01

205

Io's Volcanism: Thermo-Physical Models of Silicate Lava Compared with Observations of Thermal Emission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analyses of thermal infrared outbursts from the jovian satellite Io indicate that at least some of these volcanic events are due to silicate lava. Analysis of the January 9, 1990 outburst indicates that this was an active eruption consisting of a large lava flow (with mass eruption rate of order 10(exp 5) cubic m/sec) and a sustained area at silicate liquidus temperatures. This is interpreted as a series of fire fountains along a rift zone. A possible alternative scenario is that of an overflowing lava lake with extensive fire fountaining. The January 9, 1990 event is unique as multispectral observations with respect to time were obtained. In this paper, a model is presented for the thermal energy lost by active and cooling silicate lava flows and lakes on Io. The model thermal emission is compared with Earth-based observations and Voyager IRIS data. The model (a) provides an explanation of the thermal anomalies on Io's surface; (b) provides constraints on flow behavior and extent and infers some flow parameters; and (c) determines flow geometry and change in flow size with time, and the temperature of each part of the flow or lava lake surface as a function of its age. Models of heat output from active lava flows or inactive but recently emplaced lava flows or overturning lava lakes alone are unable to reproduce the observations. If the January 9, 1990 event is the emplacement of a lava flow, the equivalent of 27 such events per year would yield a volume of material sufficient, if uniformly distributed, to resurface all of Io at a rate of 1 cm/year.

Davies, Ashely G.

1996-01-01

206

Panchromatic Observations of the Textbook GRB 110205A: Constraining Physical Mechanisms of Prompt Emission and Afterglow  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present a comprehensive analysis of a bright, long duration (T(sub 90) approx. 257 s) GRB 110205A at redshift z = 2.22. The optical prompt emission was detected by Swift/UVOT, ROTSE-IIIb and BOOTES telescopes when the GRB was still radiating in the gamma-ray band. Thanks to its long duration, nearly 200 s of observations were obtained simultaneously from optical, X-ray to gamma-ray (1 eV - 5 MeV), which makes it one of the exceptional cases to study the broadband spectral energy distribution across 6 orders of magnitude in energy during the prompt emission phase. In particular, by fitting the time resolved prompt spectra, we clearly identify, for the first time, an interesting two-break energy spectrum, roughly consistent with the standard GRB synchrotron emission model in the fast cooling regime. Although the prompt optical emission is brighter than the extrapolation of the best fit X/ -ray spectra, it traces the -ray light curve shape, suggesting a relation to the prompt high energy emission. The synchrotron + synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) scenario is disfavored by the data, but the models invoking a pair of internal shocks or having two emission regions can interpret the data well. Shortly after prompt emission (approx. 1100 s), a bright (R = 14.0) optical emission hump with very steep rise ( alpha approx. 5.5) was observed which we interpret as the emission from the reverse shock. It is the first time that the rising phase of a reverse shock component has been closely observed.

Zheng, W.; Shen, R. F.; Sakamoto, T.; Beardmore, A. P.; De Pasquale, M.; Wu, X. F.; Gorosabel, J.; Urata, Y.; Sugita, S.; Zhang, B.; Pozanenko, A.; Nissinen, M.; Sahu, D. K.; Im, M.; Ukwatta, T. N.; Andreev, M.; Klunko, E.; Volnova, A.; Akerlof, C. W.; Anto, P.; Barthelmy, S. D.; Breeveld, A.; Carsenty, U.; Gehrels, N.; Sonbas, E.

2011-01-01

207

Quantity-activity relationship of denitrifying bacteria and environmental scaling in streams of a forested watershed  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The spatial variability of subreach denitrification rates in streams was evaluated with respect to controlling environmental conditions, molecular examination of denitrifying bacteria, and dimensional analysis. Denitrification activities ranged from 0 and 800 ng-N gsed-1 d-1 with large variations observed within short distances (<50 m) along stream reaches. A log-normal probability distribution described the range in denitrification activities and was used to define low (16% of the probability distributibn), medium (68%), and high (16%) denitrification potential groups. Denitrifying bacteria were quantified using a competitive polymerase chain reaction (cPCR) technique that amplified the nirK gene that encodes for nitrite reductase. Results showed a range of nirK quantities from 103 to 107 gene-copy-number gsed.-1 A nonparametric statistical test showed no significant difference in nirK quantifies among stream reaches, but revealed that samples with a high denitrification potential had significantly higher nirK quantities. Denitrification activity was positively correlated with nirK quantities with scatter in the data that can be attributed to varying environmental conditions along stream reaches. Dimensional analysis was used to evaluate denitrification activities according to environmental variables that describe fluid-flow properties, nitrate and organic material quantities, and dissolved oxygen flux. Buckingham's pi theorem was used to generate dimensionless groupings and field data were used to determine scaling parameters. The resulting expressions between dimensionless NO3- flux and dimensionless groupings of environmental variables showed consistent scaling, which indicates that the subreach variability in denitrification rates can be predicted by the controlling physical, chemical, and microbiological conditions. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

O'Connor, B. L.; Hondzo, M.; Dobraca, D.; LaPara, T. M.; Finlay, J. A.; Brezonik, P. L.

2006-01-01

208

Spitzer observations of supernova remnants: II. Physical conditions and comparison with HH7 and HH54  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have studied the shock-excited molecular regions associated with four\\u000asupernova remnants (SNRs) - IC443C, W28, W44 and 3C391 - and two Herbig-Haro\\u000aobjects, HH7 and HH54, using Spitzer's Infrared Spectrograph (IRS). The\\u000aphysical conditions within the observed areas are inferred from spectroscopic\\u000adata obtained from IRS and from SWS and LWS onboard ISO, together with\\u000aphotometric data from Spitzer's

Yuan Yuan; David A. Neufeld

2010-01-01

209

Physical processes shaping GRB X-ray afterglow lightcurves: theoretical implications from the Swift XRT observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

(Abridged) The Swift X-Ray Telescope (XRT) reveals some interesting features\\u000aof early X-ray afterglows, including a distinct rapidly decaying component\\u000apreceding the conventional afterglow component in many sources, a shallow decay\\u000acomponent before the more ``normal'' decay component observed in a good\\u000afraction of GRBs (e.g. GRB 050128, GRB 050315, GRB 050319, and GRB 050401), and\\u000aX-ray flares in nearly

Bing Zhang; Y. Z. Fan; Jaroslaw Dyks; Shiho Kobayashi; Peter Mesz ´ aros; David N. Burrows; John A. Nousek; Neil Gehrels

2005-01-01

210

Basic Physics of Collisionless Three-Dimensional Reconnection in the Solar Corona Related to Yohkoh Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New results concerning magnetic reconnection in the solar corona are reviewed. We apply the collisionless 3D reconnection theory - more exactly, the model of a high-temperature turbulent-current non-neutral current sheet - to the coronal conditions derived from the observations with the HXT and SXT onboard Yohkoh. New interpretations are discussed of the Yohkoh data on the site and mechanism of magnetic energy transformation into kinetic and thermal energies of superhot plasmas and accelerated high-energy particles. Open issues are the focus of our attention

Somov, B. V.; Kosugi, T.; Masuda, S.; Sakao, T.

211

Our Sun. IV. The Standard Model and Helioseismology: Consequences of Uncertainties in Input Physics and in Observed Solar Parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Helioseismology provides a powerful tool to explore the deep interior of the Sun. Measurements of solar interior quantities are provided with unprecedented accuracy: for example, the adiabatic sound speed c can be inferred with an accuracy of a few parts in 104. This has become a serious challenge to theoretical models of the Sun. Therefore, we have undertaken a self-consistent, systematic study of sources of uncertainties in the standard solar model, which must be understood before the helioseismic observations can be used as constraints on the theory. This paper focuses on our own current calculations but is also a review paper summarizing the latest calculations of other authors. We find that the largest uncertainty in the sound speed c in the solar interior, namely, three parts in 103, arises from uncertainties in the observed photospheric abundances of the elements: C, N, O, and Ne have uncertainties of ~15%, leading to an uncertainty of ~10% in the photospheric Z/X ratio. Uncertainties of one part in 103 in the sound speed c arise, in each case, from (1) the ~4% uncertainty in the OPAL opacities, (2) the ~5% uncertainty in the basic p-p nuclear reaction rate, (3) the ~15% uncertainty in the diffusion constants for the gravitational settling of helium, and (4) the ~50% uncertainties in diffusion constants for the heavier elements. (Other investigators have shown that similar uncertainties arise from uncertainties in the interior equation of state and in rotation-induced turbulent mixing.) In the convective envelope only, uncertainties in c of order one part in 103 arise from the uncertainty of a few parts in 104 in the solar radius and from uncertainties in the low-temperature equation of state. Other current uncertainties, namely, in the solar age and luminosity, in nuclear rates other than the p-p reaction, and in the low-temperature molecular opacities, have no significant effect on the quantities that can be inferred from helioseismic observations. Significant uncertainty in the convective envelope position Rce (of up to 3 times the observational uncertainty of +/-0.001 Rsolar) arises only from uncertainties in Z/X, opacities, the p-p rate, and helium diffusion constants; the envelope helium abundance Ye is significantly affected (+/-0.005) only by extreme variations in Z/X, opacities, or diffusion constants and is always consistent with the ``observed'' range of helioseismically inferred Ye values. Our predicted pre-main-sequence solar lithium depletion is a factor of ~20 (an order of magnitude larger than that predicted by earlier models that neglected gravitational settling and used older opacities) and is uncertain by a factor of 2. The predicted neutrino capture rate is uncertain by ~30% for the 37Cl experiment and by ~3% for the 71Ga experiments (not including uncertainties in the capture cross sections), while the 8B neutrino flux is uncertain by ~30%.

Boothroyd, Arnold I.; Sackmann, I.-Juliana

2003-02-01

212

Erosion and Gully Formation in the Ethiopian Highlands: Physical Observations and Community Perspectives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aims of this investigation are to analyze spatio-temporal variations in sediment transport to waterways in a small agricultural watershed by: (i) locating sediment sources using modeling and bio-physical scientific approaches, (ii) locating sediment sources and erosion processes through age- and gender-differentiated focus group discussions and transect walks, and (iii) linking sediment sources to changes in soil nutrient concentrations. The collected field measurements, modeling results, and community perceptions have been gathered on an area encompassing a previous study site (14 ha) on a currently larger scale (95 ha) in the Debre Mewi watershed to develop a fuller picture of the social and environmental conditions that are leading to induced or controlled erosion and gully formation. Farmers provided their perspectives on erosion processes and these were complemented by and compared to soil and water field measurements during the rainy season. Nine sites were selected for monitoring and measuring groundwater, soil nutrient changes, and soil depth change on the 95 ha study area, based on land use and slope angle -- half represent grazing or fallow land and half are located on cultivated land. A set of stable gullies and actively forming gullies were monitored and measured simultaneously along hillslope locations in the top, middle and bottom areas. In addition, sediment concentration samples were collected at 4 weir locations in the 95 ha watershed and also at the final outlet to this watershed. Modeling efforts emphasize steep cropland as most vulnerable, whereas community members pointed out waterlogged black soils and lower areas as vulnerable. The data demonstrate that saturated pathways in the landscape provide areas for the development and widening of gullies and that flat cropland areas experience deposition rather than erosion, while soil nutrient concentrations are decreasing upslope and increasing downslope.

Guzman, Christian; Dagnew, Dessalegn; Zegeye, Assefa; Tilahun, Seifu; Yitaferu, Birru; Stoof, Cathelijne; Steenhuis, Tammo

2014-05-01

213

Transit Timing Observations from Kepler: IV. Confirmation of 4 Multiple Planet Systems by Simple Physical Models  

SciTech Connect

Eighty planetary systems of two or more planets are known to orbit stars other than the Sun. For most, the data can be sufficiently explained by non-interacting Keplerian orbits, so the dynamical interactions of these systems have not been observed. Here we present 4 sets of lightcurves from the Kepler spacecraft, which each show multiple planets transiting the same star. Departure of the timing of these transits from strict periodicity indicates the planets are perturbing each other: the observed timing variations match the forcing frequency of the other planet. This confirms that these objects are in the same system. Next we limit their masses to the planetary regime by requiring the system remain stable for astronomical timescales. Finally, we report dynamical fits to the transit times, yielding possible values for the planets masses and eccentricities. As the timespan of timing data increases, dynamical fits may allow detailed constraints on the systems architectures, even in cases for which high-precision Doppler follow-up is impractical.

Fabrycky, Daniel C.; /UC, Santa Cruz; Ford, Eric B.; /Florida U.; Steffen, Jason H.; /Fermilab; Rowe, Jason F.; /SETI Inst., Mtn. View /NASA, Ames; Carter, Joshua A.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.; Moorhead, Althea V.; /Florida U.; Batalha, Natalie M.; /San Jose State U.; Borucki, William J.; /NASA, Ames; Bryson, Steve; /NASA, Ames; Buchhave, Lars A.; /Bohr Inst. /Copenhagen U.; Christiansen, Jessie L.; /SETI Inst., Mtn. View /NASA, Ames /Caltech

2012-01-01

214

Physical and observable characteristics of cloud-to-ground lightning over the Pearl River Delta region of South China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

(CG) lightning characteristic parameters deduced from the lightning location system (LLS) for five differing microenvironmental areas relative to megacity, city, municipal town, hilly suburban area, and mountainous rural area conditions were examined in our 2009-2011 Pearl River Delta (PRD) study. Our LLS data analysis showed that there were high variation of lightning characteristics and phenomenal changes among these areas. As a supplement to the usual study of physical characteristics, an observation-based methodology had been developed to study the lightning behavior, while the respective thunderstorms were traversing through these observation areas. Special features and phenomenal changes related to the lightning characteristic parameters, such as observable lightning stroke days (OLSDs) and observable lightning stroke frequency and density for an OLSD, were also addressed. Microenvironmental variation due to change in topography, degree of urbanization, urban effect, and thunderstorm strength was found to affect the spatial distribution of lightning stroke and the severity of lightning activities over the observation areas. This approach increases our understanding of lightning in subtropical China. It also tells us more about the behavior of lightning while the thunderstorm traverses through an observation area. This information is lacking in previous studies.

Liu, Yonglin; Chan, L. Y.; Lin, Qinhao; Feng, Wanxing; Bi, Xinhui; Chen, Jiahong; Tao, Hantao; Wang, Xinming; Chen, Duohong; Sheng, Guoying; Fu, Jiamo

2014-05-01

215

Observations on European low-temperature physics research: an annotated directory of low-temperature physics in British universities and some comments on the low temperature physics programs in Europe. Technical report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report summarizes the author's observations on low-temperature physics research in Europe during the period of August 1975-August 1976. It features an annotated directory of low temperature research in British Universities, and contains comments on visits to Continental institutions, both of which supplement ONRL Report D-15:1973 'Directory of European Low Temperature Research' by E. Edelsack et al. Emphasis in the

Kitchens

1976-01-01

216

Observations on European low-temperature physics research: An annotated directory of low-temperature physics in British universities and some comments on the low temperature physics programs in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report summarizes the author's observations on low-temperature physics research in Europe during the period of August 1975-August 1976. It features an annotated directory of low temperature research in British Universities, and contains comments on visits to Continental institutions, both of which supplement ONRL Report D-15:1973 'Directory of European Low Temperature Research' by E. Edelsack et al. Emphasis in the

T. A. Kitchens

1976-01-01

217

The effect of the action observation physical training on the upper extremity function in children with cerebral palsy  

PubMed Central

The purpose this study was to investigate the effect of action observation physical training (AOPT) on the functioning of the upper extremities in children with cerebral palsy (CP), using an evaluation framework based on that of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). The subjects were divided into an AOPT group and a physical training (PT) group. AOPT group practiced repeatedly the actions they observed on video clips, in which normal child performed an action with their upper extremities. PT group performed the same actions as the AOPT group did after observing landscape photographs. The subjects participated in twelve 30-min sessions, 3 days a week, for 4 weeks. Evaluation of upper extremity function using the following: the power of grasp and Modified Ashworth Scale for body functions and structures, a Box and Block test, an ABILHAND-Kids questionnaire, and the WeeFIM scale for activity and participation. Measurements were performed before and after the training, and 2 weeks after the end of training. The results of this study showed that, in comparison with the PT group, the functioning of the upper extremities in the AOPT group was significantly improved in body functions and activity and participation according to the ICF framework. This study demonstrates that AOPT has a positive influence on the functioning of the upper extremities in children with CP. It is suggested that this alternative approach for functioning of the upper extremities could be an effective method for rehabilitation in children with CP.

Kim, Jin-young; Kim, Jong-man; Ko, Eun-young

2014-01-01

218

Testing conceptual and physically based soil hydrology schemes against observations for the Amazon Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study analyzes the performance of the two soil hydrology schemes of the land surface model ORCHIDEE in estimating Amazonian hydrology and phenology for five major sub-basins (Xingu, Tapajós, Madeira, Solimões and Negro), during the 29-year period 1980-2008. A simple 2-layer scheme with a bucket topped by an evaporative layer is compared to an 11-layer diffusion scheme. The soil schemes are coupled with a river routing module and a process model of plant physiology, phenology and carbon dynamics. The simulated water budget and vegetation functioning components are compared with several data sets at sub-basin scale. The use of the 11-layer soil diffusion scheme does not significantly change the Amazonian water budget simulation when compared to the 2-layer soil scheme (+3.1 and -3.0% in evapotranspiration and river discharge, respectively). However, the higher water-holding capacity of the soil and the physically based representation of runoff and drainage in the 11-layer soil diffusion scheme result in more dynamic soil water storage variation and improved simulation of the total terrestrial water storage when compared to GRACE satellite estimates. The greater soil water storage within the 11-layer scheme also results in increased dry-season evapotranspiration (+0.5 mm d-1, +17%) and improves river discharge simulation in the southeastern sub-basins such as the Xingu. Evapotranspiration over this sub-basin is sustained during the whole dry season with the 11-layer soil diffusion scheme, whereas the 2-layer scheme limits it after only 2 dry months. Lower plant drought stress simulated by the 11-layer soil diffusion scheme leads to better simulation of the seasonal cycle of photosynthesis (GPP) when compared to a GPP data-driven model based on eddy covariance and satellite greenness measurements. A dry-season length between 4 and 7 months over the entire Amazon Basin is found to be critical in distinguishing differences in hydrological feedbacks between the soil and the vegetation cover simulated by the two soil schemes. On average, the multilayer soil diffusion scheme provides little improvement in simulated hydrology over the wet tropical Amazonian sub-basins, but a more significant improvement is found over the drier sub-basins. The use of a multilayer soil diffusion scheme might become critical for assessments of future hydrological changes, especially in southern regions of the Amazon Basin where longer dry seasons and more severe droughts are expected in the next century.

Guimberteau, M.; Ducharne, A.; Ciais, P.; Boisier, J. P.; Peng, S.; De Weirdt, M.; Verbeeck, H.

2014-06-01

219

Radar and optical observations and physical modeling of triple near-Earth Asteroid (136617) 1994 CC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report radar, photometric, and spectroscopic observations of near-Earth Asteroid (136617) 1994 CC. The radar measurements were obtained at Goldstone (8560 MHz, 3.5 cm) and Arecibo (2380 MHz, 12.6 cm) on 9 days following the asteroid's approach within 0.0168 AU on June 10, 2009. 1994 CC was also observed with the Panchromatic Robotic Optical Monitoring and Polarimetry Telescopes (PROMPT) on May 21 and June 1-3. Visible-wavelength spectroscopy was obtained with the 5-m Hale telescope at Palomar on August 25. Delay-Doppler radar images reveal that 1994 CC is a triple system; along with (153591) 2001 SN263, this is only the second confirmed triple in the near-Earth population. Photometry obtained with PROMPT yields a rotation period for the primary P = 2.38860 ± 0.00009 h and a lightcurve amplitude of ˜0.1 mag suggesting a shape with low elongation. Hale telescope spectroscopy indicates that 1994 CC is an Sq-class object. Delay-Doppler radar images and shape modeling reveal that the primary has an effective diameter of 0.62 ± 0.06 km, low pole-on elongation, few obvious surface features, and a prominent equatorial ridge and sloped hemispheres that closely resemble those seen on the primary of binary near-Earth Asteroid (66391) 1999 KW4. Detailed orbit fitting reported separately by Fang et al. (Fang, J., Margot, J.-L., Brozovic, M., Nolan, M.C., Benner, L.A.M., Taylor, P.A. [2011]. Astron. J. 141, 154-168) gives a mass of the primary of 2.6 × 10 11 kg that, coupled with the effective diameter, yields a bulk density of 2.1 ± 0.6 g cm -3. The images constrain the diameters of the inner and outer satellites to be 113 ± 30 m and 80 ± 30 m, respectively. The inner satellite has a semimajor axis of ˜1.7 km (˜5.5 primary radii), an orbital period of ˜30 h, and its Doppler dispersion suggests relatively slow rotation, 26 ± 12 h, consistent with spin-orbit lock. The outer satellite has an orbital period of ˜9 days and a rotation period of 14 ± 7 h, establishing that the rotation is not spin-orbit locked. Among all binary and triple systems observed by radar, at least 25% (7/28) have a satellite that rotates more rapidly than its orbital period. This suggests that asynchronous configurations with Protation < Porbital are relatively common among multiple systems in the near-Earth population. 1994 CC's outer satellite has an observed maximum separation from the primary of ˜5.7 km (˜18.4 primary radii) that is the largest separation relative to primary radius seen to date among all 36 known binary and triple NEA systems. 1994 CC, (153591) 2001 SN263, and 1998 ST27 are the only triple and binary systems known with satellite separations >10 primary radii, suggesting either a detection bias, or that such widely-separated satellites are relatively uncommon in NEA multiple systems.

Brozovi?, Marina; Benner, Lance A. M.; Taylor, Patrick A.; Nolan, Michael C.; Howell, Ellen S.; Magri, Christopher; Scheeres, Daniel J.; Giorgini, Jon D.; Pollock, Joseph T.; Pravec, Petr; Galád, Adrián; Fang, Julia; Margot, Jean-Luc; Busch, Michael W.; Shepard, Michael K.; Reichart, Daniel E.; Ivarsen, Kevin M.; Haislip, Joshua B.; LaCluyze, Aaron P.; Jao, Joseph; Slade, Martin A.; Lawrence, Kenneth J.; Hicks, Michael D.

2011-11-01

220

EQUATION OF STATE AND NEUTRON STAR PROPERTIES CONSTRAINED BY NUCLEAR PHYSICS AND OBSERVATION  

SciTech Connect

Microscopic calculations of neutron matter based on nuclear interactions derived from chiral effective field theory, combined with the recent observation of a 1.97 {+-} 0.04 M{sub Sun} neutron star, constrain the equation of state of neutron-rich matter at sub- and supranuclear densities. We discuss in detail the allowed equations of state and the impact of our results on the structure of neutron stars, the crust-core transition density, and the nuclear symmetry energy. In particular, we show that the predicted range for neutron star radii is robust. For use in astrophysical simulations, we provide detailed numerical tables for a representative set of equations of state consistent with these constraints.

Hebeler, K. [Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Lattimer, J. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3800 (United States); Pethick, C. J. [The Niels Bohr International Academy, The Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100 Copenhagen O (Denmark); Schwenk, A. [ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI, GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany)

2013-08-10

221

Physical Property Changes in Plutonium Observed from Accelerated Aging using Pu-238 Enrichment  

SciTech Connect

We present changes in volume, immersion density, and tensile property observed from accelerated aged plutonium alloys. Accelerated alloys (or spiked alloys) are plutonium alloys enriched with approximately 7.5 weight percent of the faster-decaying {sup 238}Pu to accelerate the aging process by approximately 17 times the rate of un-aged weapons-grade plutonium. After sixty equivalent years of aging on spiked alloys, the dilatometry shows the samples at 35 C have swelled in volume by 0.15 to 0.17 % and now exhibit a near linear volume increase due to helium in-growth. The immersion density of spiked alloys shows decrease in density, similar normalized volumetric changes (expansion) for spiked alloys. Tensile tests show increasing yield and engineering ultimate strength as spiked alloys are aged. (authors)

Chung, Brandon W.; Choi, Bill; Saw, Cheng; Thompson, Stephen; Woods, Conrad; Hopkins, David; Ebbinghaus, Bartley [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California (United States)

2007-07-01

222

Pellagra: a rare disease observed in a victim of mental and physical abuse.  

PubMed

Lesions of the brain stem and cerebellum due to nutritional deficiencies are mostly seen in chronic alcohol abuse and more rarely in severe malnutrition. We report the case of a 27-year-old woman, found dead in the family flat. She presented cachexia (167 cm, 25 kg) and multiple hematomas of the limbs. Postmortem examination revealed lesions due to peritonitis. Neuropathological examination showed severe atrophy of the corpus callosum and central neuronal chromatolysis, which are observed in pellagra. Inflammatory colitis or celiac disease was not found. Toxicological analysis was negative, in particular no alcohol absorption. Pellagra, which is due to nicotinamide deficiency, is a disease rarely seen in this country. In this case, nutritional deficiency was the consequence of failure to eat in a context of abuse. The woman was born of an incestuous relationship and presented intellectual retardation due to poor affective relations with her mother. PMID:15577526

Piercecchi-Marti, Marie-Dominique; Pélissier-Alicot, Anne-Laure; Leonetti, Georges; Tervé, Jean-Paul; Cianfarani, François; Pellissier, Jean-François

2004-12-01

223

From integrated observation of pre-earthquake signals towards physical-based forecasting: A prospective test experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are conducting an integrated study involving multi-parameter observations over different seismo- tectonics regions in our investigation of phenomena preceding major earthquakes. Our approach is based on a systematic analysis of several selected parameters namely: gas discharge; thermal infrared radiation; ionospheric electron concentration; and atmospheric temperature and humidity, which we suppose are associated with earthquake preparation phase. We intended to test in prospective mode the set of geophysical measurements for different regions of active earthquakes and volcanoes. In 2012-13 we established a collaborative framework with the leading projects PRE-EARTHQUAKE (EU) and iSTEP3 (Taiwan) for coordinate measurements and prospective validation over seven test regions: Southern California (USA), Eastern Honshu (Japan), Italy, Turkey, Greece, Taiwan (ROC), Kamchatka and Sakhalin (Russia). The current experiment provided a 'stress test' opportunity to validate the physical based approach in teal -time over regions of high seismicity. Our initial results are: (1) Prospective tests have shown the presence in real time of anomalies in the atmosphere before most of the significant (M>5.5) earthquakes in all regions; (2) False positive rate alarm is different for each region and varying between 50% (Italy, Kamchatka and California) to 25% (Taiwan and Japan) with a significant reduction of false positives when at least two parameters are contemporary used; (3) One of most complex problem, which is still open, was the systematic collection and real-time integration of pre-earthquake observations. Our findings suggest that the physical based short-term forecast is feasible and more tests are needed. We discus the physical concept we used, the future integration of data observations and related developments.

Ouzounov, D.; Pulinets, S. A.; Tramutoli, V.; Lee, L.; Liu, J. G.; Hattori, K.; Kafatos, M.

2013-12-01

224

Some qualitative manifestations of the physical libration of the Moon by observing stars from the lunar surface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Targets and problems of the future Japanese project ILOM (In situ Lunar Orientation Measurement), which is planned to be realized as one kind of observations of lunar rotation at the second stage of SELENE-2 mission, are briefly described in the article. Inverse problem of lunar physical libration is formulated and solved. Accuracy of libration angles depending on accuracy of measuring selenographic coordinates is estimated. It is shown that selenographic coordinates of polar stars are insensitive to longitudinal librations ?(t). Comparing coordinates calculated for two models of a rigid and deformable Moon is carried out and components sensitive to Love number k2 and to anelastic time delay are revealed.

Petrova, N.; Abdulmyanov, T.; Hanada, H.

2012-12-01

225

Combining simultaneous seismic reflection and physical oceanographic observations of shelf-slope processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the Dense Shelf Water Cascades (DSWC) role in the oceans is regarded as one of the main drivers of oceanic margins; these dense water pools spill over the shelf edges, flow along topographic feature and mix with ambient waters, playing a crucial role in the Earth's long term climate. During the international collaborative field experiment of Seismic Oceanography ADRIASEISMIC-09, carried out on board the CNR R/V Urania in the southern Adriatic Sea in the period March 3-16, 2009, a mix of classical and innovative sampling methods was tried in order to characterize the details of the North Adriatic Dense Water (NAdDW) mass structures and test the feasibility of the seismic approach in shallow basins. Seismic Oceanography (SO) is particularly well suited for study of the dynamics of bottom-trapped water masses as compared to classic techniques because it measures the full water column at ~10 m horizontal resolution, can acquire remotely and measurements are not hampered by a sloping bottom or concerns of instrument bottom impact, and it can operate successfully over the entire range from 100 m to 1000 m for tracking water-masses evolution down a slope (shown for the first time in this cruise). During ADRIASEISMIC-09 we adopted SO techniques to follow the NAdDW masses flowing southward, testing this approach on a shallow basin with the use of a "light" seismic system that could be deployed quickly, using only two air-guns. The resulting seismic sections were used to image thermal gradients at a scale of several meters, both vertically and horizontally. However, since SO measurements alone are not sufficient to characterize such complex processes, the resulting seismic reflection data were combined with a series of physical oceanography measurements, e.g. classical CTDs, ADCP data, 232 XBT casts and -for the first time- also microstructure measurements acquired via free-falling profiler (101 casts), that allow to estimate how fast water masses are mixing. Together, the direct oceanographic samplings provide a full range of vertical resolutions down to extremely fine detail (order of millimeters) to compliment the high lateral resolution of the seismic image. The high quality data set collected demonstrated that SO campaigns can be carried out from oceanographic vessels of medium size with relatively light equipment, and that the seismic approach can be performed also in relatively shallow basins. This is an important finding, as the use of a large seismic vessel would have prohibited the kind of classic oceanography sampling that is characterizing any study of DSWC. The seismic measurements allowed us to track a cold, thin bottom-boundary layer descending down the slope near Palagruza sill, demonstrating that these complex water pools require very high-resolution sampling near the bottom to be detected and successfully tracked in their intrusions and internal waves. Preliminary results therefore suggest that SO can provide a new and powerful tool for understanding the detailed horizontal structure of DSWC processes.

Carniel, Sandro; Book, Jeffrey; Hobbs, Richard; Wood, Warren; Bergamasco, Andrea; Schroeder, Katrin; Bortoluzzi, Giovanni; Prandke, Hartmut; Sclavo, Mauro

2010-05-01

226

ON THE TRANSITIONAL DISK CLASS: LINKING OBSERVATIONS OF T TAURI STARS AND PHYSICAL DISK MODELS  

SciTech Connect

Two decades ago 'transitional disks' (TDs) described spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of T Tauri stars with small near-IR excesses, but significant mid- and far-IR excesses. Many inferred this indicated dust-free holes in disks possibly cleared by planets. Recently, this term has been applied disparately to objects whose Spitzer SEDs diverge from the expectations for a typical full disk (FD). Here, we use irradiated accretion disk models to fit the SEDs of 15 such disks in NGC 2068 and IC 348. One group has a 'dip' in infrared emission while the others' continuum emission decreases steadily at all wavelengths. We find that the former have an inner disk hole or gap at intermediate radii in the disk and we call these objects 'transitional disks' and 'pre-transitional disks' (PTDs), respectively. For the latter group, we can fit these SEDs with FD models and find that millimeter data are necessary to break the degeneracy between dust settling and disk mass. We suggest that the term 'transitional' only be applied to objects that display evidence for a radical change in the disk's radial structure. Using this definition, we find that TDs and PTDs tend to have lower mass accretion rates than FDs and that TDs have lower accretion rates than PTDs. These reduced accretion rates onto the star could be linked to forming planets. Future observations of TDs and PTDs will allow us to better quantify the signatures of planet formation in young disks.

Espaillat, C.; Andrews, S.; Qi, C.; Wilner, D. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS-78, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Ingleby, L.; Calvet, N. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 830 Dennison Building, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Hernandez, J. [Centro de Investigaciones de Astronomia (CIDA), Merida 5101-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Furlan, E. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); D'Alessio, P. [Centro de Radioastronomia y Astrofisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, 58089 Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Muzerolle, J., E-mail: cespaillat@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: sandrews@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: cqi@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: dwilner@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: lingleby@umich.edu, E-mail: ncalvet@umich.edu, E-mail: jesush@cida.ve, E-mail: Elise.Furlan@jpl.nasa.gov, E-mail: p.dalessio@crya.unam.mx, E-mail: muzerol@stsci.edu [Space Telescope Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

2012-03-10

227

On the Transitional Disk Class: Linking Observations of T Tauri Stars and Physical Disk Models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two decades ago "transitional disks" (TDs) described spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of T Tauri stars with small near-IR excesses, but significant mid- and far-IR excesses. Many inferred this indicated dust-free holes in disks possibly cleared by planets. Recently, this term has been applied disparately to objects whose Spitzer SEDs diverge from the expectations for a typical full disk (FD). Here, we use irradiated accretion disk models to fit the SEDs of 15 such disks in NGC 2068 and IC 348. One group has a "dip" in infrared emission while the others' continuum emission decreases steadily at all wavelengths. We find that the former have an inner disk hole or gap at intermediate radii in the disk and we call these objects "transitional disks" and "pre-transitional disks" (PTDs), respectively. For the latter group, we can fit these SEDs with FD models and find that millimeter data are necessary to break the degeneracy between dust settling and disk mass. We suggest that the term "transitional" only be applied to objects that display evidence for a radical change in the disk's radial structure. Using this definition, we find that TDs and PTDs tend to have lower mass accretion rates than FDs and that TDs have lower accretion rates than PTDs. These reduced accretion rates onto the star could be linked to forming planets. Future observations of TDs and PTDs will allow us to better quantify the signatures of planet formation in young disks.

Espaillat, C.; Ingleby, L.; Hernández, J.; Furlan, E.; D'Alessio, P.; Calvet, N.; Andrews, S.; Muzerolle, J.; Qi, C.; Wilner, D.

2012-03-01

228

Radio observations of carbon monoxide toward Zeta Ophiuchi - Velocity structure, isotopic abundances, and physical properties  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents a small-scale map of the molecular gas around the line of sight toward Zeta Oph made with measurements of the (C-12)O (1-0) emission obtained at high signal-to-noise ratio and high velocity resolution. In addition, a measurement of the (C-12)O (2-1) line emission and a detection of (C-13)O along the line of sight to the star are reported. The results show that the CO emission toward the star is composed from at least four components with peak velocities at -2.0, -0.7, 0.0, and +0.6 km/s. The radio observations yield a total CO column density of 1.4 x 10 to the 15th/sq cm, with about one-half of the total CO column density being in the main component at -0.7 km/s. The main cmponent is uniform over the map, but the other components are variable, suggesting that the cloud is clumpy. The data on the two CO transitions imply that the excitation temperature and the density of the main component are about 7 K and 800/cu cm, respectively.

Langer, William D.; Glassgold, Alfred E.; Wilson, Robert W.

1987-01-01

229

Physical parameterization of Strombolian eruptions via experimentally-validated modeling of high-speed observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pressurized gas drives explosive volcanic eruptions. Existing models can predict the amount and pressure of gas in erupting magma, but application and testing of such models is currently limited by the accuracy of input parameters from natural systems. Here, we present a new methodology, based on a novel integration of 1) high-speed imaging and 2) shock-tube modeling of volcanic activity in order to derive estimates of sub-second variations in the pressure, mass, and volume of gas that drive the dynamics of unsteady eruptions. First, we validate the method against laboratory-scale shock-tube experiments. Having validated the method we then apply it to observations of eruptions at Stromboli volcano (Italy). Finally, we use those results for a parametric study of the weight of input parameters on final outputs. We conclude that Strombolian explosions, with durations of seconds, result from discrete releases of gas with mass and pressure in the 4-714 kg and 0.10-0.56 MPa range, respectively, and which occupy the volcano conduit to a depth of 4-190 m. These variations are present both among and within individual explosions.

Taddeucci, J.; Alatorre-Ibargüengoitia, M. A.; Moroni, M.; Tornetta, L.; Capponi, A.; Scarlato, P.; Dingwell, D. B.; De Rita, D.

2012-08-01

230

Asteroid (2867) Steins: Shape, topography and global physical properties from OSIRIS observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Rosetta spacecraft flew by Asteroid (2867) Steins on 5 September 2008, allowing the onboard OSIRIS cameras to collect the first images of an E-type asteroid. We implemented several three-dimensional reconstruction techniques to retrieve its shape. Limb profiles, combined with stereo control points, were used to reconstruct an approximate shape model. This model was refined using a stereophotoclinometry technique to accurately retrieve the topography of the hemisphere observed by OSIRIS. The unseen part of the surface was constrained by the technique of light curves inversion. The global shape resembles a top with dimensions along the principal axes of inertia of 6.83 × 5.70 × 4.42 km. It is conspicuously more regular than other small asteroids like (233) Eros and (25143) Itokawa. Its mean radius is Rm = 2.70 km and its equivalent radius (radius of a sphere of equivalent volume) is Rv = 2.63 km. The north pole is oriented at RA = 99 ± 5° and Dec = -59 ± 5°, which implies a very large obliquity of 172° and a retrograde rotation. Maps of the gravitational field and slopes were calculated for the well-imaged part of the asteroid. Together with the shape, they helped characterizing the most prominent topographic features identified at the surface of (2867) Steins: an equatorial ridge restricted to the extremities of the long axis, a large crater having dimensions of 2100 × 1800 m in the southern hemisphere, and an elongated hill in the northern hemisphere. We conjecture that the equatorial ridge was formed by centrifugal acceleration as the asteroid was spun up by the Yarkovsky-O'Keefe-Radzievskii-Paddack effect.

Jorda, L.; Lamy, P. L.; Gaskell, R. W.; Kaasalainen, M.; Groussin, O.; Besse, S.; Faury, G.

2012-11-01

231

Infants Make Quantity Discriminations for Substances  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Infants can track small groups of solid objects, and infants can respond when these quantities change. But earlier work is equivocal about whether infants can track continuous substances, such as piles of sand. Experiment 1 ("N" = 88) used a habituation paradigm to show infants can register changes in the size of piles of sand that they see poured…

Hespos, Susan J.; Dora, Begum; Rips, Lance J.; Christie, Stella

2012-01-01

232

Units for quantities of dimension one  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

All quantities of dimension one are said to have the SI coherent derived unit "one" with the symbol '1'. (Single quotation marks are used here sometimes to indicate a quote, name, term or symbol; double quotation marks flag a concept when necessary.) Conventionally, the term and symbol may not be combined with the SI prefixes (except for the special terms and symbols for one and 1: radian, rad, and steradian, sr). This restriction is understandable, but leads to correct yet impractical alternatives and ISO deprecated symbols such as ppm or in some cases redundant combinations of units, such as mg/kg. "Number of entities" is dimensionally independent of the current base quantities and should take its rightful place among them. The corresponding base unit is "one". A working definition is given. Other quantities of dimension one are derived as fraction, ratio, efficiency, relative quantity, relative increment or characteristic number and may also use the unit "one", whether considered to be base or derived. The special term 'uno' and symbol 'u' in either case are proposed, allowing combination with SI prefixes.

Dybkaer, René

2004-02-01

233

Radiation Protection Quantities for Near Earth Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

As humans travel beyond the protection of the Earth's magnetic field and mission durations grow, risk due to radiation exposure will increase and may become the limiting factor for such missions. Here, the dosimetric quantities recommended by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) for the evaluation of health risk due to radiation exposure, effective dose and gray-equivalent

Martha S. Clowdsley; John W. Wilson; Myung-Hee Kim; Brooke M. Anderson; John E. Nealy

234

Automation of Quantity Surveying in Construction Projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The preparation of a complete and concise project document is a critical issue facing professionals, developers, and contractors working in the building industry. The lack of an accurate, fast, and effective method for estimating the bill of quantities creates problems during the design, tender, and construction supervision of construction projects for designers and contractors practicing in Saudi Arabia. The capability

Mohammed Abdullah; Eben Saleh

1999-01-01

235

Methane retrievals from Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) shortwave infrared measurements: Performance comparison of proxy and physics retrieval algorithms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We compare two conceptually different methods for determining methane column-averaged mixing ratios ? from Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) shortwave infrared (SWIR) measurements. These methods account differently for light scattering by aerosol and cirrus. The proxy method retrieves a CO2 column which, in conjunction with prior knowledge on CO2acts as a proxy for scattering effects. The physics-based method accounts for scattering by retrieving three effective parameters of a scattering layer. Both retrievals are validated on a 19-month data set using ground-based ? at 12 stations of the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON), showing comparable performance: for the proxy retrieval we find station-dependent retrieval biases from -0.312% to 0.421% of ? a standard deviation of 0.22% and a typical precision of 17 ppb. The physics method shows biases between -0.836% and -0.081% with a standard deviation of 0.24% and a precision similar to the proxy method. Complementing this validation we compared both retrievals with simulated methane fields from a global chemistry-transport model. This identified shortcomings of both retrievals causing biases of up to 1ings and provide a satisfying validation of any methane retrieval from space-borne SWIR measurements, in our opinion it is essential to further expand the network of TCCON stations.

Schepers, D.; Guerlet, S.; Butz, A.; Landgraf, J.; Frankenberg, C.; Hasekamp, O.; Blavier, J.-F.; Deutscher, N. M.; Griffith, D. W. T.; Hase, F.; Kyro, E.; Morino, I.; Sherlock, V.; Sussmann, R.; Aben, I.

2012-05-01

236

Changes in mouse cognition and hippocampal gene expression observed in a mild physical- and blast-traumatic brain injury  

PubMed Central

Warfare has long been associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI) in militarized zones. Common forms of TBI can be caused by a physical insult to the head-brain or by the effects of a high velocity blast shock wave generated by the detonation of an explosive device. While both forms of trauma are distinctly different regarding the mechanism of trauma induction, there are striking similarities in the cognitive and emotional status of survivors. Presently, proven effective therapeutics for the treatment of either form of TBI are unavailable. To be able to develop efficacious therapies, studies involving animal models of physical- and blast-TBI are required to identify possible novel or existing medicines that may be of value in the management of clinical events. We examined indices of cognition and anxiety-like behavior and the hippocampal gene transcriptome of mice subjected to both forms of TBI. We identified common behavioral deficits and gene expression regulations, in addition to unique injury-specific forms of gene regulation. Molecular pathways presented a pattern similar to that seen in gene expression. Interestingly, pathways connected to Alzheimer’s disease displayed a markedly different form of regulation depending on the type of TBI. While these data highlight similarities in behavioral outcomes after trauma, the divergence in hippocampal transcriptome observed between models suggests that, at the molecular level, the TBIs are quite different. These models may provide tools to help define therapeutic approaches for the treatment of physical- and blast-TBIs. Based upon observations of increasing numbers of personnel displaying TBI related emotional and behavioral changes in militarized zones, the development of efficacious therapies will become a national if not a global priority.

Tweedie, David; Rachmany, Lital; Rubovitch, Vardit; Zhang, Yongqing; Becker, Kevin G.; Perez, Evelyn; Hoffer, Barry J.; Pick, Chaim G.; Greig, Nigel H.

2013-01-01

237

Changes in mouse cognition and hippocampal gene expression observed in a mild physical- and blast-traumatic brain injury.  

PubMed

Warfare has long been associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI) in militarized zones. Common forms of TBI can be caused by a physical insult to the head-brain or by the effects of a high velocity blast shock wave generated by the detonation of an explosive device. While both forms of trauma are distinctly different regarding the mechanism of trauma induction, there are striking similarities in the cognitive and emotional status of survivors. Presently, proven effective therapeutics for the treatment of either form of TBI are unavailable. To be able to develop efficacious therapies, studies involving animal models of physical- and blast-TBI are required to identify possible novel or existing medicines that may be of value in the management of clinical events. We examined indices of cognition and anxiety-like behavior and the hippocampal gene transcriptome of mice subjected to both forms of TBI. We identified common behavioral deficits and gene expression regulations, in addition to unique injury-specific forms of gene regulation. Molecular pathways presented a pattern similar to that seen in gene expression. Interestingly, pathways connected to Alzheimer's disease displayed a markedly different form of regulation depending on the type of TBI. While these data highlight similarities in behavioral outcomes after trauma, the divergence in hippocampal transcriptome observed between models suggests that, at the molecular level, the TBIs are quite different. These models may provide tools to help define therapeutic approaches for the treatment of physical- and blast-TBIs. Based upon observations of increasing numbers of personnel displaying TBI related emotional and behavioral changes in militarized zones, the development of efficacious therapies will become a national if not a global priority. PMID:23454194

Tweedie, David; Rachmany, Lital; Rubovitch, Vardit; Zhang, Yongqing; Becker, Kevin G; Perez, Evelyn; Hoffer, Barry J; Pick, Chaim G; Greig, Nigel H

2013-06-01

238

Passive microwave observations of asteroids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The advances made since 1979 in the quantity and quality of the radio observations of asteroids and in the understanding of the physics of asteroidal microwave emission are reviewed. Radio continuum spectra analyses are now available for the four largest asteroids (Ceres, Vesta, Pallas, and Hygiea) at several wavelengths and several smaller asteroids (including Interamnia and Eunomia) at one wavelength. The spectra show that most asteroids are covered by a layer of material with physical properties of finely divided dust. This surface material is in layers of variable depth and has dielectric properties which vary from asteroid to asteroid. The effect of instrumentation on the interpretation of microwave observations is examined.

Webster, William J., Jr.; Johnston, Kenneth J.

1989-01-01

239

History matching for exploring and reducing climate model parameter space using observations and a large perturbed physics ensemble  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We apply an established statistical methodology called history matching to constrain the parameter space of a coupled non-flux-adjusted climate model (the third Hadley Centre Climate Model; HadCM3) by using a 10,000-member perturbed physics ensemble and observational metrics. History matching uses emulators (fast statistical representations of climate models that include a measure of uncertainty in the prediction of climate model output) to rule out regions of the parameter space of the climate model that are inconsistent with physical observations given the relevant uncertainties. Our methods rule out about half of the parameter space of the climate model even though we only use a small number of historical observations. We explore 2 dimensional projections of the remaining space and observe a region whose shape mainly depends on parameters controlling cloud processes and one ocean mixing parameter. We find that global mean surface air temperature (SAT) is the dominant constraint of those used, and that the others provide little further constraint after matching to SAT. The Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) has a non linear relationship with SAT and is not a good proxy for the meridional heat transport in the unconstrained parameter space, but these relationships are linear in our reduced space. We find that the transient response of the AMOC to idealised CO2 forcing at 1 and 2 % per year shows a greater average reduction in strength in the constrained parameter space than in the unconstrained space. We test extended ranges of a number of parameters of HadCM3 and discover that no part of the extended ranges can by ruled out using any of our constraints. Constraining parameter space using easy to emulate observational metrics prior to analysis of more complex processes is an important and powerful tool. It can remove complex and irrelevant behaviour in unrealistic parts of parameter space, allowing the processes in question to be more easily studied or emulated, perhaps as a precursor to the application of further relevant constraints.

Williamson, Daniel; Goldstein, Michael; Allison, Lesley; Blaker, Adam; Challenor, Peter; Jackson, Laura; Yamazaki, Kuniko

2013-10-01

240

Infants make quantity discriminations for substances.  

PubMed

Infants can track small groups of solid objects, and infants can respond when these quantities change. But earlier work is equivocal about whether infants can track continuous substances, such as piles of sand. Experiment 1 (N = 88) used a habituation paradigm to show infants can register changes in the size of piles of sand that they see poured from a container when there is a 1-to-4 ratio. Experiment 2 (N = 82) tested whether infants could discriminate a 1-to-2 ratio. The results demonstrate that females could discriminate the difference but males could not. These findings constitute the youngest evidence of successful quantity discriminations for a noncohesive substance and begin to characterize the nature of the representation for noncohesive entities. PMID:22181851

Hespos, Susan J; Dora, Begum; Rips, Lance J; Christie, Stella

2012-01-01

241

Radiation Protection Quantities for Near Earth Environments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As humans travel beyond the protection of the Earth's magnetic field and mission durations grow, risk due to radiation exposure will increase and may become the limiting factor for such missions. Here, the dosimetric quantities recommended by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) for the evaluation of health risk due to radiation exposure, effective dose and gray-equivalent to eyes, skin, and blood forming organs (BFO), are calculated for several near Earth environments. These radiation protection quantities are evaluated behind two different shielding materials, aluminum and polyethylene. Since exposure limits for missions beyond low Earth orbit (LEO) have not yet been defined, results are compared to limits recommended by the NCRP for LEO operations.

Clowdsley, Martha S.; Wilson, John W.; Kim, Myung-Hee; Anderson, Brooke M.; Nealy, John E.

2004-01-01

242

Physical properties of OSIRIS-REx target asteroid (101955) 1999 RQ36. Derived from Herschel, VLT/ VISIR, and Spitzer observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In September 2011, the Herschel Space Observatory performed an observation campaign with the PACS photometer observing the asteroid (101955) 1999 RQ36 in the far infrared. The Herschel observations were analysed, together with ESO VLT/VISIR and Spitzer/IRS data, by means of a thermophysical model in order to derive the physical properties of 1999 RQ36. We find the asteroid has an effective diameter in the range 480 to 511 m, a slightly elongated shape with a semi-major axis ratio of a/b = 1.04, a geometric albedo of 0.045+0.015-0.012, and a retrograde rotation with a spin vector between -70 and -90° ecliptic latitude. The thermal emission at wavelengths below 12 ?m-originating in the hot sub-solar region- shows that there may be large variations in roughness on the surface along the equatorial zone of 1999 RQ36, but further measurements are required for final proof. We determine that the asteroid has a disk-averaged thermal inertia of ? = 650 Jm-2 s-0.5 K-1 with a 3-? confidence range of 350 to 950 Jm-2 s-0.5 K-1, equivalent to what is observed for 25143 Itokawa and suggestive that 1999 RQ36 has a similar surface texture and may also be a rubble-pile in nature. The low albedo indicates that 1999 RQ36 very likely contains primitive volatile-rich material, consistent with its spectral type, and that it is an ideal target for the OSIRIS-REx sample return mission. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.Analysis is also based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Chile; ESO, No. 287.C-5045(A).

Müller, T. G.; O'Rourke, L.; Barucci, A. M.; Pál, A.; Kiss, C.; Zeidler, P.; Altieri, B.; González-García, B. M.; Küppers, M.

2012-12-01

243

Shielded radiation protection quantities beyond LEO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) has recommended that the quantities used to evaluate health risk to astronauts due to radiation exposure be effective dose and gray-equivalent. The NCRP recommends that effective dose be the limiting quantity for prevention of stochastic effects. Effective dose is a measure of whole body exposure, a weighted average of dose equivalent to a number body tissues for which the NCRP has adopted tissue weighting factors recommended by the International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP). For deterministic effects, the NCRP has recommended that gray-equivalent be used. Gray-equivalent is evaluated for specific critical organs and is the weighted sum of absorbed dose from field components to that organ using the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) number for that field component. RBE numbers recommended by the NCRP are used. The NCRP has provided effective dose limits as well as limits for gray-equivalent to eyes, skin, and blood forming organs (BFO) for astronauts in low earth orbit (LEO). As yet, no such limits have been defined for astronaut operations beyond LEO. In this study, the radiation protection quantities, effective dose and gray-equivalent to the eyes, skin, and BFO, are calculated for several environments beyond LEO. The lunar surface and Martian environments are included. For each environment, these radiation protection quantities are calculated behind varying amounts of various types of shielding materials. The results are compared to the exposure limits for LEO, since limits have not yet been defined for interplanetary missions. The benefits of using shielding material containing hydrogen and choosing optimal mission times are discussed.

Clowdsley, M. S.; Wilson, J. W.; Kim, M. Y.; Anderson, B. M.; Nealy, J. E.

244

Quantity Flexibility Contracts and Supply Chain Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Quantity Flexibility (QF) contract is a method for coordinating materials and information flows in supply chains operating under rolling-horizon planning. It stipulates a maximum percentage revision each element of the period-by-period replenishment schedule is allowed per planning iteration. The supplier is obligated to cover any requests that remain within the upside limits. The bounds on reductions are a form

A. A. Tsay; W. S. Lovejoy

1999-01-01

245

Physical mechanism of silicon ablation with long nanosecond laser pulses at 1064 nm through time-resolved observation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanosecond (ns) laser ablation can provide a competitive solution for silicon micromachining in many applications. However, most of the previous studies focus on ns lasers at visible or ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths. The research is very limited for ns lasers at infrared (e.g., 1064 nm) wavelengths (which often have the advantage of much lower cost per unit average output power), and the research is even less if the ns laser also has a long pulse duration on the order of ˜100 ns. In this paper, time-resolved observation using an ICCD (intensified charge-coupled device) camera has been performed to understand the physical mechanism of silicon ablation by 200-ns and 1064-nm laser pulses. This kind of work has been rarely reported in the literature. The research shows that for the studied conditions, material removal in laser silicon ablation is realized through surface vaporization followed by liquid ejection that occurs at a delay time of around 200-300 ns. The propagation speed is on the order of ˜1000 m/s for laser-induced plasma (ionized vapor) front, while it is on the order of ˜100 m/s or smaller for the front of ejected liquid. It has also been found that the liquid ejection is very unlikely due to phase explosion, and its exact underlying physical mechanism requires further investigations.

Zhou, Yun; Wu, Benxin; Tao, Sha; Forsman, Andrew; Gao, Yibo

2011-01-01

246

48 CFR 14.212 - Economic purchase quantities (supplies).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Economic purchase quantities (supplies). ...BIDDING Solicitation of Bids 14.212 Economic purchase quantities (supplies). Contracting officers shall comply with the economic purchase quantity planning...

2013-10-01

247

New Insight into the Observation of Spectroscopic Strength Reduction in Atomic Nuclei: Implication for the Physical Meaning of Spectroscopic Factors  

SciTech Connect

Experimental studies of one-nucleon knockout from magic nuclei suggest that their nucleon orbits are not fully occupied. This conflicts a commonly accepted view of the shell closure associated with such nuclei. The conflict can be reconciled if the overlap between initial and final nuclear states in a knockout reaction are calculated by a nonstandard method. The method employs an inhomogeneous equation based on correlation-dependent effective nucleon-nucleon interactions and allows the simplest wave functions, in which all nucleons occupy only the lowest nuclear orbits, to be used. The method also reproduces the recently established relation between reduction of spectroscopic strength, observed in knockout reactions on other nuclei, and nucleon binding energies. The implication of the inhomogeneous equation method for the physical meaning of spectroscopic factors is discussed.

Timofeyuk, N. K. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

2009-12-11

248

Fast Physics Climate Processes: Latitude Dependence of Radiative Forcings and Climate Feedbacks, Unresolved Impediments to Observational Verification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiation is by far the fastest acting (practically instantaneous) of the physical processes in the climate system. Radiation is central for calculating the radiative forcings that act upon the climate system, and also the radiative effects of all the climate feedbacks. We use line-by-line radiative transfer calculations as the basis for developing computationally fast parameterizations for use in climate GCMs. Water vapor and clouds are the principal fast (couple week time scale) feedback processes in the climate system. We present climate GCM results that demonstrate fast convergence by water vapor to its equilibrium distribution for several extreme water vapor perturbations. We examine the latitudinal dependence of water vapor, cloud, snow/ice, and advective feedbacks derived from GCM experiments for double CO2 and for an increase in solar irradiance by 2%. From this we conclude that the presence of advective feedbacks makes observational quantification of water vapor and cloud feedbacks problematic at best.

Lacis, A. A.

2012-12-01

249

Rapid purification of Soybean mosaic virus from small quantities of tissue by immunoprecipitation.  

PubMed

A rapid, simple, and efficient method for purification of Soybean mosaic virus (SMV) was developed based on immunoprecipitation. Traditional centrifugation-based methods for purification of SMV and other potyviruses require long, complicated procedures and large quantities of infected tissue (100-500 g). The immunoprecipitation procedure described in this study allows the purification of intact SMV virion particles in 4h from 0.5 g of tissue. The reliability of this procedure was demonstrated by RT-PCR and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). This method will be useful for high-throughput examination of the physical and morphological properties of virus particles because intact virion preparations ready for TEM observation can be purified rapidly from very small tissue samples. PMID:23567843

Seo, Jang-Kyun; Kang, Minji; Vo Phan, Mi Sa; Kim, Kook-Hyung

2013-07-01

250

Physical properties of the OMC-2 and OMC-3 cores from CS and C(18)O observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have investigated the properties of the OMC-2 and OMC-3 cores in the Orion giant molecular cloud using high spatial spectral resolution observations of several transitions of the (13)CO, C(18)O, C(S-32) and C(S-34) molecules taken with the SEST telescope. The OMC-2 core consists of one clump (22 solar mass) with a radius of 0.11 pc surrounded by a cluster of 11 discrete infrared sources. The H2 column density and volume density in the center of this clump are 2 x 10(exp 22)/sq cm and 9 x 10(exp 5)/cu cm respectively. From a comparison between physical parameters derived from C(18)O and C(S-32) observations we conclude that the molecular envelope around the core has been completely removed by these sources and that only the very dense gas is left. OMC-3 shows a more complex elongated structure in C(18)O and CS than OMC-2. The C(S-32) and C(S-34) maps show that the denser region can be separated into at least sub-cores of roughly equal sizes (radius approximately equals 0.13 pc), with n(H2) = 6 x 10(exp 5)/cu cm, and a mass of 10 solar mass (from C(S-32)). The very different masses obtained for the central core from C(18)O and C(S-32) (55 and 12 solar mass respectively) indicate that a massive envelope is still present around the very dense sub-cores. We report the first detection of several molecular outflows in OMC-3. The presence of an IRAS source and the first detection of these outflows confirm that star formation is going on in OMC-3. Based on the different physical properties of these regions compared with OMC-1, OMC-2 appears to be in an intermediate evolutionary stage between OMC-1 and OMC-3.

Castets, A.; Langer, W. D.

1995-01-01

251

Our Sun. IV. The Standard Model and Helioseismology: Consequences of Uncertainties in Input Physics and in Observed Solar Parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Helioseismology provides a powerful tool to explore the deep interior of the Sun. Measurements of solar interior quantities are provided with unprecedented accuracy: for example, the adiabatic sound speed c can be inferred with an accuracy of a few parts in 104. This has become a serious challenge to theoretical models of the Sun. Therefore, we have undertaken a self-consistent,

Arnold I. Boothroyd; I.-Juliana Sackmann

2003-01-01

252

Physical conditions in high-redshift GRB-DLA absorbers observed with VLT/UVES: implications for molecular hydrogen searches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aims: We aim to understand the nature of the absorbing neutral gas in the galaxies hosting high-redshift long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and to determine their physical conditions. Methods: A detailed analysis of high-quality VLT/UVES spectra of the optical afterglow of GRB 050730 and other Swift-era bursts is presented. Results: We report the detection of a significant number of previously unidentified allowed transition lines of Fe^+, involving the fine structure of the ground term ( ^6D{7/2}, ^6D{5/2}, ^6D{3/2}, ^6D{1/2}) and that of other excited levels (^4F{9/2}, ^4F{7/2}, ^4F{5/2}, ^4F{3/2}, ^4D{7/2}, ^4D{5/2}), from the zabs = 3.969, log N(H^0) = 22.10, damped Lyman-? (DLA) system located in the host galaxy of GRB 050730. No molecular hydrogen (H2) is detected down to a molecular fraction of log f < -8.0. We derive accurate metal abundances for Fe^+, S^+, N^0, Ni^+, and, for the first time in this system, Si+ and Ar^0. The absorption lines are best-fit as a single narrow velocity component at zabs = 3.96857. The time-dependent evolution of the observed Fe+ energy-level populations is modelled by assuming the excitation mechanism is fluorescence following excitation by ultraviolet photons emitted by the afterglow of GRB 050730. This UV pumping model successfully reproduces the observations, yielding a total Fe+ column density of log N = 15.49±0.03, a burst/cloud distance (defined to the near-side of the cloud) of d = 440±30 pc, and a linear cloud size of l = 520^+240-190 pc. This application of our photo-excitation code demonstrates that burst/DLA distances can be determined without strong constraints on absorption-line variability provided enough energy levels are detected. From the cloud size, we infer a particle density of nH ? 5-15 cm-3. Conclusions: We discuss these results in the context of no detections of H2 and C i lines (with log N(C^0)/N(S^+) < -3) in a sample of seven z > 1.8 GRB host galaxies observed with VLT/UVES. We show that the lack of H2 can be explained by the low metallicities, [X/H] < -1, low depletion factors, and, at most, moderate particle densities of the systems. This points to a picture where GRB-DLAs typically exhibiting very high H0 column densities are diffuse metal-poor atomic clouds with high kinetic temperatures, Tkin ? 1000 K, and large physical extents, l ? 100 pc. The properties of GRB-DLAs observed at high spectral resolution towards bright GRB afterglows differ markedly from the high metal and dust contents of GRB-DLAs observed at lower resolution. This difference likely results from the effect of a bias, against systems of high metallicity and/or close to the GRB, due to dust obscuration in the magnitude-limited GRB afterglow samples observed with high-resolution spectrographs. Based on Target-Of-Opportunity observations carried out in service mode under progs. ID 075.A-0603, P.I. Fiore, and 075.A-0385, 077.D-0661, 080.D-0526, and 081.A-0856, P.I. Vreeswijk, with the Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph (UVES) installed at the Nasmyth-B focus of the Very Large Telescope (VLT), Unit 2 - Kueyen, operated by the European Southern Observatory (ESO) on Cerro Paranal in Chile.

Ledoux, C.; Vreeswijk, P. M.; Smette, A.; Fox, A. J.; Petitjean, P.; Ellison, S. L.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Savaglio, S.

2009-11-01

253

Automated in situ observations of upper ocean biogeochemistry, bio-optics, and physics and their potential use for global studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The processes controlling the flux of carbon in the upper ocean have dynamic ranges in space and time of at least nine orders of magnitude. These processes depend on a broad suite of inter-related biogeochemical, bio-optical, and physical variables. These variables should be sampled on scales matching the relevant phenomena. Traditional ship-based sampling, while critical for detailed and more comprehensive observations, can span only limited portions of these ranges because of logistical and financial constraints. Further, remote observations from satellite platforms enable broad horizontal coverage which is restricted to the upper few meters of the ocean. For these main reasons, automated subsurface measurement systems are important for the fulfillment of research goals related to the regional and global estimation and modeling of time varying biogeochemical fluxes. Within the past few years, new sensors and systems capable of autonomously measuring several of the critical variables have been developed. The platforms for deploying these systems now include moorings and drifters and it is likely that autonomous underwater vehicles (AUV's) will become available for use in the future. Each of these platforms satisfies particular sampling needs and can be used to complement both shipboard and satellite observations. In the present review, (1) sampling considerations will be summarized, (2) examples of data obtained from some of the existing automated in situ sampling systems will be highlighted, (3) future sensors and systems will be discussed, (4) data management issues for present and future automated systems will be considered, and (5) the status of near real-time data telemetry will be outlined. Finally, we wish to make it clear at the outset that the perspectives presented here are those of the authors and are not intended to represent those of the United States JGOFS program, the International JGOFS program, NOAA's C&GC program, or other global ocean programs.

Dickey, Tommy D.; Granata, Timothy C.; Taupier-Letage, Isabelle

1992-01-01

254

Lunar project ILOM: application of the analytical theory of Lunar physical libration for the simulation of star observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study briefly describes the targets and problems of the future Japanese project In situ Lunar Orientation Measurement (ILOM), which is planned for the year 2017. One of the important parts of the project is to place a small optical telescope on the Lunar surface with the purpose to detect the Lunar physical libration with unprecedented accuracy 0.001 arcsec. At the present stage of research the computer simulation of future observations is going on, aiming to determine the moments of transition of a star through the first meridian and the polar distance of the star. Rotation of the Moon is being calculated under the analytical theory developed in the frame of a theme of the grant. A list of stars brighter than 12 m, whose coordinates are close to the Lunar precession pole motion, was constructed on the basis of several star catalogues. On average, for each moment of observation in the field of view of the telescope (1°) there are approximately 20-25 stars. Analyses of simulated stellar tracks observable from the Lunar surface (in a polar zone) reveal the significant difference from daily parallels of stars in comparison with the Earth. During one Lunar "day" equal 237 terrestrial days, a star moves on a spiral. However, depending on a longitude of a star, these spirals can be untwisted or twisted. In the latter case a star can describe a loop in the sky of the Moon during the period of supervision. Such an unusual astrometric phenomenon combined with the slow rotation of the Moon is compared with the Earth and the fast precession motion of the Lunar pole (in comparison with the precession motion of a terrestrial pole).

Petrova, Nataliya; Gusev, Alexander; Ping, JinSong; Ivanova, Tamara; Hanada, Hideo; Kawano, Nobuyuki; Su, XiaoLi

2012-05-01

255

Concurrent high resolution bio-optical and physical time series observations in the Sargasso Sea during the spring of 1987  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The evolution of bio-optical and physical properties of the upper layer of the open ocean has been examined at time scales from a few minutes to several months using recently developed multi-variable moored systems (MVMS). Concurrent, colocated time series measurements of horizontal currents, temperature, photosynthetically available radiation, transmission of a beam of collimated light (660 nm), stimulated chlorophyll fluorescence, and dissolved oxygen concentration were made. The systems were located at eight depths in the upper 160 m of the Sargasso Sea (34°N, 70°W) and were deployed three times for a total of 9 months in 1987. The first deployment data presented here show considerably more variability than those of the latter two deployments because of the dynamic springtime shoaling of the mixed layer and the accompanying phytoplankton bloom and more mesoscale variability associated with cold core rings and warm outbreak waters associated with the Gulf Stream. These data are used to demonstrate the utility of the MVMS and indicate the importance of high-frequency, long-term sampling of bio-optical and physical variables of the upper ocean for understanding and modeling dynamical changes in bio-optical properties, primary production, and carbon fluxes of the upper ocean on time scales ranging from minutes to seasons to decades. Some phenomena observed with the systems include (1) diurnal variations in bio-optical properties, (2) springtime stratification and rapid (˜2 days and less) episodic changes in the beam attenuation coefficient and in situ chlorophyll fluorescence, and (3) advective episodes associated with warm outbreaks of Gulf Stream waters and cold core Gulf Stream rings in the vicinity of the mooring.

Dickey, T.; Marra, J.; Granata, T.; Langdon, C.; Hamilton, M.; Wiggert, J.; Siegel, D.; Bratkovich, A.

1991-05-01

256

Urban forms, physical activity and body mass index: a cross-city examination using ISS Earth Observation photographs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Johnson Space Center has archived thousands of astronauts acquired Earth images. Some spectacular images have been widely used in news media and in k-12 class room, but their potential utilizations in health promotion and disease prevention have relatively untapped. The project uses daytime ISS photographs to define city forms and links them to city or metropolitan level health data in a multicity context. Road connectivity, landuse mix and Shannon's information indices were used in the classification of photographs. In contrast to previous remote-sensing studies, which tend to focus on a single city or a portion of a city, this project utilized photographs of 39 U.S. cities. And in contrast to previous health-promotion studies on the built environment, which tend to rely on survey respondents' responses to evaluate road connectivity or mixed land use for a single study site, the project examined the built environments of multiple cities based on ISS photos. It was found that road connectivity and landuse mix were not statistically significant by themselves, but the composite measure of the Shannon index was significantly associated with physical activity, but not BMI. Consequently, leisure-time physical activity seems to be positively associated with the urban complexity scale. It was also concluded that unless they are planned or designed in advance, photographs taken by astronauts generally are not appropriate for a study of a single-site built environment nor are they appropriate for a study of infectious diseases at a local scale. To link urban built environment with city-wide health indicators, both the traditional nadir view and oblique views should be emphasized in future astronauts' earth observation photographs.

Lin, Ge

2005-01-01

257

Interactions of socioeconomic position with psychosocial and environmental correlates of children's physical activity: an observational study of South Australian families  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Evidence for psychosocial and environmental correlates on children's physical activity is scattered and somewhat unconvincing. Further, the moderating influences of socioeconomic position (SEP) on these influences are largely unexplored. The aim of this study was to examine the interactions of SEP, operationalised by mother education, and predictors of children's physical activity based on the Youth Physical Activity Promotion Model.

James Dollman; Nicole R Lewis

2009-01-01

258

Consumer-Resource Dynamics: Quantity, Quality, and Allocation  

PubMed Central

Background The dominant paradigm for modeling the complexities of interacting populations and food webs is a system of coupled ordinary differential equations in which the state of each species, population, or functional trophic group is represented by an aggregated numbers-density or biomass-density variable. Here, using the metaphysiological approach to model consumer-resource interactions, we formulate a two-state paradigm that represents each population or group in a food web in terms of both its quantity and quality. Methodology and Principal Findings The formulation includes an allocation function controlling the relative proportion of extracted resources to increasing quantity versus elevating quality. Since lower quality individuals senesce more rapidly than higher quality individuals, an optimal allocation proportion exists and we derive an expression for how this proportion depends on population parameters that determine the senescence rate, the per-capita mortality rate, and the effects of these rates on the dynamics of the quality variable. We demonstrate that oscillations do not arise in our model from quantity-quality interactions alone, but require consumer-resource interactions across trophic levels that can be stabilized through judicious resource allocation strategies. Analysis and simulations provide compelling arguments for the necessity of populations to evolve quality-related dynamics in the form of maternal effects, storage or other appropriate structures. They also indicate that resource allocation switching between investments in abundance versus quality provide a powerful mechanism for promoting the stability of consumer-resource interactions in seasonally forcing environments. Conclusions/Significance Our simulations show that physiological inefficiencies associated with this switching can be favored by selection due to the diminished exposure of inefficient consumers to strong oscillations associated with the well-known paradox of enrichment. Also our results demonstrate how allocation switching can explain observed growth patterns in experimental microbial cultures and discuss how our formulation can address questions that cannot be answered using the quantity-only paradigms that currently predominate.

Getz, Wayne M.; Owen-Smith, Norman

2011-01-01

259

Non-Gaussianity effects in petrophysical quantities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been proved that there are many indicators (petrophysical quantities) for the estimation of petroleum reservoirs. The value of information contained in each indicator is yet to be addressed. In this work, the most famous and applicable petrophysical quantities for a reservoir, which are the gamma emission (GR), sonic transient time (DT), neutron porosity (NPHI), bulk density (RHOB), and deep induced resistivity (ILD), have been analyzed in order to characterize a reservoir. The implemented technique is the well-logging method. Based on the log-normal model defined in random multiplicative processes, the probability distribution function (PDF) for the data sets is described. The shape of the PDF depends on the parameter ?2 which determines the efficiency of non-Gaussianity. When non-Gaussianity appears, it is a sign of uncertainty and phase transition in the critical regime. The large value and scale-invariant behavior of the non-Gaussian parameter ?2 is an indication of a new phase which proves adequate for the existence of petroleum reservoirs. Our results show that one of the indicators (GR) is more non-Gaussian than the other indicators, scale wise. This means that GR is a continuously critical indicator. But by moving windows with various scales, the estimated ?2 shows that the most appropriate indicator for distinguishing the critical regime is ILD, which shows an increase at the end of the measured region of the well.

Koohi Lai, Z.; Jafari, G. R.

2013-10-01

260

A Cooperative Game Theory Model of Quantity Discounts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantity discounts offered by a monopolist are considered in the context of a bargaining problem in which the buyer and the seller negotiate over the order quantity and the average unit price. All-units and incremental quantity discounts that permit transaction at a negotiated outcome are described. The effects of risk sensitivity and bargaining power on quantity discounts are discussed for

Rajeev Kohli

1989-01-01

261

48 CFR 52.236-16 - Quantity Surveys.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Quantity Surveys. 52.236-16 Section 52.236-16...and Clauses 52.236-16 Quantity Surveys. As prescribed in 36.516, the...items and for payment based on quantity surveys is contemplated: Quantity...

2013-10-01

262

Measuring Physical Activity in Preschoolers: Reliability and Validity of the System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time for Preschoolers (SOFIT-P)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is describe the initial feasibility, reliability, and validity of an instrument to measure physical activity in preschoolers using direct observation. The System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time for Preschoolers was developed and tested among 3- to 6-year-old children over fall 2008 for feasibility and reliability…

Sharma, Shreela V.; Chuang, Ru-Jye; Skala, Katherine; Atteberry, Heather

2011-01-01

263

European Marine Observation and DataNetwork (EMODNET)- physical parameters: A support to marine science and operational oceanography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The overall objectives of EMODNET - physical parameters is to provide access to archived and real-time data on physical conditions in Europe's seas and oceans and to determine how well the data meet the needs of users. In particular it will contribute towards the definition of an operational European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet) and contribute to developing the definition of the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) marine core service. Access to data and metadata will consider measurements from fixed stations that will cover at least: 1. wave height and period; 2. temperature of the water column; 3. wind speed and direction; 4. salinity of the water column; 5. horizontal velocity of the water column ; 6. light attenuation; 7. sea level. A first running prototype of the portal active from the end of 2011, the final release of the EMODnet PP is due by half June 2012. Then there are 6 months for testing and users' feedback acquisition and management. The project finishes 16th December 2013 after one year of maintenance. Compliance with INSPIRE framework and temporal and geographical data coverage are ensured under the requirements contained in the several Commission Regulations issued from 2008 until 2010. The metadata are based upon the ISO 19115 standard and are compliant with the INSPIRE directive and regulations. This assures also a minimum metadata content in both systems that will facilitate the setting up of a portal that can provide information on data and access to them, depending on the internal data policy of potential contributors. Data coverage: There are three pillars sustaining EMODnet PP: EuroGOOS ROOSs (the EuroGOOS regional Operational Systems), MyOcean and SeaDataNet. MyOcean and EuroGOOS have agreed in EuroGOOS general assemblies (2008-2009-2010) to share their efforts to set up a common infrastructure for real-time data integration for operational oceanography needs extending the global and regional portals set up by MyOcean to handle additional variables and observation providers. SeaDataNet is a Pan-European infrastructure for oceans and marine data management, that provides access to archived data residing in distributed information systems. EMODNet Physics held three workshops with institutions working in operational data collection in the Baltin, North Sea, East Atlantic, Mediterranean and Black Sea. They allowed to list most of the existing fixed stations in the seas of European interest. The workshops and the follow up are constructing a common collaborative framework within EuroGOOS ROOSs. Behind the ROOSs there is a wide number of institutions, scientists and technicians, whose participation to EMODnet PP will be acknowledged and made visible through the web pages, newsletters, and EuroGOOS publications. This common collaborative framework is producing an important network of data centres that can support GMES for the years to come.

Dahlin, Hans; Gies, Tobias; Giordano, Marco; Gorringe, Patrick; Manzella, Giuseppe; Maudire, Gilbert; Novellino, Antonio; Pagnani, Maureen; Petersson, Sian; Pouliquen, Sylvie; Rickards, Lesley; Schaap, Dick; Tijsse, Peter; van der Horste, Serge

2013-04-01

264

OSO-8 X-ray spectra of clusters of galaxies. 1. Observations of twenty clusters: Physical correlations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

OSO-8 X-ray spectra from 2 to 20 keV were analyzed for 26 clusters of galaxies. Temperature, emission integrals, iron abundances, and low energy absorption measurements are given. Eight clusters have positive iron emission line detections at the 90% confidence level, and all twenty cluster spectra are consistent with Fe/H=0.000014 by number with the possible exception of Virgo. Physical correlations between X-ray spectral parameters and other cluster properties are examined. It is found that: (1) the X-ray temperature is approximately proportional to the square of the velocity dispersion of the galaxies; (2) the emission integral and therefore the bolometric X-ray luminosity is a strong function of the X-ray temperature; (3) the X-ray temperature and emission integral are better correlated with cluster central galaxy density than with richness; (4) temperature and emission integral are separately correlated with Rood-Sastry type; and (5) the fraction of galaxies which are spirals is correlated with the observed ram pressure in the cluster core.

Mushotzky, R. F.; Serlemitsos, P. J.; Smith, B. W.; Boldt, E. A.; Holt, S. S.

1978-01-01

265

Evaluation of Specific Absorption Rate as a Dosimetric Quantity for Electromagnetic Fields Bioeffects  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluate SAR as a dosimetric quantity for EMF bioeffects, and identify ways for increasing the precision in EMF dosimetry and bioactivity assessment. Methods We discuss the interaction of man-made electromagnetic waves with biological matter and calculate the energy transferred to a single free ion within a cell. We analyze the physics and biology of SAR and evaluate the methods of its estimation. We discuss the experimentally observed non-linearity between electromagnetic exposure and biological effect. Results We find that: a) The energy absorbed by living matter during exposure to environmentally accounted EMFs is normally well below the thermal level. b) All existing methods for SAR estimation, especially those based upon tissue conductivity and internal electric field, have serious deficiencies. c) The only method to estimate SAR without large error is by measuring temperature increases within biological tissue, which normally are negligible for environmental EMF intensities, and thus cannot be measured. Conclusions SAR actually refers to thermal effects, while the vast majority of the recorded biological effects from man-made non-ionizing environmental radiation are non-thermal. Even if SAR could be accurately estimated for a whole tissue, organ, or body, the biological/health effect is determined by tiny amounts of energy/power absorbed by specific biomolecules, which cannot be calculated. Moreover, it depends upon field parameters not taken into account in SAR calculation. Thus, SAR should not be used as the primary dosimetric quantity, but used only as a complementary measure, always reporting the estimating method and the corresponding error. Radiation/field intensity along with additional physical parameters (such as frequency, modulation etc) which can be directly and in any case more accurately measured on the surface of biological tissues, should constitute the primary measure for EMF exposures, in spite of similar uncertainty to predict the biological effect due to non-linearity.

Panagopoulos, Dimitris J.; Johansson, Olle; Carlo, George L.

2013-01-01

266

Correlation of photospheric quantities in the ANTARES model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to analyse in-depth stellar thermodynamic quantities which otherwise would require much more complex and time consuming observations and measurements numeric models have been developed. The present work is based on data retrieved from the ANTARES model, a 3D radiation hydrodynamics Fortran90-code modelling solar surface convection. The main focus in this paper lies on the determination of the structure of the photosphere. Results have been obtained by calculating and comparing correlation height-functions. These calculations were performed with a model data set with an extended time domain compared to former research carried out by Leitner (2009). As a verification, results were compared to the former mentioned correlations and observational findings. The correlations showed no significant deviation from data sets with extended time domain and support the mentioned observational results.

Lemmerer, B.; Hanslmeier, A.; Muthsam, H.; Leitner, P.

267

Quantity without numbers and numbers without quantity in the parietal cortex  

PubMed Central

A dominant view in numerical cognition is that processing the quantity indicated by numbers (e.g. deciding the larger between two numbers such as ‘12.07’ or ‘15.02’) relies on the intraparietal regions (IPS) of the cerebral cortex. However, it remains unclear whether the IPS could play a more general role in numerical cognition, for example in (1) quantity processing even with non-numerical stimuli (e.g. choosing the larger of ‘bikini’ and ‘coat’); and/or (2) conceptual tasks involving numbers beyond those requiring quantity processing (e.g. attributing a summer date to either ‘12.07’ or ‘15.02’). In this study we applied fMRI-guided TMS to the left and right IPS, while independently manipulating stimulus and task. Our results showed that IPS involvement in numerical cognition is neither stimulus-specific nor specific for conceptual tasks. Thus, quantity judgments with numerical and non-numerical stimuli were equally affected by IPS-TMS, as well as a number conceptual task not requiring quantity comparisons. However, IPS-TMS showed no impairment for perceptual decisions on numbers without any conceptual processing (i.e. colour judgment), nor for conceptual decisions that did not involve quantity or number stimuli (e.g. summer object: ‘bikini’ or ‘coat’?). These results are consistent with proposals that the parietal areas are engaged in the conceptual representation of numbers but they challenge the most common view that number processing is so automatic that the simple presentation of numbers activates the IPS and a sense of magnitude. Rather, our results show that the IPS is only necessary when conceptual operations need to be explicitly oriented to numerical concepts.

Cappelletti, Marinella; Muggleton, Neil; Walsh, Vincent

2009-01-01

268

Quantity without numbers and numbers without quantity in the parietal cortex.  

PubMed

A dominant view in numerical cognition is that processing the quantity indicated by numbers (e.g. deciding the larger between two numbers such as '12.07' or '15.02') relies on the intraparietal regions (IPS) of the cerebral cortex. However, it remains unclear whether the IPS could play a more general role in numerical cognition, for example in (1) quantity processing even with non-numerical stimuli (e.g. choosing the larger of 'bikini' and 'coat'); and/or (2) conceptual tasks involving numbers beyond those requiring quantity processing (e.g. attributing a summer date to either '12.07' or '15.02'). In this study we applied fMRI-guided TMS to the left and right IPS, while independently manipulating stimulus and task. Our results showed that IPS involvement in numerical cognition is neither stimulus-specific nor specific for conceptual tasks. Thus, quantity judgments with numerical and non-numerical stimuli were equally affected by IPS-TMS, as well as a number conceptual task not requiring quantity comparisons. However, IPS-TMS showed no impairment for perceptual decisions on numbers without any conceptual processing (i.e. colour judgment), nor for conceptual decisions that did not involve quantity or number stimuli (e.g. summer object: 'bikini' or 'coat'?). These results are consistent with proposals that the parietal areas are engaged in the conceptual representation of numbers but they challenge the most common view that number processing is so automatic that the simple presentation of numbers activates the IPS and a sense of magnitude. Rather, our results show that the IPS is only necessary when conceptual operations need to be explicitly oriented to numerical concepts. PMID:19236924

Cappelletti, Marinella; Muggleton, Neil; Walsh, Vincent

2009-06-01

269

Assessing Characteristics of Drought and Its physical mechanism over Ethiopia using Observational and RegCM4 Driven Indices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study focuses on the analysis of dryness/wetness over Ethiopia from 1982 to 2009 using Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI), which are derived from observational and RegCM4 dataset over Ethiopia. Trend empirical orthogonal function (TEOF), regression and wavelet analysis are used to investigate the long term change, frequency and intra-annual variability of drought over Ethiopia. All method analysis of PDSI and SPI are consistent and showed, the southern regions to be more drought-prone than other regions of Ethiopia and statistically significant dry trend are dominated in particular during the recent decade. By contrast, the likelihood of drought occurrence of northern regions is considerably less and dominated by low frequency signals. Both indices indicated that the North and Northwest regions experienced frequent and worst drought conditions centered at the year 1983/1984 and similar conditions centered at the year 2007-2009 over the southern and southwestern regions have been identified. The first two most dominant trend principal components (TPCs) of observational driven PDSI and SPI-12 with corresponding RegCM4 driven TPCs of PDSI and SPI-12 indicates significant correlations (correlation exceeding ~0.8). In addition, the corresponding patterns (TEOFs) of RegCM4 and observational driven drought indices are so similar. Generally, the RegCM4 shows a good performance in simulating the multi-scale spatial and temporal variability of drought occurrence over Ethiopia. The correlation pattern of trend principal components (TPCs) of PDSI and SPI-12 with raw sea surface temperature (SST) indicates that the possible association of the observed variability of drought. The equatorial pacific, the northern and equatorial Atlantic are correlated significantly with first dominant TPC of drought indices, whereas ENSO, Indian and Atlantic Ocean significantly correlated with the second dominant TPC of drought indices. In addition we observe the association between ocean basin and drought indices is highly seasonal dependant with the strongest association in the spring. The physical mechanisms responsible for such linkage in the atmosphere are examined using both ERA-Interim (ERIM) and RegCM4 dataset. Moreover, it was found that droughts occurred in events of strong El Niño years mainly severe and wider areal coverage. During events of negative values of Indian Ocean dipole (-IOD) the southern and west border regions of the country hit by severe drought. The northern and some part of Ethiopia during events of negative anomaly SST of North Atlantic suffered at a significant level by drought conditions. Overall, the common power variance, phase, frequency and confidence of the time-lagged relationships between oceanic basin TPC and drought indices TPCs indicate that oceanic parameters can be used as indicators of drought occurrence in Ethiopia.

Zeleke, T. T.; Tsidu, G. M.; Giorgi, F.; Diro, G. T.

2012-12-01

270

LTU Physlet: Vector Quantities in Simple Kinematics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This applet is an animation of an object moving with a constant acceleration in one dimension. It shows the velocity and acceleration vectors on the animation in real-time, as well as the position, velocity, and acceleration graphs as a function of time. The applet offers four distinct scenarios with different accelerations and initial positions and velocities. Standard controls allow the user to start, pause, step, and reset the animation. This is part of a large collection of Physlet-based (Physics Java Applet) illustrations and tutorials covering introductory physics.

Schneider, Scott

2006-09-02

271

Convergent Validity of Four Accelerometer Cutpoints with Direct Observation of Preschool Children's Outdoor Physical Activity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: More than one fifth of American preschool-aged children are classified as overweight/obese. Increasing physical activity is one means of slowing/reversing progression to overweight or obesity. Measurement of physical activity in this age group relies heavily on motion sensors such as accelerometers. Output is typically interpreted through…

Kahan, David; Nicaise, Virginie; Reuben, Karen

2013-01-01

272

Evidencing the transition from Mode I cracking to dilation banding: Results from physical experiments with fractographic observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mechanism of quasi-brittle fracture/rupture remains one of the central problems in different domains of material science/mechanics including geomechanics. There are basically two approaches to this problem. One is the fracture mechanics dealing with stability conditions of cracks characterized by a strong stress concentration at the tips causing crack propagation. The other approach is the formation of deformation localization bands as constitutive instabilities, whose onset in quasi-brittle rocks can be considered as corresponding to the inception of rupture. We investigate the conditions of applicability of these end-member approaches and show a continuous transition from one to another with an increase in the confining pressure P in the experimental extension tests on a synthetic physical rock analogue (granular, frictional, cohesive and dilatant) material GRAM1. Discontinuities/fractures perpendicular to the least (axial) stress ?3 were generated in GRAM1 samples. These fractures form dynamically and are of two types defined by the mean stress ? or P. When ? is very small, the fractures form through mode I cracking with ?3 equal to the material tensile strength. The fracture walls have smooth surfaces in this case. Increase in ? causes increase in ?3 at fracturing, which becomes less negative and reaches small positive (compression) values, while the failure still occurs along a discontinuity perpendicular to ?3. Thus, the discontinuities generated starting from a certain ? value cannot be mode I fractures. Increase in ? also results in changes in the relief of the surfaces of discontinuities after their postmortem opening (separation of the walls): the surfaces become rougher, with the topography features forming faint/delicate plumose patterns very similar to those on the geological joint walls. SEM observations of the unopened discontinuities show that they represent several grain sizes-thick bands of a material which underwent a heterogeneous decohesion and volume/porosity increase. This suggests a dilatancy within bands. After opening they become fractures with plumose fractography. As indicated, these fractures could not be formed through the mode I mechanism. The true formation mechanism is not completely clear, but it is suggested that it represents a running constitutive instability in the form of dilation banding (with further ? increase the bands become inclined to ?1, i.e., shear; inclination angle grows with ?). The morphological similarity between the experimentally generated plumose-surface fractures and natural joints surfaces is shown. On the other hand, MEB observations evidence a textural similarity between the experimental bands and some natural unopened incipient joints found in fine grained rocks. It is proposed that propagating dilation bands could be an important mechanism for the generation of natural joints.

Nguyen, S.; Chemenda, A.; Petit, J.; Ambre, J.; Geo-Fracnet-Géoazur

2010-12-01

273

The physics and chemistry of small molecular clouds in the galactic plane. 1: Physical conditions form C(18)O and (13)CO observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have observed the J = 1 goes to 0 and 2 goes to 1 transitions of C(18)O and (13)CO in 27 small Galactic plane clouds taken from the 1988 catalog of Clemens & Barvainis. The observations are analyzed by means of polytropic hydrostatic equilibrium models, the same as used by the author in a series of papers on cirrus

B. E. Turner

1994-01-01

274

Covariance matrix of derived quantities and their combination.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The covariance matrix of quantities derived from measured data via nonlinear relations are only approximate since they are functions of the measured data taken as estimates for the true values of the measured quantities. The evaluation of such derived qua...

Z. Zhao F. G. Perey

1992-01-01

275

Hazardous Waste from Small Quantity Generators in the United States,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The EPA must evaluate the potential impact of small quantity generator hazardous waste on groundwater contamination in the United States, focusing on potential groundwater contamination due to small quantity generator hazardous waste disposal in municipal...

R. C. Herndon J. E. Moerlins C. M. Teaf V. W. Lambou J. D. Koutsandreas

1988-01-01

276

Category 3 threshold quantities for hazard categorization of nonreactor facilities  

SciTech Connect

This document provides the information necessary to determine Hazard Category 3 threshold quantities for those isotopes of interest not listed in WHC-CM-4-46, Section 4, Table 1.''Threshold Quantities.''

Mandigo, R.L.

1996-02-13

277

Social Support in Women with Fibromyalgia: Is Quality More Important than Quantity?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study is an examination of the effects of quality and quantity of social support on the psychological and physical well-being of women with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). Participants were 568 women who were members of a health maintenance organization (HMO) with a confirmed diagnosis of FMS. Participants were administered a battery of…

Franks, Heather M.; Cronan, Terry A.; Oliver, Karen

2004-01-01

278

Separation method and yields of small quantities of rare earth elements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The EMIS PARSIFAL was designed to purify very small quantities of radioactive isotopes. Yields are therefore an important component of the separations. The ionization is done in a thermoionization source or a plasma source, according to the physical properties of the concerned elements. For rare earth elements (REE), hydroxides are electrodeposited on a tantalum wire; for thermoionization, the wire is

Y. Boulin; A. Juery

1992-01-01

279

Vitrification of Large Quantities of Immature Bovine Oocytes Using Nylon Mesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vitrification of oocytes and embryos has recently been improved using new physical supports such as electron microscope (EM) grids, open-pulled straws, and cryoloops. However, the number of samples per container was restricted in each of these methods. In the present study, to develop a novel simple technique for vitrification of large quantities of oocytes or embryos, we examined vitrification of

H. Matsumoto; J. Y. Jiang; T. Tanaka; H. Sasada; E. Sato

2001-01-01

280

Individualized Instruction in Science, Introductory Physical Science, Learning Activity Packages.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learning Activity Packages (LAP) mostly relating to the Introductory Physical Science Text are presented in this manual for use in sampling a new type of instruction. The total of 14 topics are incorporated into five units: (1) introduction to individualized learning; (2) observation versus interpretation; (3) quantity of matter; (4) introduction…

Kuczma, R. M.

281

Knowledge base for growth and innovation in ocean economy: assembly and dissemination of marine data for seabed mapping - European Marine Observation Data Network - EMODnet Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Physics preparatory action (MARE/2010/02 - Lot [SI2.579120]) had the overall objectives to provide access to archived and near real-time data on physical conditions as monitored by fixed stations and Ferrybox lines in all the European sea basins and oceans and to determine how well the data meet the needs of users. The existing EMODnet-Physics portal, www.emodnet-physics.eu, includes systems for physical data from the whole Europe (wave height and period, temperature of the water column, wind speed and direction, salinity of the water column, horizontal velocity of the water column, light attenuation, and sea level) provided mainly by fixed stations and ferry-box platforms, discovering related data sets (both near real time and historical data sets), viewing and downloading of the data from about 470 platforms across the European Sea basins. It makes layers of physical data and their metadata available for use and contributes towards the definition of an operational European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet). It is based on a strong collaboration between EuroGOOS member institutes and its regional operational oceanographic systems (ROOSs), and it brings together two marine, but different, communities : the "real time" ocean observing institutes and centers and the National Oceanographic Data Centres (NODCs) that are in charge for archived ocean data validation, quality check and continuous update of data archives for marine environmental monitoring. EMODnet Physics is a Marine Observation and Data Information System that provides a single point of access to near real time and historical achieved data, it is built on existing infrastructure by adding value and avoiding any unnecessary complexity, it provides data access to any relevant user, and is aimed at attracting new data holders and providing better and more data. With a long term-vision for a sustained pan European Ocean Observation System EMODnet Physics is supporting the coordination of the EuroGOOS ROOSs and the empowerment and improvement of their observing and data management infrastructure. The on-going EMODnet Physics preparatory action has recently been extended (MARE/2012/06 - Lot 6) with the aim to enlarge the coverage with additional monitoring systems (e.g. Argos, Gliders, HF Radars etc) and products and strengthening the underlying infrastructure. The presentation will show how to exploit the EMODnet portal and access to the metadata and data of connected platforms.

Novellino, Antonio; Gorringe, Patrick; Schaap, Dick; Pouliquen, Sylvie; Rickards, Lesley; Manzella, Giuseppe

2014-05-01

282

A horizontal mobile measuring system for atmospheric quantities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fully automatic Horizontal Mobile Measuring System (HMMS) for atmospheric quantities has been developed. The HMMS is based on the drive mechanism of a garden railway system and can be installed at any location and with any measuring track. In addition to meteorological quantities (temperature, humidity and short/long-wave down/upwelling radiation), HMMS also measures trace gas concentrations (carbon dioxide and ozone). While sufficient spatial resolution is a problem even for measurements on distributed towers, this could be easily achieved with the HMMS, which has been specifically developed to obtain higher information density about horizontal gradients in a heterogeneous forest ecosystem. There, horizontal gradients of meteorological quantities and trace gases could be immense, particularly at the transition from a dense forest to an open clearing, with large impact on meteorological parameters and exchange processes. Consequently, HMMS was firstly applied during EGER IOP3 project (ExchanGE processes in mountainous Regions - Intense Observation Period 3) in the Fichtelgebirge Mountains (SE Germany) during summer 2011. At a constant 1 m above ground, the measuring track of the HMMS consisted of a straight line perpendicular to the forest edge, starting in the dense spruce forest and leading 75 m into an open clearing. Tags with bar codes, mounted every meter on the wooden substructure, allowed (a) keeping the speed of the HMMS constant (approx. 0.5 m s-1) and (b) operation of the HMMS in a continuous back and forth running mode. During EGER IOP3, HMMS was operational for almost 250 h. Results show that - due to considerably long response times (between 4 s and 20 s) of commercial temperature, humidity and the radiation sensors - true spatial variations of the meteorological quantities could not be adequately captured (mainly at the forest edge). Corresponding dynamical (spatial) errors of the measurement values were corrected on the basis of well defined individual response times of the sensors and application of a linear correction algorithm. Due to the very short response times (? 1 s) of the applied commercial CO2 and O3 analysers, dynamical errors for the trace gas data were negligible and no corrections were done.

Hübner, J.; Olesch, J.; Falke, H.; Meixner, F. X.; Foken, T.

2014-05-01

283

The Role of Quantity Implicatures in the Grammaticalization of "Would."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines grammaticalization of English "would" over an extended period of time. Offers an analysis that accounts for evidence of both the first Gricean Maxim of Quantity (in which an unrestricted quantity of information is understood to have a restricted representation) and the second (which holds that a restricted quantity of information is…

Ziegler, Debra

2000-01-01

284

Price and Quantity Competition in a Differentiated Duopoly  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article analyzes the duality of prices and quantities in a differentiated duopoly. It is shown that if firms can only make two types of binding contracts with consumers, the price contract and the quantity contract, it is a dominant strategy for each firm to choose the quantity (price) contract, provided the goods are substitutes (complements).

Nirvikar Singh; Xavier Vives

1984-01-01

285

Improving Profitability with Quantity Discounts under Fixed Demand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantity discount schedules have been studied, in the past, from the retailer's, and not the supplier's, point of view. These studies address the problem of determining the economic order quantities for the retailer, given a quantity discount schedule set by the supplier. In this paper, this problem is addressed from the supplier's point of view, assuming that the retailer always

Meir J. Rosenblatt; Hau L. Lee

1985-01-01

286

Variations in hospital waste quantities and generation rates.  

PubMed

The relationship between public health and improper collection, handling, and disposal of solid wastes in general, and hospital wastes in particular, is quite clear. Hazardous and nonhazardous wastes generated from different divisions of two of the largest public hospitals (capacity of approximately 400 beds each) in Kuwait were quantified and generation rates were determined. The generation rates were related to some important factors such as the number of patients, number of beds, and the type of activity conducted in different sections of the hospitals. The relationship between the waste generation rate and the number of patients was more applicable than that expressed in terms of the number of beds. The rates observed were in the range of 4.89 to 5.4 kg/patient/day, which corresponds to 3.65 to 3.97 kg/bed/day, respectively. These generation rates were comparable with those reported in the literature for similar hospitals. Minimal waste quantities were collected in the weekends. The study indicated that the hospitals surveyed provide some segregation of hazardous and nonhazardous wastes. Hazardous wastes contributed about 53% of the total quantity of wastes generated at the hospitals. PMID:15717788

Hamoda, H M; El-Tomi, H N; Bahman, Q Y

2005-01-01

287

Comparing Physically Abusive, Neglectful, and Non-Maltreating Parents during Interactions with Their Children: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To clarify the nature and extent of differences in the ways that physically abusive, neglectful, and non-maltreating parents communicate during interactions with their children. Method: A meta-analysis was conducted of 33 observational studies comparing parent-child interactions in families where parents have a documented history of…

Wilson, Steven R.; Rack, Jessica J.; Shi, Xiaowei; Norris, Alda M.

2008-01-01

288

Measurements of physical properties of gas hydrates and in situ observations of formation and decomposition processes via Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gas hydrate properties and phase transition kinetics were studied using Raman spectroscopic and X-ray diffraction methods. These techniques have the advantage of measuring physical properties such as crystal structure, gas composition, and cage occupancy of gas molecules without decomposing the sample. In situ observations using these techniques are indicative of formation and decomposition processes in gas hydrates. Raman spectroscopy is

T. Uchida; S. Takeya; L. D. Wilson; C. A. Tulk; J. A. Ripmeester; J. Nagao; T. Ebinuma; H. Narita

2003-01-01

289

Gauge invariant computable quantities in timelike Liouville theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Timelike Liouville theory admits the sphere {{mathbb{S}}^2} as a real saddle point, about which quantum fluctuations can occur. An issue occurs when computing the expectation values of specific types of quantities, like the distance between points. The problem being that the gauge redundancy of the path integral over metrics is not completely fixed even after fixing to conformal gauge by imposing {g_{{? ? }}}={e^{{2widehat{b}? }}}{{widetilde{g}}_{{? ? }}}, where ? is the Liouville field and {{widetilde{g}}_{{? ? }}} is a reference metric. The physical metric {g_{{? ? }}}, and therefore the path integral over metrics still possesses a gauge redundancy due to invariance under SL 2(mathbb{C}) coordinate transformations of the reference coordinates. This zero mode of the action must be dealt with before a perturbative analysis can be made. This paper shows that after fixing to conformal gauge, the remaining zero mode of the linearized Liouville action due to SL 2(mathbb{C}) coordinate transformations can be dealt with by using standard Fadeev-Popov methods. Employing the gauge condition that the "dipole" of the reference coordinate system is a fixed vector, and then integrating over all values of this dipole vector. The "dipole" vector referring to how coordinate area is concentrated about the sphere; assuming the sphere is embedded in {{mathbb{R}}^3} and centered at the origin, and the coordinate area is thought of as a charge density on the sphere. The vector points along the ray from the origin of {{mathbb{R}}^3} to the direction of greatest coordinate area. A Green's function is obtained and used to compute the expectation value of the geodesic length between two points on the {{mathbb{S}}^2} to second order in the Timelike Liouville coupling widehat{b}. This quantity doesn't suffer from any power law or logarithmic divergences as a na¨?ve power counting argument might suggest.

Maltz, Jonathan

2013-01-01

290

Concurrent high resolution bio-optical and physical time series observations in the Sargasso Sea during the spring of 1987  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evolution of bio-optical and physical properties of the upper layer of the open ocean has been examined at time scales from a few minutes to several months using recently developed multi-variable moored systems (MVMS). Concurrent, colocated time series measurements of horizontal currents, temperature, photosynthetically available radiation, transmission of a beam of collimated light (660 nm), stimulated chlorophyll fluorescence, and

T. Dickey; J. Marra; T. Granata; C. Langdon; J. Wiggert; D. Siegel; A. Bratkovich

1991-01-01

291

Implementing ILDs and Assessment in Small-enrollment, Calculus-based Physics Classes -- Lessons, Observations and Open Questions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At Salem State, we offer a Physics minor, but most of our teaching load is support courses for other science majors and a lab sequence which satisfies the University's core education requirement. In three years of using assessments and ILDs in small-enrollment calculus-based Physics classes, there has been a significant implementation learning curve, there are encouraging results, a few cautions, and still some open questions to report. ILDs can be highly effective teaching tools. They do require significant advance preparation as well as a safe environment for student participation. Motivating students to do their best on assessment pre- and post-tests can also be difficult. Strategies for motivating assessment performance, experiments using clickers to encourage participation in ILDs, and modifying and developing home-grown ILDs are discussed.

Mason-McCaffrey, Deborah

2011-04-01

292

CREST-Snow Analysis and Field Experiment (CREST-SAFE): Continuous In Situ Observations of Snow Physical Properties and Microwave Emission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The CREST-Snow Analysis and Field Experiment (CREST-SAFE) is being carried out for two winter seasons (2011 and 2012) at the research site of the National Weather Service office, Caribou ME, USA. In this ground experiment, dual polarized microwave (37 and 89 GHz) observations are conducted continuously from the time of snow onset to snow melt off along with detailed synchronous observations of snowpack physical properties. The objective of this long term field experiment is to improve our understanding of the effect of changing snow characteristics (grain size, density, temperature) under various meteorological conditions on the microwave emission of snow and hence to improve retrievals of snow cover properties from satellite observations in the microwave spectral range. In this presentation, we give an overview of the field experiment and of available datasets. We also present the analysis of microwave observations collected during the two years of experiment along with observations of the snowpack properties. The simulations of seasonal changes of the snow pack physical properties were simulated with the SNTHERM model whereas to simulate the snowpack emission in the microwave we have used from SNTHERM and the HUT (Helsinki University of Technology) snow emission model. For different snow conditions simulated microwave brightness temperatures were compared with brightness temperatures observed in situ and with satellite based brightness temperature. The analysis of microwave observations has revealed a large difference in the microwave brightness temperature over fresh and aged snow pack even under the same snow depth. This suggests a substantial impact of other physical parameters on the microwave emission of snow as snow grain size, ice layer formation and density.

Munoz, J.; Lakhankar, T.; Romanov, P.; Powell, A. M.; Khanbilvardi, R.

2012-12-01

293

A Five-Stage Process for the Development and Validation of a Systematic Observation Instrument: The System for Observing the Teaching of Games in Physical Education (SOTG-PE)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The primary purpose of this study was to develop and validate a System for Observing the Teaching of Games in Physical Education (SOTG-PE). Primary pilot testing of the SOTG-PE was conducted in a large, selective, all-boys secondary school in the north-west of England. Two hundred and eighty three pupils aged 11-16 volunteered as participants for…

Roberts, Simon; Fairclough, Stuart

2012-01-01

294

Plane wave quantity and its measurement of plate working surface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with the assay requirements and the method of plane. Wave quantity of the plate working surface according to the National Standards of 'cast iron plate' and 'rock plate', derives in detail, the detecting principle of plane wave detector and gives out the relationship between the partial plane error and the partial defect of the plate and the plane wave quantity. It also inquires into the relationship between the contact spot and 200 mm straight line wave and plane wave quantity.

Liu, Jun-Qi; Liu, Ya-Nan; Cao, Linxiang; Zhao, XiaoMing

1999-11-01

295

Physical origin of observed nonlinearities in Poly (1-naphthyl methacrylate): Using a single transistor—transistor logic modulated laser beam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A thermal lens technique is adopted using a single modulated continuous wave (cw) 532-nm laser beam to evaluate the nonlinear refractive index n2, and the thermo-optic coefficient dn/dT, in polymer Poly (1-naphthyl methacrylate) (P-1-NM) dissolved in chloroform, tetrahydrofuran (THF), and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solvents. The results are compared with Z-scan and diffraction ring techniques. The comparison reveals the effectiveness and the simplicity of the TTL modulation technique. The physical origin is discussed for the obtained results.

Qusay, M. A. Hassan; Hussain, A. Badran; Alaa, Y. AL-Ahmad; Chassib, A. Emshary

2013-11-01

296

Losing Sleep over It: Daily Variation in Sleep Quantity and Quality in Canadian Students' First Semester of University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Daily covariation of sleep quantity and quality with affective, stressful, academic, and social experiences were observed in a sample of Canadian 17-19-year-olds in their first year of university. Participants (N = 191) completed web-based checklists for 14 consecutive days during their first semester. Multilevel models predicting sleep quantity

Galambos, Nancy L.; Dalton, Andrea L.; Maggs, Jennifer L.

2009-01-01

297

Our Sun IV: The Standard Model and Helioseismology: Consequences of Uncertainties in Input Physics and in Observed Solar Parameters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Helioseismic frequency observations provide an extremely accurate window into the solar interior; frequencies from the Michaelson Doppler Imager (MDI) on the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) spacecraft, enable the adiabatic sound speed and adiaba...

A. I. Boothroyd I. J. Sackmann

2001-01-01

298

Using a physics-based reflection model to study the reddening effect observed in spectrometric measurements of artificial space objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Almost all remote spectrometric measurements obtained of artificial space objects in the last decade contained an unexpected and unexplained reddening of reflectance spectra when compared to either modelled predictions or ground truth measurements of sample spacecraft material. During the spectrometric characterization experiment of an engineering model (EM) of the CanX-1 nanosatellite, an increase of the slope of the overall reflectance curve was observed in various illumination and sensor geometries. Observation of the reddening effect such as was seen during the CanX-1 EM experiment has not been reported to have been observed in a laboratory environment before. With this in mind, a study was initiated to assess how the specular component of the spectral reflectance, from metallic surfaces and photovoltaic cells, varied as a function of changing illumination and sensor geometry. This paper presents the preliminary results of a new approach aimed at explaining the reddening effect commonly observed in remote spectrometric measurements of artificial space objects.

Bedard, D.

2011-09-01

299

1991 Urey Prize Lecture: Physical evolution in the solar system - Present observations as a key to the past  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present evaluation of the use of new observational methods for exploring solar system evolutionary processes gives attention to illustrative cases from the constraining of near-earth asteroid sources and the discovery of main-belt asteroid fragments which indicate Vesta to be a source of basaltic achondrite meteorites. The coupling of observational constraints with numerical models clarifies cratering and collisional evolution for both main-belt and Trojan asteroids.

Binzel, Richard P.

1992-01-01

300

Putting the elephant back in the herd: elephant relative quantity judgments match those of other species.  

PubMed

The ability to discriminate between quantities has been observed in many species. Typically, when an animal is given a choice between two sets of food, accurate performance (i.e., choosing the larger amount) decreases as the ratio between two quantities increases. A recent study reported that elephants did not exhibit ratio effects, suggesting that elephants may process quantitative information in a qualitatively different way from all other nonhuman species that have been tested (Irie-Sugimoto et al. in Anim Cogn 12:193-199, 2009). However, the results of this study were confounded by several methodological issues. We tested two African elephants (Loxodonta africana) to more thoroughly investigate relative quantity judgment in this species. In contrast to the previous study, we found evidence of ratio effects for visible and nonvisible sequentially presented sets of food. Thus, elephants appear to represent and compare quantities in much the same way as other species, including humans when they are prevented from counting. Performance supports an accumulator model in which quantities are represented as analog magnitudes. Furthermore, we found no effect of absolute magnitude on performance, providing support against an object-file model explanation of quantity judgment. PMID:22692435

Perdue, Bonnie M; Talbot, Catherine F; Stone, Adam M; Beran, Michael J

2012-09-01

301

The Physical Characterization of Near-Earth Asteroids: Latest Results of a Program of Thermal-Infrared Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main conclusions to date of our on-going program of thermal-infrared observations of near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) are presented. The evidence collected thus far suggests that relatively few NEAs in the size range covered by our program (D = 0.1 - 25 km) have large thermal inertias, implying that the majority of objects have significant insulating regoliths. The spread of albedos, pv, in the sample of some 30 objects studied to date is very large (0.02 - 0.55) and there is evidence of a trend of increasing albedo with decreasing size, at least among S-type NEAs. The mean albedo of the objects in the sample is much higher than that of observed main-belt asteroids, although the significance of this comparison with the present small sample and possible observational bias is not clear. Agreement with the albedos expected from the taxonomic classifications is good, with a few exceptions (e.g. two C-type NEAs appear to have albedos above 0.1). At least one object with a very low albedo may be an inactive cometary nucleus. Finally, some objects, including two binary NEAs, display unusually low color temperatures when observed at large phase angles, leading us to speculate that such objects may have peculiarly rough or irregular surfaces leading to preferential emission in the sunward direction and correspondingly less radiation being observed at high phase angles. This work is supported in part by the German Research Foundation (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft).

Harris, A. W.; Delbo, M.; Binzel, R. P.

2003-05-01

302

Intuitive ontologies for energy in physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The nature of energy is not typically an explicit topic of physics instruction. Nonetheless, participants in physics courses that involve energy are frequently saying what kind of thing they think energy is, both verbally and nonverbally. Physics textbooks also provide discourse suggesting the nature of energy as conceptualized by disciplinary experts. The premise of an embodied cognition theoretical perspective is that we understand the kinds of things that may exist in the world (ontology) in terms of sensorimotor experiences such as object permanence and movement. We offer examples of intuitive ontologies for energy that we have observed in classroom contexts and physics texts, including energy as a quasi-material substance; as a stimulus to action; and as a vertical location. Each of the intuitive ontologies we observe has features that contribute to a valid understanding of energy. The quasi-material substance metaphor best supports understanding energy as a conserved quantity.

Scherr, Rachel E.; Close, Hunter G.; Mckagan, Sarah B.

2012-02-06

303

Intuitive ontologies for energy in physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nature of energy is not typically an explicit topic of physics instruction. Nonetheless, participants in physics courses that involve energy are frequently saying what kind of thing they think energy is, both verbally and nonverbally. Physics textbooks also provide discourse suggesting the nature of energy as conceptualized by disciplinary experts. The premise of an embodied cognition theoretical perspective is that we understand the kinds of things that may exist in the world (ontology) in terms of sensorimotor experiences such as object permanence and movement. We offer examples of intuitive ontologies for energy that we have observed in classroom contexts and physics texts, including energy as a quasi-material substance; as a stimulus to action; and as a vertical location. Each of the intuitive ontologies we observe has features that contribute to a valid understanding of energy. The quasi-material substance metaphor best supports understanding energy as a conserved quantity.

Scherr, Rachel E.; Close, Hunter G.; McKagan, Sarah B.

2012-02-01

304

Un/Covering: Female Religious Converts Learning the Problems and Pragmatics of Physical Observance in the Secular World  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents the experiences of three women who have chosen to move from secular, assimilated lives to lives characterized by the distinctive dress and practice associated with observant Islam, Orthodox Judaism, and Orthodox Christianity, respectively. All three relied upon informal, peer, and distance learning strategies for their…

Galman, Sally Campbell

2013-01-01

305

Finite difference approximation of hedging quantities in the Heston model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This note concerns the hedging quantities Delta and Gamma in the Heston model for European-style financial options. A modification of the discretization technique from In 't Hout & Foulon (2010) is proposed, which enables a fast and accurate approximation of these important quantities. Numerical experiments are given that illustrate the performance.

in't Hout, Karel

2012-09-01

306

The equation of state for stellar envelopes. III - Thermodynamic quantities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method is described for deriving general expressions for all thermodynamic quantities of interest of a partially ionized multicomponent gas in terms of derivatives of the free energy. Explicit analytical formulas for all derivatives required in the evaluation of these quantities are given. Representative results for a hydrogen-helium mixture are shown.

Daeppen, Werner; Mihalas, Dimitri; Hummer, D. G.; Mihalas, Barbara Weibel

1988-01-01

307

Processing Ordinality and Quantity: The Case of Developmental Dyscalculia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In contrast to quantity processing, up to date, the nature of ordinality has received little attention from researchers despite the fact that both quantity and ordinality are embodied in numerical information. Here we ask if there are two separate core systems that lie at the foundations of numerical cognition: (1) the traditionally and well accepted numerical magnitude system but also

Orly Rubinsten; Dana Sury; Georges Chapouthier

2011-01-01

308

46 CFR 108.433 - Quantity of CO2: General.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Quantity of CO2: General. 108.433 Section 108.433 Shipping...Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.433 Quantity of CO2 : General. Each CO2 system must have enough gas to meet the...

2013-10-01

309

Units of relativistic time scales and associated quantities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This note suggests nomenclature for dealing with the units of various astronomical quantities that are used with the relativistic time scales TT, TDB, TCB and TCG. It is suggested to avoid wordings like ``TDB units'' and ``TT units'' and avoid contrasting them to ``SI units''. The quantities intended for use with TCG, TCB, TT or TDB should be called ``TCG-compatible'',

Sergei Klioner; N. Capitaine; W. M. Folkner; B. Guinot; T.-Y. Huang; S. M. Kopeikin; E. V. Pitjeva; P. K. Seidelmann; M. Soffel

2010-01-01

310

Numerical Order and Quantity Processing in Number Comparison  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigated processing of numerical order information and its relation to mechanisms of numerical quantity processing. In two experiments, performance on a quantity-comparison task (e.g. 2 5; which is larger?) was compared with performance on a relative-order judgment task (e.g. 2 5; ascending or descending order?). The comparison task…

Turconi, Eva; Campbell, Jamie I. D.; Seron, Xavier

2006-01-01

311

Effects of Quantity and Quality Instructions on Brainstorming  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the basic presumptions of brainstorming is that a focus on generating a large number of ideas enhances both the number of ideas generated and the number of good ideas (original and useful). Prior research has not clearly demonstrated the utility of such a quantity focus in comparison to a condition in which quantity is not emphasized. There…

Paulus, Paul B.; Kohn, Nicholas W.; Arditti, Lauren E.

2011-01-01

312

Quality as a Function of Quantity in Electronic Brainstorming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quality of ideas a team generates constitutes an upper limit on the quality of the problem solving process. Much research has been done about causes of idea quantity and causes of idea quality. It has been noted by some researchers that idea quality appears to correlate with idea quantity, and several have argued that it is not necessary to

Robert O. Briggs; Bruce A. Reinig; Morgan M. Shepherd; Jerome Yen; J. F. Nunameker

1997-01-01

313

Lidar and in situ observations of continental and Saharan aerosol: closure analysis of particles optical and physical properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Single wavelength polarization lidar observations collected at Mt. Cimone (44.2º N, 10.7º E, 1870 m a.s.l.) during the June 2000 MINATROC campaign are analyzed to derive tropospheric profiles of aerosol extinction, depolarization, surface area and volume. Lidar retrievals for the 2170-2245 m level are compared to the same variables as computed from in situ measurements of particles size distributions, performed at the mountain top Station (2165 m a.s.l.) by a differential mobility analyzer (DMA) and an optical particle counter (OPC). A sensitivity analysis of this closure experiment shows that mean relative differences between the backscatter coefficients obtained by the two techniques undergo a sharp decrease when hygroscopic growth to ambient humidity is considered for the DMA dataset, otherwise representative of dry aerosols. Minimization of differences between lidar and size distribution-derived backscatter coefficients allowed to find values of the "best" refractive index, specific to each measurement. These results show the refractive index to increase for air masses proceeding from Africa and Western Europe. Lidar depolarization was observed to minimize mainly in airmasses proceeding from Western Europe, thus indicating a spherical, i.e. liquid nature for such aerosols. Conversely, African, Mediterranean and East Europe aerosol showed a larger depolarizing fraction, mainly due to coexisting refractory and soluble fractions. The analysis shows average relative differences between lidar and in-situ observations of 5% for backscatter, 36% for extinction 41% for surface area and 37% for volume. These values are well within the expected combined uncertainties of the lidar and in situ retrievals. Average differences further decrease during the Saharan dust transport event, when a lidar signal inversion model considering non-spherical scatterers is employed. The quality of the closure obtained between particle counter and lidar-derived aerosol surface area and volume observations constitutes a validation of the technique adopted to retrieve such aerosol properties on the basis of single-wavelength lidar observations.

Gobbi, G. P.; Barnaba, F.; van Dingenen, R.; Putaud, J. P.; Mircea, M.; Facchini, M. C.

2003-12-01

314

Lidar and in situ observations of continental and Saharan aerosol: closure analysis of particles optical and physical properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Single wavelength polarization lidar observations collected at Mt. Cimone (44.2° N, 10.7° E, 1870 m a.s.l.) during the June 2000 MINATROC campaign are analyzed to derive tropospheric profiles of aerosol extinction, depolarization, surface area and volume. Lidar retrievals for the 2170-2245 m level are compared to the same variables as computed from in situ measurements of particles size distributions, performed

G. P. Gobbi; F. Barnaba; R. van Dingenen; J. P. Putaud; M. Mircea; M. C. Facchini

2003-01-01

315

Far-Infrared and SubMillimeter Observations and Physical Models of the Reflection Nebula Ced 201  

Microsoft Academic Search

ISO [C II] 158 micron, [O I] 63 micron, and H_2 9 and 17 micron observations\\u000aare presented of the reflection nebula Ced 201, which is a photon-dominated\\u000aregion illuminated by a B9.5 star with a color temperature of 10,000 K (a cool\\u000aPDR). In combination with ground based [C I] 609 micron, CO, 13CO, CS and HCO+\\u000adata, the

Ciska Kemper; David J. Jansen; Michiel R. Hogerheijde; Ewine F. van Dishoeck; Xander G. G. M. Tielens

1998-01-01

316

Evaluation of Cloud Physical Properties of ECMWF Analysis and Re-Analysis (ERA-40 and ERA Interim) against CERES Tropical Deep Convective Cloud Object Observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study presents an approach that converts the vertical profiles of grid-averaged cloud properties from large-scale models to probability density functions (pdfs) of subgrid-cell cloud physical properties measured at satellite footprints. Cloud physical and radiative properties, rather than just cloud and precipitation occurrences, of assimilated cloud systems by the European Center for Medium-range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) operational analysis (EOA) and ECMWF Re-Analyses (ERA-40 and ERA Interim) are validated against those obtained from Earth Observing System satellite cloud object data for January-August 1998 and March 2000 periods. These properties include ice water path (IWP), cloud-top height and temperature, cloud optical depth and solar and infrared radiative fluxes. Each cloud object, a contiguous region with similar cloud physical properties, is temporally and spatially matched with EOA and ERA-40 data. Results indicate that most pdfs of EOA and ERA-40 cloud physical and radiative properties agree with those of satellite observations of the tropical deep convective cloud-object type for the January-August 1998 period. There are, however, significant discrepancies in selected ranges of the cloud property pdfs such as the upper range of EOA cloud top height. A major discrepancy is that the dependence of the pdfs on the cloud object size for both EOA and ERA-40 is not as strong as in the observations. Modifications to the cloud parameterization in ECMWF that occurred in October 1999 eliminate the clouds near the tropopause but shift power of the pdf to lower cloud-top heights and greatly reduce the ranges of IWP and cloud optical depth pdfs. These features persist in ERA-40 due to the use of the same cloud parameterizations. The downgrade of data assimilation technique and the lack of snow water content information in ERA-40, not the coarser horizontal grid resolution, are also responsible for the disagreements with observed pdfs of cloud physical properties although the detection rates of cloud object occurrence are improved for small size categories. A possible improvement to the convective parameterization is to introduce a stronger dependence of updraft penetration heights with grid-cell dynamics. These conclusions will be rechecked using the ERA Interim data, due to recent changes in the ECMWF convective parameterization (Bechtold et al. 2004, 2008). Results from the ERA Interim will be presented at the meeting.

Xu, Kuan-Man

2008-01-01

317

Seasonal Variations in Physical Characteristics of the South Australian Shelf Waters -Results from the Southern Australian Integrated Marine Observing System (SAIMOS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Southern Australia Integrated Marine Observing System, or SAIMOS, is one of five nodes operating as part of the Australia-wide Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS). This is a collaborative program designed to observe Australia's oceans, both coastal and blue-water. Since February 2008 Physical Data has been collected for SAIMOS in both summer and winter months during 8 surveys. The data collected during summer are used to characterise the nature and dynamics of the Kangaroo Island-Eyre Peninsula upwelling system during a record upwelling event in February 2008. During this event a plume of very cool water was observed along the bottom from South of KI to the Eyre Peninsula. This plume dissipated rapidly after the end of upwelling favourable winds and by March 2008 had disappeared entirely from the observations. The data are also used to study the dense high salinity outflow from Spencer Gulf observed during the winter months. The dense plume result from surface cooling of high salinity waters at the head of Spencer Gulf. One striking result of these observations is that the outflow occurs during a series of strong pulses with a period of approximately 2 weeks and duration of 1-3 days. During these pulses bottom velocities at 100 m can exceed 1 m/s.

James, C.; Luick, J.; Leterme, S. C.; Middleton, J.; Seuront, L.

2009-04-01

318

Atmospheric coupling of Tsunami: observations from Tohoku and impact on tsunami physical properties and phase/group velocities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tsunamis, through a dynamic coupling between the ocean and atmosphere, are generating atmospheric waves, detected in the ionosphere for tsunamis with amplitudes as much as 1 cm in the open ocean. Signals associated to the Tohoku tsunami have therefore been observed with huge signal to noise ratio, not only over Japan, but all over the Pacific, up to Chili. These signals have been moreover modelled, not only for the Total Electronic Contents perturbation signals, but also of the airglow detected for the first time over Hawaii and for the magnetic perturbations detected in Japan. We present in this paper the two sides of this coupling. The first side resumes the different observations and modelling of the Tohoku ionospheric signals observed by GEONET, by the GSI magnetic network and by Airglow cameras in Hawaii and Chili. Comparison between data and modelling are shown. The second side present the effects of the atmospheric coupling on the tsunami properties, i.e. amplitudes, phase/group velocities and excitation coefficients. By taking into account the coupling of tsunami with both the solid Earth and atmosphere, we show that specific resonances between the ocean and the atmosphere exist, enabling to understand the large and peaked signal spectrum. Local Time and geographical variations of this coupling is studied, as well as its dependence with the ocean depth. The impacts of atmospheric coupling on the propagation travel time of tsunamis is finally presented and discussed.

Lognonne, P. H.; Kherani, E. A.; Coisson, P.; Astafyeva, E.; Occhipinti, G.; Rolland, L. M.; Yahagi, T.; Khelfi, K.; Sladen, A.; Hebert, H.; Makela, J. J.

2012-12-01

319

Analysis of the hydrological response of a distributed physically-based model using post-assimilation (EnKF) diagnostics of streamflow and in situ soil moisture observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data assimilation techniques not only enhance model simulations and forecast, they also provide the opportunity to obtain a diagnostic of both the model and observations used in the assimilation process. In this research, an ensemble Kalman filter was used to assimilate streamflow observations at a basin outlet and at interior locations, as well as soil moisture at two different depths (15 and 45 cm). The simulation model is the distributed physically-based hydrological model CATHY (CATchment HYdrology) and the study site is the Des Anglais watershed, a 690 km2 river basin located in southern Quebec, Canada. Use of Latin hypercube sampling instead of a conventional Monte Carlo method to generate the ensemble reduced the size of the ensemble, and therefore the calculation time. Different post-assimilation diagnostics, based on innovations (observation minus background), analysis residuals (observation minus analysis), and analysis increments (analysis minus background), were used to evaluate assimilation optimality. An important issue in data assimilation is the estimation of error covariance matrices. These diagnostics were also used in a calibration exercise to determine the standard deviation of model parameters, forcing data, and observations that led to optimal assimilations. The analysis of innovations showed a lag between the model forecast and the observation during rainfall events. Assimilation of streamflow observations corrected this discrepancy. Assimilation of outlet streamflow observations improved the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiencies (NSE) between the model forecast (one day) and the observation at both outlet and interior point locations, owing to the structure of the state vector used. However, assimilation of streamflow observations systematically increased the simulated soil moisture values.

Trudel, Mélanie; Leconte, Robert; Paniconi, Claudio

2014-06-01

320

A study on the use of measurement software in the preparation of bills of quantities among Malaysian quantity surveying firms  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is advantageous for a QS to be efficient in producing bills of quantities from measurement. Measurement software applications, as a useful IT tool, can help a QS to speed up the measurement works. In relation to the measurement software application for BQ preparation among Malaysian quantity surveying firms, the objectives of the study are to determine the level of

Tan Chin Keng; Yeoh Kah Ching

2012-01-01

321

Plasma Physical Parameters along Coronal-mass-ejection-driven Shocks. I. Ultraviolet and White-light Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, UV and white-light (WL) coronagraphic data are combined to derive the full set of plasma physical parameters along the front of a shock driven by a coronal mass ejection. Pre-shock plasma density, shock compression ratio, speed, and inclination angle are estimated from WL data, while pre-shock plasma temperature and outflow velocity are derived from UV data. The Rankine-Hugoniot (RH) equations for the general case of an oblique shock are then applied at three points along the front located between 2.2 and 2.6 R ? at the shock nose and at the two flanks. Stronger field deflection (by ~46°), plasma compression (factor ~2.7), and heating (factor ~12) occur at the nose, while heating at the flanks is more moderate (factor 1.5-3.0). Starting from a pre-shock corona where protons and electrons have about the same temperature (Tp ~ Te ~ 1.5 × 106 K), temperature increases derived with RH equations could better represent the proton heating (by dissipation across the shock), while the temperature increase implied by adiabatic compression (factor ~2 at the nose, ~1.2-1.5 at the flanks) could be more representative of electron heating: the transit of the shock causes a decoupling between electron and proton temperatures. Derived magnetic field vector rotations imply a draping of field lines around the expanding flux rope. The shock turns out to be super-critical (sub-critical) at the nose (at the flanks), where derived post-shock plasma parameters can be very well approximated with those derived by assuming a parallel (perpendicular) shock.

Bemporad, A.; Susino, R.; Lapenta, G.

2014-04-01

322

Physical and Chemical Stabilization of Organic Matter by Iron Oxides: Reconciling Observations at the Nano and Landscape scales  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Concentrations of iron oxides are sometimes well correlated with concentration of organic carbon in the soil. But, this is highly dependent on the type of oxides, and their concentrations. On a northern California toposequence we found that high concentrations of crystalline Fe oxides (mainly goethite in subsoils of flat or convergent slopes) is accompanied with low concentrations of organic carbon, that is old (very negative ?14C values). It has been hypothesized that this could be because the concentrations of Fe oxides in some Mediterranean, and temperate soils may be too small to have significant effect on carbon accumulation and stabilization. In this study we employ different field and lab measurements to determine if there exists a threshold oxide concentration for soil organic carbon storage and stabilization; and determine whether the organic matter is primarily stabilized physically (by aggregation) or chemically (organo- mineral complexation). Here we are using (a) selective dissolutions of Fe oxides to determine concentration of crystalline Fe oxides; (b) density fractionations to determine amount of organic carbon chemically bound to the mineral fraction; (c) hydrogen fluoride demineralization to determine the stock of recalcitrant organic carbon; (d) batch sorption/desorption experiments with synthetic goethite and natural organic matter to determine reversibility of the oxide-organic carbon interactions at different concentrations of sorbent and sorbate, along with ultrasonic disruption of aggregates; and (e) concentrations 13C NMR and FTIR to determine aromaticity of the organic constituents. In this study we show that, as the concentration of oxides increases beyond a threshold level (that depends on type of oxide and chemistry of sorbing organic matter) there is no proportional increase in amount of carbon that is stored by the oxides, or in storage and stabilization of aromatic functional groups. But increasing oxide concentrations were well correlated with fraction of stabilized organic carbon.

Berhe, A. A.; Banfield, J. F.

2007-12-01

323

The effects of single-session music therapy interventions on the observed and self-reported levels of pain control, physical comfort, and relaxation of hospice patients.  

PubMed

This article describes the process and results of a three-month music therapy clinical effectiveness study conducted with terminally ill patients. The purpose of this study was to quantify and evaluate the effectiveness of single-session music therapy interventions with hospice patients in three patient problem areas: pain control; physical comfort; and relaxation. Data from a total of 90 sessions conducted with a total of 80 subjects served by Hospice of Palm Beach County, Florida, were included in the study. Music therapy services were provided by five board-certified music therapists and one music therapist eligible for board certification. The subjects in this study were receiving regularly scheduled music therapy services from the hospice organization. The study used both behavioral observation and subject's self-reporting as methods of data reporting and recording. Subjects were observed for, or self-reported, their levels of pain control, physical comfort, and relaxation, both before and after each music therapy session. The subjects were served in the environments where music therapy services would normally be delivered (i.e., home, hospital, nursing home, or inpatient acute-care unit of the hospice organization). Music therapy services included live active and passive music-based experiences. These were designed to build and to establish rapport with patient or family, to facilitate family interaction and patient control, to provide support and comfort, to facilitate relaxation, to enable reminiscence and life review, to provide a frame-work for spiritual exploration and validation, and to encourage the identification and expression of feelings of anticipatory mourning and grief. A total of six hypotheses stated that there would be significant pre- to postsession differences in each of the three variables: pain control, physical comfort, and relaxation, as measured during two different session and data collection scenarios. These scenarios included the independent observation and recording of the three subject variables and the subject's self-report of each variable. Reliability correlation coefficients were calculated for each of the different session and data-collection scenarios to help assess the correlation between primary and reliability observers. Pearson product moment correlations indicated reliability agreement coefficients of r = .85 and r = .90. One-tailed t-tests were performed on the collected data for subject pain control, physical comfort, and relaxation. Results of the t-tests were significant at the p < or = .001 (for observed pain control, physical comfort, and relaxation) and p < or = 005 (for self-reported pain control, physical comfort, and relaxation) levels. These results suggest that single-session music therapy interventions appear to be effective in increasing subject pain control, physical comfort, and relaxation during both data collection scenarios. Based on the results of these tests of the analyzed data, the hypotheses were all accepted. Tables illustrate pre- to post-session changes in levels of all three variables from both session and data-collection scenarios. Copies of the data-collection forms are also included in the Appendix. The discussion section addresses limitations of this study and suggestions for future studies. PMID:11712719

Krout, R E

2001-01-01

324

Transit Timing Observations from Kepler. IV. Confirmation of Four Multiple-planet Systems by Simple Physical Models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eighty planetary systems of two or more planets are known to orbit stars other than the Sun. For most, the data can be sufficiently explained by non-interacting Keplerian orbits, so the dynamical interactions of these systems have not been observed. Here we present four sets of light curves from the Kepler spacecraft, each which of shows multiple planets transiting the same star. Departure of the timing of these transits from strict periodicity indicates that the planets are perturbing each other: the observed timing variations match the forcing frequency of the other planet. This confirms that these objects are in the same system. Next we limit their masses to the planetary regime by requiring the system remain stable for astronomical timescales. Finally, we report dynamical fits to the transit times, yielding possible values for the planets' masses and eccentricities. As the timespan of timing data increases, dynamical fits may allow detailed constraints on the systems' architectures, even in cases for which high-precision Doppler follow-up is impractical.

Fabrycky, Daniel C.; Ford, Eric B.; Steffen, Jason H.; Rowe, Jason F.; Carter, Joshua A.; Moorhead, Althea V.; Batalha, Natalie M.; Borucki, William J.; Bryson, Steve; Buchhave, Lars A.; Christiansen, Jessie L.; Ciardi, David R.; Cochran, William D.; Endl, Michael; Fanelli, Michael N.; Fischer, Debra; Fressin, Francois; Geary, John; Haas, Michael R.; Hall, Jennifer R.; Holman, Matthew J.; Jenkins, Jon M.; Koch, David G.; Latham, David W.; Li, Jie; Lissauer, Jack J.; Lucas, Philip; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Mazeh, Tsevi; McCauliff, Sean; Quinn, Samuel; Ragozzine, Darin; Sasselov, Dimitar; Shporer, Avi

2012-05-01

325

Physical Conditions of the Planetary Nebula NGC 5315 Derived from VLT Echelle Observations and the t2 Problem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Echelle spectrophotometry of the planetary nebula NGC 5315 is presented. The data consist of VLT UVES observations in the 3100-10450 Å range. The intensities of 556 emission lines have been measured, including 508 identified permitted lines of H0, He0, C0, C+, N0, N+, N++, O0, O+, Ne0, Ne+, Mg+, Si+, S0, S+, S++, and Ar+. Electron temperatures and densities have been determined using many different line intensity ratios. The He+, C++, N++, O++, and Ne++ ionic abundances have been derived from recombination lines; these abundances are almost independent of the temperature structure of the nebula. Alternatively, abundances from collisionally excited lines have been derived for a large number of ions of different elements; these abundances depend strongly on the temperature structure. Accurate t2 values have been derived from the He I lines, and by comparing the O++ ionic abundances obtained from collisionally excited and recombination lines. The similarity between the widths and radial velocities of the O II and the [O III] lines rules out the presence of chemical abundance inhomogeneities in this object. The chemical composition of NGC 5315 is compared with those of the Orion nebula and the Sun. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Chile, proposal number ESO 68.C-0149(A).

Peimbert, Manuel; Peimbert, Antonio; Ruiz, María Teresa; Esteban, César

2004-02-01

326

TRANSIT TIMING OBSERVATIONS FROM KEPLER. IV. CONFIRMATION OF FOUR MULTIPLE-PLANET SYSTEMS BY SIMPLE PHYSICAL MODELS  

SciTech Connect

Eighty planetary systems of two or more planets are known to orbit stars other than the Sun. For most, the data can be sufficiently explained by non-interacting Keplerian orbits, so the dynamical interactions of these systems have not been observed. Here we present four sets of light curves from the Kepler spacecraft, each which of shows multiple planets transiting the same star. Departure of the timing of these transits from strict periodicity indicates that the planets are perturbing each other: the observed timing variations match the forcing frequency of the other planet. This confirms that these objects are in the same system. Next we limit their masses to the planetary regime by requiring the system remain stable for astronomical timescales. Finally, we report dynamical fits to the transit times, yielding possible values for the planets' masses and eccentricities. As the timespan of timing data increases, dynamical fits may allow detailed constraints on the systems' architectures, even in cases for which high-precision Doppler follow-up is impractical.

Fabrycky, Daniel C. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Ford, Eric B.; Moorhead, Althea V. [Astronomy Department, University of Florida, 211 Bryant Space Sciences Center, Gainesville, FL 32111 (United States); Steffen, Jason H. [Fermilab Center for Particle Astrophysics, P.O. Box 500, MS 127, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Rowe, Jason F.; Christiansen, Jessie L. [SETI Institute, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States); Carter, Joshua A.; Fressin, Francois; Geary, John [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Batalha, Natalie M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, San Jose State University, San Jose, CA 95192 (United States); Borucki, William J.; Bryson, Steve; Haas, Michael R. [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA, 94035 (United States); Buchhave, Lars A. [Department of Astrophysics and Planetary Science, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Ciardi, David R. [NASA Exoplanet Science Institute/Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91126 (United States); Cochran, William D.; Endl, Michael [McDonald Observatory, The University of Texas, Austin TX 78730 (United States); Fanelli, Michael N. [Bay Area Environmental Research Institute/NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Fischer, Debra [Astronomy Department, Yale University, New Haven, CT (United States); Hall, Jennifer R., E-mail: daniel.fabrycky@gmail.com [Orbital Sciences Corporation/NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); and others

2012-05-10

327

Some Real Evidence on the Real Bills Doctrine versus the Quantity Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers interested in testing between the Real Bills doctrine and the quantity theory approach to inflation in the face of rapid, deficit-financing money growth are confronted by an observation equivalence problem. This paper identifies a data set that resolves the dilemma and tests the two inflation models. The results provide clear evidence supporting the Real Bills doctrine, that the value

THOMAS J. CUNNINGHAM

1992-01-01

328

Construct validity of the Chelsea critical care physical assessment tool: an observational study of recovery from critical illness  

PubMed Central

Introduction Intensive care unit-acquired weakness (ICU-AW) is common in survivors of critical illness, resulting in global weakness and functional deficit. Although ICU-AW is well described subjectively in the literature, the value of objective measures has yet to be established. This project aimed to evaluate the construct validity of the Chelsea Critical Care Physical Assessment tool (CPAx) by analyzing the association between CPAx scores and hospital-discharge location, as a measure of functional outcome. Methods The CPAx was integrated into practice as a service-improvement initiative in an 11-bed intensive care unit (ICU). For patients admitted for more than 48 hours, between 10 May 2010 and 13 November 2013, the last CPAx score within 24 hours of step down from the ICU or death was recorded (n?=?499). At hospital discharge, patients were separated into seven categories, based on continued rehabilitation and care needs. Descriptive statistics were used to explore the association between ICU discharge CPAx score and hospital-discharge location. Results Of the 499 patients, 171 (34.3%) returned home with no ongoing rehabilitation or care input; 131 (26.2%) required community support; 28 (5.6%) went to inpatient rehabilitation for <6 weeks; and 25 (5.0%) went to inpatient rehabilitation for >6 weeks; 27 (5.4%) required nursing home level of care; 80 (16.0%) died in the ICU, and 37 (7.4%) died in hospital. A significant difference was found in the median CPAx score between groups (P?

2014-01-01

329

Trends and interactions of physical and bio-geo-chemical features in the Adriatic Sea as derived from satellite observations.  

PubMed

Time series of satellite data, generated by the AVHRR (1981-1999), CZCS (1979-1985) and SeaWiFS (1998-2002), have been used to assess trends and interactions of physical and bio-geo-chemical features in the Adriatic Sea. The images were processed to estimate Sea Surface Temperature (SST) and Chlorophyll-like Pigment Concentration (CPC). Long-term composites and climatologies were derived, using fixed geographical grids and projections. The AVHRR data show an apparent warming trend, when plotting the sequence of seasonal cycles (monthly mean SST, averaged over the whole basin) against time, due to a steady rise of summer values. Considering 3 regions (north, central and south), split into east and west sections, the northern Adriatic shows high SST fluctuations (possibly associated with the cycle of winter cooling and summer warming, typical of the relatively shallow sub-basin), while the southern Adriatic exhibits a lower variability (possibly influenced by the periodic water incoming from, and outflowing to the Ionian Sea). During summer, an east-west gradient prevails, while during winter only a general north-south gradient can be found. The SeaWiFS-derived CPC values, distributions and trends appear to be consistent with the historical CZCS record. Persistent differences in the quantitative assessment of CPC for coastal waters is due to the use of improved algorithms, less influenced by the presence of dissolved organics and suspended sediments in the water column, for the processing of SeaWiFS data. Apparent incongruities of the space and time patterns in the SeaWiFS record with respect to the reference climatology, obtained by CZCS more than a decade before, occur chiefly when considering the spring bloom in the southern Adriatic and the summer development of the north Adriatic front. The comparison of the long-term times series of satellite data shows that there is a high correlation between patterns in the thermal field and in the colour field. This suggests that different surface waters, identified by the SST index, are also traced by different ecological features, identified by the CPC index. Both indices also show a high correlation with the classical cyclonic circulation scheme of the Adriatic Sea, proposing once again an intimate relationship between the water dynamics and its bio-geo-chemistry. PMID:16271746

Barale, Vittorio; Schiller, Christian; Tacchi, Ruggero; Marechal, Cecile

2005-12-15

330

Unraveling ICM Physics and AGN Feedback with Deep Chandra X-ray Observations of the Galaxy Group NGC 5813  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results from deep (650 ks) Chandra X-ray observations of the galaxy group NGC 5813. This system shows three pairs of colinear cavities, with each pair associated with an elliptical AGN outburst shock. Due to the relatively regular morphology of this system, and the unique unambiguous detection of three distinct AGN outburst shocks, it is particularly well-suited for the study of kinetic mode AGN feedback and the AGN outburst history. Topics presented include results on the role of shock heating in AGN feedback, feedback as a solution to the cooling flow problem, the variability of the AGN outburst power over long timescales, and constraints on the microphysics of the ICM.

Randall, Scott W.; Nulsen, Paul; Clarke, Tracy E.; Forman, William R.; Jones, Christine; Kraft, Ralph P.; Blanton, Elizabeth L.

2014-06-01

331

HYBRID {gamma} DORADUS-{delta} SCUTI PULSATORS: NEW INSIGHTS INTO THE PHYSICS OF THE OSCILLATIONS FROM KEPLER OBSERVATIONS  

SciTech Connect

Observations of the pulsations of stars can be used to infer their interior structure and test theoretical models. The main-sequence {gamma} Doradus (Dor) and {delta} Scuti (Sct) stars with masses 1.2-2.5 M {sub sun} are particularly useful for these studies. The {gamma} Dor stars pulsate in high-order g-modes with periods of order 1 day, driven by convective blocking at the base of their envelope convection zone. The {delta} Sct stars pulsate in low-order g- and p-modes with periods of order 2 hr, driven by the {kappa} mechanism operating in the He II ionization zone. Theory predicts an overlap region in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram between instability regions, where 'hybrid' stars pulsating in both types of modes should exist. The two types of modes with properties governed by different portions of the stellar interior provide complementary model constraints. Among the known {gamma} Dor and {delta} Sct stars, only four have been confirmed as hybrids. Now, analysis of combined Quarter 0 and Quarter 1 Kepler data for hundreds of variable stars shows that the frequency spectra are so rich that there are practically no pure {delta} Sct or {gamma} Dor pulsators, i.e., essentially all of the stars show frequencies in both the {delta} Sct and the {gamma} Dor frequency range. A new observational classification scheme is proposed that takes into account the amplitude as well as the frequency and is applied to categorize 234 stars as {delta} Sct, {gamma} Dor, {delta} Sct/{gamma} Dor or {gamma} Dor/{delta} Sct hybrids.

Grigahcene, A.; Monteiro, M. J. P. F. G. [Centro de Astrofisica, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade do Porto, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto (Portugal); Antoci, V.; Handler, G.; Houdek, G. [Institut fuer Astronomie, Tuerkenschanzstr. 17, A-1180 Wien (Austria); Balona, L. [South African Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 9, Observatory 7935 (South Africa); Catanzaro, G. [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, Via S. Sofia 78, 95123 Catania (Italy); Daszynska-Daszkiewicz, J. [Instytut Astronomiczny, Uniwersytet Wroclawski, Kopernika 11, 51-622 Wroclaw (Poland); Guzik, J. A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, X-2 MS T-086, Los Alamos, NM 87545-2345 (United States); Kurtz, D. W. [Jeremiah Horrocks Institute of Astrophysics, University of Central Lancashire, Preston PR1 2HE (United Kingdom); Marconi, M.; Ripepi, V. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, Via Moiariello 16, 80131 Naples (Italy); Moya, A. [Laboratorio de Astrofisica Estelar y Exoplanetas, LAEX-CAB (INTA-CSIC), P.O. Box 78, 28691 Villanueva de la Canada, Madrid (Spain); Suarez, J.-C. [Instituto de Astrofisica de AndalucIa (CSIC), CP3004, Granada (Spain); Uytterhoeven, K. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM CNRS-Universite Paris Diderot, IRFU/SAp, Centre de Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Borucki, W. J. [NASA Ames Research Center, MS 244-30, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Brown, T. M. [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope, Goleta, CA 93117 (United States); Christensen-Dalsgaard, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Gilliland, R. L. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Jenkins, J. M. [SETI Institute/NASA Ames Research Center, MS 244-30, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States)] (and others)

2010-04-20

332

Socioeconomic and physical distance to the maternity hospital as predictors for place of delivery: an observation study from Nepal  

PubMed Central

Background Although the debate on the safety and women's right of choice to a home delivery vs. hospital delivery continues in the developed countries, an undesirable outcome of home delivery, such as high maternal and perinatal mortality, is documented in developing countries. The objective was to study whether socio-economic factors, distance to maternity hospital, ethnicity, type and size of family, obstetric history and antenatal care received in present pregnancy affected the choice between home and hospital delivery in a developing country. Methods This cross-sectional study was done during June, 2001 to January 2002 in an administratively and geographically well-defined territory with a population of 88,547, stretching from urban to adjacent rural part of Kathmandu and Dhading Districts of Nepal with maximum of 5 hrs of distance from Maternity hospital. There were no intermediate level of private or government hospital or maternity homes in the study area. Interviews were carried out on 308 women who delivered within 45 days of the date of the interview with a pre-tested structured questionnaire. Results A distance of more than one hour to the maternity hospital (OR = 7.9), low amenity score status (OR = 4.4), low education (OR = 2.9), multi-parity (OR = 2.4), and not seeking antenatal care in the present pregnancy (OR = 4.6) were statistically significantly associated with an increased risk of home delivery. Ethnicity, obstetric history, age of mother, ritual observance of menarche, type and size of family and who is head of household were not statistically significantly associated with the place of delivery. Conclusions The socio-economic standing of the household was a stronger predictor of place of delivery compared to ethnicity, the internal family structure such as type and size of family, head of household, or observation of ritual days by the mother of an important event like menarche. The results suggested that mothers, who were in the low-socio-economic scale, delivered at home more frequently in a developing country like Nepal.

Wagle, Rajendra Raj; Sabroe, Svend; Nielsen, Birgitte Bruun

2004-01-01

333

A New Ground-Based Network for Synoptic Solar Observations: The Solar Physics Research Integrated Network Group (SPRING)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SPRING is a project to develop a geographically distributed network of instrumentation to obtain synoptic solar observations. Building on the demonstrated success of networks to provide nearly-continuous long-term data for helioseismology, SPRING will provide data for a wide range of solar research areas. Scientific objectives include internal solar dynamics and structure; wave transport in the solar atmosphere; the evolution of the magnetic field over the activity cycle; irradiance fluctuations; and space weather origins. Anticipated data products include simultaneous full-disk multi-wavelength Doppler and vector magnetic field images; filtergrams in H-Alpha, CaK, and white light; and PSPT-type irradiance support. The data will be obtained with a duty cycle of around 90% and at a cadence no slower than one minute. The current concept is a multi-instrument platform installed in at least six locations, and which will also provide context information for large-aperture solar telescopes such as EST and the DKIST. There is wide support for the idea within the EU and the US solar research communities. The project is in the early planning stages, and we are open to and looking for participants in the science and instrument definition.

Hill, Frank; Roth, Markus; Thompson, Michael; Gusain, Sanjay

2014-06-01

334

41 CFR 101-27.102 - Economic order quantity principle.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

The economic order quantity (EOQ) principle is a means for achieving economical inventory management. Application of the EOQ principle reduces total variable costs of procurement and possession to a minimum. [41 FR 3858, Jan. 27,...

2010-07-01

335

Comparison of Methods for Representing Sparsely Sampled Random Quantities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report discusses the treatment of uncertainties stemming from relatively few samples of random quantities. The importance of this topic extends beyond experimental data uncertainty to situations involving uncertainty in model calibration, validation,...

A. Urbina J. Mullins L. Swiler V. Romero

2013-01-01

336

19 CFR 144.33 - Minimum quantities to be withdrawn.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...TREASURY (CONTINUED) WAREHOUSE AND REWAREHOUSE ENTRIES...WITHDRAWALS Withdrawals from Warehouse § 144.33 Minimum...of the Commissioner of Customs, merchandise shall not be withdrawn from bonded warehouse in quantities less...

2013-04-01

337

The Application of Quantity Discounts in Army Procurements (Field Test).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A change in the present DARCOM Materiel Readiness Command procurement procedures, whereby bids on quantities larger than the EOQ are solicited, may result in significant savings. This depends on the proportion of cost-effective discounts, in the magnitude...

S. Gajdalo W. V. Zabel

1980-01-01

338

48 CFR 16.504 - Indefinite-quantity contracts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...should establish a reasonable maximum quantity based on market research, trends on recent contracts for similar supplies or...Based on the contracting officer's knowledge of the market, more favorable terms and conditions, including...

2013-10-01

339

The real bills doctrine vs. the quantity theory: a reconsideration  

Microsoft Academic Search

On our interpretation, real bills advocates favor unfettered intermediation, while their critics, who we call quantity theorists, favor legal restrictions on intermediation geared to separate “money” from “credit.” We display examples of economies in which quantity-theory assertions about “money-supply” and price-level behavior under the real bills regime are valid. In particular, both the price level and an asset total that

Thomas J. Sargent; Neil Wallace

1981-01-01

340

An evaluation of the efficacy of the exercise on referral scheme in Northumberland, UK: association with physical activity and predictors of engagement. A naturalistic observation study  

PubMed Central

Objectives Exercise on referral schemes (ERS) are widely commissioned in the UK but there is little evidence of their association with physical activity levels. We sought to assess the Northumberland exercise on referral scheme in terms of increased levels of physical activity and identify predictors of engagement. Design A naturalistic observational study. Setting 9 local authority leisure sites in Northumberland. Participants 2233 patients referred from primary and secondary care between July 2009 and September 2010. Intervention A 24-week programme including motivational consultations and supervised exercise sessions for participants. Outcome measures Uptake, 12-week adherence, 24-week completion, changes in Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire scores after 24-weeks and attendance levels at supervised exercise sessions during the scheme. Three binary logistic regressions were used to examine demographic and referral factors associated with initial uptake, 12-week adherence and 24-week completion. Results Uptake was 81% (n=1811), 12-week adherence was 53.5% (n=968) and 24-week completion was 42.9% (n=777). Participants who completed significantly increased their self-reported physical activity levels at 24-weeks t (638)=?11.55, p<0.001. Completers attended a mean of 22.87 (12.47 SD) of a target 48 supervised sessions. Increasing age, being female and leisure site were associated with uptake, increasing age, Index of Multiple Deprivation and leisure site were associated with 12-week adherence and Body Mass Index and leisure site were associated with 24-week completion. Each regression significantly increased the prediction accuracy of stage of exit (non-starters vs starters 81.5%, dropouts before 12?weeks vs 12-week adherers 66.9%, and dropouts between 13 and 24?weeks 82.2%). Conclusions Completers of the Northumberland ERS increased physical activity at 24?weeks, although the levels achieved were below the current UK guidelines of 150?min of moderate exercise per week. Leisure site was associated with uptake, adherence and completion.

Hanson, Coral L; Allin, Linda J; Ellis, Jason G; Dodd-Reynolds, Caroline J

2013-01-01

341

Irregular absorption profiles observed from diclofenac extended release tablets can be predicted using a dissolution test apparatus that mimics in vivo physical stresses.  

PubMed

The prediction of the in vivo drug release characteristics of modified release oral dosage forms by in vitro dissolution tests is a prerequisite for successful product development. A novel dissolution test apparatus that mimics the physical conditions experienced by an oral formulation during gastrointestinal transit was developed. This included the simulation of pressure forces exerted by gut wall motility, shear forces generated during propagation, and loss of water contact when the dosage form is located in an intestinal air pocket. The new apparatus was evaluated using a diclofenac extended release (ER) tablet. The in vitro dissolution profiles were compared between the novel test apparatus and a conventional dissolution apparatus (USP II). These data were compared with the profiles of plasma concentration versus time that were obtained after the administration of an ER tablet to 24 healthy volunteers under fasting conditions. Multiple peaks were observed in individual plasma concentration-time profiles after the intake of the reference ER tablet. Standard dissolution testing showed typical characteristics of an almost continuous release for this formulation; however, dissolution testing with the novel apparatus suggested that the diclofenac release from the ER tablets would be extremely variable and dependent on the applied stress. The data suggest that the observed multiple peaks of plasma concentration after dosing of the ER diclofenac tablets are most probably caused by sensitivity to physical stress events during gastrointestinal transit. PMID:18582568

Garbacz, Grzegorz; Wedemeyer, Ralph-Steven; Nagel, Stefan; Giessmann, Thomas; Mönnikes, Hubert; Wilson, Clive G; Siegmund, Werner; Weitschies, Werner

2008-10-01

342

Cardiac looping may be driven by compressive loads resulting from unequal growth of the heart and pericardial cavity. Observations on a physical simulation model.  

PubMed

The transformation of the straight embryonic heart tube into a helically wound loop is named cardiac looping. Such looping is regarded as an essential process in cardiac morphogenesis since it brings the building blocks of the developing heart into an approximation of their definitive topographical relationships. During the past two decades, a large number of genes have been identified which play important roles in cardiac looping. However, how genetic information is physically translated into the dynamic form changes of the looping heart is still poorly understood. The oldest hypothesis of cardiac looping mechanics attributes the form changes of the heart loop (ventral bending ? simple helical coiling ? complex helical coiling) to compressive loads resulting from growth differences between the heart and the pericardial cavity. In the present study, we have tested the physical plausibility of this hypothesis, which we call the growth-induced buckling hypothesis, for the first time. Using a physical simulation model, we show that growth-induced buckling of a straight elastic rod within the confined space of a hemispherical cavity can generate the same sequence of form changes as observed in the looping embryonic heart. Our simulation experiments have furthermore shown that, under bilaterally symmetric conditions, growth-induced buckling generates left- and right-handed helices (D-/L-loops) in a 1:1 ratio, while even subtle left- or rightward displacements of the caudal end of the elastic rod at the pre-buckling state are sufficient to direct the buckling process toward the generation of only D- or L-loops, respectively. Our data are discussed with respect to observations made in biological "models." We conclude that compressive loads resulting from unequal growth of the heart and pericardial cavity play important roles in cardiac looping. Asymmetric positioning of the venous heart pole may direct these forces toward a biased generation of D- or L-loops. PMID:24772086

Bayraktar, Meriç; Männer, Jörg

2014-01-01

343

Cardiac looping may be driven by compressive loads resulting from unequal growth of the heart and pericardial cavity. Observations on a physical simulation model  

PubMed Central

The transformation of the straight embryonic heart tube into a helically wound loop is named cardiac looping. Such looping is regarded as an essential process in cardiac morphogenesis since it brings the building blocks of the developing heart into an approximation of their definitive topographical relationships. During the past two decades, a large number of genes have been identified which play important roles in cardiac looping. However, how genetic information is physically translated into the dynamic form changes of the looping heart is still poorly understood. The oldest hypothesis of cardiac looping mechanics attributes the form changes of the heart loop (ventral bending ? simple helical coiling ? complex helical coiling) to compressive loads resulting from growth differences between the heart and the pericardial cavity. In the present study, we have tested the physical plausibility of this hypothesis, which we call the growth-induced buckling hypothesis, for the first time. Using a physical simulation model, we show that growth-induced buckling of a straight elastic rod within the confined space of a hemispherical cavity can generate the same sequence of form changes as observed in the looping embryonic heart. Our simulation experiments have furthermore shown that, under bilaterally symmetric conditions, growth-induced buckling generates left- and right-handed helices (D-/L-loops) in a 1:1 ratio, while even subtle left- or rightward displacements of the caudal end of the elastic rod at the pre-buckling state are sufficient to direct the buckling process toward the generation of only D- or L-loops, respectively. Our data are discussed with respect to observations made in biological “models.” We conclude that compressive loads resulting from unequal growth of the heart and pericardial cavity play important roles in cardiac looping. Asymmetric positioning of the venous heart pole may direct these forces toward a biased generation of D- or L-loops.

Bayraktar, Meric; Manner, Jorg

2014-01-01

344

Love Wave Triggering of Non-Volcanic Tremor in the Nankai Region, Southwest Japan: Observations and Physical Interpretation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The triggering of deep non-volcanic tremor in the Nankai subduction zone, southwest Japan, by the surface waves of several large teleseismic earthquakes has been well documented in previous studies (e.g., Miyazawa and Mori, 2005, 2006). One of their most notable findings is that the Nankai non-volcanic tremor is mainly triggered by the passage of Rayleigh waves from the teleseismic events (e.g., Miyazawa and Brodsky, 2008), while the Love wave triggering is much less clear. To better understand the mechanism of tremor triggering in the Nankai region, we have conducted a systematic search of triggered tremor by the surface waves of large teleseismic events (Mw ? 7.5) occurred from 2001 to 2012, at distances of more than 1000 km from the Nankai region. Our present analysis focuses on western Shikoku, where triggered tremor has been previously reported (e.g., Miyazawa and Mori, 2006). Triggered tremor is identified as bursts of high-frequency, non-impulsive and long-duration seismic signals that are coherent among many nearby stations, and in phase with the passing teleseismic waves (e.g., Peng et al., 2009). We use a standard envelope cross-correlation technique (Peng and Chao, 2008) to locate the triggered tremor. Out of the total of 55 teleseismic events, 18 have clear associated triggered tremor in our study region. The apparent triggering threshold is ~ 3 KPa. We find that most of these large events show predominant Rayleigh wave triggering, consistent with previous studies (e.g., Miyazawa et al., 2008). However, for 7 events we have found some evidence of Love wave triggering. The most outstanding example is that of the recent 2012 Sumatra earthquake (Mw8.6), probably due to the excitation of large-amplitude Love wave from the strike-slip focal mechanism. Love wave triggering is also observed for the 2001 Kunlun earthquake (Mw7.8), the 2003 Tokachi-oki earthquake (Mw8.3), the 2006 Kuril-Islands earthquake (Mw8.3), the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake (Mw7.9) and the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake (Mw9.0) and one of its early aftershocks (Mw7.5). The Love waves from five of the seven events arrive to Nankai from a direction that is almost strike-parallel, which corresponds to a high Love wave triggering potential (Hill, 2010). For the other two teleseismic events (2001 Kunlun and 2008 Wenchuan), relatively large amplitude Love waves appear to have initiated the tremor occurrence. The dynamic stress modeling that we are presently conducting will hopefully help to better quantify the relation between triggered tremor and the passage of the surface waves in the Nankai region.

Enescu, B.; Chao, K.; Peng, Z.; Gonzalez-Huizar, H.; Obara, K.; Hill, D. P.; Matsuzawa, T.; Tanaka, S.; Shiomi, K.; Takeda, T.; Velasco, A. A.

2012-12-01

345

Observations and physical interpretations of the solar wind flow properties as obtained from white light coronagraph aboard SPARTAN 201-01  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The solar corona was observed with an externally occulted White Light Coronagraph (WLC) carried on the SPARTAN 201-1 spacecraft on 11-12 Apr. 1993. With observations from WLC and the ground based Mauna Loa White Light Coronagraph, a large number of polar plumes both in the north and south polar holes were traced from 1.16 to 5.5 Rs. Flow properties of the solar wind in coronal holes have been determined (Habbal et al., 1995) by using a two fluid model constrained by density profiles and scale height temperatures from the white light observations, and interplanetary measurements of the flow speed and proton mass flux from Ulysses' south polar passage. Provisions for acceleration by Alfven waves, as well as electron and proton heating, are included in the momentum and the energy equations respectively. The model computations fit remarkably well the empirical constraints of the two different density structures (plumes and coronal holes) for a range of input parameters. In this study we investigate the physical nature of the heating function used in the two-fluid model. Alfven waves have been suggested as the possible source of heating that accelerates the solar wind (Ofman and Davila, 1995). We utilize the density contrast observed in WLC data in the plume and ambient coronal hole region to estimate the Alfven wave frequencies responsible for heating these structures. The source heating function utilized in the two fluid model of the solar wind acceleration will be compared with the resonant Alfven wave heating function.

Guhathakurta, Madhulika; Fisher, Richard; Ofman, Leon

1995-01-01

346

Physics for Physical Sciences: Graphing Motion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This introductory tutorial provides examples and visualizations for beginners in the fundamentals of graphing Velocity vs. Time and Position vs. Time. Physical quantities are related to graphical features, such as the relationship between slope and velocity. Images and Flash animations are used to present the material, along with examples that demonstrate problem-solving using formulas relating to displacement and constant velocity.

Dicker, Jason; Love, Ed

347

Quantity Effect of Radial Cracks on the Cracking Propagation Behavior and the Crack Morphology  

PubMed Central

In this letter, the quantity effect of radial cracks on the cracking propagation behavior as well as the circular crack generation on the impacted glass plate within the sandwiched glass sheets are experimentally investigated via high-speed photography system. Results show that the radial crack velocity on the backing glass layer decreases with the crack number under the same impact conditions during large quantities of repeated experiments. Thus, the “energy conversion factor” is suggested to elucidate the physical relation between the cracking number and the crack propagation speed. Besides, the number of radial crack also takes the determinative effect in the crack morphology of the impacted glass plate. This study may shed lights on understanding the cracking and propagation mechanism in laminated glass structures and provide useful tool to explore the impact information on the cracking debris.

Chen, Jingjing; Xu, Jun; Liu, Bohan; Yao, Xuefeng; Li, Yibing

2014-01-01

348

Planning a School Physics Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a model for planning the measurement of physical quantities. Provides two examples of optimizing the conditions of indirect measurement for laboratory experiments which involve measurements of acceleration due to gravity and of viscosity by means of Stokes' formula. (ML)

Blasiak, Wladyslaw

1986-01-01

349

Processing Ordinality and Quantity: The Case of Developmental Dyscalculia  

PubMed Central

In contrast to quantity processing, up to date, the nature of ordinality has received little attention from researchers despite the fact that both quantity and ordinality are embodied in numerical information. Here we ask if there are two separate core systems that lie at the foundations of numerical cognition: (1) the traditionally and well accepted numerical magnitude system but also (2) core system for representing ordinal information. We report two novel experiments of ordinal processing that explored the relation between ordinal and numerical information processing in typically developing adults and adults with developmental dyscalculia (DD). Participants made “ordered” or “non-ordered” judgments about 3 groups of dots (non-symbolic numerical stimuli; in Experiment 1) and 3 numbers (symbolic task: Experiment 2). In contrast to previous findings and arguments about quantity deficit in DD participants, when quantity and ordinality are dissociated (as in the current tasks), DD participants exhibited a normal ratio effect in the non-symbolic ordinal task. They did not show, however, the ordinality effect. Ordinality effect in DD appeared only when area and density were randomized, but only in the descending direction. In the symbolic task, the ordinality effect was modulated by ratio and direction in both groups. These findings suggest that there might be two separate cognitive representations of ordinal and quantity information and that linguistic knowledge may facilitate estimation of ordinal information.

Rubinsten, Orly; Sury, Dana

2011-01-01

350

Quality control by a mobile molecular workshop: Quality versus quantity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ribosome is a molecular machine that moves on a messenger RNA (mRNA) track while, simultaneously, polymerizing a protein using the mRNA also as the corresponding template. We define, and analytically calculate, two different measures of the efficiency of this machine. However, we argue that its performance is evaluated better in terms of the translational fidelity and the speed with which it polymerizes a protein. We define both these quantities and calculate these analytically. Fidelity is a measure of the quality of the products, while the total quantity of products synthesized in a given interval depends on the speed of polymerization. We show that for synthesizing a large quantity of proteins, it is not necessary to sacrifice the quality. We also explore the effects of the quality control mechanism on the strength of mechanochemical coupling. We suggest experiments for testing some of the ideas presented here.

Sharma, Ajeet K.; Chowdhury, Debashish

2010-09-01

351

Vectorial and Plane Energy Fluences - Useful Concepts in Radiation Physics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The vectorial physical quantities describing the radiation field are defined in this report. The use of these quantities is rare in the radiation dosimetry literature since a knowledge of the directions of motion of the ionizing particle is often unintere...

C. A. Carlsson

1977-01-01

352

Chemical Waste Management for the Conditionally Exempt Small Quantity Generator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Management of hazardous chemical wastes generated as a part of the curriculum poses a significant task for the individual responsible for maintaining compliance with all rules and regulations from the Environmental Protection Agency and the Department of Transportation while maintaining the principles of OSHA's Lab Standard and the Hazard Communication Standard. For schools that generate relatively small quantities of waste, an individual can effectively manage the waste program without becoming overly burdened by the EPA regulations required for those generating large quantities of waste, if given the necessary support from the institution.

Zimmer, Steven W.

1999-06-01

353

Target estimation algorithm design using quantity data and target feature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The estimation algorithm plays an important role in a radar tracking system. An improved estimation approach using both quantity data and target feature is investigated in this article. The advantage of this approach is that the system will have better estimation based on more target information. A data association denoted one-step conditional maximum likelihood algorithm is applied to match between radar measurements and existing target tracks. Moreover, an adaptive estimator is applied to combine the quantity data and target feature for estimation problems. According to the simulation results, this approach can enhance the performance of multiple-target tracking systems.

Lu, Chung-Lain; Lin, Chih-Min

2011-12-01

354

Comparison of satellite derived dynamical quantities in the stratosphere of the Southern Hemisphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The proceedings are summarized from a pre-MASH planning workshop on the intercomparison of Southern Hemisphere observations, analyses and derived dynamical quantities held in Williamsburg, Virginia during April 1986. The aims of this workshop were primarily twofold: (1) comparison of Southern Hemisphere dynamical quantities derived from various satellite data archives (e.g., from limb scanners and nadir sounders); and (2) assessing the impact of different base-level height information on such derived quantities. These tasks are viewed as especially important in the Southern Hemisphere because of the paucity of conventional measurements. A further strong impetus for the MASH program comes from the recent discovery of the springtime ozone hold over Antarctica. Insight gained from validation studies such as the one reported here will contribute to an improved understanding of the role of meteorology in the development and evolution of the hold, in its interannual variability, and in its interhemispheric differences. The dynamical quantities examined in this workshop included geopotential height, zonal wind, potential vorticity, eddy heat and momentum fluxes, and Eliassen-Palm fluxes. The time periods and data sources constituting the MASH comparisons are summarized.

Miles, Thomas (editor); Oneill, Alan (editor)

1989-01-01

355

Measurement of supersmall quantities of Ar37 and H3  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of measurements made on supersmall quantities of Ar-37 and H-3 by a low-background installation based on miniature proportional counters are presented. The article considers the sensitivity limit for the recording of Ar-37 and H-3.

Kocharov, G. E.; Naydenov, V. O.

1975-01-01

356

Price and quantity adjustments in the Austrian labour market  

Microsoft Academic Search

Austria is among the very few countries in the European Union which have managed to maintain comparatively low unemployment rates and high employment rates. This study looks at the price and quantity adjustment mechanisms in the Austrian labour market which may have contributed to this favourable outcome. After reviewing briefly the basic theoretical reasoning an empirical investigation is began into

Helmut Hofer; Karl Pichelmann; Andreas-Ulrich Schuh

2001-01-01

357

How Do Our Actions Affect Water Quantity and Quality?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Water is an essential resource for all living things. How we live on our watershed can impact water quantity and quality. It is important to recognize how humans alter watershed dynamics, but students often find it challenging to visualize watershed processes and understand how decisions that they make as individuals and together as a community…

Gordon, Jessica

2008-01-01

358

Narrative Speech in Aging: Quantity, Information Content, and Cohesion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined age-related changes in narrative speech of 79 adults aged 40-91 who told stories from their pictorial representations. Quantity, information content and cohesion of narratives were analysed using a detailed transcription and codification system. We carried out a LISREL analysis to study relationships between narrative…

Juncos-Rabadan, Onesimo; Pereiro, Arturo X.; Rodriguez, Maria Soledad

2005-01-01

359

Children’s multiplicative transformations of discrete and continuous quantities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies have documented an evolutionarily primitive, early emerging cognitive system for the mental representation of numerical quantity (the analog magnitude system). Studies with nonhuman primates, human infants, and preschoolers have shown this system to support computations of numerical ordering, addition, and subtraction involving whole number concepts prior to arithmetic training. Here we report evidence that this system supports children’s

Hilary Barth; Andrew Baron; Elizabeth Spelke; Susan Carey

2009-01-01

360

Water Quantity and Quality Research for the Rhine Meuse Estuary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effects of boundary conditions and changes in the tidal area on Rhine Meuse estuary water quantity and quality were studied. Tests carried out under cyclic and under time series conditions of several weeks show the importance of the interactions of ha...

A. Roelfzema M. Karelese A. J. Struijk M. Adriaanse

1984-01-01

361

Adolescent Interpersonal Relationship Quantity and Quality, Belongingness, and Loneliness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adolescence is a time of experiencing widespread and particularly intense feelings of loneliness. This study investigated how the quantity and quality of evolving interpersonal relationships affect adolescent feel- ings of belongingness to family, friends, and romantic partners, and moreover, how such relationships influ- ence their feelings of loneliness. A total of 479 adolescents aged between 12 and 22 from a

Wan-Chen Chen

362

The Application of Quantity Discounts in Army Procurements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Department of Defense (DOD) has directed the use of basic Economic Order Quantity (EOQ) principles in the acquisition of secondary items. One assumption of the EOQ model is that there is no control over acquisition price; yet, it has been established ...

W. V. Zabel S. Gajdalo

1979-01-01

363

A Supplier's Optimal Quantity Discount Policy Under Asymmetric Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the supply-chain literature, an increasing body of work studies how suppliers can use incentive schemes such as quantity discounts to influence buyers' ordering behaviour, thus reducing the supplier's (and the total supply chain's) costs. Various functional forms for such incentive schemes have been proposed, but a critical assumption always made is that the supplier has full information about the

Charles J. Corbett; Xavier de Groote

2000-01-01

364

A Generalized Quantity Discount Pricing Model to Increase Supplier's Profits  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the joint problem of ordering and offering price discount by a supplier to his sole\\/major buyer is analyzed. The objective is to induce the buyer to alter his order schedule and size so that the supplier can benefit from lower set up, ordering, and inventory holding costs. We generalize the quantity discount pricing model of Monahan (Monahan,

Hau L. Lee; Meir J. Rosenblatt

1986-01-01

365

A Quantity Discount Pricing Model to Increase Vendor Profits  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we analyze how a supplier can structure the terms of an optimal quantity discount schedule. The vendor's challenge is to adjust his present pricing schedule to entice his major customer to increase his present order size by a factor of \\

James P. Monahan

1984-01-01

366

Quantity Versus Quality in the Soviet Market for Weapons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Military market places display obvious inefficiencies under most arrangements, but the Soviet defense market was unusual for its degree of monopoly, exclusive relationships, and intense scrutiny (in its formative years) by a harsh dictator. This provided the setting for quality versus quantity in the delivery of weapons to the government. The paper discusses the power of the industrial contractor over

Mark Harrison; Andrei Markevich

2007-01-01

367

Inherently Analog Quantity Representations in Olive Baboons (Papio anubis).  

PubMed

Strong evidence indicates that non-human primates possess a numerical representation system, but the inherent nature of that system is still debated. Two cognitive mechanisms have been proposed to account for non-human primate numerical performance: (1) a discrete object-file system limited to quantities <4, and (2) an analog system which represents quantities comparatively but is limited by the ratio between two quantities. To test the underlying nature of non-human primate quantification, we asked eight experiment-naive olive baboons (Papio anubis) to discriminate between number pairs containing small (<4), large (>4), or span (small vs. large) numbers of food items presented simultaneously or sequentially. The prediction from the object-file hypothesis is that baboons will only accurately choose the larger quantity in small pairs, but not large or span pairs. Conversely, the analog system predicts that baboons will be successful with all numbers, and that success will be dependent on numerical ratio. We found that baboons successfully discriminated all pair types at above chance levels. In addition, performance significantly correlated with the ratio between the numerical values. Although performance was better for simultaneous trials than sequential trials, evidence favoring analog numerical representation emerged from both conditions, and was present even in the first exposure to number pairs. Together, these data favor the interpretation that a single, coherent analog representation system underlies spontaneous quantitative abilities in primates. PMID:23653619

Barnard, Allison M; Hughes, Kelly D; Gerhardt, Regina R; Divincenti, Louis; Bovee, Jenna M; Cantlon, Jessica F

2013-01-01

368

IRRIGATION MANAGEMENT AFFECTING QUALITY AND QUANTITY OF RETURN FLOW  

EPA Science Inventory

Management practices for control of quality and quantity of return subsurface flow were studied theoretically, in the laboratory, and full scale in the field. Field water management studies using waters of different qualities and different leaching fractions showed that the soil ...

369

NEW APPROACHES TO ESTIMATION OF SOLID WASTE QUANTITY AND COMPOSITION  

EPA Science Inventory

Efficient and statistically sound sampling protocols for estimating the quantity and composition of solid waste over a stated period of time in a given location, such as a landfill site or at a specific point in an industrial or commercial process, are essential to the design of ...

370

Minimal quantity lubrication in turning: Effect on tool wear  

Microsoft Academic Search

Industries and researchers are trying to reduce the use of coolant lubricant fluids in metal cutting to obtain safety, environmental and economical benefits. The aim of this research is to determine if the minimal quantity lubrication (MQL) technique in turning gives some advantages in terms of tool wear reduction. This paper reports the results obtained from turning tests and SEM

A. Attanasio; M. Gelfi; C. Giardini; C. Remino

2006-01-01

371

Children's Multiplicative Transformations of Discrete and Continuous Quantities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent studies have documented an evolutionarily primitive, early emerging cognitive system for the mental representation of numerical quantity (the analog magnitude system). Studies with nonhuman primates, human infants, and preschoolers have shown this system to support computations of numerical ordering, addition, and subtraction involving…

Barth, Hilary; Baron, Andrew; Spelke, Elizabeth; Carey, Susan

2009-01-01

372

Detection of Nanomole Quantities of Reducing Sugar by Liquid Chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

The alkaline ferricyanide and the Park-Johnson's methods were studied in order to determine glucose oligomers separated by liquid chromatography in nanomole quantities. In the alkaline ferricyanide method, high sensitivity was obtained by measuring ultraviolet absorbance of the reduced reagents. The presence of some kinds of salts or alcohols did not affect the colour development of the reagents. The applicability of

S. Watanabe; S. Rokushika; F. Murakami; H. Aoshima; H. Hatano

1973-01-01

373

Children's multiplicative transformations of discrete and continuous quantities.  

PubMed

Recent studies have documented an evolutionarily primitive, early emerging cognitive system for the mental representation of numerical quantity (the analog magnitude system). Studies with nonhuman primates, human infants, and preschoolers have shown this system to support computations of numerical ordering, addition, and subtraction involving whole number concepts prior to arithmetic training. Here we report evidence that this system supports children's predictions about the outcomes of halving and perhaps also doubling transformations. A total of 138 kindergartners and first graders were asked to reason about the quantity resulting from the doubling or halving of an initial numerosity (of a set of dots) or an initial length (of a bar). Controls for dot size, total dot area, and dot density ensured that children were responding to the number of dots in the arrays. Prior to formal instruction in symbolic multiplication, division, or rational number, halving (and perhaps doubling) computations appear to be deployed over discrete and possibly continuous quantities. The ability to apply simple multiplicative transformations to analog magnitude representations of quantity may form a part of the toolkit that children use to construct later concepts of rational number. PMID:19289237

Barth, Hilary; Baron, Andrew; Spelke, Elizabeth; Carey, Susan

2009-08-01

374

Origin of the Economic Order Quantity formula; transcription or transformation?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to speculate on how the Economic Order Quantity (EOQ) formula was developed. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper presents a literature review and analysis. Findings – Ford Whitman Harris's contribution to the EOQ formula is significantly original. Practical implications – Origins of work and questions of plagiarism can be ambiguous. The speculations here illustrate

Bill Roach

2005-01-01

375

The development of a rational bill of quantities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The civil engineering industry world-wide has long known that the Conventional Bill of Quantities (BOQ) is inadequate conceptually and functionally. Moreover, the only alternative to it, the Method-Related BOQ (MR Bill), is only marginally better; its development having been constrained by inadequate analysis, problems of inertia attached to current practice, and lack of scientific methodology for the evaluation of comparative

G. Singh; O. O. Banjoko

1990-01-01

376

BILLS OF QUANTITIES - ARE THEY STILL USEFUL AND RELEVANT TODAY?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historically, the formal form of Bills of Quantities was introduced in the United Kingdom after the Industrial Revolution in the 19th Century. They were mainly used by master tradesmen for paying their workmen and claiming payments from building owners by submitting it as partisan Final Account. BQ are widely used in most of the Commonwealth countries such as Australia, New

Rosli Abdul Rashid; Muzani Mustapa; Siti Nurhuda; Abd Wahid

377

Reengineering of construction project procurement process on bill of quantities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The promulgation of The Code of Valuation with Bill of Quantities of Construction Works has resulted in a transformation and revolution in China construction industry. It's essential and crucial to perform BPR (Business Process Reengineering) for Chinese construction corporations to succeed, even survive. Managers must fundamentally rethink and radically redesign the structures of their organizations as well as the operating

Qi-jun Chen; Ji-feng Yang; Qi-hui Li

2011-01-01

378

Feeling Number: Grounding Number Sense in a Sense of Quantity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Drawing on results from psychology and from cultural and linguistic studies, we argue for an increased focus on developing quantity sense in school mathematics. We explore the notion of "feeling number", a phrase that we offer in a twofold sense--resisting tendencies to feel numb-er (more numb) by developing a feeling for numbers and the…

Wagner, David; Davis, Brent

2010-01-01

379

Kinematics, influence functions and field quantities for disturbance propagation from moving disturbance sources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A unified method is presented for deriving the influence functions of moving singularities which determine the field quantities in aerodynamics and aeroacoustics. The moving singularities comprise volume and surface distributions having arbitrary orientations in space and to the trajectory. Hence one generally valid formula for the influence functions which reveal some universal relationships and remarkable properties in the disturbance fields. The derivations used are completely consistent with the physical processes in the propagation field, such that treatment renders new descriptions for some standard concepts. The treatment is uniformly valid for subsonic and supersonic Mach numbers.

Das, A.

1984-01-01

380

Approximate models for the study of exponential changed quantities: Application on the plasma waves growth rate or damping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many physical phenomena that concern the research these days are basically complicated because of being multi-parametric. Thus, their study and understanding meets with big if not unsolved obstacles. Such complicated and multi-parametric is the plasmatic state as well, where the plasma and the physical quantities that appear along with it have chaotic behavior. Many of those physical quantities change exponentially and at most times they are stabilized by presenting wavy behavior. Mostly in the transitive state rather than the steady state, the exponentially changing quantities (Growth, Damping etc) depend on each other in most cases. Thus, it is difficult to distinguish the cause from the result. The present paper attempts to help this difficult study and understanding by proposing mathematical exponential models that could relate with the study and understanding of the plasmatic wavy instability behavior. Such instabilities are already detected, understood and presented in previous publications of our laboratory. In other words, our new contribution is the study of the already known plasmatic quantities by using mathematical models (modeling and simulation). These methods are both useful and applicable in the chaotic theory. In addition, our ambition is to also conduct a list of models useful for the study of chaotic problems, such as those that appear into the plasma, starting with this paper's examples.

Xaplanteris, C. L.; Xaplanteris, L. C.; Leousis, D. P.

2014-03-01

381

Uncertainty in vertically integrated liquid water content due to radar reflectivity observation error  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radar reflectivity is used to estimate meteorological quantities such as rainfall rate, liquid water content, and the related quantity, vertically integrated liquid (VIL) water content. The estimation of any of these quantities depends on several assumptions related to the characteristics of the physical processes controlling the occurrence and character of water in the atmosphere. Additionally, there are many sources of error associated with radar observations, such as those due to brighthand, hail, and drop size distribution approximations. This work addresses one error of interest, the radar reflectivity observation error; other error sources are assumed to be corrected or negligible. The result is a relationship between the uncertainty in VIL water content and radar reflectivity measurement error. An example application illustrates the estimation of VIL uncertainty from typical radar reflectivity observations and indicates that the coefficient of variation in VIL is much larger than the coefficient of variation in radar reflectivity.

French, Mark N.; Andrieu, Herve; Krajewski, Witold F.

1995-01-01

382

Prelude to Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Uses a workbook format to provide the general mathematical background needed by students of calculus-level general physics. Shows how to use math as a tool to describe phenomena. Introduces the art of specifying and manipulating mathematical quantities, emphasizing the use of SI Units. Details the power, sinusoidal, exponential and logarithmic functions.

Swartz, Clifford

1983-02-01

383

Physics and Plasticine  

Microsoft Academic Search

We argue that children's failure on one of Jean Piaget's best known tasks, conservation of solid quantity, reflects ignorance of physical properties rather than inadequate reasoning ability. Basing himself on the result of this and similar tests, Piaget claimed that certain sorts of reasoning are not usually possible before certain ages. The educational and, to a lesser extent today, the

JOHN MACNAMARA; GEOFF AUSTIN

1993-01-01

384

Physics of climate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physics of Climate is a suitable text for at least part of a general circulation course. The quantity and quality of information in this book are such that anyone involved in the study of the atmosphere or climate will wish to have it handy. In particular, anyone working with a general circulation model will want to see how his model

Jose? P. Peixoto; Abraham H. Oort; Curt Covey; Karl Taylor

1992-01-01

385

Provider-client interactions and quantity of health care use.  

PubMed

This paper considers three types of provider-client interactions that influence quantity of health care use: rationing, effort, and persuasion. By rationing, we refer to a quantity limit set by a provider; effort, the productive inputs supplied by a provider to increase a client's demand; persuasion, the unproductive inputs used by a provider to induce a client's demand. We construct a theoretical model incorporating all three mechanisms as special cases. When the general model is specialized into one of three mechanisms, a set of empirical implications emerges. We test for the presence of each mechanism using data of patients receiving outpatient treatment for alcohol abuse in the Maine Addiction Treatment System. We find evidence for rationing and persuasion, but not effort. PMID:15556245

Lien, Hsien-Ming; Albert Ma, Ching-To; McGuire, Thomas G

2004-11-01

386

Quantum Physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Quantum Mechanics operators must be hermitian and, in a direct product space, symmetric. These properties are saved by Lie algebra operators but not by those of quantum algebras. A possible correspondence between observables and quantum algebra operators is suggested by extending the definition of matrix el- ements of a physical observable, including the eventual projection on the appro- priate

E. Celeghini; M. A. del Olmo

1969-01-01

387

How do I convert the numbers stored in the files to physical quantities?  

... radiances", which means that they must be multiplied by a scale factor to obtain radiance in units of Watts/square meters/steradian/micrometer. These band-by-band scale factors are stored in the swath metadata of L1B1 files, and are found ...

2013-03-06

388

Type Selection & Quantity Optimization of Logistics Equipment in Logistics Park  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to select and allocate correct equipment for the logistics park, firstly the goods information matter-elements and equipment matter-elements were established by the matter-elements theory, the matching rule and the model between goods & logistics equipment were built. Secondly the formula to compute the quantity of logistics equipment was given out. Thirdly according the theory of life cycle cost

Cheng Yao-rong; Zhang Ming; Liang Bo

2009-01-01

389

Quantity-Setting Competition with Differentiated Goods under Uncertain Demand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider a quantity-setting duopoly model, and we study the decision to move first or second, by assuming that the firms produce differentiated goods and that there is some demand uncertainty. The competitive phase consists of two periods, and in either period, the firms can make a production decision that is irreversible. As far as the firms are allowed to choose (non-cooperatively) the period they make the decision, we study the circumstances that favour sequential rather than simultaneous decisions.

Ferreira, Fernanda A.; Ferreira, Flávio

2009-09-01

390

Quantities equivalent to the norm of a weighted Bergman space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Let 0[less-than-or-equals, slant][alpha]<[infinity], 0-2. If f is holomorphic in the unit disc D and if [omega] is a radial weight function of secure type, then the followings are equivalent: Here . Furthermore, if f(0)=0 and [omega] is monotone, then three quantities on the left sides are mutually equivalent. This generalizes a classical result of Hardy-Littlewood.

Kwon, E. G.

2008-02-01

391

Investigation of Minimal Quantity Lubrication in Turning of Waspaloy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to achieve a more productive and environmentally friendly manufacturing of aerospace propulsion components, minimal\\u000a quantity lubrication (MQL) can potentially replace the traditionally used flood cooling in different machining operations.\\u000a These components are manufactured of difficult to machine alloys, which show great hardness even at elevated temperatures.\\u000a Waspaloy is one of the more demanding super alloys to machine and

Tomas Beno; Marina Isaksson; Lars Pejryd

392

Effect of Minimal Quantities of Lubricant in Micro Milling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental, health, and waste disposal problems, which are associated with the conventional cooling technique, leads the\\u000a interest switched to minimum quantities of lubricant (MQL) in machining. In this study the consumption rate of cutting oil\\u000a is restricted to 1 mlh?1 against a benchmark flow rate of 42.0 lmin?1 in conventional cooling. The lubricating action of the cutting oil with extremely

J. R. S. Prakash; M. Rahman; A. Senthil Kumar; S. C. Lim

393

Radio frequency tank eigenmode sensor for propellant quantity gauging  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method for measuring the quantity of fluid in a tank may include the steps of selecting a match between a measured set of electromagnetic eigenfrequencies and a simulated plurality of sets of electromagnetic eigenfrequencies using a matching algorithm, wherein the match is one simulated set of electromagnetic eigenfrequencies from the simulated plurality of sets of electromagnetic eigenfrequencies, and determining the fill level of the tank based upon the match.

Zimmerli, Gregory A. (Inventor)

2013-01-01

394

Water quantity and quality assessment of lower Nestos river, Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monitoring quantity and quality data of a 3-yr (2006–2009) survey in the lower reach of Nestos river are presented. For the purposes of this study, monitoring was taking place at six sites along the river course. Discharge measurements were made at four stations. Physicochemical parameters (i.e., electrical conductivity, pH, dissolved oxygen and water temperature) were measured in situ while water

Ioannis Boskidis; Georgios D. Gikas; Georgios Sylaios; Vassilios A. Tsihrintzis

2011-01-01

395

The use of Bills of Quantities in building contractor organizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prime purpose of the Bill of Quantities (BQ) is to enable all contractors tendering for a contract to price on exactly the same information. Subsequent to this, it is widely used for post-tender work such as: material scheduling; construction planning; cost analysis; and cost planning. Due to the re-work involved in the post-tender use of the BQ, the ‘extent

G. W. Kodikara; A. Thorpe; R. McCaffer

1993-01-01

396

In-Situ Partial Pressure Measurements and Visual Observation during Crystal Growth of ZnSe by Seeded Physical Vapor Transport  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An in-situ monitoring furnace was constructed with side windows to perform partial pressure measurements by optical absorption and visual observation of the growing crystal. A fused silica -rowth ampoule with a 4.5 cm long square tube between the source and the seed was prepared for the optical absorption measurements. A ZnSe crystal was grown by the seeded physical vapor transport (PVT) technique in the horizontal configuration. The growth temperature was 1120 C and the furnace translation rate was 3nmVday. Partial pressures of Se2, P(sub Se2), at three locations along the length of the growth ampoule were measured at 90 min intervals during the growth process. The measured P (sub Se2) were in the range of 2.0 to 6.5 x 10(exp -3) atm. The P(sub Se2) results indicated that the partial pressure profile was inconsistent with the results of the one-dimensional diffusion mass transport model and that the source composition shifted toward Se-rich during the run, i.e. the grown crystal was more Zn-rich than the source. The visual observation showed that the seed crystal first etched back, with greater thermal etching occurring along the edges of the seed crystal. Once the growth started, the crystal crew in a predominately contactless mode and facets were evident during growth. The crystal did not grow symmetrically which is believed to be due to the unintentional asymmetry of the radial thermal profile in the furnace.

Su, Ching-Hua; Feth, Shari; Lehoczky, Sandor L.

1999-01-01

397

A Physical Mechanism to Explain the Delivery of Chemical Penetration Enhancers into Skin during Transdermal Sonophoresis - Insight into the Observed Synergism  

PubMed Central

The synergism between low-frequency sonophoresis (LFS) and chemical penetration enhancers (CPEs), especially surfactants, in transdermal enhancement has been investigated extensively since this phenomenon was first observed over a decade ago. In spite of the identifying that the origin of this synergism is the increased penetration and subsequent dispersion of CPEs in the skin in response to LFS treatment, to date, no mechanism has been directly proposed to explain how LFS induces the observed increased transport of CPEs. In this study, we propose a plausible physical mechanism by which the transport of all CPEs is expected to have significantly increased flux into the localized-transport regions (LTRs) of LFS-treated skin. Specifically, the collapse of acoustic cavitation microjets within LTRs induces a convective flux. In addition, because amphiphilic molecules preferentially adsorb onto the gas/water interface of cavitation bubbles, amphiphiles have an additional adsorptive flux. In this sense, the cavitation bubbles effectively act as carriers for amphiphilic molecules, delivering surfactants directly into the skin when they collapse at the skin surface as cavitation microjets. The flux equations derived for CPE delivery into the LTRs and non-LTRs during LFS treatment, compared to that for untreated skin, explain why the transport of all CPEs, and to an even greater extent amphiphilic CPEs, is increased during LFS treatment. The flux model is tested with a non-amphiphilic CPE (propylene glycol) and both nonionic and ionic amphiphilic CPEs (octyl glucoside and sodium lauryl sulfate, respectively), by measuring the flux of each CPE into untreated skin and the LTRs and non-LTRs of LFS-treated skin. The resulting data shows very good agreement with the proposed flux model.

Polat, Baris E.; Deen, William M.; Langer, Robert; Blankschtein, Daniel

2011-01-01

398

Wasting away: Policies to reduce trash toxicity and quantity  

SciTech Connect

Communities all around the world are facing growing mounds of trash, or municipal solid waste (MSW). Media coverage of the shrinking landfill capacity has greatly increased awareness of the need to improve management of MSW when it is generated. Many U.S. businesses, public-interest groups, states, and municipalities, which have primary responsibility for managing MSW, are trying to increase the collection, processing, and marketing of recyclable material partly to relieve the pressures on municipal landfills. While such management activities should be increased and intensified, another challenge, a more difficult one, is to change the way this society makes products and generates MSW in the first place - that is, to reduce the toxicity and/or quantity of MSW. There are two basic routes to reducing toxicity and quantity: manufacturers can modify the design of products (and packaging) to reduce their toxicity or quantity, and consumers can modify their purchasing decisions, for example, by buying products that are less toxic, more durable, or more repairable. Both routes are described, and government programs and policy options which could lift obstacles are discussed.

Levenson, H. (Office of Technology Assessment, Washington, DC (USA))

1990-03-01

399

21 CFR 501.105 - Declaration of net quantity of contents when exempt.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 false Declaration of net quantity of contents when exempt. 501...Requirements § 501.105 Declaration of net quantity of contents when exempt. ...package form shall bear a declaration of the net quantity of contents. This...

2011-04-01

400

16 CFR 500.7 - Net quantity of contents, method of expression.  

... 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Net quantity of contents, method of expression...FAIR PACKAGING AND LABELING ACT § 500.7 Net quantity of contents, method of expression. The net quantity of contents shall be...

2014-01-01

401

21 CFR 501.105 - Declaration of net quantity of contents when exempt.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-04-01 false Declaration of net quantity of contents when exempt. 501...Requirements § 501.105 Declaration of net quantity of contents when exempt. ...package form shall bear a declaration of the net quantity of contents. This...

2012-04-01

402

40 CFR 273.8 - Applicability-household and conditionally exempt small quantity generator waste.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...and conditionally exempt small quantity generator waste. 273.8 Section 273.8...and conditionally exempt small quantity generator waste. (a) Persons managing the...Conditionally exempt small quantity generator wastes that are exempt under §...

2013-07-01

403

Possible crossover of a nonuniversal quantity at the upper critical dimension.  

PubMed

We report on a possible crossover of a nonuniversal quantity at the upper critical dimensionality in the field of percolation. Plotting recent estimates for site percolation thresholds of hypercubes in dimension 6 < or =d < or =13 against corresponding predictions from the Galam-Mauger (GM) formula p(c) = p(0) [(d-1) (q-1)](-a) d(b) for percolation thresholds, a significant departure of p(c) is observed for d > or =6 . This result is reminiscent of the crossover undergone by universal quantities in critical phenomena. For bond percolation, evidence of such a crossover of dimensionality would require an improvement of the GM formula to reach a relative error of typically 0.2%, while it is currently at 0.9% for hypercubes. PMID:15903522

Galam, S; Mauger, A

2005-03-01

404

Direct spectroscopic observation of singlet oxygen quenching and kinetic studies of physical and chemical singlet oxygen quenching rate constants of synthetic antioxidants (BHA, BHT, and TBHQ) in methanol.  

PubMed

Singlet oxygen quenching by synthetic antioxidants (BHA, BHT, and TBHQ) was directly observed by spectroscopic monitoring of luminescence at 1268 nm. The luminescence data showed unambiguous evidence of singlet oxygen quenching by synthetic phenolic antioxidants with the highest activity for TBHQ, followed by BHA and BHT. The protective activities of these synthetic antioxidants on alpha-terpinene oxidation with chemically-induced singlet oxygen under dark further confirmed their singlet oxygen quenching abilities. Total singlet oxygen quenching rate constants (k(r) + k(q)) of BHA, BHT, and TBHQ were determined in a system containing alpha-terpinene (as a singlet oxygen trap) and methylene blue (as a sensitizer) during light irradiation, and the values were 5.14 x 10(7), 3.41 x 10(6), and 1.99 x 10(8) M(-1)s(-1), respectively. After the k(r) value of alpha-terpinene was first determined, the k(r) values of the synthetic antioxidants were calculated by measuring their relative reaction rates with singlet oxygen to that of alpha-terpinene under the identical conditions. The k(r) values of the BHA, BHT, and TBHQ were 3.90 x 10(5), 1.23 x 10(5), and 2.93 x 10(6), M(-1)s(-1). The percent partition of chemical quenching over total singlet oxygen quenching (k(r) x 100)/(k(r) + k(q)) for BHA, BHT, and TBHQ were 0.76%, 3.61%, and 1.47%, respectively. The results showed that the synthetic antioxidants quench singlet oxygen almost exclusively through the mechanism of physical quenching. This represents the first report on the singlet oxygen quenching mechanism of these synthetic antioxidants. Practical Application: The synthetic antioxidants, especially TBHQ, have been found to have a strong singlet oxygen quenching ability. This article also clearly showed that singlet oxygen quenching by synthetic antioxidants was mainly by the physical quenching mechanism. The results suggested that these synthetic antioxidants, especially TBHQ, could be used practically for the protection of the food components such as edible oils and vitamins against singlet oxygen induced oxidations without significant losses of antioxidant activity during storage under light. PMID:20722904

Lee, Jun Hyun; Jung, Mun Yhung

2010-08-01

405

Potential Reconstruction, Gravitational Collapse, and Time Evolution of Thermodynamic Quantities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis consists of three parts. In Part I, we consider the appearance of a second vacuum---using higher dimensional non-renormalizable operators---in the Standard Model Higgs Potential which may modify the physics of electroweak symmetry breaking without affecting electroweak precision tests. For a certain range of parameters, the usual second order electroweak phase transition is followed by a first order phase transition. This subsequent phase transition may even drive the late time accelerated expansion of the universe, though the usual fine tuning of the value of the vacuum energy density is required. The advantage is that such a potential contains kink-like solutions which in turn can play a crucial role in reconstructing the global shape of the potential in colliders, as is explicitly demonstrated. In Parts II and III, we investigate the influence of topology and the existence of a cosmological constant on the time-dependent behavior of gravitational collapse. Specifically, the metrics that we will focus on are Schwarzschild, de Sitter Schwarzschild, and (3+1) BTZ (representing a cylinder). In Part II, we look at the equation of motion of the gravitational collapse, both from an asymptotic observer's point of view and from an infalling observer's point of view. Then, in Part III we analyze the time evolution of the temperature and entropy of a gravitationally collapsing domain wall, as seen by an asymptotic observer. We do this by coupling a scalar field to the background of the domain wall, then evaluating the occupation number of the scalar field as a function of frequency. The resulting distribution is very close to a Planck distribution, so we can determine the temperature and therefore the entropy. Since the collapsing domain wall is what forms a black hole, we can compare the results to those of the standard Hawking temperature and entropy. We find that the temperature and entropy do in fact approach constants that are very close to the expected results. We find that while the equations of motion are qualitatively the same for all three metrics, there are differences in how the temperature and entropy evolve in each case.

Halstead, Evan Mark

406

SuperIso Relic v3.0: A program for calculating relic density and flavour physics observables: Extension to NMSSM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SuperIso Relic v3.0 is a public program for evaluation of relic density and flavour physics observables in the minimal supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model (MSSM) and next-to-minimal extension of the Standard Model (NMSSM). SuperIso Relic is an extension of the SuperIso program which adds to the flavour observables of SuperIso the computation of all possible annihilation and coannihilation processes of the LSP which are required for the relic density calculation. All amplitudes have been generated at the tree level with FeynArts/ FormCalc, and widths of the Higgs bosons are computed with FeynHiggs or Hdecay at the two-loop level. SuperIso Relic also provides the possibility to modify the assumptions of the cosmological model, and to study their consequences on the relic density. New version program summaryProgram title:SuperIso Relic v3.0 Catalogue identifier: AEGD_v2_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEGD_v2_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GNU General Public License No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1 198 441 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 13 486 632 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C (C99 Standard compliant) and Fortran Computer: 32- or 64-bit PC, Mac Operating system: Linux, MacOS RAM: 100 Mb Classification: 1.9, 11.6 External routines: ISASUGRA/ISAJET, SOFTSUSY, SPheno, SuSpect, NMSSM-Tools, Hdecay, FeynHiggs, HiggsBounds, and/or 2HDMC Catalogue identifier of previous version: AEGD_v1_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Comm. 181 (2010) 1277 Does the new version supersede the previous version?: Yes Nature of problem: Calculation of the lightest supersymmetric particle relic density, as well as flavour physics observables, in the MSSM and NMSSM, in order to derive constraints on the supersymmetric parameter space. Solution method:SuperIso Relic uses a SUSY Les Houches Accord file, which can be either generated automatically via a call to SOFTSUSY, ISAJET, SPheno, SuSpect or NMSSMTools, or provided by the user. This file contains the masses and couplings of the supersymmetric particles. SuperIso Relic then computes the lightest supersymmetric particle relic density as well as the most constraining flavour physics observables. To do so, it calculates first the widths of the Higgs bosons with FeynHiggs or Hdecay, and then it evaluates the squared amplitudes of the diagrams needed for the relic density calculation. These thousands of diagrams have been previously generated with the FeynArts/FormCalc package. SuperIso Relic is able to perform the calculations automatically in different supersymmetric scenarios, such as CMSSM, NUHM, AMSB and GMSB, in the MSSM or NMSSM. Reasons for new version:SuperIso Relic has been extended to the next to minimal supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model (NMSSM). Summary of revisions: Extension of the calculations to the NMSSM. Addition of the "reheating" cosmological scenario. Addition of a "configure" script for automated configuration. Implementation of interfaces for SuSpect, SPheno, NMSSMTools, Hdecay and HiggsBounds. Merging of the "shared" and "static" versions into a single version. Addition of two different MSSM scenarios (HCAMSB and MMAMSB) and the NMSSM scenarios (CNMSSM, NGMSB and NNUHM). Six sample main programs have been added: hcamsb.c, mmamsb.c, cnmssm.c, ngmsb.c, nnuhm.c and test reheating.c. Additional instructions are given when run without arguments. msugra.c renamed as cmssm.c. Updated parameter values. Faster "static" compilation. Unusual features:SuperIso Relic includes the possibility to alter the underlying cosmological model and to test the influence of the cosmological assumptions. Running time: Compilation: a couple of hours for the static compilation, a few minutes for the dynamical compilation. Run: about one second, or a few seconds if libraries need to be compiled on the fly.

Arbey, A.; Mahmoudi, F.

2011-07-01

407

Workshop Physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Workshop Physics is an activity-based approach to teaching calculus-based introductory physics in which traditional lectures are replaced by student investigation. Students do experiments in which they make predictions as well as observations and analysis; they perform guided derivations of major concepts; and they use computer tools to develop mathematical models. All the activities and materials needed for a two-semester course are available in the published books, with example materials available online. Workshop Physics was developed and class-tested by Priscilla Laws of Dickinson College and coworkers.

Laws, Priscilla W.

2003-10-10

408

SUB-ALFVENIC NON-IDEAL MHD TURBULENCE SIMULATIONS WITH AMBIPOLAR DIFFUSION. II. COMPARISON WITH OBSERVATION, CLUMP PROPERTIES, AND SCALING TO PHYSICAL UNITS  

SciTech Connect

Ambipolar diffusion (AD) is important in redistributing magnetic flux and in damping Alfven waves in molecular clouds. The importance of AD on a length scale l is governed by the AD Reynolds number, R {sub AD} = l/l{sub AD}, where l{sub AD} is the characteristic length scale for AD. The logarithmic mean of the AD Reynolds number in a sample of 15 molecular clumps with measured magnetic fields is 17, comparable to the theoretically expected value. We identify several regimes of AD in a turbulent medium, depending on the ratio of the flow time to collision times between ions and neutrals; the clumps observed by Crutcher in 1999 are all in the standard regime of AD, in which the neutrals and ions are coupled over a flow time. We have carried out two-fluid simulations of AD in isothermal, turbulent boxes for a range of values of R {sub AD}. The mean Mach numbers were fixed at M=3 and M{sub A}=0.67; self-gravity was not included. We study the properties of overdensities-i.e., clumps-in the simulation and show that the slope of the higher-mass portion of the clump mass spectrum increases as R {sub AD} decreases, which is qualitatively consistent with Padoan et al.'s finding that the mass spectrum in hydrodynamic turbulence is significantly steeper than in ideal MHD turbulence. For a value of R {sub AD} similar to the observed value, we find a slope that is consistent with that of the high-mass end of the initial mass function (IMF) for stars. However, the value we find for the spectral index in our ideal MHD simulation differs from theirs, presumably because our simulations have different initial conditions. This suggests that the mass spectrum of the clumps in the Padoan et al. turbulent fragmentation model for the IMF depends on the environment, which would conflict with evidence for a universal IMF. In addition, we give a general discussion of how the results of simulations of magnetized, turbulent, isothermal boxes can be scaled to physical systems. Each physical process that is introduced into the simulation, such as AD, introduces a dimensionless parameter, such as R {sub AD}, which must be fixed for the simulation, thereby reducing the number of scaling parameters by one. We show that the importance of self-gravity is fixed in any simulation of AD; it is not possible to carry out a simulation in which self-gravity and AD are varied independently unless the ionization is a free parameter. We show that our simulations apply to small regions in molecular clouds, generally with l{sub 0} {approx}< 0.4 pc and M {approx}< 25 M {sub sun}. A general discussion of the scaling relations for magnetized, isothermal, turbulent boxes, including self-gravitating systems, is given in the appendix.

McKee, Christopher F. [Physics Department and Astronomy Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Li, Pak Shing; Klein, Richard I., E-mail: cmckee@astro.berkeley.ed, E-mail: psli@astron.berkeley.ed, E-mail: klein@astron.berkeley.ed [Astronomy Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

2010-09-10

409

Quantity of soap as a variable in handwashing.  

PubMed

The purposes of this study were to assess the effect of two quantities (1 mL or 3 mL) of four different handwashing products on reductions in log colony-forming units (CFU) from the hands and to determine the amount of liquid soap used for handwashing by personnel in one hospital. First, 40 subjects were assigned by block randomization to one of four handwashing products (4% chlorhexidine gluconate in a detergent base, two alcohol hand rinses, and a liquid, nonantimicrobial soap) to be used in either 1 mL or 3 mL amounts per wash. Each subject washed his or her hands 15 times per day for five days. After one and five days of handwashing there were significant reductions over baseline in log CFU between handwashing products (P less than 0.001). Additionally, subjects using 3 mL of antiseptic soap had significantly greater reductions in log CFU than those using 1 mL (P less than 0.001). Among subjects using control liquid soap there was no such dose response. Second, a survey of 47 members of a hospital nursing staff from nine specialty areas and ten individuals in the general population was conducted to measure amounts of two liquid soaps used for handwashing. Amount of soap ranged from 0.4 to 9 mL per handwash. Personnel working in clinical areas where patients were at high risk for nosocomial infection used significantly more soap than did others (P less than 0.05). We conclude that quantity of soap used for